WorldWideScience

Sample records for registered antimicrobial products

  1. Antimicrobial Products Registered for Disinfection Use against Avian Influenza on Poultry Farms and Other Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA registers disinfectants against Avian Influenza A. Although there are no antimicrobial products registered for the H5N2 subtype of Avian Influenza A virus, based on available scientific information these products will work against other HPAI strains.

  2. Practical use of registered veterinary medicinal products in Macedonia in identifying the risk of developing of antimicrobial resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velev Romel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of antimicrobial agents is the key risk factor for the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. It is therefore generally recognized that data on the usage of antimicrobial agents in food-producing animals are essential for identifying and quantifying the risk of developing and spreading of antimicrobial resistance in the food-chain. According to the WHO guidelines, the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical system for the classification of veterinary medicines (ATC-vet is widely recognized as a classification tool. The aim of this work is to analyze the list of registered veterinary medicinal products in R. Macedonia and to evaluate the quality and practical use of this list according to the ATC-vet classification in order to identify the risk of developing and spreading of antimicrobial resistance.

  3. List M: Registered Antimicrobial Products with Label Claims for Avian (Bird) Flu Disinfectants

    Science.gov (United States)

    These EPA disinfectant products are registered and labeled with a claim to inactivate Avian influenza A viruses on hard, non-porous surfaces. The label specifies the use sites (e.g., poultry houses and farm premises) for application of the product.

  4. Computional algorithm for lifetime exposure to antimicrobials in pigs using register data − the LEA algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkegård, Anna Camilla; Dalhoff Andersen, Vibe; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2017-01-01

    Accurate and detailed data on antimicrobial exposure in pig production are essential when studying the association between antimicrobial exposure and antimicrobial resistance. Due to difficulties in obtaining primary data on antimicrobial exposure in a large number of farms, there is a need...... for a robust and valid method to estimate the exposure using register data. An approach that estimates the antimicrobial exposure in every rearing period during the lifetime of a pig using register data was developed into a computational algorithm. In this approach data from national registers on antimicrobial...... purchases, movements of pigs and farm demographics registered at farm level are used. The algorithm traces batches of pigs retrospectively from slaughter to the farm(s) that housed the pigs during their finisher, weaner, and piglet period. Subsequently, the algorithm estimates the antimicrobial exposure...

  5. A register-based study of the antimicrobial usage in Danish veal calves and young bulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Toft, Nils; Martin, Henrik Læssøe

    2016-01-01

    High antimicrobial usage and multidrug resistance have been reported in veal calves in Europe. This may be attributed to a high risk of disease as veal calves are often purchased from numerous dairy herds, exposed to stress related to the transport and commingling of new animals, and fed a new...... ration. In this study, we used national register data to characterize the use of antimicrobials registered for large Danish veal calf and young bull producing herds in 2014. A total of 325 herds with veal calf and potentially young bull production were identified from the Danish Cattle database....... According to the national Danish database on drugs for veterinary use (VetStat), a total of 537,399 Animal Daily Doses (ADD200) were registered for these 325 herds during 2014. The amount of antimicrobials registered in 2014 varied throughout the year, with the highest amounts registered in autumn...

  6. 75 FR 16109 - Antimicrobial Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0936; FRL-8806-9] Antimicrobial Pesticide...: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new antimicrobial pesticide products... identified. II. Registration Applications EPA received applications as follows to register new antimicrobial...

  7. Computional algorithm for lifetime exposure to antimicrobials in pigs using register data-The LEA algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkegård, Anna Camilla; Andersen, Vibe Dalhoff; Halasa, Tariq; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Toft, Nils; Vigre, Håkan

    2017-10-01

    Accurate and detailed data on antimicrobial exposure in pig production are essential when studying the association between antimicrobial exposure and antimicrobial resistance. Due to difficulties in obtaining primary data on antimicrobial exposure in a large number of farms, there is a need for a robust and valid method to estimate the exposure using register data. An approach that estimates the antimicrobial exposure in every rearing period during the lifetime of a pig using register data was developed into a computational algorithm. In this approach data from national registers on antimicrobial purchases, movements of pigs and farm demographics registered at farm level are used. The algorithm traces batches of pigs retrospectively from slaughter to the farm(s) that housed the pigs during their finisher, weaner, and piglet period. Subsequently, the algorithm estimates the antimicrobial exposure as the number of Animal Defined Daily Doses for treatment of one kg pig in each of the rearing periods. Thus, the antimicrobial purchase data at farm level are translated into antimicrobial exposure estimates at batch level. A batch of pigs is defined here as pigs sent to slaughter at the same day from the same farm. In this study we present, validate, and optimise a computational algorithm that calculate the lifetime exposure of antimicrobials for slaughter pigs. The algorithm was evaluated by comparing the computed estimates to data on antimicrobial usage from farm records in 15 farm units. We found a good positive correlation between the two estimates. The algorithm was run for Danish slaughter pigs sent to slaughter in January to March 2015 from farms with more than 200 finishers to estimate the proportion of farms that it was applicable for. In the final process, the algorithm was successfully run for batches of pigs originating from 3026 farms with finisher units (77% of the initial population). This number can be increased if more accurate register data can be

  8. 75 FR 30829 - Antimicrobial Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0325; FRL-8824-2] Antimicrobial Pesticide...: This notice announces receipt of an application to register new antimicrobial pesticide products... telephone number is (703) 305-5805. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Demson Fuller, Antimicrobials Division...

  9. Assessment of Human Pharmaceutical Products Registered in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in order to determine the most common routes of administration and type of dosage forms that are used. Registered pharmaceutical products were categorized by route of administration and then sub-categorized by the dosage form. Oral dosage forms were the most common accounting for 73% of all registered products.

  10. Australian Mining's product register 1992-93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    This annual product register contains an assessment of resources in Australia; statistical information on mine production of principal minerals; mineral industry statistics; directory of exploration and mining companies; buyers' guide; directory of consultants; list of services and a company index.

  11. Australian Mining's product register 1990-91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The Australian Minings' Product Register 1990-91 contains an industry review, resource assessment, mineral industry statistics, directory of exploration and mining companies, buyers guide and directory of consultants.

  12. Assessment of Veterinary Pharmaceutical Products Registered in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Topical, intramammary, intrauterine and ophthalmic routes accounted for 4.7%, 3.3%, 1.0% and 0.1% of the registered products respectively. ... Dosage forms for oral administration included solids (53.4%) namely powders, tablets, boluses, freeze dried products, granules; liquids (46.3%) namely suspensions, solutions, ...

  13. Weaner production with low antimicrobial usage: a descriptive study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Boklund, Anette; Dupont, Nana Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health, productivity and antimicrobial use in the production of pigs are expected to be interrelated to some extent. Previous studies on register-based data have investigated these correlations with a subsequent large variation residing at the farm level. In order to study such farm f...

  14. Draft PRN 2006-A: Use of Antimicrobial Pesticide Products in Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Systems (HVAC&R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft notice provides guidance to registrants of EPA-registered antimicrobial products whose labels bear general directions related to hard, non-porous or porous surfaces, but which are not but which are not specifically registered for HVAC uses.

  15. Antimicrobial usage and resistance in beef production

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Andrew; McAllister, Tim A.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobials are critical to contemporary high-intensity beef production. Many different antimicrobials are approved for beef cattle, and are used judiciously for animal welfare, and controversially, to promote growth and feed efficiency. Antimicrobial administration provides a powerful selective pressure that acts on the microbial community, selecting for resistance gene determinants and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria resident in the bovine flora. The bovine microbiota includes many harm...

  16. Pulsed laser deposition of antimicrobial silver coating on Ormocer (registered) microneedles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittard, S D; Narayan, R J; Jin, C; Monteiro-Riviere, N A [Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Ovsianikov, A; Chichkov, B N [Laser Zentrum Hannover, Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Stafslien, S; Chisholm, B, E-mail: roger_narayan@msn.co [Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering, North Dakota State University, 1805 Research Park Drive, Fargo, ND 58102 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    One promising option for transdermal delivery of protein- and nucleic acid-based pharmacologic agents involves the use of microneedles. However, microneedle-generated pores may allow microorganisms to penetrate the stratum corneum layer of the epidermis and cause local or systemic infection. In this study, microneedles with antimicrobial functionality were fabricated using two-photon polymerization-micromolding and pulsed laser deposition. The antibacterial activity of the silver-coated organically modified ceramic (Ormocer (registered) ) microneedles was demonstrated using an agar diffusion assay. Human epidermal keratinocyte viability on the Ormocer (registered) surfaces coated with silver was similar to that on uncoated Ormocer (registered) surfaces. This study indicates that coating microneedles with silver thin films using pulsed laser deposition is a useful and novel approach for creating microneedles with antimicrobial functionality. (communication)

  17. Pulsed laser deposition of antimicrobial silver coating on Ormocer (registered) microneedles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittard, S D; Narayan, R J; Jin, C; Monteiro-Riviere, N A; Ovsianikov, A; Chichkov, B N; Stafslien, S; Chisholm, B

    2009-01-01

    One promising option for transdermal delivery of protein- and nucleic acid-based pharmacologic agents involves the use of microneedles. However, microneedle-generated pores may allow microorganisms to penetrate the stratum corneum layer of the epidermis and cause local or systemic infection. In this study, microneedles with antimicrobial functionality were fabricated using two-photon polymerization-micromolding and pulsed laser deposition. The antibacterial activity of the silver-coated organically modified ceramic (Ormocer (registered) ) microneedles was demonstrated using an agar diffusion assay. Human epidermal keratinocyte viability on the Ormocer (registered) surfaces coated with silver was similar to that on uncoated Ormocer (registered) surfaces. This study indicates that coating microneedles with silver thin films using pulsed laser deposition is a useful and novel approach for creating microneedles with antimicrobial functionality. (communication)

  18. Antimicrobial Peptide Production and Purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Srinivas; Field, Des; Barron, Niall

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are natural defense compounds which are synthesized as ribosomal gene-encoded pre-peptides and produced by all living organisms. AMPs are small peptides, usually cationic and typically have hydrophobic residues which interact with cell membranes and have either a narrow or broad spectrum of biological activity. AMPs are isolated from the natural host or heterologously expressed in other hosts such as Escherichia coli. The proto-typical lantibiotic Nisin is a widely used AMP that is produced by the food-grade organism Lactococcus lactis. Although AMP production and purification procedures require optimization for individual AMPs, the Nisin production and purification protocol outlined in this chapter can be easily applied with minor modifications for the production and purification of other lantibiotics or AMPs. While Nisin is produced and secreted into the supernatant, steps to recover Nisin from both cell-free supernatant and cell pellet are outlined in detail.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance issues in beef production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial resistance threats to human health as identified have been recognized as a critical global public health concern. Linkage of some threats to beef production is discussed. The relevance to beef production of recent government actions will be examined. Prominent antimicrobial resistance ...

