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Sample records for regular breakfast consumption

  1. Regular breakfast consumption is associated with increased IQ in kindergarten children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Dickerman, Barbra; Compher, Charlene

    2013-04-01

    Studies have documented a positive relationship between regular breakfast consumption and cognitive outcomes in youth. However, most of these studies have emphasized specific measures of cognition rather than cognitive performance as a broad construct (e.g., IQ test scores) and have been limited to Western samples of school-age children and adolescents. This study aims to extend the literature on breakfast consumption and cognition by examining these constructs in a sample of Chinese kindergarten-age children. This cross-sectional study consisted of a sample of 1269 children (697 boys and 572 girls) aged 6 years from the Chinese city of Jintan. Cognition was assessed with the Chinese version of the Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence-revised. Breakfast habits were assessed through parental questionnaire. Analyses of variance and linear regression models were used to analyze the association between breakfast habits and IQ. Socioeconomic and parental psychosocial variables related to intelligence were controlled for. Findings showed that children who regularly have breakfast on a near-daily basis had significantly higher full scale, verbal, and performance IQ test scores (all pbreakfast. This relationship persisted for VIQ (verbal IQ) and FIQ (full IQ) even after adjusting for gender, current living location, parental education, parental occupation, and primary child caregiver. Findings may reflect nutritional as well as social benefits of regular breakfast consumption on cognition, and regular breakfast consumption should be encouraged among young children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Does Regular Breakfast Cereal Consumption Help Children and Adolescents Stay Slimmer? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Anne de la Hunty

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review systematically the evidence on breakfast cereal consumption and obesity in children and adolescents and assess whether the regular consumption of breakfast cereals could help to prevent excessive weight gain. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies relating breakfast cereal consumption to BMI, BMI z-scores and prevalence of obesity as the outcomes. Results: 14 papers met the inclusion criteria. The computed effect size for mean BMI between high consumers and low or non-consumers over all 25 study subgroups was -1.13 kg/m2 (95% CI -0.81, -1.46, p Conclusion: Overall, the evidence reviewed is suggestive that regular consumption of breakfast cereals results in a lower BMI and a reduced likelihood of being overweight in children and adolescents. However, more evidence from long-term trials and investigations into mechanisms is needed to eliminate possible confounding factors and determine causality.

  3. Regular Breakfast Consumption and its Predictors Based on the Social Cognitive Theory in Female Students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences

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    Nooshin Salimi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Despite associating regular breakfast consumption habits with a range of health benefits, the rate of skipping the meal is high. The present study was conducted to determine the factors associated with breakfast consumption among female students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences based on the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was carried out on 423 female students in different faculties of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Participants were selected through multistage random sampling. The frequency of breakfast consumption and SCT variables, including knowledge, hope, outcome expectancies, observational learning, social support and self-efficacy, was measured using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed in SPSS-16 using the chi-square test, the correlation test and the linear regression analysis. Results: 24% of the students stated that they always ate breakfast. 10% of the students skipped breakfast. On average, the students ate breakfast 4.2 times a week. Self-efficacy (p<0.001 and social support (p<0.001 were good predictors of breakfast consumption in the students. These two variables were able to predict 64% of the variance in breakfast habits. Conclusion: The results show that self-efficacy and social support should be targeted in the design of interventions intending to increase breakfast consumption among female university students.

  4. Stress, breakfast cereal consumption and cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A P

    2002-04-01

    Recent research has shown that regular consumption of breakfast cereal is associated with lower stress levels and reports of better physical and mental health. The present study examined this issue using an objective indicator of stress, salivary cortisol. The results showed that stress was associated with higher cortisol levels and daily consumption of breakfast cereal was associated with lower cortisol levels. Although it was not possible to rule out all the alternative explanations of the association between breakfast cereal consumption and cortisol, analyses did show that the effect could not be accounted for by general health or nutritional status. The effects of breakfast cereal consumption and stress were also independent, which shows that the effects of breakfast found here cannot be due to stress buffering. Further research manipulating the nutrient content of the breakfast cereal is now required to provide further information about the mechanisms underlying this effect.

  5. The influence of herbs, spices, and regular sausage and chicken consumption on liking of reduced fat breakfast and lunch items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsky, Sarit; Beck, Jimikaye; Stark, Rebecca A; Pan, Zhaoxing; Hill, James O; Peters, John C

    2014-10-01

    Adults often consume more fat than is recommended. We examined factors that may improve liking of reduced fat and reduced saturated fat foods, including the addition of herbs and spices and habitual consumption of different high-fat and low-fat food items. We randomized adults to taste 3 different conditions: full fat (FF), reduced fat with no added spice (RF), and reduced fat plus spice (RFS). Subjects rated their liking of French toast, sausage and the overall meal, or chicken, vegetables, pasta, and the overall meal on a 9-point hedonic Likert scale. Overall liking of the RF breakfast and lunch meals were lower than the FF and RFS versions (breakfast: 6.50 RF compared with 6.84 FF, P = 0.0061; 6.50 RF compared with 6.82 RFS, P = 0.0030; lunch: 6.35 RF compared with 6.94 FF, P spices may be useful for improving the liking of lower fat foods and helping Americans maintain a diet consistent with the U.S. Dietary Guidelines. Americans consume more fat than is recommended in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. This study shows that you can take foods like French toast, chicken, or a vegetable side and cut the fat and calories by up to 50% while restoring flavor with herbs and spices. People typically use butter, cheese, or fatty meat to enhance the flavor of their food. We found that even when we reduced the fat in our meals by using lower fat dairy and meat products but then added herbs and spices, we were able to deliver the flavor people desire for a fraction of the calories. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland

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    Agnieszka Ostachowska-Gasior

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI, and middle school and high school students’ education level. The study was conducted in 2013–2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland. The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logistic regression model for measurable and dichotomous variables. Breakfast consumers were seen to eat other meals (second breakfast, lunch, dessert, supper significantly more often than breakfast skippers. The main meal consumption habits depend on sex and change as adolescents age. Being a girl and a high school student predisposed participants to skip breakfast and supper more often. The BMI of breakfast consumers does not differ significantly from the BMI of breakfast skippers, so BMI might thus not be a sufficient marker of breakfast consumption regularity and dietary habits in an adolescent group. The importance of regularly eaten meals, especially breakfast, together with adequate daily dietary energy intake are beneficial for physical and psychological development and cannot be overestimated in nutritional education and it is necessary to promote healthy eating behavior for well-being in later adult life.

  7. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland.

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    Ostachowska-Gasior, Agnieszka; Piwowar, Monika; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Skop-Lewandowska, Agata

    2016-04-28

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI), and middle school and high school students' education level. The study was conducted in 2013-2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys) from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland). The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logistic regression model for measurable and dichotomous variables. Breakfast consumers were seen to eat other meals (second breakfast, lunch, dessert, supper) significantly more often than breakfast skippers. The main meal consumption habits depend on sex and change as adolescents age. Being a girl and a high school student predisposed participants to skip breakfast and supper more often. The BMI of breakfast consumers does not differ significantly from the BMI of breakfast skippers, so BMI might thus not be a sufficient marker of breakfast consumption regularity and dietary habits in an adolescent group. The importance of regularly eaten meals, especially breakfast, together with adequate daily dietary energy intake are beneficial for physical and psychological development and cannot be overestimated in nutritional education and it is necessary to promote healthy eating behavior for well-being in later adult life.

  8. Regular Breakfast and Blood Lead Levels among Preschool Children

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    Needleman Herbert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that fasting increases lead absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of adults. Regular meals/snacks are recommended as a nutritional intervention for lead poisoning in children, but epidemiological evidence of links between fasting and blood lead levels (B-Pb is rare. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between eating a regular breakfast and B-Pb among children using data from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study. Methods Parents completed a questionnaire regarding children's breakfast-eating habit (regular or not, demographics, and food frequency. Whole blood samples were collected from 1,344 children for the measurements of B-Pb and micronutrients (iron, copper, zinc, calcium, and magnesium. B-Pb and other measures were compared between children with and without regular breakfast. Linear regression modeling was used to evaluate the association between regular breakfast and log-transformed B-Pb. The association between regular breakfast and risk of lead poisoning (B-Pb≥10 μg/dL was examined using logistic regression modeling. Results Median B-Pb among children who ate breakfast regularly and those who did not eat breakfast regularly were 6.1 μg/dL and 7.2 μg/dL, respectively. Eating breakfast was also associated with greater zinc blood levels. Adjusting for other relevant factors, the linear regression model revealed that eating breakfast regularly was significantly associated with lower B-Pb (beta = -0.10 units of log-transformed B-Pb compared with children who did not eat breakfast regularly, p = 0.02. Conclusion The present study provides some initial human data supporting the notion that eating a regular breakfast might reduce B-Pb in young children. To our knowledge, this is the first human study exploring the association between breakfast frequency and B-Pb in young children.

  9. Environmental and cognitive correlates of adolescent breakfast consumption.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S. DeJong (Cara); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank); K.A. van der Horst-Nachtegaal (Klazine); A. Oenema (Anke)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify cognitive and environmental correlates of daily adolescent breakfast consumption. METHODS: Adolescents (n=1089) aged 12-15 years in schools in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, completed a questionnaire measuring daily breakfast consumption, individual

  10. The relation between breakfast consumption and psychological symptoms among adults

    OpenAIRE

    AR. Milajerdi; SM. Mousavi; A. Hassanzadeh Keshteli; A. Esmaillzadeh; HR. Roohafza; H. Afshar; P. Adibi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Breakfast skipping was related to obesity and obesity has been associated with psychological disorders, but limited data are available linking breakfast consumption to psychological symptoms. Objective: The association between breakfast consumption and psychological disorders, including depression and anxiety, was studied among Iranian adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 4378 healthy adults in Isfahan, Iran. Breakfast consumption was assessed using a...

  11. Applying an extended theory of planned behaviour to predict breakfast consumption in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, S; Davies, E L; Ryan, L; Clegg, M E

    2017-05-01

    Breakfast skipping increases during adolescence and is associated with lower levels of physical activity and weight gain. Theory-based interventions promoting breakfast consumption in adolescents report mixed findings, potentially because of limited research identifying which determinants to target. This study aimed to: (i) utilise the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to identify the relative contribution of attitudes (affective, cognitive and behavioural) to predict intention to eat breakfast and breakfast consumption in adolescents and (ii) determine whether demographic factors moderate the relationship between TPB variables, intention and behaviour. Questionnaires were completed by 434 students (mean 14±0.9 years) measuring breakfast consumption (0-2, 3-6 or 7 days), physical activity levels and TPB measures. Data were analysed by breakfast frequency and demographics using hierarchical and multinomial regression analyses. Breakfast was consumed everyday by 57% of students, with boys more likely to eat a regular breakfast, report higher activity levels and report more positive attitudes towards breakfast than girls (Pbehaviours (Pbehaviour relationship for girls. Findings confirm that the TPB is a successful model for predicting breakfast intentions and behaviours in adolescents. The potential for a direct effect of attitudes on behaviours should be considered in the implementation and design of breakfast interventions.

  12. The relation between breakfast consumption and psychological symptoms among adults

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    AR. Milajerdi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breakfast skipping was related to obesity and obesity has been associated with psychological disorders, but limited data are available linking breakfast consumption to psychological symptoms. Objective: The association between breakfast consumption and psychological disorders, including depression and anxiety, was studied among Iranian adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 4378 healthy adults in Isfahan, Iran. Breakfast consumption was assessed using a validated detailed dietary habits’ questionnaire; and depression and anxiety using an Iranian validated Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS questionnaire. Psychological distress was also examined by means of Iranian validated version of General Health Questionnaire. Findings: Overall, 611 numbers (13.95% of study participants had anxiety, 1253 numbers (28.62% depression, and 1015 numbers (23.18% probable mental disorders symptoms. After controlling for the confounding variables, participants with every day breakfast consumption had lower odds for depression symptoms (OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.36-0.66 compared with those with the least frequent intake of breakfast, even after further adjustment for BMI (OR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.34- 0.63. Frequent breakfast consumption was inversely associated with anxiety before and after controlling for BMI (P<0.001. The same findings were obtained for probable mental disorders (P<0.001. Conclusion: This study showed an inverse relation between breakfast consumption and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and probable mental disorders among Iranian adults. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  13. Postpartum teens' breakfast consumption is associated with snack and beverage intake and body mass index.

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    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Schwarz, Cynthia; Budd, Elizabeth; Yount, Byron W; Lapka, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Addressing high-risk dietary patterns among postpartum teens may help reduce weight retention and prevent intergenerational obesity. The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between breakfast consumption and outcomes of snack and beverage intake and body mass index (BMI) among postpartum teens. During 2007-2009, 1,330 postpartum teens across 27 states participated in a cross-sectional, baseline assessment of a group-randomized, nested cohort study. Participants were enrolled in the Parents as Teachers Teen Program and completed a 7-day recall of breakfast, snack, and beverage consumption. BMI was calculated from heights and weights obtained by on-site staff. Sample descriptives were compared across breakfast consumption frequency groupings by one-way analysis of variance tests or χ² tests. General linear models assessed relationships between breakfast consumption and measures of snack and sweetened beverage intake, water consumption, and BMI-for-age percentile. Almost half (42%) of the sample consumed breakfast fewer than 2 days per week. Those who ate breakfast 6 to 7 days/week consumed 1,197 fewer kilocalories per week from sweet and salty snacks, 1,337 fewer kilocalories per week from sweetened drinks, and had a lower BMI compared to those who ate breakfast fewer than 2 days per week (P teens is low, those who regularly consume breakfast had healthier snacking behaviors and weight. Interventions are needed to encourage breakfast consumption among teen mothers. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Breakfast consumption and depressive mood: A focus on socioeconomic status.

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    Lee, Sang Ah; Park, Eun-Cheol; Ju, Yeong Jun; Lee, Tae Hoon; Han, Euna; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2017-07-01

    Skipping breakfast can be potentially harmful because breakfast consumption is considered one of the important health-related behaviors that benefit physical and mental health. As the rate of depression has increased recently, we investigated the association between the frequency of eating breakfast and depression in adults. We obtained the data from the 2013 Korean Community Health Survey; a total of 207,710 survey participants aged 20 years or over were studied. Participants were categorized into three groups by the frequency of breakfast consumption as follows: "seldom," "sometimes," and "always." We performed a multiple logistic regression to investigate the association between breakfast consumption and depressive mood. Subgroup analyses were conducted by stratifying socioeconomic variables controlling for variables known to be associated with depressive symptoms. Participants who had breakfast seldom or sometimes had higher depressive symptoms than those who always ate breakfast ("seldom": OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.36-1.52; "sometimes": OR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.23-1.40). Subgroup analyses showed that this association was more marked in those who were 80 years or older, those who had low household income, or those with elementary school education level or less. The result of this study suggests that lack of breakfast consumption is associated with depression among adults with different socioeconomic factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Benefits of Breakfast Cereal Consumption: A Systematic Review of the Evidence Base1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    There have been no comprehensive reviews of the relation of breakfast cereal consumption to nutrition and health. This systematic review of all articles on breakfast cereals to October 2013 in the Scopus and Medline databases identified 232 articles with outcomes related to nutrient intake, weight, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, digestive health, dental and mental health, and cognition. Sufficient evidence was available to develop 21 summary evidence statements, ranked from A (can be trusted to guide practice) to D (weak and must be applied with caution). Breakfast cereal consumption is associated with diets higher in vitamins and minerals and lower in fat (grade B) but is not associated with increased intakes of total energy or sodium (grade C) or risk of dental caries (grade B). Most studies on the nutritional impact are cross-sectional, with very few intervention studies, so breakfast cereal consumption may be a marker of an overall healthy lifestyle. Oat-, barley-, or psyllium-based cereals can help lower cholesterol concentrations (grade A), and high-fiber, wheat-based cereals can improve bowel function (grade A). Regular breakfast cereal consumption is associated with a lower body mass index and less risk of being overweight or obese (grade B). Presweetened breakfast cereals do not increase the risk of overweight and obesity in children (grade C). Whole-grain or high-fiber breakfast cereals are associated with a lower risk of diabetes (grade B) and cardiovascular disease (grade C). There is emerging evidence of associations with feelings of greater well-being and a lower risk of hypertension (grade D), but more research is required. PMID:25225349

  16. The benefits of breakfast cereal consumption: a systematic review of the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter G

    2014-09-01

    There have been no comprehensive reviews of the relation of breakfast cereal consumption to nutrition and health. This systematic review of all articles on breakfast cereals to October 2013 in the Scopus and Medline databases identified 232 articles with outcomes related to nutrient intake, weight, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, digestive health, dental and mental health, and cognition. Sufficient evidence was available to develop 21 summary evidence statements, ranked from A (can be trusted to guide practice) to D (weak and must be applied with caution). Breakfast cereal consumption is associated with diets higher in vitamins and minerals and lower in fat (grade B) but is not associated with increased intakes of total energy or sodium (grade C) or risk of dental caries (grade B). Most studies on the nutritional impact are cross-sectional, with very few intervention studies, so breakfast cereal consumption may be a marker of an overall healthy lifestyle. Oat-, barley-, or psyllium-based cereals can help lower cholesterol concentrations (grade A), and high-fiber, wheat-based cereals can improve bowel function (grade A). Regular breakfast cereal consumption is associated with a lower body mass index and less risk of being overweight or obese (grade B). Presweetened breakfast cereals do not increase the risk of overweight and obesity in children (grade C). Whole-grain or high-fiber breakfast cereals are associated with a lower risk of diabetes (grade B) and cardiovascular disease (grade C). There is emerging evidence of associations with feelings of greater well-being and a lower risk of hypertension (grade D), but more research is required. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Breakfast cereal consumption and subjective reports of health.

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    Smith, A P

    1999-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to attempt to replicate and extend a recent result which showed that breakfast cereal consumption was associated with better mental health. The general population sample studied here (262 volunteers aged between 21 and 85 years, mean age: 60.9 years) was older than the sample in the previous study. The results showed that those who consumed breakfast cereal every day reported better mental and physical health than those who consumed it less frequently. This association was still present when demographic factors, indicators of lifestyle, such as smoking, or other aspects of diet were covaried. Further research is now required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this robust association between daily breakfast cereal consumption and well-being.

  18. Predictors of Adolescent Breakfast Consumption: Longitudinal Findings from Project EAT

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    Bruening, Meg; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors of breakfast consumption among adolescents. Methods: Five-year longitudinal study Project EAT (Eating Among Teens). Baseline surveys were completed in Minneapolis-St. Paul schools and by mail at follow-up by youth (n = 800) transitioning from middle to high school. Linear regression models examined associations…

  19. The intake and quality of breakfast consumption in adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The proportion of breakfast skipping, moderate quality of the breakfast consumed and trend of improved nutrient intake with improved breakfast quality highlights the need for breakfast education and intervention as part of the Integrated School Health Policy. Keywords: adolescent, breakfast, breakfast quality, ...

  20. Is breakfast consumption related to mental distress and academic performance in adolescents?

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    Lien, Lars

    2007-04-01

    To examine the relationship between mental distress, academic performance and regular breakfast consumption across gender and immigration status. Cross-sectional population-based study. Two four-page questionnaires were filled in during two school sessions. All junior high schools in Oslo, Norway using the classroom as the setting for the study. All 10th grade students 15-16 years olds in 2000 and 2001. Of 8316 eligible students, 7343 (88.3%) participated in the study. All immigrant groups, except the Western countries group, are skipping breakfast more often than Norwegian students, and girls more often than boys (27 versus 19%). After adjustment for possible confounding factors, the odds ratio (OR) for being mentally distressed when eating breakfast seldom/never compared with every day was 3.0 (2.0-4.5) for boys, 1.6 (1.2-2.1) for girls and 1.6 (1.5-2.6) for the immigrant group. The comparable OR for having low school grades was similar for boys and girls, 2.0 (1.3-3.0), and 1.6 (1.5-2.6) for the immigrant groups. Skipping breakfast is a common feature among 10th grade students. The implications of skipping breakfast on mental distress and academic performance are stronger for boys than girls and stronger for Norwegians compared with immigrants.

  1. Does consuming breakfast influence activity levels? An experiment into the effect of breakfast consumption on eating habits and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Lewis G; Huber, Jörg W; Low, Tzetze; Ibeawuchi, Chinwe; Woodruff, Polly; Reeves, Sue

    2012-02-01

    To experimentally compare the effects of eating or skipping breakfast on energy expenditure, activity levels and dietary habits. A randomised cross-over trial, lasting 2 weeks. Participants were provided breakfast during one week and were required to fast until mid-day during the other week. University campus. Forty-nine participants (twenty-six female and twenty-three male participants) were recruited. Food intake was monitored using food diaries, and energy expenditure was assessed using pedometers and heart rate monitors. Morningness-eveningness, physical activity and health were assessed using validated questionnaires. Across all participants, daily energy expenditure did not differ between the two experimental conditions. Total energy intake over 24 h did not vary with condition (male participants: 8134 (sd 447) kJ/d and 7514 (sd 368) kJ/d; female participants: 7778 (sd 410) kJ/d and 7531 (sd 535) kJ/d, for the breakfast and no-breakfast conditions, respectively). However, when comparing habitual breakfast eaters with those with irregular or breakfast-skipping habits, it was found that male non-habitual breakfast eaters consumed significantly (P = 0·029) more energy during the breakfast condition. Furthermore, female participants who were habitual breakfast eaters were found to eat significantly (P = 0·005) more and later in the day under the no-breakfast condition. Although the suggestion that breakfast is a behavioural marker for appropriate dietary and physical activity patterns is not refuted by the present findings, our data suggest that the effect of breakfast may vary as a function of gender and morning eating habits, and thus there may be other mechanisms that link BMI and breakfast consumption behaviour.

  2. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Ostachowska-Gasior, Agnieszka; Piwowar, Monika; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Skop-Lewandowska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI), and middle school and high school students’ education level. The study was conducted in 2013–2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys) from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland). The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logi...

  3. Association between breakfast consumption and educational outcomes in 9-11-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlecott, Hannah J; Moore, Graham F; Moore, Laurence; Lyons, Ronan A; Murphy, Simon

    2016-06-01

    Breakfast consumption has been consistently associated with health outcomes and cognitive functioning in schoolchildren. Evidence of direct links with educational outcomes remains equivocal. We aimed to examine the link between breakfast consumption in 9-11-year-old children and educational outcomes obtained 6-18 months later. Data on individual-level free school meal entitlement and educational outcomes (Statutory Assessment Tests (SATs) at Key Stage 2) were obtained via the SAIL databank and linked to earlier data collected on breakfast consumption. Multilevel modelling assessed associations between breakfast consumption and SATs. Trial of the Primary School Free Breakfast Initiative in Wales. Year 5 and 6 students, n 3093 (baseline) and n 3055 (follow-up). Significant associations were found between all dietary behaviours and better performance in SATs, adjusted for gender and individual- and school-level free school meal entitlement (OR=1·95; CI 1·58, 2·40 for breakfast, OR=1·08; CI 1·04, 1·13 for healthy breakfast items). No association was observed between number of unhealthy breakfast items consumed and educational performance. Association of breakfast consumption with educational performance was stronger where the measure of breakfast consumption was more proximal to SATs tests (OR=2·02 measured 6 months prior to SATs, OR=1·61 measured 18 months prior). Significant positive associations between self-reported breakfast consumption and educational outcomes were observed. Future research should aim to explore the mechanisms by which breakfast consumption and educational outcomes are linked, and understand how to promote breakfast consumption among schoolchildren. Communicating findings of educational benefits to schools may help to enhance buy-in to efforts to improve health behaviours of pupils.

  4. The relationship between habitual breakfast consumption frequency and academic performance in British adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Adolphus, K; Lawton, CL; Dye, L

    2015-01-01

    Breakfast has been shown to be beneficial for cognitive and academic performance in school children. However, there is a paucity of studies which examine the relationship between breakfast consumption and academic performance and a complete absence of studies in UK school children. The aim of this study, therefore, was to examine the association between habitual breakfast consumption frequency and Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT) performance, a reasoning test routinely used in UK schools. Adole...

  5. The effect of breakfast cereal consumption on adolescents' cognitive performance and mood

    OpenAIRE

    Defeyter, Margaret A.; Russo, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of breakfast consumption on cognitive performance and mood in adolescents, and any interaction that breakfast consumption might have with cognitive load. The rationale for this approach was that the beneficial effects of any intervention with regard to cognitive function may be more readily apparent when more demands are placed on the system. Furthermore, as skipping breakfast is particularly prevalent within this age group, thus, we ...

  6. Breakfast consumption and nutrient intakes in 4-18-year-olds : UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme (2008-2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coulthard, Janine D.; Palla, Luigi; Pot, Gerda K.

    2017-01-01

    Although breakfast consumption is widely considered to be an important component of a healthy lifestyle, few UK studies have examined differences in nutrient intakes between breakfast consumers and breakfast skippers among children and adolescents. We investigated associations between breakfast

  7. Association between fruits and vegetables intake and frequency of breakfast and snacks consumption: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Giacomo; Pammolli, Andrea; Azzolini, Elena; Simi, Rita; Meoni, Veronica; de Wet, Daniel Rudolph; Giacchi, Mariano Vincenzo

    2013-08-27

    There are very few studies on the frequency of breakfast and snack consumption and its relation to fruit and vegetable intake. This study aims to fill that gap by exploring the relation between irregular breakfast habits and snack consumption and fruit and vegetable intake in Tuscan adolescents. Separate analyses were conducted with an emphasis on the potentially modifying factors of sex and age. Data was obtained from the 2010 Tuscan sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. The HBSC study is a cross-sectional survey of 11-, 13- and 15-year-old students (n = 3291), selected from a random sample of schools. Multivariate logistic regression was used for analyzing the food-frequency questionnaire. A significant relation was found between low fruit and vegetable intake and irregular breakfast habits. Similarly, low fruit intake was associated with irregular snack consumption, whereas vegetable intake did not prove to be directly related to irregular snack consumption. Different patterns emerged when gender and age were considered as modifying factors in the analyses. A statistically significant relation emerged only among female students for irregular breakfast habits and fruit and vegetable intake. Generally, older female participants with irregular breakfast habits demonstrated a higher risk of low fruit and vegetable intake. Age pattern varied between genders, and between fruit and vegetable consumption. Results suggest that for those adolescents who have an irregular consumption of breakfast and snacks, fruit intake occurs with a lower frequency. Lower vegetable consumption was associated with irregular breakfast consumption. Gender and age were shown to be moderators and this indicated the importance of analyzing fruit and vegetable intake and meal types separately. This study also confirmed that health-promotion campaigns that aim to promote regular meal consumption and consumption of fruits and vegetables need to take into account

  8. Breakfast Eating Pattern and Ready-to-Eat Cereals Consumption among Schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur

    OpenAIRE

    KOO, Hui-Chin; ABDUL JALIL, Siti Nurain; Ruzita, ABD TALIB

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies from the West have demonstrated that ready-to-eat cereals (RTECs) are a common form of breakfast and more likely to be consumed by children. This study aimed to investigate the breakfast eating pattern and RTECs consumption among schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur.

  9. The Relationship between Habitual Breakfast Consumption Frequency and Academic Performance in British Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L; Dye, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Breakfast has been shown to be beneficial for cognitive and academic performance in school children. However, there is a paucity of studies which examine the relationship between breakfast consumption and academic performance and a complete absence of studies in UK school children. The aim of this study, therefore, was to examine the association between habitual breakfast consumption frequency and Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT) performance, a reasoning test routinely used in UK schools. Adolescents aged 11-13 years (n = 292; males: 53.8%) completed a questionnaire to report usual weekly breakfast intake frequency. Breakfast was subjectively defined by the participants. Habitual weekly breakfast consumption frequency was categorized as rare (0-2 days), occasional (3-4 days), or frequent (5-7 days). Participants' CAT performance was used as a proxy measure of academic performance. The CAT has three components: verbal, non-verbal, and quantitative reasoning. Normative standard age scores (SAS) for verbal, non-verbal, quantitative reasoning, and overall mean SAS were obtained from school records and hierarchical linear regression models were applied, adjusting for the confounders: gender, ethnicity, socio-economic status, English as an Additional Language, and body mass index. Habitual breakfast consumption frequency did not significantly predict any CAT SAS in all models (crude and adjusted). However, methodological considerations which could account for this disagreement with previous research, were identified. These included the isolation of school-day breakfast consumption, use of a standard definition of breakfast, and measurement of actual academic performance. The findings of the current study suggest more comprehensive ways in which future studies might investigate the relationship between habitual breakfast consumption and academic performance.

  10. The relationship between habitual breakfast consumption frequency and academic performance in British adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie eAdolphus

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Breakfast has been shown to be beneficial for cognitive and academic performance in school children. However, there is a paucity of studies which examine the relationship between breakfast consumption and academic performance and a complete absence of studies in UK school children. The aim of this study, therefore, was to examine the association between habitual breakfast consumption frequency and Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT performance, a reasoning test routinely used in UK schools. Adolescents aged 11-13 years (n=292; males: 53.8% completed a questionnaire to report usual weekly breakfast intake frequency. Breakfast was subjectively defined by the participants. Habitual weekly breakfast consumption frequency was categorized as rare (0-2 days, occasional (3-4 days or frequent (5-7 days. Participants’ CAT performance was used as a proxy measure of academic performance. The CAT has three components: verbal, non-verbal and quantitative reasoning. Normative standard age scores (SAS for verbal, nonverbal, quantitative reasoning and overall mean SAS were obtained from school records and hierarchical linear regression models were applied, adjusting for the confounders: gender, ethnicity, socio-economic status, English as an Additional Language and body mass index. Habitual breakfast consumption frequency did not significantly predict any CAT SAS in all models (crude and adjusted. However, methodological considerations which could account for this disagreement with previous research were identified. These included the isolation of school-day breakfast consumption, use of a standard definition of breakfast, and measurement of actual academic performance. The findings of the current study suggest more comprehensive ways in which future studies might investigate the relationship between habitual breakfast consumption and academic performance.

  11. The Relationship between Habitual Breakfast Consumption Frequency and Academic Performance in British Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L.; Dye, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Breakfast has been shown to be beneficial for cognitive and academic performance in school children. However, there is a paucity of studies which examine the relationship between breakfast consumption and academic performance and a complete absence of studies in UK school children. The aim of this study, therefore, was to examine the association between habitual breakfast consumption frequency and Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT) performance, a reasoning test routinely used in UK schools. Adolescents aged 11–13 years (n = 292; males: 53.8%) completed a questionnaire to report usual weekly breakfast intake frequency. Breakfast was subjectively defined by the participants. Habitual weekly breakfast consumption frequency was categorized as rare (0–2 days), occasional (3–4 days), or frequent (5–7 days). Participants’ CAT performance was used as a proxy measure of academic performance. The CAT has three components: verbal, non-verbal, and quantitative reasoning. Normative standard age scores (SAS) for verbal, non-verbal, quantitative reasoning, and overall mean SAS were obtained from school records and hierarchical linear regression models were applied, adjusting for the confounders: gender, ethnicity, socio-economic status, English as an Additional Language, and body mass index. Habitual breakfast consumption frequency did not significantly predict any CAT SAS in all models (crude and adjusted). However, methodological considerations which could account for this disagreement with previous research, were identified. These included the isolation of school-day breakfast consumption, use of a standard definition of breakfast, and measurement of actual academic performance. The findings of the current study suggest more comprehensive ways in which future studies might investigate the relationship between habitual breakfast consumption and academic performance. PMID:26000270

  12. Nudging children towards whole wheat bread: a field experiment on the influence of fun bread roll shape on breakfast consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; Vrijhof, Milou; Polet, Ilse A; Vingerhoeds, Monique H; de Wijk, René A

    2014-09-02

    Many children do not eat enough whole grains, which may have negative health consequences. Intervention research is increasingly focusing on nudging as a way to influence food choices by affecting unconscious behavioural processes. The aim of this field study was to examine whether the shape of bread rolls is able to shift children's bread choices from white to whole wheat during breakfast to increase whole grain intake. In a between-subjects experiment conducted at twelve primary schools in the Netherlands, with school as the unit of condition assignment, children were exposed to an assortment of white and whole wheat bread rolls, both varying in shape (regular versus fun). Children were free to choose the type and number of bread rolls and toppings to eat during breakfast. Consumption of bread rolls was measured at class level via the number of bread rolls before and after breakfast. In addition, children (N = 1113) responded to a survey including questions about the breakfast. Results of the field experiment showed that about 76% of bread consumption consisted of white bread rolls. Consumption of white bread rolls did not differ according to shape (all P-values > 0.18). However, presenting fun-shaped whole wheat bread rolls almost doubled consumption of whole wheat bread (P = 0.001), particularly when the simultaneously presented white bread rolls had a regular shape (interaction P = 0.02). Survey results suggest that slight increases in perceived pleasure and taste are associated with these effects. Overall, presenting whole wheat bread in fun shapes may be helpful in increasing consumption of whole wheat bread in children. Future research could examine how improving the visual appeal of healthy foods may lead to sustained behaviour changes.

  13. The effect of breakfast cereal consumption on adolescents' cognitive performance and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeyter, Margaret A; Russo, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of breakfast consumption on cognitive performance and mood in adolescents, and any interaction that breakfast consumption might have with cognitive load. The rationale for this approach was that the beneficial effects of any intervention with regard to cognitive function may be more readily apparent when more demands are placed on the system. Furthermore, as skipping breakfast is particularly prevalent within this age group, thus, we focused on adolescents who habitually skip breakfast. Cognitive load was modulated by varying the level of difficulty of a series of cognitive tasks tapping memory, attention, and executive functions. Mood measured with Bond-Lader scales (1974) as well as measures of thirst, hunger, and satiety were recorded at each test session both at baseline and after the completion of each test battery. Forty adolescents (mean age = 14:2) participated in this within-subjects design study. According to treatment, all participants were tested before and after the intake of a low Glycaemic index breakfast (i.e., a 35 g portion of AllBran and 125 ml semi-skimmed milk) and before and after no breakfast consumption. Assessment time had two levels: 8.00 am (baseline) and 10.45 am. The orders of cognitive load tasks were counterbalanced. Overall it appeared that following breakfast participants felt more alert, satiated, and content. Following breakfast consumption, there was evidence for improved cognitive performance across the school morning compared to breakfast omission in some tasks (e.g., Hard Word Recall, Serial 3's and Serial 7's). However, whilst participants performance on the hard version of each cognitive task was significantly poorer compared to the corresponding easy version, there was limited evidence to support the hypothesis that the effect of breakfast was greater in the more demanding versions of the tasks.

  14. The effect of breakfast cereal consumption on adolescents’ cognitive performance and mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Anne Defeyter

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of breakfast consumption on cognitive performance and mood in adolescents, and any interaction that breakfast consumption might have with cognitive load. The rationale for this approach was that the beneficial effects of any intervention with regard to cognitive function may be more readily apparent when more demands are placed on the system. Furthermore, as skipping breakfast is particularly prevalent within this age group, thus, we focused on adolescents who habitually skip breakfast. Cognitive load was modulated by varying the level of difficulty of a series of cognitive tasks tapping memory, attention and executive functions. Mood measured with Bond-Lader scales (1974 as well as measures of thirst, hunger and satiety were recorded at each test session both at baseline and after the completion of each test battery. Forty adolescents (mean age = 14:2 participated in this within-subjects design study. According to treatment, all participants were tested before and after the intake of a low Glycaemic index breakfast (i.e. a 35g portion of AllBran and 125ml semi-skimmed milk and before and after no breakfast consumption. Assessment time had two levels: 8.00am (baseline and 10.45am. The orders of cognitive load tasks were counterbalanced. Overall it appeared that following breakfast participants felt more alert, satiated and content. Following breakfast consumption, there was evidence for improved cognitive performance across the school morning compared to breakfast omission in some tasks (e.g. Hard Word Recall, Serial 3’s and Serial 7’s. However, whilst participants performance on the hard version of each cognitive task was significantly poorer compared to the corresponding easy version, there was limited evidence to support the hypothesis that the effect of breakfast was greater in the more demanding versions of the tasks.

  15. Association between breakfast consumption and educational outcomes in 9?11-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    Littlecott, Hannah J; Moore, Graham F; Moore, Laurence; Lyons, Ronan A; Murphy, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objective Breakfast consumption has been consistently associated with health outcomes and cognitive functioning in schoolchildren. Evidence of direct links with educational outcomes remains equivocal. We aimed to examine the link between breakfast consumption in 9–11-year-old children and educational outcomes obtained 6–18 months later.\\ud Design Data on individual-level free school meal entitlement and educational outcomes (Statutory Assessment Tests (SATs) at Key Stage 2) were obtained via ...

  16. Association between Frequency of Breakfast Consumption and Academic Performance in Healthy Korean Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    SO, Wi-YOUNG

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine whether the frequency of breakfast consumption was related to academic performance in healthy Korean adolescents. Methods: We analyzed data from the seventh Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey conducted in 2011, in which 75,643 adolescents from school grades 7?12 participated. We assessed the association between the frequency of breakfast consumption (per week) and academic performance using multivariate logistic regression analysis a...

  17. The intake and quality of breakfast consumption in adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-03

    Oct 3, 2014 ... Bread and cereal, including breakfast cereal, bread and rice. • Vegetables. • Fruit. ... The Goldberg cut-off, as defined by Black,22 was applied to exclude over- and ...... Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and. Disinfectants Act, 1972;4-62.

  18. Barriers, Benefits, and Behaviors Related to Breakfast Consumption Among Rural Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearst, Mary O; Shanafelt, Amy; Wang, Qi; Leduc, Robert; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2016-03-01

    We sought to determine if perceived barriers, benefits, and modifiable behaviors support or interfere with breakfast consumption in a racially and economically diverse rural high school population. The participants were 832 Minnesota adolescents from 16 rural high schools. We used baseline data from a group randomized trial aimed at increasing school breakfast participation through policy and environmental-level school changes. Students completed an online survey asking about demographics, breakfast eating behaviors, and the barriers and benefits of eating as it relates to school performance. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression, accounting for clustering by school, was performed using SAS. Each scale was modeled independently. Participants were 9th and 10th grade students, 36% free/reduced-price lunch (FRL), 30% non-White, and 55% female. Breakfast skippers compared to nonbreakfast skippers reported fewer school related benefits and beliefs and more barriers to eating breakfast (p breakfast. Future intervention research should focus on alleviating barriers and enhancing education around the school related benefits of eating breakfast. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  19. Breakfast consumption and exercise interact to affect cognitive performance and mood later in the day. A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, R C; Gonzalez, J T; Kennedy, D O; Haskell, C F; Stevenson, E J

    2013-09-01

    The current study assessed the interactive effect of breakfast and exercise on cognition and mood. Twelve active males completed four trials; no breakfast-rest, breakfast-rest, no breakfast-exercise or breakfast-exercise in a randomized, cross-over design. The trials consisted of; breakfast or fast, a 2h rest, exercise (treadmill run) or equivalent rest, a chocolate milk drink, a 90 min rest and an ad libitum lunch. Cognitive performance and mood were recorded frequently throughout each trial. Data was analysed as pre-exercise/rest, during and immediately post exercise/rest and post-drink. No effects were found prior to consumption of the drink. Post-drink, fasting before exercise increased mental fatigue compared to consuming breakfast before exercise and fasting before rest. Tension increased when breakfast was consumed at rest and when exercise was undertaken fasted compared to omitting breakfast before rest. Breakfast before rest decreased rapid visual information processing task speed and impaired Stroop performance. Breakfast omission improved Four Choice Reaction Time performance. To conclude, breakfast before exercise appeared beneficial for post-exercise mood even when a post-exercise snack was consumed. Exercise reversed post-breakfast cognitive impairment in active males. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effects of Breakfast Consumption and Composition on Metabolic Wellness with a Focus on Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Phillips-Eakley, Alyssa K; Smith, Kristen N

    2016-05-01

    Findings from epidemiologic studies indicate that there are associations between breakfast consumption and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome, prompting interest in the influence of breakfast on carbohydrate metabolism and indicators of T2DM risk. The objective of this review was to summarize the available evidence from randomized controlled trials assessing the impact of breakfast on variables related to carbohydrate metabolism and metabolic wellness. Consuming compared with skipping breakfast appeared to improve glucose and insulin responses throughout the day. Breakfast composition may also be important. Dietary patterns high in rapidly available carbohydrate were associated with elevated T2DM risk. Therefore, partial replacement of rapidly available carbohydrate with other dietary components, such as whole grains and cereal fibers, proteins, and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), at breakfast may be a useful strategy for producing favorable metabolic outcomes. Consumption of fermentable and viscous dietary fibers at breakfast lowers glycemia and insulinemia. Fermentable fibers likely act through enhancing insulin sensitivity later in the day, and viscous fibers have an acute effect to slow the rate of carbohydrate absorption. Partially substituting protein for rapidly available carbohydrate enhances satiety and diet-induced thermogenesis, and also favorably affects lipoprotein lipids and blood pressure. Partially substituting UFA for carbohydrate has been associated with improved insulin sensitivity, lipoprotein lipids, and blood pressure. Overall, the available evidence suggests that consuming breakfast foods high in whole grains and cereal fiber, while limiting rapidly available carbohydrate, is a promising strategy for metabolic health promotion. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Application of the theory of reasoned action to promoting breakfast consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Zahra; Gharlipour Gharghani, Zabihollah; Mansoori, Anahita; Aghamolaei, Teamur; Mohammadi Nasrabadi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Breakfast is the most important daily meal, but neglected more than other meals by children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention, based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) to increase breakfast consumption among school children in Bandar Abbas, Iran. In this quasi experimental study which was conducted in 2012, 88 students of four secondary schools in Bandar Abbas, south of Iran, were enrolled. Multi-stage cluster sampling was performed with random allocation of interventional and control groups. The study tool was a questionnaire which was filled by the students before and two months after the educational intervention. For data analysis, statistical tests including paired-samples t-test, independent samples t-test, Wilcoxon test, and Mann-Whitney test were used through SPSS v.18 software. The result of the study showed that application of TRA significantly increased scores of behavior of breakfast consumption (p<0.01). After the intervention, a significant increase was revealed in all nutrition intakes, except for fat and sugar (p<0.01). The findings support application of the TRA in improving the intention and behavior of breakfast consumption. Applying this theory for designing interventions to increase breakfast eating is recommended.

  2. Monotonous consumption of fibre-enriched bread at breakfast increases satiety and influences subsequent food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touyarou, Peio; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Gagnaire, Aude; Issanchou, Sylvie; Brondel, Laurent

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to observe the influence of the monotonous consumption of two types of fibre-enriched bread at breakfast on hedonic liking for the bread, subsequent hunger and energy intake. Two groups of unrestrained normal weight participants were given either white sandwich bread (WS) or multigrain sandwich bread (MG) at breakfast (the sensory properties of the WS were more similar to the usual bread eaten by the participants than those of the MG). In each group, two 15-day cross-over conditions were set up. During the experimental condition the usual breakfast of each participant was replaced by an isocaloric portion of plain bread (WS or MG). During the control condition, participants consumed only 10 g of the corresponding bread and completed their breakfast with other foods they wanted. The results showed that bread appreciation did not change over exposure even in the experimental condition. Hunger was lower in the experimental condition than in the control condition. The consumption of WS decreased energy intake while the consumption of MG did not in the experimental condition compared to the corresponding control one. In conclusion, a monotonous breakfast composed solely of a fibre-enriched bread may decrease subsequent hunger and, when similar to a familiar bread, food intake. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Regular family breakfast was associated with children's overweight and parental education: Results from the ENERGY cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vik, F.N.; Te Velde, S.J.; Van Lippevelde, W.; Manios, Y.; Kovacs, E.; Jan, N.; Moreno, L.A.; Bringolf-Isler, B.; Brug, J.; Bere, E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This study aims to assess (i) the prevalence of having regular family breakfast, lunch, dinner (i.e. 5–7 days/week together with their family) among 10–12 year olds in Europe, (ii) the association between family meals and child weight status, and (iii) potential differences in having

  4. The effect of eating speed at breakfast on appetite hormone responses and daily food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Meena; Crisp, Kelli; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Dart, Lyn; Bouza, Brooke; Franklin, Brian; Phillips, Melody

    2015-01-01

    The effect of eating speed at a meal on appetite gut hormone responses and future food consumption is not clear. This study examined the effect of eating speed at breakfast on postprandial gut hormone responses, subjective appetite, and daily food consumption. Twenty-five participants [68% men; age, 25.9 (8.1) years; body mass index, 25.0 (3.2) kg/m] were recruited. Each participant consumed the same breakfast at a slow (30 minutes) and fast (10 minutes) speed, on 2 separate days, in a randomized crossover design. Blood samples were collected in the fasting state and 3 hours postprandially during each eating condition. Appetite was assessed over the same period using visual analog scales. Blood concentrations of orexigenic hormone, ghrelin, and anorexigenic hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY), were determined. Daily food intake was measured, by food recall, after the slow and fast breakfast. Mixed-model repeated-measures analysis showed no eating condition or eating condition by time interaction effect on ghrelin, GLP-1, PYY, hunger, or fullness. Significant eating speed by time interaction effect on desire to eat was found (P=0.007). Desire to eat was lower at 60 minutes (P=0.007) after breakfast began during the slow versus fast eating condition. Eating speed at breakfast did not affect daily energy and macronutrient intake. Eating speed at breakfast did not affect postprandial ghrelin, GLP-1, PYY, hunger, and fullness values or daily energy and macronutrient intake. Desire to eat was lower at 60 minutes in the slow versus fast eating condition, but this result could not be explained by the changes in meal-related hormones measured in the study.

  5. The effect of breakfast type and frequency of consumption on glycemic response in overweight/obese late adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwattar, A Y; Thyfault, J P; Leidy, H J

    2015-08-01

    The primary aim was to examine the daily glycemic response to normal-protein (NP) vs higher-protein (HP) breakfasts in overweight adolescents who habitually skip breakfast (H-BS). The secondary aim examined whether the glycemic response to these meals differed in H-BS vs habitual breakfast consumers (H-BC). Thirty-five girls (age: 19 ± 1 year; body mass index: 28.4 ± 0.7 kg/m(2)) participated in the semi-randomized crossover-design study. The participants were grouped according to habitual breakfast frequency. H-BS (n = 20) continued to skip breakfast (BS) or consumed a NP (12 g protein) or HP (32 g protein) breakfast for 3 days, whereas the H-BC (n = 15) completed the NP and HP breakfast conditions for 3 days. On day 4 of each pattern, an 8 h testing day was completed. The respective breakfast and a standard lunch meal were provided, and plasma was collected to assess morning, afternoon, and total glucose and insulin area under the curves (AUC). In H-BS, the addition of a HP breakfast increased total glucose AUC vs BS (P < 0.05), whereas NP breakfast increased total insulin AUC vs BS (P < 0.05). In H-BC, the HP breakfast reduced morning, afternoon and total glucose AUCs vs NP (all, P < 0.05). No differences in insulin were detected. When comparing the HP-NP differential glycemic responses between groups, H-BS experienced greater afternoon and total glucose AUCs following HP vs NP breakfasts (both, P<0.05). No differences in insulin responses were observed between groups. Novel differences in the glucose response to HP vs NP breakfasts were observed and were influenced by the frequency of habitual breakfast consumption in overweight adolescents.

  6. Association between Frequency of Breakfast Consumption and Academic Performance in Healthy Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Wi-Young

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the frequency of breakfast consumption was related to academic performance in healthy Korean adolescents. We analyzed data from the seventh Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey conducted in 2011, in which 75,643 adolescents from school grades 7-12 participated. We assessed the association between the frequency of breakfast consumption (per week) and academic performance using multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for covariates such as age, body mass index, frequency of smoking, frequency of drinking, parents' education level, family economic status, frequency of vigorous physical activity (PA), frequency of moderate PA, frequency of muscular strength exercises, and level of mental stress. For male adolescents, the odds ratios (ORs) for achieving average or higher academic performance according to the breakfast frequency per week were once per week, 1.004 (P=0.945); twice per week, 0.915 (P=0.153); 3 days per week, 0.928 (P=0.237); 4 days per week, 1.087 (P=0.176); 5 days per week, 1.258 (Pacademic performance according to the breakfast frequency were once per week, 1.068 (P=0.320); twice per week, 1.140 (P=0.031); 3 days per week, 1.179 (P=0.004); 4 days per week, 1.339 (Pacademic performance in both male and female healthy adolescents in Korea.

  7. Postpartum Teens’ Breakfast Consumption is Associated with Snack and Beverage Intake and Body Mass Index

    OpenAIRE

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Schwarz, Cynthia; Budd, Elizabeth L; Yount, Byron W; Lapka, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Addressing high risk dietary patterns among postpartum teens may help reduce weight retention and prevent intergenerational obesity. The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between breakfast consumption and outcomes of snack and beverage intake and body mass index (BMI) among postpartum teens. During 2007–2009, 1,330 postpartum teens across 27 states participated in a cross-sectional, baseline assessment of a group-randomized, nested cohort study. Participants were enroll...

  8. Irregular breakfast consumption in adolescence and the family environment: underlying causes by family structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kate A; Kirby, Joanna

    2012-08-01

    Data from the 2002, 2006 and 2010 Scottish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys were analysed using logistic multilevel regression for outcome variable irregular breakfast consumption (IBC). IBC prevalence in Scotland was higher among young people from reconstituted and single parent families, and particularly single father families. Family characteristics, found previously to be associated with breakfast consumption, such as number of siblings, perceived parenting, parental involvement and family affluence, differed by family structure. Family structure inequalities in IBC existed, also after adjustment for year and child's sex, age, grade and ethnicity. Across all family structures, IBC was more prevalent at the older age groups, among those who had difficult communication with their parents, and where household routines were infrequent. Greater number of siblings and lower family affluence were associated with higher odds of IBC in single mother and both parent families, while having a second home was associated with higher odds in reconstituted households. Fair parenting and being close to at least one parent was associated with reduced odds of IBC in single mother households, while being close to all parents was in single father households. In single mother homes, having a working mother was also positively associated with IBC. Family structure differences should be considered when addressing irregular breakfast consumption in adolescence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Formative Research on a Social Marketing Campaign to Promote the Consumption of Healthy Breakfast and Snacks: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Bastami

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The elimination of breakfast and the high consumption of low-value snacks are becoming more frequent and common among adolescents. Nutrition is a complex behavioral phenomenon that is associated with the specific cultural and environmental issues of each society as well as psychological features.This qualitative research was conducted to identify factors affecting breakfast consumption behavior in adolescents using the social marketing framework. Materials and Methods: A qualitative research based on the social marketing framework was conducted through directed content analysis in the high schools of Isfahan and Khorramabad, Iran, in 2016. Data were collected through seven focus group discussions and 33 in-depth, semi-structured; interviews conducted in person with both male and female students, the parents, and the teachers and were analyzed simultaneously in three phases, namely preparation, organization and reporting. Results: The results obtained in the present study within the social marketing framework were coded into the four categories of product, place, price and promotion. The product category had four subcategories, including favorite taste sought in breakfast, breakfast preparation, breakfast serving style, variety and the healthful features of breakfast. The price category had four subcategories, including time, psychological, social and financial prices. The promotion category had three subcategories, including official channels, unofficial channels, and educational materials and equipment. The place category had two subcategories, including having breakfast at school or having breakfast in an outdoor space. Conclusion: The promotion of healthy breakfast as a product, requires that first its important features be considered, including the favorite taste sought in breakfast, second that it be promoted through channels most popular with students, and most importantly, that its price be reduced by using incentives such as

  10. Breakfast consumption determinants among female high school students of Yazd Province based on Pender's Health Promotion Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabbeik, Akram; Mahmoodabad, Seyed Saeed Mazloomy; Khosravi, Hassan Mozaffari; Fallahzadeh, Hossein

    2017-08-01

    Despite the importance of breakfast, especially for students, unfortunately, this meal is usually ignored in daily routine. The aim of this study was to identify determinants among female high school students of Yazd province based on the Pender Health Promotion Model. This was a cross-sectional study conducted to examine 200 female high school students of Yazd, selected by cluster sampling method in 2016. A researcher-made questionnaire, based on Pender's Health Promotion Model, was used as a data collection tool. A panel of experts and Cronbach's alpha coefficient were used to confirm the questionnaire validity and reliability. In order to analyze descriptive data, SPSS version 22 was used. AMOS software (v.23) was employed for path analysis. Direct impact of activity -related affect (0.300), interpersonal influences (0.276), and perceived barriers to eating breakfast (-0.223) were approved at significance level p<0.000. By influencing perceived barriers, perceived self-efficacy and previous related behavior indirectly affected breakfast consumption. These components determined 33% of breakfast consumption. By planning to create a positive feeling in students to have breakfast, to involve family and friends to encourage students to eat breakfast, to reduce barriers to have breakfast by increasing students' self-efficacy, the behavior of having breakfast among students can be improved.

  11. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Nurul-Fadhilah

    Full Text Available Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2% fell in the normal body mass index (BMI ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50% were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI, BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth.

  12. The Benefits of Breakfast Cereal Consumption: A Systematic Review of the Evidence Base 1 2 3 4

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    There have been no comprehensive reviews of the relation of breakfast cereal consumption to nutrition and health. This systematic review of all articles on breakfast cereals to October 2013 in the Scopus and Medline databases identified 232 articles with outcomes related to nutrient intake, weight, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, digestive health, dental and mental health, and cognition. Sufficient evidence was available to develop 21 summary evidence statements, ranked from A...

  13. The association between consumption of breakfast cereals and BMI in schoolchildren aged 12-17 years: the VYRONAS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosti, Rena I; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Zampelas, Antonis; Mihas, Costas; Alevizos, Alevizos; Leonard, Clare; Tountas, Yannis; Mariolis, Anargiros

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate whether consumption of breakfast cereals is associated with BMI in a sample of Greek adolescents. A cross-sectional health and nutrition survey. During 2004-5, 2008 schoolchildren aged 12-17 years were selected from twelve schools located in Vyronas region (Athens metropolitan area). Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. A semiquantitative FFQ was applied and multiple logistic regression analysis was used. Overall, 4.7% of boys and 1.7% of girls were obese, whereas 19.4% of boys and 13.2% of girls were overweight. Only 20.7% of boys and 15.5% of girls reported that they consume cereals as a first choice for breakfast. Consumption of breakfast cereals was associated with lower BMI in boys (P=0.08) and girls(P=0.019), irrespective of age and physical activity status. More prominent results were observed for daily cereal consumption or for more than two daily servings of cereals consumed for breakfast. Consumption of pre-sweetened breakfast cereals was associated with lower BMI compared with non-pre-sweetened or no intake of cereals, in both genders (PConsumption of breakfast cereals was associated with 33% (95% CI 14%, 48%) lower likelihood of overweight/obesity, irrespective of age, sex and physical activity status. Consumption of breakfast cereals was associated with lower BMI levels and a lower likelihood of overweight/obesity in both genders; thus a solid basis for public health professionals could be built when issuing advice on weight management.

  14. Breakfast Consumption and Its Associations with Health-Related Behaviors among School-Aged Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is associated with a cluster of health-related behaviors, yet studies in mainland China are scarce. This study is conducted to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among Chinese adolescents and examine its associations with other dietary, physical activity, sedentary, sleep, cigarette-smoking, and alcohol-drinking behaviors. Breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 19,542 school-aged adolescents were recruited in this survey. The associations between breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors were examined using logistic regression models. A significantly higher prevalence of daily breakfast consumption was found among students who were younger (p for trend <0.001, from urban schools (p < 0.001, and academic high schools (p < 0.001. More frequent vegetable and milk consumption, greater physical activity, and longer sleep duration were positively associated with daily breakfast consumption, while soft drinks and fast food consumption, computer use, cigarette-smoking and alcohol-drinking behaviors were inversely associated. The prevalence of irregular breakfast consumption was relatively high among Chinese adolescents in Zhejiang Province. Daily breakfast consumption was associated with a constellation of health-related behaviors.

  15. Child-targeted TV advertising and preschoolers' consumption of high-sugar breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Titus, Linda J; Harris, Jennifer; Cleveland, Lauren P; Langeloh, Gail; Hendricks, Kristy; Dalton, Madeline A

    2017-01-01

    Breakfast cereals represent the most highly advertised packaged food on child-targeted television, and most ads are for cereals high in sugar. This study examined whether children's TV exposure to child-targeted, high-sugar breakfast cereal (SBC) ads was associated with their consumption of those SBC brands. Parents of 3- to 5-year-old children were recruited from pediatric and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in Southern New Hampshire, USA, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April-December 2013. Parents reported their child's consumption of SBC brands; whether their child had watched any of 11 kids' channels in the past week; their child's TV viewing time; and socio-demographics. Children's exposure to child-targeted SBC TV ads was calculated by combining TV channel and viewing time with advertising data for SBC ads aired on kids' TV channels during the same timeframe. Five hundred forty-eight parents completed surveys; 52.7% had an annual household income of $50,000 or less. Children's mean age was 4.4 years, 51.6% were female, and 72.5% were non-Hispanic white. In the past week, 56.9% (N = 312) of children ate SBCs advertised on kids' channels. Overall, 40.6% of children were exposed to child-targeted SBC TV ads in the past week. In fully adjusted analyses, the number of SBC brands children consumed was positively associated with their exposure to child-targeted SBC ads. Children consumed 14% (RR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.27) more SBC brands for every 10 SBC ads seen in the past 7 days. Exposure to child-targeted SBC TV advertising is positively associated with SBC brand consumption among preschool-aged children. These findings support recommendations to limit the marketing of high-sugar foods to young children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Associations between family-related factors, breakfast consumption and BMI among 10- to 12-year-old European children: the cross-sectional ENERGY-study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Van Lippevelde

    Full Text Available To investigate associations of family-related factors with children's breakfast consumption and BMI-z-score and to examine whether children's breakfast consumption mediates associations between family-related factors and children's BMI-z-score.Ten- to twelve-year-old children (n = 6374; mean age = 11.6 ± 0.7 years, 53.2% girls, mean BMI-z-score = 0.4 ± 1.2 and one of their parents (n = 6374; mean age = 41.4 ± 5.3 years, 82.7% female, mean BMI = 24.5 ± 4.2 kg/m(2 were recruited from schools in eight European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, Spain, and Switzerland. The children self-reported their breakfast frequency per week. The body weight and height of the children were objectively measured. The parents responded to items on family factors related to breakfast (automaticity, availability, encouragement, paying attention, permissiveness, negotiating, communicating health beliefs, parental self-efficacy to address children's nagging, praising, and family breakfast frequency. Mediation analyses were performed using multi-level regression analyses (child-school-country.Three of the eleven family-related variables were significantly associated with children's BMI-z-score. The family breakfast frequency was negatively associated with the BMI-z-score; permissiveness concerning skipping breakfast and negotiating about breakfast were positively associated with the BMI-z-score. Children's breakfast consumption was found to be a mediator of the two associations. All family-related variables except for negotiating, praising and communicating health beliefs, were significantly associated with children's breakfast consumption.Future breakfast promotion and obesity prevention interventions should focus on family-related factors including the physical home environment and parenting practices. Nevertheless, more longitudinal research and intervention studies to support these findings between family-related factors and

  17. Association of breakfast consumption with body mass index and prevalence of overweight/obesity in a nationally-representative survey of Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Susan I; DiFrancesco, Loretta; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2016-03-31

    This study examined the association of breakfast consumption, and the type of breakfast consumed, with body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and prevalence rates and odds ratios (OR) of overweight/obesity among Canadian adults. These associations were examined by age group and sex. We used data from non-pregnant, non-lactating participants aged ≥ 18 years (n = 12,377) in the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2, a population-based, nationally-representative, cross-sectional study. Height and weight were measured, and BMI was calculated. Breakfast consumption was self-reported during a standardized 24-h recall; individuals were classified as breakfast non-consumers, consumers of breakfasts that included ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) or as other breakfast consumers. Mean BMI and prevalence and OR of overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 25) were compared among breakfast groups, with adjustment for sociodemographic variables (including age, sex, race, marital status, food security, language spoken at home, physical activity category, smoking, education level and supplement use). For the entire sample, mean BMI was significantly lower among RTEC-breakfast consumers than other breakfast consumers (mean ± SE 26.5 ± 0.2 vs. 27.1 ± 0.1 kg/m(2)), but neither group differed significantly from breakfast non-consumers (27.1 ± 0.3 kg/m(2)). Similar results were seen in women only, but BMI of men did not differ by breakfast category. Overweight/obesity prevalence and OR did not differ among breakfast groups for the entire sample or for all men and women separately. When examined by sex and age group, differences were inconsistent, but tended to be more apparent in women than men. Among Canadian adults, breakfast consumption was not consistently associated with differences in BMI or overweight/obesity prevalence.

  18. Breakfast and Energy Drink Consumption in Secondary School Children: Breakfast Omission, in Isolation or in Combination with Frequent Energy Drink Use, is Associated with Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Cross-Sectionally, but not at Six-Month Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth eRichards

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A considerable amount of research suggests that breakfast omission and the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, and particularly so in children and adolescents. The current paper presents cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Cornish Academies Project to investigate the effects of consuming energy drinks and missing breakfast on stress, anxiety, and depression in a cohort of secondary school children from the South West of England. Questionnaires were administered at two time-points (spaced six months apart to collect information relating to diet and lifestyle over the previous six months, demographic and school data were acquired through the School Information Management System, and single-item measures of stress, anxiety, and depression were administered at the second time-point only. Associations between breakfast and energy drink consumption and stress, anxiety, and depression were investigated, and a multivariate approach was taken so that additional variance from diet, demography, and lifestyle could be controlled for statistically. Cross-sectional analyses showed that breakfast omission was consistently associated with negative outcomes, and that this was largely observed for both those who frequently consumed energy drinks and those who did not. However, cross-lag analyses showed that neither breakfast omission or energy drink consumption, alone or in combination, was predictive of stress, anxiety, or depression at six-month follow-up. This suggests that associations between breakfast and mental health may be bi-directional rather than breakfast being the causal factor.

  19. Breakfast and Energy Drink Consumption in Secondary School Children: Breakfast Omission, in Isolation or in Combination with Frequent Energy Drink Use, is Associated with Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Cross-Sectionally, but not at 6-Month Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of research suggests that breakfast omission and the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, and particularly so in children and adolescents. The current paper presents cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Cornish Academies Project to investigate the effects of consuming energy drinks and missing breakfast on stress, anxiety, and depression in a cohort of secondary school children from the South West of England. Questionnaires were administered at two time-points (spaced 6 months apart) to collect information relating to diet and lifestyle over the previous 6 months. Demographic and school data were acquired through the School Information Management System, and single-item measures of stress, anxiety, and depression were administered at the second time-point only. Associations between breakfast and energy drink consumption and stress, anxiety, and depression were investigated, and a multivariate approach was taken so that additional variance from diet, demography, and lifestyle could be controlled for statistically. Cross-sectional analyses showed that breakfast omission was consistently associated with negative outcomes, and that this was largely observed for both those who frequently consumed energy drinks and those who did not. However, cross-lag analyses showed that neither breakfast omission or energy drink consumption, alone or in combination, was predictive of stress, anxiety, or depression at 6-month follow-up. This suggests that associations between breakfast and mental health may be bi-directional rather than breakfast being the causal factor.

  20. Breakfast consumption by African-American and white adolescent girls correlates positively with calcium and fiber intake and negatively with body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Affenito, SG; Thompson, DR; Barton, BA; Franko, DL; Daniels, [No Value; Obarzanek, E; Schreiber, GB; Striegel-Moore, RH

    Objective To describe age- and race-related differences in breakfast consumption and to examine the association of breakfast intake with dietary calcium and fiber and body mass index (BMI). Design Data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study, a 9-year, longitudinal

  1. Socio-economic differences in adolescents' breakfast eating, fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doku, David; Koivusilta, Leena; Raisamo, Susanna; Rimpelä, Arja

    2013-05-01

    Few studies have investigated the association between adolescents' socio-economic status (SES) and health behaviours in developing countries. Socio-economic differences in breakfast eating, fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity were investigated among Ghanaian adolescents. A school-based survey of 12-18-year-olds (n 1195, response rate 89·7 %) was conducted in 2008. Logistic regression analyses were applied to study the associations between breakfast eating, fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity, and SES. Southern Ghana, West Africa. School pupils aged 12-18 years. Of all adolescents, 31 % took breakfast less than 4 d/week, over half (56 %) and 48 %, respectively, rarely ate fruits and vegetables. Younger adolescents (12-15-year-olds) consumed fruits and vegetables frequently compared with older ones (16-18-year-olds). Boys were more likely to participate in physical activity than girls. The probability of frequent breakfast eating was higher in adolescents from more affluent backgrounds than in those from less affluent ones. Compared with those whose mothers were illiterate, both tertiary and primary maternal educational attainment increased the probability of frequent fruit intake. Similarly, tertiary educational attainment increased the likelihood of frequent vegetable intake. Compared with those with unemployed mothers, mothers' low employment grade was related to higher probability of frequent fruit intake. High school performance was associated with frequent fruit intake, whereas high or medium school performance increased the likelihood of vegetable intake compared with low school performance. Interventions are needed to improve breakfast intake, fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity in order to prevent degenerative diseases among Ghanaian adolescents.

  2. Breakfast Skipping, Anxiety, Exercise, and Soda Consumption are Associated with Diet Quality in Mexican College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Laura; Tejada-Tayabas, Luz María; Monárrez-Espino, Joel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTEACT Despite the reported poor dietary habits and risk of weight gain in college students, they remain understudied in Mexico. Mexican college students are in a rapidly changing economic environment; a shift from a traditional, homemade cuisine to a diet more heavily influenced by an industrialized culture seems to be occurring, potentially affecting the quality of their dietary intake. A health and nutrition survey was conducted among 450 Mexican college students to study the relationship between sociodemographic factors and diet quality. Dietary data were used to build macro- and micronutrient scores, dichotomized as low and normal quality. Adjusted odds (OR [95% CI]) were computed to determine the probability of low dietary quality. Breakfast skipping (5.3 [1.2, 22.7]) and risk of anxiety (2.3 [1.3, 4.4]) were associated with a greater risk of low macronutrient quality, and caloric intake exercise ≤ 1 h/wk (2.6 [1.3, 5.2]), and soda consumption > 250 mL/d (2.0 [1.2, 3.3]) with low micronutrient quality.

  3. The association between consumption of breakfast cereals and BMI in schoolchildren aged 12-17 years: The VYRONAS study

    OpenAIRE

    Kosti, Rena I.; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Zampelas, Antonis; Mihas, Costas; Alevizos, Alevizos; Leonard, Clare; Tountas, Yannis; Mariolis, Anargiros

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate whether consumption of breakfast cereals is associated with BMI in a sample of Greek adolescents. Design A cross-sectional health and nutrition survey. Setting and subjects During 2004-5, 2008 schoolchildren aged 12-17 years were selected from twelve schools located in Vyronas region (Athens metropolitan area). Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. A semi-quantitative FFQ was applied and multiple logistic regression analysis was used. Results O...

  4. Breakfast Consumption Frequency and Its Relationships to Overall Diet Quality, Using Healthy Eating Index 2010, and Body Mass Index among Adolescents in a Low-Income Urban Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Laura C; Sattler, Melissa; Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the relationship of breakfast frequency to diet quality and BMI among low-income, predominantly African American adolescents aged 9-15 (n = 239). Mean frequency of breakfast consumption was 5.0 ± 0.15 times per week. A significant, positive relationship was seen between HEI scores and frequency of breakfast consumption (p = .01). Dairy (p = .02) and whole grains (p diet quality in this population.

  5. Breakfast habits and factors influencing food choices at breakfast in relation to socio-demographic and family factors among European adolescents. The HELENA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallström, Lena; Vereecken, Carine A; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Patterson, Emma; Gilbert, Chantal C; Catasta, Giovina; Díaz, Ligia-Esperanza; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; González Gross, Marcela; Gottrand, Frédéric; Hegyi, Adrienn; Lehoux, Claire; Mouratidou, Theodora; Widham, Kurt; Aström, Annika; Moreno, Luis A; Sjöström, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Breakfast consumption has been shown to be an important indicator of a healthy lifestyle. Little is known however about factors influencing breakfast consumption and food choices at breakfast in adolescents. The aim of the present study was therefore to describe breakfast habits, and factors influencing food choices at breakfast within the framework of the EU-funded HELENA Study, in 3528 adolescents from ten European cities. Additionally, socio-demographic differences in breakfast habits and in influencing factors were investigated. Half of the adolescents (and fewer girls than boys) indicated being regular breakfast consumers. Girls with mothers with a high level of education, boys from 'traditional' families and boys who perceived low family affluence were positively associated with breakfast consumption. Boys whose parents gave encouragement and girls whose peers ate healthily were more likely to be regular breakfast consumers. 'Hunger', 'taste', 'health concerns' and 'parents or guardian' were the most important influences on the adolescents' food choices at breakfast. Adolescents from southern Europe and girls reported to be more influenced by personal and socio-environmental factors. Socio-demographic differences, in particular regional and gender differences, need to be considered in discussions surrounding the development of nutritional intervention programs intended for adolescents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Breakfast and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, S

    2001-12-01

    Evidence suggests that the effect of fasting on performance is not uniform, but it is dependent on the basal nutritional status of the subject. Breakfast consumption has a short-term effect in improving selected learning skills, especially work memory. School breakfast programmes have a positive effect on the nutritional status of children, on school attendance and probably on dropout rates. The effect of breakfast consumption on school performance depends on the interaction between the programme, student characteristics (malnutrition) and school organisation. Unless the school setting guarantees a minimum quality standard, the benefits of breakfast consumption will not be evident in performance in complex areas like language or maths.

  7. Associations between Family-Related Factors, Breakfast Consumption and BMI among 10- to 12-Year-Old European Children: The Cross-Sectional ENERGY-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Te Velde, Saskia J.; Verloigne, Maïté; Van Stralen, Maartje M.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Manios, Yannis; Bere, Elling; Vik, Froydis N.; Jan, Nataša; Fernández Alvira, Juan M.; Chinapaw, Mai J. M.; Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Kovacs, Eva; Brug, Johannes; Maes, Lea

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations of family-related factors with children’s breakfast consumption and BMI-z-score and to examine whether children’s breakfast consumption mediates associations between family-related factors and children’s BMI-z-score. Subjects Ten- to twelve-year-old children (n = 6374; mean age = 11.6±0.7 years, 53.2% girls, mean BMI-z-score = 0.4±1.2) and one of their parents (n = 6374; mean age = 41.4±5.3 years, 82.7% female, mean BMI = 24.5±4.2 kg/m2) were recruited from schools in eight European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, Spain, and Switzerland). The children self-reported their breakfast frequency per week. The body weight and height of the children were objectively measured. The parents responded to items on family factors related to breakfast (automaticity, availability, encouragement, paying attention, permissiveness, negotiating, communicating health beliefs, parental self-efficacy to address children’s nagging, praising, and family breakfast frequency). Mediation analyses were performed using multi-level regression analyses (child-school-country). Results Three of the eleven family-related variables were significantly associated with children’s BMI-z-score. The family breakfast frequency was negatively associated with the BMI-z-score; permissiveness concerning skipping breakfast and negotiating about breakfast were positively associated with the BMI-z-score. Children’s breakfast consumption was found to be a mediator of the two associations. All family-related variables except for negotiating, praising and communicating health beliefs, were significantly associated with children’s breakfast consumption. Conclusions Future breakfast promotion and obesity prevention interventions should focus on family-related factors including the physical home environment and parenting practices. Nevertheless, more longitudinal research and intervention studies to

  8. Consumption of ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) among Malaysian children and association with socio-demographics and nutrient intakes - findings from the MyBreakfast study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Norimah, A Karim; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Tan, Sue Yee; Appukutty, Mahenderan; Hopkins, Sinead; Thielecke, Frank; Ong, Moi Kim; Ning, Celia; Tee, E Siong

    2017-01-01

    Background : The association between different types of breakfast meals and nutrient intakes has been studied to a lesser extent. Objective : This study compared nutrient intakes at breakfast and throughout the day between Malaysian children who consumed ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) and those who did not. Methods : Anthropometric and dietary data for 1955 children aged 6-12 years from the MyBreakfast study were used in the analysis. Results : Overall, 18% of the children consumed RTEC at breakfast on at least one of the recall days. RTEC consumption was associated with younger age, urban areas, higher income and education level of parents. Among consumers, RTEC contributed 10% and 15% to daily intakes of calcium and iron respectively and ≥20% to daily intakes of vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin. RTEC consumers had significantly higher mean intakes of vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, iron and sugar but lower intakes of fat and sodium than non-RTEC consumers at breakfast and for the total day. Conclusion : Consumption of fortified RTEC at breakfast was associated with lower fat and sodium intakes and higher intakes of several micronutrients both at breakfast and for the total day. However, total sugar intakes appeared to be higher.

  9. Consumption of blueberries with a high-carbohydrate, low-fat breakfast decreases postprandial serum markers of oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacker, Bryan C; Snyder, Shannon M; Eggett, Dennis L; Parker, Tory L

    2013-05-01

    We sought to determine whether consumption of blueberries could reduce postprandial oxidation when consumed with a typical high-carbohydrate, low-fat breakfast. Participants (n 14) received each of the three treatments over 3 weeks in a cross-over design. Treatments consisted of a high blueberry dose (75 g), a low blueberry dose (35 g) and a control (ascorbic acid and sugar content matching that of the high blueberry dose). Serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), serum lipoprotein oxidation (LO) and serum ascorbate, urate and glucose were measured at fasting, and at 1, 2 and 3 h after sample consumption. The mean serum ORAC was significantly higher in the 75 g group than in the control group during the first 2 h postprandially, while serum LO lag time showed a significant trend over the 3 h for both blueberry doses. Changes in serum ascorbate, urate and glucose were not significantly different among the groups. To our knowledge, this is the first report that has demonstrated that increased serum antioxidant capacity is not attributable to the fructose or ascorbate content of blueberries. In summary, a practically consumable quantity of blueberries (75 g) can provide statistically significant oxidative protection in vivo after a high-carbohydrate, low-fat breakfast. Though not tested directly, it is likely that the effects are due to phenolic compounds, either directly or indirectly, as they are a major family of compounds in blueberries with potential bioactive activity.

  10. Characteristics associated with the consumption of malted drinks among Malaysian primary school children: findings from the MyBreakfast study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Loy, S L; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir; Karim, Norimah A; Tan, S Y; Appukutty, M; Abdul Razak, Nurliyana; Thielecke, F; Hopkins, S; Ong, M K; Ning, C; Tee, E S

    2015-12-30

    The consumption of beverages contributes to diet quality and overall nutrition. Studies on malted drinks, one of the widely consumed beverage choices among children in Asia, however, have received limited attention. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of malted drink consumption and explored associations of sociodemographic characteristics, nutrient intakes, weight status and physical activity levels with malted drink consumption among primary school children in Malaysia. Data for this analysis were from the MyBreakfast Study, a national cross-sectional study conducted from April to October 2013 throughout all regions in Malaysia. A total of 2065 primary school children aged 6 to 12 years were included in the present analysis. Data on two days 24-h dietary recall or record, anthropometry, physical activity and screen time were recorded. Associations between malted drink consumption and related factors were examined using binary logistic regression, adjusting for region, area, gender, ethnicity and household income. Among children aged 6 to 12 years, 73.5% reported consuming malted drinks for at least once per week. Consumption of malted drinks was significantly associated with region (χ(2) = 45.64, p Malaysian primary school children, particularly higher among boys, indigenous children and those who lived in the East Coast region of Malaysia. Consuming malted drinks is associated with higher micronutrient intakes and higher levels of physical activity, but not with body weight status.

  11. Trends from 2002 to 2010 in Daily Breakfast Consumption and its Socio-Demographic Correlates in Adolescents across 31 Countries Participating in the HBSC Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazzeri, Giacomo; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Niclasen, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Breakfast is often considered the most important meal of the day and children and adolescents can benefit from breakfast consumption in several ways. The purpose of the present study was to describe trends in daily breakfast consumption (DBC) among adolescents across 31 countries participating...... adjusting for family affluence, family structure and year of survey. In all countries, children in two-parent families were more likely to report DBC compared to single parent families. In most countries (n = 19), DBC was associated with family affluence. Six countries showed an increase in DBC (Canada...... to motivate adolescents to consume DBC. Comparing patterns across HBSC countries can make an important contribution to understanding regional /global trends and to monitoring strategies and development of health promotion programs....

  12. Breakfast habits among school children in selected communities in the eastern region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intiful, F D; Lartey, A

    2014-06-01

    Breakfast is considered the most important meal of the day, yet many people skip breakfast. Studies indicate that school age children who regularly skip breakfast are not likely to concentrate in class, thus affecting school performance. This study determined the breakfast habits and nutrient contributions of the breakfast meal to the days' nutrient intake. A cross sectional study was conducted among school children (n=359) between the ages of 6-19 years in Manya Krobo in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Questionnaires were used to collect information on background characteristics and breakfast consumption habits. The 24-hour dietary recall method was used to obtain information on the children's food intake. T-test was used to compare differences between means of variables of breakfast consumers and skippers. About 85.5% of the children had breakfast on the day of interview. More boys (87.8%) consumed breakfast compared to the girls (83.1%). For those who skipped breakfast, lack of food at home or lack of no money (36.5%) was the main reason. Breakfast consumers had significantly higher energy and nutrient intakes than those who skipped breakfast (energy 2259 verses 1360 kcal, p-0.039; vitamin A 1534 verses 662 ug/RE, p=0.001; iron 22.9 verses 13.9 mg, p=0.017, zinc 9.9 verses 5.6 mg, p=0.034). The breakfast meal contributed between 32-41% of the day's energy intake, and between 30-47% of micronutrient intake. Encouraging breakfast consumption among school children is a way to ensure that they meet their daily nutrient and energy intakes.

  13. Skipping breakfast, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity as risk factors for overweight and obesity in adolescents : results of the E-MOVO project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croezen, S.; Visscher, T. L. S.; ter Bogt, N. C. W.; Veling, M. L.; Haveman-Nies, A.

    Objective/Background: To investigate the association between skipping breakfast, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity with overweight and obesity in adolescents. The design comprises cross-sectional electronic health survey (E-MOVO). Subjects/Methods: Over 35 000 Dutch adolescents in grade 2

  14. In-school Snacking, Breakfast Consumption, and Sleeping Patterns of Normal and Overweight Iranian High School Girls: A Study in Urban and Rural Areas in Guilan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddah, Mohsen; Rashidi, Arash; Mohammadpour, Behnoush; Vafa, Reza; Karandish, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship of snacking during school hours, sleep time, and breakfast consumption by weight status of Iranian high school girls in urban and rural areas in Guilan Province, Iran. Design: Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire and measure of body weight and height. Setting: High schools in urban and…

  15. Symposium overview: Do we all eat breakfast and is it important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Marcello; Agostoni, Carlo; Shamir, Raanan

    2010-02-01

    Besides genetic and environmental factors, the breakfast meal and the frequency in which it is eaten may influence appetite control, dietary intake and composition, and chronic disease risk. Breakfast skipping may lead to up-regulation of appetite, possibly leading to weight gain over time and deleterious changes in risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Breakfast skipping has also been linked to poorer overall diet quality. Regular breakfast consumption, on the other hand, may reduce the risk of chronic diseases due to the potential impact on the composition of the overall diet, and is also associated with improved learning abilities and better school performance in children. Considering the trend to skip, or to have nutritionally inadequate breakfast, suggestions to promote and support breakfast in children and adolescents will be considered.

  16. Breakfast and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A P

    1998-09-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to study the relationship between breakfast consumption and subjective reports of mental health and health-related behaviours in a general population sample (126 subjects aged between 20 and 79 years). Individuals who consumed a cereal breakfast each day were less depressed, less emotionally distressed and had lower levels of perceived stress than those who did not eat breakfast each day. Those who consumed breakfast had a healthier lifestyle than the others in that they were less likely to be smokers, drank less alcohol and had a healthier diet. However, the relationship between cereal breakfast consumption and mental health did not reflect these differences in the smoking, alcohol consumption and diet. In conclusion, there is an association between breakfast consumption and well-being which cannot entirely be accounted for by differences in other aspects of diet or smoking and alcohol consumption. Further intervention studies are now needed to establish whether causal relationships and mechanisms underlie the associations seen in this study.

  17. Investigation of educational intervention based on Theory of Planned Behavior on breakfast consumption among middle school students of Qom City in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharlipour, Zabihollah; Ghaffari, Mohtasham; Hoseini, Zahra; Heidarabadi, Akbar Babaei; Tavassoli, Elahe; Hozuri, Mohammad; Jang, Shahram Arsang; Reisi, Mahnoush; Sahraiyan, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Eating breakfast is crucial for adolescents to be healthy. It also improves students' capacity of learning and doing school homework. Although healthy habits such as eating breakfast, weight control, and regular sleep increase the lifespan in adults, the effects of healthy habits on school-age children have not been studied much. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of an educational program based on Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) on eating breakfast among middle school students. This interventional study was conducted on sixth-grade students in Qom City during the academic year 2012-2013. First, 97 students were randomly assigned to the experimental group and 97 other students were assigned to the control group. Then, a questionnaire was developed on eating breakfast by the researchers according to the TPB. A pilot study was conducted to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. To assess the validity of the questionnaire, advice by a panel of experts was sought. To carry out a pre-test, both groups answered the questions. After analyzing the pre-test results, the required content was developed for the experimental group. Educational methods included delivering speech, discussion groups, pamphlets, and posters. The required educationalcontent was provided for students during five sessions and for parents in one session. To determine the effect of educational intervention, a post-test study was carried out 2 months after the intervention. Collected data were analyzed using independent t-test, χ,([2]) and repeated measures. In the experimental group, 36.7% of students were eating breakfast at least in a day of a week, before educational intervention. After implementation of the educational program, only 32.7% of them were continuing their past habit. There was a significant difference between themean scores of attitudes, perceived behavioral control, intention, and practice of eating breakfast in the experimental and control groups (P students

  18. Universal free school breakfast: a qualitative model for breakfast behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise eHarvey-Golding

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the provision of school breakfast has increased significantly in the UK. However, research examining the effectiveness of school breakfast is still within relative stages of infancy, and findings to date have been rather mixed. Moreover, previous evaluations of school breakfast schemes have been predominantly quantitative in their methodologies. Presently there are few qualitative studies examining the subjective perceptions and experiences of stakeholders, and thereby an absence of knowledge regarding the sociocultural impacts of school breakfast. The purpose of this study was to investigate the beliefs, views and attitudes, and breakfast consumption behaviors, among key stakeholders, served by a council-wide universal free school breakfast initiative, within the North West of England, UK. A sample of children, parents and school staff were recruited from three primary schools, participating in the universal free school breakfast scheme, to partake in semi-structured interviews and small focus groups. A Grounded Theory analysis of the data collected identified a theoretical model of breakfast behaviors, underpinned by the subjective perceptions and experiences of these key stakeholders. The model comprises of three domains relating to breakfast behaviors, and the internal and external factors that are perceived to influence breakfast behaviors, among children, parents and school staff. Findings were validated using triangulation methods, member checks and inter-rater reliability measures. In presenting this theoretically grounded model for breakfast behaviors, this paper provides a unique qualitative insight into the breakfast consumption behaviors and barriers to breakfast consumption, within a socioeconomically deprived community, participating in a universal free school breakfast intervention program.

  19. Increasing consumption of breakfast cereal improves thiamine status in overweight/obese women following a hypocaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Rosa M; López-Sobaler, Ana M; Andrés, Pedro; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena; Aparicio, Aránzazu; Bermejo, Laura M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the thiamine status in a group of young, overweight/obese women and to analyse the changes in this status produced by two weight-control programmes based on approximating the diet to the theoretical ideal, increasing the relative consumption of vegetables (V) or cereals (C) (especially breakfast cereals). The study subjects were 57 Spanish women with a body mass index (BMI) of 24-35 kg/m(2), all of whom were randomly assigned to one of two slightly hypocaloric diets. Dietetic, anthropometric and biochemical data were collected at the beginning of the study and at 2 and 6 weeks. C and V subjects showed a reduction in their energy intake, body weight and BMI, both at 2 and 6 weeks. Thiamine intake and blood thiamine levels only increased with diet C (both at 2 and 6 weeks). 21.8% cf the women, 21.8% had blood thiamine levels diet C, as compared with 30.8% of the women in diet V, showed blood thiamine levels diet C and diet V induced weight loss and a reduction in BMI, diet C would appear to be more useful in the maintenance of an adequate thiamine status.

  20. Breakfast is associated with the metabolic syndrome and school performance among Taiwanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chia-Yi; Huang, Yi-Chen; Lo, Yuan-Ting C; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2015-01-01

    Skipping breakfast is associated with adverse child health profiles including obesity, higher blood pressure, higher serum cholesterol, and poor cognitive function. We aimed to explore the association between breakfast with school performance and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Taiwanese children. Participants were enrolled from the representative Elementary School Children's Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (2001-2002). Diet, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood glucose, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were assessed in 1287 boys and 1114 girls. Their school and social performances were examined using the modified Scale for Assessing Emotional Disturbance questionnaire. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to estimate the risk of MetS and also the association between breakfast consumption frequency and school or social performance. When breakfast consumption was regular, overall dietary quality was better. Children who consumed breakfast daily exhibited lower risks of high blood pressure (OR=0.37, 95% CI=0.19-0.71) and of MetS (OR=0.22, 95% CI=0.09-0.51) compared with children who consumed breakfast 0-4 times per week. Furthermore, children who consumed breakfast daily exhibited a higher overall competence (OC) score (β=0.71, pschool performance, a lower risk of high blood pressure, and MetS independent of overall dietary quality. Thus, breakfast on school days is a factor in school performance and health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Middle school student and parent perceptions of government-sponsored free school breakfast and consumption: a qualitative inquiry in an urban setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey-Davis, Lisa; Virus, Amy; McCoy, Tara Alexis; Wojtanowski, Alexis; Vander Veur, Stephanie S; Foster, Gary D

    2013-02-01

    Universal free access to school breakfast is available in large urban schools, but participation rates are less than half of what they are at lunch. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the discrepancy between access and participation in school breakfast in a low-income, urban school district. Youth (n=23) and parents (n=22) were recruited from three middle schools where ≥ 50% of students were eligible for free or reduced-price meals. Parent focus groups (n=2) and student focus groups (n=4) were conducted in the fall/winter of 2009/2010. Content analysis was conducted to code transcripts and a constant comparative technique was used to identify emergent themes. Findings were validated using triangulation methods. The following themes emerged from the student and parent perceptions: sociocultural beliefs, physical availability, economic accessibility, social stigma, and consumption practices. There was agreement between students and parents across most themes, except consumption practices. Students were commonly purchasing food and beverages on the way to school, which was in conflict with parent rules. Parents desired access to copies of the school menus to be more involved in breakfast decisions with their child and students desired input into menu planning and taste testing to overcome school meal quality concerns. Future research aiming to improve participation in the breakfast program should examine the impact of student involvement in school menu planning and environmental modifications to reduce the social stigma associated with the program. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased plasma homocyst(e)ine after withdrawal of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal from the diet: prevention by breakfast cereal providing 200 microg folic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinow, M R; Duell, P B; Irvin-Jones, A; Upson, B M; Graf, E E

    2000-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that cessation of habitual ingestion of breakfast cereals would be associated with elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations. We anticipated that those subjects who reported consuming breakfast cereals containing 100 to 400 ,microg of folic acid per serving before entering the study would achieve higher plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations if, in addition to their regular diet, they began ingesting a daily serving of breakfast cereal that contained less than 10 microg of folic acid per serving. Seventy-nine subjects consumed a daily serving of breakfast cereal containing either ine elevation. Breakfast cereal containing 200 microg folic acid per day was sufficient to maintain the homocyst(e)ine lowering effects of commercial cereals. Habitual consumption of commercially available fortified breakfast cereals, usually containing 100 to 400 microg folic acid per serving, had significant homocyst(e)ine lowering effects as shown by the homocyst(e)ine increase after cessation of habitual intake of commercial breakfast cereal. Substitution of breakfast cereal containing only 200 microg folic acid per day was sufficient to maintain the homocyst(e)inelowering effects of commercial cereals.

  3. 21 CFR 163.112 - Breakfast cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.112 Breakfast cocoa. (a) Description. (1) Breakfast cocoa is the food prepared by pulverizing the material remaining after part of the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breakfast cocoa. 163.112 Section 163.112 Food and...

  4. The Effects of Breakfast and Breakfast Composition on Cognition in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L; Champ, Claire L; Dye, Louise

    2016-05-01

    Breakfast is thought to be beneficial for cognitive and academic performance in school children. However, breakfast is the most frequently skipped meal, especially among adolescents. The aim of the current article was to systematically review the evidence from intervention studies for the effects of breakfast on cognitive performance in children and adolescents. The effects of breakfast were evaluated by cognitive domain and breakfast manipulation. A total of 45 studies reported in 43 articles were included in the review. Most studies considered the acute effect of a single breakfast (n = 34). The acute studies looked at breakfast compared with no breakfast (n = 24) and/or comparisons of breakfast type (n = 15). The effects of chronic school breakfast program interventions were evaluated in 11 studies. The findings suggest that breakfast consumption relative to fasting has a short-term (same morning) positive domain-specific effect on cognition. Tasks requiring attention, executive function, and memory were facilitated more reliably by breakfast consumption relative to fasting, with effects more apparent in undernourished children. Firm conclusions cannot be made about the acute effects of breakfast composition and the effects of chronic breakfast interventions because there are too few studies and these largely report inconsistent findings. This review also highlights methodologic limitations of the existing research. These include a lack of research on adolescents, few naturalistic breakfast manipulations or testing environments, small samples, and insensitive cognitive tests. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Regular energy drink consumption is associated with the risk of health and behavioural problems in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    Consumption of energy drinks has become popular and frequent among adolescents across Europe. Previous research showed that regular consumption of these drinks was associated with several health and behavioural problems. The aim of the present study was to determine the socio-demographic groups at

  6. School Breakfast Receipt and Obesity among American Fifth- and Eighth-Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudharsanan, Nikkil; Romano, Sebastian; Cunningham, Solveig A

    2016-04-01

    School breakfast consumption can improve children's nutrition, but the implications of breakfast at school for children's weight remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether receiving breakfast at school is related to changes in children's weight between the fifth and eighth grades, and whether the relationship between school breakfasts and obesity varies for children of different socioeconomic backgrounds. This was a longitudinal study of children observed in the fifth and eighth grades. Data are from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99, a nationally representative prospective cohort of children in the United States. The analytic sample consisted of 6,495 children interviewed in the fifth and eighth grades. Standard thresholds from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used to classify children as not obese or obese based on direct-measured height and weight. Difference-in-difference propensity score matching and fixed-effect logistic regression models were used to estimate the relationship between receipt of school breakfast and change in obesity between the fifth and eighth grades, adjusting for child, household, and school characteristics. School breakfast receipt was not associated with a change in obesity status between the fifth and eighth grades for children overall (odds ratio=1.31; P=0.129). In the propensity score model, receiving school breakfasts more than doubled the odds of becoming obese (odds ratio=2.31; P=0.0108) for children from families below the federal poverty line compared with children of similar socioeconomic backgrounds who did not regularly receive school breakfasts. School breakfast receipt was not independently related to obesity for most children. Receiving school breakfasts in the fifth grade may be associated with weight gain between the fifth and eighth grades for children from families below the federal poverty line compared with children of similar socioeconomic

  7. Trends from 2002 to 2010 in Daily Breakfast Consumption and its Socio-Demographic Correlates in Adolescents across 31 Countries Participating in the HBSC Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Lazzeri

    Full Text Available Breakfast is often considered the most important meal of the day and children and adolescents can benefit from breakfast consumption in several ways. The purpose of the present study was to describe trends in daily breakfast consumption (DBC among adolescents across 31 countries participating in the HBSC survey between 2002 to 2010 and to identify socio-demographic (gender, family affluence and family structure correlates of DBC. Cross-sectional surveys including nationally representative samples of 11-15 year olds (n = 455,391. Multilevel logistic regression analyses modeled DBC over time after adjusting for family affluence, family structure and year of survey. In all countries, children in two-parent families were more likely to report DBC compared to single parent families. In most countries (n = 19, DBC was associated with family affluence. Six countries showed an increase in DBC (Canada, Netherland, Macedonia, Scotland, Wales, England from 2002. A significant decrease in DBC from 2002 was found in 11 countries (Belgium Fr, France, Germany, Croatia, Spain, Poland, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania and Norway, while in 5 countries (Portugal, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Sweden no significant changes were seen. Frequency of DBC among adolescents in European countries and North America showed a more uniform pattern in 2010 as compared to patterns in 2002. DBC increased significantly in only six out of 19 countries from 2002 to 2010. There is need for continued education and campaigns to motivate adolescents to consume DBC. Comparing patterns across HBSC countries can make an important contribution to understanding regional /global trends and to monitoring strategies and development of health promotion programs.

  8. Nudging children towards whole wheat bread: a field experiment on the influence of fun bread roll shape on breakfast consumption

    OpenAIRE

    van Kleef, Ellen; Vrijhof, Milou; Polet, Ilse A; Vingerhoeds, Monique H; de Wijk, René A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many children do not eat enough whole grains, which may have negative health consequences. Intervention research is increasingly focusing on nudging as a way to influence food choices by affecting unconscious behavioural processes. The aim of this field study was to examine whether the shape of bread rolls is able to shift children’s bread choices from white to whole wheat during breakfast to increase whole grain intake. Methods: In a between-subjects experiment conducted at twelv...

  9. Association of breakfast intake with obesity, dietary and physical activity behavior among urban school-aged adolescents in Delhi, India: results of a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Monika

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, regular breakfast consumption is inversely associated with excess weight and directly associated with better dietary and improved physical activity behaviors. Our objective was to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among school-going adolescents in Delhi and evaluate its association with overweight and obesity as well as other dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Eight schools (Private and Government of Delhi in the year 2006. Participants: 1814 students from 8th and 10th grades; response rate was 87.2%; 55% were 8th graders, 60% were boys and 52% attended Private schools. Main outcome measures: Body mass index, self-reported breakfast consumption, diet and physical activity related behaviors, and psychosocial factors. Data analysis: Mixed effects regression models were employed, adjusting for age, gender, grade level and school type (SES. Results Significantly more Government school (lower SES students consumed breakfast daily as compared to Private school (higher SES students (73.8% vs. 66.3%; p. More 8th graders consumed breakfast daily vs.10th graders (72.3% vs. 67.0%; p. A dose–response relationship was observed such that overall prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents who consumed breakfast daily (14.6% was significantly lower vs. those who only sometimes (15.2% or never (22.9% consumed breakfast (p. This relationship was statistically significant for boys (15.4 % vs. 16.5% vs. 26.0; p but not for girls. Intake of dairy products, fruits and vegetables was 5.5 (95% CI 2.4-12.5, 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5 and 2.2 (95% CI 1.3-3.5 times higher among those who consumed breakfast daily vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Breakfast consumption was associated with greater physical activity vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Positive values and beliefs about healthy eating; body image satisfaction; and positive

  10. Factors associated with regular consumption of obesogenic foods: National School-Based Student Health Hurvey, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana LONGO-SILVA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the frequency of consumption of obesogenic foods among adolescents and its association with sociodemographic, family, behavioral, and environmental variables. Methods: Secondary data from the National School-Based Student Health Hurvey were analyzed from a representative sample of 9th grade Brazilian students (high school. A self-administered questionnaire, organized into thematic blocks, was used. The dependent variables were the consumption of deep fried snacks, packaged snacks, sugar candies, and soft drinks; consumption frequency for the seven days preceding the study was analyzed. Bivariate analysis was carried out to determine the empirical relationship between the regular consumption of these foods (≥3 days/week with sociodemographic, family, behavioral, and school structural variables. p-value <0.20 was used as the criterion for initial inclusion in the multivariate logistic analysis, which was conducted using the "Enter" method, and the results were expressed as adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval and p<0.05 indicating a statistically significance. Results: Regular food consumption ranged from 27.17% to 65.96%. The variables female gender, mobile phone ownership, Internet access at home, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, regular physical activity, eating while watching television or studying, watching television for at least 2 hours a day, and not willing to lose weight were associated in the final logistic models of all foods analyzed. Conclusion: It was concluded that fried snacks, packaged snacks, sugar candies, and soft drinks are regularly consumed by adolescents and that such consumption was associated with the sociodemographic, family, behavioral, and school structural variables.

  11. Perceived purchase of healthy foods is associated with regular consumption of fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Caroline Camila; Moreira, Emilia Addison Machado; Fiates, Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck

    2015-01-01

    To identify healthy food (HF) purchase habits and intake of fruits and vegetables (FV) in parents responsible for grocery shopping for their families. Survey with mothers and fathers (n = 216) of children aged 7-10 years in Brazil. Grocery purchases occurred mostly at supermarkets. Purchase of HF was considered to be frequent by 80% of parents, who cited FV as main examples of HF. The more frequent the reported purchase was of HF, the higher was the prevalence of regular consumption of FV (P = .002). Only 34% of respondents reported weekly intakes that could be classified as regular. Perceived frequent shopping for healthy foods was positively associated with regular consumption of FV but a gap between perception and behavior was identified. Nutrition education strategies need to go beyond a merely informative role and take consumers' opinions and points of view into consideration to become truly effective. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Relative Acceptability and Consumption of the Current T Ration with and without New Breakfast and Dinner Menus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Nut Cake Beverage Base Accessory Pack 6. Meatballs with Rice and Sauce Crackers Peanut Butter Fruit Chocolate Covered Cookie Beverage Base Accessory...127 Beef Stew 5.9 2.0 7.0 1.8 3.37 133 Meatballs , Rice and Sce 5.8 2.3 5.5 2.7 ns - STARCHES Crackers 6.4 1.9 7.0 1.7 2.04 159 Potato au Gratin - - 5.8...A preference for egg dishes mixed with cheese, but not meat, was expressed. The participants noted that the new breakfast items offered greater

  13. Short term (14 days) consumption of insoluble wheat bran fibre-containing breakfast cereals improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function in a dose dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Clare L; Walton, Jenny; Hoyland, Alexa; Howarth, Elaine; Allan, Peter; Chesters, David; Dye, Louise

    2013-04-22

    This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran) fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline) monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention) period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran) for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation) and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort). Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches). In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran) per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption.

  14. Short Term (14 Days Consumption of Insoluble Wheat Bran Fibre-Containing Breakfast Cereals Improves Subjective Digestive Feelings, General Wellbeing and Bowel Function in a Dose Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Dye

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (<15 g/day AOAC 985.29 completed a daily symptom diary for 14 days after which they consumed one bowl of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort. Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches. In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption.

  15. Short Term (14 Days) Consumption of Insoluble Wheat Bran Fibre-Containing Breakfast Cereals Improves Subjective Digestive Feelings, General Wellbeing and Bowel Function in a Dose Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Clare L.; Walton, Jenny; Hoyland, Alexa; Howarth, Elaine; Allan, Peter; Chesters, David; Dye, Louise

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran) fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline) monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention) period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (<15 g/day AOAC 985.29) completed a daily symptom diary for 14 days after which they consumed one bowl of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran) for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation) and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort). Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches). In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran) per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption. PMID:23609776

  16. Breakfast and Energy Drink Consumption in Secondary School Children: Breakfast Omission, in Isolation or in Combination with Frequent Energy Drink Use, is Associated with Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Cross-Sectionally, but not at Six-Month Follow-Up

    OpenAIRE

    Gareth eRichards; Andrew Paul Smith

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of research suggests that breakfast omission and the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, and particularly so in children and adolescents. The current paper presents cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Cornish Academies Project to investigate the effects of consuming energy drinks and missing breakfast on stress, anxiety, and depression in a cohort of secondary school children from the South West of England. Que...

  17. Breakfast and Energy Drink Consumption in Secondary School Children: Breakfast Omission, in Isolation or in Combination with Frequent Energy Drink Use, is Associated with Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Cross-Sectionally, but not at 6-Month Follow-Up

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of research suggests that breakfast omission and the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, and particularly so in children and adolescents. The current paper presents cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Cornish Academies Project to investigate the effects of consuming energy drinks and missing breakfast on stress, anxiety, and depression in a cohort of secondary school children from the South West of England. Que...

  18. The Effects of Breakfast and Breakfast Composition on Cognition in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champ, Claire L

    2016-01-01

    Breakfast is thought to be beneficial for cognitive and academic performance in school children. However, breakfast is the most frequently skipped meal, especially among adolescents. The aim of the current article was to systematically review the evidence from intervention studies for the effects of breakfast on cognitive performance in children and adolescents. The effects of breakfast were evaluated by cognitive domain and breakfast manipulation. A total of 45 studies reported in 43 articles were included in the review. Most studies considered the acute effect of a single breakfast (n = 34). The acute studies looked at breakfast compared with no breakfast (n = 24) and/or comparisons of breakfast type (n = 15). The effects of chronic school breakfast program interventions were evaluated in 11 studies. The findings suggest that breakfast consumption relative to fasting has a short-term (same morning) positive domain-specific effect on cognition. Tasks requiring attention, executive function, and memory were facilitated more reliably by breakfast consumption relative to fasting, with effects more apparent in undernourished children. Firm conclusions cannot be made about the acute effects of breakfast composition and the effects of chronic breakfast interventions because there are too few studies and these largely report inconsistent findings. This review also highlights methodologic limitations of the existing research. These include a lack of research on adolescents, few naturalistic breakfast manipulations or testing environments, small samples, and insensitive cognitive tests. PMID:27184287

  19. Eight-day consumption of inulin added to a yogurt breakfast lowers postprandial appetite ratings but not energy intakes in young healthy females: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sarah; Ingram, Jessica; Law, Marron; Tucker, Amy J; Wright, Amanda J

    2016-01-28

    Increasing feelings of satiety may reduce appetite and energy intake. The role of inulin consumption in impacting satiety is unclear. A randomised double-blind controlled crossover trial aimed to determine the effects of inulin+yogurt on satiety after 1 and 8-d consumption. The preload breakfast included 100 g vanilla yogurt with (yogurt-inulin (YI)) and without (yogurt-control (YC)) 6 g inulin. A total of nineteen healthy females (22·8 (sd 2·7) years) with non-restrained eating behaviour and taking hormonal contraceptives participated in the study. Day 1 and 8 visual analogue scale (VAS) ratings of Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat and Prospective Food Consumption (PFC) were collected at fasting and every 30 min for 180 min. Energy intake was calculated from a weighed ad libitum lunch and remainder of day food records. Total AUC was calculated for each VAS. Day 1 (VAS only) and 8 (VAS and energy intakes) data were compared between YI and YC using ANCOVA, and ANOVA was used to compare energy intakes on Day 1. There were no significant differences between Day 1 YI and YC AUC appetite ratings or energy intakes. However, 8-d consumption of YI v. YC was associated with lower Desire to Eat and PFC ratings but similar lunch and total day energy intakes. Therefore, the addition of 6 g inulin to a commercially available yogurt affected feelings of appetite, but not energy intake, after repeated consumption. These results suggest that inulin may be a suitable ingredient to increase dietary fibre consumption, with potential to impact appetite.

  20. Factors associated with regular physical exercise and consumption of fruits and vegetables among Mexican older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Doubova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To analyze the factors associated with regular physical exercise and routine consumption of fruits and vegetables, and both healthy behaviors among Mexican older adults. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of the baseline data (2014 of the Study on Obesity, Sarcopenia and Fragility in older adults affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security. The study included 948 adults who were ≥60 years of age. Multiple Poisson regression was performed. Results Routine consumption of fruits and vegetables was reported by 53.8 % of older adults, 42.7 % reported engaging in regular physical exercise and 23.1 % reported participating in both types of healthy behaviors. Women, adults with a stable income, those with a self-perception of good health and those with a history of physical exercise at the age of 50 years had an increased likelihood of engaging in healthy eating and regular physical activity. Conclusions Many older adults do not routinely consume fruits and vegetables or engage in regular physical exercise despite the fact that most have a fixed income and a social network. It is relevant to conduct research-based interventions that take into account the contextual factors to promote healthy behaviors.

  1. Factors associated with regular physical exercise and consumption of fruits and vegetables among Mexican older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubova, Svetlana V; Sánchez-García, Sergio; Infante-Castañeda, Claudia; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo

    2016-09-09

    To analyze the factors associated with regular physical exercise and routine consumption of fruits and vegetables, and both healthy behaviors among Mexican older adults. We conducted a secondary data analysis of the baseline data (2014) of the Study on Obesity, Sarcopenia and Fragility in older adults affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security. The study included 948 adults who were ≥60 years of age. Multiple Poisson regression was performed. Routine consumption of fruits and vegetables was reported by 53.8 % of older adults, 42.7 % reported engaging in regular physical exercise and 23.1 % reported participating in both types of healthy behaviors. Women, adults with a stable income, those with a self-perception of good health and those with a history of physical exercise at the age of 50 years had an increased likelihood of engaging in healthy eating and regular physical activity. Many older adults do not routinely consume fruits and vegetables or engage in regular physical exercise despite the fact that most have a fixed income and a social network. It is relevant to conduct research-based interventions that take into account the contextual factors to promote healthy behaviors.

  2. Food perception at lunchtime does not depend on the nutritional and perceived characteristics of breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, Alice; Mena, Pedro; Scazzina, Francesca; Marino, Barbara; Daneyko, Olga; Fasano, Fabrizio; Di Dio, Cinzia; Riggio, Lucia; Brighenti, Furio

    2017-12-04

    Breakfast consumption can entail nutritional advantages positively affecting food choices. This study investigated the effect of minor changes in breakfast composition on the perceived attributes of foods, both at breakfast and at lunchtime. Four breakfasts were defined considering nutritional and perceptual factors. Three breakfasts varied just for a single cereal-based chocolate-containing food item, while a control breakfast mimicked fasting conditions. Breakfast perception was assessed before and after consumption. Subjects rated breakfast energy content on the basis of single items, while judged breakfast healthiness as a whole, suggesting that the combination of different ingredients can modify the perceived health value of foods. Additionally, 4 h after breakfast, a perceptual evaluation of lunch-related food images was performed, without differences among breakfasts. This study extends current knowledge on the relationship between subjective perceptual attributes and objective energy value and food composition, as well as on breakfast impact on food perception at lunchtime.

  3. Regular Consumption of a Flavanol-rich Chocolate can Improve Oxidant Stress in Young Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar G. Fraga

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of a diet rich in certain flavonoids, including the flavanol sub-class, has been associated with a reduced risk for vascular disease. We evaluated the effects of the regular consumption (14 d of a flavanol-containing milk chocolate (FCMC or cocoa butter chocolate (CBC on variables related to vascular disease risk, oxidative stress and physical activity. Twenty-eight free-living, young (18–20 years old male soccer players consumed daily 105 g of FCMC (168 mg of flavanols or CBC (<5 mg of flavanols, as part of their normal diet. The consumption of FCMC was significantly associated with a decrease in diastolic blood pressure (-5 mm Hg, mean blood pressure (-5 mm Hg, plasma cholesterol (-11%, LDL-cholesterol (-15%, malondialdehyde (-12%, urate (-11% and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity (-11%, and an increase in vitamin E/cholesterol (+12%. No relevant changes in these variables were associated with CBC consumption. No changes in the plasma levels of (--epicatechin were observed following analysis of fasting blood samples. In conclusion, FCMC consumption was associated with changes in several variables often associated with cardiovascular health and oxidant stress. The presence of significant quantities of flavanols in FCMC is likely to have been one of the contributing factors to these results.

  4. Family influences on breakfast frequency and quality among primary school pupils in Warsaw and its surrounding areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Monika; Hamułka, Jadwiga; Gajda, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Regular consumption of a well balanced breakfast is a pre-requisite for normal growth and child development, along with the acquisition of proper eating habits. The family environment is crucial place where children learn such patterns of behaviour that form the basis for their development. To determine how family factors affect the regular eating of breakfast and types of foodstuffs consumed in primary school pupils, including food purchases made from vending machines and school tuck shops. Subjects were 836 pupils (435 girls and 401 boys, aged 6 - 13) from Warsaw and the surrounding areas. Appropriate socio-demographic data and relevant eating habits were obtained from direct interviewing of the subjects by means of a custom designed questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed by the Kohonen type cluster analysis model and Chi-square test (Chi(2)); (p≤0.05). Three clusters of pupils were identified by their differing socio-demographics and eating habits (eg. rates of breakfast consumption, buying from vending machines or school tuck shops). The first and third clusters were mainly pupils from two-parent families with parents proportionally spending similar times at work, where respective breakfast (87% and 91%) and second breakfast (77% and 72%) consumption rates were also similar together with food shopping rates during school time (respectively 69% and 63%). Pupils with single-parents, multi-generation families or if both parents were profession- ally active, predominated in the second cluster. These ate breakfast (73%) and second breakfast (67%) more rarely, but more frequently shopped for food at school (84%). A small number of pupils had a packed second breakfast from home, rarely ate sandwiches, fruit and/or vegetables and dairy products but ate more sweets, sweet rolls and savoury snacks. However, a large number of subjects bought sandwiches, fresh fruit and/or vegetables and fast-food at school. Family factors were found to affect eating habits

  5. Psychosocial, behavioural, pedagogical, and nutritional proposals about how to encourage eating a healthy breakfast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Even if more and more evidences have highlighted the importance of breakfast in the growth and development of children, from 10 to 30% of US and European children and adolescents regularly skip breakfast. Thus, there is still a lot to be done before breakfast becomes a daily habit. The aim of this paper is to try and understand how it is possible to overcome the real or imaginary difficulties associated with skipping breakfast by psychosocial, behavioural, pedagogical and nutritional proposals. Discussion Schools are the best context where perform healthy interventions because it is here that children learn about the importance of good health at an age when the school still plays a major role in their education. Some school interventions, based on solid theories as the Self Determination Theory and the Behaviour Analysis, have been implemented in the last years to promote health behaviour such as intake of fruit and vegetables and physical activities. Cognitive behaviour therapy is the most closely monitored type of treatment/cure for obesity in randomised controlled trials. Moreover some associations such as the National Association of Food Science Specialists have drawn an own method to encourage food education at school and promote the importance of prevention. These projects could be used as starting point to perform interventions focus on breakfast. Summary Increase the consumption of breakfast between children is very important. Efforts should be done to drawn new school projects based on scientific-evidences. PMID:25125024

  6. Regular consumption of a flavanol-rich chocolate can improve oxidant stress in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Cesar G; Actis-Goretta, Lucas; Ottaviani, Javier I; Carrasquedo, Fernando; Lotito, Silvina B; Lazarus, Sheryl; Schmitz, Harold H; Keen, Carl L

    2005-03-01

    The consumption of a diet rich in certain flavonoids, including the flavanol sub-class, has been associated with a reduced risk for vascular disease. We evaluated the effects of the regular consumption (14 d) of a flavanol-containing milk chocolate (FCMC) or cocoa butter chocolate (CBC) on variables related to vascular disease risk, oxidative stress and physical activity. Twenty-eight free-living, young (18-20 years old) male soccer players consumed daily 105 g of FCMC (168 mg of flavanols) or CBC (cardiovascular health and oxidant stress. The presence of significant quantities of flavanols in FCMC is likely to have been one of the contributing factors to these results.

  7. Prospective study of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal consumption and cognitive decline among elderly men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengreen, H; Nelson, C; Munger, R G; Corcoran, C

    2011-03-01

    To examine associations between frequency of ready-to-eat-cereal (RTEC) consumption and cognitive function among elderly men and women of the Cache County Study on Memory Health and Aging in Utah. A population-based prospective cohort study established in Cache County, Utah in 1995. 3831 men and women > 65 years of age who were living in Cache County, Utah in 1995. Diet was assessed using a 142-item food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Cognitive function was assessed using an adapted version of the Modified Mini-Mental State examination (3MS) at baseline and three subsequent interviews over 11 years. RTEC consumption was defined as daily, weekly, or infrequent use. In multivariable models, more frequent RTEC consumption was not associated with a cognitive benefit. Those consuming RTEC weekly but less than daily scored higher on their baseline 3MS than did those consuming RTEC more or less frequently (91.7, 90.6, 90.6, respectively; p-value < 0.001). This association was maintained across 11 years of observation such that those consuming RTEC weekly but less than daily declined on average 3.96 points compared to an average 5.13 and 4.57 point decline for those consuming cereal more or less frequently (p-value = 0.0009). Those consuming RTEC at least daily had poorer cognitive performance at baseline and over 11 years of follow-up compared to those who consumed cereal more or less frequently. RTEC is a nutrient dense food, but should not replace the consumption of other healthy foods in the diets' of elderly people. Associations between RTEC consumption, dietary patterns, and cognitive function deserve further study.

  8. Top food sources contributing to vitamin D intake and the association of ready-to-eat cereal and breakfast consumption habits to vitamin D intake in Canadians and United States Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kathleen M; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Albertson, Ann M; Joshi, Nandan A; Weaver, Connie M

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to determine dietary vitamin D intake of U.S. Americans and Canadians and contributions of food sources to total vitamin D intake. Total of 7- or 14-d food intake data were analyzed for vitamin D by a proprietary nutrient assessment methodology that utilized food intake data from the Natl. Eating Trends(®) service, portion size data from NHANES 1999-2004, and nutrient values using the Univ. of Minnesota's Nutrition Data System for Research software. Study participants were 7837 U.S. Americans and 4025 Canadians, ≥2-y-old males and females. The main outcome measures were total dietary vitamin D intake, percent contribution of foods to total vitamin D intake, and vitamin D intake by cereal and breakfast consumption habits. ANOVA was used to determine differences in means or proportions by age and gender and according to breakfast consumption habits. Mean vitamin D intake ranged from 152 to 220 IU/d. Less than 2% of participants in all age groups from the United States and Canada met the 2011 Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for vitamin D from foods. Milk, meat, and fish were the top food sources for vitamin D for both Americans and Canadians. Ready-to-eat (RTE) cereal was a top 10 source of vitamin D for Americans but not Canadians. Vitamin D intake was higher with more frequent RTE cereal and breakfast consumption in both countries, largely attributable to greater milk intake. Most U.S. Americans and Canadians do not meet the 2011 Inst. of Medicine recommended daily allowance (RDA) for vitamin D for their age groups from foods. Increasing breakfast and cereal consumption may be a useful strategy to increase dietary vitamin D intake to help individuals meet the RDA for vitamin D, particularly by increasing milk intake. However, it is likely that additional food fortification or vitamin D supplementation is required to achieve the RDA. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. The relationship between consumption of tyrosine and phenylalanine as precursors of catecholamine at breakfast and the circadian typology and mental health in Japanese infants aged 2 to 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimitsu, Osami; Wada, Kai; Noji, Teruki; Taniwaki, Nozomi; Krejci, Milada; Nakade, Miyo; Takeuchi, Hitomi; Harada, Tetsuo

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between tyrosine and phenylalanine intake at breakfast as precursors of dopamine, and scores on the Torsvall-Åkerstedt Diurnal Type Scale and of mental health in Japanese infants aged 2 to 5 years. An integrated questionnaire was administered to parents of 1,367 infants attending one of ten nursery schools governed by Kochi City or a kindergarten affiliated with the Faculty of Education at Kochi University (775 answers for analysis: 56.7%) in May and June 2008. Questionnaires included the Torsvall-Åkerstedt Diurnal Type Scale and questions on sleep habits (onset, offset, quality, quantity, and so on), meal habits (content and regularity of timing), and mental health (depressive states). Amount of tyrosine and phenylalanine intake was calculated based on a breakfast content questionnaire and data on the components of amino acids in foods. Infants who ingested more than 800 mg of tyrosine or phenylalanine at breakfast per meal were more morning-type than those who ingested less than 800 mg (ANOVA: P= 0.005). However, this relationship disappeared in the ANCOVA analysis (with the covariance of tryptophan intake, P= 0.894). Infants who ingested more than 800 mg of the two amino acids at breakfast showed significantly higher mental health scores (lower frequency of depressive states) than those who ingested less than 800 mg (ANOVA: P = 0.004). This relationship remained significant when ANCOVA analysis was performed with the covariance of tryptophan (ANCOVA: P= 0.017). These results suggest that tyrosine and phenylalanine ingested at breakfast are not related with circadian phase, but are relate with mental health in infants.

  10. Blood pressure response to caffeine shows incomplete tolerance after short-term regular consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovallo, William R; Wilson, Michael F; Vincent, Andrea S; Sung, Bong Hee; McKey, Barbara S; Whitsett, Thomas L

    2004-04-01

    Caffeine acutely raises blood pressure (BP). The clinical significance of this effect depends on whether BP responses persist in persons who consume caffeine on a daily basis. Accordingly, the ability of caffeine to raise BP after 5 days of regular daily intake was tested in a randomized controlled trial. Individual differences in tolerance formation were then examined. Men (n=49) and women (n=48) completed a double-blind, crossover trial conducted over 4 weeks. During each week, subjects abstained for 5 days from dietary caffeine and instead used capsules totaling 0 mg, 300 mg, and 600 mg of caffeine per day in 3 divided doses. On day 6, in the laboratory, they used capsules with either 0 mg or 250 mg of caffeine at 9:00 am and 1:00 pm. Systolic/diastolic BP increases as a result of 250 mg of caffeine remained significant (P7.90, P <0.001). The sexes did not differ in degree of tolerance formation. Daily caffeine consumption failed to eliminate the BP response to repeated challenge doses of caffeine in half of the healthy adults who were tested. Caffeine may therefore cause persistent BP effects in persons who are regular consumers, even when daily intake is at moderately high levels.

  11. Moderate, Regular Alcohol Consumption is Associated with Higher Cognitive Function in Older Community-Dwelling Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reas, E T; Laughlin, G A; Kritz-Silverstein, D; Barrett-Connor, E; McEvoy, L K

    2016-09-01

    Evidence suggests that moderate alcohol consumption may protect against cognitive decline and dementia. However, uncertainty remains over the patterns of drinking that are most beneficial. To examine associations between amount and frequency of alcohol consumption with multiple domains of cognitive function in a well-characterized cohort of older community-dwelling adults in southern California. Observational, cross-sectional cohort study. A research visit between 1988-1992 in Rancho Bernardo, California. 1624 participants of the Rancho Bernardo Study (mean age ± SD = 73.2 ± 9.3 years). Measurements: Participants completed a neuropsychological test battery, self-administered questionnaires on alcohol consumption and lifestyle, and a clinical health evaluation. We classified participants according to average amount of alcohol intake into never, former, moderate, heavy and excessive drinkers, and according to frequency of alcohol intake, into non-drinkers, rare, infrequent, frequent and daily drinkers. We examined the association between alcohol intake and cognitive function, controlling for age, sex, education, exercise, smoking, waist-hip ratio, hypertension and self-assessed health. Amount and frequency of alcohol intake were significantly associated with cognitive function, even after controlling for potentially related health and lifestyle variables. Global and executive function showed positive linear associations with amount and frequency of alcohol intake, whereas visual memory showed an inverted U-shaped association with alcohol intake, with better performance for moderate and infrequent drinkers than for non-drinkers, excessive drinkers or daily drinkers. In several cognitive domains, moderate, regular alcohol intake was associated with better cognitive function relative to not drinking or drinking less frequently. This suggests that beneficial cognitive effects of alcohol intake may be achieved with low levels of drinking that are unlikely to be

  12. School Breakfast Score Card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food Research and Action Center, Washington, DC.