  20. Antimicrobial use in Belgian broiler production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoons, Davy; Dewulf, Jeroen; Smet, Annemieke; Herman, Lieve; Heyndrickx, Marc; Martel, An; Catry, Boudewijn; Butaye, Patrick; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2012-08-01

    The use of antimicrobials in production animals has become a worldwide concern in the face of rising resistance levels in commensal, pathogenic and zoonotic bacteria. In the years 2007 and 2008 antimicrobial consumption records were collected during two non consecutive production cycles in 32 randomly selected Belgian broiler farms. Antimicrobials were used in 48 of the 64 monitored production cycles, 7 farms did not use any antimicrobials in both production cycles, 2 farms only administered antimicrobials in one of the two production cycles, the other 23 farms applied antimicrobial treatment in both production cycles. For the quantification of antimicrobial drug use, the treatment incidences (TI) based on the defined daily doses (the dose as it should be applied: DDD) and used daily doses (the actual dose applied: UDD) were calculated. A mean antimicrobial treatment incidence per 1000 animals of 131.8 (standard deviation 126.8) animals treated daily with one DDD and 121.4 (SD 106.7) animals treated daily with one UDD was found. The most frequently used compounds were amoxicillin, tylosin and trimethoprim-sulphonamide with a mean TI(UDD) of 37.9, 34.8, and 21.7, respectively. The ratio of the UDD/DDD gives an estimate on correctness of dosing. Tylosin was underdosed in most of the administrations whereas amoxicillin and trimethoprim-sulphonamide were slightly overdosed in the average flock. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Persistent Spatial Clusters of Prescribed Antimicrobials among Danish Pig Farms – A Register-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertner, Mette; Sanchez, Javier; Boklund, Anette; Stryhn, Henrik; Dupont, Nana; Toft, Nils

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of pathogens resistant to antimicrobials has prompted political initiatives targeting a reduction in the use of veterinary antimicrobials in Denmark, especially for pigs. This study elucidates the tendency of pig farms with a significantly higher antimicrobial use to remain in clusters in certain geographical regions of Denmark. Animal Daily Doses/100 pigs/day were calculated for all three age groups of pigs (weaners, finishers and sows) for each quarter during 2012–13 in 6,143 commercial indoor pig producing farms. The data were split into four time periods of six months. Repeated spatial cluster analyses were performed to identify persistent clusters, i.e. areas included in a significant cluster throughout all four time periods. Antimicrobials prescribed for weaners did not result in any persistent clusters. In contrast, antimicrobial use in finishers clustered persistently in two areas (157 farms), while those issued for sows clustered in one area (51 farms). A multivariate analysis including data on antimicrobial use for weaners, finishers and sows as three separate outcomes resulted in three persistent clusters (551 farms). Compared to farms outside the clusters during this period, weaners, finishers and sows on farms within these clusters had 19%, 104% and 4% higher use of antimicrobials, respectively. Production type, farm type and farm size seemed to have some bearing on the clustering effect. Adding these factors as categorical covariates one at a time in the multivariate analysis reduced the persistent clusters by 24.3%, 30.5% and 34.1%, respectively. PMID:26317206

  2. Weaner production with low antimicrobial usage: a descriptive study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Boklund, Anette; Dupont, Nana Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health, productivity and antimicrobial use in the production of pigs are expected to be interrelated to some extent. Previous studies on register-based data have investigated these correlations with a subsequent large variation residing at the farm level. In order to study such farm...... factors in more detail we designed an elaborate interview-guide. By in-depth interviews of farmers with well-managed 7-30 kg (weaner) productions we sought to describe a set of common key-factors characterizing their management practices. Identification of such common practices could be used in follow......-up projects, investigating whether identified factors really are characteristic for good-practicing famers.Results: Eleven farms were selected for a farm visit and in-depth interview. Participating farms used less antimicrobials than the national median (8.2 animal daily doses/100 weaners/day), had...

  3. Antimicrobials Products Tested or Pending Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The agency has completed testing of the majority of registered hospital disinfectants and tuberculocide products. The list of products can assist users in making informed choices regarding infection control in their facilities.

  4. Impact of antimicrobial use during beef production on fecal occurrence of antimicrobial resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To determine the impact of typical antimicrobial use during cattle production on fecal occurrence of antimicrobial resistance by culture, quantitative PCR, and metagenomic sequencing. Experimental Design & Analysis: Feces were recovered from colons of 36 lots of "conventional" (CONV) ca...

  5. Antimicrobial use in swine production and its effect on the swine gut microbiota and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Chénier, Martin R

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobials have been used in swine production at subtherapeutic levels since the early 1950s to increase feed efficiency and promote growth. In North America, a number of antimicrobials are available for use in swine. However, the continuous administration of subtherapeutic, low concentrations of antimicrobials to pigs also provides selective pressure for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants. For this reason, subtherapeutic antimicrobial use in livestock remains a source of controversy and concern. The swine gut microbiota demonstrates a number of changes in response to antimicrobial administration depending on the dosage, duration of treatment, age of the pigs, and gut location that is sampled. Both culture-independent and -dependent studies have also shown that the swine gut microbiota contains a large number of antimicrobial resistance determinants even in the absence of antimicrobial exposure. Heavy metals, such as zinc and copper, which are often added at relatively high doses to swine feed, may also play a role in maintaining antimicrobial resistance and in the stability of the swine gut microbiota. This review focuses on the use of antimicrobials in swine production, with an emphasis on the North American regulatory context, and their effect on the swine gut microbiota and on antimicrobial resistance determinants in the gut microbiota.

  6. Persistent Spatial Clusters of Prescribed Antimicrobials among Danish Pig Farms - A Register-Based Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Sanchez, Javier; Boklund, Anette

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of pathogens resistant to antimicrobials has prompted political initiatives targeting a reduction in the use of veterinary antimicrobials in Denmark, especially for pigs. This study elucidates the tendency of pig farms with a significantly higher antimicrobial use to remain...... in clusters in certain geographical regions of Denmark. Animal Daily Doses/100 pigs/day were calculated for all three age groups of pigs (weaners, finishers and sows) for each quarter during 2012-13 in 6,143 commercial indoor pig producing farms. The data were split into four time periods of six months....... Repeated spatial cluster analyses were performed to identify persistent clusters, i.e. areas included in a significant cluster throughout all four time periods. Antimicrobials prescribed for weaners did not result in any persistent clusters. In contrast, antimicrobial use in finishers clustered...

  7. Production of Antimicrobial Agent by Streptomyces violachromogenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Arwa A.

    2007-01-01

    The isolation of antibiotics from microorganisms improved the discovery of novel antibiotics, which is relatively easy as compared to chemical synthesis of antimicrobial agents. This study starts from isolation and purification of the antimicrobial producing Sterptomycetes obtained from soil habitat of Yemen. The good antimicrobial producing Sterptomycetes isolate was selected from a batch of Sterptomycetes isolates then identified. This isolate has bioactivity against some G+ve and G-ve bacteria. The antimicrobial agent isolated from Streptomyces violachromogenes (isolate no.YA118) was extracted with ethyl acetate at pH 3. The residue was applied to a silica gel column chromatography and eluted stepwise with many solvent systems. The active fractions were tested with B. subtilis NCTC10400. The purification of the antibiotic has been carried out by thin layer chromatography then the physical and chemical properties were studied to identify the antimicrobial agent. The isolated antimicrobial agent is an antibiotic belonging to the neomycin group. (author)

  8. Antimicrobial use in Chinese swine and broiler poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnasamy, Vikram; Otte, Joachim; Silbergeld, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial use for growth promotion in food animal production is now widespread. A major concern is the rise of antimicrobial resistance and the subsequent impact on human health. The antimicrobials of concern are used in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) which are responsible for almost all meat production including swine and poultry in the US. With global meat consumption rising, the CAFO model has been adopted elsewhere to meet this demand. One such country where this has occurred is China, and evidence suggests 70% of poultry production now occurs outside of traditional small farms. Moreover, China is now the largest aggregate consumer of meat products in the world. With this rapid rise in consumption, the Chinese production model has changed along with the use of antimicrobials in feeds. However, the specific antibiotic use in the Chinese food animal production sector is unclear. Additionally, we are aware of high quantities of antimicrobial use because of reports of high concentrations of antimicrobials in animal waste and surface waters surrounding animal feeding operations. In this report, we estimate the volume of antibiotics used for swine and poultry production as these are the two meat sources with the highest levels of production and consumption in China. We adopt a model developed by Mellon et al. in the US for estimating drug use in feed for poultry and swine production to estimate overall antimicrobial use as well as antimicrobial use by class. We calculate that 38.5 million kg [84.9 million lbs] were used in 2012 in China's production of swine and poultry. By antibiotic class, the highest weights are tetracyclines in swine and coccidiostats in poultry. The volume of antimicrobial use is alarming. Although there are limitations to these data, we hope our report will stimulate further analysis and a sense of urgency in assessing the consequences of such high levels of utilization in terms of antibiotic resistance in the food supply

  9. Antimicrobial Usage and Antimicrobial Resistance in Animal Production in Southeast Asia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen T. Nhung

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia is an area of great economic dynamism. In recent years, it has experienced a rapid rise in the levels of animal product production and consumption. The region is considered to be a hotspot for infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance (AMR. We reviewed English-language peer-reviewed publications related to antimicrobial usage (AMU and AMR in animal production, as well as antimicrobial residues in meat and fish from 2000 to 2016, in the region. There is a paucity of data from most countries and for most bacterial pathogens. Most of the published work relates to non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS, Escherichia coli (E. coli, and Campylobacter spp. (mainly from Vietnam and Thailand, Enterococcus spp. (Malaysia, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA (Thailand. However, most studies used the disk diffusion method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing; breakpoints were interpreted using Clinical Standard Laboratory Institute (CSLI guidelines. Statistical models integrating data from publications on AMR in NTS and E. coli studies show a higher overall prevalence of AMR in pig isolates, and an increase in levels of AMR over the years. AMU studies (mostly from Vietnam indicate very high usage levels of most types of antimicrobials, including beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, macrolides, and quinolones. This review summarizes information about genetic determinants of resistance, most of which are transferrable (mostly plasmids and integrons. The data in this review provide a benchmark to help focus research and policies on AMU and AMR in the region.

  10. Quality of antimicrobial products used in white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) aquaculture in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Kim Chi; Tran, Minh Phu; Phan, Thi Van

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobials are important to treat diseases in aquaculture and the objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of antimicrobial products commonly used in white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) aquaculture in Northern Vietnam. A total of 25 antimicrobial products were obtained from 20...... to strengthen diagnostic services, legislation and control of antimicrobial products in shrimp aquaculture and educate farmers on prudent antimicrobial use practices....

  11. Proper context: Comparison studies demonstrate that United States food-animal production antimicrobial uses have minimal impact on antimicrobial resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States (US) it is estimated that food-animal production agriculture accounts for >70% of antimicrobial (AM) use leading to concerns that agricultural uses "substantially drive" antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Many studies report AMR in food-animal production settings without comparison...

  12. Studies performed in the proper context suggest that antimicrobial use during swine and cattle production minimally impact antimicrobial resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States (U.S.) it is estimated that food-animal production agriculture accounts for >70% of antimicrobial (AM) use leading to concerns that agricultural uses are the primary source of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Many studies report AMR in food-animal production settings without comp...

  13. Antimicrobial Pesticide Use Site Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Use Site Index provides guidance to assist applicants for antimicrobial pesticide registration by helping them identify the data requirements necessary to register a pesticide or support their product registrations.

  14. Co-production of parasporal crystal toxins and antimicrobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Co-production of antimicrobial substances and insecticidal compounds by Bacillus thuringiensis BAR 3 was investigated. The cell free supernatant (CFS) of B. thuringiensis showed inhibitory activities against both Gram positive (B. thuringiensis IFO13866 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923) and Gram negative ...

  15. Risk assessment of antimicrobial usage in Danish pig production on the human exposure to antimicrobial resistant bacteria from pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struve, Tina

    to antimicrobials are influenced by the use of antimicrobial agents, and the prudence of antimicrobial use have been emphasized since the Swann report in 1969 recommended that antibiotics used in human medicine should not be used as growth promoters in food-producing animals. In 2007, the World Health Organisation...... the human exposure to cephalosporin resistance from pork purchased in retail shops was assessed using different scenarios for the amount of antimicrobial used in the primary production. Also, farm-related factors affecting the antimicrobial usage were investigated as a part of this thesis. The thesis...... producing E. coli through the purchase of pork chops Objective 3: Identification of management factors in the Danish finishing pig production important for antimicrobial usage In Objective 1, the occurrence (presence/non-presence) of ESC producing E. coli in samples from healthy pigs at slaughter...

  16. Registering coherent change detection products associated with large image sets and long capture intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, David Nikolaus; Gonzales, Antonio I

    2014-04-08

    A set of co-registered coherent change detection (CCD) products is produced from a set of temporally separated synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of a target scene. A plurality of transformations are determined, which transformations are respectively for transforming a plurality of the SAR images to a predetermined image coordinate system. The transformations are used to create, from a set of CCD products produced from the set of SAR images, a corresponding set of co-registered CCD products.

  17. Antimicrobial Substances for Food Packaging Products: The Current Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerito, Alessandra; Ameen, Sara M; Micali, Maria; Caruso, Giorgia

    2018-04-04

    Antimicrobial substances are widely used in many anthropic activities, including sanitary and military services for the human population. These compounds are also known to be used in food production, agricultural activities, and partially correlated industrial sectors. However, there are concerns regarding the link between the abuse of antimicrobial agents in these ambits and the possible detection of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. Modern food and beverage products are generally found on the market as prepackaged units, with several exceptions. Consequently, positive and negative features of a specific food or beverage should be considered as the result of the synergic action of different components, including the container (or the assembled sum of packaging materials). At present, the meaning of food container also includes the creation and development of new packaging materials that are potentially able to interact with the contained food. "Active" packaging systems can be realized with antimicrobial substances. On the other hand, a careful evaluation of risks and advantages correlated with antimicrobial agents is needed because of possible negative and/or unexpected failures.

  18. Quality of Antimicrobial Products Used in Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) Aquaculture in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phu, Tran Minh; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial usage is common in Asian aquaculture. This study aimed to determine the quality of antimicrobial products used by Vietnamese striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) farmers. Twenty one antimicrobial products (11 products contained a single antimicrobial and 10 products contained a mixture of two different antimicrobials) commonly used by catfish farmers were obtained from so-called chemical shops located in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry was used to analyze concentration of sulfonamides, trimethoprim, amoxicillin, cefalexin and ciprofloxacin whereas concentrations of florfenicol and doxycycline were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV detection. Results revealed that only 4/11 products with a single antimicrobial and 2/10 products with a mixture of antimicrobials contained active substances within ±10% of the concentration declared on the product label. Two products with antimicrobial mixtures did not contain any of the declared antimicrobials. Comparing two batches, analysis of 11 products revealed that only one product contained a concentration of active compound that varied with less than 10% in both batches. Several product labels provided inadequate information on how to calculate therapeutic dosage and further stated withdrawal time despite lack of pharmacokinetic data on the antimicrobials in catfish. There is an urgent need to strengthen approval procedures and in particular regularly to monitor the quality of antimicrobials used in Vietnamese aquaculture. PMID:25897517

  19. Quality of Antimicrobial Products Used in Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus Aquaculture in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Minh Phu

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial usage is common in Asian aquaculture. This study aimed to determine the quality of antimicrobial products used by Vietnamese striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus farmers. Twenty one antimicrobial products (11 products contained a single antimicrobial and 10 products contained a mixture of two different antimicrobials commonly used by catfish farmers were obtained from so-called chemical shops located in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry was used to analyze concentration of sulfonamides, trimethoprim, amoxicillin, cefalexin and ciprofloxacin whereas concentrations of florfenicol and doxycycline were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV detection. Results revealed that only 4/11 products with a single antimicrobial and 2/10 products with a mixture of antimicrobials contained active substances within ±10% of the concentration declared on the product label. Two products with antimicrobial mixtures did not contain any of the declared antimicrobials. Comparing two batches, analysis of 11 products revealed that only one product contained a concentration of active compound that varied with less than 10% in both batches. Several product labels provided inadequate information on how to calculate therapeutic dosage and further stated withdrawal time despite lack of pharmacokinetic data on the antimicrobials in catfish. There is an urgent need to strengthen approval procedures and in particular regularly to monitor the quality of antimicrobials used in Vietnamese aquaculture.

  20. Antimicrobial potential of bacteriocins in poultry and swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Lagha, Amel; Haas, Bruno; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Grenier, Daniel

    2017-04-11

    The routine use of antibiotics in agriculture has contributed to an increase in drug-resistant bacterial pathogens in animals that can potentially be transmitted to humans. In 2000, the World Health Organization identified resistance to antibiotics as one of the most significant global threats to public health and recommended that the use of antibiotics as additives in animal feed be phased out or terminated, particularly those used to treat human infections. Research is currently being carried out to identify alternative antimicrobial compounds for use in animal production. A number of studies, mostly in vitro, have provided evidence indicating that bacteriocins, which are antimicrobial peptides of bacterial origin, may be promising alternatives to conventional antibiotics in poultry and swine production. This review provides an update on bacteriocins and their potential for use in the poultry and swine industries.

  1. PULSION registered HP: Tunable, High Productivity Plasma Doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felch, S. B.; Torregrosa, F.; Etienne, H.; Spiegel, Y.; Roux, L.; Turnbaugh, D.

    2011-01-01

    Plasma doping has been explored for many implant applications for over two decades and is now being used in semiconductor manufacturing for two applications: DRAM polysilicon counter-doping and contact doping. The PULSION HP is a new plasma doping tool developed by Ion Beam Services for high-volume production that enables customer control of the dominant mechanism--deposition, implant, or etch. The key features of this tool are a proprietary, remote RF plasma source that enables a high density plasma with low chamber pressure, resulting in a wide process space, and special chamber and wafer electrode designs that optimize doping uniformity.

  2. Activities and influence of veterinary drug marketers on antimicrobial usage in livestock production in Oyo and Kaduna States, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olufemi Ernest Ojo; Olajoju Jokotola Awoyomi; Eniola Fabusoro; Morenike Atinuke Dipeolu

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial usage in animals contributes to the emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains. Investigations were carried out on how the characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practices of antimicrobial marketers influenced antimicrobials usage in animal production in Oyo and Kaduna States, Nigeria. Focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and structured questionnaires were used to gather information about the characteristics and activities of antimicrobial marketers. Overal...

  3. Maillard reaction products as antimicrobial components for packaging films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Carolin; Müller, Ulla; Sauer, Tanja; Augner, Kerstin; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2014-02-15

    Active packaging foils with incorporated antimicrobial agents release the active ingredient during food storage. Maillard reaction products (MRPs) show antimicrobial activity that is at least partially mediated by H2O2. De novo generation of H2O2 by an MRP fraction, extracted from a ribose/lysine Maillard reaction mixture by 85% ethanol, was monitored at three concentrations (1.6, 16.1, and 32.3g/L) and three temperatures (4, 25, and 37 °C) between 0 and 96 h, reaching a maximum of 335 μM H2O2 (32.3g/L, 37 °C, 96 h). The active MRP fraction (16.1g/L) completely inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli for 24h and was therefore incorporated in a polyvinyl acetate-based lacquer and dispersed onto a low-density polyethylene film. The coated film generated about 100 μM H2O2 and resulted in a log-reduction of >5 log-cycles against E. coli. Thus, MRPs can be considered as active ingredients for antimicrobial packaging materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes in the use of antimicrobials and the effects on productivity of swine farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe

    2010-01-01

    -Antimicrobial consumption by Danish swine farms from 1992 to 2008 was determined and evaluated in light of policies to regulate antimicrobial consumption, changes in disease patterns, and productivity data. Trend analyses of productivity data were conducted before and after a ban on use of antimicrobial growth promoters......Objective-To evaluate changes in antimicrobial consumption and productivity by Danish swine farms during 1992 to 2008. Sample Population-All Danish swine farms for antimicrobial consumption data and a representative sample of Danish swine herds for productivity data. Procedures...... of antimicrobials in 1994 and termination of AGP use by January 2000. Pig production increased from 18.4 to 271 million pigs, and the mean number of pigs per sow per year raised for slaughter increased from 21 in 1992 to 25 in 2007 Average daily gain for weaning ( 35 kg) pigs was higher...

  5. Antimicrobial compounds as side products from the agricultural processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumthong, Pattarawadee

    2007-01-01

    Antimicrobial compounds have many applications, in medicines, food, agriculture, livestock, textiles, paints, and wood protectants. Microorganisms resistant to most antibiotics are rapidly spreading. Consequently there is an urgent and continuous need for novel antimicrobial compounds. Most

  6. 40 CFR 152.15 - Pesticide products required to be registered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide products required to be registered. 152.15 Section 152.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... actual or constructive knowledge that the substance will be used, or is intended to be used, for a...

  7. 75 FR 16111 - Antimicrobial Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0935; FRL-8807-1] Antimicrobial Pesticide... . List of Subjects Environmental protection, Antimicrobial pesticides and pest. Dated: March 15, 2010. Joan Harrigan Farrelly, Director, Antimicrobial Division, Office of Pesticide Programs. [FR Doc. 2010...

  8. Antimicrobial Consumption in Medicated Feeds in Vietnamese Pig and Poultry Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuong, Nguyen; Nhung, Nguyen Thi; Nghia, Nguyen Huu; Mai Hoa, Nguyen Thi; Trung, Nguyen Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; Carrique-Mas, Juan

    2016-09-01

    Antimicrobials are extensively used as growth promoters in animal feeds worldwide, but reliable estimates are lacking. We conducted an internet-based survey of commercial chicken and pig feed products officially approved for sale in Vietnam over the period March-June 2015. Information on the antimicrobial contents in feed products, alongside animal production data, was used to estimate in-feed antimicrobial consumption to produce one kilogram of live animal (chicken, pig), as well as to estimate country-wide antimicrobial consumption through animal feeds. A total of 1462 commercial feed formulations were examined. The survey-adjusted estimated antimicrobial contents were 25.7 and 62.3 mg/kg in chicken and pig feeds, respectively. Overall, it was estimated that 77.4 mg [95% CI 48.1-106.8] and 286.6 mg [95% CI 191.6-418.3] of in-feed antimicrobials were used to raise 1 kg of live chicken and pig, respectively. Bacitracin (15.5% feeds), chlortetracycline (11.4%), and enramycin (10.8%) were the most common antimicrobials present in chicken feed formulations, whereas bacitracin (24.8%), chlortetracycline (23.9%), and florfenicol (17.4%) were the most common in pig feed formulations. Overall, 57% of the total quantitative usage consisted of antimicrobials regarded by WHO of importance for human medicine, including amoxicillin, colistin, tetracyclines, neomycin, lincomycin, and bacitracin. These figures confirm a very high magnitude of in-feed consumption of antimicrobials, especially in pig production. Results from this study should encourage further monitoring of antimicrobials used in animal production, and foster discussion about existing policies on inclusion of antimicrobials in animal feed rations.