    The School Breakfast Program supplies federal funds to schools and residential child care institutions who provide breakfasts to children. This status report compares the performances of states to each other and to the nation as a whole in school breakfast participation. States are grouped in categories of the 10 top- and bottom-ranked…

  13. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, and nutrition: a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddison Ralph

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 55,000 children in New Zealand do not eat breakfast on any given day. Regular breakfast skipping has been associated with poor diets, higher body mass index, and adverse effects on children's behaviour and academic performance. Research suggests that regular breakfast consumption can improve academic performance, nutrition and behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial of a free school breakfast programme. The aim of the trial is to determine the effects of the breakfast intervention on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, dietary habits and food security. Methods/Design Sixteen primary schools in the North Island of New Zealand will be randomised in a sequential stepped wedge design to a free before-school breakfast programme consisting of non-sugar coated breakfast cereal, milk products, and/or toast and spreads. Four hundred children aged 5-13 years (approximately 25 per school will be recruited. Data collection will be undertaken once each school term over the 2010 school year (February to December. The primary trial outcome is school attendance, defined as the proportion of students achieving an attendance rate of 95% or higher. Secondary outcomes are academic achievement (literacy, numeracy, self-reported grades, sense of belonging at school, psychosocial function, dietary habits, and food security. A concurrent process evaluation seeks information on parents', schools' and providers' perspectives of the breakfast programme. Discussion This randomised controlled trial will provide robust evidence of the effects of a school breakfast programme on students' attendance, achievement and nutrition. Furthermore the study provides an excellent example of the feasibility and value of the stepped wedge trial design in evaluating pragmatic public health intervention programmes. Trial Registration Number Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry

  14. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, and nutrition: a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Turley, Maria; Gorton, Delvina; Jiang, Yannan; Michie, Jo; Maddison, Ralph; Hattie, John

    2010-11-29

    Approximately 55,000 children in New Zealand do not eat breakfast on any given day. Regular breakfast skipping has been associated with poor diets, higher body mass index, and adverse effects on children's behaviour and academic performance. Research suggests that regular breakfast consumption can improve academic performance, nutrition and behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial of a free school breakfast programme. The aim of the trial is to determine the effects of the breakfast intervention on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, dietary habits and food security. Sixteen primary schools in the North Island of New Zealand will be randomised in a sequential stepped wedge design to a free before-school breakfast programme consisting of non-sugar coated breakfast cereal, milk products, and/or toast and spreads. Four hundred children aged 5-13 years (approximately 25 per school) will be recruited. Data collection will be undertaken once each school term over the 2010 school year (February to December). The primary trial outcome is school attendance, defined as the proportion of students achieving an attendance rate of 95% or higher. Secondary outcomes are academic achievement (literacy, numeracy, self-reported grades), sense of belonging at school, psychosocial function, dietary habits, and food security. A concurrent process evaluation seeks information on parents', schools' and providers' perspectives of the breakfast programme. This randomised controlled trial will provide robust evidence of the effects of a school breakfast programme on students' attendance, achievement and nutrition. Furthermore the study provides an excellent example of the feasibility and value of the stepped wedge trial design in evaluating pragmatic public health intervention programmes. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) - ACTRN12609000854235.

  15. The Role of Breakfast in the American Family Diet by Income Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Shanthy A.

    1998-01-01

    Examined data from Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (USDA) concerning breakfast consumption in families and the kinds of food chosen. Found that 85% of families reported having breakfast; most of those reporting no breakfast came from lowest income group. Consumption of cereals, fruits and juices increased with income; consumption…

  16. Effect of skipping breakfast on subsequent energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitsky, David A; Pacanowski, Carly R

    2013-07-02

    The objective was to examine the effect of consuming breakfast on subsequent energy intake. Participants who habitually ate breakfast and those who skipped breakfast were recruited for two studies. Using a randomized crossover design, the first study examined the effect of having participants consume either (a) no breakfast, (b) a high carbohydrate breakfast (335 kcals), or (c) a high fiber breakfast (360 kcals) on three occasions and measured ad libitum intake at lunch. The second study again used a randomized crossover design but with a larger, normal carbohydrate breakfast consumed ad libtum. Intake averaged 624 kcals and subsequent food intake was measured throughout the day. Participants ate only foods served from the Cornell Human Metabolic Research Unit where all foods were weighed before and after consumption. In the first study, neither eating breakfast nor the kind of breakfast consumed had an effect on the amount consumed at lunch despite a reduction in hunger ratings. In the second study, intake at lunch as well as hunger ratings were significantly increased after skipping breakfast (by 144 kcal), leaving a net caloric deficit of 408 kcal by the end of the day. These data are consistent with published literature demonstrating that skipping a meal does not result in accurate energy compensation at subsequent meals and suggests that skipping breakfast may be an effective means to reduce daily energy intake in some adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Breakfast: a multidisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affinita, Antonio; Catalani, Loredana; Cecchetto, Giovanna; De Lorenzo, Gianfranco; Dilillo, Dario; Donegani, Giorgio; Fransos, Lucia; Lucidi, Fabio; Mameli, Chiara; Manna, Elisa; Marconi, Paolo; Mele, Giuseppe; Minestroni, Laura; Montanari, Massimo; Morcellini, Mario; Rovera, Giuseppe; Rotilio, Giuseppe; Sachet, Marco; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2013-07-10

    The role of breakfast as an essential part of an healthy diet has been only recently promoted even if breakfast practices were known since the Middle Age. The growing scientific evidences on this topic are extremely sector-based nevertheless breakfast could be regarded from different point of views and from different expertises. This approach, that take into account history, sociology, anthropology, medicine, psychology and pedagogy, is useful to better understand the value of this meal in our culture. The aim of this paper was to analyse breakfast-related issues based on a multidisciplinary approach with input by specialists from different fields of learning. Breakfast is now recommended as part of a diet because it is associated with healthier macro- and micronutrient intakes, body mass index and lifestyle. Moreover recent studies showed that breakfast improves cognitive function, intuitive perception and academic performance. Research demonstrates the importance of providing breakfast not only to children but in adults and elderly too. Although the important role breakfast plays in maintaining the health, epidemiological data from industrialised countries reveal that many individuals either eat a nutritionally unhealthy breakfast or skip it completely. The historical, bio-psychological and educational value of breakfast in our culture is extremely important and should be recognized and stressed by the scientific community. Efforts should be done to promote this practice for the individual health and well-being.

  18. The Effects of Breakfast and Breakfast Composition on Cognition in Adults123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitznagel, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    Extensive literature has addressed the acute cognitive effects of breaking a fast. Recent reviews in this line of work have synthesized available research on the cognitive consequences of fasting compared with nutrient intake and the cognitive effects of macronutrient consumption. These largely have been inconclusive, possibly in part because of selection criteria limiting the scope of studies covered. The purpose of the current review is to integrate the results of the literature examining the cognitive effects of breakfast and breakfast composition in adults with the use of a flexible definition of breakfast, specifically, any caloric intake after a fasting period of ≥8 h. This review includes 38 studies that examine the acute cognitive impact of breakfast and 16 studies that examine the effects of breakfast composition. Results suggest that healthy adults show a small but robust advantage for memory (particularly delayed recall) from consuming breakfast. Largely equivocal results emerge for attention and motor and executive function; there were no effects from breakfast on language. Regarding breakfast composition, a smaller number of studies and widely disparate methodology addressing this question preclude definitive conclusions about the effects of cognition. A subset of this literature examines these questions in the context of glucoregulation; the findings emphasize the importance of considering differences in glucoregulation in research designs, even among healthy cohorts. The limitations of this literature include methodologic differences, such as the use of different tests to measure cognitive constructs, as well as the effects of timing in test administration. PMID:27184286

  19. Breakfast frequency among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate (i) associations between adolescents' frequency of breakfast and family functioning (close relations to parents, quality of family communication and family support) and (ii) if any observed associations between breakfast frequency and family functioning vary...... (n 3054) from a random sample of forty-one schools. RESULTS: Nearly one-quarter of the adolescents had low breakfast frequency. Low breakfast frequency was associated with low family functioning measured by three dimensions. The OR (95 % CI) of low breakfast frequency was 1·81 (1·40, 2......·33) for adolescents who reported no close relations to parents, 2·28 (1·61, 3·22) for adolescents who reported low level of quality of family communication and 2·09 (1·39, 3·15) for adolescents who reported low level of family support. Joint effect analyses suggested that the odds of low breakfast frequency among...

  20. Cognitive function at rest and during exercise following breakfast omission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Takaaki; Sudo, Mizuki; Okuda, Naoki; Yasuno, Tetsuhiko; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Higaki, Yasuki; Ando, Soichi

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that breakfast omission, as opposed to breakfast consumption, has the detrimental effects on cognitive function. However, the effects of acute exercise following breakfast omission on cognitive function are poorly understood, particularly during exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine the interactive effects of breakfast and exercise on cognitive function. Ten participants completed cognitive tasks at rest and during exercise in the breakfast consumption or omission conditions. Blood glucose concentration was measured immediately after each cognitive task. We used cognitive tasks to assess working memory [Spatial Delayed Response (DR) task] and executive function [Go/No-Go (GNG) task]. The participants cycled ergometer for 30 min while keeping their heart rate at 140 beats·min(-1). Accuracy of the GNG task was lower at rest in the breakfast omission condition than that in the breakfast consumption condition (Go trial: P=0.012; No-Go trial: P=0.028). However, exercise improved accuracy of the Go trial in the breakfast omission condition (P=0.013). Reaction time in the Go trial decreased during exercise relative to rest in both conditions (P=0.002), and the degree of decreases in reaction time was not different between conditions (P=0.448). Exercise and breakfast did not affect the accuracy of the Spatial DR task. The present results indicate that breakfast omission impairs executive function, but acute exercise improved executive function even after breakfast omission. It appears that beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive function are intact following breakfast omission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular adaptations of adipose tissue to 6 weeks of morning fasting vs. daily breakfast consumption in lean and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Javier T; Richardson, Judith D; Chowdhury, Enhad A; Koumanov, Francoise; Holman, Geoffrey D; Cooper, Scott; Thompson, Dylan; Tsintzas, Kostas; Betts, James A

    2018-02-15

    In lean individuals, 6 weeks of extended morning fasting increases the expression of genes involved in lipid turnover (ACADM) and insulin signalling (IRS2) in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue. In obese individuals, 6 weeks of extended morning fasting increases IRS2 expression in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue. The content and activation status of key proteins involved in insulin signalling and glucose transport (GLUT4, Akt1 and Akt2) were unaffected by extended morning fasting. Therefore, any observations of altered adipose tissue insulin sensitivity with extended morning fasting do not necessarily require changes in insulin signalling proximal to Akt. Insulin-stimulated adipose tissue glucose uptake rates are lower in obese versus lean individuals, but this difference is abolished when values are normalised to whole-body fat mass. This suggests a novel hypothesis which proposes that the reduced adipose glucose uptake in obesity is a physiological down-regulation to prevent excessive de novo lipogenesis. This study assessed molecular responses of human subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT) to 6 weeks of morning fasting. Forty-nine healthy lean (n = 29) and obese (n = 20) adults provided SCAT biopsies before and after 6 weeks of morning fasting (FAST; 0 kcal until 12.00 h) or daily breakfast consumption (BFAST; ≥700 kcal before 11.00 h). Biopsies were analysed for mRNA levels of selected genes, and GLUT4 and Akt protein content. Basal and insulin-stimulated Akt activation and tissue glucose uptake rates were also determined. In lean individuals, lipid turnover and insulin signalling genes (ACADM and IRS2) were up-regulated with FAST versus BFAST (ACADM: 1.14 (95% CI: 0.97-1.30) versus 0.80 (95% CI: 0.64-0.96), P = 0.007; IRS2: 1.75 (95% CI: 1.33-2.16) versus 1.09 (95% CI: 0.67-1.51), P = 0.03, respectively). In obese individuals, no differential (FAST versus BFAST) expression was observed in genes involved in lipid turnover (all

  2. Breakfast habits, nutritional status, body weight, and academic performance in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersaud, Gail C; Pereira, Mark A; Girard, Beverly L; Adams, Judi; Metzl, Jordan D

    2005-05-01

    Breakfast has been labeled the most important meal of the day, but are there data to support this claim? We summarized the results of 47 studies examining the association of breakfast consumption with nutritional adequacy (nine studies), body weight (16 studies), and academic performance (22 studies) in children and adolescents. Breakfast skipping is highly prevalent in the United States and Europe (10% to 30%), depending on age group, population, and definition. Although the quality of breakfast was variable within and between studies, children who reported eating breakfast on a consistent basis tended to have superior nutritional profiles than their breakfast-skipping peers. Breakfast eaters generally consumed more daily calories yet were less likely to be overweight, although not all studies associated breakfast skipping with overweight. Evidence suggests that breakfast consumption may improve cognitive function related to memory, test grades, and school attendance. Breakfast as part of a healthful diet and lifestyle can positively impact children's health and well-being. Parents should be encouraged to provide breakfast for their children or explore the availability of a school breakfast program. We advocate consumption of a healthful breakfast on a daily basis consisting of a variety of foods, especially high-fiber and nutrient-rich whole grains, fruits, and dairy products.

  3. Association of breakfast intake with cardiometabolic risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Shafiee

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this study aimed to evaluate the association of breakfast intake with cardiometabolic risk factors in a nationally-representative sample of Iranian pediatrics. Methods: the study participants considered of 5,625 school students aged 10-18 years, studied in the third survey of the national school-based surveillance system (CASPIAN-III. They were classified into three groups based on the number of days they ate breakfast: “regular breakfast eater” (6-7days/week, “often breakfast eater” (3-5days/week, and “seldom breakfast eater” (0-2 days/week. Metabolic syndrome (MetS was defined based on the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III criteria modified for the pediatric age group. Moreover, high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and generalized obesity were included as other cardiometabolic risk factors. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between the breakfast intake category and cardiometabolic risk factors. Results: the number of subjects classified as “regular”, “often” and “seldom” breakfast eaters were 2,653(47.3%, 1,327(23.7% and 1,624(29.0%, respectively. The average of triglycerides (TG, LDL-C, systolic blood pressure (SBP and body mass index (BMI were higher in the “seldom breakfast eater” group (P for trend<0.001, whereas the mean of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C was lower in this group than their other counterparts. Seldom breakfast eaters had an increased risk of obesity, elevated TG and LDL-C, as well as low HDL-C compared to “regular breakfast eaters”. The risk of MetS was significantly increased in subjects who seldom ate breakfast (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.18-3.27. Conclusions: skipping breakfast is associated with increased risk of MetS and other cardiometabooic factors in children and adolescents. Promoting the benefit of eating breakfast could be a simple and important implication to prevent these risk factors

  4. Skipping breakfast and associated factors among Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeyre França de Paula FIUZA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with breakfast skipping among adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional study, with adolescents aged 10-17 years, evaluated between 2009 and 2011, belonging to a cohort study in the Central-West region of Brazil. Breakfast skipping was considered as not having breakfast every day. Demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors were evaluated through a questionnaire. Anthropometric assessment included measurement of weight and height, which were used to classify weight status using body mass index. Poisson regression was used to assess the association of breakfast skipping with demographic and socioeconomic variables, lifestyle factors, and weight status. Results Among 1,716 Brazilian adolescents evaluated, 36.2% reported not consuming breakfast every day, with the highest prevalence among girls (p=0.03. After adjusting for age and economic class, breakfast skipping was associated with not consuming breakfast with parents and morning shift at school, in both genders, and with obesity only in boys. Lifestyle factors such as alcohol consumption, physical activity, diet quality, and smoking were not associated with skipping breakfast. Conclusion The omission of breakfast was observed in more than a third of adolescents, being associated with demographic and lifestyle factors. In the public health perspective, the importance of encouraging the consumption of this meal is highlighted, with actions involving the school environment and the family.

  5. The effects of breakfast on behavior and academic performance in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L.; Dye, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Breakfast consumption is associated with positive outcomes for diet quality, micronutrient intake, weight status and lifestyle factors. Breakfast has been suggested to positively affect learning in children in terms of behavior, cognitive, and school performance. However, these assertions are largely based on evidence which demonstrates acute effects of breakfast on cognitive performance. Less research which examines the effects of breakfast on the ecologically valid outcomes of academic perf...

  6. The effects of breakfast on behaviour and academic performance in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Katie eAdolphus; Clare L Lawton; Louise eDye

    2013-01-01

    Breakfast consumption is associated with positive outcomes for diet quality, micronutrient intake, weight status and lifestyle factors. Breakfast has been suggested to positively affect learning in children in terms of behaviour, cognitive and school performance. However, these assertions are largely based on evidence which demonstrates acute effects of breakfast on cognitive performance. Less research which examines the effects of breakfast on the ecologically valid outcomes of academic perf...

  7. Make Time for Breakfast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the morning focus and concentrate better in the classroom and perform better on math, reading and standardized ... with your kids every morning. Whatever your morning routine, remember that breakfast is an important meal for ...

  8. A systematic review of the effect of breakfast on the cognitive performance of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyland, Alexa; Dye, Louise; Lawton, Clare L

    2009-12-01

    Breakfast is recommended as part of a healthy diet because it is associated with healthier macro- and micronutrient intakes, BMI and lifestyle. Breakfast is also widely promoted to improve cognitive function and academic performance, leading to the provision of breakfast initiatives by public health bodies. Despite this positive and intuitive perception of cognitive benefits, there has been no systematic review of the evidence. Systematic review methodology was employed to evaluate the effects of breakfast on cognitive performance in well-nourished children and nutritionally at-risk or stunted children. Acute experimental studies, school feeding programmes and studies of habitual breakfast intake are reviewed. Comparisons of breakfast v. no breakfast and breakfasts differing in energy and macronutrient composition are discussed. Included are forty-five studies described in forty-one papers published between 1950 and 2008. The evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is more beneficial than skipping breakfast, but this effect is more apparent in children whose nutritional status is compromised. There is a lack of research comparing breakfast type, precluding recommendations for the size and composition of an optimal breakfast for children's cognitive function. Few studies examined adolescents. Studies of school breakfast programmes suggest that such interventions can have positive effects on academic performance, but this may be in part explained by the increased school attendance that programmes encourage. The present systematic review considers methodological issues in this field and makes recommendations for future research design and policy priorities.

  9. Nut-enriched bread is an effective and acceptable vehicle to improve regular nut consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Asika; Chisholm, Alexandra; Gray, Andrew; Tey, Siew Ling; Williamson-Poutama, Destynee; Cameron, Sonya L; Brown, Rachel C

    2016-10-01

    Consuming 30 g of nuts/day is recommended to reduce chronic disease. However, nut consumption appears far from ideal among several populations. A potential strategy to increase consumption is to add nuts to a staple, for example, bread. Whether the health benefits and acceptability of nuts persist in this form is currently unknown. Thus, we examined the effects of consuming three nut-enriched breads on postprandial glycaemia, satiety, gastrointestinal tolerance, dietary intakes, and acceptance. In this controlled, crossover study, 32 participants were randomly allocated to receive one of four breads for 8 days each. Three breads contained either 30 g of finely sliced hazelnuts, 30 g semi-defatted hazelnut flour, or 15 g of each (amounts per 120 g bread) and were compared with a control nut-free bread. Blood glucose response was measured over 120 min, along with ratings of gastrointestinal discomfort. Appetite ratings and diet diaries were completed during each treatment period. Area under the blood glucose curve was significantly lower for the nut breads compared to the control bread (all P breads (all P ≥ 0.130). There were no significant differences in satiety (all P ≥ 0.135) or gastrointestinal symptoms (all P ≥ 0.102) between the breads. Acceptance was highest for the finely sliced hazelnut bread. Furthermore, consuming hazelnut-enriched bread improved diet quality, increasing monounsaturated fat, vitamin E, and dietary fibre intakes. Bread appears to be an effective and acceptable vehicle for increasing nut consumption, resulting in improved postprandial glycaemia and diet profiles. Long-term studies are now required.

  10. The contribution of breakfast cereals to the nutritional intake of the materially deprived UK population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, B A; Kaffa, N; Campbell, K; Sanders, T A B

    2012-01-01

    Breakfast is an important source of micronutrients in the diet and its consumption has been linked to positive health outcomes. The present analysis investigated the contribution that breakfast cereals make to the nutrient intakes of the materially deprived (low income) UK population. Data for 3728 respondents aged 2 years and over from the UK Low Income Diet and Nutrition Survey (2003-2005) were analysed. Nutrient intakes of consumers and non-consumers of breakfast cereal were compared. Breakfast cereals were consumed by 49% of men, 58% of women, 80% of boys and 80% of girls, and median intakes were: 35, 25, 29 and 21 g/d, respectively. Consumers of breakfast cereals had higher intakes of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, biotin, folate, vitamin B(6), vitamin B(12), iron and zinc than non-consumers. Breakfast cereal consumption was also related to higher intakes of calcium, attributable to higher milk consumption. The intake of wholegrain and high-fibre breakfast cereals was associated with a higher intake of non-starch polysaccharides. Intakes of niacin, biotin, calcium and zinc were higher but that of vitamin B(6) was lower among consumers of exclusively wholegrain and high-fibre breakfast cereals compared with consumers of other breakfast cereals. There were no significant differences observed in intakes of non-milk extrinsic sugars according to type of breakfast cereal consumed. Breakfast cereals make a significant contribution to the micronutrient intake of the low-income UK population.

  11. Is breakfast the most important meal of the day?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, James A; Chowdhury, Enhad A; Gonzalez, Javier T; Richardson, Judith D; Tsintzas, Kostas; Thompson, Dylan

    2016-11-01

    The Bath Breakfast Project is a series of randomised controlled trials exploring the effects of extended morning fasting on energy balance and health. These trials were categorically not designed to answer whether or not breakfast is the most important meal of the day. However, this review will philosophise about the meaning of that question and about what questions we should be asking to better understand the effects of breakfast, before summarising how individual components of energy balance and health respond to breakfast v. fasting in lean and obese adults. Current evidence does not support a clear effect of regularly consuming or skipping breakfast on body mass/composition, metabolic rate or diet-induced thermogenesis. Findings regarding energy intake are variable, although the balance of evidence indicates some degree of compensatory feeding later in the day such that overall energy intake is either unaffected or slightly lower when breakfast is omitted from the diet. However, even if net energy intake is reduced, extended morning fasting may not result in expected weight loss due to compensatory adjustments in physical activity thermogenesis. Specifically, we report that both lean and obese adults expended less energy during the morning when remaining in the fasted state than when consuming a prescribed breakfast. Further research is required to examine whether particular health markers may be responsive to breakfast-induced responses of individual components of energy balance irrespective of their net effect on energy balance and therefore body mass.

  12. Postprandial Metabolism and Appetite Do Not Differ between Lean Adults that Eat Breakfast or Morning Fast for 6 Weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Richardson, Judith D; Tsintzas, Kostas; Thompson, Dylan; Betts, James A

    2018-01-01

    It remains unknown whether sustained daily feeding-fasting patterns modify the acute response to specific feedings on a given day. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to establish if daily breakfast consumption or fasting until noon modifies the acute metabolic and appetitive responses to a fixed breakfast and ad libitum lunch. With the use of a parallel group design, we randomly assigned 31 healthy, lean men and women (22-56 y) to 6 wk of either consuming ≥700 kcal of self-selected items before 1100 or fasting (0 kcal) until 1200 daily. Following 48 h of diet and physical activity standardization, we examined metabolic and appetite responses to a standardized breakfast and ad libitum lunch before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed using 3- and 2-way ANCOVA. Systemic concentrations of energy balance regulatory hormones total and acylated ghrelin, leptin, and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine) responded similarly to breakfast and lunch before and after 6 wk of either morning fasting or regular breakfast, with the exception of a tendency for increased glucagon-like peptide-1 concentrations from baseline to follow-up in the Breakfast Group compared with a decrease over that period in the Fasting Group [P = 0.06, partial eta squared value (ƞ2) = 0.16]. Subjective appetite sensations also did not differ over the course of the day, and ad libitum energy intake at lunch was not systematically affected by either intervention, decreasing by 27 kcal (95% CI: -203, 149 kcal) with fasting and by 77 kcal (95% CI: -210, 56 kcal) with breakfast. Similarly, glycemic, insulinemic, lipemic, and thermogenic responses to breakfast and lunch were very stable at baseline and follow-up and, thus, did not differ between treatment groups. Our results indicate that a sustained period of either extended morning fasting or eating a daily breakfast has minimal effect upon acute metabolic and appetite responses in lean adults. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.org as ISRCTN

  13. Nutrient Intake, Diet Quality, and Weight Measures in Breakfast Patterns Consumed by Children Compared with Breakfast Skippers: NHANES 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2015-01-01

    Most studies showing that children consuming breakfast have better nutrient intakes, diet quality, and lower weight than breakfast skippers have the incorrect premise that breakfast meals are homogeneous. The purpose of this study was to classify breakfast meals into patterns and determine the association of the breakfast patterns with daily and breakfast nutrient intakes, diet quality, and weight. Data from children (2-18 years of age; N = 14,200) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008 were used. Intake was determined from one day 24-hour dietary recalls. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). Body mass index (BMI) z-scores were determined. Twelve patterns (including No Breakfast [∼19% of population]), explaining 63% of the variance in energy from breakfast, were examined. Covariate adjusted general linear models were used to compare outcome variables of consumers of different patterns with breakfast skippers. The p value was Bonferroni corrected (eat Cereal (RTEC)/ LFM, RTEC/LFM, Cooked Cereal/Milk/FJ, and Whole Fruit patterns had higher total HEI-2005 scores than breakfast skippers; those consuming the MPF/ Grain/FJ pattern had lower diet quality than breakfast skippers. Consumption of the Grain/ LFM/Sweets/FJ, PSRTEC/whole milk, Soft Drinks/ FJ/Grain/Potatoes, RTEC/whole milk, and Cooked Cereal/ Milk/ FJ patterns was associated with lower BMI z-scores than seen in breakfast skippers. There are dietary and weight advantages of consuming breakfast, especially breakfasts that include grains, cereals, LFM, and fruit/ FJ, in contrast to the potential adverse effects of skipping breakfast.

  14. Breakfast in human nutrition: The international breakfast research initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibney, Michael J.; Barr, Susan I.; Bellisle, France

    2018-01-01

    to relate breakfast nutrient intakes to overall diet quality. The present review describes a novel and harmonised approach to the study of the nutritional impact of breakfast through The International Breakfast research Initiative involving national dietary survey data from Canada, Denmark, France, Spain...

  15. Breakfast Dietary Patterns among Mexican Children Are Related to Total-Day Diet Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afeiche, Myriam C; Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Hopkins, Sinead; Eldridge, Alison L; Popkin, Barry M

    2017-03-01

    Background: Mexico has experienced shifts in food availability and consumption patterns over the past few decades from traditional diets to those containing more high-energy density foods, resulting in the development of unhealthful dietary patterns among children and adults. However, to our knowledge it is not known whether breakfast consumption patterns contribute to the overall daily diet of Mexican children. Objective: We examined total-day diet among breakfast consumers compared with breakfast skippers, identified and investigated breakfast dietary patterns in relation to energy and nutrient intakes at breakfast and across the day, and examined these patterns in relation to sociodemographic characteristics. Methods: With the use of nationally representative dietary data (one 24-h recall) from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey, 3760 children aged 4-13 y were categorized into mutually exclusive breakfast patterns with the use of cluster analysis. The association between breakfast patterns and breakfast skippers with dietary intake at breakfast and for the total day was investigated with the use of multivariate linear regression. Results: Most children (83%) consumed breakfast. Six breakfast dietary patterns were identified (milk and sweetened breads, tortillas and beans, sweetened beverages, sandwiches and quesadillas, eggs, and cereal and milk) and reflected both traditional and more Westernized dietary patterns. Sugar-sweetened beverages were consumed across all patterns. Compared with all breakfast dietary patterns, breakfast skippers had the lowest intake of several nutrients of public health concern. Nutrients to limit that were high at breakfast tended to be high for the total day and vice versa for nutrients to encourage. Conclusions: There was not a single pattern that complied perfectly with the Mexican School Breakfast Guidelines, but changes such as increasing dietary fiber by encouraging more whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and

  16. Skipping breakfast, overconsumption of soft drinks and screen media: longitudinal analysis of the combined influence on weight development in primary schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, Meike; Lauer, Romy; Kesztyüs, Tibor; Wartha, Olivia; Steinacker, Jürgen Michael; Kesztyüs, Dorothea

    2018-03-16

    Regular breakfast and well-balanced soft drink, and screen media consumption are associated with a lower risk of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren. The aim of this research is the combined examination of these three parameters as influencing factors for longitudinal weight development in schoolchildren in order to adapt targeted preventive measures. In the course of the Baden-Württemberg Study, Germany, data from direct measurements (baseline (2010) and follow-up (2011)) at schools was available for 1733 primary schoolchildren aged 7.08 ± 0.6 years (50.8% boys). Anthropometric measurements of the children were taken according to ISAK-standards (International Standard for Anthropometric Assessment) by trained staff. Health and lifestyle characteristics of the children and their parents were assessed in questionnaires. A linear mixed effects regression analysis was conducted to examine influences on changes in waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR), weight, and body mass index (BMI) measures. A generalised linear mixed effects regression analysis was performed to identify the relationship between breakfast, soft drink and screen media consumption with the prevalence of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity at follow-up. According to the regression analyses, skipping breakfast led to increased changes in WHtR, weight and BMI measures. Skipping breakfast and the overconsumption of screen media at baseline led to higher odds of abdominal obesity and overweight at follow-up. No significant association between soft drink consumption and weight development was found. Targeted prevention for healthy weight status and development in primary schoolchildren should aim towards promoting balanced breakfast habits and a reduction in screen media consumption. Future research on soft drink consumption is needed. Health promoting interventions should synergistically involve children, parents, and schools. The Baden-Württemberg Study is registered at the German Clinical

  17. The effect of nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) on postprandial blood glucose, incretins, and antioxidant activity in Mexican patients with type 2 diabetes after consumption of two different composition breakfasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Romero, Patricia; Pichardo-Ontiveros, Edgar; Avila-Nava, Azalia; Vázquez-Manjarrez, Natalia; Tovar, Armando R; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Torres, Nimbe

    2014-11-01

    Nopal is a plant used in traditional Mexican medicine to treat diabetes. However, there is insufficient scientific evidence to demonstrate whether nopal can regulate postprandial glucose. The purpose for conducting this study was to evaluate the glycemic index, insulinemic index, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) index, and the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) index, and the effect of nopal on patients with type 2 diabetes after consumption of a high-carbohydrate breakfast (HCB) or high-soy-protein breakfast (HSPB) on the postprandial response of glucose, insulin, GIP, GLP-1, and antioxidant activity. In study 1, the glycemic index, insulinemic index, GIP index, and GLP-1 index were calculated for seven healthy participants who consumed 50 g of available carbohydrates from glucose or dehydrated nopal. In study 2, 14 patients with type 2 diabetes consumed nopal in HCB or HSPB with or without 300 g steamed nopal. The glycemic index of nopal was 32.5±4, insulinemic index was 36.1±6, GIP index was 6.5±3.0, and GLP-1 index was 25.9±18. For those patients with type 2 diabetes who consumed the HCB+nopal, there was significantly lower area under the curve for glucose (287±30) than for those who consumed the HCB only (443±49), and lower incremental area under the curve for insulin (5,952±833 vs 7,313±1,090), and those patients with type 2 diabetes who consumed the HSPB avoided postprandial blood glucose peaks. Consumption of the HSPB+nopal significantly reduced the postprandial peaks of GIP concentration at 30 and 45 minutes and increased the antioxidant activity after 2 hours measured by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrilhidracyl method. These findings suggest that nopal could reduce postprandial blood glucose, serum insulin, and plasma GIP peaks, as well as increase antioxidant activity in healthy people and patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Breakfast size is related to body mass index for men, but not women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Lillian M; Worsley, Anthony

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of self-reported breakfast size, daily eating, and other health habits on body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that a consumption of a substantial breakfast compared with skipping or small breakfasts would be associated with lower BMI. Three independent, cross-sectional, screening surveys were conducted by Sydney Adventist Hospital in 1976, 1986, and 2005 in the surrounding community. The archived survey forms of 384 men and 338 women in 1976, 244 men and 229 women in 1986, and 270 men and 62 women in 2005 were randomly selected. Body mass index was determined from height and weight measured by hospital staff. The reported amount consumed at breakfast was one of several eating habits that predicted BMI for men but not women. It explained 5% to 6% of the variance in male BMI in all 3 years examined. As the reported breakfast amount increased, men's BMI decreased. Lifestyle confounders including vegetarianism and physical activity did not affect this relationship. However, the consumption of breakfast was significantly positively associated with consumption of cereals, bread, fruit, and spreads, while coffee consumption was significantly associated with smaller breakfasts or breakfast skipping. The consumption of relatively large breakfasts may influence BMI in men, and its promotion may help reduce the prevalence of obesity in Australia and elsewhere. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The relationship between rs3779084 in the dopa decarboxylase (DDC) gene and alcohol consumption is mediated by drinking motives in regular smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Sean D; Agrawal, Arpana; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Madden, Pamela A F; Cooper, M Lynne; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Sher, Kenneth J; Lynskey, Michael T; Heath, Andrew C

    2012-01-01

    Motivational models of alcohol use propose that the motivation to consume alcohol is the final common pathway to its use. Both alcohol consumption and drinking motives are influenced by latent genetic factors that partially overlap. This study investigated whether drinking motives mediate the associations between alcohol consumption and 2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes involved in serotonin (TPH2; rs1386496) and dopamine synthesis (DDC; rs3779084). Based on earlier work showing that enhancement and coping motives were heritable in regular smokers but not in nonregular smokers, we hypothesized these motives would mediate the relationships between alcohol consumption and these SNPs in regular smokers. Drinking motives data were available from 830 young adult female twins (n = 344 regular smokers and n = 486 never/nonregular smokers). We used confirmatory factor analyses to model enhancement, coping, and alcohol consumption factors and to conduct mediation analyses in the regular smoker and never/nonregular smoker groups. Our hypothesis was partially supported. The relationship between alcohol consumption and rs1386496 was not mediated by drinking motives in either group. However, in the regular smokers, the relationship between alcohol consumption and rs3779084 was mediated by enhancement and coping motives. Carriers of the rs3779084 minor allele who were regular smokers reported more motivation to consume alcohol. Given this pattern of results was absent in the never/nonregular smokers, our results are consistent with a gene × smoking status interaction. In regular smokers, variability at the locus marked by rs3779084 in the DDC gene appears to index biologically based individual differences in the motivation to consume alcohol to attain or improve a positive affective state or to relieve a negative one. These results could be because of increased sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of alcohol among minor allele carriers who smoke, which might

  20. Factors Influencing Fluid Milk Waste in a Breakfast in the Classroom School Breakfast Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Stacy A; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Cash, Sean B; Griffin, Timothy S; Economos, Christina D

    2018-04-01

    To determine predictors of fluid milk waste in a Breakfast in the Classroom School Breakfast Program. Cross-sectional with 3 repeated measures/classroom. Elementary schools in a medium-sized, low-income, urban school district. Twenty third- through fourth-grade classrooms across 6 schools. Dependent variables include percentage of total and served milk wasted. Independent variables included observed daily menu offerings, program factors, and teacher and student behavior. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize variables across classrooms and schools. Multilevel mixed-effects models were used to test associations between predictors and outcomes of interest. P ≤ .05 was considered statistically significant. Total milk waste increased 12% when juice was offered and 3% for each additional carton of unserved milk. Teacher encouragement to take and/or consume breakfast was associated with a 5% and 9% increase in total and served milk waste, respectively. When students were engaged in other activities in addition to eating breakfast, total milk waste decreased 10%. Beverage offerings were predictive of greater total milk waste. Teacher and student behavior also appeared to influence milk consumption. Findings suggest that specific changes to School Breakfast Program implementation policies and practices could have an important role in waste mitigation. Copyright © 2018 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Association between breakfast intake and quality of life among self-sufficient Chilean elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Milla, Paula; Candia Johns, Priscila; Durán Agüero, Samuel

    2014-10-01

    Elderly people are becoming more prevalent in our country, which studies in this group are relevant. Moreover, the health impact of breakfast consumption is demonstrated in school groups. To determine whether breakfast consumption is associated with better quality of life in self-sufficient Chilean elderly. We interviewed 1,285 elderly (> 60 years) of both sexes. We applied two surveys (food and healthy lifestyles surveys), then an anthropometric evaluation was conducted. 5.6% of older adults does not consume breakfast. Those who consume breakfast had a better quality of life (p = 0.004), specifically in men breakfast intake is associated with lower body mass index (BMI) (p=0.002). Moreover, the results indicate that the proportion of elderly who smokes and does not take breakfast is higher, as well as, greater responsibility in health, nutrition, stress management are greater in those that take breakfast. Finally there was an association between breakfast consumption and better nutrition (p = 0.01) and self-realization (p = 0.005). Consumption of breakfast in older adults is associated with better quality of life. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. Breakfast in Human Nutrition: The International Breakfast Research Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Gibney

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Breakfast is often referred to as the most important meal of the day and in recent years has been implicated in weight control, cardio-metabolic risk factors and cognitive performance although, at present, the literature remains inconclusive as to the precise health benefits of breakfast. There are extensive reports of breakfast’s contributions to daily food and nutrient intakes, as well as many studies that have compared daily food and nutrient intakes by breakfast consumers and skippers. However, significant variation exists in the definitions of breakfast and breakfast skippers, and in methods used to relate breakfast nutrient intakes to overall diet quality. The present review describes a novel and harmonised approach to the study of the nutritional impact of breakfast through The International Breakfast research Initiative involving national dietary survey data from Canada, Denmark, France, Spain, the UK and the USA. It is anticipated that the analysis of such data along harmonised lines, will allow the project to achieve its primary goal of exploring approaches to defining optimal breakfast food and nutrient intakes. Such data will be of value to public health nutrition policy-makers and food manufacturers and will also allow consistent messaging to help consumers to optimize food choices at breakfast.

  3. Influence of regular black tea consumption on tobacco associated DNA damage and HPV prevalence in human oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Debolina; Banerjee, Sarmistha; Indra, Dipanjana; Mandal, Shyamsundar; Dum, Anirudha; Bhowmik, Anup; Panda, Chinmay Kr; Das, Sukta

    2007-01-01

    Black tea is more widely consumed than green tea worldwide, particularly in India. Therefore, it is necessary to focus attention on black tea with respect to its health promoting and anti-cancer actions. In order to establish the concept that black tea is a potential candidate for cancer prevention, it is important to provide epidemiological evidence derived from investigations of human populations. In view of this, the objective of the present study was to determine the correlation between nature of black tea consumption and DNA damage in normal subjects with or without tobacco habit and oral cancer patients, taking the latter as positive controls. Much experimental evidence points to associations between tobacco habit and HPV 16 and HPV 18 (Human Papilloma virus) infection. But no studies have taken into account the possible confounding effect of black tea consumption on DNA damage along with HPV infection. A pilot study was therefore undertaken. Comet assay was used to evaluate the DNA damage among normal subjects including tobacco users (n = 86), non-tobacco users (n = 45) and Oral cancer patients (n = 37). Percentage of damaged cells was scored in the buccal squamous cells of all subjects mentioned above. HPV analysis was performed on 79 samples (including 37 oral cancer patients). The evaluation of various confounding factors like age, tenure of tobacco habit and tea habit showed significant associations with DNA damage. The observations strongly indicate that regular intake of black tea at least above four cups can reduce tobacco associated DNA damage among normal tobacco users. HPV prevalence was not seen to be associated with age, tenure of tobacco habit or the tea drinking habit.

  4. Breakfast Intake and Composition Is Associated with Superior Academic Achievement in Elementary Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptomey, Lauren T; Steger, Felicia L; Schubert, Matthew M; Lee, Jaehoon; Willis, Erik A; Sullivan, Debra K; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N; Washburn, Richard A; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether breakfast consumption or content affects academic achievement measured by standardized tests. Baseline data were collected in fall of 2011 from 698 students (50.5% female, age = 7.5 ± 0.6 years) living in the state of Kansas. Academic achievement was assessed using 3 components from the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-III). Prior to taking the WIAT-III, participants completed a breakfast recall of all foods and drinks consumed that morning, which was analyzed using Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R). WIAT-III scores were compared between breakfast and non-breakfast consumers in a sample (n = 162) matched for age, sex, race, education level of both parents, household income, body mass index (BMI), and cardiovascular fitness, and Pearson correlations were calculated from all breakfast eaters (n = 617) between test performance and components of the breakfast. When compared to non-breakfast consumers, the breakfast consumers had significantly higher scores in all 3 WIAT-III components (all p breakfast consumers, servings of fruit juice were negatively correlated with reading comprehension and fluency standard score and mathematics standard score (both p breakfast consumption and the content may be associated with improved standardized test performance in elementary school students.

  5. Breakfast glycaemic index and exercise: combined effects on adolescents' cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Simon B; Bandelow, Stephan; Nute, Maria L; Morris, John G; Nevill, Mary E

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the combined effects of breakfast glycaemic index (GI) and a mid-morning bout of exercise on adolescents' cognitive function. Participants were randomly allocated to a high or low GI breakfast group in a mixed research design, where each participant completed two experimental trials (exercise and resting). Forty-two adolescents (12.4±0.5 years old), undertook a bout of exercise (ten repeats of level one of the multi-stage fitness test; exercise trial) or continued to rest (resting trial) following consumption of either a high or low GI breakfast. A battery of cognitive function tests (visual search test, Stroop test and Sternberg paradigm) was completed 30 min before and 45 min following the exercise. Average heart rate during exercise was 170±15 beats·min(-1). On the complex level of the Stroop test, response times improved across the morning following the low GI breakfast on both the exercise and resting trials, though the improvement was greatest on the exercise trial. However, response times only improved on the resting trial following the high GI breakfast (p=0.012). On the 5 letter level of the Sternberg paradigm, response times improved across the morning following the low GI breakfast (regardless of exercise) and only on the exercise trial following the high GI breakfast (p=0.019). The findings of the present study suggest that the combined effects of breakfast GI and exercise in adolescents depend upon the component of cognitive function examined. A low GI breakfast and mid-morning bout of exercise were individually beneficial for response times on the Sternberg paradigm, whereas they conferred additional benefits for response times on the Stroop test. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ready-to-eat cereals improve nutrient, milk and fruit intake at breakfast in European adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Nathalie; De Henauw, Stefaan; Beghin, Laurent; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Hallstrom, Lena; Kafatos, Anthony; Kersting, Mathilde; Manios, Yannis; Marcos, Ascensión; Molnar, Denes; Roccaldo, Romana; Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M; Sjostrom, Michael; Reye, Béatrice; Thielecke, Frank; Widhalm, Kurt; Claessens, Mandy

    2016-03-01

    Breakfast consumption has been recommended as part of a healthy diet. Recently, ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) became more popular as a breakfast item. Our aim was to analyse the dietary characteristics of an RTEC breakfast in European adolescents and to compare them with other breakfast options. From the European multi-centre HELENA study, two 24-h dietary recalls of 3137 adolescents were available. Food items (RTEC or bread, milk/yoghurt, fruit) and macro- and micronutrient intakes at breakfast were calculated. Cross-sectional regression analyses were adjusted for gender, age, socio-economic status and city. Compared to bread breakfasts (39 %) and all other breakfasts (41.5 %), RTEC breakfast (19.5 %) was associated with improved nutrient intake (less fat and less sucrose; more fibre, protein and some micronutrients like vitamin B, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus) at the breakfast occasion. Exceptions were more simple sugars in RTEC breakfast consumers: more lactose and galactose due to increased milk consumption, but also higher glucose and fructose than bread consumers. RTEC consumers had a significantly higher frequency (92.5 vs. 50.4 and 60.2 %) and quantity of milk/yoghurt intake and a slightly higher frequency of fruit intake (13.4 vs. 10.9 and 8.0 %) at breakfast. Among European adolescents, RTEC consumers showed a more favourable nutrient intake than consumers of bread or other breakfasts, except for simple sugars. Therefore, RTEC may be regarded as a good breakfast option as part of a varied and balanced diet. Nevertheless, more research is warranted concerning the role of different RTEC types in nutrient intake, especially for simple sugars.

  7. Acute Cocoa Supplementation Increases Postprandial HDL Cholesterol and Insulin in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes after Consumption of a High-Fat Breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Leyva, Misti J; Fu, Dongxu; Aston, Christopher E; Lyons, Timothy J

    2015-10-01

    Dietary cocoa is an important source of flavonoids and is associated with favorable cardiovascular disease effects, such as improvements in vascular function and lipid profiles, in nondiabetic adults. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with adverse effects on postprandial serum glucose, lipids, inflammation, and vascular function. We examined the hypothesis that cocoa reduces metabolic stress in obese T2D adults after a high-fat fast-food-style meal. Adults with T2D [n = 18; age (mean ± SE): 56 ± 3 y; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 35.3 ± 2.0; 14 women; 4 men] were randomly assigned to receive cocoa beverage (960 mg total polyphenols; 480 mg flavanols) or flavanol-free placebo (110 mg total polyphenols; cocoa or placebo, and blood sample collection [glucose, insulin, lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] and vascular measurements were conducted at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h postprandially on each study day. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment. Over the 6-h study, and specifically at 1 and 4 h, cocoa increased HDL cholesterol vs. placebo (overall Δ: 1.5 ± 0.8 mg/dL; P ≤ 0.01) but had no effect on total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and hsCRP. Cocoa increased serum insulin concentrations overall (Δ: 5.2 ± 3.2 mU/L; P cocoa vs. placebo (Δ: -1.6 ± 0.7 mL/mm Hg; P cocoa supplementation showed no clear overall benefit in T2D patients after a high-fat fast-food-style meal challenge. Although HDL cholesterol and insulin remained higher throughout the 6-h postprandial period, an overall decrease in large artery elasticity was found after cocoa consumption. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01886989. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Acute Cocoa Supplementation Increases Postprandial HDL Cholesterol and Insulin in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes after Consumption of a High-Fat Breakfast123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Leyva, Misti J; Fu, Dongxu; Aston, Christopher E; Lyons, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary cocoa is an important source of flavonoids and is associated with favorable cardiovascular disease effects, such as improvements in vascular function and lipid profiles, in nondiabetic adults. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with adverse effects on postprandial serum glucose, lipids, inflammation, and vascular function. Objective: We examined the hypothesis that cocoa reduces metabolic stress in obese T2D adults after a high-fat fast-food–style meal. Methods: Adults with T2D [n = 18; age (mean ± SE): 56 ± 3 y; BMI (in kg/m2): 35.3 ± 2.0; 14 women; 4 men] were randomly assigned to receive cocoa beverage (960 mg total polyphenols; 480 mg flavanols) or flavanol-free placebo (110 mg total polyphenols; cocoa or placebo, and blood sample collection [glucose, insulin, lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] and vascular measurements were conducted at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h postprandially on each study day. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment. Results: Over the 6-h study, and specifically at 1 and 4 h, cocoa increased HDL cholesterol vs. placebo (overall Δ: 1.5 ± 0.8 mg/dL; P ≤ 0.01) but had no effect on total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and hsCRP. Cocoa increased serum insulin concentrations overall (Δ: 5.2 ± 3.2 mU/L; P cocoa vs. placebo (Δ: −1.6 ± 0.7 mL/mm Hg; P cocoa supplementation showed no clear overall benefit in T2D patients after a high-fat fast-food–style meal challenge. Although HDL cholesterol and insulin remained higher throughout the 6-h postprandial period, an overall decrease in large artery elasticity was found after cocoa consumption. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01886989. PMID:26338890

  9. Breakfast barriers and opportunities for children living in a Dutch disadvantaged neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van Ellen; Vingerhoeds, Monique H.; Vrijhof, Milou; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore parents', children's, and experts' beliefs and experiences about breakfast motivation, opportunity, and ability and elicit their thoughts on effective interventions to encourage healthy breakfast consumption. The setting was a disadvantaged neighbourhood

  10. Nutrient Intake, Diet Quality, and Weight Measures in Breakfast Patterns Consumed by Children Compared with Breakfast Skippers: NHANES 2001-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol E. O'Neil

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Most studies showing that children consuming breakfast have better nutrient intakes, diet quality, and lower weight than breakfast skippers have the incorrect premise that breakfast meals are homogeneous. The purpose of this study was to classify breakfast meals into patterns and determine the association of the breakfast patterns with daily and breakfast nutrient intakes, diet quality, and weight. Data from children (2-18 years of age; N = 14,200 participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008 were used. Intake was determined from one day 24-hour dietary recalls. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005. Body mass index (BMI z-scores were determined. Twelve patterns (including No Breakfast [~19% of population], explaining 63% of the variance in energy from breakfast, were examined. Covariate adjusted general linear models were used to compare outcome variables of consumers of different patterns with breakfast skippers. The p value was Bonferroni corrected (< 0.05/12 = < 0.0042. Consumers of the Eggs/Grain/Meat, Poultry, Fish (MPF/Fruit Juice (FJ and MPF/Grain/FJ patterns showed higher daily intakes of saturated fats, solid fats, and sodium and lower daily intakes of added sugars than breakfast skippers. Consumers of most breakfast patterns showed higher daily intakes of some nutrients of public health concern (dietary fiber, vitamin D, calcium, and potassium; however, those consuming the Grain or MPF/Grain/FJ pattern did not. Consumers of the Grain/Lower Fat Milk (LFM/Sweets/FJ, Presweetened (PS Ready-to-eat Cereal (RTEC/LFM, RTEC/LFM, Cooked Cereal/Milk/FJ, and Whole Fruit patterns had higher total HEI-2005 scores than breakfast skippers; those consuming the MPF/Grain/FJ pattern had lower diet quality than breakfast skippers. Consumption of the Grain/LFM/Sweets/FJ, PSRTEC/whole milk, Soft Drinks/FJ/Grain/Potatoes, RTEC/whole milk, and Cooked Cereal/Milk/FJ patterns was associated

  11. Eating episode frequency and fruit and vegetable consumption among Italian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poscia, Andrea; Teleman, Adele Anna; Azzolini, Elena; de Waure, Chiara; Maged, Davide; Virdis, Andrea; Ricciardi, Walter; Di Pietro, Maria Luisa

    2017-01-01

    To analyze breakfast consumption, regularity of meals, fruit and vegetable consumption in the Italian university student population on a national level. Descriptive analysis evaluating data taken from the Sportello Salute Giovani (SSG) questionnaire. 12 000 university students who self-administered a confidential survey. 8292 questionnaires were analyzed. Age; sex; self-reported economic status; BMI; number of breakfast and portions of vegetables and portions of fruit usually consumed per week; number of eating episodes per day; intended weight loss. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Gender and age differences were tested by c2 and Mann-Whitney tests. 15.8% of males and 26.3% of females declared to consume at least one portion of fruit every day. Similar results were found for vegetable consumption. Age does not influence fruit or vegetables consumption, frequency of eating episodes or breakfast habit. Both a regular breakfast and a higher number of eating episodes are significantly associated both with a higher frequency of fruit and vegetables intake. This study underlines the need to promote nutritional education campaigns to increase adherence to nutritional guidelines.

  12. Fruit and vegetable intake is associated with frequency of breakfast, lunch and evening meal: cross-sectional study of 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Trine

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frequency of eating breakfast, lunch and evening meal as a determinant of fruit and vegetable intake among young people is little studied. We investigated whether irregular meal consumption was associated with fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents. We used separate analyses, and special emphasis was on the potentially modifying effect of sex and age. Methods Data were from the Danish contribution to the international collaborative Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC in 2002. We used a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional design to study schoolchildren aged 11, 13 and 15 years (n = 3913 selected from a random sample of schools in Denmark. Fruit intake and vegetable intake were measured by a food frequency questionnaire and analyses were conducted using multivariate logistic regression. Results Overall, statistically significant associations were found between irregular breakfast, lunch and evening meal consumption and low frequency of fruit intake and vegetable intake (breakfast: fruit OR = 1.42, vegetables OR = 1.48; lunch: fruit OR = 1.68, vegetables OR = 1.83; evening meal: vegetables OR = 1.70. No association was found for irregular evening meal consumption and low frequency of fruit intake. Analyses stratified by sex showed that the associations between irregular breakfast consumption and both fruit and vegetable intake remained statistically significant only among girls. When analyses were stratified by both sex and age, different patterns appeared. Overall, skipping meals seemed to be a less serious risk factor for low frequency of fruit and vegetable intake among younger participants compared with those who were older. This was especially evident for skipping breakfast. The same tendency was also seen for skipping lunch and evening meal, although the age pattern varied between boys and girls and between fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusion Our results showed that irregular breakfast, lunch and

  13. The effectiveness of breakfast recommendations on weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhurandhar, Emily J; Dawson, John; Alcorn, Amy

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breakfast is associated with lower body weight in observational studies. Public health authorities commonly recommend breakfast consumption to reduce obesity, but the effectiveness of adopting these recommendations for reducing body weight is unknown.OBJECTIVE: We tested the relative...... effectiveness of a recommendation to eat or skip breakfast on weight loss in adults trying to lose weight in a free-living setting. DESIGN: We conducted a multisite, 16-wk, 3-parallel-arm randomized controlled trial in otherwise healthy overweight and obese adults [body mass index (in kg/m(2)) between 25 and 40.......53 ± 1.16, -0.59 ± 1.06, and -0.71 ± 1.17 kg for the control, breakfast, and NB groups, respectively. Self-reported compliance with the recommendation was 93.6% for the breakfast group and 92.4% for the NB group.Conclusions: A recommendation to eat or skip breakfast for weight loss was effective...

  14. Skipping breakfast is detrimental for primary school children: cross-sectional analysis of determinants for targeted prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Kesztyüs

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skipping breakfast was found to be associated with abdominal obesity in primary school children. The aim of this research was to examine factors associated with skipping breakfast in primary school children in order to develop targeted preventive measures. Methods Baseline data assessment (2010 of a cluster-randomized controlled trial for the evaluation of a school-based health promotion program in primary school children in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Anthropometric measures of 1,943 primary school children aged 7.1 ± 0.6 years (51.2% boys were conducted according to ISAK-standards (International Standard for Anthropometric Assessment by trained staff. Further information on the health and living conditions of the children and their parents were assessed in parental questionnaires. Generalized linear mixed regression analysis was calculated to define correlates for skipping breakfast in terms of odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results According to the final regression models, significant correlates of skipping breakfast can be divided into modifiable behavioral components (high consumption of soft drinks (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.81; 3.43, screen media (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.77; 3.46 and high levels of physical activity (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44; 0.93 on the one hand, and more or less static socio-economic factors (migration background (OR 2.81, 95% CI 2.02; 3.91, single parenting (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.34; 3.40, and high family education level (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.28; 0.64 on the other hand, and finally individual factors (female gender (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.03; 1.99 and having a percentage of body fat at or above the 95th percentile (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.00; 2.17. Conclusion Targeted prevention should aim at health-related behaviors accompanying the habit of skipping breakfast. Focusing on vulnerable groups, characterized by not so easily modifiable socio-economic as well as individual factors, may improve

  15. A Comparison of Regular Consumption of Fresh Lean Pork, Beef and Chicken on Body Composition: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Karen J.; Parker, Barbara; Dyer, Kathryn A.; Davis, Courtney R.; Coates, Alison M.; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Howe, Peter R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world and recent evidence shows that diets high in pork protein, with and without energy restriction, may have favourable effects on body composition. However, it is unclear whether these effects on body composition are specific to pork or whether consumption of other high protein meat diets may have the same benefit. Therefore we aimed to compare regular consumption of pork, beef and chicken on indices of adiposity. In a nine month randomised open-la...

  16. Breakfast Habits among School Children in Selected Communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design: A cross sectional study was conducted among school children (n=359) between the ages of 6-19 years in Manya Krobo in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Questionnaires were used to collect information on background characteristics and breakfast consumption habits. The 24-hour dietary recall method was used to ...

  17. Neural responses to visual food stimuli after a normal vs. higher protein breakfast in breakfast-skipping teens: a pilot fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidy, Heather J; Lepping, Rebecca J; Savage, Cary R; Harris, Corey T

    2011-10-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) pilot study identified whether breakfast consumption would alter the neural activity in brain regions associated with food motivation and reward in overweight "breakfast skipping" (BS) adolescent girls and examined whether increased protein at breakfast would lead to additional alterations. Ten girls (Age: 15 ± 1 years; BMI percentile 93 ± 1%; BS 5 ± 1×/week) completed 3 testing days. Following the BS day, the participants were provided with, in randomized order, normal protein (NP; 18 ± 1 g protein) or higher protein (HP; 50 ± 1 g protein) breakfast meals to consume at home for 6 days. On day 7 of each pattern, the participants came to the laboratory to consume their respective breakfast followed by appetite questionnaires and an fMRI brain scan to identify brain activation responses to viewing food vs. nonfood images prior to lunch. Breakfast consumption led to enduring (i.e., 3-h post breakfast) reductions in neural activation in the hippocampus, amygdala, cingulate, and parahippocampus vs. BS. HP led to enduring reductions in insula and middle prefrontal cortex activation vs. NP. Hippocampal, amygdala, cingulate, and insular activations were correlated with appetite and inversely correlated with satiety. In summary, the addition of breakfast led to alterations in brain activation in regions previously associated with food motivation and reward with additional alterations following the higher-protein breakfast. These data suggest that increased dietary protein at breakfast might be a beneficial strategy to reduce reward-driven eating behavior in overweight teen girls. Due to the small sample size, caution is warranted when interpreting these preliminary findings.

  18. A good-quality breakfast is associated with better mental health in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Therese A; Robinson, Monique; Kendall, Garth E; Miller, Margaret; Jacoby, Peter; Silburn, Sven R; Oddy, Wendy H

    2009-02-01

    Breakfast consumption has been associated with better mental health in adulthood, but the relationship between breakfast and mental health in adolescence is less well known. The aims of the present study were to evaluate breakfast quality in a cohort of adolescents and to investigate associations with mental health. Cross-sectional population-based study. Breakfast quality was assessed by intake of core food groups at breakfast, as determined from 3 d food diaries. Mental health was assessed using the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), with higher scores representing poorer behaviour. The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, Perth, Western Australia. Eight hundred and thirty-six males and females aged between 13 and 15 years. Mean mental health score as assessed by the CBCL was 45.24 (sd 11.29). A high-quality breakfast consisting of at least three food groups was consumed by 11 % of adolescents, while 7 % of adolescents did not consume any items from core food groups on average over the 3 d period. The two most common core food groups consumed at breakfast in this population were dairy products followed by breads and cereals. For every additional food group eaten at breakfast, the associated total mental health score decreased by 1.66 (95 % CI -2.74, -0.59) after adjustment for potential confounding factors, representing an improvement in mental health score. These findings support the concept that breakfast quality is an important component in the complex interaction between lifestyle factors and mental health in early adolescence.

  19. Health, behavioral, cognitive, and social correlates of breakfast skipping among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kylie J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Cleland, Verity J; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2013-11-01

    Breakfast skipping is a potentially modifiable behavior that has negative effects on health and is socioeconomically patterned. This study aimed to examine the intrapersonal (health, behavioral, and cognitive) and social factors associated with breakfast skipping. Nonpregnant women (n = 4123) aged 18-45 y from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods throughout Victoria, Australia, completed a postal questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and cognitive and social factors were assessed by self-report. Breakfast skipping was defined in 2 ways: 1) "rarely/never" eating breakfast (n = 498) and 2) eating breakfast ≤2 d/wk (includes those who rarely/never ate breakfast; n = 865). Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios and linear trends, adjusting for covariates. The P values for linear trends are reported below. Compared with breakfast consumers, women who reported rarely/never eating breakfast tended to have poorer self-rated health (P-trend pay less attention to health (P-trend lower proportion were trying to control their weight (P-trend lower leisure-time physical activity (P-trend = 0.012) and less self-efficacy for eating a healthy diet (P-trend women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. Acknowledging the cross-sectional design and need for causal confirmation, programs that aim to promote breakfast consumption in this population group should consider targeting family-related barriers to healthy eating and nutrition knowledge.