  9. Usage of Intramammary Antimicrobial Veterinary Medicinal Products in The Republic of Serbia from 2011 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andjelkovic Jelena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Prudent use of antimicrobial medicine is an imperative in both human and veterinary medicine today. Antibiotic usage in humans and animals has increased over the years, consequently giving rise to antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic microorganisms. Mastitis is one of the most common conditions in bovine species, and intramammary antibacterial medicinal products are used in animal husbandry for mastitis treatment and prophylaxis.

  10. Impact of "raised without antibiotics" beef cattle production practices on occurrences of antimicrobial resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The specific antimicrobial resistance (AMR) decreases that can be expected from reducing antimicrobial (AM) use in U.S. beef production have not been defined. To address this data gap, feces were recovered from 36 lots of “raised without antibiotics” (RWA) and 36 lots of “conventional” (CONV) beef c...

  11. Antimicrobial Resistance of Staphylococcal Strains Isolated from Various Pathological Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Mihaela SIMON

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The optimal choice of antimicrobial therapy is an important problem in hospital environment in which the selection of resistant and virulent strains easy occurs. S. aureus and especially MRSA(methicillin-resistant S. aureus creates difficulties in both treatment and prevention of nosocomial infections. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the sensitivity and the resistance to chemotherapy of staphylococci strains isolated from various pathological products. Material and Method: We identified Staphylococccus species after morphological appearance, culture properties, the production of coagulase, hemolisines and the enzyme activity. The susceptibility tests were performed on Mueller-Hinton medium according to CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: The strains were: MSSA (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (74%, MRSA (8%, MLS B (macrolides, lincosamides and type B streptogramines resistance (12% and MRSA and MLS B (6%. MRSA strains were more frequently isolated from sputum. MRSA associated with the MLS B strains were more frequently isolated from pus. MLS B strains were more frequently isolated from sputum and throat secretions. All S. aureus strains were susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Conclusions: All staphylococcal infections require resistance testing before treatment. MLS B shows a high prevalence among strains of S. aureus. The association between MLS B and MRSA remains a major problem in Romania.

  12. Activities and influence of veterinary drug marketers on antimicrobial usage in livestock production in Oyo and Kaduna States, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi Ernest Ojo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial usage in animals contributes to the emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains. Investigations were carried out on how the characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practices of antimicrobial marketers influenced antimicrobials usage in animal production in Oyo and Kaduna States, Nigeria. Focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and structured questionnaires were used to gather information about the characteristics and activities of antimicrobial marketers. Overall, 70 (56.9 % of 123 marketers had post-secondary education while 76 (61.8 % were trained on the use of antimicrobials. Eighteen (14.6 % of the marketers were licensed veterinarians. Only 51 (41.5 % marketers displayed adequate knowledge about antimicrobials and antimicrobial usage. Sixty-seven (54.6 % marketers requested a prescription before selling antimicrobials while 113 (91.9 % marketer recommended antimicrobials for use in animals. Two-third of the marketers (66.7 % prescribed antimicrobials without physically examining sick animals but based their prescriptions on verbal reports of clinical signs by farmers and on their personal experience. Marketers with higher educational qualification displayed more adequate knowledge of antimicrobials and antimicrobial usage than those with basic education background only. More years of experience in antimicrobial marketing did not translate to better knowledge on antimicrobial usage. Only 45 (36.6 % respondents were aware of the existence of regulatory agencies monitoring the use of antimicrobials in animals. Farmers ignored the services of veterinarians in the diagnosis and control of animal diseases but resorted to drug marketers for help. Effective communication of existing legislations on antimicrobial usage, improved access to veterinary services and strict enforcement of regulatory policies are recommended for checking non-judicious use of antimicrobial agents in animal production. Sales of

  13. Relational coordination is associated with productivity in general practice: a survey and register based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke; Edwards, Kasper; Reventlow, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the association between relational coordination among the practice team in general practice and number of consultations performed in a general practice per staff, i.e. a proxy of productivity. We measured relational coordination using the Relational Coordination Survey...... and combined the results with register data. We found that relational coordination was statistically significant associated with number of consultation per staff per year. We later divided consultations in to three types: Face-to-face, Email and phone consultations. We found a statistically significant...... associating between relational coordination and with number of face-to-face consultation per staff per year....

  14. Trends in slaughter pig production and antimicrobial consumption in Danish slaughter pig herds, 2002-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieira, Antonio; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Houe, H.

    2011-01-01

    Overuse of antimicrobials in food-animal production is thought to be a major risk factor for the development of resistant bacterial populations. Data on non-human antimicrobial usage is essential for planning of intervention strategies to lower resistance levels at the country, region or herd...... levels. In this study we evaluated Danish national antimicrobial usage data for five antimicrobial classes used in slaughter pigs in different herd sizes and data on the number of slaughter pigs produced per herd, between 2002 and 2008, in Denmark. The objective was to ascertain...... if there is an association between herd size and amount of antimicrobials consumed. During this period, the overall number of herds with slaughter pigs decreased by 43%, with larger herds becoming more prevalent. The tetracycline treatment incidence (TI) rate increased from 0·28 to 0·70 animal-defined daily dose (ADD)/100...

  15. Epilepsy in Sweden: health care costs and loss of productivity--a register-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, Kristian; Lundgren, Anders; Berggren, Fredrik; Källén, Kristina

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to estimate health care costs and productivity losses due to epilepsy in Sweden and to compare these estimates to previously published estimates. Register data on health care utilisation, pharmaceutical sales, permanent disability and mortality were used to calculate health care costs and costs that accrue due to productivity losses. By linkage of register information, we were able to distinguish pharmaceuticals prescribed against epilepsy from prescriptions that were prompted by other indications. The estimated total cost of epilepsy in Sweden in 2009 was 441 million, which corresponds to an annual per-patient cost of 8,275. Health care accounted for about 16% of the estimated total cost, and drug costs accounted for about 7% of the total cost. The estimated health care cost corresponded to about 0.2% of the total health care cost in Sweden in 2009. Indirect costs were estimated at 370 million, 84% of which was due to sickness absenteeism. Costs resulting from epilepsy-attributable premature deaths or permanent disability to work accounted for about 1% of the total indirect cost in Sweden in 2009. The per-patient cost of epilepsy is substantial. Thus, even though the prevalence of the illness is relatively small, the aggregated cost that epilepsy incurs on society is significant.

  16. Quality of Milk for Cheese Production on Registered Agricultural Holdings in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Vranješ Anka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, milk producers in Vojvodina on registered agricultural holdings (RAHs have great experience and knowledge in managing their farms, including primary production, processing and sales. However, for a smaller number of manufacturers, there is still room for organizational and technological improvement of production. Nowadays, goat breeding is a very important part of sustainable production, rural development, and represents a very important part of rural development and employment of people. The course of goat breeding in our country is milk-meat, where milk is usually a priority. For the successful production of cheese, the quality of raw milk plays a critical role. It affects the quality of cheese in terms of a chemical composition, microbiological quality, the presence of chemical residues and organoleptic properties. Cheese is mostly made from cow, goat and sheep milk. The valuable components of milk are proteins and fats. These can also be defined as parameters of utilization, since they indicate how much cheese can be obtained from milk. On average, cow milk contains 3.64% fat, 3.22% protein, and 8.52% non-fat dry matter (NFDM. Higher differences in milk fat content (minimum 3.25%, maximum 4.36% were found in milk from RAHs. Recently, the production of milk with higher fat content has become important, since in Serbian milk there is not enough milk fat, so some processors are obliged to import it in the form of butter and cream. In addition to the chemical composition, the microbiological quality of milk is important to maintain successful cheese production. Regarding our findings, the standard plate count (SPC and the somatic cell count (SCC in samples from most RAHs did not exceed the values specified in Regulation (EC 853/2004. Moreover, goat and sheep milk was in agreement with the technological quality of milk for cheese production, in terms of chemical composition.

  17. Health risk from veterinary antimicrobial use in China's food animal production and its reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2016-12-01

    The overuse and misuse of veterinary drugs, particularly antimicrobials, in food animal production in China cause environmental pollution and wide food safety concerns, and pose public health risk with the selection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) that can spread from animal populations to humans. Elevated abundance and diversity of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and resistant bacteria (including multi-drug resistant strains) in food-producing animals, food products of animal origin, microbiota of human gut, and environmental media impacted by intensive animal farming have been reported. To rein in drug use in food animal production and protect public health, the government made a total of 227 veterinary drugs, including 150 antimicrobial products, available only by prescription from licensed veterinarians for curing, controlling, and preventing animal diseases in March 2014. So far the regulatory ban on non-therapeutic use has failed to bring major changes to the long-standing practice of drug overuse and misuse in animal husbandry and aquaculture, and significant improvement in its implementation and enforcement is necessary. A range of measures, including improving access to veterinary services, strengthening supervision on veterinary drug production and distribution, increasing research and development efforts, and enhancing animal health management, are recommended to facilitate transition toward rational use of veterinary drugs, particularly antimicrobials, and to reduce the public health risk arising from AMR development in animal agriculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility of starter culture bacteria used in Norwegian dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katla, A K; Kruse, H; Johnsen, G; Herikstad, H

    2001-07-20

    Commercial starter culture bacteria are widely used in the production of dairy products and could represent a potential source for spread of genes encoding resistance to antimicrobial agents. To learn more about the antimicrobial susceptibility of starter culture bacteria used in Norwegian dairy products, a total of 189 isolates of lactic acid bacteria were examined for susceptibility to ampicillin, penicillin G, cephalothin, vancomycin, bacitracin, gentamicin, streptomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, quinupristin/dalfopristin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim and sulphadiazine using Etest for MIC determination. Most of the isolates (140) originated from 39 dairy products (yoghurt, sour cream, fermented milk and cheese), while 49 were isolated directly from nine commercial cultures. The bacteria belonged to the genera Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc and Streptococcus. Only one of the 189 isolates was classified as resistant to an antimicrobial agent included in the study. This isolate, a lactobacillus, was classified as high level resistant to streptomycin. The remaining isolates were not classified as resistant to the antimicrobial agents included other than to those they are known to have a natural reduced susceptibility to. Thus, starter culture bacteria in Norwegian dairy products do not seem to represent a source for spread of genes encoding resistance to antimicrobial agents.

  19. Current Status and Future Prospects of Marine Natural Products (MNPs) as Antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Alka; Naughton, Lynn M; Montánchez, Itxaso; Dobson, Alan D W; Rai, Dilip K

    2017-08-28

    The marine environment is a rich source of chemically diverse, biologically active natural products, and serves as an invaluable resource in the ongoing search for novel antimicrobial compounds. Recent advances in extraction and isolation techniques, and in state-of-the-art technologies involved in organic synthesis and chemical structure elucidation, have accelerated the numbers of antimicrobial molecules originating from the ocean moving into clinical trials. The chemical diversity associated with these marine-derived molecules is immense, varying from simple linear peptides and fatty acids to complex alkaloids, terpenes and polyketides, etc. Such an array of structurally distinct molecules performs functionally diverse biological activities against many pathogenic bacteria and fungi, making marine-derived natural products valuable commodities, particularly in the current age of antimicrobial resistance. In this review, we have highlighted several marine-derived natural products (and their synthetic derivatives), which have gained recognition as effective antimicrobial agents over the past five years (2012-2017). These natural products have been categorized based on their chemical structures and the structure-activity mediated relationships of some of these bioactive molecules have been discussed. Finally, we have provided an insight into how genome mining efforts are likely to expedite the discovery of novel antimicrobial compounds.

  20. Antimicrobials Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosinos, Eleftherios H.; Skandamis, Panagiotis N.; Mataragas, Marios

    The use of antimicrobials is a common practice for preservation of foods. Incorporation, in a food recipe, of chemical antimicrobials towards inhibition of spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms results in the compositional modification of food. This treatment is nowadays undesirable for the consumer, who likes natural products. Scientific community reflecting consumers demand for natural antimicrobials has made efforts to investigate the possibility to use natural antimicrobials such us bacteriocins and essential oils of plant origin to inhibit microbial growth.

  1. Guidance to Companies on Referring to Registered Disinfectant Products that Meet the CDC Criteria for Use Against the Ebola Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are no EPA-registered products with label claims against the Ebola virus, but enveloped viruses such as Ebola are susceptible to many hospital disinfectants used to disinfect hard, non-porous surfaces. CDC guidance addresses use of such products.

  2. Restrictions on antimicrobial use in food animal production: an international regulatory and economic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The administration of antimicrobial drugs to food animals at low doses for extended durations for growth promotion and disease prevention has been linked to the global health crisis of antimicrobial resistance. Internationally, multiple jurisdictions have responded by restricting antimicrobial use for these purposes, and by requiring a veterinary prescription to use these drugs in food animals. Opponents of these policies have argued that restrictions have been detrimental to food animal production where they have been adopted. Methods We surveyed the antimicrobial use policies of 17 political jurisdictions outside of the United States with respect to growth promotion, disease prevention, and veterinary oversight, and reviewed the available evidence regarding their production impacts, including measures of animal health. Jurisdictions were included if they were a top-five importer of a major U.S. food animal product in 2011, as differences between the policies of the U.S. and other jurisdictions may lead to trade barriers to U.S. food animal product exports. Jurisdictions were also included if information on their policies was publicly available in English. We searched the peer-reviewed and grey literatures and corresponded with jurisdictions’ U.S. embassies, regulators, and local experts. Results Jurisdictions were categorized by whether they prohibit use of antimicrobials for growth promotion and/or use of antimicrobials without a veterinary prescription. Of the 17 jurisdictions surveyed, six jurisdictions have prohibited both types of use, five jurisdictions have prohibited one use but not the other use, and five jurisdictions have not prohibited either use, while information was not available for one jurisdiction. Data on the production impacts of these prohibitions were limited, although available data, especially from Denmark and Sweden, suggest that restrictions on growth promotion use can be implemented with minimal production consequences

  3. Restrictions on antimicrobial use in food animal production: an international regulatory and economic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Dina Fine; Smith, Tyler J S; Nachman, Keeve E

    2013-10-16

    The administration of antimicrobial drugs to food animals at low doses for extended durations for growth promotion and disease prevention has been linked to the global health crisis of antimicrobial resistance. Internationally, multiple jurisdictions have responded by restricting antimicrobial use for these purposes, and by requiring a veterinary prescription to use these drugs in food animals. Opponents of these policies have argued that restrictions have been detrimental to food animal production where they have been adopted. We surveyed the antimicrobial use policies of 17 political jurisdictions outside of the United States with respect to growth promotion, disease prevention, and veterinary oversight, and reviewed the available evidence regarding their production impacts, including measures of animal health. Jurisdictions were included if they were a top-five importer of a major U.S. food animal product in 2011, as differences between the policies of the U.S. and other jurisdictions may lead to trade barriers to U.S. food animal product exports. Jurisdictions were also included if information on their policies was publicly available in English. We searched the peer-reviewed and grey literatures and corresponded with jurisdictions' U.S. embassies, regulators, and local experts. Jurisdictions were categorized by whether they prohibit use of antimicrobials for growth promotion and/or use of antimicrobials without a veterinary prescription. Of the 17 jurisdictions surveyed, six jurisdictions have prohibited both types of use, five jurisdictions have prohibited one use but not the other use, and five jurisdictions have not prohibited either use, while information was not available for one jurisdiction. Data on the production impacts of these prohibitions were limited, although available data, especially from Denmark and Sweden, suggest that restrictions on growth promotion use can be implemented with minimal production consequences. A majority of leading U.S. trade

  4. Use estimates of in-feed antimicrobials in swine production in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apley, Michael D; Bush, Eric J; Morrison, Robert B; Singer, Randall S; Snelson, Harry

    2012-03-01

    When considering the development of antimicrobial resistance in food animals, comparing gross use estimates of different antimicrobials is of little value due to differences in potencies, duration of activity, relative effect on target and commensal bacteria, and mechanisms of resistance. However, it may be valuable to understand quantities of different antimicrobials used in different ages of swine and for what applications. Therefore, the objective of this project was to construct an estimate of antimicrobial use through the feed in swine production in the United States. Estimates were based on data from the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) Swine 2006 Study and from a 2009 survey of swine-exclusive practitioners. Inputs consisted of number of pigs in a production phase, feed intake per day, dose of the antimicrobial in the feed, and duration of administration. Calculations were performed for a total of 102 combinations of antimicrobials (n=17), production phases (n=2), and reasons for use (n=3). Calculations were first conducted on farm-level data, and then extrapolated to the U.S. swine population. Among the nursery phase estimates, chlortetracycline had the largest estimate of use, followed by oxytetracycline and tilmicosin. In the grower/finisher phase, chlortetracycline also had the largest use estimate, followed by tylosin and oxytetracycline. As an annual industry estimate for all phases, chlortetracycline had the highest estimated use at 533,973 kg. The second and third highest estimates were tylosin and oxytetracycline with estimated annual uses of 165,803 kg and 154,956 kg, respectively. The estimates presented here were constructed to accurately reflect available data related to production practices, and to provide an example of a scientific approach to estimating use of compounds in production animals.

  5. Antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from commercial probiotic products used in cattle and swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amachawadi, Raghavendra G; Giok, Felicia; Shi, Xiaorong; Soto, Jose; Narayanan, Sanjeev K; Tokach, Mike D; Apley, Mike D; Nagaraja, T G

    2018-04-03

    Probiotics, an antibiotic alternative, are widely used as feed additives for performance benefits in cattle and swine production systems. Among bacterial species contained in probiotics, Enterococcus faecium is common. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), particularly multidrug resistance, is a common trait among enterococci because of their propensity to acquire resistance and horizontally transfer AMR genes. Also, E. faecium is an opportunistic pathogen, and in the United States, it is the second most common nosocomial pathogen. There has been no published study on AMR and virulence potential in E. faecium contained in probiotic products used in cattle and swine in the United States. Therefore, our objectives were to determine phenotypic susceptibilities or resistance to antimicrobials, virulence genes (asa1, gelE, cylA, esp, and hyl) and assess genetic diversity of E. faecium isolated from commercial products. Twenty-two commercially available E. faecium-based probiotic products used in cattle (n = 13) and swine (n = 9) were procured and E. faecium was isolated and species confirmed. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations was done by micro-broth dilution method using National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Systems Gram-positive Sensititre panel plate (CMV3AGPF), and categorization of strains as susceptible or resistant was as per Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute's guidelines. E. faecium strains from 7 products (3 for swine and 4 for cattle) were pan-susceptible to the 16 antimicrobials tested. Strains from 15 products (6 for swine and 9 for cattle) exhibited resistance to at least one antimicrobial and a high proportion of strains was resistant to lincomycin (10/22), followed by tetracycline (4/22), daptomycin (4/22), ciprofloxacin (4/22), kanamycin (3/22), and penicillin (2/22). Four strains were multidrug resistant, with resistant phenotypes ranging from 3 to 6 antimicrobials or class. None of the E

  6. Antimicrobial-resistant faecal organisms in algae products marketed as health supplements

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2017-09-01

    Dietary supplements are increasingly popular in Irish society. One of these is blue-green algae which is used with a variety health benefits in mind. A batch of Chlorella powder was found to be contaminated with Salmonella species in Ireland in 2015. This prompted additional testing of a total of 8 samples of three different products (Chlorella, Spirulina and Super Greens), for other faecal flora and antimicrobial resistance in any bacteria isolated. All 8 samples cultured enteric flora such as Enterococci, Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium species. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed one isolate with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) activity and one with carbapenemase activity. Clinicians caring for vulnerable patients should be aware of the potential risk of exposure to antimicrobial resistant bacteria associated with these products

  7. [Spanish scientific production in antimicrobial agents and susceptibility procedures during period 1990-2002].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, J M; Gutiérrez, F; Royo, G

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the scientific production of Spanish authors on antimicrobial agents and susceptibility tests during the period 1990-2002. Articles from Spanish scientific institutions of microbiology, bacteriology, mycology and parasitology published and recorded in the MEDLINE database (WEBSPIRS version 4.2) during the period 1990-2002 were selected. Only articles about antimicrobial agents and susceptibility procedures were reviewed. A total of 5,259 documents were analyzed, of which 1,041 (19.8%) were about antimicrobal agents. The annual number of documents increased by two-fold (from 48 in 1990 to 101 in 2002). The journal that published most documents was Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, with 183 (17.1%). The main field of interest of the documents was antimicrobial agents and susceptibility tests (765; 73.5%) and in vitro resistance analyses (265; 25.5%). The highest number of contributions came from hospitals (571; 54.9%), followed by universities (351; 33.7%). The institutions with most documents published were the Ramón y Cajal Hospital (8.6%), and Seville University Faculty of Medicine (6%). The most productive autonomous communities were Madrid (43.4%), Catalonia (16.4%) and Andalusia (4.7%). A total of 787 documents (75.6%) were published in journals with impact factors and the mean expected impact factor was 2.390 +/- 1.546. It was concluded that the scientific production of Spanish researchers in antimicrobial agents had increased during the period 1990-2002, and that hospitals were the most productive institutions in this area of microbiology, with the main areas of interest being antimicrobial agents and susceptibility tests.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of thin metallic silver flakes, waste products of a manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzano, Manuela; Tosti, Alessandra; Lasagni, Marina; Campiglio, Alfredo; Pitea, Demetrio; Collina, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to develop new products and processes from a manufacturing waste from an Italian metallurgic company. The company produced thin silver metallic films and the production scraps were silver flakes. The possibility to use the silver flakes in water disinfection processes was studied. The antimicrobial activity of the flakes was investigated in batch using Escherichia coli as Gram-negative microorganism model. The flakes did not show any antimicrobial activity, so they were activated with two different processes: thermal activation in reducing atmosphere and chemical activation, obtaining, respectively, reduced flakes (RF) and chemical flakes (CF). The flakes, activated with either treatment, showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli. The kill rate was dependent on the type of activated flakes. The chemical flakes were more efficient than reduced flakes. The kill rate determined for 1 g of CF, 1.0 +/- 0.2 min(-1), was greater than the kill rate determined for 1 g of RF, 0.069 +/- 0.004 min(-1). This was confirmed also by the minimum inhibitory concentration values. It was demonstrated that the antimicrobial capability was dependent on flakes amount and on the type of aqueous medium. Furthermore, the flakes maintained their properties also when used a second time. Finally, the antimicrobial activities of flakes were tested in an effluent of a wastewater treatment plant where a variety of heterotrophic bacteria were present.