  20. A Comparison of Regular Consumption of Fresh Lean Pork, Beef and Chicken on Body Composition: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Murphy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world and recent evidence shows that diets high in pork protein, with and without energy restriction, may have favourable effects on body composition. However, it is unclear whether these effects on body composition are specific to pork or whether consumption of other high protein meat diets may have the same benefit. Therefore we aimed to compare regular consumption of pork, beef and chicken on indices of adiposity. In a nine month randomised open-labelled cross-over intervention trial, 49 overweight or obese adults were randomly assigned to consume up to 1 kg/week of pork, chicken or beef, in an otherwise unrestricted diet for three months, followed by two further three month periods consuming each of the alternative meat options. BMI and waist/hip circumference were measured and body composition was determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intake was assessed using three day weighed food diaries. Energy expenditure was estimated from activity diaries. There was no difference in BMI or any other marker of adiposity between consumption of pork, beef and chicken diets. Similarly there were no differences in energy or nutrient intakes between diets. After three months, regular consumption of lean pork meat as compared to that of beef and chicken results in similar changes in markers of adiposity of overweight and obese Australian middle-aged men and women.

  1. A Comparison of Regular Consumption of Fresh Lean Pork, Beef and Chicken on Body Composition: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Karen J.; Parker, Barbara; Dyer, Kathryn A.; Davis, Courtney R.; Coates, Alison M.; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Howe, Peter R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world and recent evidence shows that diets high in pork protein, with and without energy restriction, may have favourable effects on body composition. However, it is unclear whether these effects on body composition are specific to pork or whether consumption of other high protein meat diets may have the same benefit. Therefore we aimed to compare regular consumption of pork, beef and chicken on indices of adiposity. In a nine month randomised open-labelled cross-over intervention trial, 49 overweight or obese adults were randomly assigned to consume up to 1 kg/week of pork, chicken or beef, in an otherwise unrestricted diet for three months, followed by two further three month periods consuming each of the alternative meat options. BMI and waist/hip circumference were measured and body composition was determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intake was assessed using three day weighed food diaries. Energy expenditure was estimated from activity diaries. There was no difference in BMI or any other marker of adiposity between consumption of pork, beef and chicken diets. Similarly there were no differences in energy or nutrient intakes between diets. After three months, regular consumption of lean pork meat as compared to that of beef and chicken results in similar changes in markers of adiposity of overweight and obese Australian middle-aged men and women. PMID:24534884

  2. Breakfast and Snacks: Associations with Cognitive Failures, Minor Injuries, Accidents and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Chaplin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available One strategy for examining effects of nutrients on cognitive function is to initially investigate foods that contain many different nutrients. If effects are demonstrated with these foods then further studies can address the role of specific nutrients. Breakfast foods (e.g., cereals, dairy products and fruit provide many important nutrients and consumption of breakfast has been shown to be associated with beneficial effects on cognitive function. Isolating effects of specific constituents of breakfast has proved more difficult and it is still unclear what impact breakfast has on real-life performance. The present study provided initial information on associations between breakfast consumption and cognitive failures and accidents. A second aim was to examine associations between consumption of snacks which are often perceived as being unhealthy (chocolate, crisps and biscuits. A sample of over 800 nurses took part in the study. The results showed that frequency of breakfast consumption (varied breakfasts: 62% cereal was associated with lower stress, fewer cognitive failures, injuries and accidents at work. In contrast, snacking on crisps, chocolate and biscuits was associated with higher stress, more cognitive failures and more injuries outside of work. Further research requires intervention studies to provide a clearer profile of causality and underlying mechanisms.

  3. The effects of breakfast on behavior and academic performance in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L; Dye, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Breakfast consumption is associated with positive outcomes for diet quality, micronutrient intake, weight status and lifestyle factors. Breakfast has been suggested to positively affect learning in children in terms of behavior, cognitive, and school performance. However, these assertions are largely based on evidence which demonstrates acute effects of breakfast on cognitive performance. Less research which examines the effects of breakfast on the ecologically valid outcomes of academic performance or in-class behavior is available. The literature was searched for articles published between 1950-2013 indexed in Ovid MEDLINE, Pubmed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE databases, and PsychINFO. Thirty-six articles examining the effects of breakfast on in-class behavior and academic performance in children and adolescents were included. The effects of breakfast in different populations were considered, including undernourished or well-nourished children and adolescents from differing socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds. The habitual and acute effects of breakfast and the effects of school breakfast programs (SBPs) were considered. The evidence indicated a mainly positive effect of breakfast on on-task behavior in the classroom. There was suggestive evidence that habitual breakfast (frequency and quality) and SBPs have a positive effect on children's academic performance with clearest effects on mathematic and arithmetic grades in undernourished children. Increased frequency of habitual breakfast was consistently positively associated with academic performance. Some evidence suggested that quality of habitual breakfast, in terms of providing a greater variety of food groups and adequate energy, was positively related to school performance. However, these associations can be attributed, in part, to confounders such as SES and to methodological weaknesses such as the subjective nature of the observations of behavior in class.

  4. The effects of breakfast on behaviour and academic performance in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie eAdolphus

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Breakfast consumption is associated with positive outcomes for diet quality, micronutrient intake, weight status and lifestyle factors. Breakfast has been suggested to positively affect learning in children in terms of behaviour, cognitive and school performance. However, these assertions are largely based on evidence which demonstrates acute effects of breakfast on cognitive performance. Less research which examines the effects of breakfast on the ecologically valid outcomes of academic performance or in-class behaviour is available. The literature was searched for articles published between 1950-2013 indexed in Ovid MEDLINE, Pubmed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE databases and PsychINFO. Thirty-six articles examining the effects of breakfast on in-class behaviour and academic performance in children and adolescents were included. The effects of breakfast in different populations were considered, including undernourished or well-nourished children and adolescents from differing socio-economic status (SES backgrounds. The habitual and acute effects of breakfast and the effects of school breakfast programs (SBPs were considered. The evidence indicated a mainly positive effect of breakfast on on-task behaviour in the classroom. There was suggestive evidence that habitual breakfast (frequency and quality and SBPs have a positive effect on children’s academic performance with clearest effects on mathematic and arithmetic grades in undernourished children. Increased frequency of habitual breakfast was consistently positively associated with academic performance. Some evidence suggested that quality of habitual breakfast, in terms of providing a greater variety of food groups and adequate energy, was positively related to school performance. However, these associations can be attributed, in part, to confounders such as SES and to methodological weaknesses such as the subjective nature of the observations of behaviour in class.

  5. Breakfast Intake and Composition is Associated with Superior Academic Achievement in Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptomey, Lauren T.; Steger, Felicia L.; Schubert, Matthew M.; Lee, Jaehoon; Willis, Erik A.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N.; Washburn, Richard A.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine if breakfast consumption or content affects academic achievement measured by standardized tests. Methods Baseline data was collected in fall of 2011 from 698 students (50.5% female, age=7.5±0.6 yrs.) living in the state of Kansas. Academic achievement was assessed using three components from the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-III). Prior to taking the WIAT-III, participants completed a breakfast recall of all the foods and drinks consumed that morning, which was analyzed using NDS-R. WIAT-III scores were compared between breakfast and non-breakfast consumers in a sample (n=162) matched for age, sex, race, education level of both parents, household income, BMI, and cardiovascular fitness, and Pearson correlations were calculated from all breakfast eaters (n=617) between test performance and components of the breakfast. Results When compared to non-breakfast consumers, the breakfast consumers had significantly higher scores in all three WIAT-III components (all pbreakfast consumers, servings of fruit juice were negatively correlated with reading comprehension and fluency standard score and mathematics standard score (both pbreakfast consumption and the content may be associated with improved standardized test performance in elementary school students. PMID:26697955

  6. REGULAR OBSERVATION OF CHILDREN WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA BY ALLERGOLOGIST AND ITS INFLUENCE ON CLINICAL AND FUNCTIONAL PARAMETERS OF THE DISEASE AND CONSUMPTION OF HEALTHCARE RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Artyukhov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In real practice, treatment of patients with bronchial asthma (BA is accompanied by unreasonable increase of healthcare resources consumption because of unplanned visits to the doctor due to health worsening, hospital treatment of exacerbations and emergency calls. Objective: to evaluate an effectiveness of children’s with bronchial asthma observations by allergologist. Methods: the dynamics of clinical and functional signs and frequency of emergency claims was analyzed in 115 children with BA who were observed by allergologist once in 3 months during one year. Results: in 3 months of regular observation by allergologist the number of children with day and night symptoms of BA and patients with daily rescue use of short-acting 2-agonists decreased, there were fewer children with limitations of physical activity. The number of patients with normal FEV1 increased in 6 months. Regular observation with allergologist resulted in reduction of number of patients with exacerbations and hospitalizations, shortening of acute period of BA and hospital stay, decreasing of emergency claims rate compared to those who were observed by GPs. Conclusion: regular observation by allergologist once in 3 months results in stabilization of clinical and functional state in patients with BA and decreases the consumption of emergency care resources.Key words: children, bronchial asthma, allergologist, clinical and functional state, healthcare resources.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (3: 55–59

  7. [Meals consumption among thirteen years olds and selected family socio-economic correlates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzycka-Stalmach, Magdalena; Mikiel-Kostyra, Krystyna; Oblacińska, Anna; Jodkowska, Maria; Wojdan-Godek, Elzbieta

    2010-01-01

    To analyse the influence of selected family socioeconomic factors on the regularity of meals consumption among 13-years aged adolescents. Group of 605 13-years olds identified in the prospective cohort study in 2008 was analysed. Data was gathered with use of posted questionnaires. On the basis of information given by children the regularity (4-5 times a week) of meals consumption on school days and eating meals with parents were correlated with parents' educational level, occupational status and perceived family wealth. The study also recognised the distinction between urban and rural residents. Most questionnaires were filled out by mothers (95%), only 5% by fathers. In urban area, the mother's occupation and the perceived family wealth, correlate with children meals consumption and eating meals with parents. Children whose mothers have a job eat breakfast 1.5 times and supper 3 times less regularly, than children whose mothers don't work. Children from poor families eat breakfast 14 times less regularly than children from rich families as well as eat supper 3 times less regularly than children from average wealthy families. In the rural area, the regularity of meals consumption significantly influence the mother's education. Children whose mothers have a secondary education, compared with children of mothers with basic education, are 4 times more likely to eat dinner and supper regularly. The family socioeconomic factors significantly correlate with regularity of 13-years olds meals consumption and regularity of family meals. The place of residence involve the different factors influencing meals consumption habits. It was shown that children and fathers were too little engaged in family life, including family meals preparation and consumption.

  8. Fate and effects of Camembert cheese micro-organisms in the human colonic microbiota of healthy volunteers after regular Camembert consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmesse, Olivier; Alvaro, Elise; Mogenet, Agnès; Bresson, Jean-Louis; Lemée, Riwanon; Le Ruyet, Pascale; Bonhomme, Cécile; Lambert, Denis; Andrieux, Claude; Doré, Joël; Corthier, Gérard; Furet, Jean-Pierre; Rigottier-Gois, Lionel

    2008-07-15

    The objective of this study was to determine i) if Camembert cheese micro-organisms could be detected in fecal samples after regular consumption by human subjects and ii) the consequence of this consumption on global metabolic activities of the host colonic microbiota. An open human protocol was designed where 12 healthy volunteers were included: a 2-week period of fermented products exclusion followed by a 4-weeks Camembert ingestion period where 2x40 g/day of Camembert cheese was consumed. Stools were collected from the volunteers before consumption, twice during the ingestion period (2nd and 4th week) and once after a wash out period of 2 weeks. During the consumption of Camembert cheese, high levels of Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were measured in fecal samples using real-time quantitative PCR, reaching median values of 8.2 and 7.5 Log(10) genome equivalents/g of stool. For Ln. mesenteroides, persistence was observed 15 days after the end of Camembert consumption. The survival of Geotrichum candidum was also assessed and the fecal concentration reached a median level of 7.1 Log(10) CFU/g in stools. Except a decreasing trend of the nitrate reductase activity, no significant modification was shown in the metabolic activities during this study.

  9. The relationship between consumption of tyrosine and phenylalanine as precursors of catecholamine at breakfast and the circadian typology and mental health in Japanese infants aged 2 to 5 years

    OpenAIRE

    Akimitsu, Osami; Wada, Kai; Noji, Teruki; Taniwaki, Nozomi; Krejci, Milada; Nakade, Miyo; Takeuchi, Hitomi; Harada, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aims to examine the relationship between tyrosine and phenylalanine intake at breakfast as precursors of dopamine, and scores on the Torsvall-?kerstedt Diurnal Type Scale and of mental health in Japanese infants aged 2 to 5 years. Results An integrated questionnaire was administered to parents of 1,367 infants attending one of ten nursery schools governed by Kochi City or a kindergarten affiliated with the Faculty of Education at Kochi University (775 answers for analysi...

  10. Children’s breakfast habit related to their perception towards parent’s breakfast habits (study in Sedayu District, Bantul Regency*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winda Irwanti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Breakfast plays an important role in ensuring the good health and wellbeing of an individual, especially children. Evidence suggests that breakfast consumption may improve cognitive function related to memory, exam test score and the level of school attendance.Objectives: To determine the breakfast habits and its risk factors in elementary school children in Bantul.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in four elementary schools in the District Sedayu, Bantul with 126 children as subjects. Breakfast habits investigated by interviews to the children.Results: This study showed that there were 33% of children had no breakfast daily, or had skipped breakfast at least once in a week. The major reasons of children skipping breakfast were not having enough time (38.1%, not hungry (30.9% and no food available in the morning at home (16.7%. A total of 15.9% mothers and 23% fathers were not breakfast daily according to their children. Breakfast habits of children significantly associated with the children’s perception towards parent’s breakfast habits.Conclusions: Breakfast habits of children significantly associated with the children’s perception towards parent’s breakfast habits.KEYWORDS: breakfast habit, children perception, parent’s breakfast habitABSTRAKLatar belakang: Sarapan memiliki peran dalam menjaga kesehatan dan kebahagiaan seseorang, termasuk anak. Penelitian terdahulu membuktikan bahwa sarapan mampu meningkatkan fungsi kognitif yang berhubungan dengan kemampuan mengingat, nilai ujian, dan tingkat kehadiran di sekolah.Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui kebiasaan sarapan anak sekolah dasar di Kabupaten Bantul, dan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhinya.Metode: Studi cross-sectional ini dilaksanakan di 4 sekolah dasar di Wilayah Kecamatan Sedayu, Kabupaten Bantul, dengan jumlah subjek sebanyak 126 anak. Kebiasaan sarapan diketahui dari wawancara dengan anak.Hasil: Hasil menunjukkan bahwa sebesar 33

  11. Breakfast barriers and opportunities for children living in a Dutch disadvantaged neighbourhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; Vingerhoeds, Monique H; Vrijhof, Milou; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to explore parents', children's, and experts' beliefs and experiences about breakfast motivation, opportunity, and ability and elicit their thoughts on effective interventions to encourage healthy breakfast consumption. The setting was a disadvantaged neighbourhood in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Focus groups with mothers and children and semi-structured individual interviews with experts were conducted. Interview guides were developed based on the motivation, opportunity, and ability consumer psychology model. Thirty-two mothers of primary school children participated in five group discussions, eight focus groups were conducted with 44 children, and nine experts participated in interviews. Data from expert interviews and group discussions were coded and thematically analysed. The following themes emerged from the focus groups: (1) generally high motivation to have breakfast, (2) improved performance at school is key motivator, (3) limited time hinders breakfast, and (4) lack of nutritional knowledge about high quality breakfast. Experts mentioned lack of effort, knowledge, and time; financial constraints; and environmental issues (food availability) as barriers to breakfasting healthily. Several ways to encourage healthy breakfasting habits were identified: (1) involvement of both children and parents, (2) role models inspiring change, and (3) interactive educational approaches. Experts perceived more problems and challenges in achieving healthy breakfast habits than did mothers and children. Lack of opportunity (according to the children and experts) and ability (according to the experts) were identified, although the motivation to eat a healthy breakfast was present. Predominant barriers are lack of time and nutritional knowledge. Overall, findings suggest educational and social marketing approaches as interventions to encourage healthy breakfast consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Breakfast skipping is associated with cyberbullying and school bullying victimization. A school-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Roumeliotis, Paul; Farrow, Claire V; Shi, Yuanfeng F

    2014-08-01

    Breakfast skipping is a health concern that has well-known negative consequences physically and psychologically. It is therefore important to understand why children skip breakfast. The purpose of this study was to establish whether the experience of bullying and cyberbullying impacts upon breakfast skipping and to further evaluate whether the inability for youths to cope with bullying victimization affects their mental health (depression), and in turn predicts breakfast skipping. Data were obtained from the Eastern Ontario 2011 Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, a cross-sectional regional school-based survey of middle and high school students (11-20 years old) across the five counties of Eastern Ontario, Canada (N = 3035). Self-reported data about children's experiences of bullying victimization, breakfast eating habits, socio-economical status, depression, and other risk behaviours were analysed. Approximately half of the participants (50.4%) reported not eating breakfast on a regular basis: 26.3% and 24.1% reported often (usually eat breakfast three times or more per week) and frequent (usually eat breakfast twice a week or less) breakfast skipping behaviour, respectively. Victims of both cyberbullying and school bullying presented greater likelihood of often (adjusted relative risk ratio (RR) = 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.17-2.06) and frequent (RR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.28-3.03) breakfast skipping. Mediation analysis further showed that depression fully mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and frequent breakfast skipping. Moreover, depression partially mediated the associations between both cyberbullying and school bullying with frequent breakfast skipping. These findings highlight the potential interrelationships between cyberbullying, school bullying and depression in predicting unhealthy breakfast skipping behaviour in children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy compensation and nutrient displacement following regular consumption of hazelnuts and other energy-dense snack foods in non-obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Katherine R; Tey, Siew Ling; Gray, Andrew R; Chisholm, Alexandra; Brown, Rachel C

    2017-04-01

    Regular nut consumption reduces cardiovascular disease risk, partly from improvements to dietary quality. Examining how individuals make dietary changes when consuming nuts may reveal key behavioural eating patterns beneficial for the development of dietary interventions. We examined the effects of nuts in comparison with other energy-dense snacks on energy compensation, nutrient displacement, and food group patterns. This was a 12-week randomised, controlled, parallel study with four arms: ~1100 kJ/day for each of hazelnuts (42 g), chocolate (50 g), potato crisps (50 g), or no added snack food. Diet records, body composition, and physical activity were measured at baseline and week 12, in 102 non-obese participants. Significant improvements in diet quality were observed in the hazelnut group, particularly when consumed as snacks. Intakes of monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and vitamin E were significantly higher (all P snacks in this non-obese population. Regular nut consumption significantly improves nutrient profiles compared to other snacks with changes occurring at the snack level.

  14. Relation between breakfast food choices and knowledge of dietary fat and fiber among Swedish schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, M Christina; Jonsson, Inger; Conner, Mark T; Lissner, Lauren

    2002-08-01

    To investigate dietary knowledge and beliefs of schoolchildren, in relationship to breakfast choices, with specific attention to fat and fiber content. Food choice and perceptions were studied by interviews using the "stacking box methodology". Youth (n = 181) aged 11-15 years were instructed to select food items among photographs of breakfast foods. In addition to choosing their own typical breakfasts, they were asked to exchange foods in hypothetical breakfasts to create meals with less fat and more fiber. The interview also dealt with recent changes in breakfast habits, and perceptions of healthy breakfasts, dietary fat, and foods rich in fiber. Data were analyzed by logistic regression. Knowledge concerning sources and health attributes of dietary fiber was associated with usual consumption of bread and breakfast cereals rich in fiber. In a similar way, a positive attitude toward limited fat intake predicted consumption of reduced-fat milk products. However, no association was observed between food choices and knowledge of a food-packaging symbol indicating low-fat and fiber-enriched foods. Lack of awareness of, and knowledge about, healthy eating may be important barriers to the development of health promoting food habits by schoolchildren.

  15. Regular consumption from fast food establishments relative to other restaurants is differentially associated with metabolic outcomes in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, Kiyah J; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Steffen, Lyn M; Jacobs, David R; Popkin, Barry M

    2009-11-01

    Although away-from-home eating is adversely associated with weight, other comorbidities have not been examined; therefore, we sought to determine the associations of fast food (e.g. Wendy's, McDonalds) and restaurant (sit-down style) consumption (times per week) with weight and multiple metabolic outcomes, including homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), waist circumference, and plasma triglycerides (TG), LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). We used 3 waves of data (exam y 7, 10, and 20) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study, a prospective cohort study of black and white young adults [aged 25-42 y in 1992-93, n = 3643 (men, 1659; women, 1984)]. Individuals in the highest (vs. lowest) quartile of baseline (defined as the mean of y 7 and 10) fast food consumption had higher y 20 weight [adjusted mean (95% CI): 5.6 kg (CI, 2.1, 9.2); P = 0.002], HOMA-IR [0.9 (CI, 0.4, 1.3); P < 0.001], waist circumference [5.3 cm (CI, 2.8, 7.9); P < 0.000], TG concentrations [0.25 mmol/L (CI, 0.10, 0.40), 22.7 mg/dL (CI, 9.1, 36.3); P = 0.001], and lower HDL-C concentrations [-0.014 mmol/L (CI, -0.215, -0.067), 5.4 mg/dL (CI, -8.3, -2.6); P < 0.000]. Baseline restaurant consumption was unrelated to y 20 outcomes. Adjusted change in weekly restaurant (P < 0.05) and fast food intake (P < 0.001) was associated with 13-y changes in body weight [0.09 kg (CI, 0.02, 0.17) and 0.15 kg (CI, 0.06, 0.24), respectively] and waist circumference [0.08 cm (CI, 0.02, 0.14) and 0.12 cm (CI, 0.04, 0.20), respectively]. Fast food consumption may be an important target for the prevention of adverse metabolic health outcomes.

  16. Breakfast is associated with enhanced cognitive function in schoolchildren. An internet based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesnes, Keith A; Pincock, Claire; Scholey, Andrew

    2012-12-01

    In this study, 1386 children aged between 6 and 16years, from schools throughout the UK, logged on to a web site before lunch during Farmhouse Breakfast Week 2004. They answered a number of questions concerning their food and drink consumption that day and performed cognitive tests of attention and episodic memory. Children who had had breakfast showed superior performance on tests of attention and memory, confirming a previous laboratory based study using the same cognitive tests. This study adds weight to the growing body of literature indicating that breakfast plays a positive role in maintaining cognitive function during the morning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Associations of breakfast skipping with obesity and health-related quality of life: evidence from a national survey in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C-J; Hu, H-T; Fan, Y-C; Liao, Y-M; Tsai, P-S

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the associations of breakfast skipping with obesity and health-related quality of life (QOL). We also tested the hypothesis that there is a dose-dependent relationship between frequency of breakfast consumption and prevalence of obesity. This cross-section study used a national representative sample (n=15 340) from the 2005 Taiwan National Health Interview Survey. Breakfast skippers were defined as those who ate breakfast about once a week or less often and those who never ate breakfast. Individuals were classified as 'obese' if their body mass index was >or=27. Health-related QOL was assessed using the Medical Outcome Studies 36-Item Short-Form (SF-36) Health Survey. Logistic regression was used to examine the odds ratio of obesity and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in breakfast skippers compared with breakfast eaters. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to adjust all risk estimates for covariates. The unadjusted odds ratio of obesity in breakfast skippers was 1.23 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.43). The odds of developing obesity for breakfast skippers was 1.34 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.56) controlling for age, sex, marital status, educational level, monthly income, smoking, alcohol, betel nut chewing and exercise habit. The Cochran-Armitage trend test revealed that the prevalence rate of obesity decreased as the frequency of breakfast consumption increased (P=0.005). Breakfast skippers had significantly worse health-related QOL than breakfast eaters (Pbreakfast skippers had significantly lower scores in 5 out of 8 domain scores of the SF-36, namely general health perceptions (Pmental health (Pbreakfast eating in obesity prevention.

  18. Influence of regular reporting on local Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. sensitivity to antibiotics on consumption of antibiotics and resistance patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Z M; Folic, M M; Jankovic, S M

    2017-10-01

    Regular surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is an important component of multifaceted interventions directed at the problem with resistance of bacteria causing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in intensive care units (ICUs). Our aim was to analyse antimicrobial consumption and resistance among isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. causing HAIs, before and after the introduction of mandatory reporting of resistance patterns to prescribers. A retrospective observational study was conducted between January 2011 and December 2015, at an interdisciplinary ICU of the Clinical Centre Kragujevac, Serbia. The intervention consisted of continuous resistance monitoring of all bacterial isolates from ICU patients and biannual reporting of results per isolate to prescribers across the hospital. Both utilization of antibiotics and density of resistant isolates of P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. were followed within the ICU. Resistance densities of P. aeruginosa to all tested antimicrobials were lower in 2015, in comparison with 2011. Although isolates of Acinetobacter spp. had lower resistance density in 2015 than in 2011 to the majority of investigated antibiotics, a statistically significant decrease was noted only for piperacillin/tazobactam. Statistically significant decreasing trends of consumption were recorded for third-generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones, whereas for the piperacillin/tazobactam, ampicillin/sulbactam and carbapenems, utilization trends were decreasing, but without statistical significance. In the same period, increasing trends of consumption were observed for tigecycline and colistin. Regular monitoring of resistance of bacterial isolates in ICUs and reporting of summary results to prescribers may lead to a significant decrease in utilization of some antibiotics and slow restoration of P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. susceptibility. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. School Breakfast Program and School Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Alan; And Others

    Children who participate in the School Breakfast Program show significant improvement in academic performance and tardiness rates, and a trend toward improvement in absenteeism. The School Breakfast Program was created by Congress in 1966 to provide a breakfast on school days for low income children who would otherwise have none. Children…

  20. Magic Breakfast: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Claire; Edwards, Amy; Farquharson, Christine; Greaves, Ellen; Trevelyan, Grace; Wallace, Emma; White, Clarissa

    2016-01-01

    The Magic Breakfast project provided 106 schools with support and resources to offer a free, universal, before-school breakfast club, including to all Year 2 and Year 6 pupils. The aim of the project was to improve attainment outcomes by increasing the number of children who ate a healthy breakfast. The schools in the project were schools in…

  1. Impact of replacing regular chocolate milk with the reduced-sugar option on milk consumption in elementary schools in Saskatoon, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Carol; Whiting, Susan J; Finch, Sarah L; Zello, Gordon A; Vatanparast, Hassan

    2016-05-01

    Excess sugar consumption in children has led to the removal of chocolate milk from some schools. Lower-sugar formulations, if accepted, would provide the benefits of milk consumption. In a cross-over trial, milk consumption was measured in 8 schools over 6 weeks in 2 phases: phase 1 provided standard 1% chocolate milk and plain 2% milk choices for the first 3 weeks, and phase 2 provided reduced-sugar 1% chocolate milk and plain 2% milk for the next 3 weeks. Milk selection and milk wasted were measured by sex and grade (1-8). Children chose chocolate milk more often than white milk in both phases (phase 1, 8.93% ± 0.75% vs. 0.87% ± 0.11% (p chocolate milk in phase 2 (p chocolate milk over plain milk even when a reduced-sugar formula was offered; however, switching to reduced-sugar chocolate milk led to a decrease in the number of students choosing milk. Longer-duration studies are required to determine if students would purchase reduced-sugar chocolate milk at the same rate as they would purchase regular chocolate milk.

  2. Effects of serving high-sugar cereals on children's breakfast-eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B; Ustjanauskas, Amy; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Brownell, Kelly D

    2011-01-01

    To test (1) whether children will consume low-sugar ready-to-eat (RTE) cereals and (2) the effects of serving high- versus low-sugar cereals on the consumption of cereal, refined sugar, fresh fruit, and milk. Using an experimental design, we randomly assigned children (n = 91) who were attending summer day camp to receive a breakfast that included either the choice of 1 of 3 high-sugar cereals (high-sugar condition) or low-sugar cereals (low-sugar condition), as well as low-fat milk, orange juice, bananas, strawberries, and sugar packets. Participants served themselves and completed a background questionnaire after eating. Researchers measured the amount and calories consumed of each food. In both conditions, children reported "liking" or "loving" the cereal they chose. Children in the low-sugar cereal condition consumed, on average, slightly more than 1 serving of cereal (35 g), whereas children in the high-sugar condition consumed significantly more (61 g) and almost twice the amount of refined sugar in total (24.4 vs 12.5 g). Milk and total calories consumed did not differ significantly between conditions, but children in the low-sugar condition were more likely to put fruit on their cereal (54% vs 8%) and consumed a greater portion of total calories from fresh fruit (20% vs 13%). Compared with serving low-sugar cereals, high-sugar cereals increase children's total sugar consumption and reduce the overall nutritional quality of their breakfast. Children will consume low-sugar cereals when offered, and they provide a superior breakfast option.

  3. Replacing American Breakfast Foods with Ready-To-Eat (RTE) Cereals Increases Consumption of Key Food Groups and Nutrients among US Children and Adults: Results of an NHANES Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-09-13

    Replacing the typical American breakfast with ready-to-eat cereals (RTECs) may improve diet quality. Our goal was to assess the impact of RTECs on diet quality measures for different age groups, using substitution modeling. Dietary intakes came from the 2007-2010 National Health and Examination Surveys (NHANES; n = 18,112). All breakfast foods, excluding beverages, were replaced on a per calorie basis, with frequency-weighted and age/race specific RTECs. Model 1 replaced foods with RTECs alone; Model 2 replaced foods with RTECs and milk. Diet quality measures were based on desirable food groups and nutrients, Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 scores, and estimated diet costs. Model 1 diets were significantly higher in whole grains (+84.6%), fiber (+14.3%), vitamin D (+14.0%), iron (+54.5%) and folic acid (+104.6%), as compared to observed diets. Model 2 diets were additionally higher in dairy (+15.8%), calcium (+11.3%) and potassium (+3.95%). In Model 1, added sugar increased (+5.0%), but solid fats declined (-10.9%). Energy from solid fats and added sugars declined (-3.2%) in both models. Model 2 offered higher diet quality (57.1 vs. 54.6, p -value < 0.01) at a lower cost ($6.70 vs. $6.92; p < 0.01), compared to observed diets. Substitution modeling of NHANES data can assess the nutritional and economic impact of dietary guidance.

  4. Replacing American Breakfast Foods with Ready-To-Eat (RTE) Cereals Increases Consumption of Key Food Groups and Nutrients among US Children and Adults: Results of an NHANES Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Replacing the typical American breakfast with ready-to-eat cereals (RTECs) may improve diet quality. Our goal was to assess the impact of RTECs on diet quality measures for different age groups, using substitution modeling. Dietary intakes came from the 2007–2010 National Health and Examination Surveys (NHANES; n = 18,112). All breakfast foods, excluding beverages, were replaced on a per calorie basis, with frequency-weighted and age/race specific RTECs. Model 1 replaced foods with RTECs alone; Model 2 replaced foods with RTECs and milk. Diet quality measures were based on desirable food groups and nutrients, Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 scores, and estimated diet costs. Model 1 diets were significantly higher in whole grains (+84.6%), fiber (+14.3%), vitamin D (+14.0%), iron (+54.5%) and folic acid (+104.6%), as compared to observed diets. Model 2 diets were additionally higher in dairy (+15.8%), calcium (+11.3%) and potassium (+3.95%). In Model 1, added sugar increased (+5.0%), but solid fats declined (−10.9%). Energy from solid fats and added sugars declined (−3.2%) in both models. Model 2 offered higher diet quality (57.1 vs. 54.6, p-value < 0.01) at a lower cost ($6.70 vs. $6.92; p < 0.01), compared to observed diets. Substitution modeling of NHANES data can assess the nutritional and economic impact of dietary guidance. PMID:28902145

  5. Breakfast habits and heath perceptions in South-eastern Spanish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soriano-Ayala Encarnación

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal aims of this study are to describe breakfast consumption patterns of south-eastern Spanish adolescents, examine the relationship between breakfast consumption and feelings of well-being and fitness and compare breakfast behaviour between men and women to identify if there is a gender gap. Design: A cross-sectional research with cluster sampling in two primary schools and seven secondary schools. The instrument used was a modified version of the Kidscreen-27 questionnaire. Sample: 2,125 students aged between 10 and 19 years old from different nationalities, mainly Romanian, Moroccan and Spanish. Results: The study identifies some youngsters who skip breakfast and no have no food intake over the course of the morning. About 35% of the teenagers skip daily breakfast before they leave for school, and a worrying 1,8% do not eat any food during the whole morning. Questionnaire outcomes also expresses that the amount of biscuits ingested increased as the number of times that adolescents have breakfast at home decreases. There are significant gender differences, women it less foods than men. Differences are especially significant in case of milk, bread or cereals and butter or oil. Finally, chisquare contrast analysis show students that have breakfast before leaving to school perceive better feelings about how well and fit they are than those student who do not have breakfast daily. Conclusions. Findings supports the need for further enhance health education programs focused on breakfast habits, especially with women. This study is part of the project “Education for Cross-cultural Health in Immigrant and Native Adolescents from Almeria: Analysis and intervention for optimization and improvement” supported by the National R+D Plan of the Ministry of Economy and Finance (Ref: EDU2011-26887

  6. Speciation of chromium in bread and breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathebula, Mpho Wendy; Mandiwana, Khakhathi; Panichev, Nikolas

    2017-02-15

    Bread and breakfast cereals are a major constituents of the human diet, yet their Cr(VI) content is not known. Chromium(VI) was determined in these products by high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer (HR-CS AAS) after leaching Cr(VI) with 0.10molL(-1) Na2CO3. The results showed that 33-73% of total Cr (58.17±5.12μgkg(-1)-156.1±6.66μgkg(-1)) in bread exist as Cr(VI) and the highest total Cr content was found in brown bread. It was shown that Cr(III) is oxidized to Cr(VI) during toasting of bread. Chromium(VI) content in breakfast cereals ranged between 20.4±4μgkg(-1) and 470.4±68μgkg(-1). Therefore, it can be concluded that bread and breakfast cereals contains Cr(VI) which does not exceed maximum acceptable concentration (MAC) of 0.003mgkg(-1)bw(-1)day(-1) through daily consumption of half a bowl (65g) of breakfast cereal and four slices of toasted (122g) or untoasted bread (160g). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Breakfast and fast food eating behavior in relation to socio-demographic differences among school adolescents in Sanandaj Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimoradi, Foad; Jandaghi, Parisa; Khodabakhshi, Adeleh; Javadi, Maryam; Moghadam, Seyed Amir Hossein Zehni

    2017-06-01

    Fast food consumption and skipping breakfast has been increasingly prevalent among high school adolescents in recent years. These unhealthy food habits are considered as risk factors of chronic diseases among adolescents and adults. To determine the consumption amount of fast food, breakfast, and some associated factors in adolescents. In this cross-sectional study in 2015, 553 adolescent students aged 14-18 years were randomly selected among high schools of Sanandaj, Iran. Demographic data and also consumption amount of fast food and breakfast in adolescents in addition to the related factors were studied. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire which its reliability and validity were measured by five experts and analyzed with SPSS-16 by Chi-square test and ANOVA. The results show that 69.8 % of subjects consume fast food at least once a week. Fast food and breakfast consumption is related significantly to subjects' fathers' occupation respectively (p=0.005), (p=0.006). Eating breakfast is significantly higher among boys than girls (pfast food consumption are: their own and their families and friends' interest and accompaniment, advertisement, close proximity of school and home to fast food stores. The consumption of fast food is high among Iranian adolescents. It correlates significantly with variables including father's occupation and all of the associated factors. Breakfast consumption correlates significantly with adolescents' age and gender, as well as parents' occupation and educational level.

  8. Nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity parameters in breakfast patterns compared with no breakfast in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2014-12-01

    The effect of different breakfast consumption patterns on nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity status is unknown. To compare nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity measures of consumers assigned to different breakfast patterns with breakfast skippers. These associations were assessed in adults 19+ years (N=18,988) participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Intake was determined from 1-day 24-hour dietary recall. Diet quality was quantified using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. Body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) and waist circumferences were determined. Twelve patterns (including No Breakfast [approximately 19% of population]), explaining 58% of the variance in energy from the breakfast meal, were examined. Covariate adjusted general linear models were used to compare nutrient intakes, Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores, and body mass index/waist circumference of consumers of different patterns with breakfast skippers. The P value was Bonferroni corrected (Juice and Presweetened Ready-to-Eat Cereal (RTEC)/Lower-Fat Milk patterns had lower daily intakes of nutrients to limit (added sugars, saturated fatty acids, solid fats, cholesterol, and sodium) than breakfast skippers. Consumers of the Grain/100% Fruit Juice; Presweetened RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk; and RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk/Whole Fruit/100% Fruit Juice patterns had higher daily intakes of all shortfall nutrients examined (dietary fiber; vitamins A, D, and C; calcium, potassium, folate, iron, and magnesium) than breakfast skippers. Consumers of the Grain/100% Fruit Juice; Grain; Presweetened RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk; RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk/Whole Fruit/100% Fruit Juice; Cooked Cereal; Lower-Fat Milk/Whole Fruit; and Whole Fruit patterns had higher Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores than breakfast skippers. Consumers of the Grain/100% Fruit Juice; Presweetened RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk; RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk/Whole Fruit/100% Fruit Juice; and Cooked Cereal patterns had lower

  9. Breakfast food health and acute exercise: Effects on state body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jacqueline F; Giles, Grace E; Mahoney, Caroline R; Kanarek, Robin B

    2018-05-10

    Food intake and exercise have been shown to alter body satisfaction in a state-dependent manner. One-time consumption of food perceived as unhealthy can be detrimental to body satisfaction, whereas an acute bout of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise can be beneficial. The current study examined the effect of exercise on state body image and appearance-related self-esteem following consumption of isocaloric foods perceived as healthy or unhealthy in 36 female college students (18-30 years old) in the Northeastern United States. Using a randomized-controlled design, participants attended six study sessions with breakfast conditions (healthy, unhealthy, no food) and activity (exercise, quiet rest) as within-participants factors. Body image questionnaires were completed prior to breakfast condition, between breakfast and activity conditions, and following activity condition. Results showed that consumption of an unhealthy breakfast decreased appearance self-esteem and increased body size perception, whereas consumption of a healthy breakfast did not influence appearance self-esteem but increased body size perception. Exercise did not influence state body image attitudes or perceptions following meal consumption. Study findings suggest that morning meal type, but not aerobic exercise, influence body satisfaction in college-aged females. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Nutritional quality and labelling of ready-to-eat breakfast cereals: the contribution of the French observatory of food quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goglia, R; Spiteri, M; Ménard, C; Dumas, C; Combris, P; Labarbe, B; Soler, L G; Volatier, J L

    2010-11-01

    To assess developments in the nutritional quality of food products in various food groups in France, an Observatory of Food Quality (Oqali) was created in 2008. To achieve its aims, Oqali built up a new database to describe each specific food item at the most detailed level, and also included economic parameters (market share and mean prices). The objective of this paper is to give a detailed analysis of the monitoring of the ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (RTEBCs) sector in order to show the benefits of the Oqali database. Analysis was limited to products with nutritional information on labels. Packaging was provided by manufacturers or retailers, or obtained by buying products in regular stores. Economic parameters were obtained from surveys on French food consumption and data from consumer purchase panels. The breakfast cereal sector was divided into 10 categories and 5 types of brand. Oqali has developed anonymous indicators to describe product characteristics for each category of RTEBC and each type of brand by cross-referencing nutritional values with economic data. Packaging-related data were also analysed. The major nutritional parameters studied were energy, protein, fat, saturated fat, carbohydrates, sugars, fibre and sodium. Analysis was performed on the basis of descriptive statistics, multivariate statistics and a Kruskal-Wallis test. For the RTEBC, there is large variability in nutrient content throughout the sector, both within and between product categories. There is no systematic relation between brand type and nutritional quality within each product category, and the proportion of brand type within each product category is different. Nutritional labels, claims and pictograms are widespread on packages but vary according to the type of brand. These findings form the basis for monitoring developments in the nutritional composition and packaging-related data for breakfast cereals in the future. The final objective is to expand the approach

  11. The relationship between breakfast, lunch and dinner eating pattern and hemodialysis sessions, quality of life, depression and appetite in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Baris; Elsurer, Rengin; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the relationship between eating pattern (regular breakfast, lunch and dinner) and dialysis sessions, laboratory and sociodemographic characteristics in hemodialysis (HD) patients. In this cross-sectional study eating patterns, sociodemographic, laboratory and clinical parameters, depressive symptoms, quality of life, cognitive function and appetite status were assessed. Eighty-two HD patients on morning session and 60 patients on midday HD session schedules were included. Ten patients had only breakfast, 17 patients had only lunch, 26 patients had only dinner, 5 patients had breakfast and lunch but not dinner, 28 patients had breakfast and dinner but not lunch, 29 patients had lunch and dinner but not breakfast, and 19 patients had neither breakfast, nor lunch, nor dinner. In the whole group, only 8 patients reported that they had regularly eaten breakfast, lunch or dinner in all days of the week. Midday HD session, better appetite, and higher income were independently associated with having breakfast. Morning HD session, better appetite score, and higher income were independently associated with having lunch. Morning session versus midday session, nPNA, presence of hypertension, and the Mental Component Summary Score of SF-36 were independently associated with having dinner. The majority of HD patients eat one or two meals per day. Having breakfast (or lunch) is associated with midday dialysis session (or morning dialysis session, respectively), better appetite, and satisfactory income. Eating dinner was associated with morning dialysis session, hypertension, higher protein intake and higher SF-36 mental component summary score.

  12. Breakfast Composition in Junior High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Sheila Devi; Aly Diana; Setiawan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a time of rapid development that requires higher nutrient intake levels than in adulthood. However the habit of skipping breakfast has become very popular among adolescents. Skipping breakfast has negative effects such as difficulty in concentrating, growth impairment and decrease academic performance. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the breakfast composisition of early adolescents in Jatinangor, Sumedang, Indonesia. Methods: A cross sectional st...

  13. Eating breakfast, fruit and vegetable intake and their relation with happiness in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesani, Azadeh; Mohammadpoorasl, Asghar; Javadi, Maryam; Esfeh, Jabiz Modaresi; Fakhari, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Nutrition plays a major role in physical and mental health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between happiness and fruit and vegetable intake as well as eating breakfast in students. In this cross-sectional web-based study, all students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in Iran who attended course classes were invited to participate in the study. Five hundred forty-one students filled out the web-based questionnaire which included questions related to measurement of happiness, breakfast, fruit and vegetable consumption and socio-economic and demographic information. Analysis of covariance was used to assess the relationship between happiness and breakfast, fruit and vegetable consumption by adjustments for covariates. Measure of happiness was positively associated with eating breakfast, number of meals eaten daily and the amount of fruit and vegetable consumption (P values were breakfast every day, more than 8 servings of fruit and vegetables daily, and had 3 meals in addition to 1-2 snacks per day had the highest happiness score. Healthier behavior pattern was associated with higher happiness scores among medical students.

  14. Regular breakfast consumption and type 2 diabetes risk markers in 9- to 10-year-old children in the child heart and health study in England (CHASE): a cross-sectional analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Donin, AS; Nightingale, CM; Owen, CG; Rudnicka, AR; Perkin, MR; Jebb, SA; Stephen, AM; Sattar, N; Cook, DG; Whincup, PH

    2014-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Worldwide, more than 380 million people have diabetes, a disorder that is characterized by high levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Blood sugar levels are usually controlled by insulin, a hormone released by the pancreas after meals (digestion of food produces glucose). In people with type 2 diabetes (the commonest type of diabetes) blood sugar control fails because the fat and muscle cells that normally respond to insulin become insulin resistant. Type 2 diabe...

  15. [Relation between the breakfast quality and the academic performance in adolescents of Guadalajara (Castilla-La Mancha)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Morales, I; Aguilar Vilas, Ma V; Mateos Vega, C J; Martínez Para, Ma C

    2008-01-01

    To study the relationship between the breakfast quality and skipping it on academic performance of a population of adolescents. A nutritional study on the breakfast quality has been performed in a population of adolescents from Guadalajara (467 young people; age: 12-17 years) by means of questionnaires of seven-day consumption frequency. Besides, we have collected socio-demographic data and academic scores of these people. Most of the students interviewed take a deficient breakfast since only 4.88% have a complete breakfast. The girls aged 15-17 years are those taking the poorest quality breakfast since 8.33% of them skip this meal. 68.29% take breakfasts which quality may be improved. The breakfast quality is directly related with the mean score obtained during the course 2003-04. This relationship is not so clear-cut when the different mandatory subjects in the different academic orientations are considered since it depends on the type of subject (comprehension, memory, concentration, physical activity...). The population studied consumes a poor breakfast, which may affect the academic outcomes, especially those for certain subjects.

  16. Regular consumption of cocoa powder with milk increases HDL cholesterol and reduces oxidized LDL levels in subjects at high-risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N; Monagas, M; Andres-Lacueva, C; Casas, R; Urpí-Sardà, M; Lamuela-Raventós, R M; Estruch, R

    2012-12-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that regular consumption of cocoa-containing products may confer cardiovascular protection, reducing the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, studies on the effects of cocoa on different cardiovascular risk factors are still scarce. The aim of this study was too evaluate the effects of chronic cocoa consumption on lipid profile, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) particles and plasma antioxidant vitamin concentrations in high-risk patients. Forty-two high-risk volunteers (19 men and 23 women, mean age 69.7 ± 11.5 years) were included in a randomized, crossover feeding trial. All received 40g of cocoa powder with 500 mL of skimmed milk/day(C + M) or only 500 mL/day of skimmed milk (M) for 4 weeks in a random order. Before and after each intervention period, plasma lipids, oxLDL and antioxidant vitamin concentrations were measured, as well as urinary cocoa polyphenols metabolites derived from phase II and microbial metabolisms. Compared to M, C + M intervention increases HDLc [2.67 mg/dL (95% confidence intervals, CI, 0.58-4.73; P = 0.008)] and decreases oxLDL levels [-12.3 U/L (CI,-19.3 to -5.2;P = 0.001)]. No changes between intervention groups were observed in vitamins B1, B6, B12, C and E, or folic acid concentrations. In addition, subjects who showed higher increments in urinary cocoa polyphenol metabolites exhibited significant increases in HDLc and significant decreases in oxLDL levels (P Consumption of cocoa power with milk modulates the lipid profile in high-risk subjects for CHD. In addition, the relationship observed between the urinary excretion of cocoa polyphenol metabolites and plasma HDLc and oxLDL levels suggests a beneficial role for cocoa polyphenols in lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Does school breakfast benefit children's educational performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, L; Ani, C C; Grantham-mcgregor, S

    1997-09-01

    This article reviews several research studies on the impact of the lack of breakfast among students. Recent data reveal that about 20% of Nigerian children were wasted or had weight-for-height measurements under the 5th percentile of the US National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) standard. In Ghana, 41% of children were underweight or had a weight-for-age under -2 standard deviations of the NCHS standards. In Tanzania, about 34% of children were underweight. Many more students in Africa are attending school, but many are leaving primary school early or failing secondary school examinations. It is argued that poor nutritional status affects children's ability to learn. Research reveals several hypotheses about how breakfast affects children's cognition, behavior, and school performance. Children may not attend school at all due to the inability to purchase food to eat at school, or insufficient food resources at home to provide sufficient energy to walk long distances to school. In four studies, two in the USA and the others in Peru and Jamaica, findings reveal that when undernourished children missed breakfast, they performed worse in tests of cognition. Adequately nourished children's performance was unaffected by missing breakfast. A study in four Jamaican schools found that children had more creative ideas when they received a breakfast for 2 weeks than when they did not receive breakfast. Two Swedish studies found that children with a high-calorie breakfast improved in cognition compared to those receiving a low-calorie breakfast. One study found that children in well-equipped classrooms paid more attention in class after having breakfast. Children in overcrowded classes and poorly equipped schools were less likely to pay attention after breakfast. Long-term effects are less well studied, but findings clearly support the benefits of breakfast.

  18. Crispy in the french breakfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Drouard

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Bien qu’il y ait eu du croquant et du croustillant dans l’alimentation des Français avant l’époque contemporaine (pain, gâteaux, fruits frais ou secs sa place a augmenté récemment à la suite des changements intervenus dans le petit déjeuner. Le but de cet article est d’analyser historiquement la pénétration et la diffusion du croquant et du croustillant dans le petit déjeuner français. Celle ci s’est faite d’abord dans les villes sous l’influence de modèles étrangers et principalement Anglo-Saxons qui font une place importante au croustillant. Les partisans des nouveaux petits déjeuners à base de lait, de céréales et de fruits ne cherchaient pas seulement à promouvoir le végétarisme mais aussi à lutter contre la « dégénérescence » qui menaçait à leurs yeux la société moderne. Après avoir rappelé la naissance du petit déjeuner français, on étudiera le rôle des modèles étrangers dans l’évolution de la consommation d’aliments croustillants.Though crispy items were present in French food before the contemporary period (what with bread, cakes, fresh or dried fruits, they have recently played a more important part as breakfast underwent a series of changes. The aim of this article is to make an historical analysis of the emergence and spread of crispy food in the French breakfast. The influence of foreign and more especially Anglo-Saxon models contributed to increasing its importance. Those who advocated these new breakfasts at the beginning of the XXth century were convinced to fight also against “degeneracy” which they thought was a threat to modern society. I shall first briefly explain how the French breakfast was born, then I shall focus on the influence and impact of foreign models.

  19. Consumo regular de frutas e hortaliças por estudantes universitários em Rio Branco, Acre, Brasil: prevalência e fatores associados Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables by university students in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanderson Alves Ramalho

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudo transversal com universitários realizado para analisar a prevalência e os fatores associados ao consumo regular de frutas e hortaliças por acadêmicos de uma universidade pública federal de Rio Branco, Acre, Brasil. Foram investigados 863 estudantes de cursos de graduação em 2010. A prevalência geral de consumo regular de frutas e hortaliças foi de 14,8%. Os fatores associados ao consumo regular de frutas e hortaliças foram: pertencer à classe econômica A/B (RP = 1,70; IC95%: 1,10-2,62, conviver com companheiro(a (RP = 1,53; IC95%: 1,02-2,29, praticar atividade física (RP = 1,69; IC95%: 1,11-2,56 e consumo de fast food igual ou menor que 2 vezes na semana (RP = 1,49; IC95%: 1,04-2,13. Em conclusão, destaca-se que a minoria dos acadêmicos alcançou a recomendação de consumir frutas e hortaliças em 5 dias ou mais da semana. O consumo regular desses alimentos mostrou-se associado aos aspectos socioeconômicos e aos hábitos saudáveis relacionados à prática de atividade física e baixo consumo de fast food.This cross-sectional study with university students examined the prevalence of regular consumption of fruits and vegetables and associated factors among students at a Federal university in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil. 863 undergraduates were interviewed in 2010. Overall prevalence of regular consumption of fruits and vegetables was 14.8%. Factors associated with regular consumption of fruits and vegetables were: socioeconomic classes A and B (PR = 1.70; 95%CI: 1.10-2.62, living with a partner (PR = 1.53; 95%CI: 1.02-2.29, regular physical activity (PR = 1.69; 95%CI: 1.11-2.56, and consumption of fast food twice a week or less (PR = 1.49; 95%CI: 1.04-2.13. A minority of the students met the recommendation to consume fruits and vegetables 5 or more days a week. Regular fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with socioeconomic status and healthy habits such as physical exercise and low consumption of fast food.

  20. Breakfast benefits for children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vingerhoeds, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    This literature review aimed to give some insight in the benefits of breakfast for children and adolescents, with a focus on overweight, food intake and cognition. In addition, we explored the magnitude of skipping breakfast in the Netherlands and factors associated with this behaviour.

  1. Breakfast Composition in Junior High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Devi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a time of rapid development that requires higher nutrient intake levels than in adulthood. However the habit of skipping breakfast has become very popular among adolescents. Skipping breakfast has negative effects such as difficulty in concentrating, growth impairment and decrease academic performance. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the breakfast composisition of early adolescents in Jatinangor, Sumedang, Indonesia. Methods: A cross sectional study with non-probability sampling method, was conducted in a junior high school Jatinangor during the month of July 2013. Ninety six participants were included in this study. All the participants underwent an interview about the food intake for breakfast in seven days using eating pattern recall guidelines. Results: Overall, 37% of the respondents skipped breakfast. The mean of total calories among the adolescents who consumed breakfast was 286.06 (187.89 kcal. The amount of carbohydrate, fat and protein consumed was 29.23 (19.93 gram, 13.93 (13.29 gram and 8.78 (6.11 gram accordingly. The main reason for adolescent to skip breakfast was lack of time. Conclusions: Majority of the respondents have their breakfast before they go to school. Overall, the total calories comsumed is sufficient however the amount of protein consumed is low.

  2. Diet, breakfast, and academic performance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, R E; Hall, S; Green, H; Korzec-Ramirez, D; Patton, K; Pagano, M E; Murphy, J M

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether nutrient intake and academic and psychosocial functioning improve after the start of a universal-free school breakfast program (USBP). Information was gathered from 97 inner city students prior to the start of a USBP and again after the program had been in place for 6 months. Students who had total energy intakes of breakfast at school than children who were not at nutritional risk. Six months after the start of the free school breakfast programs, students who decreased their nutritional risk showed significantly greater: improvements in attendance and school breakfast participation, decreases in hunger, and improvements in math grades and behavior than children who did not decrease their nutritional risk. Participation in a school breakfast program enhanced daily nutrient intake and improvements in nutrient intake were associated with significant improvements in student academic performance and psychosocial functioning and decreases in hunger. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Breakfast cereals and risk of hypertension in the Physicians' Health Study I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochar, Jinesh; Gaziano, J Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2012-02-01

    Hypertension is a major public health problem. While many dietary factors affect the risk of developing hypertension, limited data are available on the association between consumption of breakfast cereal and incident hypertension. We examined the association between breakfast cereal consumption and the risk of hypertension. We prospectively analyzed data from 13,368 male participants of the Physicians' Health Study I. Consumption of breakfast cereals was estimated using an abbreviated food frequency questionnaire and incident hypertension was ascertained through yearly follow-up questionnaires. The average age of study participants was 52.4 ± 8.9 years (range 39.7-85.9) during the initial assessment of cereal intake (1981-1983). During a mean follow up of 16.3 years, 7267 cases of hypertension occurred. The crude incidence rates of hypertension were 36.7, 34.0, 31.7, and 29.6 cases/1000 person-years for people reporting breakfast cereal intake of 0, ≤1, 2-6, and ≥7 servings/week, respectively. In a Cox regression model adjusting for age, smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and history of diabetes mellitus, hazard ratios (95% CI) for hypertension were 1.0 (reference), 0.93 (0.88-0.99), 0.88 (0.83-0.94), and 0.81 (0.75-0.86) from the lowest to the highest category of cereal consumption, respectively (p for trend cereals and was observed in lean as well as overweight or obese participants. The results of this longitudinal cohort study suggest that whole grain breakfast cereal consumption confers a lower risk of hypertension in middle-aged adult males. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Breakfast cereals and risk of hypertension in the Physicians’ Health Study I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochar, Jinesh; Gaziano, J. Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and aims Hypertension is a major public health problem. While many dietary factors affect the risk of developing hypertension, limited data are available on the association between consumption of breakfast cereal and incident hypertension. We examined the association between breakfast cereal consumption and the risk of hypertension. Methods We prospectively analyzed data from 13,368 male participants of the Physicians’ Health Study I. Consumption of breakfast cereals was estimated using an abbreviated food frequency questionnaire and incident hypertension was ascertained through yearly follow-up questionnaires. Results The average age of study participants was 52.4 ±8.9 years (range 39.7-85.9) during the initial assessment of cereal intake (1981-1983). During a mean follow up of 16.3 years, 7,267 cases of hypertension occurred. The crude incidence rates of hypertension were 36.7, 34.0, 31.7, and 29.6 cases/1,000 person-years for people reporting breakfast cereal intake of 0, ≤ 1, 2-6, and ≥ 7 servings/week, respectively. In a Cox regression model adjusting for age, smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and history of diabetes mellitus, hazard ratios (95% CI) for hypertension were 1.0 (reference), 0.93 (0.88-0.99), 0.88 (0.83-0.94), and 0.81 (0.75-0.86) from the lowest to the highest category of cereal consumption, respectively (p for trend cereals and was observed in lean as well as overweight or obese participants. Conclusions The results of this longitudinal cohort study suggest that whole grain breakfast cereal consumption confers a lower risk of hypertension in middle-aged adult males PMID:21868140

  5. Breakfast eating habits among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackuaku-Dogbe, E M; Abaidoo, B

    2014-06-01

    Breakfast is often thought to be the most important meal of the day as it is known to provide energy for the brain and improve learning. It is also known to contribute significantly to the total daily energy and nutrient intake. Skipping breakfast may affect performance during the rest of the day. To determine the level of breakfast skipping among medical students and its effect on their attention span and level of fatigue during clinical sessions. A descriptive cross-sectional study of breakfast eating habits among medical students at the University of Ghana Medical School, Korle Bu-Accra. The University of Ghana Medical School, Korle Bu-Accra. Questionnaires were distributed to second year (pre-clinical) medical students studying the basic sciences and clinical students in ophthalmology to be self-administered. Interview data was captured and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. The total number of pre-clinical students recruited was 154 and clinical students 163 bringing to a total of 317 students made up of 203 males and 114 females (M: F=1.8:1). The overall breakfast skipping among the students was 71.92%. The prevalence among the pre-clinical students was 76.62% and clinical students 67.48%. Generally, breakfast skipping was significantly related to fatigue and poor attention during clinical sessions. This study suggests that the medical students, both pre-clinical and clinical, skip breakfast and this may affect their studies adversely.

  6. The Relation between Breakfast Skipping and School Performance in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Ouwehand, Carolijn; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; de Groot, Renate; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-01-01

    Breakfast skipping is common in adolescents, but research on the effects of breakfast skipping on school performance is scarce. This current cross-sectional survey study of 605 adolescents aged 11-18 years investigated whether adolescents who habitually skip breakfast have lower end-of-term grades than adolescents who eat breakfast daily.…

  7. Social inequality in breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequency among adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; Pagh Pedersen, Trine; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    Abstract Purpose: Regular meal habits facilitate healthy dietary habits and especially low breakfast frequency shows associations with risk of overweight among adolescents. Studies on social inequality in meal frequencies among children and adolescents are limited, and especially studies of lunch...... measured by frequency questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted adjusted by age, gender and family structure. Results: Analyses showed that adolescents from low family social class had significantly higher odds of low breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequency than adolescents from...... high family social class (breakfast: odds ratio (OR) = 2.22, lunch: OR = 1.56, evening meal: OR = 1.80). For all three meal types the odds of low frequency increased gradually by decreasing social class. There were no significant interactions with gender. Conclusion: The results indicate social...