  9. Antimicrobial resistance of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua from meat products and meat-processing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Diego; Azón, Ester; Marco, Noelia; Carramiñana, Juan J; Rota, Carmina; Ariño, Agustín; Yangüela, Javier

    2014-09-01

    A total of 336 Listeria isolates from ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products and meat-processing environments, consisting of 206 Listeria monocytogenes, and 130 Listeria innocua isolates, were characterized by disc diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for antimicrobial susceptibility against twenty antimicrobials. Resistance to one or two antimicrobials was observed in 71 L. monocytogenes isolates (34.5%), and 56 L. innocua isolates (43.1%). Multidrug resistance was identified in 24 Listeria isolates, 18 belonging to L. innocua (13.9%) and 6 to L. monocytogenes (2.9%). Oxacillin resistance was the most common resistance phenotype and was identified in 100% Listeria isolates. A medium prevalence of resistance to clindamycin (39.3% isolates) and low incidence of resistance to tetracycline (3.9% isolates) were also detected. Listeria isolates from RTE meat products displayed higher overall antimicrobial resistance (31.3%) than those from the environment (13.4%). All the strains assayed were sensitive to the preferred antibiotics used to treat listeriosis. Results showed that although antimicrobial resistance in L. monocytogenes still occurs at a low prevalence, L. innocua can form a reservoir of resistance genes which may transfer between bacterial species, including transference to organisms capable of causing disease in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimization of the medium composition for production of antimicrobial substances by bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Zorana Z.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the effort to overcome the increase in antimicrobial resistance of different pathogens, natural products from microbial sources appear to be the most favorable alternative to current antibiotics. Production of antimicrobial compounds is highly dependent on the nutritional conditions. Hence, in order to achieve high product yields, selection of the media constituents and optimization of their concentrations are required. In this research, the possibility of antimicrobial substances production using Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 was investigated. Also, optimization of the cultivation medium composition in terms of contents of glycerol, sodium nitrite and phosphates was done. Response surface methodology and the method of desirability function were applied for determination of optimal values of the examined factors. The developed model predicts that the maximum inhibition zone diameters for Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876 (33.50 mm and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 (12.00 mm are achieved when the initial contents of glycerol, sodium nitrite and phosphates were 43.72 g/L, 1.93 g/L and 5.64 g/L, respectively. The results of these experiments suggest that further research should include the utilization of crude glycerol as a carbon source and optimization of composition of such media and cultivation conditions in order to improve production of antimicrobial substances using Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility and internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in vacuum-tumbled marinated beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, S; Brooks, J C; Martin, J N; Brashears, M M

    2016-12-01

    As the incidence of multidrug resistance (MDR) Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is increasing, data regarding the antimicrobial interventions and pathogen internalization in marinated meat products are important. This study evaluated the antimicrobial intervention and internalization of Salm. Typhimurium in marinated beef sirloin steaks. Beef bottom sirloin flaps (IMPS #185A; USDA Select) inoculated (10 8  log 10  CFU ml -1 ) with Salm. Typhimurium were sprayed (lactic acid (4%) and buffered vinegar (2%)) prior to vacuum-tumbled marination (0·35% sodium chloride and 0·45% sodium tripolyphosphate) for 30 min. Pathogen presence after antimicrobial spray, vacuum-tumbled marination, and translocation was determined by direct plating on Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate (XLD) agar with tryptic soy agar (TSA) overlay. The data imply varied internalization and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salm. Typhimurium in marinated meat. Lactic acid (4%) spray (P internalization and potential survival of Salmonella spp. in marinated beef products is a major concern. These results highlight the internalization of pathogens in vacuum-tumbled meat products and emphasize the importance of considering these products as nonintact. Similarly, these data confirm the efficacy and utility of interventions prior to vacuum-tumbled marination. Further research is needed to identify additional strategies to mitigate internalization and translocation of pathogens into vacuum-marinated meat products. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Photocatalytic hydrogen production on SOLECTRO {sup registered} titanium dioxide layers. Investigation of reaction processes and of the influence of various reaction parameters; Photokatalytische Wasserstoffgewinnung an SOLECTRO {sup registered} -Titandioxidschichten. Untersuchung der ablaufenden Reaktionsprozesse und des Einflusses verschiedener Reaktionsparameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keil, Doreen

    2010-04-14

    The dissertation investigated the reaction processes of photocatalytic hydrogen production on palladium and copper-doped SOLECTRO {sup registered} titanium dioxide layers. Methanol was used as electron donor. [German] In dieser Doktorarbeit werden die ablaufenden Reaktionsprozesse der photokatalytischen Wasserstoffentwicklung an palladium- und kupferbeladenen SOLECTRO {sup registered} -Titandioxidschichten untersucht. Als Elektronendonator wurde Methanol verwendet.

  13. Antimicrobial usage in chicken production in the mekong delta of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrique-Mas, Juan J.; Trung, Nguyen V.; Hoa, Ngo T.; Mai, Ho Huynh; Thanh, Tuyen H.; Campbell, James I.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Hardon, Anita; Hieu, Thai Quoc; Schultsz, Constance

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobials are used extensively in chicken production in Vietnam, but to date no quantitative data are available. A 2012-2013 survey of 208 chicken farms in Tien Giang province, stratified by size (10-200 chickens; >200-2000), was carried out to describe and quantify the use of antibacterial

  14. Antimicrobial usage in chicken production in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrique-Mas, J.J.; Trung, N.V.; Hoa, N.T.; Mai, H.H.; Thanh, T.H.; Campbell, J.I.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Hardon, A.; Hieu, T.Q.; Schultsz, C.

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobials are used extensively in chicken production in Vietnam, but to date no quantitative data are available. A 2012-2013 survey of 208 chicken farms in Tien Giang province, stratified by size (10-200 chickens; >200-2000), was carried out to describe and quantify the use of antibacterial

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  17. Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus species isolated from Lebanese dairy-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouhairi, O; Saleh, I; Alwan, N; Toufeili, I; Barbour, E; Harakeh, S

    2012-12-04

    The study evaluated the antimicrobial resistance of molecularly characterized strains of Staphylococcus aureus and S. saprophyticus isolated from 3 Lebanese dairy-based food products that are sometimes consumed raw: kishk, shanklish and baladi cheese. Suspected Staphylococcus isolates were identified initially using standard biochemical tests, then strains that were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (29 S. aureus and 17 S. saprophyticus) were evaluated for their susceptibility to different antimicrobials. The highest levels of contamination with staphylococci were in baladi cheese. Resistance rates ranged from 67% to gentamicin to 94% to oxacillin and clindamycin. The results suggest that these locally made dairy-based foods may act as vehicles for the transmission of antimicrobial-resistant Staphylococcus spp.

  18. Use of a predictive protocol to measure the antimicrobial resistance risks associated with biocidal product usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesgate, Rebecca; Grasha, Pierre; Maillard, Jean-Yves

    2016-04-01

    In this study we assessed the propensity of biocide exposure in the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Our protocol is based on reporting changes in established antimicrobial susceptibility profiles in biocides and antibiotics after during use exposure to a product. The during use exposure reflects worse conditions of product use during application. It differs from the term low concentration, which usually reflects a concentration below the minimal inhibitory concentration, but not necessarily a concentration that occurs in practice. Our results showed that exposure to triclosan (0.0004%) was associated with a high risk of developing resistance and cross-resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. This was not observed with exposure to chlorhexidine (0.00005%) or a hydrogen peroxide-based biocidal product (in during use conditions). Interestingly, exposure to a low concentration of hydrogen peroxide (0.001%) carried a risk of emerging resistance to antibiotics if the presence of the oxidizing agent was maintained. We observed a number of unstable clinical resistances to antibiotics after exposure to the cationic biocide and oxidizing agent, notably to tobramycin and ticarcillin-clavulanic acid. Using a decision tree based on the change in antimicrobial susceptibility test results, we were able to provide information on the effect of biocide exposure on the development of bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. Such information should address the call from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Union Biocidal Products Regulation for manufacturers to provide information on antimicrobial resistance and cross-resistance in bacteria after the use of their product. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of discontinuing the use of antimicrobial growth promoters on the productivity in the Danish broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Ersboll, A. K.; Heuer, Ole Eske

    2001-01-01

    On 15 February 1998, the Danish poultry industry voluntarily decided to discontinue the use of all antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs). To investigate how the removal of AGPs influenced the broiler productivity in Denmark, data from 6815 flocks collected from November 1995 to July 1999...

  20. Electrospun antimicrobial hybrid mats: Innovative packaging material for meat and meat-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amna, Touseef; Yang, Jieun; Ryu, Kyeong-Seon; Hwang, I H

    2015-07-01

    To prevent the development and spread of spoilage/pathogenic microorganisms via meat foodstuffs, antimicrobial nanocomposite packaging can serve as a potential alternative. The objective of this study was to develop a new class of antimicrobial hybrid packaging mat composed of biodegradable polyurethane supplemented with virgin olive oil and zinc oxide via electrospinning. Instead of mixing antimicrobial compounds directly with food, incorporation in packaging materials allows the functional effect at food surfaces where microbial activity is localized. The nanofibers were characterized by SEM, EDX, XRD and TEM. The antibacterial activity was tested against two common foodborne pathogens viz., Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium. The present results indicated that incorporation of olive oil in the polymer affected morphology of PU nanofibers and nanocomposite packaging were able to inhibit growth of pathogens. Thus; as-spun mat can be used as prospective antimicrobial packaging, which potentially reduces contamination of meat/meat-products. Moreover, introduced biodegradable packaging for meat products could serve to replace PVC films and simultaneously help to protect natural environment.

  1. Antimicrobial Edible Films and Coatings for Meat and Meat Products Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irais Sánchez-Ortega

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal origin foods are widely distributed and consumed around the world due to their high nutrients availability but may also provide a suitable environment for growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays consumers demand high quality food with an extended shelf life without chemical additives. Edible films and coatings (EFC added with natural antimicrobials are a promising preservation technology for raw and processed meats because they provide good barrier against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. This review gathers updated research reported over the last ten years related to antimicrobial EFC applied to meat and meat products. In addition, the films gas barrier properties contribute to extended shelf life because physicochemical changes, such as color, texture, and moisture, may be significantly minimized. The effectiveness showed by different types of antimicrobial EFC depends on meat source, polymer used, film barrier properties, target microorganism, antimicrobial substance properties, and storage conditions. The perspective of this technology includes tailoring of coating procedures to meet industry requirements and shelf life increase of meat and meat products to ensure quality and safety without changes in sensory characteristics.

  2. Zinc oxide as a new antimicrobial preservative of topical products: interactions with common formulation ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquet, Julia; Chevalier, Yves; Couval, Emmanuelle; Bouvier, Dominique; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine

    2015-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) appears as a promising preservative for pharmaceutical or cosmetic formulations. The other ingredients of the formulations may have specific interactions with ZnO that alter its antimicrobial properties. The influence of common formulation excipients on the antimicrobial efficacy of ZnO has been investigated in simple model systems and in typical topical products containing a complex formulation. A wide variety of formulation excipients have been investigated for their interactions with ZnO: antioxidants, chelating agents, electrolytes, titanium dioxide pigment. The antimicrobial activity of ZnO against Escherichia coli was partially inhibited by NaCl and MgSO4 salts. A synergistic influence of uncoated titanium dioxide has been observed. The interference effects of antioxidants and chelating agents were quite specific. The interactions of these substances with ZnO particles and with the soluble species released by ZnO were discussed so as to reach scientific guidelines for the choice of the ingredients. The preservative efficacy of ZnO was assessed by challenge testing in three different formulations: an oil-in-water emulsion; a water-in-oil emulsion and a dry powder. The addition of ZnO in complex formulations significantly improved the microbiological quality of the products, in spite of the presence of other ingredients that modulate the antimicrobial activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance and its association with tolerance to heavy metals in agriculture production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhongyi; Gunn, Lynda; Wall, Patrick; Fanning, Séamus

    2017-06-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a recognized public health challenge that since its emergence limits the therapeutic options available to veterinarians and clinicians alike, when treatment is warranted. This development is further compounded by the paucity of new antibiotics. The agri-food industry benefits from the availability of antimicrobial compounds for food-animal production and crop protection. Nonetheless, their improper use can result in the selection for bacteria that are phenotypically resistant to these compounds. Another class of agents used in agriculture includes various cationic metals that can be included in animal diets as nutritional supplements or spread on pastures to support crop growth and protection. Heavy metals, in particular, are giving rise to concerns among public health professionals, as they can persist in the environment remaining stable for prolonged periods. Moreover, bacteria can also exhibit resistance to these chemical elements and the genes encoding this phenotype can be physically localized to plasmids that may also contain one or more antimicrobial resistance-encoding gene(s). This paper reviews our current understanding of the role that bacteria play in expressing resistance to heavy metals. It will describe how heavy metals are used in agri-food production, and explore evidence available to link resistance to heavy metals and antimicrobial compounds. In addition, possible solutions to reduce the impact of heavy metal resistance are also discussed, including using organic minerals and reducing the level of trace minerals in animal feed rations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 21 CFR 606.171 - Reporting of product deviations by licensed manufacturers, unlicensed registered blood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... components, including Source Plasma; an unlicensed registered blood establishment; or a transfusion service... unlicensed blood or blood components, including Source Plasma, if that event meets all the following criteria... chapter) by either a paper or electronic filing: (1) If you make a paper filing, you should identify on...

  5. Integrated Interventions to Tackle Antimicrobial Usage in Animal Production Systems: The ViParc Project in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Carrique-Mas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial usage and antimicrobial resistance (AMR in animal production is now recognized to be an important contributor to the global problem of AMR. Initiatives to curb indiscriminate antimicrobial use in animal production are currently being discussed in many low- and middle-income countries. Well-designed, scientifically sound interventions aimed to tackle excessive antimicrobial usage should provide scientists and policy makers with evidence of the highest quality to guide changes in policy and to formulate better targeted research initiatives. However, since large-scale interventions are costly, they require careful planning in order not to waste valuable resources. Here, we describe the components of the ViParc project (www.viparc.org, one of the first large-scale interventions of its kind to tackle excessive antimicrobial usage in Southeast Asian animal production systems. The project has been formulated as a “randomized before-and-after controlled study” targeting small-scale poultry farms in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam. It aims to provide farmers with a locally-adapted veterinary support service to help them reduce their reliance on antimicrobials. ViParc has been developed in the backdrop of efforts by the Government of Vietnam to develop a National Action Plan to reduce Antimicrobials in Livestock and Aquaculture. Crucially, the project integrates socio-economic analyses that will provide insights into the drivers of antimicrobial usage, as well as an assessment of the cost-effectiveness of the proposed intervention. Information generated from ViParc should help the Government of Vietnam refine its policies to curb excessive antimicrobial usage in poultry production, while lessons from ViParc will help tackle excessive antimicrobial usage in other productions systems in Vietnam and in the broader Southeast Asian region.

  6. Integrated Interventions to Tackle Antimicrobial Usage in Animal Production Systems: The ViParc Project in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrique-Mas, Juan J; Rushton, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial usage and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in animal production is now recognized to be an important contributor to the global problem of AMR. Initiatives to curb indiscriminate antimicrobial use in animal production are currently being discussed in many low- and middle-income countries. Well-designed, scientifically sound interventions aimed to tackle excessive antimicrobial usage should provide scientists and policy makers with evidence of the highest quality to guide changes in policy and to formulate better targeted research initiatives. However, since large-scale interventions are costly, they require careful planning in order not to waste valuable resources. Here, we describe the components of the ViParc project (www.viparc.org), one of the first large-scale interventions of its kind to tackle excessive antimicrobial usage in Southeast Asian animal production systems. The project has been formulated as a "randomized before-and-after controlled study" targeting small-scale poultry farms in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam. It aims to provide farmers with a locally-adapted veterinary support service to help them reduce their reliance on antimicrobials. ViParc has been developed in the backdrop of efforts by the Government of Vietnam to develop a National Action Plan to reduce Antimicrobials in Livestock and Aquaculture. Crucially, the project integrates socio-economic analyses that will provide insights into the drivers of antimicrobial usage, as well as an assessment of the cost-effectiveness of the proposed intervention. Information generated from ViParc should help the Government of Vietnam refine its policies to curb excessive antimicrobial usage in poultry production, while lessons from ViParc will help tackle excessive antimicrobial usage in other productions systems in Vietnam and in the broader Southeast Asian region.

  7. Effect of Antimicrobial Consumption and Production Type on Antibacterial Resistance in the Bovine Respiratory and Digestive Tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudewijn Catry

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between antimicrobial use and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in the digestive and respiratory tract in three different production systems of food producing animals. A longitudinal study was set up in 25 Belgian bovine herds (10 dairy, 10 beef, and 5 veal herds for a 2 year monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibilities in E. coli and Pasteurellaceae retrieved from the rectum and the nasal cavity, respectively. During the first year of observation, the antimicrobial use was prospectively recorded on 15 of these farms (5 of each production type and transformed into the treatment incidences according to the (animal defined daily dose (TIADD and (actually used daily dose (TIUDD. Antimicrobial resistance rates of 4,174 E. coli (all herds and 474 Pasteurellaceae (beef and veal herds only isolates for 12 antimicrobial agents demonstrated large differences between intensively reared veal calves (abundant and inconstant and more extensively reared dairy and beef cattle (sparse and relatively stable. Using linear mixed effect models, a strong relation was found between antimicrobial treatment incidences and resistance profiles of 1,639 E. coli strains (p<0.0001 and 309 Pasteurellaceae (p≤0.012. These results indicate that a high antimicrobial selection pressure, here found to be represented by low dosages of oral prophylactic and therapeutic group medication, converts not only the commensal microbiota from the digestive tract but also the opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in the respiratory tract into reservoirs of multi-resistance.

  8. Production of microbial glycolipid biosurfactants and their antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial glycolipids produced by bacteria or yeast as secondary metabolites, such as sophorolipids (SLs), rhamnolipids (RLs) and mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are “green” biosurfactants desirable in a bioeconomy. High cost of production is a major hurdle toward widespread commercial use of bios...

  9. Production of an antimicrobial peptide derived from slaughterhouse by-product and its potential application on meat as preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Rémi; Firdaous, Loubna; Châtaigné, Gabrielle; Dhulster, Pascal; Nedjar, Naïma

    2016-11-15

    Bovine cruor, a slaughterhouse by-product, contains mainly hemoglobin, broadly described as a rich source of antimicrobial peptides. In the current context of food safety, bioactive peptides could be of interest as preservatives in the distribution of food products. The aim of this work was to study the α137-141 fragment of hemoglobin (Thr-Ser-Lys-Tyr-Arg), a small (653Da) and hydrophilic antimicrobial peptide. Its production was fast, with more 65% finally produced at 24h already produced after 30min of hydrolysis with pepsin. Moreover, increasing substrate concentration (from 1 to 8% (w/v)) resulted in a proportional augmentation of α137-141 production (to 807.95±41.03mgL(-1)). The α137-141 application on meat as preservative (0.5%, w/w) reduced the lipid oxidation about 60% to delay meat rancidity. The α137-141 peptide also inhibited the microbial growths under refrigeration during 14days. These antimicrobial effects were close to those of the butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Production and properties of artificial antimicrobial marble; Jushikei zinzo dairiseki no kokin kako

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Ryozo; Miyamoto, Hiroyuki [INAX Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    There are many cases in which they are suitable for the growth of the microorganism on bathrooms and lavatories, kitchens, etc., which are the place where the artificial marble product is installed. Therefore, the generation of the fouling of the microorganism by the aberrant growth is also abounding. Then, it developed the antimicrobe artificial marble for the purpose of suppressing growth of bacteria in the surface of the product. Here, this paper describes the gist in doing antimicrobial treatment in the resin systems artificial marble product. (NEDO)

  11. Register of production installations connected to the electricity transport public network. Situation on 31 December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-06-01

    This document proposes maps and tables which indicate and identify sites of energy production, key data, characteristics of energy production sites, evolution of the energy production fleet during 2014, and, may the occasion occur, some additional and relevant information regarding production capacities and power plant distribution. These aspects are thus presented for the different energy sources, i.e. the wind energy production fleet, the solar energy production fleet, the hydraulic energy production fleet, the bio-energy production fleet, fossil-fuel based thermal plants, and the nuclear energy production fleet

  12. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica strains isolated from Brazilian poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiello, Samara P; Drescher, Guilherme; Barth, Valdir C; Ferreira, Carlos A S; Oliveira, Sílvia D

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance profiles and presence of resistance determinants and integrons were evaluated in Salmonella enterica strains from Brazilian poultry. The analysis of 203 isolates showed that those from the poultry environment (88 isolates) were significantly more resistant to antimicrobials than isolates from other sources, particularly those isolated from poultry by-product meal (106 isolates). Thirty-seven isolates were resistant to at least three antimicrobial classes. Class 1 integrons were detected in 26 isolates, and the analysis of the variable region between the 5' conserved segment (CS) and 3' CS of each class 1 integron-positive isolate showed that 13 contained a typical 3' CS and 14 contained an atypical 3' CS. One Salmonella Senftenberg isolate harbored two class 1 integrons, showing both typical and atypical 3' CSs. The highest percentage of resistance was found to sulfonamides, and sul genes were detected in the majority of the resistant isolates. Aminoglycoside resistance was detected in 50 isolates, and aadA and aadB were present in 28 and 32 isolates, respectively. In addition, strA and strB were detected in 78.1 and 65.6% isolates resistant to streptomycin, respectively. Twenty-one isolates presented reduced susceptibility to β-lactams and harbored bla(TEM), bla(CMY), and/or bla(CTX-M). Forty isolates showed reduced susceptibility to tetracycline, and most presented tet genes. These results highlight the importance of the environment as a reservoir of resistant Salmonella, which may enable the persistence of resistance determinants in the poultry production chain, contributing, therefore, to the debate regarding the impacts that antimicrobial use in animal production may exert in human health.