  8. Association of Breakfast Intake with Psychiatric Distress and Violent Behaviors in Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN- IV Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadi, Zeinab; Kelishadi, Roya; Qorbani, Mostafa; Zahedi, Hoda; Aram, Mahtab; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Ardalan, Gelayol; Shafiee, Gita; Arzaghi, Seyed Masoud; Asayesh, Hamid; Heshmat, Ramin

    2016-09-01

    To assess the relationship of breakfast intake with psychiatric distress and violent behaviors among Iranian children and adolescents. This national survey was conducted among 14,880 students, aged 6-18 y. They were selected by stratified multistage sampling method from urban and rural areas of 30 provinces of Iran. Breakfast intake, psychiatric distress, and violent behaviors were assessed by a questionnaire prepared based on the Global school-based student health survey of the World Health Organization. The data were analyzed by the STATA package. The participation rate was 90.6 %. The percentage of psychiatric distress among breakfast skippers, semi-skippers and non-skippers was 13.4-50.4, 10.1-41.9, and 7.0-33.3 % respectively. The prevalence of psychiatric distress was significantly higher among breakfast skippers than semi-skippers and non-skippers (P value breakfast skippers to non-skippers. The prevalence of violent behaviors was significantly higher among breakfast skippers than non-skippers. Students who skipped breakfast reported to be more victimized (29.2 % vs. 26.7 %, respectively, P = 0.04), bullied (21.0 % vs. 16.2 %, respectively, P breakfast were less likely to experience mental health disorders and violent behavior. Adhering to a regular and balanced diet, besides the awareness of parents on the importance of breakfast eating, may be an appropriate approach for preventing mental health problems and violent behavior in children and adolescents.

  9. [Nutritional analysis of breakfast on rising and mid-morning snack in a college population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá Travé, T

    2013-01-01

    To carry out a descriptive study on the breakfast model in a college population and to analyze the energy and nutrients provided, in connection with established nutritional requirements. Registry of food intake for breakfast (on rising and mid-morning snack) of a school day in a sample of 740 college students (286 men and 454 women) with ages ranging 19-24 years. Gender, age, weight, height, and body mass index, and type of residence were collected from each interviewee. Percentages intakes of nutrients have been calculated in proportion to established dietary recommendations (%IR). 93.2% had breakfast on rising and 83.8% took a mid-morning snack daily, and 53.5% do both intakes. The most common foods were dairy products (92.6%), cereals (58.8%) and sweet food (57.9%) at breakfast, and cereals (46.6%), fruits (40.7%) and sausages (34.9%) at mid-morning. The %IR of the calorie intake was 24.4% in males and 24.6% in females (n.s.). The %IR of the cholesterol intake was 38.2% in males and 23.9% in females (p breakfast. This breakfast model differs from the prototype of a healthy diet through an excessive consumption of sweet foods (early breakfast) and meat and derivatives (snack). Half of interviewee did not a mid-morning snack and the morning caloric intake was below recommended. In the case of university students concerned about the potentially negative effect it may have on academic performance. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Sugar versus Mixed Breakfast on Metabolic and Neurofunctional Responses in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Codella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of glucose and diverse breakfasts on glucose increment and ghrelin suppression and cognitive processing of sensory information assessed by frontal P300 evoked potentials. In a randomized crossover design, 12 healthy individuals (6M/6F; BMI 22.2 ± 0.4 kg/m2; 27 ± 1.3 years, mean ± SEM underwent 50 g OGTT (A and 3 breakfasts (B1: milk and cereals; B2: milk, apple, and chocolate cream-filled sponge cake; B3: milk, apple, bread, and hazelnut chocolate cream to assess plasma glucose-, insulin-, and ghrelin excursions. An electroencephalography was performed before and 100 min after consumption of each load to measure the latency of frontal P300 evoked potentials as index of cognitive performance. Breakfasts B1 and B2 exhibited significantly lower glycemic and insulinemic responses as compared to A. Breakfast B3 exhibited significantly lower glycemic, but not insulinemic response, as compared to A. Final plasma ghrelin inhibition was more pronounced, albeit not significantly, in all breakfasts with respect to A. P300 latency tended to decrease following each of the three breakfasts, but B3 was the only breakfast capable to elicit a statistically significant reduction in P300 latency with respect to A (p<0.01, suggesting ameliorated cognitive performance. Such amelioration was correlated with the 2-hour final inhibition of plasma ghrelin concentration (r=0.61, p=0.01.

  11. School Breakfast Program and School Performance

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1989-01-01

    The effects of participation in the school breakfast program by low income children on academic achievement and rates of absence and tardiness are reported from the Department of Pediatrics, Boston City Hospital, Boston, MA.

  12. The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in young adults. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES): 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh-Taskar, Priya; Nicklas, Theresa A; Radcliffe, John D; O'Neil, Carol E; Liu, Yan

    2013-11-01

    To examine the association between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Cross-sectional. Three breakfast groups were identified, breakfast skippers (BS), ready-to-eat-cereal (RTEC) consumers and other breakfast (OB) consumers, using a 24 h dietary recall. Risk factors were compared between the breakfast groups using covariate-adjusted statistical procedures. The 1999–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, USA. Young adults (20–39 years of age). Among these young adults (n 5316), 23.8% were BS, 16.5% were RTEC consumers and 59.7% were OB consumers. Relative to the BS, the RTEC consumers were 31%, 39%, 37%, 28%, 23%, 40% and 42% less likely to be overweight/obese or have abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated serum total cholesterol, elevated serum LDL-cholesterol, reduced serum HDL-cholesterol or elevated serum insulin, respectively. Relative to the OB consumers, the BS were 1.24, 1.26 and 1.44 times more likely to have elevated serum total cholesterol, elevated serum LDL-cholesterol or reduced serum HDL-cholesterol, respectively. Relative to the OB consumers, the RTEC consumers were 22%, 31% and 24% less likely to be overweight/ obese or have abdominal obesity or elevated blood pressure, respectively. No difference was seen in the prevalence of the MetS by breakfast skipping or type of breakfast consumed. Results suggest that consumption of breakfast, especially that included an RTEC, was associated with an improved cardiometabolic risk profile in U.S. young adults. Additional studies are needed to determine the nature of these relationships.

  13. The Effects of Breakfast and Breakfast Composition on Cognition in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review123

    OpenAIRE

    Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L; Champ, Claire L; Dye, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Breakfast is thought to be beneficial for cognitive and academic performance in school children. However, breakfast is the most frequently skipped meal, especially among adolescents. The aim of the current article was to systematically review the evidence from intervention studies for the effects of breakfast on cognitive performance in children and adolescents. The effects of breakfast were evaluated by cognitive domain and breakfast manipulation. A total of 45 studies reported in 43 article...

  14. Breakfast skipping in prepubertal obese children: hormonal, metabolic and cognitive consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeis, C; Fornari, E; Surano, M G; Comencini, E; Corradi, M; Tommasi, M; Fasan, I; Cortese, S

    2012-03-01

    Skipping breakfast influences cognitive performance. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between the variation of hormonal and metabolic postprandial parameters induced by breakfast consumption or fasting and cognitive performance in obese children. Cross-sectional study for repeated measures. Memory and attention assessment tests, hormones and nutrient oxidation were measured before and after consuming breakfast vs fasting in 10 prepubertal obese children. Fasting induced a significant (PContinuous Performance Test II (a global index of inattention) and the Test of Memory and Learning Word Selective Reminding (a test of verbal memory), whereas no changes were found after breakfast. Fasting was associated with a reduction of insulin and an increase in glucagon, with no changes in glucose. The increase in inattention was associated with a reduction of carbohydrate oxidation (ρ=-0.66, Pbreakfast or fasting, whereas Ghrelin was significantly lower. No association between postprandial hormone variation and cognitive performance was found. Attention and visual memory performance in the morning were reduced when the children skipped breakfast. No association was found with hormones or metabolic changes, but we did find an association with a reduction of carbohydrate oxidation. Nevertheless, these preliminary findings need confirmation in larger sample size.

  15. Effect of a high-protein breakfast on the postprandial ghrelin response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Wendy A M; Lluch, Anne; Stafleu, Annette

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The most satiating macronutrient appears to be dietary protein. Few studies have investigated the effects of dietary protein on ghrelin secretion in humans. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate whether a high-protein (HP) breakfast is more satiating than a high-carbohydra......BACKGROUND: The most satiating macronutrient appears to be dietary protein. Few studies have investigated the effects of dietary protein on ghrelin secretion in humans. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate whether a high-protein (HP) breakfast is more satiating than a high......-carbohydrate breakfast (HC) through suppression of postprandial ghrelin concentrations or through other physiologic processes. DESIGN: Fifteen healthy men were studied in a single-blind, crossover design. Blood samples and subjective measures of satiety were assessed frequently for 3 h after the consumption of 2...... absorption test. RESULTS: The HP breakfast decreased postprandial ghrelin secretion more than did the HC breakfast (P Ghrelin concentrations were correlated with glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (r = -0.65; 95% CI: -0.85, -0.29) and glucagon concentrations (r = -0.47; 95% CI: -0.75, -0...

  16. School Breakfast Scorecord, 2002. Twelfth Annual Status Report on the School Breakfast Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Doug; Woo, Nicole; Phelps, Anne; Parker, Lynn; Weill, Jim

    The School Breakfast Program provides breakfast to millions of children from low-income families who otherwise might go hungry in the morning and be less ready to learn. This report is the eleventh from the Food Research and Action Center (FRAC) to examine the program, its benefits, and the performance of the nation and of each state in reaching…

  17. School Breakfast Scorecard, 2003: Thirteenth Annual Status Report on the School Breakfast Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Nicole; Parker, Lynn; Weill, Jim; Vuong, Bi; Hess, Doug; Weinstein-Tull, Justin; Putney, Wanda

    The School Breakfast Program provides breakfast to millions of children from low-income families who otherwise might go hungry in the morning and be less ready to learn. This report is the thirteenth from the Food Research and Action Center (FRAC) to examine the program, its benefits, and the performance of the nation and of each state in reaching…

  18. Breakfast skipping is associated with differences in meal patterns, macronutrient intakes and overweight among pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon; Potvin Kent, Monique; Farmer, Anna; Tatone-Tokuda, Fabiola

    2009-01-01

    To examine the association between skipping breakfast, daily energy, macronutrients and food intakes, and BMI in pre-school children. A cross-sectional study using information on children's food consumption and measured height and weight. Energy and macronutrient intakes of the children were derived from parent/day-care attendant's responses to 24 h recall interviews and eating behaviour questionnaires. Data obtained from a representative sample (n 2,103) of children born in Quebec (Canada) in 1998. One thousand five hundred and forty-nine children, with a mean age of 49 (sd 3.12) months. Ten per cent of children ate breakfast on fewer than 7 days per week. This behaviour was associated with a lower diet quality and concentrated energy intakes through higher protein intakes at lunch and the consumption of snacks higher in energy and carbohydrate in the afternoon and evening; yet total daily energy intakes were not significantly different from those of pre-school children who ate breakfast every day. Breakfast skippers' mean BMI increased as intake of energy, carbohydrates or servings of grain products increased; however, this was not the case for breakfast eaters. When Cole's cut-off for overweight/obesity was used, overweight/obesity in breakfast skippers was related to the dinner-time consumption of approximately 3,000 kJ (700 kcal) or more for energy intake, approximately 100 g or more of carbohydrates, or approximately 3 servings or more of grain products. Eating breakfast every day is associated with having a healthy body weight, likely due to a more even distribution of energy intake across meals throughout the day.

  19. Acute glycaemic load breakfast manipulations do not attenuate cognitive impairments in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamport, Daniel Joseph; Dye, Louise; Mansfield, Michael W; Lawton, Clare L

    2013-04-01

    Research on young healthy samples suggests that low glycaemic load foods can confer benefits for cognitive performance. The aim was to examine the effects of type 2 diabetes on cognitive function, and to investigate whether consumption of low glycaemic load breakfasts affects cognitive function in adults with type 2 diabetes. Memory, psychomotor skill and executive function were examined at two morning test sessions in 24 adults with type 2 diabetes and 10 adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) aged 45-77 years without dementia after water, low, and high glycaemic load breakfasts were consumed in accordance with a crossover, counterbalanced design. The type 2 diabetes and NGT groups were matched for education, depression, and IQ. Type 2 diabetes was associated with impairments in verbal memory, spatial memory, psychomotor skill, and executive function compared to adults with NGT. Consumption of the three breakfast conditions did not impact on cognitive performance in the type 2 diabetes or NGT participants. Abnormalities in glucose tolerance such as type 2 diabetes can have demonstrable negative effects on a range of cognitive functions. However, there was no evidence that low GL breakfasts administered acutely could confer benefits for cognitive function (ClincalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01047813). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. School Breakfast Program and school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, A F; Sampson, A E; Weitzman, M; Rogers, B L; Kayne, H

    1989-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that participation in the School Breakfast Program by low-income children is associated with improvements in standardized achievement test scores and in rates of absence and tardiness, children in grades 3 through 6 were studied in the Lawrence, Mass, public schools, where the School Breakfast Program was begun at the start of the second semester 1986-1987 school year. The changes in scores on a standardized achievement test and in rates of absence and tardiness before and after the implementation of the School Breakfast Program for children participating in the program were compared with those of children who also qualified but did not participate. Controlling for other factors, participation in the School Breakfast Program contributed positively to the 1987 Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills battery total scale score and negatively to 1987 tardiness and absence rates. These findings suggest that participation in the School Breakfast Program is associated with significant improvements in academic functioning among low-income elementary school children.

  1. Impact of Fruit Smoothies on Adolescent Fruit Consumption at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Dylan; Price, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of serving fruit smoothies during school breakfast on fruit consumption among middle school and high school students. We draw on observational plate-waste data over a 10-week period during which fruit smoothies were introduced for breakfast at two Utah schools. Our total sample includes 2,760 student-day observations. We find…

  2. Association of breakfast intake with cardiometabolic risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Shafiee

    2013-11-01

    Conclusions: skipping breakfast is associated with increased risk of MetS and other cardiometabooic factors in children and adolescents. Promoting the benefit of eating breakfast could be a simple and important implication to prevent these risk factors.

  3. Healthy Breakfast: Quick, Flexible Options to Grab at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with whole-wheat bread, eggs whites or an egg substitute, cinnamon and vanilla Try these tips for fitting in breakfast on a tight schedule: Cook ahead. Make breakfast the night before. Just reheat ...

  4. Breakfast Cereals: The Extreme Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Connor

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of my talk today is to review several aspects of the market structure, strategic rivalry, and economic performance of the ready-to-eat cereals industry. To do so, I will at times take a long historical view of the breakfast cereals industry because many of the behaviors we observe today seem to me to be imbedded in habits of business rivalry that were learned many decades ago and yet persist today. My perspective on the RTE breakfast cereals industry is informed by nearly twenty y...

  5. The relation between breakfast skipping and school performance in Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, A.M.; Ouwehand, C.; Dekker, S.J.; Lee, N.C.; de Groot, R.H.M.; Krabbendam, A.C.; Jolles, J.

    2012-01-01

    Breakfast skipping is common in adolescents, but research on the effects of breakfast skipping on school performance is scarce. This current cross-sectional survey study of 605 adolescents aged 11-18 years investigated whether adolescents who habitually skip breakfast have lower end-of-term grades

  6. School Breakfast Score Card 1991-1992. (Second Edition.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingling-Clemmons, Michele A.; Kittlaus, Ann K.

    The School Breakfast Program supplies federal funds to schools and residential child care institutions that provide breakfasts to children. This status report compares the performance of each state to the performance of other states and of the nation as a whole in school breakfast participation. The first section examines overall outcomes, taking…

  7. Associations between breakfast eating habits and health-promoting lifestyle, suboptimal health status in Southern China: a population based, cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jieyu; Cheng, Jingru; Liu, Yanyan; Tang, Yang; Sun, Xiaomin; Wang, Tian; Xiao, Ya; Li, Fei; Xiang, Lei; Jiang, Pingping; Wu, Shengwei; Wu, Liuguo; Luo, Ren; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2014-12-11

    Suboptimal health status (SHS) is the intermediate health state between health and disease, refers to medically undiagnosed or functional somatic syndromes, and has been a major global public health challenge. However, both the etiology and mechanisms associated with SHS are still unclear. Breakfast eating behavior is a dietary pattern marker and previous studies have presented evidence of associations between failure to consume breakfast and increased diseases. Accordingly, in view of the significance of breakfast eating behaviors with respect to health status, the associations between breakfast eating habits and healthy lifestyle, SHS require further elucidation. A cross-sectional survey was conducted within a clustered sample of 24,159 individuals aged 12-80 years in 2012-13 within the population of Southern China. Breakfast eating habits were categorically defined by consumption frequency ('scarcely, sometimes or always'). Health-promoting lifestyle was assessed via the health-promoting lifestyle profile (HPLP-II). SHS was evaluated using the medical examination report and Sub-health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0). Of the 24,159 participants, the prevalence rates for the 'health' , 'SHS' , and 'disease' were 18.8%, 46.0%, and 35.2%, respectively. Overall, 19.6% of participants reported 'scarce' breakfast eating habits, with frequent breakfast eaters scoring higher on both HPLP-II and SHMS V1.0. After demographic adjustment, regression analyses revealed a significant association between breakfast eating habits and healthy lifestyle (p eating habits are significantly associated with a healthy lifestyle, and appear to be a useful predictor of a healthy lifestyle. Irregular breakfast eating habits are related to an increased risk of SHS; increased breakfast eating frequency may contribute to lowering the prevalence of SHS in Southern China.

  8. Cooking breakfast after a brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick N. Tanguay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acquired brain injury (ABI often compromises the ability to carry out instrumental activities of daily living such as cooking. ABI patients’ difficulties with executive functions and memory result in less independent and efficient meal preparation. Accurately assessing safety and proficiency in cooking is essential for successful community reintegration following ABI, but in vivo assessment of cooking by clinicians is time-consuming, costly, and difficult to standardize. Accordingly, we examined the usefulness of a computerized meal preparation task (the Breakfast Task; Craik & Bialystok, 2006 as an indicator of real life meal preparation skills. Twenty-two ABI patients and 22 age-matched controls completed the Breakfast Task and the Rehabilitation Activities of Daily Living Survey (RADLS; Salmon, 2003. Patients also prepared actual meals, and were rated by members of the clinical team. As expected, the ABI patients had significant difficulty on all aspects of the Breakfast Task (failing to have all their foods ready at the same time, over- and under-cooking foods, setting fewer places at the table, and so on relative to controls. Surprisingly, however, patients’ Breakfast Task performance was not correlated with their in vivo meal preparation. These results indicate caution when endeavoring to replace traditional evaluation methods with computerized tasks for the sake of expediency.

  9. IMPACTS OF SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES ON THE IMPLICIT VALUES OF BREAKFAST CEREAL CHARACTERISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Hongqi; Price, David W.

    1998-01-01

    The implicit values of nutrient and nonnutrient characteristics of breakfast cereal were estimated using the 1987-88 household portion of the USDAÂ’'s Nationwide Food Consumption Survey data. The effects of sociodemographic variables on cereal characteristic values were also estimated. The conceptual framework of the hedonic price model, used for food products, has traditionally focused on the nutritional characteristics of these products. This framework was extended to incorporate nonnutriti...

  10. Adaptive regularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Rasmussen, Carl Edward; Svarer, C.

    1994-01-01

    Regularization, e.g., in the form of weight decay, is important for training and optimization of neural network architectures. In this work the authors provide a tool based on asymptotic sampling theory, for iterative estimation of weight decay parameters. The basic idea is to do a gradient desce...

  11. Application of Health Belief Model\\'s constructs for predicting regular consumption of folic acid supplements in pregnant women referred to Borazjan’s health centers in 2014-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre kafaee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most common disorders in pregnancy is Folic Acid deficiency and its complications. The aim of this study was to examine the predictors of regular use of folic acid supplements based on HBM in pregnant women referred to Borazjan’s health centers. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 228 pregnant women or women with planning of pregnancy referred to health centers of Borazjan with random sampling method evaluated. Data was collected with questionnaire in 4 parts included demographic characteristics, knowledge, health belief model constructs and questions about folic acid supplement use. Data was analyzed by SPSS software with using appropriate statistical tests. Results: The mean age of samples was 27.4±5.41. 144 patients (63.2% consumed Folic Acid pills regularly, and 84 patients (36.8% had irregular use. The awareness of folic acid in 22.8% of women was good, 59.6%  and 17.5% of samples had intermediate and poor awareness, respectively. The perceived barriers (P<0.001, perceived benefits (P=0.002 and self-efficacy (P<0.001 had relation with consumption of folic acid and among demographic variables, only education level (P=0.04 had relation with the consumption of pills. In logistic regression perceived barriers was only predictor. Age and educational level had indirect effect in regular consume pill. Conclusion: Perceived barriers was strongest predictors of folic acid use, therefore intervention based on health belief model, with emphasis on reducing barriers is necessary for improving the use of this medicine during pregnancy.

  12. Commercial breakfast cereals available in Mexican markets and their contribution in dietary fiber, β-glucans and protein quality by rat bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón-Villa, María R; Barrón-Hoyos, Jesús M; Cinco-Moroyoqui, Francisco J

    2014-09-01

    The beneficial effect of dietary fiber (DF) consumption has long been recognized. The global economy and open market trade policies have increased the availability of food products in Mexican markets, resulting in a wide variety of ready-to-eat commercial breakfast cereals classified as 'high fiber'. This research was aimed to evaluate the total dietary fiber contents, its fractions (soluble and insoluble) and β-glucan in 13 commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals, as well as to evaluate their protein quality by rat bioassays. Commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals had 7.42-39.82% insoluble dietary fiber, 2.53-12.85% soluble dietary fiber, and 0.45-4.96% β-glucan. These ready-to-eat commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals differed significantly in their total dietary fiber, their soluble and insoluble DF fractions, and also in their β-glucan contents. When supplied as experimental diets, in 14-day rat feeding trials, the 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals showed an adverse effect on the % N digestibility but protein utilization, as measured as net protein ratio (NPR), was not significantly affected. The consumption of these commercial breakfast cereals, especially those made of oats as the basic ingredient, is highly recommended, since these products, being a concentrated source of dietary fiber, do not affect their protein quality.

  13. Does breakfast make a difference in school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitt, E

    1995-10-01

    This article reviews selectively the literature on the effects of breakfast on cognition and school performance. The focus is on studies published in refereed journals after 1978 that tested those effects on well-nourished and nutritionally at-risk children. In at-risk subjects (defined by clinical history and anthropometry), a morning and overnight fast had adverse effects on cognition, particularly the speed of information retrieval in working memory. Contradictions in the data from different studies prevent definitive conclusions on whether well-nourished children experience similar functional deficits. Nonetheless, available information suggests that brain function is sensitive to short-term variations in the availability of nutrient supplies. Moreover, well-conducted evaluations suggest that the availability of feeding programs in public schools throughout the academic year increases the probability that children will eat breakfast and improve their educational status.

  14. Estimating impacts of a breakfast in the classroom program on school outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Djang, Holly Carmichael; Halmo, Megan M; Dolan, Peter R; Economos, Christina D

    2015-01-01

    Short-term impacts of breakfast consumption on diet quality and cognitive functioning have been reported, but more evidence is needed to draw causal inferences about long-term impacts of school breakfast on indicators of school engagement and academic achievement. To estimate the impact of a Breakfast in the Classroom (BIC) program on School Breakfast Program participation, school attendance, and academic achievement. This quasi-experimental study included a sample of 446 public elementary schools from a large, urban US school district that served predominantly low-income, racial/ethnic minority students. A total of 257 schools (57.6%) implemented a BIC program during the 2012-2013 academic year, whereas 189 (42.4%) did not. School- and grade-level data from 2012-2013 and grade-level achievement data from the prior year were collected from school district records across the elementary schools. Hypotheses that a BIC program would improve school breakfast participation at the school level, school attendance at the grade level (kindergarten through sixth grade), and academic achievement at the grade level (second through sixth grades) were tested using propensity score weights to adjust for demographic differences between the BIC and non-BIC schools. The BIC program was linked with increased breakfast participation during the academic year (F10,414=136.90, Pperforming attendance analyses in the subset of grade levels for which achievement data were available, results were mostly consistent, although there was a group × time interaction (F10,1891=1.94, P=.04) such that differences between least squares means in the BIC vs non-BIC groups did not reach statistical significance at every month. There were no group differences in standardized test performance in math (57.9% in the BIC group vs 57.4% in the non-BIC group; F1,1890=0.41, P=.52) or reading (44.9% in the BIC group vs 44.7% in the non-BIC group; F1,1890=0.15, P=.70). Findings add to the evidence that BIC can

  15. The antimatter. Press breakfast 23 may 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiro, M.; Dejardin, M.; Debu, P.; Aleksan, R.

    2000-05-01

    This document brings together the subjects discussed during the Press breakfast of 23 may 2000 on the antimatter, with scientists of the CEA and the CNRS. It presents the research programs and the experiments on the antimatter and the symmetry violation: the CP LEAR and the NA48 experiments at CERN, the BaBar detector at SLAC, the fundamental research at the CEA and the impacts on the energy policy. It provides also links for more detailed inquiries. (A.L.B.)

  16. Couch & Brunch: The breakfast chain business model

    OpenAIRE

    Geraz, Sara Cristina Faria

    2011-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics In an increasingly health-conscious society, a market gap pops up in the Portuguese restaurant business sector. Indeed, one may notice the inexistence of an attractive specialized breakfast provider, hampering the realization of what seems to be claimed, the most important day meal, in what health and diet are concerned. Hence, the objective...

  17. Regular consumption of vitamin D-fortified yogurt drink (Doogh improved endothelial biomarkers in subjects with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shab-Bidar Sakineh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial dysfunction has been proposed as the underlying cause of diabetic angiopathy that eventually leads to cardiovascular disease, the major cause of death in diabetes. We recently demonstrated the ameliorating effect of regular vitamin D intake on the glycemic status of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D. In this study, the effects of improvement of vitamin D status on glycemic status, lipid profile and endothelial biomarkers in T2D subjects were investigated. Methods Subjects with T2D were randomly allocated to one of the two groups to receive either plain yogurt drink (PYD; containing 170 mg calcium and no vitamin D/250 mL, n1 = 50 or vitamin D3-fortified yogurt drink (FYD; containing 170 mg calcium and 500 IU/250 mL, n2 = 50 twice a day for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measures, glycemic status, lipid profile, body fat mass (FM and endothelial biomarkers including serum endothelin-1, E-selectin and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9 were evaluated at the beginning and after the 12-week intervention period. Results The intervention resulted in a significant improvement in fasting glucose, the Quantitative Insulin Check Index (QUICKI, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, triacylglycerols, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, endothelin-1, E-selectin and MMP-9 in FYD compared to PYD (P P = 0.028; -3.8 ± 7.3 versus 0.95 ± 8.3, P = 0.003 and -2.3 ± 3.7 versus 0.44 ± 7.1 ng/mL, respectively, P P = 0.009 and P = 0.005, respectively but disappeared for E-selectin (P = 0.092. On the contrary, after controlling for serum 25(OHD, the differences disappeared for endothelin-1(P = 0.066 and MMP-9 (P = 0.277 but still remained significant for E-selectin (P = 0.011. Conclusions Ameliorated vitamin D status was accompanied by improved glycemic status, lipid profile and endothelial biomarkers in T2D subjects. Our findings suggest both direct and indirect ameliorating effects of vitamin D on the endothelial biomarkers. Trial registration

  18. Breakfast and Breakfast Cereal Choice and Its Impact on Nutrient and Sugar Intakes and Anthropometric Measures among a Nationally Representative Sample of Australian Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Fayet-Moore

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is limited evidence in Australia that compares the nutritional impact of a breakfast cereal breakfast to a non-cereal breakfast, and includes the type of cereal. This study investigated the impact of breakfast choice and the total sugar content of breakfast cereal on nutrient intakes and anthropometric measures among Australian children and adolescents. Data from 2 to 18-year-old in the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used (n = 2821. Participants were classified as breakfast cereal consumers (minimally pre-sweetened (MPS or pre-sweetened (PS, non-cereal breakfast consumers, or breakfast skippers. Foods consumed for breakfast, foods added to the cereal bowl, and the impact of breakfast choice on daily nutrient intakes and anthropometric measures were determined. Although only 9% of children skipped breakfast, 61% of skippers were aged 14–18 years. Among breakfast consumers, 49% had breakfast cereal, and 62% of these exclusively consumed MPS cereal. Breakfast skippers had a higher saturated fat intake than breakfast cereal consumers, and lower intakes of dietary fibre and most micronutrients (p < 0.001. Compared with non-cereal breakfast consumers, breakfast cereal consumers had additional free sugars intake, lower sodium, and higher total sugars, carbohydrate, dietary fibre, and almost all other micronutrients (p < 0.001. The only difference in nutrient intakes between MPS and PS cereal consumers was higher folate among PS consumers. No associations between anthropometric measures and breakfast or breakfast cereal choice were found. The highest prevalence of breakfast skipping was among 14–18-year old. Breakfast cereal consumers had higher intakes of dietary fibre and most micronutrients compared with non-cereal breakfast consumers and skippers, and almost no differences were found between MPS and PS cereal consumers.

  19. 'It's just so much waste.' A qualitative investigation of food waste in a universal free School Breakfast Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Stacy A; Djang, Holly Carmichael; Metayer, Nesly; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Economos, Christina D

    2015-06-01

    To understand stakeholders' perspectives on food waste in a universal free School Breakfast Program implementing a Breakfast in the Classroom model. Semi-structured focus groups and interviews were conducted with school district stakeholders. Inductive methods were used to code resulting transcripts, from which themes were identified. The analysis provides a thematic analysis of stakeholders' perspectives on food waste in the School Breakfast Program. Ten elementary schools in a large urban school district implementing a universal free Breakfast in the Classroom model of the US national School Breakfast Program. Elementary-school students (n 85), parents (n 86), teachers (n 44), cafeteria managers (n 10) and school principals (n 10). Stakeholders perceived food waste as a problem and expressed concern regarding the amount of food wasted. Explanations reported for food waste included food-related (palatability and accessibility), child-related (taste preferences and satiation) and programme-related (duration, food service policies, and coordination) factors. Milk and fruit were perceived as foods particularly susceptible to waste. Several food waste mitigation strategies were identified by participants: saving food for later, actively encouraging children's consumption, assisting children with foods during mealtime, increasing staff support, serving smaller portion sizes, and composting and donating uneaten food. Stakeholders recognized food waste as a problem, reported myriad contributing factors, and have considered and employed multiple and diverse mitigation strategies. Changes to the menu and/or implementation logistics, as well as efforts to use leftover food productively, may be possible strategies of reducing waste and improving the School Breakfast Program's economic, environmental and nutritional impact.

  20. Free Student Breakfasts: Surest Way to Raise Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmelynski, Carol

    2007-01-01

    According to James Weill, president of the Food Research and Action Center (FRAC), breakfast is not the solution to the problems in America's schools, but it is the fastest, easiest, cheapest way of boosting school performance. According to FRAC, the federal breakfast program run by the Agricultural Department reached a record 7.7 million…

  1. Breakfast Eating Habits among Medical Students | Ackuaku-Dogbe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breakfast is often thought to be the most important meal of the day as it is known to provide energy for the brain and improve learning. It is also known to contribute significantly to the total daily energy and nutrient intake. Skipping breakfast may affect performance during the rest of the day. Aim: To determine the ...

  2. Educational Impact of a School Breakfast Programme in Rural Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Santiago; Chinen, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present data from an evaluation of the educational impact of a school breakfast program implemented in rural schools in Peru. The results showed positive effects on school attendance and dropout rates, and a differential effect of the breakfast program on multiple-grade and full-grade schools. Particularly in multiple-grade…

  3. The Effect of Providing Breakfast in Class on Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imberman, Scott A.; Kugler, Adriana D.

    2014-01-01

    Many schools have recently experimented with moving breakfast from the cafeteria to the classroom. We examine whether such a program increases achievement, grades, and attendance rates. We exploit quasi-random timing of program implementation that allows for a difference-in-differences identification strategy. We find that providing breakfast in…

  4. Eating on nightshift: A big vs small snack impairs glucose response to breakfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Centofanti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Shift work is a risk factor for chronic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes. Food choice may play a role, however simply eating at night when the body is primed for sleep may have implications for health. This study examined the impact of consuming a big versus small snack at night on glucose metabolism. N = 31 healthy subjects (21–35 y; 18 F participated in a simulated nightshift laboratory study that included one baseline night of sleep (22:00 h-07:00 h and one night awake with allocation to either a big snack (2100 kJ or small snack (840 kJ group. The snack was consumed between 00:00–00:30 h and consisted of low fat milk, a sandwich, chips and fruit (big snack or half sandwich and fruit (small snack. Subjects ate an identical mixed meal breakfast (2100 kJ at 08:30 h after one full night of sleep and a simulated nightshift. Interstitial glucose was measured continuously during the entire study using Medtronic Continual Glucose Monitors. Only subjects with identical breakfast consumption and complete datasets were analysed (N = 20. Glucose data were averaged into 5-minute bins and area under the curve (AUC was calculated for 90 min post-breakfast. Pre-breakfast, glucose levels were not significantly different between Day1 and Day2, nor were they different between snack groups (p > 0.05. A snack group by day interaction effect was found (F1,16 = 5.36, p = 0.034 and post-hocs revealed that in the big snack group, AUC response to breakfast was significantly higher following nightshift (Day2 compared to Day1 (p = 0.001. This translated to a 20.8% (SEM 5.6 increase. AUC was not significantly different between days in the small snack group. Consuming a big snack at 00:00 h impaired the glucose response to breakfast at 08:30 h, compared to a smaller snack. Further research in this area will inform dietary advice for shift workers, which could include recommendations on how much to eat as well as content.

  5. Breakfast and behavior in morning tasks: Facts or fads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edefonti, Valeria; Bravi, Francesca; Ferraroni, Monica

    2017-12-15

    Most of the studies investigating the effects of breakfast on cognitive performance have compared performance in subjects who have or have not consumed this meal. However, characteristics of breakfast itself may influence mental abilities. Moreover, as far as the positive effects of having breakfast is more evident, research may focus on the specific characteristics of an adequate breakfast. To update an existing systematic review, published at the beginning of 2014, on the role of nutrient composition and/or energy intake at breakfast on the accomplishment of school-related tasks and cognition, we carried out a systematic review of the literature through PUBMED database. From the literature search, we identified 39 papers, of which 2 were eligible according to our inclusion criteria. Both the selected papers concerned randomized crossover studies on the acute effect of breakfast carried out in a school setting in the United Kingdom. Both studies compared 2 iso-energetic breakfasts with a similar macronutrient composition; however, the alternative breakfasts were meant to differ in terms of glycemic index or glycemic load. The effects of breakfast composition were investigated on memory, attention, and information processing in both studies. However, different tests and subdomains were considered. Studies on these issues are still inconsistent and quantitatively insufficient to draw firm conclusions. While the hypothesis of a better mental performance with breakfast>20% daily energy intake still needs confirmation, there does appear to be extra evidence that a lower postprandial glycemic response is beneficial to mental performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Deleterious effects of omitting breakfast on insulin sensitivity and fasting lipid profiles in healthy lean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshchi, Hamid R; Taylor, Moira A; Macdonald, Ian A

    2005-02-01

    Breakfast consumption is recommended, despite inconclusive evidence of health benefits. The study's aim was to ascertain whether eating breakfast (EB) or omitting breakfast (OB) affects energy intake, energy expenditure, and circulating insulin, glucose, and lipid concentrations in healthy women. In a randomized crossover trial, 10 women [x+/-SD body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): 23.2+/-1.4] underwent two 14-d EB or OB interventions separated by a 2-wk interval. In the EB period, subjects consumed breakfast cereal with 2%-fat milk before 0800 and a chocolate-covered cookie between 1030 and 1100. In the OB period, subjects consumed the cookie between 1030 and 1100 and the cereal and milk between 1200 and 1330. Subjects then consumed 4 additional meals with content similar to usual at predetermined times later in the day and recorded food intake on 3 d during each period. Fasting and posttest meal glucose, lipid, and insulin concentrations and resting energy expenditure were measured before and after each period. Reported energy intake was significantly lower in the EB period (P=0.001), and resting energy expenditure did not differ significantly between the 2 periods. OB was associated with significantly higher fasting total and LDL cholesterol than was EB (3.14 and 3.43 mmol/L and 1.55 and 1.82 mmol/L, respectively; P=0.001). The area under the curve of insulin response to the test meal was significantly lower after EB than after OB (P<0.01). OB impairs fasting lipids and postprandial insulin sensitivity and could lead to weight gain if the observed higher energy intake was sustained.

  7. Breakfast high in whey protein or carbohydrates improves coping with workload in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihvola, Nora; Korpela, Riitta; Henelius, Andreas; Holm, Anu; Huotilainen, Minna; Müller, Kiti; Poussa, Tuija; Pettersson, Kati; Turpeinen, Anu; Peuhkuri, Katri

    2013-11-14

    Dietary components may affect brain function and influence behaviour by inducing the synthesis of neurotransmitters. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of consumption of a whey protein-containing breakfast drink v. a carbohydrate drink v. control on subjective and physiological responses to mental workload in simulated work. In a randomised cross-over design, ten healthy subjects (seven women, median age 26 years, median BMI 23 kg/m(2)) participated in a single-blinded, placebo-controlled study. The subjects performed demanding work-like tasks after having a breakfast drink high in protein (HP) or high in carbohydrate (HC) or a control drink on separate sessions. Subjective states were assessed using the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX), the Karolinska sleepiness scale (KSS) and the modified Profile of Mood States. Heart rate was recorded during task performance. The ratio of plasma tryptophan (Trp) to the sum of the other large neutral amino acids (LNAA) and salivary cortisol were also analysed. The plasma Trp:LNAA ratio was 30 % higher after the test drinks HP (median 0·13 (μmol/l)/(μmol/l)) and HC (median 0·13 (μmol/l)/(μmol/l)) than after the control drink (median 0·10 (μmol/l)/(μmol/l)). The increase in heart rate was smaller after the HP (median 2·7 beats/min) and HC (median 1·9 beats/min) drinks when compared with the control drink (median 7·2 beats/min) during task performance. Subjective sleepiness was reduced more after the HC drink (median KSS - 1·5) than after the control drink (median KSS - 0·5). There were no significant differences between the breakfast types in the NASA-TLX index, cortisol levels or task performance. We conclude that a breakfast drink high in whey protein or carbohydrates may improve coping with mental tasks in healthy subjects.

  8. School staff, parent and student perceptions of a Breakfast in the Classroom model during initial implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, Sara C; Carmichael Djang, Holly; Halmo, Megan; Metayer, Nesly; Blondin, Stacy A; Smith, Kathleen S; Economos, Christina D

    2016-06-01

    To understand perspectives of stakeholders during initial district-wide implementation of a Breakfast in the Classroom (BIC) model of the School Breakfast Program. Qualitative data were collected from twenty-nine focus groups and twenty interviews with stakeholders in a school district early in the process of implementing a BIC model of the School Breakfast Program. Ten elementary schools within a large, urban school district in the USA that served predominantly low-income, racial/ethnic minority students. Purposively selected stakeholders in elementary schools that had implemented BIC for 3-6 months: students (n 85), parents/guardians (n 86), classroom teachers (n 44), cafeteria managers (n 10) and principals (n 10). Four primary themes emerged, which were interpreted based on the Diffusion of Innovations model. School staff had changed their perceptions of both the relative disadvantages and costs related to time and effort of BIC over time; the majority of each stakeholder group expressed an appreciation for BIC; student breakfast consumption varied from day to day, related to compatibility of foods with child preferences; and stakeholders held mixed and various impressions of BIC's potential impacts. The study underscores the importance of engaging school staff and parents in discussions of BIC programming prior to its initiation to pre-emptively address concerns related to cost, relative disadvantages and compatibility with child preferences and school routines/workflow. Effectively communicating with stakeholders about positive impacts and nutritional value of the meals may improve support for BIC. These findings provide new information to policy makers, districts and practitioners that can be used to improve implementation efforts, model delivery and outcomes.

  9. UNFOLDED REGULAR AND SEMI-REGULAR POLYHEDRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONIŢĂ Elena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a presentation unfolding regular and semi-regular polyhedra. Regular polyhedra are convex polyhedra whose faces are regular and equal polygons, with the same number of sides, and whose polyhedral angles are also regular and equal. Semi-regular polyhedra are convex polyhedra with regular polygon faces, several types and equal solid angles of the same type. A net of a polyhedron is a collection of edges in the plane which are the unfolded edges of the solid. Modeling and unfolding Platonic and Arhimediene polyhedra will be using 3dsMAX program. This paper is intended as an example of descriptive geometry applications.

  10. Breakfast habits of adolescents in for South African populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A R; Walker, B F; Jones, J; Ncongwane, J

    1982-10-01

    Breakfast habits by using questionnaires, were established in a total of 4717 South African pupils of 16 to 18 yr. In the groups of rural and urban Black, Indian, European-African-Malay, and white pupils studied, respective proportions who had no solid breakfast (both sexes combined) were approximately 21, 19, 13, 13, and 14%. Proportions who had only porridge or bread (or toast) plus drink were 77, 73, 61, 71, and 56%. Such breakfast provided ranges of means of 223 to 345 kcal, 9 to 14 g protein, 7 to 18 g fat, 51 to 185 mg calcium, and 3.2 to 5.1 mg iron. Proportions who had a cooked breakfast (including egg, meat, fish), eaten with or without a cereal food, were 1, 4, 17, 8, and 29%. Such meals contributed means of 495 to 704 kcal, 11 to 26 g protein, 24 to 39 g fat, 110 to 225 mg calcium, and 3.9 to 5.5 mg iron. In the South African groups studied, the issue of breakfast or no breakfast had no clear-cut bearing on weight, height, class position, or frequency of absence from school. The degree by which, in a given community, nutrition in general and breakfast in particular, regulates health and/or academic performance, needs proper research in prospective studies.

  11. US Department of Agriculture School Breakfast Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, E; Davis, C

    1998-04-01

    This article reviews the history of the US Department of Agriculture School Breakfast Program (SBP) and provides a synthesis of factors influencing participation rates. Certain children are more likely to participate than others, such as those in lower grades and those from low-income households, and African American, Hispanic, and male students. A few studies in the past 25 y have examined the effectiveness of the SBP in improving the diets and nutritional status of children. The overall pattern that emerges from these studies is that the SBP contributes to improved nutrient intake in program participants. Less attention has been devoted to assessing the effects of SBP on cognitive development. Some of the evidence reviewed here suggests that the SBP significantly improves school performance and reduces absenteeism and tardiness. Future directions for research and operation of the SBP are discussed in light of the changing dietary profile of American children.

  12. Skipping Breakfast is Correlated with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoko; Saito, Isao; Henmi, Ikuyo; Yoshimura, Kana; Maruyama, Kotatsu; Yamauchi, Kanako; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Kato, Tadahiro; Tanigawa, Takeshi; Kishida, Taro; Asada, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that the total energy intake of Japanese people has decreased, the percentage of obese people has increased. This suggests that the timing of meals is related to obesity. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between the timing of meals and obesity, based on analyses of physical measurements, serum biochemical markers, nutrient intake, and lifestyle factors in the context of Chrononutrition. We analyzed data derived from 766 residents of Toon City (286 males and 480 females) aged 30 to 79 years who underwent detailed medical examinations between 2011 and 2013. These medical examinations included. (1) physical measurements (waist circumference, blood pressure, etc.); (2) serum biochemical markers (total cholesterol, etc.); (3) a detailed questionnaire concerning lifestyle factors such as family structure and daily habits (22 issues), exercise and eating habits (28 issues), alcohol intake and smoking habits; (4) a food frequency questionnaire based on food groups (FFQg); and (5) a questionnaire concerning the times at which meals and snacks are consumed. The values for body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were higher for participants who ate dinner less than three hours before bedtime (3-h group). The Chi-square test showed that there was a significant difference in eating habits, e.g., eating snacks, eating snacks at night, having dinner after 8 p.m., and having dinner after 9 p.m., between the 3-h group. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that skipping breakfast significantly influenced both waist circumference (β = 5.271) and BMI (β = 1.440) and that eating dinner influenced BMI (β = 0.581). Skipping breakfast had a greater influence on both waist circumference and BMI than eating dinner <3-h before going to bed.

  13. Effects of Economic Policies Aimed at Encouraging a Healthier Grain Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Nordstrom, Jonas; Thunstrom, Linda

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the effects of policy reforms aimed at achieving two policy objectives for grain consumption; (a) to double the intake of bread and breakfast cereals and (b) to ensure that half of the bread and breakfast cereals consumed are whole grain products. The overall aim of these policy objectives are to increase the dietary fibre intake from grain consumption so as to significantly contribute to the general recommended (minimum) increase of the fibre intake. Based on param...

  14. [Effect of energy intake at breakfast on school performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, G; Hu, X; Gao, S; Bai, D

    1999-09-30

    In order to examine the effect of energy intake at breakfast on school performance, 151 grade three school children from four classes of two schools were sampled for this study. Children were randomly assigned to breakfast A or B on any given day. They were provided with breakfast with either high or low energy content at school over a period of 5 successive days. The remained foods were collected and weighed. Performance tests including addition, multiplication, number checking, logic, creativity, physical endurance, visual-analogue scales were applied at the third or fourth period of courses in the morning on Tuesday through Friday during the experimental week. The teachers involved in the study were blind to the kind of treatment. No significant effect of energy intake at breakfast on these performance indicators was found in this study.

  15. Bug breakfast in the bulletin: human papilloma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Cate; Weisberg, Edith; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    The Bug Breakfast topic for October was Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). The presenters covered the epidemiology of HPV, the newly introduced HPV vaccine and social and psychological issues relating to HPV vaccination.

  16. Coordinate-invariant regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    A general phase-space framework for coordinate-invariant regularization is given. The development is geometric, with all regularization contained in regularized DeWitt Superstructures on field deformations. Parallel development of invariant coordinate-space regularization is obtained by regularized functional integration of the momenta. As representative examples of the general formulation, the regularized general non-linear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity are discussed. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc

  17. Impact of sodium chloride on breakfast cereal products

    OpenAIRE

    Moreau, Lydie

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the amount of sodium chloride in breakfast cereals without changing their properties, it is necessary to understand the role of this salt. Hence, a model system was developed. This model, composed of native waxy maize starch, glucose and a mixture of amino-acids generated similar colour and residual volatiles after heating compared to commercial breakfast cereals. Systematically designed experiments used this model to study the influence of NaCl concentration (0 % to 5.44 %) on colo...

  18. Energy, saturated fat and fibre intakes among Dutch children and adolescents at breakfast and implications for educational messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, L G M; Bessems, K M H H; Kremers, S P J; van Assema, P

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess energy, saturated fat and fibre intakes at breakfast among Dutch youngsters aged 10-19 years and the extent to which they meet nutritional value recommendations and the educational messages on food group intake by the Netherlands Nutrition Centre (NNC). A cross-sectional design was used and data were collected through an online questionnaire among 2380 students attending 71 Dutch schools for primary and secondary education. Energy intake at breakfast was, on average, 15.8% of daily recommended energy intake; mean saturated fat intake was 7.5 en% and mean fibre intake 1.0 g per 100 kcal. Of the participants, 67.2% met the saturated fat intake recommendation and 35.3% the fibre intake recommendation. In addition, 25.5% were assessed to have an adequate energy intake based on daily recommended, but not individually measured, age- and gender-specific energy intake. Most participants consumed products from the grains food group, in combination with products from one or two other food groups. Consumption from two or more food groups resulted in less favourable intake. Our study found generally inadequate fibre intake at breakfast as well as an indication of inadequate energy intake at breakfast among Dutch youngsters. The educational message of the NNC to consume at least (wholemeal) bread or another fibre-rich product (cereals) at breakfast seems realistic in terms of compliance and favourable in terms of the resulting nutritional value. The educational message to preferably eat from each of the five main food groups should be reconsidered.

  19. Relationship between breakfast and obesity among school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocandio, A M; Ansotegui, L; Arroyo, M

    2000-08-01

    Breakfast models among children are an issue of public health concern given the association between breakfast and school performance and its potential relationship with obesity. Food intake, energy, and nutrients in the breakfast of 32 school aged children (11-years olds) and its relationship with body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) were examined. The analysis was made by means of anthropometric measurements and a record of weekly food intake using the accurate weighed amount method. The percentage of studied children with overweight/obesity reached 46.9 (weight for height > 90 percentile). The proportional calorie intake in breakfast was lower than that recommended (16.6%). The association observed between caloric percentage of breakfast regarding daily energy and BMI was not significant. Nevertheless, significant correlations were found between fruit group (Pearson r = 0.6286) and protein foods (Pearson r = -0.7653) with BMI. The amount of total lipids (34.4%) and saturated lipids (19.4% in breakfast exceed the recommendations. Further studies are necessary to confirm these data and serve as basis for the design of nutritional education programs.

  20. Family sociodemographic characteristics as correlates of children's breakfast habits and weight status in eight European countries. The ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Androutsos, Odysseas; Filippou, Christina; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Vik, Froydis N; te Velde, Saskia J; Jan, Natasha; Dössegger, Alain; Bere, Elling; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A; Chinapaw, Mai J M; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brug, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations of family sociodemographic characteristics with children's weight status and whether these potential associations are mediated by children's breakfast habits. A school-based survey among 10-12-year-old children was conducted in eight European countries. Children's weight and height were measured and breakfast habits and family sociodemographic characteristics were self-reported by 5444 children and their parents. International Obesity Task Force cut-off points were used to categorize children as overweight/obese or normal weight. Mediation analyses were used to test the potential mediating effect of children's breakfast consumption on the associations between family sociodemographic characteristics and children's overweight/obesity. Schools in eight European countries participating in the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project. Children aged 10-12 years and their parents (n 5444). Children's reported daily breakfast consumption varied from 56 % in Slovenia to 92 % in Spain on weekdays and from 79 % in Greece to 93 % in Norway on weekends. Children of native parents, with both parents employed and with at least one parent having more than 14 years of education were more likely to consume breakfast daily and less likely to be overweight/obese. Finally, mediation analyses revealed that the association of parental nationality and parental educational status with children's overweight/obesity was partially mediated by children's daily breakfast consumption. The study shows that the lower likelihood of being overweight/obese among 10-12-year-old children of native background and higher parental educational status was partially mediated by children's daily breakfast consumption.

  1. Comparison of a high-carbohydrate and high-protein breakfast effect on plasma ghrelin, obestatin, NPY and PYY levels in women with anorexia and bulimia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedlackova Dana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study investigated plasma levels of gut-brain axis peptides ghrelin, obestatin, NPY and PYY after consumption of a high-carbohydrate (HC and high-protein (HP breakfast in patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and in healthy controls. These peptides play an important role in regulation of energy homeostasis and their secretion is disturbed under condition of eating disorders. As various types of consumed macronutrients may induce different plasma hormone responses, so we examined these responses in women patients with eating disorders and compared them with those of healthy controls. Methods We examined plasma hormone responses to HC and HP breakfast in patients with AN (n = 14; age: 24.6 ± 1.8 years, BMI: 15.3 ± 0.7, BN (n = 15; age: 23.2 ± 1.7 years, BMI: 20.5 ± 0.9 and healthy controls (n = 14; age: 24.9 ± 1.4 years, BMI: 21.1 ± 0.8. Blood samples were drawn from the cubital vein, the first blood drawn was collected before meal, and then 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min after breakfast consumption. Plasma hormone levels were determined by commercially available RIA kits. Results Fasting and postprandial plasma obestatin levels were significantly increased in both AN and BN patients, while plasma ghrelin levels were significantly increased in AN patients only. After breakfast consumption, plasma levels of ghrelin and obestatin decreased, although they were still above the range of values of healthy controls. Fasting NPY plasma levels were significantly increased in AN and BN patients and did not change postprandially. Fasting PYY levels were comparable in AN, BN and healthy controls, but postprandially significantly increased after HP breakfast in AN and BN patients. Different reactions to breakfast consumption was found for ghrelin and PYY among investigated groups, while for obestatin and NPY these reactions were similar in all groups. Conclusions Significant

  2. Energy drinks, caffeine, junk food, breakfast, depression and academic attainment of secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P; Richards, Gareth

    2018-06-01

    Energy drinks are widely consumed, and concerns have been raised about possible negative outcomes. The aim of the present research was to examine associations between consumption of energy drinks, caffeine and junk food, and academic attainment in a sample of UK secondary school students. A total of 3071 students agreed to participate in the study; 2677 completed the survey on one occasion (52.4% female, 47.6% male; approximately 20% of the sample from each school year) and 1660 (49.6% female, 50.4% male) completed the survey a second time, approximately six months later. The academic attainment measure was based on Key Stage 3 and Key Stage 4 grades for Maths and English. In the cross-sectional analyses, logistic regressions showed that consumption of energy drinks was associated with a greater likelihood of being in the low academic achievement group. This was not found for other sources of caffeine. The effect of energy drinks was still significant when demographic, academic and health/lifestyle variables were covaried. However, inclusion of an unhealthy diet variable (junk food) removed the significant effect of energy drinks. Similar observations were made in the longitudinal study, with the poorer attainment of those who consumed energy drinks reflecting breakfast omission and depression. The present findings indicate that consumption of energy drinks is associated with an increased likelihood of poor academic attainment that reflects energy drink consumption being part of an unhealthy diet or being associated with skipping breakfast rather than a more specific effect, such as being a source of caffeine. Although the current study extends previous research by utilising a longitudinal design, intervention studies are now required to better answer questions relating to causality and direction of effect.

  3. The addition of a protein-rich breakfast and its effects on acute appetite control and food intake in 'breakfast-skipping' adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidy, H J; Racki, E M

    2010-07-01

    Breakfast skipping (BS) is closely associated with overeating (in the evening), weight gain and obesity. It is unclear whether the addition of breakfast, with emphasis on dietary protein, leads to better appetite and energy intake regulation in adolescents. The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of addition of a normal-protein (PN) breakfast vs protein-rich (PR) breakfast on appetite and food intake in 'breakfast-skipping' adolescents. A total of 13 adolescents (age 14.3+/-0.3 years; body mass index percentile 79+/-4 percentile; skipped breakfast 5+/-1 x per week) randomly completed 3 testing days that included a PN (18+/-1 g protein), PR (48+/-2 g protein) or BS. Breakfast was 24% of estimated daily energy needs. Appetite, satiety and hormonal responses were collected over 5 h followed by an ad libitum lunch and 24-h food intake assessments. Perceived appetite was not different following PN vs BS; PR led to greater reductions vs BS (PLunch energy intake was not different following PN vs BS; PR led to fewer kcal consumed vs BS (PDaily food intake was not different among treatments. Breakfast led to increased satiety through increased fullness and PYY concentrations in 'breakfast skipping' adolescents. A breakfast rich in dietary protein provides additional benefits through reductions in appetite and energy intake. These findings suggest that the addition of a protein-rich breakfast might be an effective strategy to improve appetite control in young people.

  4. Protein and energy intake improved by breakfast intervention in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beermann, T; Mortensen, M N; Skadhauge, L B; Høgsted, R H; Rasmussen, H H; Holst, Mette

    2016-06-01

    Undernutrition affects about 40% of patients in hospitals. Ordinary food is recommended as the first choice to prevent and correct undernutrition. Meanwhile, sufficient intake, especially regarding protein, is difficult to reach, in patients at nutritional risk. The aim of this study was to improve protein intake at breakfast to at least 20% of total daily requirement or at least 20 g. A protein rich breakfast including 20 g of protein was served in the departments of heart and lung surgery and vascular surgery for three months. Nutrition intake was registered before and after intervention. Food intake records were collected from 32 and 30 patients respectively, mean age 69 (SD 8) years. At breakfast, protein intake was improved from 14% of individual requirements to 22% (penergy intake was improved from 18% to 25% (p=0.01). Total amount of protein intake for breakfast was increased from 14 g to 20 g (pprotein intake increased from 64% to 77% (p=0.05) and total energy intake from 76% to 99% (pProtein and energy intake for surgical patients at breakfast as well as total daily intake was significantly increased to meet recommended average level for minimum individually measured requirements. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [PHARMACEUTICAL CARE FOR HEALTHY BREAKFAST PROMOTION IN COMMUNITY PHARMACIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín Rives, Fátima; Morales Marin, Fatima; Marín Rives, Luz Virtudes; Gastelurrutia Garralda, Miguel Ángel

    2015-09-01

    a healthy breakfast is the one that includes a balanced portion of every nutrient qualitatively and quantitatively. Although it should supply the 20-25% calories of the day, it is usually insufficient or even absent. to study the food habits of schoolchildren and to participate in a health educational intervention of a Pharmaceutical Care Program with them. only the 36.6% of students have a healthy breakfast every day. The health education achieves favorable changes in the behavior and opinions of the schoolchildren participating. the percentage of students that have C group food is higher than in other studies. We can consider the fact that the School is located in a rural area with many vegetable gardens, and that can help students to eat more fruits. Another remarkable data is that the percentage of alumni that achieve a healthy breakfast is also higher than in other researchers. the breakfast of students of Fifth and Six Degree of Primary School is imbalanced. Health education by an educative and practical intervention benefits positive changes in the students' breakfast. It supports the effort of promoting Heath Education in Primary Schools. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Breakfast habits of 1,202 northern Italian children admitted to a summer sport school. Breakfast skipping is associated with overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanelli, Maurizio; Iovane, Brunella; Bernardini, Anna; Chiari, Giovanni; Errico, Maria Katrin; Gelmetti, Chiara; Corchia, Matteo; Ruggerini, Anna; Volta, Elio; Rossetti, Stefano

    2005-09-01

    Very little is known about the differences in breakfast of children performing physical activity in the morning. This paper analyzed the breakfast habits of 747 boys and 455 girls, distributed in 2 homogeneous age groups, 6-10 and 11-14 year-old, participating in a Summer Sport School. Children were asked whether, when, where, how and with whom they consumed breakfast; who prepared meals; what they ate and drank; what they did during breakfast. Weight, height and BMI were recorded. Seventy-eight percent of children usually had breakfast, but 22% reported skipping breakfast. In the non-breakfast consumer subjects, 27.5% were overweight and 9.6% obese vs 9.1 and 4.5% respectively in breakfast eaters. Bakery products (76%) and milk (71%) were the most frequently consumed foods. Only 15% of parents encouraged their children to consume additional foods at breakfast before exercising, and 42% of children believed that this extra nutrition was unnecessary. In 80% of cases, the chief decision-maker for breakfast was the mother, the father played little part (1%). During breakfast, 48% of children ate and drank in silence, 26% played with brothers and sisters, 18% watched television and only 8% talked with parents. A high prevalence of over-weight and obesity was found among non-breakfast consumer children. Breakfast omission in children exercising conflicts with their increased energy requirements and may be connected to the trend of parents and children to under-estimate the importance of breakfast for nutritional balance and for environment promotion of physical performance.

  7. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-01-01

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010–2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future. PMID:27649236

  8. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-09-13

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010-2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future.

  9. Breakfast, midday meals and academic achievement in rural primary schools in Uganda: implications for education and school health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedwig Acham

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Underachievement in schools is a global problem and is especially prevalent in developing countries. Indicators of educational performance show that Uganda has done remarkably well on education access-related targets since the introduction of universal primary education in 1997. However, educational outcomes remain disappointing. The absence of school feeding schemes, one of the leading causes of scholastic underachievement, has not been given attention by the Ugandan authorities. Instead, as a national policy, parents are expected to provide meals even though many, especially in the rural areas, cannot afford to provide even the minimal daily bowl of maize porridge.To assess and demonstrate the effect of breakfast and midday meal consumption on academic achievement of schoolchildren.We assessed household characteristics, feeding patterns and academic achievement of 645 schoolchildren (aged 9–15 years in Kumi district, eastern Uganda, in 2006–2007, using a modified cluster sampling design which involved only grade 1 schools (34 in total and pupils of grade four. Household questionnaires and school records were used to collect information on socio-demographic factors, feeding patterns and school attendance. Academic achievement was assessed using unstandardized techniques, specifically designed for this study.Underachievement (the proportion below a score of 120.0 points was high (68.4%; in addition, significantly higher achievement and better feeding patterns were observed among children from the less poor households (p<0.05. Achievement was significantly associated with consumption of breakfast and a midday meal, particularly for boys (p<0.05, and a greater likelihood of scoring well was observed for better nourished children (all OR values>1.0.We observed that underachievement was relatively high; inadequate patterns of meal consumption, particularly for the most poor, significantly higher scores among children from ‘less poor

  10. Can the provision of breakfast benefit school performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham-McGregor, Sally

    2005-06-01

    Studies of an association between school performance (enrollment, attendance, achievement, classroom behavior, and school drop-out) and nutritional status are discussed and the evidence of an effect of school meals evaluated. Many studies have shown associations between hunger, poor dietary intakes, stunting, underweight, and poor school performance after controlling for socioeconomic conditions. However, it remains possible that unmeasured socioeconomic variables could explain the relationship. Rigorous short-term studies of missing breakfast have generally found detrimental effects on children's cognition whereas studies of providing breakfast have shown benefits particularly in malnourished children. Classroom conditions may modify the effects of breakfast on behavior. There are extremely few longer term studies of the effects of giving school meals. Nearly all involved breakfast and very few had randomized controlled designs. Studies comparing participants with non-participants or comparing matched schools have found benefits (but bias due to self-selection) of receiving breakfast; inadequate matching of schools also remains possible. One longer term randomized controlled trial found benefits associated with attendance and arithmetic performance. In conclusion, most studies of giving breakfast have found benefits to school performance but many had serious design problems, were short-term, and were not conducted in the poorest countries. In order to advise policy makers correctly, there is an urgent need to run long-term randomized controlled trials of giving school meals in poor countries and to determine the effects of age and nutrition status of the children, the quality of the school, and the timing of the meal. The special needs of orphans should also be considered.

  11. Single-compound and cumulative risk assessment of mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children from Lisbon region, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ricardo; Vasco, Elsa; Nunes, Baltazar; Loureiro, Susana; Martins, Carla; Alvito, Paula

    2015-12-01

    Humans can be exposed to multiple chemicals, but current risk assessment is usually carried out on one chemical at a time. Mycotoxins are commonly found in a variety of foods including those intended to consumption by children namely breakfast cereals. The present study aims to perform, the risk assessment of single and multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children (1-3 years old) from Lisbon region, Portugal. Daily exposure of children to ochratoxin A, fumonisins and trichothecenes showed no health risks to the children population considering individual mycotoxins, while exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) suggested a potential health concern for the high percentiles of intake (P90, P95 and P99). The combined exposure to fumonisins and trichothecenes are not expected to be of health concern. The combined margin of exposure (MoET) for the aflatoxins group could constitute a potential health concern and AFB1 was the main contributor for MoET. Legal limits and control strategies regarding the presence of multiple mycotoxins in foodstuffs is an urgent need. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a cumulative risk assessment was performed on multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Are Your Kids Tempted To Skip Breakfast? Here's Some Food for Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Priscilla

    2002-01-01

    Examines research-based reasons for children to eat breakfast, explaining that breakfast provides an opportunity to boost nutrient intake, enhances learning and school performance,and teaches childen healthy lifetime habits. The article notes that what children eat for breakfast may have an impact on learning. Research has shown that while cereal…

  13. Associations of Eating Two Breakfasts with Childhood Overweight Status, Sociodemographics, and Parental Factors among Preschool Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Meg; Afuso, Kevin; Mason, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Background: School breakfast may contribute to increased risk for obesity because children may be consuming two breakfasts: at home and at school. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of preschoolers consuming two breakfasts and to assess relationships with overweight/obesity and other factors. Method: Head Start parents (n =…

  14. Distance-regular graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Edwin R.; Koolen, Jack H.; Tanaka, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    This is a survey of distance-regular graphs. We present an introduction to distance-regular graphs for the reader who is unfamiliar with the subject, and then give an overview of some developments in the area of distance-regular graphs since the monograph 'BCN'[Brouwer, A.E., Cohen, A.M., Neumaier,

  15. LL-regular grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    1980-01-01

    Culik II and Cogen introduced the class of LR-regular grammars, an extension of the LR(k) grammars. In this paper we consider an analogous extension of the LL(k) grammars called the LL-regular grammars. The relation of this class of grammars to other classes of grammars will be shown. Any LL-regular

  16. Food for Thought: Expanding School Breakfast to NJ Students. [Updated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advocates for Children of New Jersey, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Often, school districts are reluctant to adopt innovative approaches to serving children breakfast in school because of logistical concerns that are easily overcome. Districts that adopt these more innovative approaches report significant increases in participation rates and improvement in student behavior and performance. This report provides…

  17. breakfast skipping and academic / social development of pupils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abasiama Akpan

    “Assessment of the effects of skipping breakfast on the children by pupils was the basic ... concludes that since proper feeding is necessary for the child's academic and social development, the ... people feed influence their behaviour in a variety ... J. C. Duruamaku-Dim, Department of Curriculum & Teaching, Faculty of ...

  18. The relation between breakfast skipping and school performance in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Ouwehand, Carolijn; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; De Groot, Renate; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-01-01

    Boschloo, A., Ouwehand, C., Dekker, S., Lee, N., De Groot, R., Krabbendam, L., & Jolles, J. (2012). The relation between breakfast skipping and school performance in adolescents. Mind, Brain, and Education, 6(2), 81-88. doi:10.1111/j.1751-228x.2012.01138.x

  19. Blood glucose response of normoglycemic adults fed breakfast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gift

    Effect of high fibre leguminous products in breakfast porridges, made from Afzelia Africana (AA), ... Fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels were taken at 30 min interval for 2 .... ml to CSS and each was cooked (stirred continuously) for 10 min to ..... prevalence of diabetes, overweight/obesity and physical inactivity in.

  20. Screening for gestational diabetes: examining a breakfast meal test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was performed to analyse the carbohydrate quantity of the non-standardised breakfast meal test consumed as part of a screening test for gestational diabetes. Design: A prospective descriptive design was utilised. Setting: Screening for gestational diabetes was performed in the High-Risk Antenatal ...

  1. Guidelines for Planning the School Breakfast Program. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Office of School Administrative Services.

    Some of the factors considered in these guidelines include basic nutritional requirements, food component minimums, food variety, and amounts of food served in elementary and secondary school breakfast programs. Suggestions are made for serving foods that will appeal to young people. Samples of hot and cold menus are provided. Forms for evaluating…

  2. Building Nutrition Skills with the Breakfast Cafe Webquest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Diane

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the nutrition component of a Home and Career Skills curriculum at Hommocks Middle School (Larchmont, NY) that includes the Breakfast Cafe Webquest, which encourages 7th graders to increase the amounts of fruits and vegetables in their diets as well as reduce serving sizes. Using this Webquest, students "help the Breakfast…

  3. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  4. A comparison of the nutritional quality of organic and conventional ready-to-eat breakfast cereals based on NuVal scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Nancy J; George, Valerie A

    2014-07-01

    To identify whether there were differences in nutritional quality between organic and conventional ready-to-eat breakfast cereals of similar types, based on NuVal scores. The current descriptive study analysed NuVal scores for 829 ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and eighteen different cereal types. ANOVA was used to compare the mean NuVal scores of 723 conventional cereals with those of 106 organic cereals. Ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (n 829) with NuVal scores. Not applicable. There was no significant difference in NuVal scores between conventional (mean 28·4 (sd 13·4)) and organic (mean 30·6 (sd 13·2)) cereal types. Consumers who choose the organic version of a ready-to-eat breakfast cereal believing that nutritional quality is superior may not be making a valid assumption. Public health nutrition educators must help consumers understand that organic cereals are not necessarily more nutritious and their consumption could result in excessive intake of undesirable nutrients, such as fat, sugar and sodium.

  5. Late-night overeating is associated with smaller breakfast, breakfast skipping, and obesity in children: The Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzi, Kalliopi; Moschonis, George; Choupi, Eurikleia; Manios, Yannis

    2017-01-01

    Excessive energy intake during evening hours is associated with several health problems. The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time the possible association of late-night overeating with breakfast habits and obesity in a large sample of Greek children ages 9 to 13 y. In all, 2655 schoolchildren (9-13 y) participated in the Healthy Growth Study, a cross-sectional epidemiologic study conducted in 77 primary schools in four large regions in Greece. The present study presents results on 1912 children having full data regarding anthropometric, dietary, physical activity, and physical examination indices. High-energy intake at dinner and evening snack was associated with higher likelihood of skipping breakfast (odds ratio, 1.85; 95% confidence interval 1.42-2.39) and with lower caloric intake at breakfast (β = 0.14; P overeating is associated with skipping and/or consuming a smaller breakfast. In children with low levels of physical activity, it is associated with increased body mass index. Future relevant studies are essential to further explore and confirm the findings of the present study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Food choice: The battle between package, taste and consumption situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutjar, S.; Graaf, de C.; Palascha, A.; Jager, G.

    2014-01-01

    The present study compared how intrinsic (sensory) and extrinsic (packaging) product properties influence actual food choice in combination with the concept of product appropriateness in a specific consumption context. Food choice of seven test products was measured in three breakfast sessions

  7. [A study on breakfast and school performance in a group of adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero Lozano, R; Fillat Ballesteros, J C

    2006-01-01

    TO know the relationship between breakfast, from a qualitative perspective, and school performance. The study was performed in 141 students (70 males and 71 females) with ages ranging 12-13 years, of 1st grade of Mandatory Secondary Education (ESO) from an institute of Saragossa, by means of recalling the breakfast of the day before. Breakfast quality has been assessed according to criteria of the Kid study: GOOD QUALITY: contains at least one food from each one of dairy, cereals, or fruit groups. IMPROVABLE QUALITY: lacks one of the groups. INSUFFICIENT QUALITY: lacks two groups. POOR QUALITY: does not have breakfast. We considered that quality was improved only when a mid-morning snack with a different food from those taken with breakfast was added. Average mark at the end of the school year has been the criterion used to assess school performance. Statistical analysis of data gathered for the present study has been done with SPSS software. This analysis comprises descriptive and inferential statistics. For analysis of global significance between the differences the Analysis of Variance method has been applied, followed by post hoe tests with Bonferroni's and Turkey's methods to detect specific groups explaining global significance. Average mark systematically increases as breakfast quality increases from an average score of 5.63 in the group with poor quality breakfast to 7.73 average score in the group with a good quality breakfast. An analysis of variance has been performed to study the statistical significance of the mean differences between both groups. The outcomes yield significant global differences between groups (p value = 0.001), i.e., the average mark significantly varies according to breakfast quality. When pooled quality of breakfast and mid-morning snack is analyzed, the average mark systematically increases as breakfast-snack quality increases, from an average mark of 5,77 in the group with poor or insufficient quality up to 7.61 in the group with

  8. Regularization by External Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossolini, Elena; Edwards, R.; Glendinning, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Regularization was a big topic at the 2016 CRM Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics. There are many open questions concerning well known kinds of regularization (e.g., by smoothing or hysteresis). Here, we propose a framework for an alternative and important kind of regula......Regularization was a big topic at the 2016 CRM Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics. There are many open questions concerning well known kinds of regularization (e.g., by smoothing or hysteresis). Here, we propose a framework for an alternative and important kind...

  9. Regular expressions cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Goyvaerts, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This cookbook provides more than 100 recipes to help you crunch data and manipulate text with regular expressions. Every programmer can find uses for regular expressions, but their power doesn't come worry-free. Even seasoned users often suffer from poor performance, false positives, false negatives, or perplexing bugs. Regular Expressions Cookbook offers step-by-step instructions for some of the most common tasks involving this tool, with recipes for C#, Java, JavaScript, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, and VB.NET. With this book, you will: Understand the basics of regular expressions through a

  10. Effect of breakfast composition on cognitive processes in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Caroline R; Taylor, Holly A; Kanarek, Robin B; Samuel, Priscilla

    2005-08-07

    The relationship between breakfast composition and cognitive performance was examined in elementary school children. Two experiments compared the effects of two common U.S. breakfast foods and no breakfast on children's cognition. Using a within-participant design, once a week for 3 weeks, children consumed one of two breakfasts or no breakfast and then completed a battery of cognitive tests. The two breakfasts were instant oatmeal and ready-to-eat cereal, which were similar in energy, but differed in macronutrient composition, processing characteristics, effects on digestion and metabolism, and glycemic score. Results with 9 to 11 year-olds replicated previous findings showing that breakfast intake enhances cognitive performance, particularly on tasks requiring processing of a complex visual display. The results extend previous findings by showing differential effects of breakfast type. Boys and girls showed enhanced spatial memory and girls showed improved short-term memory after consuming oatmeal. Results with 6 to 8 year-olds also showed effects of breakfast type. Younger children had better spatial memory and better auditory attention and girls exhibited better short-term memory after consuming oatmeal. Due to compositional differences in protein and fiber content, glycemic scores, and rate of digestion, oatmeal may provide a slower and more sustained energy source and consequently result in cognitive enhancement compared to low-fiber high glycemic ready-to-eat cereal. These results have important practical implications, suggesting the importance of what children consume for breakfast before school.

  11. Breakfasts Higher in Protein Increase Postprandial Energy Expenditure, Increase Fat Oxidation, and Reduce Hunger in Overweight Children from 8 to 12 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Jamie I; Gray, Michelle; Binns, Ashley

    2015-10-01

    Currently 1 in every 3 children aged 2-19 y is overweight or obese. Breakfast is a key component of a healthy diet and has the potential to affect children's health. The objective of this study was to determine whether consumption of a protein-based breakfast (PRO) increases postprandial energy metabolism and substrate oxidation, reduces hunger, and reduces food intake at lunch compared with a carbohydrate-based breakfast (CHO) in normal weight (NW) vs. overweight/obese (OW) children. A randomized, crossover-design study was conducted in NW (n = 16; 33 ± 1 kg) and OW (n = 13; 46 ± 2 kg) children (10 ± 1 y). Participants were served either a PRO [344 kcal, 21% protein (18 g), 52% carbohydrate, and 27% fat] or CHO [327 kcal, 4% protein (3 g), 67% carbohydrate, and 29% fat]. Energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidation, appetite, and blood glucose were measured over a 4 h period. Four hour postprandial participants were provided with access to a lunch buffet and food intake was recorded. After breakfast, OW children in the PRO group had higher (P fat oxidation over the 4 h period than did the NW children in the CHO and PRO groups. There was no difference in postprandial EE or carbohydrate oxidation between the CHO and PRO groups over the 4 h period; however, fat oxidation was 16% higher (P children. A PRO increases postprandial EE and fat oxidation, reduces hunger, and increases satiety when compared with a carbohydrate-based breakfast. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Regularities of Multifractal Measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First, we prove the decomposition theorem for the regularities of multifractal Hausdorff measure and packing measure in R R d . This decomposition theorem enables us to split a set into regular and irregular parts, so that we can analyze each separately, and recombine them without affecting density properties. Next, we ...

  13. Stochastic analytic regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, J.

    1984-07-01

    Stochastic regularization is reexamined, pointing out a restriction on its use due to a new type of divergence which is not present in the unregulated theory. Furthermore, we introduce a new form of stochastic regularization which permits the use of a minimal subtraction scheme to define the renormalized Green functions. (author)

  14. Breakfast-Skipping and Selecting Low-Nutritional-Quality Foods for Breakfast Are Common among Low-Income Urban Children, Regardless of Food Security Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, Holly; Davey, Adam; Fisher, Jennifer O; Polonsky, Heather; Sherman, Sandra; Abel, Michelle L; Dale, Lauren C; Foster, Gary D; Bauer, Katherine W

    2016-03-01

    Universal access to the School Breakfast Program (SBP) is intended to help low-income and food-insecure students overcome barriers to eating breakfast. However, SBP participation is often still low despite universal access. Further information is needed with regard to these children's breakfast behaviors, and in particular breakfast behaviors among youth from food-insecure families, to inform effective breakfast interventions. The objective of this study was to examine breakfast behaviors among a large sample of urban students with universal access to the SBP and to identify differences in breakfast behaviors among children from food-secure compared with food-insecure households. A cross-sectional study of 821 fourth- through sixth-grade students and their parents from 16 schools was conducted. Students reported the foods/drinks selected and location of obtaining food/drink on the morning of data collection, parents reported household food security status using the 6-item Food Security Survey Module, and the school district provided SBP participation data during the fall semester of 2013. Multivariable linear regression models accounting for school-level clustering were used to examine differences in breakfast behaviors across 3 levels of household food security: food secure, low food secure, and very low food secure. Students participated in the SBP 31.2% of possible days, with 13% never participating in the SBP. One-fifth (19.4%) of students purchased something from a corner store for breakfast, and 16.9% skipped breakfast. Forty-six percent of students were food insecure; few differences in breakfast behaviors were observed across levels of food security. Despite universal access to the SBP, participation in the SBP is low. Breakfast skipping and selection of foods of low nutritional quality in the morning are common, regardless of household food security status. Additional novel implementation of the SBP and addressing students' breakfast preferences may be

  15. The impact of a low glycemic index (GI) breakfast and snack on daily blood glucose profiles and food intake in young Chinese adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Bhupinder; Ranawana, Viren; Teh, Ai-Ling; Henry, C Jeya K

    2015-09-01

    Low glycemic index (GI) foods have been suggested to minimize large fluctuations in blood glucose levels and reduce food intake. However, the majority of studies have been conducted on Caucasian populations with limited data on Asians. The objective of this study was to investigate how the provision of a low GI breakfast and afternoon snack affected daily blood glucose profiles and food intake. In a randomized, controlled crossover non blind design, 11 healthy Chinese male adults (body mass index 22.4 ± 1.3 kg m -2 ) attended two sessions where they consumed either a high or low GI breakfast and afternoon snack, and a standardized buffet lunch. Daily changes in glycemic response (GR) were measured using the Medtronic MiniMed (Northridge, CA) iPro™2 continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). The GR was further calculated to obtain the incremental area under the curve (IAUC). Glycemic variability was calculated as mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE) and energy intake (kcal) was measured quantitatively at the buffet lunch. Compared to the high GI intervention, the low GI intervention significantly reduced the GR following breakfast ( p  = 0.02), lunch ( p  = 0.02) and dinner ( p  = 0.05). The low GI treatment showed a reduction in daily AUC ( p  = 0.03). There was a significant reduction in IAUC after a low GI breakfast compared to the high GI breakfast ( p  = 0.03). The low GI breakfast resulted in a significantly lower food intake at lunch and a resulting decreased energy intake of 285 kcal ( p  = 0.02). The MAGE was significantly lower during the entire low GI treatment ( p  = 0.03). Consumption of a low GI breakfast and afternoon snack was capable of attenuating 24-h blood glucose profiles, minimize glycemic excursions and reduce food intake in healthy Asian males. This simple dietary intervention may be an acceptable approach in improving overall glycemia and energy balance in Asians. NCT02340507.

  16. Brand-Supermarket Demand for Breakfast Cereals and Retail Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Benaissa Chidmi; Rigoberto A. Lopez

    2007-01-01

    The Berry, Levinsohn, and Pakes (1995) market equilibrium model is extended to the supermarket chain level to examine consumer choices and retail competition for thirty-seven brands of breakfast cereals in Boston. Estimated taste parameters for product characteristics vary significantly across consumers. Although consumers are price-sensitive with respect to their chosen cereals, they exhibit strong brand and supermarket loyalty. Retail markups increase and marginal costs decrease with grocer...

  17. Biological effects of the ionizing radiation. Press breakfast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flury-Herard, A.; Boiteux, S.; Dutrillaux, B.; Toledano, M.

    2000-06-01

    This document brings together the subjects discussed during the Press breakfast of 29 june 2000 on the biological effects of the ionizing radiations, with scientists of the CEA and the CNRS. It presents the research programs and provides inquiries on the NDA operating to introduce the NDA damages by ionizing radiations, the possible repairs and the repair efficiency facing the carcinogenesis. Those researches allow the scientists to define laws on radiation protection. (A.L.B.)

  18. Determinants of household choice of breakfast cereals: healthy or unhealthy?

    OpenAIRE

    Golub, Alla A.; Binkley, James K.

    2005-01-01

    We studied consumer demand for more and less healthy breakfast cereals. Using ACNielsen Homescan database and USDA food nutrition data, we developed three cereal nutrition indexes for each household in the data. In addition to the standard demographic characteristics of households and prices, we included variables representing differences between private labels and national brands. We found that the structure of the industry, through its effect on the product mix produced, affects consumer ch...

  19. Study on fluorescence of Maillard reaction compounds in breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Rufián-Henares, José A; Morales, Francisco J

    2006-09-01

    During the advanced stage of the Maillard reaction (MR) in food processing and cooking, Amadori rearrangement products undergo dehydration and fission and fluorescent substances are formed. Free and total (free + linked to the protein backbone) fluorescence (FIC) due to Maillard compounds in 60 commercial breakfast cereals was evaluated. Pronase was used for efficient release of linked fluorescent Maillard compounds from the protein backbone. Results were correlated with some heat-induced markers of the extent of the MR or sugar caramelisation during cereal processing, such as hydroxymethylfurfural, furfural, glucosilisomaltol and furosine. The effect of sample composition (dietary-fibre added, protein, etc.) on levels of FIC, expressed as fluorescence intensity (FI) per milligram of sample, is discussed. FIC is significantly correlated to the protein content of the sample and fluorescent Maillard compounds are mainly linked to the protein backbone. The ratio of total-FIC to free-FIC was 10.4-fold for corn-based, wheat-based and multicereal-based breakfast cereals but significantly higher in rice-based samples. Addition of dietary fibre or honey increased the FIC values. Data support the usefulness of FIC measurement as an unspecific heat-induced marker in breakfast cereals.

  20. The Impact of a Two-Year School Breakfast Program for Preschool-Aged Children on Their Nutrient Intake and Pre-Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worobey, John; Worobey, Harriet S.

    1999-01-01

    Two studies examined nutritional differences between home breakfasts and breakfasts served at preschool following School Breakfast Program guidelines and evaluated nutritional impact of program participation on 4-year olds' preacademic performance. Results indicated that breakfast intake was altered under school breakfast conditions. Performance…

  1. BREAKFAST HABIT AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG SUBURBAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Ayu Widyanti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Academic performance is affected by a numbers of factors. Age, gender, nutritional status, and breakfast habits are some factors that have relation with academic performance. Nutritional statues among school children still to be concerned. Breakfast habit is important thing to do before school to maintain enough calories to study and work well. The aim of this study was to determine the association of breakfast habits and academic performance especially in suburban elementary school children. An analytic cross sectional study conducted in children aged 6-12 years who studied at SD 1 Taro, Gianyar regency, Bali. There were 178 students participated in this study. We found 3 factors associated with academic performance i.e. breakfast, gender, and age with OR=2.56 (95% CI 1.16 to 5.66, P=0.02; OR=0.32 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.70, P=0.04; OR=6.52 (95% CI 2.73 to 15.53, P<0.0001, respectively. We conclude there was an association between breakfast habits and academic performance. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  2. The relationship between breakfast skipping, chronotype, and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutrakul, Sirimon; Hood, Megan M; Crowley, Stephanie J; Morgan, Mary K; Teodori, Marsha; Knutson, Kristen L

    2014-02-01

    Breakfast skipping is associated with obesity and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Later chronotypes, individuals who have a preference for later bed and wake times, often skip breakfast. The aim of the study was to explore the relationships among breakfast skipping, chronotype, and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients. We collected sleep timing and 24-h dietary recall from 194 non-shift-working type 2 diabetes patients who were being followed in outpatient clinics. Mid-sleep time on free days (MSF) was used as an indicator of chronotype. Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) values were obtained from medical records. Hierarchical linear regression analyses controlling for demographic, sleep, and dietary variables were computed to determine whether breakfast skipping was associated with HbA1C. Additional regression analyses were performed to test if this association was mediated by chronotype. There were 22 participants (11.3%) who self-reported missing breakfast. Breakfast skippers had significantly higher HbA1C levels, higher body mass indices (BMI), and later MSF than breakfast eaters. Breakfast skipping was significantly associated with higher HbA1C values (B = 0.108, p = 0.01), even after adjusting for age, sex, race, BMI, number of diabetes complications, insulin use, depressive symptoms, perceived sleep debt, and percentage of daily caloric intake at dinner. The relationship between breakfast skipping and HbA1C was partially mediated by chronotype. In summary, breakfast skipping is associated with a later chronotype. Later chronotype and breakfast skipping both contribute to poorer glycemic control, as indicated by higher HbA1C levels. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and determine whether behavioral interventions targeting breakfast eating or sleep timing may improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  3. Sparse structure regularized ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Sun, Yijun; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Learning ranking scores is critical for the multimedia database retrieval problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking score learning algorithm by exploring the sparse structure and using it to regularize ranking scores. To explore the sparse

  4. Regular expression containment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz; Nielsen, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    We present a new sound and complete axiomatization of regular expression containment. It consists of the conventional axiomatiza- tion of concatenation, alternation, empty set and (the singleton set containing) the empty string as an idempotent semiring, the fixed- point rule E* = 1 + E × E......* for Kleene-star, and a general coin- duction rule as the only additional rule. Our axiomatization gives rise to a natural computational inter- pretation of regular expressions as simple types that represent parse trees, and of containment proofs as coercions. This gives the axiom- atization a Curry......-Howard-style constructive interpretation: Con- tainment proofs do not only certify a language-theoretic contain- ment, but, under our computational interpretation, constructively transform a membership proof of a string in one regular expres- sion into a membership proof of the same string in another regular expression. We...

  5. Supersymmetric dimensional regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, W.; Townsend, P.K.; van Nieuwenhuizen, P.

    1980-01-01

    There is a simple modification of dimension regularization which preserves supersymmetry: dimensional reduction to real D < 4, followed by analytic continuation to complex D. In terms of component fields, this means fixing the ranges of all indices on the fields (and therefore the numbers of Fermi and Bose components). For superfields, it means continuing in the dimensionality of x-space while fixing the dimensionality of theta-space. This regularization procedure allows the simple manipulation of spinor derivatives in supergraph calculations. The resulting rules are: (1) First do all algebra exactly as in D = 4; (2) Then do the momentum integrals as in ordinary dimensional regularization. This regularization procedure needs extra rules before one can say that it is consistent. Such extra rules needed for superconformal anomalies are discussed. Problems associated with renormalizability and higher order loops are also discussed

  6. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yunji; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  7. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2015-02-12

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  8. Chronic Stress Is Associated with Indicators of Diet Quality in Habitual Breakfast Skippers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widaman, Adrianne M; Witbracht, Megan G; Forester, Shavawn M; Laugero, Kevin D; Keim, Nancy L

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies suggest skipping breakfast is associated with lower diet quality, but possible reasons underlying this relationship are not clear. Our aim was to determine the relationship between chronic stress and variations in diet quality in the context of breakfast eating or breakfast skipping. Based on morning eating habits, 40 breakfast eaters and 35 breakfast skippers participated in a cross-sectional study. Diet assessment was based on unannounced 24-hour recalls. Women, ages 18 to 45 years, with a body mass index (calculated as kg/m 2 ) Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010). Stress and executive function were evaluated with validated questionnaires and a computer-based task, respectively. Diet characteristics of breakfast eating and breakfast skipping were evaluated as nutrient densities (amounts per 1,000 kcal) and compared using a one-way analysis of covariance, with body mass index as covariate. Diet and stress variable associations were assessed using Pearson correlations. Despite no observed differences in daily energy intake between breakfast skipping and breakfast eating, overall diet quality (P=0.001), whole grains (P=0.002), fruit (P=0.002), empty calories (P=0.050), fiber (P=0.001), calcium (P=0.001), potassium (P=0.033), and folate (P=0.013) intakes were higher in breakfast eating. In the evening, breakfast skipping consumed more added sugars (P=0.012) and saturated fat (P=0.006). In breakfast skipping, reported stress was associated with empty calories (r=-0.39; P=0.027) and evening intake of added sugars (r=0.501; P=0.005). These relationships were not observed in breakfast eating. Breakfast skippers were less likely to meet the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and consumed more empty calories at night. Chronic stress was related to evening eating choices and overall empty calories in the diet of breakfast skippers, whereas breakfast eaters' dietary intake did not appear to be affected by chronic stress. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition

  9. Breakfast habit and quality in students from two public primary schools in the city of Santa Fe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugas, Valeria; Berta, Eugenia; Walz, Florencia; Fortino, Ma Alejandra; Martinelli, Marcela J

    2013-12-01

    Breakfast provides the necessary energy and nutrients to achieve an optimal physical and mental performance. OBJECTIVE. To find out breakfast frequency, factors that influence breakfast habit and skipping, breakfast quality and snack intake in children from public schools in the city of Santa Fe. POPULATION AND METHODS. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. A total of 637 students were assessed using a closed-ended question survey. RESULTS. Seventy five percent of children had breakfast on a daily basis; only 1.6% had a good quality breakfast. Eating breakfast every day or some days did not depend on having the company of a family member. In the case of first to fifth grade children, the weekly frequency depended on having a family member who made it (p= 0.04). The main cause for skipping breakfast was lack of time. Twenty-three percent of children in sixth and seventh grade indicated feeling unwell when having breakfast. More than 50% of children watched television while having breakfast. Most students in first to third grade had breakfast that could be improved (41%) and which was insufficient (41%). An insufficient quality breakfast was more common among fourth and fifth grade students (50%). A remarkable piece of information is the number of sixth and seventh grade children who had a poor quality breakfast (16%). Very few children had a snack that was appropriate to supplement the final quality of breakfast. CONCLUSIONS. Although a high percentage of school-aged children are used to having breakfast, most have an incomplete breakfast. Very few manage to supplement their breakfast with snacks at mid-morning.

  10. An integrated effect of protein intake at breakfast and morning exposure to sunlight on the circadian typology in Japanese infants aged 2-6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakade, Miyo; Takeuchi, Hitomi; Taniwaki, Nozomi; Noji, Teruki; Harada, Tetsuo

    2009-09-01

    Tryptophan (Trp) intake at breakfast promotes morning-typed circadian typology and higher sleep quality in Japanese children aged 0-6 yrs (Harada et al., 2007). This effect may be accelerated by morning exposure to sunlight, which has not yet been tested. This study aimed to investigate such an effect in Japanese children. In May, 2006, an integrated questionnaire was administered to 0-6-year-old children attending one of 12 kindergartens. 906 parents answered the questionnaire for their children and themselves (response rate: 67.4%). The integrated questionnaire included the revised version for children of the Morningness-Eveningness (M-E) Questionnaire and questions on sleep, nutritional balance, mental health, and sunlight exposure. Analysis was made on data from 744 children aged 2-6 (385 girls, 359 boys) whose average M-E score was 20.6+/-3.46. Children who had breakfast at regular times tended to be more morning-typed and were less frequently angry (p=0.001) and depressed (p=0.007). Children who had nutritionally well-balanced breakfasts tended to be more morning-typed (pbreakfast might be a strong zeitgeber for circadian oscillators of children, and the morning-type driving effect of protein intake could be accelerated by morning exposure to sunlight.

  11. Cognitive and behavioural effects of a school breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, L M; Rose, C; Griesel, R D

    1997-01-01

    The cognitive and behavioural effects of a school breakfast were explored in a study of 55 children in Grade II and Standard 1 at a farm school outside Johannesburg. A previous study had confirmed widespread undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies among the children. For comparative purposes, 55 children at an inner-city school, among whom no signs of undernutrition were found, were assessed in the same way. Three different types of measures of attention, distractibility, short-term memory and activity level were used: psychometric testing of the children; teacher ratings of children's classroom behaviour, and coded video-recorded classroom behaviour. A pre- and post-test design was employed to assess the effects of a school breakfast, continually in place in the experimental school for a period of 6 weeks. The results indicated significant change from pre- to post-test assessment among the experimental children in respect of the psychometric measures, teacher-rated hyperactivity and video-recorded classroom behaviour. With regard to the latter measure, the children showed a decline in both the occurrence and duration of off-task and out-of-seat behaviour, and an increase in active participation in class and positive peer interaction. While the children in the comparison group also showed some changes from pre- to post-test, probably attributable to the effects of observation, familiarity with the test materials and developmental change, the changes were not generalised or consistent. The findings support the conclusion that a school breakfast programme had a beneficial effect on the cognitive and behavioural performance of socially disadvantaged, undernourished children in their first 2 years of school.

  12. Manifold Regularized Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongliang; Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding

    2018-04-01

    This paper introduces a novel manifold regularized reinforcement learning scheme for continuous Markov decision processes. Smooth feature representations for value function approximation can be automatically learned using the unsupervised manifold regularization method. The learned features are data-driven, and can be adapted to the geometry of the state space. Furthermore, the scheme provides a direct basis representation extension for novel samples during policy learning and control. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated on two benchmark control tasks, i.e., the inverted pendulum and the energy storage problem. Simulation results illustrate the concepts of the proposed scheme and show that it can obtain excellent performance.

  13. Whole Grain Intakes in the Diets Of Malaysian Children and Adolescents--Findings from the MyBreakfast Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimah Ak

    Full Text Available Diets rich in whole grain are associated with several health benefits. Little is known however, about whole grain consumption patterns in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to assess whole grain intakes and dietary source in Malaysian children and adolescents.This analysis is from the MyBreakfast study, a national cross sectional study investigating eating habits among primary and secondary school children throughout Malaysia, conducted in 2013. Children (n = 5,165 and adolescents (n = 2,947 who completed two days of dietary assessment using a food record or recall respectively were included. The whole grain content of foods was estimated mainly through the use of quantitative ingredient declarations on food labels. All wholegrain foods were considered irrespective of the amount of whole grain they contained.Overall, only 25% of children and 19% of adolescents were wholegrain consumers. Mean daily intakes in the total sample were 2.3g/d (SD 5.8 g/d in children and 1.7 g/d (SD 4.7 g/d in adolescents and in the consumer's only sample, mean intakes reached 9.1g/d (SD 8.6 and 9.2g/d (SD 7.1g/d respectively. Wheat was the main grain source of whole grain while ready to eat breakfast cereals and hot cereals were the main food contributors. Less than 3% of the children and adolescents reached the US quantitative whole grain recommendation of 48 g/day.Whole grain is consumed by only a minority of Malaysian children and adolescents and even among consumers, intakes are well below recommendations. Efforts are needed to firstly understand the barriers to whole grain consumption among Malaysian children in order to design effective health promotion initiatives to promote an increase in whole grain consumption.

  14. Breakfast, midday meals and academic achievement in rural primary schools in Uganda: implications for education and school health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acham, Hedwig; Kikafunda, Joyce K; Malde, Marian K; Oldewage-Theron, Wilna H; Egal, Abdulkadir A

    2012-01-01

    Underachievement in schools is a global problem and is especially prevalent in developing countries. Indicators of educational performance show that Uganda has done remarkably well on education access-related targets since the introduction of universal primary education in 1997. However, educational outcomes remain disappointing. The absence of school feeding schemes, one of the leading causes of scholastic underachievement, has not been given attention by the Ugandan authorities. Instead, as a national policy, parents are expected to provide meals even though many, especially in the rural areas, cannot afford to provide even the minimal daily bowl of maize porridge. To assess and demonstrate the effect of breakfast and midday meal consumption on academic achievement of schoolchildren. We assessed household characteristics, feeding patterns and academic achievement of 645 schoolchildren (aged 9-15 years) in Kumi district, eastern Uganda, in 2006-2007, using a modified cluster sampling design which involved only grade 1 schools (34 in total) and pupils of grade four. Household questionnaires and school records were used to collect information on socio-demographic factors, feeding patterns and school attendance. Academic achievement was assessed using unstandardized techniques, specifically designed for this study. Underachievement (the proportion below a score of 120.0 points) was high (68.4%); in addition, significantly higher achievement and better feeding patterns were observed among children from the less poor households (pbreakfast and a midday meal, particularly for boys (p1.0). We observed that underachievement was relatively high; inadequate patterns of meal consumption, particularly for the most poor, significantly higher scores among children from 'less poor' households and a significant association between academic achievement and breakfast and midday meal consumption.

  15. Whole Grain Intakes in the Diets Of Malaysian Children and Adolescents – Findings from the MyBreakfast Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    AK, Norimah; Koo, H. C.; JM, Hamid Jan; MT, Mohd Nasir; Tan, S. Y.; Appukutty, Mahendran; AR, Nurliyana; Thielecke, Frank; Hopkins, Sinead; Ong, M. K.; Ning, C.; Tee, E. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diets rich in whole grain are associated with several health benefits. Little is known however, about whole grain consumption patterns in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to assess whole grain intakes and dietary source in Malaysian children and adolescents. Methods This analysis is from the MyBreakfast study, a national cross sectional study investigating eating habits among primary and secondary school children throughout Malaysia, conducted in 2013. Children (n = 5,165) and adolescents (n = 2,947) who completed two days of dietary assessment using a food record or recall respectively were included. The whole grain content of foods was estimated mainly through the use of quantitative ingredient declarations on food labels. All wholegrain foods were considered irrespective of the amount of whole grain they contained. Results Overall, only 25% of children and 19% of adolescents were wholegrain consumers. Mean daily intakes in the total sample were 2.3g/d (SD 5.8g/d) in children and 1.7g/d (SD 4.7g/d) in adolescents and in the consumer’s only sample, mean intakes reached 9.1g/d (SD 8.6) and 9.2g/d (SD 7.1g/d) respectively. Wheat was the main grain source of whole grain while ready to eat breakfast cereals and hot cereals were the main food contributors. Less than 3% of the children and adolescents reached the US quantitative whole grain recommendation of 48g/day. Conclusion Whole grain is consumed by only a minority of Malaysian children and adolescents and even among consumers, intakes are well below recommendations. Efforts are needed to firstly understand the barriers to whole grain consumption among Malaysian children in order to design effective health promotion initiatives to promote an increase in whole grain consumption. PMID:26473369

  16. Whole Grain Intakes in the Diets Of Malaysian Children and Adolescents--Findings from the MyBreakfast Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ak, Norimah; Koo, H C; Hamid Jan, J M; Mohd Nasir, M T; Tan, S Y; Appukutty, Mahenderan; Appukutty, Mahendran; Nurliyana, A R; Thielecke, Frank; Hopkins, Sinead; Ong, M K; Ning, C; Tee, E S

    2015-01-01

    Diets rich in whole grain are associated with several health benefits. Little is known however, about whole grain consumption patterns in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to assess whole grain intakes and dietary source in Malaysian children and adolescents. This analysis is from the MyBreakfast study, a national cross sectional study investigating eating habits among primary and secondary school children throughout Malaysia, conducted in 2013. Children (n = 5,165) and adolescents (n = 2,947) who completed two days of dietary assessment using a food record or recall respectively were included. The whole grain content of foods was estimated mainly through the use of quantitative ingredient declarations on food labels. All wholegrain foods were considered irrespective of the amount of whole grain they contained. Overall, only 25% of children and 19% of adolescents were wholegrain consumers. Mean daily intakes in the total sample were 2.3g/d (SD 5.8 g/d) in children and 1.7 g/d (SD 4.7 g/d) in adolescents and in the consumer's only sample, mean intakes reached 9.1g/d (SD 8.6) and 9.2g/d (SD 7.1g/d) respectively. Wheat was the main grain source of whole grain while ready to eat breakfast cereals and hot cereals were the main food contributors. Less than 3% of the children and adolescents reached the US quantitative whole grain recommendation of 48 g/day. Whole grain is consumed by only a minority of Malaysian children and adolescents and even among consumers, intakes are well below recommendations. Efforts are needed to firstly understand the barriers to whole grain consumption among Malaysian children in order to design effective health promotion initiatives to promote an increase in whole grain consumption.

  17. Food choice: the battle between package, taste and consumption situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutjar, Swetlana; de Graaf, Cees; Palascha, Aikaterini; Jager, Gerry

    2014-09-01

    The present study compared how intrinsic (sensory) and extrinsic (packaging) product properties influence actual food choice in combination with the concept of product appropriateness in a specific consumption context. Food choice of seven test products was measured in three breakfast sessions within a simulated cafeteria setting with subsequent product consumption. Test products were five breakfast drinks and two dessert products considered as inappropriate for breakfast. One hundred and three participants took part in a blind taste session, after which they chose one out of the seven foods to consume for breakfast. In a second session (familiar package session), the same participants based their choice on the package of the seven foods they tasted in the first session. An additional group of 65 participants took part in a third naïve package session, where they chose just on the basis of package without being previously exposed to the foods. Results showed that food choices in the naïve package session were guided by the package that labelled the products as "breakfast product". Food choices in the blind session were strongly correlated (r = 0.8) with the liking of the products. Food choice in the "familiar package session" lay between the blind and naïve package session. It is concluded that food choice in a simulated cafeteria setting is guided by extrinsic (package) as well as intrinsic (sensory) properties and both can act as a cue for product appropriateness given a specific consumption context. Depending on the salience of either intrinsic or extrinsic properties during the choice moment their impact on choice is stronger. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Associations of meal frequency and breakfast with obesity and metabolic syndrome traits in adolescents of Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, A; Schwab, U; Kolehmainen, M; Pirkola, J; Järvelin, M-R; Laitinen, J

    2013-10-01

    Breakfast consumption and meal frequencies have been linked to the risk of obesity in youth but their associations with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in young populations are yet to be studied. We examined associations of three meal patterns on weekdays--five meals including breakfast, ≤four meals including breakfast and ≤four meals without breakfast--with overweight/obesity and MetS components in Finnish adolescents. A population-based sample of 16-year-old boys and girls (n = 6247) from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 was used. Adolescents were clinically examined and dietary data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Overweight/obesity and MetS features were defined according to the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs and the International Diabetes Federation MetS paediatric criteria and their associations with meal patterns assessed using logistic regression, adjusted separately for early life factors (birth size, maternal health) and later childhood factors (health behaviours, weight status, parental education). After adjustment for early life factors, the adolescents who ate five meals/day were at lower risk for overweight/obesity (OR [95% CI] for boys: 0.47 [0.34, 0.65]; girls: 0.57 [0.41, 0.79]), abdominal obesity (OR [95% CI] for boys: 0.32 [0.22, 0.48]; girls: 0.54 [0.39, 0.75]) and hypertriglyceridaemia (boys only). Adjusting for later childhood factors, the five-meal-a-day pattern was associated with decreased odds of overweight/obesity (OR [95% CI] for boys: 0.41 [0.29, 0.58]; girls: 0.63 [0.45, 0.89]) and abdominal obesity in boys (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.16, 0.63). Among 16-year-olds, the five-meal-a-day pattern was robustly associated with reduced risks of overweight/obesity in both genders and abdominal obesity in boys. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Exploring Milk and Yogurt Selection in an Urban Universal School Breakfast Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. Elizabeth; Kwon, Sockju

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore milk and yogurt selection among students participating in a School Breakfast Program. Methods: Researchers observed breakfast selection of milk, juice and yogurt in six elementary and four secondary schools. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression to…

  20. Evaluation of Breakfast Cereals and Cereal Advertising by a Young Adult Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnard, Alice

    A study examined the knowledge of and attitudes toward nutrition in general and specifically toward cold breakfast cereals and cereal advertising with different creative appeals. Subjects, 117 undergraduate university students, completed a questionnaire about their use of cold breakfast cereal and their sources of information about nutrition.…

  1. 77 FR 16515 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-School Breakfast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... which FNS employs to determine public participation in the School Breakfast Program. DATES: Written... Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--School Breakfast... Management and Budget approval. All comments will be a matter of public record. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  2. Exploring Strategies to Promote Middle School Student Participation in the School Breakfast Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Thompson, Deborah I.; Watson, Kathleen B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Providing a school breakfast to students may be a practical intervention that improves energy balance, nutrient intake, and school academic achievement variables. This purpose of this pilot study was to identify the ecological factors influencing middle school student school breakfast participation and possible strategies to…

  3. Breakfast and Learning in Children. Symposium Proceedings (Washington, DC, April 22, 1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services (USDA), Washington, DC. Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion.

    Noting that many schools do not participate in the U.S. Department of Agriculture's School Breakfast Program despite evidence that poor nutrition affects children's school attendance and performance, this document presents the proceedings of a 1999 symposium on links between breakfast and school performance and the implications for public policy.…

  4. Low glycemic index breakfasts and reduced food intake in preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Janet M; Henry, C Jeya K; Simonite, Vanessa

    2003-11-01

    Recent reports have suggested that a low glycemic index (GI) diet may have a role in the management of obesity through its ability to increase the satiety value of food and modulate appetite. To date, no long-term clinical trials have examined the effect of dietary GI on body weight regulation. The majority of evidence comes from single-day studies, most of which have been conducted in adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 3 test breakfasts-low-GI, low-GI with 10% added sucrose, and high-GI-on ad libitum lunch intake, appetite, and satiety and to compare these with baseline values when habitual breakfast was consumed. A 3-way crossover study using block randomization of breakfast type was conducted in a school that already ran a breakfast club. A total of 37 children aged 9 to 12 years (15 boys and 22 girls) completed the study. The proportion of nonoverweight to overweight/obese children was 70:30. Children were divided into 5 groups, and a rolling program was devised whereby, week by week, each group would randomly receive 1 of 3 test breakfasts for 3 consecutive days, with a minimum of 5 weeks between the test breakfasts. Participants acted as their own control. The 3 test breakfasts were devised to match the energy and nutritional content of an individual's habitual breakfast as far as possible. All test breakfasts were composed of fruit juice, cereal, and milk with/without bread and margarine; foods with an appropriate GI value were selected. After each test breakfast, children were instructed not to eat or drink anything until lunchtime, except water and a small serving of fruit supplying approximately 10 g of carbohydrate, which was provided. Breakfast palatability, satiation after breakfast, and satiety before lunch were measured using rating scales based on previously used tools. Lunch was a buffet-style meal, and children were allowed free access to a range of foods. Lunch was served in the school hall where the rest of the

  5. Postprandial Glycemic and Insulinemic Responses to Common Breakfast Beverages Consumed with a Standard Meal in Adults Who Are Overweight and Obese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breakfast beverages with different nutrient compositions may affect postprandial glycemic control differently. We assessed the effects of consuming (1 common breakfast beverages (water, sugar-sweetened coffee, reduced-energy orange juice (OJ, and low-fat milk (LFM; and (2 fat-free, low-fat, and whole milk with breakfast on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin responses in adults who were overweight/obese. Forty-six subjects (33F/13M, body mass index: 32.5 ± 0.7 kg/m2, age: 50 ± 1 years, mean ± SEMs consumed a standard sandwich with one of the six beverages on separate mornings in randomized order. The test beverages (except water each contained 12 g digestible carbohydrate. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured from blood obtained pre- and post-meal at 30-min intervals for 4 h and incremental areas under the curve (AUC were computed. We found (1 among different beverage types, glucose AUC was higher for coffee versus water, OJ, and LFM. Insulin AUC was higher for coffee and LFM versus OJ and water; (2 Glucose AUCs were not different among water and milks while insulin AUC was higher for milks versus water. In conclusion, consumption of water, reduced-energy OJ, or milk (irrespective of fat content with a meal may be preferable to consuming sugar-sweetened coffee for glucose control in middle-aged adults who are overweight and obese.

  6. Postprandial Glycemic and Insulinemic Responses to Common Breakfast Beverages Consumed with a Standard Meal in Adults Who Are Overweight and Obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Janle, Elsa; Campbell, Wayne W

    2017-01-04

    Breakfast beverages with different nutrient compositions may affect postprandial glycemic control differently. We assessed the effects of consuming (1) common breakfast beverages (water, sugar-sweetened coffee, reduced-energy orange juice (OJ), and low-fat milk (LFM)); and (2) fat-free, low-fat, and whole milk with breakfast on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin responses in adults who were overweight/obese. Forty-six subjects (33F/13M, body mass index: 32.5 ± 0.7 kg/m², age: 50 ± 1 years, mean ± SEMs) consumed a standard sandwich with one of the six beverages on separate mornings in randomized order. The test beverages (except water) each contained 12 g digestible carbohydrate. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured from blood obtained pre- and post-meal at 30-min intervals for 4 h and incremental areas under the curve (AUC) were computed. We found (1) among different beverage types, glucose AUC was higher for coffee versus water, OJ, and LFM. Insulin AUC was higher for coffee and LFM versus OJ and water; (2) Glucose AUCs were not different among water and milks while insulin AUC was higher for milks versus water. In conclusion, consumption of water, reduced-energy OJ, or milk (irrespective of fat content) with a meal may be preferable to consuming sugar-sweetened coffee for glucose control in middle-aged adults who are overweight and obese.

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Health strategies should be put in place by the Ghana Health Service to en- courage ... Keywords: Adiposity, BMI, Breakfast Consumption, Breakfast skipping, Civil servants, Tamale, Ghana ..... Promotion of regular breakfast con- ... (2003) The effect of breakfast type on total ... ty in adolescents: results of the E-MOVO project.

  8. Eating breakfast together as a family: mealtime experiences and associations with dietary intake among adolescents in rural Minnesota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Wang, Qi; Berge, Jerica M; Shanafelt, Amy; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2016-06-01

    Although existing evidence links breakfast frequency to better dietary quality, little is known specifically in regard to the benefits associated with eating breakfast together with one's family. The present study describes the prevalence and experience of having family meals at breakfast among rural families and examines associations between meal frequency and adolescent diet quality. Data were drawn from Project BreakFAST, a group-randomized trial aimed at increasing school breakfast participation in rural Minnesota high schools, USA. Linear mixed models were used to examine associations between student reports of family breakfast frequency and Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) scores while accounting for clustering within schools, demographics and household food security. Adolescent students from sixteen schools completed online surveys, height and weight measurements, and dietary recalls at baseline in 2012-2014. The sample included 827 adolescents (55·1 % girls) in grades 9-10 who reported eating breakfast on at most three days per school week. On average, adolescents reported eating breakfast with their family 1·3 (sd 1·9) times in the past week. Family breakfast meals occurred most frequently in the homes of adolescents who reported a race other than white (P=0·002) or Hispanic ethnicity (P=0·02). Family breakfast frequency was directly associated with adolescent involvement in preparing breakfast meals (Pfood patterns at breakfast. Additional research is needed to better inform and evaluate strategies.

  9. Evaluation of the School Breakfast Program Pilot Project: Summary of Findings from the Final Report. Report No. CN-04-SBP

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Joan E.; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Crepinsek, Mary Kay; Daft, Lynn M.

    2004-01-01

    There is concern that low-income children might be coming to school without eating breakfast and still not be participating in the School Breakfast Program (SBP) for a variety of reasons, including a perceived stigma associating school breakfast participation with poverty. One approach to increasing participation in the SBP is to offer free…

  10. The Effect of Breakfast in the Classroom on Obesity and Academic Performance: Evidence from New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Sean P.; Elbel, Brian; Schwartz, Amy Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Participation in the federally subsidized school breakfast program often falls well below its lunchtime counterpart. To increase take-up, many districts have implemented Breakfast in the Classroom (BIC), offering breakfast directly to students at the start of the school day. Beyond increasing participation, advocates claim BIC improves academic…

  11. The effect of breakfast composition and energy contribution on cognitive and academic performance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edefonti, Valeria; Rosato, Valentina; Parpinel, Maria; Nebbia, Gabriella; Fiorica, Lorenzo; Fossali, Emilio; Ferraroni, Monica; Decarli, Adriano; Agostoni, Carlo

    2014-08-01

    Most studies that assess the effects of breakfast on subsequent mental abilities compared performance in subjects who had or had not consumed this meal. However, characteristics of breakfast itself may induce metabolic and hormonal alterations of the gastrointestinal tract and potentially modify cognitive performance. Moreover, as far as the evidence on the positive effects of having breakfast is becoming more robust, interest may shift to the specific characteristics of an adequate breakfast. The objective was to summarize existing evidence on the role of nutrient composition or energy intake at breakfast on the accomplishment of school-related tasks and cognition. We conducted a systematic review of the literature through the PubMed database. From the literature search, we identified 102 articles, 15 of which met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 3 studies provided information on the relation between cognitive and academic performance and energy intake at breakfast, 11 provided the same information for the macronutrient composition of breakfast, and 1 investigated both the aspects. Eleven studies considered breakfast meals differing in glycemic index/load. Selected studies were generally carried out in well-nourished children and adults of both sexes from general education. They were mostly experimental studies of short duration and had a limited number of subjects. Cognitive and academic performance was investigated by looking at multiple domains, including memory, attention, reasoning, learning, and verbal and math abilities, with a variety of test batteries scheduled at different time points in the morning. Breakfast options differed in terms of included foods and place and time of administration. There is insufficient quantity and consistency among studies to draw firm conclusions. However, whereas the hypothesis of a better and more sustained performance with a breakfast providing >20% daily energy intake still needs substantiation, there does appear to be

  12. Reported habitual intake of breakfast and selected foods in relation to overweight status among seven- to nine-year-old Swedish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Bente B; Yngve, Agneta; Monteagudo, Celia; Tellström, Richard; Scander, Henrik; Werner, Bo

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the reported frequency of breakfast intake and selected food and beverages in the investigated group of Swedish children in comparison with recommended intakes. Furthermore, the study analyses these food habits and some demographic and lifestyle factors in relation to overweight and obesity. This cross-sectional study builds on data collected in 2008 and 2010. Measured anthropometric data and parent questionnaire data were collected. A total of 2620 Swedish children (52.1% boys) aged seven to nine years were included. The majority of parents reported that their children (95.4%) had breakfast every day. The majority of children had fresh fruit (84.7%) and vegetables (83.9%) most days a week. Only 1.6% of the children were reported to have fast food and 6.0% to have sugar containing soft drinks, four days a week or more. The prevalence of overweight including obesity (OW/OB) was 17.8% for boys, 18.6% for girls. The odds of being OW/OB was higher among those not having breakfast every day (odds ratio (OR) 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20-2.96), drinking diet soft drink (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.52-4.42) and skimmed/semi-skimmed milk (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.37-2.36) four days a week or more. Parents being overweight and having low education levels were also related to a higher risk of their children being overweight. The parental reports of children's food habits pointed at favourable eating patterns for most investigated children. Breakfast skipping, diet soft drinks and low-fat milk consumption were more frequent among OW/OB children. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the causal relationships.

  13. Natto and viscous vegetables in a Japanese-style breakfast improved insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in overweight subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi-Fukatsu, Akiko; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Naniwa-Kuroki, Yuko; Nishida, Yuka; Yamamoto, Hironori; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji

    2012-04-01

    We previously suggested that the consumption of natto and viscous vegetables as part of a Japanese-style meal based on white rice (WR) reduced postprandial glucose and insulin levels in healthy subjects. The aim of the present study was to assess whether a single breakfast of natto and viscous vegetables or the same breakfast consumed for 2 weeks could improve glucose control, insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in overweight subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A total of eleven free-living subjects with IGT followed a randomised, crossover breakfast intervention for 2 weeks. The test meal included boiled WR with natto (viscous fermented soyabeans), Japanese yam and okra. The control meal included WR with non-viscous boiled soyabeans, potatoes and broccoli. Both meals contained comparable amounts of carbohydrate, fat, protein and fibre. The test meal reduced acute glucose and insulin responses compared to the control meal in the study participants. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using the composite insulin sensitivity index (CISI) after both the test and control meal periods. The test meal resulted in improvements in CISI compared to the baseline, whereas no significant changes were observed after the control meal period. Serum levels of both total and LDL-cholesterol were assessed before and after the test meal period and found to decrease significantly. There was also a tendency towards reduced serum malondialdehyde-modified LDL and N(ɛ)-carboxymethyllysine. No differences were observed in the measures of chronic glycaemic control. Thus, we conclude that a breakfast of natto and viscous vegetables consumed for 2 weeks improves insulin sensitivity, serum lipid and oxidative stress.

  14. Diverse Regular Employees and Non-regular Employment (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    MORISHIMA Motohiro

    2011-01-01

    Currently there are high expectations for the introduction of policies related to diverse regular employees. These policies are a response to the problem of disparities between regular and non-regular employees (part-time, temporary, contract and other non-regular employees) and will make it more likely that workers can balance work and their private lives while companies benefit from the advantages of regular employment. In this paper, I look at two issues that underlie this discussion. The ...

  15. Sparse structure regularized ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-04-17

    Learning ranking scores is critical for the multimedia database retrieval problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking score learning algorithm by exploring the sparse structure and using it to regularize ranking scores. To explore the sparse structure, we assume that each multimedia object could be represented as a sparse linear combination of all other objects, and combination coefficients are regarded as a similarity measure between objects and used to regularize their ranking scores. Moreover, we propose to learn the sparse combination coefficients and the ranking scores simultaneously. A unified objective function is constructed with regard to both the combination coefficients and the ranking scores, and is optimized by an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two multimedia database retrieval data sets demonstrate the significant improvements of the propose algorithm over state-of-the-art ranking score learning algorithms.

  16. 'Regular' and 'emergency' repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchnik, N.V.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments on the combined action of radiation and a DNA inhibitor using Crepis roots and on split-dose irradiation of human lymphocytes lead to the conclusion that there are two types of repair. The 'regular' repair takes place twice in each mitotic cycle and ensures the maintenance of genetic stability. The 'emergency' repair is induced at all stages of the mitotic cycle by high levels of injury. (author)

  17. Regularization of divergent integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Felder, Giovanni; Kazhdan, David

    2016-01-01

    We study the Hadamard finite part of divergent integrals of differential forms with singularities on submanifolds. We give formulae for the dependence of the finite part on the choice of regularization and express them in terms of a suitable local residue map. The cases where the submanifold is a complex hypersurface in a complex manifold and where it is a boundary component of a manifold with boundary, arising in string perturbation theory, are treated in more detail.

  18. Regularizing portfolio optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Still, Susanne; Kondor, Imre

    2010-01-01

    The optimization of large portfolios displays an inherent instability due to estimation error. This poses a fundamental problem, because solutions that are not stable under sample fluctuations may look optimal for a given sample, but are, in effect, very far from optimal with respect to the average risk. In this paper, we approach the problem from the point of view of statistical learning theory. The occurrence of the instability is intimately related to over-fitting, which can be avoided using known regularization methods. We show how regularized portfolio optimization with the expected shortfall as a risk measure is related to support vector regression. The budget constraint dictates a modification. We present the resulting optimization problem and discuss the solution. The L2 norm of the weight vector is used as a regularizer, which corresponds to a diversification 'pressure'. This means that diversification, besides counteracting downward fluctuations in some assets by upward fluctuations in others, is also crucial because it improves the stability of the solution. The approach we provide here allows for the simultaneous treatment of optimization and diversification in one framework that enables the investor to trade off between the two, depending on the size of the available dataset.

  19. Regularizing portfolio optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Susanne; Kondor, Imre

    2010-07-01

    The optimization of large portfolios displays an inherent instability due to estimation error. This poses a fundamental problem, because solutions that are not stable under sample fluctuations may look optimal for a given sample, but are, in effect, very far from optimal with respect to the average risk. In this paper, we approach the problem from the point of view of statistical learning theory. The occurrence of the instability is intimately related to over-fitting, which can be avoided using known regularization methods. We show how regularized portfolio optimization with the expected shortfall as a risk measure is related to support vector regression. The budget constraint dictates a modification. We present the resulting optimization problem and discuss the solution. The L2 norm of the weight vector is used as a regularizer, which corresponds to a diversification 'pressure'. This means that diversification, besides counteracting downward fluctuations in some assets by upward fluctuations in others, is also crucial because it improves the stability of the solution. The approach we provide here allows for the simultaneous treatment of optimization and diversification in one framework that enables the investor to trade off between the two, depending on the size of the available dataset.

  20. Regular Single Valued Neutrosophic Hypergraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Malik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define the regular and totally regular single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs, and discuss the order and size along with properties of regular and totally regular single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs. We also extend work on completeness of single valued neutrosophic hypergraphs.

  1. The geometry of continuum regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1987-03-01

    This lecture is primarily an introduction to coordinate-invariant regularization, a recent advance in the continuum regularization program. In this context, the program is seen as fundamentally geometric, with all regularization contained in regularized DeWitt superstructures on field deformations

  2. Understanding choice of milk and bread for breakfast among Swedish children aged 11-15 years: an application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, C; Jonsson, I; Conner, M

    2000-02-01

    The present study examined the influences of attitudes, social norms, perceived control and underlying beliefs on 11 to 15-year-olds' breakfast choices of milk with different fat content and high-fibre bread. All pupils in the 5th, 7th and 9th grades in Mölndal community (N=1730), Sweden, were asked to complete a questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Two weeks later, they were asked to fill in a 7-day record of food consumed for breakfast. Consumption of milk and high-fibre bread was predicted from intentions, and for milk also by perceived behavioural control. Intentions were influenced by attitudes, perceptions of significant others' preferences, and perceived control. In addition, perception of the parents' consumption (descriptive norm) of the specific food played an important role. Attitudes, norms and perceived control predicted intentions to a similar extent in each age group. Attitudes to the consumption of milk and high fibre bread were influenced by beliefs about their sensory and health aspects. Females and the oldest children had greater knowledge about the healthier alternatives and the oldest children had a tendency to choose healthier options. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  3. More than just a meal: Breakfast club attendance and children’s social relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret (Greta Anne Defeyter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The health benefits of school food have been widely promoted in recent years while the social opportunities that surround eating occasions at school have received little attention. Breakfast clubs, which take place at the start of the school day, offer a unique opportunity for children to consume a breakfast meal on their school premises in the company of their peers. Alternatively, after school clubs, which take place on school premises at the end of the school day, whilst also providing children with social opportunities tend to focus on sports engagement and skill development. The aim of the current paper is to investigate whether attendance at breakfast clubs and after school clubs has an impact on children’s friendship quality and experiences of peer victimization. Breakfast club attendees, after-school club attendees and non-attendees completed the Friendship Qualities Scale (FQS and the Multidimensional Peer Victimization Scale (MPVS at two time points. Time 1 data were collected two months after the introduction of school clubs. Time 2 data were then collected on the same measures again six months later. Results of the analyses of Time 1 data showed no significant differences between groups on any of the measures at Time 1. However, at Time 2 breakfast club attendees showed improved levels of friendship quality compared to the other two groups. Moreover, analysis of the MPVS data at Time 2 showed that children who attended breakfast club or after school club experienced a decline in victimization across time. The current findings suggest that breakfast club attendance facilitates the quality of children’s relationships with their best friend over time. Additionally, attendance at a breakfast or after school club was associated with a reduction in victimization over time. The results have implications for utilization of breakfast and after school clubs to aid children’s social relationships in school over time.

  4. Comparison of the Effects of Goat Dairy and Cow Dairy Based Breakfasts on Satiety, Appetite Hormones, and Metabolic Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Martín, Elehazara; García-Escobar, Eva; Ruiz de Adana, Maria-Soledad; Lima-Rubio, Fuensanta; Peláez, Laura; Caracuel, Angel-María; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco-Javier; Soriguer, Federico; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Olveira, Gabriel

    2017-08-15

    The satiating effects of cow dairy have been thoroughly investigated; however, the effects of goat dairy on appetite have not been reported so far. Our study investigates the satiating effect of two breakfasts based on goat or cow dairy and their association with appetite related hormones and metabolic profile. Healthy adults consumed two breakfasts based on goat (G-Breakfast) or cow (C-Breakfast) dairy products. Blood samples were taken and VAS tests were performed at different time points. Blood metabolites were measured and Combined Satiety Index (CSI) and areas under the curves (AUC) were calculated. Desire to eat rating was significantly lower (breakfast & time interaction p cow dairy products, and pointed to a potential association of GLP-1 and triglyceride levels with the mechanisms by which dairy products might affect satiety after the G-Breakfast and C-Breakfast, respectively.

  5. STS-37 Breakfast / Ingress / Launch & ISO Camera Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-37 mission was to deploy the Gamma Ray Observatory. The mission was launched at 9:22:44 am on April 5, 1991, onboard the space shuttle Atlantis. The mission was led by Commander Steven Nagel. The crew was Pilot Kenneth Cameron and Mission Specialists Jerry Ross, Jay Apt, and Linda Godwing. This videotape shows the crew having breakfast on the launch day, with the narrator introducing them. It then shows the crew's final preparations and the entry into the shuttle, while the narrator gives information about each of the crew members. The countdown and launch is shown including the shuttle separation from the solid rocket boosters. The launch is reshown from 17 different camera views. Some of the other camera views were in black and white.

  6. Annotation of Regular Polysemy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Alonso, Hector

    Regular polysemy has received a lot of attention from the theory of lexical semantics and from computational linguistics. However, there is no consensus on how to represent the sense of underspecified examples at the token level, namely when annotating or disambiguating senses of metonymic words...... and metonymic. We have conducted an analysis in English, Danish and Spanish. Later on, we have tried to replicate the human judgments by means of unsupervised and semi-supervised sense prediction. The automatic sense-prediction systems have been unable to find empiric evidence for the underspecified sense, even...

  7. Regularity of Minimal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Tromba, Anthony J; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    "Regularity of Minimal Surfaces" begins with a survey of minimal surfaces with free boundaries. Following this, the basic results concerning the boundary behaviour of minimal surfaces and H-surfaces with fixed or free boundaries are studied. In particular, the asymptotic expansions at interior and boundary branch points are derived, leading to general Gauss-Bonnet formulas. Furthermore, gradient estimates and asymptotic expansions for minimal surfaces with only piecewise smooth boundaries are obtained. One of the main features of free boundary value problems for minimal surfaces is t

  8. Regularities of radiation heredity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skakov, M.K.; Melikhov, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    One analyzed regularities of radiation heredity in metals and alloys. One made conclusion about thermodynamically irreversible changes in structure of materials under irradiation. One offers possible ways of heredity transmittance of radiation effects at high-temperature transformations in the materials. Phenomenon of radiation heredity may be turned to practical use to control structure of liquid metal and, respectively, structure of ingot via preliminary radiation treatment of charge. Concentration microheterogeneities in material defect structure induced by preliminary irradiation represent the genetic factor of radiation heredity [ru

  9. Seafood Consumption and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Huseyin Atar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study discussed relationship between healthy life and seafood consumption. Seafood consumption provide with predicting some chronic diseases, regular diet and a healthy eating habit. Fish and seafood have been promoted as healthy eating by health organizations in many countries all over the world. Seafood includes many important fatty acids, proteins, vitamins and minerals. These have been shown to cause significant biochemical and physiological changes in the body. Especially omega–3 and omega–6 fatty acids have been prevented some major diseases; such as CHD, cancer. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(2.000: 173-176

  10. Perception of non-communicable diseases predicts consumption of fruits and vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Surjadi

    2015-12-01

    This study demonstrated that perception of NCD was the most determinant factor of regular fruit and vegetable consumption. Activities to improve practice of regular fruit and vegetable consumption are part of control of NCD risk factors.

  11. 78 FR 79567 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in Schools as Required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids... interim rule entitled National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for..., 2013 / Rules and Regulations [[Page 79567

  12. Exercise Increases 24-h Fat Oxidation Only When It Is Performed Before Breakfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaito Iwayama

    2015-12-01

    Interpretation: Under energy-balanced conditions, 24-h fat oxidation was increased by exercise only when performed before breakfast. Transient carbohydrate deficits, i.e., glycogen depletion, observed after morning exercise may have contributed to increased 24-h fat oxidation.

  13. The effect of breakfast versus no breakfast on brain activity in adolescents when performing cognitive tasks, as assessed by fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, Jonathan; Varley-Campbell, Joanna L; Williams, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the feasibility of utilizing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a group of adolescent boys and girls to assess modifications in cognitive function, dependent upon the nutritional state of the participants. Twenty children aged 12-14 years completed two cognitive trials, in a randomized counterbalanced order, one under fasting condition, one after consuming breakfast, during which continuous fMRI data were acquired. Although no statistically significant (P > 0.05) improvement in task performance was determined, significantly higher activation was recorded in the frontal, premotor, and primary visual cortex areas in the breakfast trial relative to the fasting condition. Such a finding may have important implications in the examination of the role of diet, and specifically breakfast, in determining children's performance within the school environment.

  14. Effective field theory dimensional regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, Dirk; Prezeau, Gary

    2002-01-01

    A Lorentz-covariant regularization scheme for effective field theories with an arbitrary number of propagating heavy and light particles is given. This regularization scheme leaves the low-energy analytic structure of Greens functions intact and preserves all the symmetries of the underlying Lagrangian. The power divergences of regularized loop integrals are controlled by the low-energy kinematic variables. Simple diagrammatic rules are derived for the regularization of arbitrary one-loop graphs and the generalization to higher loops is discussed

  15. Effective field theory dimensional regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Dirk; Prézeau, Gary

    2002-01-01

    A Lorentz-covariant regularization scheme for effective field theories with an arbitrary number of propagating heavy and light particles is given. This regularization scheme leaves the low-energy analytic structure of Greens functions intact and preserves all the symmetries of the underlying Lagrangian. The power divergences of regularized loop integrals are controlled by the low-energy kinematic variables. Simple diagrammatic rules are derived for the regularization of arbitrary one-loop graphs and the generalization to higher loops is discussed.

  16. Relationships between bullying victimization psychological distress and breakfast skipping among boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Willmore, Jacqueline

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to further explore the association between bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in children and adolescents. Compared to the previous study, we have used a larger and representative sample of middle and high school students, examined the effect of gender, different forms (physical, verbal, theft/vandalism and cyber) and severity of bullying on breakfast eating behaviour. Data from students (2286 boys and 2859 girls) aged 11 to 19 years (mean ± SD age: 14.6 ± 1.9 years) from the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS) were analysed using self-reports of being bullied, diet, psychological distress, demographics, socio-economic status, weight status, and substance use. Results revealed greater odds of breakfast skipping in girl victims of physical, verbal, and cyber bullying, and in boy victims of verbal and cyber bullying. There was a dose-response relationship between experience of both school and cyber bullying victimization and breakfast skipping behaviour for both genders. Mediation analysis indicated that psychological distress fully mediated the relationship between both verbal and physical bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in girls, and partially mediated the relationship between verbal bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in boys. Psychological distress also partially mediated the link between cyber bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in both boys and girls. These results corroborate previous findings on the association between bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in children and adolescents. The strong and consistent associations with different forms of bullying victimization, the dose-response relationship, and the mediating role of psychological distress suggest a causal relationship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pengaruh Terpaan Komunikasi Pemasaran Menu Breakfast Mcdonald"s Keputusan Pembelian

    OpenAIRE

    Tasuki, Martia Mutiara; Pradekso, Tandiyo; Ulfa, Nurist Surayya

    2013-01-01

    PENGARUH TERPAAN KOMUNIKASI PEMASARAN MENU BREAKFAST MCDONALD'S DAN CITRA PRODUK TERHADAP KEPUTUSAN PEMBELIANSkripsiDisusun untuk memenuhi persyaratan menyelesaikanPendidikan Strata IJurusan Ilmu Komunikasi Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu PolitikUniversitas DiponegoroPenyusunNama : Martia Mutiara TasukiNIM : D2C 005 183JURUSAN ILMU KOMUNIKASIFAKULTAS ILMU SOSIAL DAN ILMU POLITIKUNIVERSITAS DIPONEGOROSEMARANG2013PENGARUH TERPAAN KOMUNIKASI PEMASARAN MENU BREAKFAST MCDONALD'S DAN CITRA PRODUK TER...

  18. Less healthy breakfast cereals are promoted more frequently in large supermarket chains in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Potvin Kent

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of food expenditures are made in supermarkets and this environment influences our purchasing and food intake. Breakfast cereals are frequently marketed as healthy food choices. The objective of this study was to examine the frequency of in–store promotions for cold breakfast cereals in Canadian supermarkets and to determine whether healthier or less healthy breakfast cereals are promoted more frequently. Methods Data was collected once per week over a four-week period from a convenience sample of the five largest Canadian supermarkets in the Ottawa/Gatineau area. Data collection included the number of shelf facings, promotional displays, and the cost of cereals/100 g. The UK Nutrient Profiling Model was used to determine the healthfulness of each breakfast cereal. Results 29.8% (n = 67 of the 225 unique cereals were classified as healthier and 70.2% (n = 158 were classified as less healthy. Less healthy cereals were displayed at eye level, in the profitable middle shelves, 2.9 times more frequently than healthier cereals. There were 5.3 times more breakfast cereal shelf facings, 4.2 more end cap displays, 1.7 more mid-aisle displays and 3.3 more special pricing signage for less healthy cereals compared to healthier cereals. Less healthy cereals had a significantly higher average total number of shelf facings compared to healthier cereals (t = −4.28 (280.8, p < .001. Conclusions Breakfast cereal manufacturers need to consider reformulation of their breakfast cereals to improve their healthfulness and supermarkets need to increase the marketing of healthy breakfast cereals within their stores.

  19. 75 FR 76006 - Regular Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Regular Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board. ACTION: Regular meeting. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). Date and Time: The meeting of the Board will be held...

  20. The glycaemic potency of breakfast and cognitive function in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micha, R; Rogers, P J; Nelson, M

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess how the glycaemic potency (blood glucose (BG)-raising potential) of breakfast is associated with cognitive function (CF) in school children, taking into account important confounders, including iron status, underlying physiological adaptations and socio-economic status. Sixty children aged 11-14 years were selected on the basis of having breakfast habitually. Their breakfast and any snacks eaten on the morning of the study were recorded. They were categorized into four groups according to the glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) of the breakfast: low-GI, high-GL; high-GI, high-GL; low-GI, low-GL and high-GI, low-GL above or below the median for GI=61 and GL=27. BG levels were measured in finger-prick blood samples immediately before and immediately after the CF tests. A low-GI, high-GL breakfast was associated with better performance on a speed of information processing (Pbreakfast with better performance on an immediate word recall task (Pbreakfast with better performance on a Matrices task (Pperformance on the majority of the CF tests (4 of 7) used. This study describes the macronutrient composition of breakfast that could have a positive influence on the cognition of school children, proposes the use of both GI and GL to estimate exposure, and discusses future directions in this area of research.

  1. Effect of Breakfast Omission on Energy Intake and Evening Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, David J; Barutcu, Asya; Machin, Claire; Stensel, David J; James, Lewis J

    2015-12-01

    Breakfast omission may reduce daily energy intake. Exercising fasted impairs performance compared with exercising after breakfast, but the effect breakfast omission has on evening exercise performance is unknown. This study assessed the effect of omitting breakfast on evening exercise performance and within-day energy intake. Ten male, habitual breakfast eaters completed two trials in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Subjects arrived at the laboratory in an overnight-fasted state and either consumed or omitted a 733 ± 46 kcal (3095 ± 195 kJ) breakfast. Ad libitum energy intake was assessed at 4.5 h (lunch) and 11 h (dinner). At 9 h, subjects completed a 30-min cycling exercise at approximately 60% VO2peak, followed by a 30-min maximal cycling performance test. Food was not permitted for subjects once they left the laboratory after dinner until 0800 h the following morning. Acylated ghrelin, GLP-1(7-36), glucose, and insulin were assessed at 0, 4.5, and 9 h. Subjective appetite sensations were recorded throughout. Energy intake was 199 ± 151 kcal greater at lunch (P daily energy intake but may impair performance later that day, even after consuming lunch.

  2. Characterization of Breakfast Cereals Available in the Mexican Market: Sodium and Sugar Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Claudia; Rincon-Gallardo Patiño, Sofia; Tolentino-Mayo, Lizbeth; Carriedo, Angela; Barquera, Simón

    2017-08-16

    Preschool Mexican children consume 7% of their total energy intake from processed breakfast cereals. This study characterized the nutritional quality and labelling (claims and Guideline Daily Amount (GDA)) of the packaged breakfast cereals available in the Mexican market. Photographs of all breakfast cereals available in the 9 main food retail chains in the country were taken. The nutrition quality of cereals was assessed using the United Kingdom Nutrient Profiling Model (UKNPM). Claims were classified using the International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable Diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) taxonomy and the GDA was defined according to the Mexican regulation, NOM-051. Overall, a total of 371 different breakfast cereals were analysed. The nutritional profile showed that 68.7% were classified as "less healthy". GDAs and claims were displayed more frequently on the "less healthy" cereals. Breakfast cereals within the "less healthy" category had significantly higher content of energy, sugar and sodium ( p < 0.001). Most of the claims were displayed in the "less healthy" cereals ( n = 313). This study has shown that there is a lack of consistency between the labelling on the front of the pack and the nutritional quality of breakfast cereals.

  3. The effects of an increased calorie breakfast consumed prior to simulated match-play in Academy soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Marc A; Harper, Liam D; McNamee, Ged; Cockburn, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L S; Stevenson, Emma J; Russell, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Dietary analysis of Academy soccer players highlights that total energy and carbohydrate intakes are less than optimal, especially, on match-days. As UK Academy matches predominantly kick-off at ∼11:00 h, breakfast is likely the last pre-exercise meal and thus may provide an intervention opportunity on match-day. Accordingly, the physiological and performance effects of an increased calorie breakfast consumed ∼135-min before soccer-specific exercise was investigated. English Premier League Academy soccer players (n = 7) repeated a 90-min soccer match simulation on two occasions after consumption of habitual (B hab ; ∼1100 kJ) or increased (B inc ; ∼2100 kJ) energy breakfasts standardised for macronutrient contributions (∼60% carbohydrates, ∼15% proteins and ∼25% fats). Countermovement jump height, sprint velocities (15-m and 30-m), 30-m repeated sprint maintenance, gut fullness, abdominal discomfort and soccer dribbling performances were measured. Blood samples were taken at rest, pre-exercise, half-time and every 15-min during exercise. Although dribbling precision (P = .522; 29.9 ± 5.5 cm) and success (P = .505; 94 ± 8%) were unchanged throughout all time-points, mean dribbling speed was faster (4.3 ± 5.7%) in B inc relative to B hab (P = .023; 2.84 vs 2.75 m s -1 ). Greater feelings of gut fullness (67 ± 17%, P = .001) were observed in B inc without changes in abdominal discomfort (P = .595). All other physical performance measures and blood lactate and glucose concentrations were comparable between trials (all P > .05). Findings demonstrate that Academy soccer players were able to increase pre-match energy intake without experiencing abdominal discomfort; thus, likely contributing to the amelioration of energy deficits on match-days. Furthermore, whilst B inc produced limited benefits to physical performance, increased dribbling speed was identified, which may be of benefit to match-play.

  4. Selection of regularization parameter for l1-regularized damage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Rongrong; Xia, Yong; Bao, Yuequan; Zhou, Xiaoqing

    2018-06-01

    The l1 regularization technique has been developed for structural health monitoring and damage detection through employing the sparsity condition of structural damage. The regularization parameter, which controls the trade-off between data fidelity and solution size of the regularization problem, exerts a crucial effect on the solution. However, the l1 regularization problem has no closed-form solution, and the regularization parameter is usually selected by experience. This study proposes two strategies of selecting the regularization parameter for the l1-regularized damage detection problem. The first method utilizes the residual and solution norms of the optimization problem and ensures that they are both small. The other method is based on the discrepancy principle, which requires that the variance of the discrepancy between the calculated and measured responses is close to the variance of the measurement noise. The two methods are applied to a cantilever beam and a three-story frame. A range of the regularization parameter, rather than one single value, can be determined. When the regularization parameter in this range is selected, the damage can be accurately identified even for multiple damage scenarios. This range also indicates the sensitivity degree of the damage identification problem to the regularization parameter.

  5. Ensemble manifold regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Bo; Tao, Dacheng; Xu, Chao; Yang, Linjun; Hua, Xian-Sheng

    2012-06-01

    We propose an automatic approximation of the intrinsic manifold for general semi-supervised learning (SSL) problems. Unfortunately, it is not trivial to define an optimization function to obtain optimal hyperparameters. Usually, cross validation is applied, but it does not necessarily scale up. Other problems derive from the suboptimality incurred by discrete grid search and the overfitting. Therefore, we develop an ensemble manifold regularization (EMR) framework to approximate the intrinsic manifold by combining several initial guesses. Algorithmically, we designed EMR carefully so it 1) learns both the composite manifold and the semi-supervised learner jointly, 2) is fully automatic for learning the intrinsic manifold hyperparameters implicitly, 3) is conditionally optimal for intrinsic manifold approximation under a mild and reasonable assumption, and 4) is scalable for a large number of candidate manifold hyperparameters, from both time and space perspectives. Furthermore, we prove the convergence property of EMR to the deterministic matrix at rate root-n. Extensive experiments over both synthetic and real data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  6. The association of breakfast skipping and television viewing at breakfast with weight status among parents of 10-12-year-olds in eight European countries; the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjornara, H.B.; Vik, F.N.; Brug, J.; Manios, Y.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Jan, N.; Maes, L.; Moreno, L.A.; Dossegger, A.; Bere, E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The main objective was to assess the relationship of breakfast skipping, television (TV) viewing at breakfast and breakfast without TV with weight status among parents of 10-12-year-olds in eight European countries. Design: A cross-sectional survey assessed breakfast eating and TV viewing

  7. The combined unhealthy behaviors of breakfast skipping and smoking are associated with the prevalence of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Midori; Muto, Takashi; Minakawa, Toshihiro; Shibata, Toshie

    2009-08-01

    Skipping breakfast has been considered a representative unhealthy behavior, but there is little information about the combined effects of breakfast skipping and other unhealthy health habits, especially smoking. First this cross-sectional study investigated unhealthy behaviors among breakfast skippers, and then examined the impact of the combined association of skipping breakfast and smoking on health. A total of 1,200 adults living in one Japanese community were sent questionnaires to elicit data on age, gender, breakfast-eating frequency, and other lifestyle habits. A total 603 of people returned their questionnaires (response rate: 50.3%), and 493 (230 men and 263 women) questionnaires were considered appropriate for analysis. Smoking rate in men (mean age, 53.7 years) and women (mean age, 50.4 years) was 41.3%, and 9.5%, respectively. Skipping breakfast was more prevalent in people under age 50 years (p related to other unhealthy behaviors. Binary logistic regression identified current smoking as the most significant factor related to breakfast skipping (3.10, 95%CI 1.50-6.39). Other factors included, age younger than 50 years (3.04, 95%CI 1.31-7.06) and poor sleeping quality (2.06, 95%CI 1.00-4.25). After examining the combined impact of skipping breakfast and smoking, the highest odds ratio for a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus was found among those who smoked and skipped breakfast (4.68, 95% CI: 1.46-15.05). Moreover, skipping breakfast among non-smokers showed a high association with perceived stress (2.83, 95% CI: 1.05-7.61). In conclusion, the combined unhealthy behaviors of skipping breakfast and smoking are associated with the prevalence of diabetes mellitus.

  8. The Effect of Providing Breakfast on Student Performance: Evidence from an In-Class Breakfast Program. NBER Working Paper No. 17720

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imberman, Scott A.; Kugler, Adriana D.

    2012-01-01

    In response to low take-up, many public schools have experimented with moving breakfast from the cafeteria to the classroom. We examine whether such a program increases performance as measured by standardized test scores, grades and attendance rates. We exploit quasi-random timing of program implementation that allows for a…

  9. The effect of gold kiwifruit consumed with an iron fortified breakfast cereal meal on iron status in women with low iron stores: A 16 week randomised controlled intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coad Jane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary treatment is often recommended as the first line of treatment for women with mild iron deficiency. Although it is well established that ascorbic acid enhances iron absorption, it is less clear whether the consumption of ascorbic acid rich foods (such as kiwifruit with meals fortified with iron improves iron status. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the consumption of ZESPRI® GOLD kiwifruit (a fruit high in ascorbic acid and carotenoids with an iron fortified breakfast cereal meal increases iron status in women with low iron stores. Methods/Design Eighty nine healthy women aged 18-44 years with low iron stores (serum ferritin (SF ≤ 25 μg/L, haemoglobin (Hb ≥ 115 g/L living in Auckland, New Zealand were randomised to receive an iron fortified breakfast cereal (16 mg iron per serve and either two ZESPRI® GOLD kiwifruit or a banana (low ascorbic acid and carotenoid content to eat at breakfast time every day for 16 weeks. Iron status (SF, Hb, C-reactive protein (CRP and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR, ascorbic acid and carotenoid status were measured at baseline and after 16 weeks. Anthropometric measures, dietary intake, physical activity and blood loss were measured before and after the 16 week intervention. Discussion This randomised controlled intervention study will be the first study to investigate the effect of a dietary based intervention of an iron fortified breakfast cereal meal combined with an ascorbic acid and carotenoid rich fruit on improving iron status in women with low iron stores. Trial registration ACTRN12608000360314

  10. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...

  11. Adaptive Regularization of Neural Classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Nonboe; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    1997-01-01

    We present a regularization scheme which iteratively adapts the regularization parameters by minimizing the validation error. It is suggested to use the adaptive regularization scheme in conjunction with optimal brain damage pruning to optimize the architecture and to avoid overfitting. Furthermo......, we propose an improved neural classification architecture eliminating an inherent redundancy in the widely used SoftMax classification network. Numerical results demonstrate the viability of the method...

  12. Dietary fibre supplementation of a 'normal' breakfast administered to diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D R; James, W P; Evans, I E

    1980-05-01

    The supplementation of a breakfast by 10 g of guar, pectin, agar or locust bean gum in powder form in 13 maturity onset, non-insulin dependent diabetics failed to decrease significantly the post-prandial rise in plasma glucose and insulin seen after a similar meal without the supplement. The values of one hour post-prandial increment in blood glucose seen with guar powder were, for control meal (mean +/- SEM) 5.8 %/- 0.4 mmol/l, for test, 5.7 +/- 0.5; with pectin powder, control 6.4 +/- 0.8 mmol/l, test 5.0 +/- 1.2 mmol/l; with agar powder, control 7.5 +/- 1.0, test 7.0 +/- 0.5; with locust bean gum powder, control 5.9 +/- 1.0, test 5.0 +/- 0.7. The equivalent values for one hour insulin (microU/ml, mean +/- SEM) were, for guar powder, 51 +/0 21 and 51 +/- 16; for pectin powder 60 +/- 24 and 63 +/- 17; for agar powder, 27 +/- 9 and 36 +/- 11 and, for locust bean gum powder 53 +/- 26 and 62 +/- 18. The guar, pectin and locust gum tended to form lumps, and all the substances tested were unpalatable in powder form producing feelings of abdominal discomfort and abnormal fullness. Administering the same quantity of guar or pectin in a well hydrated form (but not premixed with the carbohydrate portion of the food) to the same people under identical conditions did not enhance its effectiveness. Supplementing diets with any of these sources of dietary fibre in either of these forms and in these amounts is unlikely to be beneficial in the management of non-insulin dependent diabetes.

  13. High caloric intake at breakfast vs. dinner differentially influences weight loss of overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowicz, Daniela; Barnea, Maayan; Wainstein, Julio; Froy, Oren

    2013-12-01

    Few studies examined the association between time-of-day of nutrient intake and the metabolic syndrome. Our goal was to compare a weight loss diet with high caloric intake during breakfast to an isocaloric diet with high caloric intake at dinner. Overweight and obese women (BMI 32.4 ± 1.8 kg/m(2) ) with metabolic syndrome were randomized into two isocaloric (~1400 kcal) weight loss groups, a breakfast (BF) (700 kcal breakfast, 500 kcal lunch, 200 kcal dinner) or a dinner (D) group (200 kcal breakfast, 500 kcal lunch, 700 kcal dinner) for 12 weeks. The BF group showed greater weight loss and waist circumference reduction. Although fasting glucose, insulin, and ghrelin were reduced in both groups, fasting glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR decreased significantly to a greater extent in the BF group. Mean triglyceride levels decreased by 33.6% in the BF group, but increased by 14.6% in the D group. Oral glucose tolerance test led to a greater decrease of glucose and insulin in the BF group. In response to meal challenges, the overall daily glucose, insulin, ghrelin, and mean hunger scores were significantly lower, whereas mean satiety scores were significantly higher in the BF group. High-calorie breakfast with reduced intake at dinner is beneficial and might be a useful alternative for the management of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  14. Nutritional, Economic, and Environmental Costs of Milk Waste in a Classroom School Breakfast Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Stacy A; Cash, Sean B; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Griffin, Timothy S; Economos, Christina D

    2017-04-01

    To measure fluid milk waste in a US School Breakfast in the Classroom Program and estimate its nutritional, economic, and environmental effects. Fluid milk waste was directly measured on 60 elementary school classroom days in a medium-sized, urban district. The US Department of Agriculture nutrition database, district cost data, and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 e) emissions and water footprint estimates for fluid milk were used to calculate the associated nutritional, economic, and environmental costs. Of the total milk offered to School Breakfast Program participants, 45% was wasted. A considerably smaller portion of served milk was wasted (26%). The amount of milk wasted translated into 27% of vitamin D and 41% of calcium required of School Breakfast Program meals. The economic and environmental costs amounted to an estimated $274 782 (16% of the district's total annual School Breakfast Program food expenditures), 644 893 kilograms of CO 2 e, and 192 260 155 liters of water over the school year in the district. These substantial effects of milk waste undermine the School Breakfast Program's capacity to ensure short- and long-term food security and federal food waste reduction targets. Interventions that reduce waste are urgently needed.

  15. 75 FR 53966 - Regular Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Regular Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). DATE AND TIME: The meeting of the Board will be held at the offices of the Farm...

  16. Online co-regularized algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, T. de; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Heskes, T.

    2012-01-01

    We propose an online co-regularized learning algorithm for classification and regression tasks. We demonstrate that by sequentially co-regularizing prediction functions on unlabeled data points, our algorithm provides improved performance in comparison to supervised methods on several UCI benchmarks

  17. Bath Breakfast Project (BBP - Examining the role of extended daily fasting in human energy balance and associated health outcomes: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN31521726

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeans Matthew

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current guidance regarding the role of daily breakfast in human health is largely grounded in cross-sectional observations. However, the causal nature of these relationships has not been fully explored and what limited information is emerging from controlled laboratory-based experiments appears inconsistent with much existing data. Further progress in our understanding therefore requires a direct examination of how daily breakfast impacts human health under free-living conditions. Methods/Design The Bath Breakfast Project (BBP is a randomised controlled trial comparing the effects of daily breakfast consumption relative to extended fasting on energy balance and human health. Approximately 70 men and women will undergo extensive laboratory-based assessments of their acute metabolic responses under fasted and post-prandial conditions, to include: resting metabolic rate, substrate oxidation, dietary-induced thermogenesis and systemic concentrations of key metabolites/hormones. Physiological and psychological indices of appetite will also be monitored both over the first few hours of the day (i.e. whether fed or fasted and also following a standardised test lunch used to assess voluntary energy intake under controlled conditions. Baseline measurements of participants' anthropometric characteristics (e.g. DEXA will be recorded prior to intervention, along with an oral glucose tolerance test and acquisition of adipose tissue samples to determine expression of key genes and estimates of tissue-specific insulin action. Participants will then be randomly assigned either to a group prescribed an energy intake of ≥3000 kJ before 1100 each day or a group to extend their overnight fast by abstaining from ingestion of energy-providing nutrients until 1200 each day, with all laboratory-based measurements followed-up 6 weeks later. Free-living assessments of energy intake (via direct weighed food diaries and energy expenditure (via

  18. Breakfast staple types affect brain gray matter volume and cognitive function in healthy children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Taki

    Full Text Available Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence.

  19. Breakfast staple types affect brain gray matter volume and cognitive function in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2010-12-08

    Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume) and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent) of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI) of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence.

  20. Immigrant families' perceptions on walking to school and school breakfast: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busby Katie

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigrant children face an increased risk of being overweight. Little is known about how immigrant families perceive school programs that may help prevent obesity, such as walking to school and school breakfast. Methods Six focus groups (n = 53 were conducted with immigrant parents of school-aged children, two each in three languages: Vietnamese, Spanish, and Somali. A facilitator and translator conducted the focus groups using a script and question guide. Written notes and audio transcripts were recorded in each group. Transcripts were coded for themes by two researchers and findings classified according to an ecological model. Results Participants in each ethnic group held positive beliefs about the benefits of walking and eating breakfast. Barriers to walking to school included fear of children's safety due to stranger abductions, distrust of neighbors, and traffic, and feasibility barriers due to distance to schools, parent work constraints, and large families with multiple children. Barriers to school breakfast participation included concerns children would not eat due to lack of appealing/appropriate foods and missing breakfast due to late bus arrival or lack of reminders. Although some parents acknowledged concerns about child and adult obesity overall, obesity concerns did not seem personally relevant. Conclusion Immigrant parents supported the ideals of walking to school and eating breakfast, but identified barriers to participation in school programs across domains of the ecological model, including community, institution, and built environment factors. Schools and communities serving immigrant families may need to address these barriers in order to engage parents and children in walking and breakfast programs.

  1. Less healthy breakfast cereals are promoted more frequently in large supermarket chains in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin Kent, Monique; Rudnicki, Erika; Usher, Crystal

    2017-11-13

    The majority of food expenditures are made in supermarkets and this environment influences our purchasing and food intake. Breakfast cereals are frequently marketed as healthy food choices. The objective of this study was to examine the frequency of in-store promotions for cold breakfast cereals in Canadian supermarkets and to determine whether healthier or less healthy breakfast cereals are promoted more frequently. Data was collected once per week over a four-week period from a convenience sample of the five largest Canadian supermarkets in the Ottawa/Gatineau area. Data collection included the number of shelf facings, promotional displays, and the cost of cereals/100 g. The UK Nutrient Profiling Model was used to determine the healthfulness of each breakfast cereal. 29.8% (n = 67) of the 225 unique cereals were classified as healthier and 70.2% (n = 158) were classified as less healthy. Less healthy cereals were displayed at eye level, in the profitable middle shelves, 2.9 times more frequently than healthier cereals. There were 5.3 times more breakfast cereal shelf facings, 4.2 more end cap displays, 1.7 more mid-aisle displays and 3.3 more special pricing signage for less healthy cereals compared to healthier cereals. Less healthy cereals had a significantly higher average total number of shelf facings compared to healthier cereals (t = -4.28 (280.8), p supermarkets need to increase the marketing of healthy breakfast cereals within their stores.

  2. Skipping breakfast and overweight in 2-and 5-year-old Dutch children-the GECKO Drenthe cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupers, L. K.; de Pijper, J. J.; Sauer, P. J. J.; Stolk, R. P.; Corpeleijn, E.

    Skipping breakfast is associated with higher BMI in children aged 5 years and older. However, not much is known about this association in younger children. In the Dutch GECKO Drenthe birth cohort we examined the association between breakfast skipping and objectively measured overweight at the age of

  3. Postprandial Effects of Breakfast Glycemic Index on Vascular Function among Young Healthy Adults: A Crossover Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Sanchez-Aguadero

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the postprandial effects of high and low glycemic index (GI breakfasts on vascular function. It was a crossover trial that included 40 young healthy adults (50% women, aged 20–40 years, who were recruited at primary care settings. They consumed three experimental breakfasts in randomized order, each one separated by a 1-week washout period: (1 control conditions (only water; (2 low GI (LGI breakfast (29.4 GI and 1489 KJ energy; and (3 high GI (HGI breakfast (64.0 GI and 1318 KJ energy. Blood samples were collected at 60 and 120 min after each breakfast to determine glucose and insulin levels. Vascular parameters were measured at 15 min intervals. Augmentation index (AIx was studied as a primary outcome. Secondary outcomes comprised glucose, insulin, heart rate (HR and pulse pressures (PPs. We found a trend toward increased AIx, HR and PPs for the HGI versus the LGI breakfast. A significant interaction between the type of breakfast consumed and all measured parameters was identified (p < 0.05 except for central PP. Stratifying data by sex, this interaction remained significant for AIx and augmentation pressure only in males (p < 0.05. In conclusion, breakfast GI could affect postprandial vascular responses in young healthy adults.

  4. Examining Variations in Fourth-Grade Children's Participation in School Breakfast and Lunch Programs by Student and Program Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Caroline H.; Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Finney, Christopher J.; Hitchcock, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Analyses were conducted to examine variations in fourth-grade children's participation in school-breakfast and school-lunch programs by weekday, month, socioeconomic status, absenteeism, gender, and school-breakfast location. Methods: Fourth-grade children were participants in a dietary-reporting validation study during either…

  5. A Comprehensive Review of the Literature on the Effects of Breakfast on Mental Performance and Scholastic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, James P.

    A review of the literature on the effects of breakfast on mental performance and scholastic achievement reveals a dichotomy between the theoretical and the empirical literature. Whereas theoretical considerations maintain that breakfast makes a significant difference in mental performance in the late morning hours, empirical evidence can be…

  6. Assembling consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assembling Consumption marks a definitive step in the institutionalisation of qualitative business research. By gathering leading scholars and educators who study markets, marketing and consumption through the lenses of philosophy, sociology and anthropology, this book clarifies and applies...... the investigative tools offered by assemblage theory, actor-network theory and non-representational theory. Clear theoretical explanation and methodological innovation, alongside empirical applications of these emerging frameworks will offer readers new and refreshing perspectives on consumer culture and market...... societies. This is an essential reading for both seasoned scholars and advanced students of markets, economies and social forms of consumption....

  7. High-Protein and High-Dietary Fiber Breakfasts Result in Equal Feelings of Fullness and Better Diet Quality in Low-Income Preschoolers Compared with Their Usual Breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Sibylle; Brauchla, Mary; Campbell, Wayne W; Mattes, Rickard D; Schwichtenberg, Amy J

    2017-03-01

    Background: In the United States, 17% of children are currently obese. Increasing feelings of fullness may prevent excessive energy intake, lead to better diet quality, and promote long-term maintenance of healthy weight. Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a fullness-rating tool (aim 1) and to determine whether a high-protein (HP), high-fiber (HF), and combined HP and HF (HPHF) breakfast increases preschoolers' feelings of fullness before (pre) and after (post) breakfast and pre-lunch, as well as their diet quality, as measured by using a composite diet quality assessment tool, the Revised Children's Diet Quality Index (aim 2). Methods: Children aged 4 and 5 y ( n = 41; 22 girls and 19 boys) from local Head Start centers participated in this randomized intervention trial. Sixteen percent of boys and 32% of girls were overweight or obese. After the baseline week, children rotated through four 1-wk periods of consuming ad libitum HP (19-20 g protein), HF (10-11 g fiber), HPHF (19-21 g protein, 10-12 g fiber), or usual (control) breakfasts. Food intake at breakfast was estimated daily, and for breakfast, lunch, and snack on day 3 of each study week Student's t tests and ANOVA were used to determine statistical differences. Results: Children's post-breakfast and pre-lunch fullness ratings were ≥1 point higher than those of pre-breakfast (aim 1). Although children consumed, on average, 65 kcal less energy during the intervention breakfasts ( P diet quality (12%) was calculated for the HP and HF breakfasts ( P diet quality. Serving HP or HF breakfasts may be valuable in improving diet quality without lowering feelings of satiation or satiety. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02122224. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Potential Association between Breakfast Skipping and Concomitant Late-Night-Dinner Eating with Metabolic Syndrome and Proteinuria in the Japanese Population

    OpenAIRE

    Kutsuma, Ayano; Nakajima, Kei; Suwa, Kaname

    2014-01-01

    Skipping breakfast is considered to be an unhealthy eating habit linked to predispositions to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Because eating dinner late at night can elicit subsequent breakfast skipping, we investigated if skipping breakfast concomitant with late-night-dinner eating (LNDE) was associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and proteinuria in the general Japanese population. We examined self-reported habitual breakfast skipping and LNDE, MetS (modified ATP-III criteria), and proteinur...

  9. School breakfast and cognition among nutritionally at-risk children in the Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitt, E; Jacoby, E; Cueto, S

    1996-04-01

    In 1993, in Peru, the Institute of Nutritional Research conducted two studies in Huaraz in the Andean region to evaluate the educational and nutritional impact of the government's School Breakfast Program. The school breakfast included a small cake and a glass of Amilac (similar in taste and color to milk), which provided 30% of each child's energy requirements, 60% of recommended dietary allowances for minerals and vitamins, and 100% of dietary iron needs. A case control study examined the effects of breakfast on cognition among 54 elementary schoolchildren 9-11 years old. It found that the school breakfast did not have a significant effect on the children's performance in the Number Discrimination, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Raven Progressive Matrices, or Reaction Time tests. Children nutritionally at risk who received the placebo had significantly slower short-term memory scanning than their counterparts who received the breakfast. The no-risk placebo group exhibited more rapid discrimination between visual stimuli than the no-risk breakfast group. A field evaluation of the program in 10 rural schools, which were randomly assigned to a treatment or control condition, was conducted. In terms of energy, protein, and iron intake, the children in the case and control conditions were not significantly different. The children tended to be either very stunted or overweight. School attendance increased 0.58 points in the experimental group, while it decreased by 2.92 points in the control group (p 0.05). When both groups received the breakfast, attendance rates increased significantly in both groups (p 0.05). Vocabulary was sensitive to the effects of the breakfast. Specifically, the greater the child's weight, the higher his/her vocabulary test scores (p 0.05). These findings suggest that the brain is sensitive to decreases in the short-term availability of nutrients, and that an overnight and morning fast produces a physiological state accompanied by changes in

  10. Processing and characterization of extruded breakfast meal formulated with broken rice and bean flour

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Vânia Carvalho; Rafaella de Andrade Mattietto; Priscila Zaczuk Bassinello; Selma Nakamoto Koakuzu; Alessandro de Oliveira Rios; Renan de Almeida Maciel; Rosangela Nunes Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop an extruded breakfast product containing broken rice and split old beans and to verify the influence of the extrusion process on their physicochemical, technological, and sensory characteristic. The final product had a protein content of 9.9 g.100 g-1, and therefore it can be considered a good source of proteins for children and teenagers. The dietary fiber content of the final edible product was 3.71 g.100 g-1. Therefore, the breakfast meal may be co...

  11. Variations in cereal volume affect the amount selected and eaten for breakfast

    OpenAIRE

    Rolls, Barbara J.; Meengs, Jennifer S.; Roe, Liane S.

    2014-01-01

    Food volume could influence both the portions that people take and the amount that they eat, but these effects have had little investigation. The influence of food volume was tested by systematically reducing the flake size of a breakfast cereal so that the cereal was more compact and the same weight filled a smaller volume. In a crossover design, 41 adults ate cereal for breakfast once a week for four weeks during 2011-2012. The cereal was either standard wheat flakes or th...

  12. Continuum-regularized quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Huesum; Halpern, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    The recent continuum regularization of d-dimensional Euclidean gravity is generalized to arbitrary power-law measure and studied in some detail as a representative example of coordinate-invariant regularization. The weak-coupling expansion of the theory illustrates a generic geometrization of regularized Schwinger-Dyson rules, generalizing previous rules in flat space and flat superspace. The rules are applied in a non-trivial explicit check of Einstein invariance at one loop: the cosmological counterterm is computed and its contribution is included in a verification that the graviton mass is zero. (orig.)

  13. The Effect of Breakfast in the Classroom on Obesity and Academic Performance: Evidence from New York City. Working Paper #04-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Sean P.; Elbel, Brian; Schwartz, Amy Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Participation in the federally-subsidized school breakfast program often falls well below its lunchtime counterpart. To increase take-up, many districts have implemented Breakfast in the Classroom (BIC), offering breakfast directly to students at the start of the school day. Beyond increasing participation, advocates claim BIC improves academic…

  14. Free breakfasts in schools: design and conduct of a cluster randomised controlled trial of the Primary School Free Breakfast Initiative in Wales [ISRCTN18336527].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Laurence; Moore, Graham F; Tapper, Katy; Lynch, Rebecca; Desousa, Carol; Hale, Janine; Roberts, Chris; Murphy, Simon

    2007-09-21

    School-based breakfast provision is increasingly being seen as a means of improving educational performance and dietary behaviour amongst children. Furthermore, recognition is growing that breakfast provision offers potential as a means of addressing social inequalities in these outcomes. At present however, the evidence base on the effectiveness of breakfast provision in bringing about these improvements is limited. This paper describes the research design of a large scale evaluation of the effectiveness of the Welsh Assembly Government's Primary School Free Breakfast Initiative. A cluster randomised trial, with school as the unit of randomisation was used for the outcome evaluation, with a nested qualitative process evaluation. Quantitative outcome measures included dietary habits, attitudes, cognitive function, classroom behaviour, and school attendance. The study recruited 111 primary schools in Wales, of which 56 were randomly assigned to control condition and 55 to intervention. Participants were Year 5 and 6 students (aged 9-11 years) in these schools. Data were collected for all 111 schools at each of three time points: baseline, 4 month and 12 month follow-up. This was achieved through a repeated cross-sectional survey of approximately 4350 students on each of these occasions. Of those students in Year 5 at baseline, 1975 provided data at one or both of the follow-ups, forming a nested cohort. The evaluation also included a nested process evaluation, using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and case studies with students, school staff, and local authority scheme coordinators as key informants. An overview of the methods used for the evaluation is presented, providing an example of the feasibility of conducting robust evaluations of policy initiatives using a randomised trial design with nested process evaluation. Details are provided of response rates and the flow of participants. Reflection is offered on methodological issues encountered at

  15. New regular black hole solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work we consider general relativity coupled to Maxwell's electromagnetism and charged matter. Under the assumption of spherical symmetry, there is a particular class of solutions that correspond to regular charged black holes whose interior region is de Sitter, the exterior region is Reissner-Nordstroem and there is a charged thin-layer in-between the two. The main physical and geometrical properties of such charged regular black holes are analyzed.

  16. Regular variation on measure chains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehák, Pavel; Vitovec, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2010), s. 439-448 ISSN 0362-546X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100190701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : regularly varying function * regularly varying sequence * measure chain * time scale * embedding theorem * representation theorem * second order dynamic equation * asymptotic properties Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.279, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362546X09008475

  17. Manifold Regularized Correlation Object Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Hongwei; Ma, Bo; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a manifold regularized correlation tracking method with augmented samples. To make better use of the unlabeled data and the manifold structure of the sample space, a manifold regularization-based correlation filter is introduced, which aims to assign similar labels to neighbor samples. Meanwhile, the regression model is learned by exploiting the block-circulant structure of matrices resulting from the augmented translated samples over multiple base samples cropped fr...

  18. On geodesics in low regularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sämann, Clemens; Steinbauer, Roland

    2018-02-01

    We consider geodesics in both Riemannian and Lorentzian manifolds with metrics of low regularity. We discuss existence of extremal curves for continuous metrics and present several old and new examples that highlight their subtle interrelation with solutions of the geodesic equations. Then we turn to the initial value problem for geodesics for locally Lipschitz continuous metrics and generalize recent results on existence, regularity and uniqueness of solutions in the sense of Filippov.

  19. A salt reduction of 50% in bread does not decrease bread consumption or increase sodium intake by the choice of sandwich fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Temme, Elisabeth H M; Koeman, Fari T; Noort, Martijn W J; Kremer, Stefanie; Janssen, Anke M

    2011-12-01

    Bread is a major contributor to sodium intake in many countries. Reducing the salt (NaCl) content in bread might be an effective way to reduce overall sodium intake. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of gradually lowering the salt content in brown bread, with and without flavor compensation (KCl and yeast extract), on bread consumption and sodium intake compensation by choice of sandwich fillings. A total of 116 participants (age: 21 ± 3 y; BMI: 22 ± 2 kg/m²) consumed a buffet-style breakfast on weekdays for 4 wk. Participants received either regular bread (control group: n = 39), bread whose salt content was gradually lowered each week by 0, 31, 52, and 67% (reduced group: n = 38), or bread whose salt content was also gradually lowered each week but which was also flavor compensated (compensated group: n = 39). A reduction of up to 52% of salt in bread did not lead to lower consumption of bread compared to the control (P = 0.57), whereas less bread was consumed when salt was reduced by 67% (P = 0.006). When bread was flavor compensated, however, a reduction of 67% did not lead to lower consumption (P = 0.69). Salt reduction in bread (with and without flavor compensation) did not induce sodium intake compensation (P = 0.31). In conclusion, a salt reduction of up to 52% in bread or even up to 67% in flavor-compensated bread neither affected bread consumption nor choice of sandwich fillings.

  20. Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2013-06-01

    Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the "large p small n " setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required.

  1. Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the “large p small n” setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required. PMID:23730197

  2. Geometric continuum regularization of quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the continuum regularization program is given. The program is traced from its roots in stochastic quantization, with emphasis on the examples of regularized gauge theory, the regularized general nonlinear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity. In its coordinate-invariant form, the regularization is seen as entirely geometric: only the supermetric on field deformations is regularized, and the prescription provides universal nonperturbative invariant continuum regularization across all quantum field theory. 54 refs

  3. Biscuits, Sausage, Gravy, Milk, and Orange Juice: School Breakfast Environment in 4 Rural Appalachian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Andrea; Haughton, Betsy; Jahns, Lisa; Fitzhugh, Eugene; Jones, Sonya J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the school breakfast environment in rural Appalachian schools to inform school environment intervention and policy change. Methods: A total of 4 rural schools with fourth- and fifth-grade students in East Tennessee were assessed. A cross-sectional descriptive examination of the school food…

  4. Food for Thought: 4th Annual New Jersey School Breakfast Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalkind, Cecilia; Coogan, Mary; Trenk, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Led by Advocates for Children of New Jersey and the New Jersey Anti-Hunger Coalition, the NJ Food For Thought School Breakfast Campaign is driven by a statewide steering committee that includes the New Jersey Departments of Agriculture, Education and Health, anti-hunger and health groups and New Jersey's major education associations. The…

  5. Breakfast-skipping in children and young adolescents in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, E.; Meulmeester, J.F.; Spee-Wekke, A. van der; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    1998-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to provide national figures on the prevalence of breakfast-skipping and the association with sociodemographic variables in 4-15 year old children. Methods: Data of 4,377 children were collected. A food questionnaire (24 h recall) was completed by the

  6. Breakfast skippers display a disrupted cortisol rhythm and elevated blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic stress and over-activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may link breakfast skipping and poor cardiometabolic health. Missing the first major meal of the day in rodents prolongs elevated circulating corticosterone at a time when it’s normally decreasing. To extend these fi...

  7. Reynolds Highlights Economic Activity, Research Progress at Local Breakfast Briefing | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI is a valuable asset to the Frederick community as a major employer, a purchaser of goods and services, and an educator and mentor for students from elementary through post-graduate school, Craig Reynolds told about 70 people, including many community leaders, at the Fort Detrick Alliance’s quarterly breakfast briefing at Hood College.

  8. Oral Liquid Formulation of Levothyroxine Is Stable in Breakfast Beverages and May Improve Thyroid Patient Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Bernareggi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients on treatment with levothyroxine (T4 are informed to take this drug in the morning, at least 30 min before having breakfast. A significant decrease of T4 absorption was reported, in fact, when T4 solid formulations are taken with food or coffee. According to preliminary clinical study reports, administration of T4 oral solution appears to be less sensitive to the effect of breakfast beverages on oral bioavailability. In the present study, stability of T4 oral solution added to breakfast beverages was investigated. A 1 mL ampoule of single-dose Tirosint® oral solution (IBSA Farmaceutici Italia, Lodi, Italy was poured into defined volumes of milk, tea, coffee, and coffee with milk warmed at 50 °C, as well as in orange juice at room temperature. Samples were sequentially collected up to 20 min and analyzed by validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS methods. The results of the study demonstrated that T4 is stable in all beverages after 20 min incubation. Demonstration of T4 stability is a prerequisite for a thorough evaluation of the effect of breakfast beverages on the bioavailability of T4 given as oral solution and for a better understanding of the reasons underlying a decreased T4 bioavailability administered as solid formulations.

  9. 78 FR 45178 - National School Lunch, Special Milk, and School Breakfast Programs, National Average Payments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... snack--80 cents, reduced price snack--40 cents, paid snack--07 cents; Alaska--free snack--130 cents, reduced price snack--65 cents, paid snack--11 cents; Hawaii--free snack--94 cents, reduced price snack--47..., afterschool snacks and breakfasts served to children participating in the National School Lunch and School...

  10. What is served for breakfast? : An empirical analysis of CRE strategies and organizational culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nase, I.; Arkesteijn, M.H.

    2017-01-01

    The quote Culture eats strategy for breakfast was made famous by Mark Field, president at Ford, in 2006 and has ever since been a guiding principle in management practice of corporations operating across the globe. General management profession has widely embraced culture as a key factor in strategy

  11. A Comparative Study of Breakfast Habits of Romanian and Spanish Adolescents Enrolled in Southern Spain Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Ayala, Encarnación; Cala, Verónica C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Globalization has favored intra-European Commission (EC) and extra-EC migration to Spain. One of the most numerous cultural groups that have settled in the southern Spain is from Romania. Coexistence, especially in schools, has made us become interested in knowing the eating habits at breakfast of Romanian and Spanish populations.…

  12. Copper bioavailability from breakfasts containing tea : influence of the addition of milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaquero, M.P.; Veldhuizen, M.; Dokkum, W. van; Hamer, C.J.A. van den; Schaafsma, G.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of drinking tea on copper bioavailability is unclear, particularly when tea is consumed with food. A breakfast meal containing white bread, margarine, strawberry jam, cheese and tea, with or without milk, was digested in; vitro and the dialysis of copper investigated. Reference

  13. Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Netter, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach – The analysis is based on a multiple-case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new...... to the new phenomenon of fashion libraries and does not cover other types of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry (Swap-parties, etc.). Originality/value – The paper is one of the first attempts to examine new business models of collaborative consumption in general and the fashion library...... concept in particular. The study contributes to the discussions of whether and how fashion sharing and collaboration holds promise as a viable business model and as a means to promote sustainability....

  14. Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Netter, Sarah

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis is based on a multiple-­‐‑case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new...... to the new phenomenon of fashion libraries and does not cover other types of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry (Swap-­‐‑parties, etc.). Originality/value: The paper is one of the first attempts to examine new business models of collaborative consumption in general and the fashion library...... concept in particular. The study contributes to the discussions of whether and how fashion sharing and collaboration holds promise as a viable business model and as a means to promote sustainability....

  15. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...... are the practice maintenance and the practice change position, with different sorts of adapting in between. Media discourse can become a resource for a resistant position against social control or for an appropriating position in favour of space for action. Regardless of the current relation to a particular media......This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...

  16. Lean consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, James P; Jones, Daniel T

    2005-03-01

    During the past 20 years, the real price of most consumer goods has fallen worldwide, the variety of goods and the range of sales channels offering them have continued to grow, and product quality has steadily improved. So why is consumption often so frustrating? It doesn't have to be--and shouldn't be--the authors say. They argue that it's time to apply lean thinking to the processes of consumption--to give consumers the full value they want from goods and services with the greatest efficiency and the least pain. Companies may think they save time and money by off-loading work to the consumer but, in fact, the opposite is true. By streamlining their systems for providing goods and services, and by making it easier for customers to buy and use those products and services, a growing number of companies are actually lowering costs while saving everyone time. In the process, these businesses are learning more about their customers, strengthening consumer loyalty, and attracting new customers who are defecting from less user-friendly competitors. The challenge lies with the retailers, service providers, manufacturers, and suppliers that are not used to looking at total cost from the standpoint of the consumer and even less accustomed to working with customers to optimize the consumption process. Lean consumption requires a fundamental shift in the way companies think about the relationship between provision and consumption, and the role their customers play in these processes. It also requires consumers to change the nature of their relationships with the companies they patronize. Lean production has clearly triumphed over similar obstacles in recent years to become the dominant global manufacturing model. Lean consumption, its logical companion, can't be far behind.

  17. The School Breakfast Program strengthens household food security among low-income households with elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartfeld, Judith S; Ahn, Hong-Min

    2011-03-01

    The School Breakfast Program is an important component of the nutritional safety net and has been linked to positive changes in meal patterns and nutritional outcomes. By offering a breakfast, which for low-income children is available either at no cost or reduced price, the program also has the potential to increase household food security. This study examined the relationship between availability of the School Breakfast Program and household food security among low-income third-grade students by using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort. The primary sample included 3010 students. Availability of school breakfast was assessed by surveys of school administrators. Food security was assessed by parents' reports by using the standard 18-item food security scale and considering 2 different food security thresholds. A probit model was estimated to measure the relationship between school breakfast availability and household food security while controlling for a range of other characteristics. Access to school breakfast reduced the risk of marginal food insecurity but not the risk of food insecurity at the standard threshold. That is, the program appeared beneficial in offsetting food-related concerns among at-risk families, although not necessarily in alleviating food insecurity once hardships had crossed the food insecurity threshold. Increasing the availability of school breakfast may be an effective strategy to maintain food security among low-income households with elementary school children.

  18. Glycaemic index and glycaemic load of breakfast predict cognitive function and mood in school children: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micha, Renata; Rogers, Peter J; Nelson, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The macronutrient composition of a breakfast that could facilitate performance after an overnight fast remains unclear. As glucose is the brain's major energy source, the interest is in investigating meals differing in their blood glucose-raising potential. Findings vary due to unaccounted differences in glucoregulation, arousal and cortisol secretion. We investigated the effects of meals differing in glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) on cognition and mood in school children. A total of seventy-four school children were matched and randomly allocated either to the high-GL or low-GL group. Within each GL group, children received high-GI and low-GI breakfasts. Cognitive function (CF) and mood were measured 95-140 min after breakfast. Blood glucose and salivary cortisol were measured at baseline, before and after the CF tests. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to identify differences in CF, mood, glucose and cortisol levels between the breakfasts. Low-GI meals predicted feeling more alert and happy, and less nervous and thirsty (P breakfast, and high-GI meals increased cortisol levels (P breakfast may help to improve learning, and of potential value in informing government education policies relating to dietary recommendations and implementation concerning breakfast.

  19. The healthfulness and prominence of sugar in child-targeted breakfast cereals in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin Kent, Monique; Cameron, Cher; Philippe, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the nutritional content and healthfulness of child-targeted and "not child-targeted" breakfast cereals and to assess the predominance of added sugar in these products. We collected data on the nutritional content of 262 unique breakfast cereals found in the five largest grocery store chains in Ottawa (Ontario) and Gatineau (Quebec). We noted the first five ingredients and the number of added sugars present in each cereal from the ingredients list. The various cereal brands were then classified as either "healthier" or "less healthy" using the UK Nutrient Profile Model. We assessed each cereal to determine if it was child-targeted or not, based on set criteria. Statistical comparisons were made between child and not child-targeted cereals. 19.8% of all breakfast cereals were child-targeted, and these were significantly lower in total and saturated fat. Child-targeted cereals were significantly higher in sodium and sugar and lower in fibre and protein, and were three times more likely to be classified as "less healthy" compared to not child-targeted cereals. No child-targeted cereals were sugar-free, and sugar was the second most common ingredient in 75% of cereals. Six breakfast cereal companies had child-targeted product lines that consisted entirely of "less healthy" cereals. There is a need for regulations that restrict food marketing to children and youth under the age of 17 on packaging to reduce their appeal to this age group. Children's breakfast cereals also need to be reformulated through government-set targets, or through regulation should compliance be deemed unacceptable.

  20. Effect of breakfast timing on the cognitive functions of elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisman, N; Voet, H; Akivis, A; Vakil, E

    1996-10-01

    To study the effect of breakfast timing on selected cognitive functions of elementary school students. A 2-week randomized control intervention trial. Five elementary schools. The subjects comprised 569 children, 51% of them boys, aged 11 to 13 years; the children were in grades 5 through 6 (17 classes). The subjects lived in different areas and had different socioeconomic backgrounds. Each subject was tested twice, by 2 versions of the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test, 2 alternative forms of the logical memory subtest of the revised Wechsler Memory Scale, and 2 versions of the Benton Visual Retention Test. On the first test, before any nutritional intervention, the subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire about their food intake on the day of testing. Two thirds of the subjects received 200 ml of 3%-fat milk and 30 g of sugared cornflakes for the next 14 days, and all the subjects were reexamined on the 15th day. Scoring on the different tests was compared with baseline scores. After 15 days, children who ate breakfast at school scored notably higher on most of the test modules than did children who ate breakfast at home and children who did not at breakfast. Our results indicate that routinely eating breakfast 2 hours prior to being tested does not improve cognitive functions in 11- to 13-year-old elementary school students, but food supplementation 30 minutes prior to taking a test notably improves scoring. We suggest further studies on the relationship between meal content, feeding time, and scholastic performance.

  1. Breakfast eating among Brazilian adolescents: Analysis of the National Dietary Survey 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Silva MONTEIRO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize breakfast eating among Brazilian adolescents. Methods: Food intake was estimated based on a 1-day food record of adolescents aged 10-19 years, according to the first National Diet Survey (2008-2009. Breakfast was considered as the first meal of the day eaten between 4 and 11 am. Results: Ninety-three percent of adolescents reported eating breakfast. This meal contributed to 17.7% of the daily energy intake. The most commonly consumed food groups were: coffee and tea, breads, butter/margarine, milk, cakes and cookies, packaged snacks, corn-based dishes, cheese, processed meats, and fruit juice. In the Northern region there was a higher frequency of coffee and tea and roots and tubers intake and lower frequency of milk intake than that in the other regions in the country. In the Northeastern region, the intake of corn and eggs was high; in the Southern region, there was high intake of processed meats and fruits. Adolescents from families in the first income quartile reported higher intake of coffee and tea, packaged snacks, corn, and roots and tubers intake, and lower intake of milk and dairy products. Adolescents from families in the highest income quartile reported higher intake of milk, fruit juice, cheese, and sugar-added beverages. Conclusion: In Brazil, the contribution of breakfast to daily energy intake among adolescents is low. The nutritional quality of breakfast improved with increased income. The three most frequently consumed items were coffee and tea, breads, and butter/margarine.

  2. Potential Association between Breakfast Skipping and Concomitant Late-Night-Dinner Eating with Metabolic Syndrome and Proteinuria in the Japanese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayano Kutsuma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Skipping breakfast is considered to be an unhealthy eating habit linked to predispositions to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Because eating dinner late at night can elicit subsequent breakfast skipping, we investigated if skipping breakfast concomitant with late-night-dinner eating (LNDE was associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS and proteinuria in the general Japanese population. We examined self-reported habitual breakfast skipping and LNDE, MetS (modified ATP-III criteria, and proteinuria in a cross-sectional study of 60,800 Japanese adults aged 20–75 years. A total of 14,068 subjects (23.1% skipped breakfast, of whom approximately half (52.8% skipped breakfast alone (without LNDE. The percentages of subjects who skipped breakfast showed a J-shaped relationship with body mass index (BMI. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that skipping breakfast concomitant with LNDE (n = 6,645 was significantly associated with MetS and proteinuria, even after adjusting for relevant confounders (odds ratio (95% CI, 1.17 (1.08–1.28, P=0.0003, and 1.37 (1.24–1.52, P<0.0001, resp.. Skipping breakfast alone and LNDE alone were not associated with MetS and proteinuria, respectively. In conclusion, habitual breakfast skipping concomitant with LNDE may represent poorer eating behavior than skipping breakfast alone, associated with MetS, asymptomatic proteinuria, obesity, and low body weight in the general Japanese population.

  3. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Breakfast Clubs According to Parents, Children, and School Staff in the North East of England, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Pamela Louise; Russo, Riccardo; Defeyter, Margaret Anne

    2015-01-01

    The provision of school breakfast has become increasingly popular in the UK in recent years. However, UK-based studies highlighting the views of parents, children, and school staff on school breakfast clubs are lacking. The current study set out to address this dearth in the literature by investigating the views of these key user and stakeholder groups on breakfast clubs within the North East of England. Fourteen parents, 21 children, and 17 school staff were recruited from four primary schools where breakfast clubs were available on site. Parents and school staff took part in semistructured interviews and children participated in focus groups, through which the advantages and disadvantages of breakfast clubs were discussed. Thematic analysis revealed that breakfast clubs provided children with a settled and enjoyable start to the school day. As well as providing children with a healthy and varied breakfast meal and unique opportunities for social interaction, breakfast clubs were recognized as an integral part of the school system that offered support to parents, particularly those who worked and relied on breakfast clubs as a means of affordable and reliable childcare. The few disadvantages identified related to practical issues such as a lack of adherence to school food standards, breakfast club staff missing class preparation time and concerns that some children were being excluded from participating in breakfast clubs particularly due to costs associated with attendance. The findings are discussed in relation to the School Food Plan, and areas for further investigation are proposed.

  4. Potential Association between Breakfast Skipping and Concomitant Late-Night-Dinner Eating with Metabolic Syndrome and Proteinuria in the Japanese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsuma, Ayano; Nakajima, Kei; Suwa, Kaname

    2014-01-01

    Skipping breakfast is considered to be an unhealthy eating habit linked to predispositions to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Because eating dinner late at night can elicit subsequent breakfast skipping, we investigated if skipping breakfast concomitant with late-night-dinner eating (LNDE) was associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and proteinuria in the general Japanese population. We examined self-reported habitual breakfast skipping and LNDE, MetS (modified ATP-III criteria), and proteinuria in a cross-sectional study of 60,800 Japanese adults aged 20-75 years. A total of 14,068 subjects (23.1%) skipped breakfast, of whom approximately half (52.8%) skipped breakfast alone (without LNDE). The percentages of subjects who skipped breakfast showed a J-shaped relationship with body mass index (BMI). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that skipping breakfast concomitant with LNDE (n = 6,645) was significantly associated with MetS and proteinuria, even after adjusting for relevant confounders (odds ratio (95% CI), 1.17 (1.08-1.28), P = 0.0003, and 1.37 (1.24-1.52), P < 0.0001, resp.). Skipping breakfast alone and LNDE alone were not associated with MetS and proteinuria, respectively. In conclusion, habitual breakfast skipping concomitant with LNDE may represent poorer eating behavior than skipping breakfast alone, associated with MetS, asymptomatic proteinuria, obesity, and low body weight in the general Japanese population.

  5. Metric regularity and subdifferential calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, A D

    2000-01-01

    The theory of metric regularity is an extension of two classical results: the Lyusternik tangent space theorem and the Graves surjection theorem. Developments in non-smooth analysis in the 1980s and 1990s paved the way for a number of far-reaching extensions of these results. It was also well understood that the phenomena behind the results are of metric origin, not connected with any linear structure. At the same time it became clear that some basic hypotheses of the subdifferential calculus are closely connected with the metric regularity of certain set-valued maps. The survey is devoted to the metric theory of metric regularity and its connection with subdifferential calculus in Banach spaces

  6. Manifold Regularized Correlation Object Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongwei; Ma, Bo; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a manifold regularized correlation tracking method with augmented samples. To make better use of the unlabeled data and the manifold structure of the sample space, a manifold regularization-based correlation filter is introduced, which aims to assign similar labels to neighbor samples. Meanwhile, the regression model is learned by exploiting the block-circulant structure of matrices resulting from the augmented translated samples over multiple base samples cropped from both target and nontarget regions. Thus, the final classifier in our method is trained with positive, negative, and unlabeled base samples, which is a semisupervised learning framework. A block optimization strategy is further introduced to learn a manifold regularization-based correlation filter for efficient online tracking. Experiments on two public tracking data sets demonstrate the superior performance of our tracker compared with the state-of-the-art tracking approaches.

  7. Unsustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    Our dominant way of living is not sustainable and our activities as private individuals and households directly and indirectly account for a large and increasing share of total environmental impacts. These impacts are related to the structure as well as the level of consumption. In this article, ...

  8. Consumption bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, P

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of consumption in relation to the growing world population. Over the past 25 years, world population increased by 53%, while world consumption per person increased by only 39%. If consumption continues to grow at 1.4%, the world consumption per person will rise by 100% over the next 50 years with the population increasing by only half that amount. The burden of reducing the environmental impact brought about by this increase lies on technology. Technology needs to deliver major changes in improving resource productivity, and decreasing the amount of waste created. Productivity such as global food production has kept up with demand. Malnutrition persists due to poverty, and not because of the inability of the world to produce enough food. However, the prospects are much worse for resources that are not traded on markets or subject to sustainable management such as groundwater, state forests, ocean fish, and communal waste sinks like rivers, lakes, and the global atmosphere. These resources are not under the direct control of people affected by shortage. People who want to change the way these resources are used or managed have to pass through the legal or political system. Usually, political responses are slow and there has to be a very widespread environmental damage before action is taken.

  9. Dimensional regularization in configuration space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, C.G.; Giambiagi, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    Dimensional regularization is introduced in configuration space by Fourier transforming in D-dimensions the perturbative momentum space Green functions. For this transformation, Bochner theorem is used, no extra parameters, such as those of Feynman or Bogoliubov-Shirkov are needed for convolutions. The regularized causal functions in x-space have ν-dependent moderated singularities at the origin. They can be multiplied together and Fourier transformed (Bochner) without divergence problems. The usual ultraviolet divergences appear as poles of the resultant functions of ν. Several example are discussed. (author). 9 refs

  10. Regular algebra and finite machines

    CERN Document Server

    Conway, John Horton

    2012-01-01

    World-famous mathematician John H. Conway based this classic text on a 1966 course he taught at Cambridge University. Geared toward graduate students of mathematics, it will also prove a valuable guide to researchers and professional mathematicians.His topics cover Moore's theory of experiments, Kleene's theory of regular events and expressions, Kleene algebras, the differential calculus of events, factors and the factor matrix, and the theory of operators. Additional subjects include event classes and operator classes, some regulator algebras, context-free languages, communicative regular alg

  11. Matrix regularization of 4-manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Trzetrzelewski, M.

    2012-01-01

    We consider products of two 2-manifolds such as S^2 x S^2, embedded in Euclidean space and show that the corresponding 4-volume preserving diffeomorphism algebra can be approximated by a tensor product SU(N)xSU(N) i.e. functions on a manifold are approximated by the Kronecker product of two SU(N) matrices. A regularization of the 4-sphere is also performed by constructing N^2 x N^2 matrix representations of the 4-algebra (and as a byproduct of the 3-algebra which makes the regularization of S...

  12. Walnut consumption increases satiation but has no effect on insulin resistance or the metabolic profile over a 4-day period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Aoife M; Sweeney, Laura L; Liu, Xiaowen; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2010-06-01

    Obesity and diabetes have been associated with increased consumption of highly processed foods, and reduced consumption of whole grains and nuts. It has been proposed, mainly on the basis of observational studies, that nuts may provide superior satiation, may lead to reduced calorie consumption, and may decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes; but evidence from randomized, interventional studies is lacking. A total of 20 men and women with the metabolic syndrome participated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study of walnut consumption. Subjects had two 4-day admissions to the clinical research center where they were fed an isocaloric diet. In addition, they consumed shakes for breakfast containing either walnuts or placebo (shakes were standardized for calories, carbohydrate, and fat content). Appetite, insulin resistance, and metabolic parameters were measured. We found an increased level of satiety (overall P value = 0.0079) and sense of fullness (P = 0.05) in prelunch questionnaires following the walnut breakfast as compared to the placebo breakfast, with the walnut effect achieving significance on day 3 and 4 (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03). We did not find any change in resting energy expenditure, hormones known to mediate satiety, or insulin resistance when comparing the walnut vs. placebo diet. Walnut consumption over 4 days increased satiety by day 3. Long-term studies are needed to confirm the physiologic role of walnuts, the duration of time needed for these effects to occur, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

  13. Regularization of Nonmonotone Variational Inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konnov, Igor V.; Ali, M.S.S.; Mazurkevich, E.O.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we extend the Tikhonov-Browder regularization scheme from monotone to rather a general class of nonmonotone multivalued variational inequalities. We show that their convergence conditions hold for some classes of perfectly and nonperfectly competitive economic equilibrium problems

  14. Lattice regularized chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borasoy, Bugra; Lewis, Randy; Ouimet, Pierre-Philippe A.

    2004-01-01

    Chiral perturbation theory can be defined and regularized on a spacetime lattice. A few motivations are discussed here, and an explicit lattice Lagrangian is reviewed. A particular aspect of the connection between lattice chiral perturbation theory and lattice QCD is explored through a study of the Wess-Zumino-Witten term

  15. 76 FR 3629 - Regular Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Meeting SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). Date and Time: The meeting of the Board will be held at the offices of the Farm... meeting of the Board will be open to the [[Page 3630

  16. Forcing absoluteness and regularity properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikegami, D.

    2010-01-01

    For a large natural class of forcing notions, we prove general equivalence theorems between forcing absoluteness statements, regularity properties, and transcendence properties over L and the core model K. We use our results to answer open questions from set theory of the reals.

  17. Globals of Completely Regular Monoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Qian-qian; Gan Ai-ping; Du Xian-kun

    2015-01-01

    An element of a semigroup S is called irreducible if it cannot be expressed as a product of two elements in S both distinct from itself. In this paper we show that the class C of all completely regular monoids with irreducible identity elements satisfies the strong isomorphism property and so it is globally determined.

  18. Fluid queues and regular variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper considers a fluid queueing system, fed by N independent sources that alternate between silence and activity periods. We assume that the distribution of the activity periods of one or more sources is a regularly varying function of index ¿. We show that its fat tail gives rise to an even

  19. Fluid queues and regular variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.J. Boxma (Onno)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers a fluid queueing system, fed by $N$ independent sources that alternate between silence and activity periods. We assume that the distribution of the activity periods of one or more sources is a regularly varying function of index $zeta$. We show that its fat tail

  20. Empirical laws, regularity and necessity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsveld, H.

    1973-01-01

    In this book I have tried to develop an analysis of the concept of an empirical law, an analysis that differs in many ways from the alternative analyse's found in contemporary literature dealing with the subject.

    1 am referring especially to two well-known views, viz. the regularity and

  1. Interval matrices: Regularity generates singularity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří; Shary, S.P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 540, 1 March (2018), s. 149-159 ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : interval matrix * regularity * singularity * P-matrix * absolute value equation * diagonally singilarizable matrix Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2016

  2. Regularization in Matrix Relevance Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Petra; Bunte, Kerstin; Stiekema, Han; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas; Biehl, Michael

    A In this paper, we present a regularization technique to extend recently proposed matrix learning schemes in learning vector quantization (LVQ). These learning algorithms extend the concept of adaptive distance measures in LVQ to the use of relevance matrices. In general, metric learning can

  3. Transdisciplinary Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue L.T. McGregor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past 100 years, research about consumption has stemmed from two main disciplines: (a consumer studies/consumer sciences (including consumer policy and education (a spin off from home economics and (b consumer behaviour research (a spin off from marketing. This paper focuses on these two disciplines because the results of their respective research are used to shape consumer policy and consumer protection legislation and regulations, marketplace competition policy and regulations, consumer product and service information, media coverage of consumer issues, consumer education curricula and pedagogy, and insights into an evolving consumer culture. This paper asks consumer studies/sciences and consumer behaviour scholars to embrace the transdisciplinary methodology in addition to the traditional empirical, interpretive and critical methodologies. It provides an overview of the four axioms of transdisciplinary methodology with examples to illustrate how consumer-related research would change to address the complex reality of 21st century consumption.

  4. Collaborative Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Rahbek Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben; Netter, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis is based on a multiple-­‐‑case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new, clothes-­‐‑sharing concept that has emerged as a fashion niche within the last decade. Findings: It is concluded that fashion libraries offers interesting perspectives, e.g. by allow...

  5. Regular and conformal regular cores for static and rotating solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha

    2014-03-07

    Using a new metric for generating rotating solutions, we derive in a general fashion the solution of an imperfect fluid and that of its conformal homolog. We discuss the conditions that the stress–energy tensors and invariant scalars be regular. On classical physical grounds, it is stressed that conformal fluids used as cores for static or rotating solutions are exempt from any malicious behavior in that they are finite and defined everywhere.

  6. Regular and conformal regular cores for static and rotating solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    Using a new metric for generating rotating solutions, we derive in a general fashion the solution of an imperfect fluid and that of its conformal homolog. We discuss the conditions that the stress–energy tensors and invariant scalars be regular. On classical physical grounds, it is stressed that conformal fluids used as cores for static or rotating solutions are exempt from any malicious behavior in that they are finite and defined everywhere.

  7. Free breakfasts in schools: design and conduct of a cluster randomised controlled trial of the Primary School Free Breakfast Initiative in Wales [ISRCTN18336527

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Janine

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School-based breakfast provision is increasingly being seen as a means of improving educational performance and dietary behaviour amongst children. Furthermore, recognition is growing that breakfast provision offers potential as a means of addressing social inequalities in these outcomes. At present however, the evidence base on the effectiveness of breakfast provision in bringing about these improvements is limited. Methods/Design This paper describes the research design of a large scale evaluation of the effectiveness of the Welsh Assembly Government's Primary School Free Breakfast Initiative. A cluster randomised trial, with school as the unit of randomisation was used for the outcome evaluation, with a nested qualitative process evaluation. Quantitative outcome measures included dietary habits, attitudes, cognitive function, classroom behaviour, and school attendance. The study recruited 111 primary schools in Wales, of which 56 were randomly assigned to control condition and 55 to intervention. Participants were Year 5 and 6 students (aged 9–11 years in these schools. Data were collected for all 111 schools at each of three time points: baseline, 4 month and 12 month follow-up. This was achieved through a repeated cross-sectional survey of approximately 4350 students on each of these occasions. Of those students in Year 5 at baseline, 1975 provided data at one or both of the follow-ups, forming a nested cohort. The evaluation also included a nested process evaluation, using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and case studies with students, school staff, and local authority scheme coordinators as key informants. Discussion An overview of the methods used for the evaluation is presented, providing an example of the feasibility of conducting robust evaluations of policy initiatives using a randomised trial design with nested process evaluation. Details are provided of response rates and the flow of participants

  8. Energy functions for regularization algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delingette, H.; Hebert, M.; Ikeuchi, K.

    1991-01-01

    Regularization techniques are widely used for inverse problem solving in computer vision such as surface reconstruction, edge detection, or optical flow estimation. Energy functions used for regularization algorithms measure how smooth a curve or surface is, and to render acceptable solutions these energies must verify certain properties such as invariance with Euclidean transformations or invariance with parameterization. The notion of smoothness energy is extended here to the notion of a differential stabilizer, and it is shown that to void the systematic underestimation of undercurvature for planar curve fitting, it is necessary that circles be the curves of maximum smoothness. A set of stabilizers is proposed that meet this condition as well as invariance with rotation and parameterization.

  9. Physical model of dimensional regularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonfeld, Jonathan F.

    2016-12-15

    We explicitly construct fractals of dimension 4-ε on which dimensional regularization approximates scalar-field-only quantum-field theory amplitudes. The construction does not require fractals to be Lorentz-invariant in any sense, and we argue that there probably is no Lorentz-invariant fractal of dimension greater than 2. We derive dimensional regularization's power-law screening first for fractals obtained by removing voids from 3-dimensional Euclidean space. The derivation applies techniques from elementary dielectric theory. Surprisingly, fractal geometry by itself does not guarantee the appropriate power-law behavior; boundary conditions at fractal voids also play an important role. We then extend the derivation to 4-dimensional Minkowski space. We comment on generalization to non-scalar fields, and speculate about implications for quantum gravity. (orig.)

  10. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  11. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Shiguang; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  12. Regularized strings with extrinsic curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Durhuus, B.

    1987-07-01

    We analyze models of discretized string theories, where the path integral over world sheet variables is regularized by summing over triangulated surfaces. The inclusion of curvature in the action is a necessity for the scaling of the string tension. We discuss the physical properties of models with extrinsic curvature terms in the action and show that the string tension vanishes at the critical point where the bare extrinsic curvature coupling tends to infinity. Similar results are derived for models with intrinsic curvature. (orig.)

  13. Circuit complexity of regular languages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koucký, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2009), s. 865-879 ISSN 1432-4350 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP201/07/P276; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : regular languages * circuit complexity * upper and lower bounds Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.726, year: 2009

  14. Does breakfast-club attendance affect schoolchildren's nutrient intake? A study of dietary intake at three schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belderson, Pippa; Harvey, Ian; Kimbell, Rosemary; O'Neill, Jennifer; Russell, Jean; Barker, Margo E

    2003-12-01

    Lack of breakfast has been implicated as a factor contributing to children's poor diets and school performance. Breakfast-club schemes, where children are provided with breakfast in school at the start of the school day, have been initiated by the Department of Health in schools throughout England, UK. The aim of the present study was to compare the energy and nutrient intakes of schoolchildren who attended breakfast clubs (attendee subjects) with those who did not (control subjects). Three different schools were studied, involving a total of 111 children aged between 9 and 15 years. There were fifty-nine attendee and fifty-two control subjects. The two groups were matched for eligibility for school meals. All subjects completed a 3 d weighed food diary for estimation of nutrient intake. Height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. Nutrient intake data were analysed using a general linear model with age as a covariate. The demographic and anthropometric characteristics of the attendee and control subjects were similar. Children who attended breakfast clubs had significantly greater intakes of fat (% energy), saturated fat (% energy) and Na than control subjects. Thus, in these schools breakfast-club participation was not associated with superior nutrient intake or improvements in dietary pattern.

  15. [Analysis of knowledge about healthy breakfast and its relation to life style habits and academic performance in compulsory secondary students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba Caro, Luis Gonzalo; Luengo Pérez, Luis Miguel; García Preciado, Ventura

    2014-05-01

    The main objective of the study is to analyze whether students of Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO) of Badajoz city known foods that are part of a healthy breakfast. It also intends to see the relationship of this knowledge with lifestyle habits and academic performance. A representative sample of 1197 secondary students in the city of Badajoz (Spain) (50.1% female) was calculated their Body Mass Index (BMI) and were asked to fill in a questionnaire, previously validated in a pilot study, which included sociodemographic items as well as others related with life style habits. They were also asked to choose among a series of food, which of them were a part of a healthy breakfast. 49.2% of adolescents know foods which are a part of a healthy breakfast. Very low correlations were obtained between all the variables analyzed and knowledge of foods that make up a healthy breakfast. However, within a few variables are significant differences (Phabit, passing lot of time with friends, who have been on a diet, make less than 3 meals a day and spend less than 10minutes for breakfast and know the amount of fruit that should be consumed daily. Life style habits of adolescents are not related to the knowledge about the foods that are part of a healthy breakfast. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Universal free school breakfast: a qualitative process evaluation according to the perspectives of senior stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Harvey-Golding

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the provision of school breakfast has increased significantly in the UK. However, there is an absence of knowledge regarding senior stakeholder views on the processes and potential outcomes on different groups, within the communities served by school breakfast programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the views and experiences of senior level stakeholders and thereby provide an original qualitative contribution to the research. A sample of senior level stakeholders were recruited, including senior officers, directors and elected members, from within a Local Authority (LA involved in the leadership, implementation and delivery of a council-wide universal free school breakfast (USFB program, and from the senior staff body of mainstream primary and special schools, participating in the program. A grounded theory analysis of the data collected identified issues encountered in the implementation and delivery, and views on the funding and future of a USFB program, in addition to perceived outcomes of children, parents, families, schools and the wider community. The results refer to both positive and negative issues and implications associated with the program, according to the perspectives of senior level stakeholders. Perceived positive outcomes included benefits to children, families, schools and the community. For instance, alleviating hunger, improving health outcomes, and conferring financial benefits, with the potential to cumulate in overall improvements in educational, social and behavioral outcomes. Reported negative implications included the absence of an effective communication strategy in implementing the USFB program; in addition to concerns about the impacts of ‘double-breakfasting’ on obesity levels among children, particularly in less deprived communities. Findings were validated using theoretical sampling and saturation, triangulation methods, member checks, and inter-rater reliability measures. In

  17. Multitasking in non-computerised and computerised versions of the Breakfast Task in healthy adult aging

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlowska, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Older adults demonstrate poor performance on standard executive tests. However, age-related deficits have been found only on a number of more realistic executive tests. The present study investigated age effects in multitasking, requiring a range of executive, as well as non-executive, cognitive functions. Previous study by Craik and Bialystok (2006) showed impaired performance of older adults on a computerised multitasking test, which simulated cooking breakfast. Participants were instructed...

  18. More than Just a Meal: Breakfast Club Attendance and Children's Social Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeyter, Margaret Anne; Graham, Pamela Louise; Russo, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    The health benefits of school food have been widely promoted in recent years while the social opportunities that surround eating occasions at school have received little attention. Breakfast clubs (BCs), which take place at the start of the school day, offer a unique opportunity for children to consume a breakfast meal on their school premises in the company of their peers. Alternatively, after-school clubs (ASCs), which take place on school premises at the end of the school day, whilst also providing children with social opportunities tend to focus on sports engagement and skill development. The aim of the current paper is to investigate whether attendance at BCs and ASCs has an impact on children's friendship quality and experiences of peer victimization. BC attendees, ASC attendees, and non-attendees completed the Friendship Qualities Scale and the Multidimensional Peer Victimization Scale (MPVS) at two time points. Time-1 data were collected 2 months after the introduction of school clubs. Time-2 data were then collected on the same measures again 6 months later. Results of the analyses of Time-1 data showed no significant differences between groups on any of the measures at Time-1. However, at Time-2, BC attendees showed improved levels of friendship quality compared to the other two groups. Moreover, analysis of the MPVS data at Time-2 showed that children who attended BC or ASC experienced a decline in victimization across time. The current findings suggest that BC attendance facilitates the quality of children's relationships with their best friend over time. Additionally, attendance at a breakfast or ASC was associated with a reduction in victimization over time. The results have implications for utilization of breakfast and ASCs to aid children's social relationships in school over time.

  19. KEBIASAAN DAN KUALITAS SARAPAN PADA SISWI REMAJA DI KABUPATEN BOGOR

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Febritta Intan Sari; Dodik Briawan; Cesilia Meti Dwiriani

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe study aimed to describe breakfast habit among teenage girls of vocational high school Bogor. A cross-sectional study was conducted and was involving 68 students 14—18 years old from SMK Pelita Ciampea, Bogor District. Breakfast consumption was collected by a 7-day food records. The result showed that there were 45.6% schoolgirls having breakfast regularly. Breakfast frequency per week was associated with BMI and anaemic status (p

  20. Flexible Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Pallesen, Trine

    This report presents the first findings from our qualitative study of consumer behaviour vis-à-vis flexible consumption. The main of objective of this report is to present our first round of data from Bornholm, and to assist the design of products/services designed in WP6. In the report, we adopt...... the perspective of the consumer: what does living in a demand response setup look like to participants – and what kinds of behaviour and interest motivate – and emerge from – their participation in EcoGrid 2.0....

  1. General inverse problems for regular variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damek, Ewa; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Rosinski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Regular variation of distributional tails is known to be preserved by various linear transformations of some random structures. An inverse problem for regular variation aims at understanding whether the regular variation of a transformed random object is caused by regular variation of components ...

  2. Ready-to-Eat Cereal Consumption Patterns: The Relationship to Nutrient Intake, Whole Grain Intake, and Body Mass Index in an Older American Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Albertson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship between ready-to-eat (RTE breakfast cereal consumption patterns and body mass index (BMI, nutrient intake, and whole grain intake in an older American population. Design. A cross-sectional survey of US households, collected by the NPD Group via the National Eating Trends (NET survey. Main outcome measures include BMI, nutrient intake, and whole grain intake. Subjects/Setting. The sample included 1759 participants age 55 and older, which was divided into approximate quartiles based on intake of RTE breakfast cereal for the 2-week period (0 servings, 1–3 servings, 4–7 servings, and ≥8 servings. Results. In the multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted for energy and age; intake of dietary fiber, whole grains, and the majority of micronutrients examined were found to be positively associated with frequent RTE cereal consumption. The proportion of participants consuming less than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR was lower for the highest quartile of RTE cereal consumers compared to nonconsumers, for the majority of vitamins and minerals examined. Significant differences in BMI between RTE breakfast cereal intake groups were found for men. Conclusion. Results suggest that ready-to-eat breakfast cereals may contribute to the nutritional quality of the diets of older Americans. Prospective studies and experimental trials are needed to better evaluate the role of RTE cereal consumption in energy balance.

  3. The influence of the glycaemic load of breakfast on the behaviour of children in school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, David; Maconie, Alys; Williams, Claire

    2007-11-23

    The impact of breakfasts of different glycaemic loads on the performance of nineteen children, aged six to seven years, was explored. Over a four week period, children attended a school breakfast club each day and ate one of three meals. Each meal offered a similar amount of energy but differed in their glycaemic load. When working individually, the behaviour of a child was rated in the classroom every ten seconds for 30 min to produce a measure of time spent on task. Memory was assessed by asking for the recall of a series of objects. The ability to sustain attention was measured by asking for a response after various delays. The incidence of negative behaviour was recorded when playing a video game that was too difficult to allow success. Two to three hours after a low glycaemic load breakfast had been consumed, performance on the tests of memory and the ability to sustain attention were better, fewer signs of frustration were displayed and initially more time was spent on task when working individually in class. The importance of the results was discussed in the context of the wide range of factors that influence behaviour in school.

  4. Processing and characterization of extruded breakfast meal formulated with broken rice and bean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vânia Carvalho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop an extruded breakfast product containing broken rice and split old beans and to verify the influence of the extrusion process on their physicochemical, technological, and sensory characteristic. The final product had a protein content of 9.9 g.100 g-1, and therefore it can be considered a good source of proteins for children and teenagers. The dietary fiber content of the final edible product was 3.71 g.100 g-1. Therefore, the breakfast meal may be considered as a source of dietary fiber according to Brazilian law . As for the technological properties, the extruded product presented an expansion index of 8.89 and apparent density of 0.25 g.cm-3. With regard to the sensory analysis, the acceptance average was ranked between 6.8 and 7.7, corresponding to the categories "liked slightly" and "liked very much". With regard to purchase intention, 79% of the panelists said they would certainly or possibly purchase the product. Broken rice and split old beans are interesting alternatives for the elaboration of extruded breakfast products presenting good nutritional, technological, and sensory qualities.

  5. Variations in cereal volume affect the amount selected and eaten for breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Barbara J; Meengs, Jennifer S; Roe, Liane S

    2014-09-01

    Food volume could influence both the portions that people take and the amount that they eat, but these effects have had little investigation. The influence of food volume was tested by systematically reducing the flake size of a breakfast cereal so that the cereal was more compact and the same weight filled a smaller volume. In a crossover design, 41 adults ate cereal for breakfast once a week for 4 weeks during 2011 and 2012. The cereal was either standard wheat flakes or the same cereal crushed to reduce the volume to 80%, 60%, or 40% of the standard. A constant weight of cereal was provided in an opaque container and participants poured the amount they wanted into a bowl, added fat-free milk and noncalorie sweetener as desired, and consumed as much as they wanted. Results from a mixed linear model showed that as flake size was reduced, subjects poured a smaller volume of cereal, but still took a greater amount by weight and energy content (both P values breakfast energy intake increased from a mean±standard error of the mean of 286±18 kcal to 358±19 kcal, an increase of a mean±standard error of the mean 34%±7% (Pportion served, which in turn affects energy intake. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Consumption governance toward more sustainable consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Dubuisson-Quellier, Sophie

    2018-01-01

    This article deliberates on strategies of consumption governance toward more sustainable consumption. We discuss theoretical concepts stemming from various social science perspectives to (1) promote more sustainable consumption, (2) compare strategies stemming from individualist understanding of

  7. Eating breakfast and dinner together as a family: associations with sociodemographic characteristics and implications for diet quality and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; MacLehose, Rich; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Berge, Jerica M; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-12-01

    Research has shown that adolescents who frequently share evening meals with their families experience more positive health outcomes, including diets of higher nutritional quality. However, little is known about families eating together at breakfast. This study examined sociodemographic differences in family meal frequencies in a population-based adolescent sample. In addition, this study examined associations of family breakfast meal frequency with dietary quality and weight status. Cross-sectional data from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) included anthropometric assessments and classroom-administered surveys completed in 2009-2010. Participants included 2,793 middle and high school students (53.2% girls, mean age=14.4 years) from Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, public schools. Usual dietary intake was self-reported on a food frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were measured. Regression models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, family dinner frequency, family functioning, and family cohesion were used to examine associations of family breakfast frequency with dietary quality and weight status. On average, adolescents reported having family breakfast meals 1.5 times (standard deviation=2.1) and family dinner meals 4.1 times (standard deviation=2.6) in the past week. There were racial/ethnic differences in family breakfast frequency, with the highest frequencies reported by adolescents of black, Hispanic, Native American, and mixed race/ethnicity. Family breakfast frequency was also positively associated with male sex, younger age, and living in a two-parent household. Family breakfast frequency was associated with several markers of better diet quality (such as higher intake of fruit, whole grains, and fiber) and lower risk for overweight/obesity. For example, adolescents who reported seven family breakfasts in the past week consumed an average of 0.37 additional daily fruit servings compared with adolescents who never had a family breakfast meal

  8. Regularized Statistical Analysis of Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents the application and development of regularized methods for the statistical analysis of anatomical structures. Focus is on structure-function relationships in the human brain, such as the connection between early onset of Alzheimer’s disease and shape changes of the corpus...... and mind. Statistics represents a quintessential part of such investigations as they are preluded by a clinical hypothesis that must be verified based on observed data. The massive amounts of image data produced in each examination pose an important and interesting statistical challenge...... efficient algorithms which make the analysis of large data sets feasible, and gives examples of applications....

  9. Regularization methods in Banach spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Schuster, Thomas; Hofmann, Bernd; Kazimierski, Kamil S

    2012-01-01

    Regularization methods aimed at finding stable approximate solutions are a necessary tool to tackle inverse and ill-posed problems. Usually the mathematical model of an inverse problem consists of an operator equation of the first kind and often the associated forward operator acts between Hilbert spaces. However, for numerous problems the reasons for using a Hilbert space setting seem to be based rather on conventions than on an approprimate and realistic model choice, so often a Banach space setting would be closer to reality. Furthermore, sparsity constraints using general Lp-norms or the B

  10. Academic Training Lecture - Regular Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2011-01-01

    Regular Lecture Programme 9 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Inner Tracking Detectors by Pippa Wells (CERN) 10 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Calorimeters (2/5) by Philippe Bloch (CERN) 11 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Muon systems (3/5) by Kerstin Hoepfner (RWTH Aachen) 12 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Particle Identification and Forward Detectors by Peter Krizan (University of Ljubljana and J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia) 13 May 2011 ACT Lectures on Detectors - Trigger and Data Acquisition (5/5) by Dr. Brian Petersen (CERN) from 11:00 to 12:00 at CERN ( Bldg. 222-R-001 - Filtration Plant )

  11. Nudging children towards whole wheat bread: a field experiment on the influence of fun bread roll shape on breakfast consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Vrijhof, M.N.; Polet, I.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Wijk, de R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many children do not eat enough whole grains, which may have negative health consequences. Intervention research is increasingly focusing on nudging as a way to influence food choices by affecting unconscious behavioural processes. The aim of this field study was to examine whether the

  12. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  13. RES: Regularized Stochastic BFGS Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Aryan; Ribeiro, Alejandro

    2014-12-01

    RES, a regularized stochastic version of the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) quasi-Newton method is proposed to solve convex optimization problems with stochastic objectives. The use of stochastic gradient descent algorithms is widespread, but the number of iterations required to approximate optimal arguments can be prohibitive in high dimensional problems. Application of second order methods, on the other hand, is impracticable because computation of objective function Hessian inverses incurs excessive computational cost. BFGS modifies gradient descent by introducing a Hessian approximation matrix computed from finite gradient differences. RES utilizes stochastic gradients in lieu of deterministic gradients for both, the determination of descent directions and the approximation of the objective function's curvature. Since stochastic gradients can be computed at manageable computational cost RES is realizable and retains the convergence rate advantages of its deterministic counterparts. Convergence results show that lower and upper bounds on the Hessian egeinvalues of the sample functions are sufficient to guarantee convergence to optimal arguments. Numerical experiments showcase reductions in convergence time relative to stochastic gradient descent algorithms and non-regularized stochastic versions of BFGS. An application of RES to the implementation of support vector machines is developed.

  14. Regularized Label Relaxation Linear Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaozhao; Xu, Yong; Li, Xuelong; Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Fang, Bingwu

    2018-04-01

    Linear regression (LR) and some of its variants have been widely used for classification problems. Most of these methods assume that during the learning phase, the training samples can be exactly transformed into a strict binary label matrix, which has too little freedom to fit the labels adequately. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose a novel regularized label relaxation LR method, which has the following notable characteristics. First, the proposed method relaxes the strict binary label matrix into a slack variable matrix by introducing a nonnegative label relaxation matrix into LR, which provides more freedom to fit the labels and simultaneously enlarges the margins between different classes as much as possible. Second, the proposed method constructs the class compactness graph based on manifold learning and uses it as the regularization item to avoid the problem of overfitting. The class compactness graph is used to ensure that the samples sharing the same labels can be kept close after they are transformed. Two different algorithms, which are, respectively, based on -norm and -norm loss functions are devised. These two algorithms have compact closed-form solutions in each iteration so that they are easily implemented. Extensive experiments show that these two algorithms outperform the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of the classification accuracy and running time.

  15. Diagnostic informative value of gastroduodenal regulatory peptides of the blood serum on an empty stomach and after test breakfasts of various compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablyazov, A.A.; Korot'ko, G.F.

    1992-01-01

    Gastrin, secretin and cholecystokinin were determined by a radioimmunoassay in healthy persons (19) and in patients with peptic ulcer (13) on an empty stomach and after test breakfasts with different nutrients. In the healthy persons the blood concentration of regulatory peptides was lower than in the patients. Breakfasts increased the concentrations of gastrin, secretin and cholecystokinin in the patients much more than in the controls. Some differences in changes of the blood concentration of peptides were noted with regard to a type of test breakfast. However differentiated reactions of the endocrine apparatus of the gastroduodenal complex in response to the breakfasts were not a reliable functional and diagnostic criterion

  16. A small dose of whey protein co-ingested with mixed-macronutrient breakfast and lunch meals improves postprandial glycemia and suppresses appetite in men with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, David G; Walker, Mark; Campbell, Matthew D; Breen, Leigh; Stevenson, Emma J; West, Daniel J

    2018-04-01

    Large doses of whey protein consumed as a preload before single high-glycemic load meals has been shown to improve postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetes. It is unclear if this effect remains with smaller doses of whey co-ingested at consecutive mixed-macronutrient meals. Moreover, whether hydrolyzed whey offers further benefit under these conditions is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate postprandial glycemic and appetite responses after small doses of intact and hydrolyzed whey protein co-ingested with mixed-nutrient breakfast and lunch meals in men with type 2 diabetes. In a randomized, single-blind crossover design, 11 men with type 2 diabetes [mean ± SD age: 54.9 ± 2.3 y; glycated hemoglobin: 6.8% ± 0.3% (51.3 ± 3.4 mmol/mol)] attended the laboratory on 3 mornings and consumed 1) intact whey protein (15 g), 2) hydrolyzed whey protein (15 g), or 3) placebo (control) immediately before mixed-macronutrient breakfast and lunch meals, separated by 3 h. Blood samples were collected periodically and were processed for insulin, intact glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), leptin, peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY3-36), and amino acid concentrations. Interstitial glucose was measured during and for 24 h after each trial. Subjective appetite was assessed with the use of visual analog scales. Total postprandial glycemia area under the curve was reduced by 13% ± 3% after breakfast following the intact whey protein when compared with control (P  0.05). The consumption of a small 15-g dose of intact whey protein immediately before consecutive mixed-macronutrient meals improves postprandial glycemia, stimulates insulin release, and increases satiety in men with type 2 diabetes. This trial was registered at www.clinicialtrials.gov as NCT02903199.

  17. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  18. From inactive to regular jogger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Brinkmann Løite, Vibeke; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup

    study was conducted using individual semi-structured interviews on how a successful long-term behavior change had been achieved. Ten informants were purposely selected from participants in the DANO-RUN research project (7 men, 3 women, average age 41.5). Interviews were performed on the basis of Theory...... of Planned Behavior (TPB) and The Transtheoretical Model (TTM). Coding and analysis of interviews were performed using NVivo 10 software. Results TPB: During the behavior change process, the intention to jogging shifted from a focus on weight loss and improved fitness to both physical health, psychological......Title From inactive to regular jogger - a qualitative study of achieved behavioral change among recreational joggers Authors Pernille Lund-Cramer & Vibeke Brinkmann Løite Purpose Despite extensive knowledge of barriers to physical activity, most interventions promoting physical activity have proven...

  19. The causal role of breakfast in energy balance and health: a randomized controlled trial in obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Richardson, Judith D; Holman, Geoffrey D; Tsintzas, Kostas; Thompson, Dylan; Betts, James A

    2016-03-01

    The causal nature of associations between breakfast and health remain unclear in obese individuals. We sought to conduct a randomized controlled trial to examine causal links between breakfast habits and components of energy balance in free-living obese humans. The Bath Breakfast Project is a randomized controlled trial with repeated measures at baseline and follow-up among a cohort in South West England aged 21-60 y with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived fat mass indexes of ≥13 kg/m(2) for women (n = 15) and ≥9 kg/m(2) for men (n = 8). Components of energy balance (resting metabolic rate, physical activity thermogenesis, diet-induced thermogenesis, and energy intake) were measured under free-living conditions with random allocation to daily breakfast (≥700 kcal before 1100) or extended fasting (0 kcal until 1200) for 6 wk, with baseline and follow-up measures of health markers (e.g., hematology/adipose biopsies). Breakfast resulted in greater physical activity thermogenesis during the morning than when fasting during that period (difference: 188 kcal/d; 95% CI: 40, 335) but without any consistent effect on 24-h physical activity thermogenesis (difference: 272 kcal/d; 95% CI: -254, 798). Energy intake was not significantly greater with breakfast than fasting (difference: 338 kcal/d; 95% CI: -313, 988). Body mass increased across both groups over time but with no treatment effects on body composition or any change in resting metabolic rate (stable within 8 kcal/d). Metabolic/cardiovascular health also did not respond to treatments, except for a reduced insulinemic response to an oral-glucose-tolerance test over time with daily breakfast relative to an increase with daily fasting (P = 0.05). In obese adults, daily breakfast leads to greater physical activity during the morning, whereas morning fasting results in partial dietary compensation (i.e., greater energy intake) later in the day. There were no differences between groups in weight change and most

  20. CONSUMPTION PATTERNS OF STREET FOOD CONSUMERS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    diet of people living in low- and middle-income countries ... market for SF consumers in Cape Town. However, most ... beverages prepared and/or sold by vendors and hawkers ... many street-food items sold are unhealthy ...... going children in lower-income groups, who may ... The dangers of regular consumption of sugar-.

  1. Tessellating the Sphere with Regular Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Johnson, Hortensia; Bechthold, Dawn

    2004-01-01

    Tessellations in the Euclidean plane and regular polygons that tessellate the sphere are reviewed. The regular polygons that can possibly tesellate the sphere are spherical triangles, squares and pentagons.

  2. On the equivalence of different regularization methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzezowski, S.

    1985-01-01

    The R-circunflex-operation preceded by the regularization procedure is discussed. Some arguments are given, according to which the results may depend on the method of regularization, introduced in order to avoid divergences in perturbation calculations. 10 refs. (author)

  3. The uniqueness of the regularization procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzezowski, S.

    1981-01-01

    On the grounds of the BPHZ procedure, the criteria of correct regularization in perturbation calculations of QFT are given, together with the prescription for dividing the regularized formulas into the finite and infinite parts. (author)

  4. A Qualitative Evaluation of Holiday Breakfast Clubs in the UK: Views of Adult Attendees, Children, and Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeyter, Margaret Anne; Graham, Pamela Louise; Prince, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Across the UK, 1.3 million children access free school meals for around 38 weeks of the year. However, during school holidays, many families face considerable difficulties in providing a consistent and nutritious supply of food for their children, particularly during the extended summer break. In an effort to address this issue, a number of community-based breakfast clubs were set-up across the North West of England and in Northern Ireland where people could access a free breakfast meal during the summer holidays. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 17 children, 18 adult attendees, and 15 breakfast club staff to determine the uses and impacts associated with holiday breakfast club participation and to investigate potential areas for future development of holiday food provision. Findings highlighted a need for holiday food provision and revealed a multitude of nutritional, social, and financial benefits for those who accessed holiday breakfast clubs. Areas for further development and investigation are discussed in addition to implications for UK food and educational policies. PMID:26322303

  5. A Qualitative Evaluation of Holiday Breakfast Clubs in the UK: Views of Adult Attendees, Children, and Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeyter, Margaret Anne; Graham, Pamela Louise; Prince, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Across the UK, 1.3 million children access free school meals for around 38 weeks of the year. However, during school holidays, many families face considerable difficulties in providing a consistent and nutritious supply of food for their children, particularly during the extended summer break. In an effort to address this issue, a number of community-based breakfast clubs were set-up across the North West of England and in Northern Ireland where people could access a free breakfast meal during the summer holidays. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 17 children, 18 adult attendees, and 15 breakfast club staff to determine the uses and impacts associated with holiday breakfast club participation and to investigate potential areas for future development of holiday food provision. Findings highlighted a need for holiday food provision and revealed a multitude of nutritional, social, and financial benefits for those who accessed holiday breakfast clubs. Areas for further development and investigation are discussed in addition to implications for UK food and educational policies.

  6. A qualitative evaluation of holiday breakfast clubs in the UK: Views of adult attendees, children and staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret (Greta Anne Defeyter

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Across the UK 1.3 million children access free school meals for around 38 weeks of the year. However, during school holidays many families face considerable difficulties in providing a consistent and nutritious supply of food for their children, particularly during the extended summer break. In an effort to address this issue, a number of community-based breakfast clubs were set up across the North West of England and in Northern Ireland where people could access a free breakfast meal during the summer holidays. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 17 children, 18 adult attendees and 15 breakfast club staff to determine the uses and impacts associated with holiday breakfast club participation and to investigate potential areas for future development of holiday food provision. Findings highlighted a need for holiday food provision and revealed a multitude of nutritional, social and financial benefits for those who accessed holiday breakfast clubs. Areas for further development and investigation are discussed in addition to implications for UK food and educational policies.

  7. Application of Turchin's method of statistical regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyi, Mikhail; Poliakova, Mariia; Nozik, Alexander; Khudyakov, Alexey

    2018-04-01

    During analysis of experimental data, one usually needs to restore a signal after it has been convoluted with some kind of apparatus function. According to Hadamard's definition this problem is ill-posed and requires regularization to provide sensible results. In this article we describe an implementation of the Turchin's method of statistical regularization based on the Bayesian approach to the regularization strategy.

  8. Regular extensions of some classes of grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    Culik and Cohen introduced the class of LR-regular grammars, an extension of the LR(k) grammars. In this report we consider the analogous extension of the LL(k) grammers, called the LL-regular grammars. The relations of this class of grammars to other classes of grammars are shown. Every LL-regular

  9. Storytelling Permutations in the Performance of Life Narrative Betty Roland's Caviar for Breakfast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Clark

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Throughout her life, Australian storyteller and playwright Betty Roland (1903-1996 was haunted by the lure of travel. Roland's extensive body of work reflects experiences in Joseph Stalin's Soviet Union in the 1930s, the UK in the 1950s and Greece in the 1960s and charts the evolution of a personal and political philosophy marked by world-wide social upheaval. Caviar for Breakfast (1979 revised 1989, the second volume of Roland's autobiographical trilogy, is the subject of this paper. When taken together, the three books provide a fascinating insight into the values and ideas of the mushrooming modern cultures in which Roland travelled, worked and lived. Caviar for Breakfast retraces Roland's adventures in Joseph Stalin's Soviet Union where she spent fifteen months during 1933-34 with her then lover, Guido Baracchi, a wealthy Marxist scholar. The narrative takes its life from the contents of a diary maintained by Roland during that time and her introductory remarks convey the notion that, what follows, is not a literary enterprise of the imagination. The author insists that Caviar for Breakfast is a first-hand account of past realities and not only does her diary hold the ordering of events together, but is the purveyor of truth. The truth status of the diary as a mode of representation is widely accepted in Western culture. This paper argues, however, that it is impossible for any transcription of a life to enjoy a one-to-one ratio with 'what actually happened' as it is for a ghost to re-enter a world which fully resembles the one it left. It is well within the capacity of any imaginative storyteller to construct a counterfeit, or simulated, sense of reality whether or not s/he works with the diary mode of representation.

  10. Product Differentiation and Brand Competition in the Italian Breakfast Cereal Market: a Distance Metric Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Sckokai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article employs a nation-wide sample of supermarket scanner data to study product and brand competition in the Italian breakfast cereal market. A modified Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS, that includes Distance Metrics (DMs as proposed by Pinkse, Slade and Brett (2002, is estimated to study demand responses, substitution patterns, own-price and cross-price elasticities. Estimation results provide evidence of some degree of brand loyalty, while consumers do not seem loyal to the product type. Elasticity estimates point out the presence of patterns of substitution within products sharing the same brand and similar nutritional characteristics.

  11. Op. No A4495 Columbia, STS-93 Chandra - Breakfast, Suiting, and Walkout

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-93 mission was to deploy the Advanced X-ray Astrophysical Facility, which had been renamed the Chandra X-ray Observatory in honor of the late Indian-American Nobel Laureate Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. The mission was launched at 12:31 on July 23, 1999 onboard the space shuttle Columbia. The mission was led by Commander Eileen Collins. The crew was Pilot Jeff Ashby and Mission Specialists Cady Coleman, Steve Hawley and Michel Tognini from the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). This videotape shows the astronauts after breakfast getting into spacesuits, walking out to board the bus, and boarding the bus prior to launch.

  12. Sensory characterization of a ready-to-eat sweetpotato breakfast cereal by descriptive analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansby, M. A.; Bovell-Benjamin, A. C.

    2003-01-01

    The sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam], an important industry in the United States, has been selected as a candidate crop to be grown on future long-duration space missions by NASA. Raw sweetpotato roots were processed into flour, which was used to formulate ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (RTEBC). Twelve trained panelists evaluated the sensory attributes of the extruded RTEBC using descriptive analysis. The samples were significantly different (Psensory attributes, which could be used to differentiate the appearance, texture, and flavor of sweetpotato RTEBC, were described. The data could be used to optimize the RTEBC and for designing studies to test its consumer acceptance.

  13. Type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance are associated with word memory source monitoring recollection deficits but not simple recognition familiarity deficits following water, low glycaemic load, and high glycaemic load breakfasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamport, Daniel J; Lawton, Clare L; Mansfield, Michael W; Moulin, Chris A J; Dye, Louise

    2014-01-30

    It has been established that type 2 diabetes, and to some extent, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), are associated with general neuropsychological impairments in episodic memory. However, the effect of abnormalities in glucose metabolism on specific retrieval processes such as source monitoring has not been investigated. The primary aim was to investigate the impact of type 2 diabetes and IGT on simple word recognition (familiarity) and complex source monitoring (recollection). A secondary aim was to examine the effect of acute breakfast glycaemic load manipulations on episodic memory. Data are presented from two separate studies; (i) 24 adults with type 2 diabetes and 12 controls aged 45-75years, (ii) 18 females with IGT and 47 female controls aged 30-50years. Controls were matched for age, IQ, BMI, waist circumference, and depression. Recognition of previously learned words and memory for specifically which list a previously learned word had appeared in (source monitoring) was examined at two test sessions during the morning after consumption of low glycaemic load, high glycaemic load and water breakfasts according to a counterbalanced, crossover design. Type 2 diabetes (pglucose metabolism are not detrimental for global episodic memory processes. This enhances our understanding of how metabolic disorders are associated with memory impairments. © 2013.

  14. EFFECT OF CONSUMPTION OF TWO ADDITIONAL EGGS EVERY DAY ON BLOOD CHOLESTEROL OF HEALTHY NORMOLIPIDEMIC PEOPLE, A CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Jefarnejad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract INTRODUCTION: Dyslipidemia is one of the major risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Nutrition can significantly affect blood lipids. Eggs are a common food for many people and are rich in nutrients and vitamins. They are also rich in cholesterol. Considering the different recommendations and controversies surrounding the healthiness or otherwise of egg consumption, we added two eggs to the usual daily dietary regimen of healthy normolipidemic young volunteers and monitored the changes in their lipid profile. methods: This clinical trial was done on 60 volunteers living in a university campus. They regularly ate food served in the university restaurant. Their diet was monitored from 2 weeks before the start of the new diet with additional eggs. Fasting blood samples were taken at the beginning of the study. Two well-cooked moderately-sized eggs (all from the same supplier were added to the subjects' breakfast for one month. Blood lipids were measured again at the end of this period. results: Mean levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and triglyceride increased significantly, but remained within normal limits (P=0.001, 0.000 and 0.01, respectively. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C deceased significantly (P=0.000. CONCLUSIONS: Adding 14 eggs a week to the usual diet of normolipidemic healthy individuals can unfavorably affect blood lipids and may have adverse long-term cardiovascular consequences. In other words, eating less than two eggs a day may be a healthier practice.     Keywords: Egg, cholesterol, cardiovascular disease.

  15. Class of regular bouncing cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilić, Milovan

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, I construct a class of everywhere regular geometric sigma models that possess bouncing solutions. Precisely, I show that every bouncing metric can be made a solution of such a model. My previous attempt to do so by employing one scalar field has failed due to the appearance of harmful singularities near the bounce. In this work, I use four scalar fields to construct a class of geometric sigma models which are free of singularities. The models within the class are parametrized by their background geometries. I prove that, whatever background is chosen, the dynamics of its small perturbations is classically stable on the whole time axis. Contrary to what one expects from the structure of the initial Lagrangian, the physics of background fluctuations is found to carry two tensor, two vector, and two scalar degrees of freedom. The graviton mass, which naturally appears in these models, is shown to be several orders of magnitude smaller than its experimental bound. I provide three simple examples to demonstrate how this is done in practice. In particular, I show that graviton mass can be made arbitrarily small.

  16. Enhancement of select foods at breakfast and lunch increases energy intakes of nursing home residents with low meal intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Victoria H; Marra, Melissa Ventura; Johnson, Paulette

    2009-03-01

    Nursing facilities often provide enhanced or fortified foods as part of a "food-first" approach to increasing nutrient intakes in residents with inadequate intakes or who are experiencing weight loss. The study objective was to determine whether energy and protein enhancement of a small number of menu items would result in increased three-meal (breakfast, lunch, and supper) calorie and protein intakes in long-term care residents. A randomized cross-over design was used to compare investigator-weighed food intakes under three menu conditions: control (no meals enhanced); lunch only enhanced; and both breakfast and lunch enhanced. Two breakfast foods (juice and hot cereal) and two lunch foods (soup and potato side dish) were chosen for enhancement. Participants were 33 nursing home residents from a facility in South Florida (average age=87.3 years). Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to test the effects of the within-subjects factor (control, lunch enhanced, breakfast and lunch enhanced conditions), the between-subjects factor (smaller vs bigger eater), and the interaction on intakes (gram, kilocalories, and protein). Results revealed that bigger eaters consumed considerably more calories when breakfast foods, but not lunch foods, were enhanced. Smaller eaters achieved an increase in energy intake when either breakfast or lunch was enhanced. Overall daily protein intakes were not substantially increased by food enhancement. These data suggest that for an enhanced food program to be most effective for smaller eaters, who are at greatest risk for undernutrition and weight loss, it should include several enhanced foods at more than one meal.

  17. Evaluation of the School Breakfast Program Pilot Project: Final Report. Special Nutrition Programs. Report Number CN-04-SBP. Nutrition Assistance Program Report Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Lawrence S.; McLaughlin, Joan E.; Crepinsek, Mary Kay; Daft, Lynn M.

    2004-01-01

    In 1998, Congress authorized the School Breakfast Program Pilot Project (SBPP) to study the implementation and effects of providing universal free school breakfast in six school districts across the United States. For three years, from School Year (SY) 2000-2001 through SY 2002-2003, these six school districts received federal funds to offer…

  18. Whole Grain Consumption and Risk of Ischemic Stroke: Results From 2 Prospective Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Juan; Liu, Gang; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Sun, Qi

    2017-12-01

    Higher intake of whole grains may exert cardiometabolic benefits, although findings on stroke risk are inconclusive. The potentially differential effects of individual whole grain foods on ischemic stroke have not been examined. We analyzed whole grain consumption in relation to ischemic stroke among 71 750 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 42 823 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study who were free of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer at baseline (1984 and 1986, respectively) through 2010 using a Cox proportional hazards model. Validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires were used to assess consumption of whole grain intake, including whole grain cold breakfast cereal, dark bread, oatmeal, brown rice, popcorn, bran, and germ. Self-reported incident cases of ischemic stroke were confirmed through medical record review. During 2 820 128 person-years of follow-up in the 2 cohorts, 2458 cases of ischemic stroke were identified and confirmed. Intake of total whole grains was not associated with risk of ischemic stroke after adjustment for covariates: the pooled hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) comparing extreme intake levels was 1.04 (0.91-1.19). However, intake of whole grain cold breakfast cereal and total bran was inversely associated with ischemic stroke after multivariate adjustment: the pooled hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.88 (0.80-0.96; P trend =0.008) and 0.89 (0.79-1.00; P trend =0.004), respectively. Other whole grain foods were not associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke. Although overall consumption of whole grains was not associated with lower risk of ischemic stroke, greater consumption of whole grain cold breakfast cereal and bran was significantly associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke. More studies are needed to replicate these associations between individual whole grain foods and risk of ischemic stroke among other populations. © 2017 American Heart

  19. Association of curry consumption with blood lipids and glucose levels

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Youngjoo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Curcumin, an active ingredient in turmeric, is highly consumed in South Asia. However, curry that contains turmeric as its main spice might be the major source of curcumin in most other countries. Although curcumin consumption is not as high in these countries as South Asia, the regular consumption of curcumin may provide a significant health-beneficial effect. This study evaluated whether the moderate consumption of curry can affect blood glucose and lipid levels that b...

  20. Energy drink consumption is associated with unhealthy dietary behaviours among college youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Natalie S; Pasch, Keryn E

    2015-11-01

    Energy drink consumption has been associated with a variety of health risk behaviours, yet little research has explored the relationship between energy drinks and dietary behaviours of emerging adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between energy drink consumption and dietary behaviours among energy drink users and non-users within a sample of college youth. College freshmen (n = 585, m age = 18.7 years; 47% non-Hispanic White, 20.9% Hispanic, 25.5% Asian, 2.7% non-Hispanic Black and 4.4% other; 56% female), at a large, southwest university self-reported their energy drink consumption in the past week and a variety of dietary behaviours, including past week soda, diet soda, pre-packaged salty snacks, pre-packaged sweet snacks, fast food, restaurant food, frozen food, fruits, vegetables, milk and breakfast consumption. Linear regression analyses were run to determine associations between energy drink consumption and dietary behaviour among users and non-users of energy drinks. Analyses controlled for gender, race/ethnicity and body mass index (BMI). Overall, 17.5% of students had consumed energy drinks in the past week. Energy drink users were more likely to be male, White and have a greater BMI. Students also reported low past week intake of fruits, vegetables, milk and breakfast. Past week energy drink consumption was associated with increased soda and frozen meal consumption. Given a rapidly expanding energy drink market, future dietary interventions among college youth may want to consider the implications of energy drinks, as results of this study suggest consumption of these beverages is associated with unhealthy dietary behaviours and a greater BMI. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.