  13. Production process of a new cellulosic fiber with antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikeli, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The Lyocell process (system: cellulose-water-N-methylmorpholine oxide) of Zimmer AG offers special advantages for the production of cellulose fibers. The process excels by dissolving the most diverse cellulose types as these are optimally adjusted to the process by applying different pretreatment methods. Based on this stable process, Zimmer AG's objective is to impart to the Lyocell fiber additional value to improve quality of life and thus to tap new markets for the product. Thanks to the specific incorporation of seaweed, the process allows to produce cellulose Lyocell fibers with additional and new features. They are activated in a further step - by specific charging with metal ions - in order to obtain antibacterial properties. The favorable textile properties of fibers produced by the Lyocell process are not adversely affected by the incorporation of seaweed material or by activation to obtain an antibacterial fiber so that current textile products can be made from the fibers thus produced. The antibacterial effect is achieved by metal ion activation of the Lyocell fibers with incorporated seaweed, which contrasts with the antibacterial fibers known so far. Antibacterial fibers produced by conventional methods are in part only surface finished with antibacterially active chemicals or else they are produced by incorporating organic substances with antibacterial and fungicidal effects. Being made from cellulose, the antibacterial Lyocell fiber Sea Cell Active as the basis for quality textiles exhibits a special wear comfort compared to synthetic fibers with antibacterial properties and effects. This justifies the conclusion that the Zimmer Lyocell process provides genuine value added and that it is a springboard for further applications.

  14. 77 FR 50686 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... ingredient: Emamectin benzoate. Product Type: Insecticide. Proposed Uses: Outdoor commercial ornamental... 27419-8300. Active ingredient: Emamectin benzoate. Product Type: Insecticide. Proposed Uses: Vegetable...

  15. Antimicrobial properties and the influence of temperature on secondary metabolite production in cold environment soil fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogabaanu, U.; Weber, Jean-Frederic Faizal; Convey, Peter; Rizman-Idid, Mohammed; Alias, Siti Aisyah

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic and Antarctic share environmental extremes. To survive in such environments, microbes such as soil fungi need to compete with or protect themselves effectively from other soil microbiota and to obtain the often scarce nutrients available, and many use secondary metabolites to facilitate this. We therefore (i) screened for antimicrobial properties of cold-environment Arctic and Antarctic soil fungi, and (ii) identified changes in the secreted secondary metabolite profiles of a subset of these strains in response to temperature variation. A total of 40 polar soil fungal strains from King George Island, maritime Antarctic and Hornsund, Svalbard, High Arctic, were obtained from the Malaysian National Antarctic Research Centre culture collections. The plug assay technique was used to screen for antimicrobial potential against Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli). About 45% of the tested fungal strains showed antimicrobial activity against at least one tested microorganism. Three fungal isolates showed good bioactivity and were subjected to secondary metabolite profiling at different temperatures (4, 10, 15 and 28 °C). We observed a range of responses in fungal metabolite production when incubated at varying temperatures, confirming an influence of environmental conditions such as temperature on the production of secondary metabolites.

  16. Antagonistic interactions and production of halocin antimicrobial peptides among extremely halophilic prokaryotes isolated from the solar saltern of Sfax, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanmi, Fadoua; Carré-Mlouka, Alyssa; Vandervennet, Manon; Boujelben, Ines; Frikha, Doniez; Ayadi, Habib; Peduzzi, Jean; Rebuffat, Sylvie; Maalej, Sami

    2016-05-01

    Thirty-five extremely halophilic microbial strains isolated from crystallizer (TS18) and non-crystallizer (M1) ponds in the Sfax solar saltern in Tunisia were examined for their ability to exert antimicrobial activity. Antagonistic assays resulted in the selection of eleven strains that displayed such antimicrobial activity and they were further characterized. Three cases of cross-domain inhibition (archaea/bacteria or bacteria/archaea) were observed. Four archaeal strains exerted antimicrobial activity against several other strains. Three strains, for which several lines of evidence suggested the antimicrobial activity was, at least in part, due to peptide/protein agents (Halobacterium salinarum ETD5, Hbt. salinarum ETD8, and Haloterrigena thermotolerans SS1R12), were studied further. Optimal culture conditions for growth and antimicrobial production were determined. Using DNA amplification with specific primers, sequencing and RT-PCR analysis, Hbt. salinarum ETD5 and Hbt. salinarum ETD8 were shown to encode and express halocin S8, a hydrophobic antimicrobial peptide targeting halophilic archaea. Although the gene encoding halocin H4 was amplified from the genome of Htg. thermotolerans SS1R12, no transcript could be detected and the antimicrobial activity was most likely due to multiple antimicrobial compounds. This is also the first report that points to four different strains isolated from different geographical locations with the capacity to produce identical halocin S8 proteins.

  17. Hybrid combinations containing natural products and antimicrobial drugs that interfere with bacterial and fungal biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacchino, Susana A; Butassi, Estefanía; Cordisco, Estefanía; Svetaz, Laura A

    2017-12-15

    Biofilms contribute to the pathogenesis of many chronic and difficult-to eradicate infections whose treatment is complicated due to the intrinsic resistance to conventional antibiotics. As a consequence, there is an urgent need for strategies that can be used for the prevention and treatment of biofilm-associated infections. The combination therapy comprising an antimicrobial drug with a low molecular weight (MW) natural product and an antimicrobial drug (antifungal or antibacterial) appeared as a good alternative to eradicate biofilms. The aims of this review were to perform a literature search on the different natural products that have showed the ability of potentiating the antibiofilm capacity of antimicrobial drugs, to analyze which are the antimicrobial drugs most used in combination, and to have a look on the microbial species most used to prepare biofilms. Seventeen papers, nine on combinations against antifungal biofilms and eight against antibacterial biofilms were collected. Within the text, the following topics have been developed: breaf history of the discovery of biofilms; stages in the development of a biofilm; the most used methodologies to assess antibiofilm-activity; the natural products with capacity of eradicating biofilms when acting alone; the combinations of low MW natural products with antibiotics or antifungal drugs as a strategy for eradicating microbial biofilms and a list of the low MW natural products that potentiate the inhibition capacity of antifungal and antibacterial drugs against biofilms. Regarding combinations against antifungal biofilms, eight over the nine collected works were carried out with in vitro studies while only one was performed with in vivo assays by using Caenorhabditis elegans nematode. All studies use biofilms of the Candida genus. A 67% of the potentiators were monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes and six over the nine works used FCZ as the antifungal drug. The activity of AmpB and Caspo was enhanced in one and two

  18. Kinetic modelling and optimisation of antimicrobial compound production by Candida pyralidae KU736785 for control of Candida guilliermondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewa-Ngongang, Maxwell; du Plessis, Heinrich W; Hutchinson, Ucrecia F; Mekuto, Lukhanyo; Ntwampe, Seteno Ko

    2017-06-01

    Biological antimicrobial compounds from yeast can be used to address the critical need for safer preservatives in food, fruit and beverages. The inhibition of Candida guilliermondii, a common fermented beverage spoilage organism, was achieved using antimicrobial compounds produced by Candida pyralidae KU736785. The antimicrobial production system was modelled and optimised using response surface methodology, with 22.5 ℃ and pH of 5.0 being the optimum conditions. A new concept for quantifying spoilage organism inhibition was developed. The inhibition activity of the antimicrobial compounds was observed to be at a maximum after 17-23 h of fermentation, with C. pyralidae concentration being between 0.40 and 1.25 × 10 9 CFU ml -1 , while its maximum specific growth rate was 0.31-0.54 h -1 . The maximum inhibitory activity was between 0.19 and 1.08 l contaminated solidified media per millilitre of antimicrobial compound used. Furthermore, the antimicrobial compound formation rate was 0.037-0.086 l VZI ml -1 ACU h -1 , respectively. The response surface methodology analysis showed that the model developed sufficiently described the antimicrobial compound formation rate 1.08 l VZI ml -1 ACU, as 1.17 l VZI ml -1 ACU, predicted under the optimum production conditions.

  19. Antimicrobial Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Dairy Products and Gut: Effect on Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan L. Arqués

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The food industry seeks alternatives to satisfy consumer demands of safe foods with a long shelf-life able to maintain the nutritional and organoleptic quality. The application of antimicrobial compounds-producing protective cultures may provide an additional parameter of processing in order to improve the safety and ensure food quality, keeping or enhancing its sensorial characteristics. In addition, strong evidences suggest that certain probiotic strains can confer resistance against infection with enteric pathogens. Several mechanisms have been proposed to support this phenomenon, including antimicrobial compounds secreted by the probiotics, competitive exclusion, or stimulation of the immune system. Recent research has increasingly demonstrated the role of antimicrobial compounds as protective mechanism against intestinal pathogens and therefore certain strains could have an effect on both the food and the gut. In this aspect, the effects of the combination of different strains keep unknown. The development of multistrain probiotic dairy products with good technological properties and with improved characteristics to those shown by the individual strains, able to act not only as protective cultures in foods, but also as probiotics able to exert a protective action against infections, has gained increased interest.

  20. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance of non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars in retail aquaculture products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianmin; Yang, Xiaowei; Kuang, Dai; Shi, Xianming; Xiao, Wenjia; Zhang, Jing; Gu, Zhen; Xu, Xuebin; Meng, Jianghong

    2015-10-01

    Aquaculture products can become sources of Salmonella by exposure to contaminated water or through processing practices, thus representing a public health hazard. A study was conducted on Salmonella contamination in aquaculture products sampled from marketplaces and retailers in Shanghai, China. A total of 730 samples (including fish, shellfish, bullfrog, clam, shrimp and others) were obtained from 2006 to 2011. Among them, 217 (29.7%) were positive for Salmonella. Thirty-eight serovars were identified in the 217 Salmonella isolates. The most prevalent were Salmonella Aberdeen (18.4%), S. Wandsworth (12.0%), S. Thompson (9.2%), S. Singapore (5.5%), S. Stanley (4.6%), S. Schwarzengrund (4.6%), S. Hvittingfoss (4.1%) and S. Typhimurium (4.1%). Many resistant isolates were detected, with 69.6% resistant to at least one antimicrobial drug. We observed high resistance to sulfonamides (56.5%), tetracycline (34.1%), streptomycin (28.6%), ampicillin (23.5%) and nalidixic acid (21.2%). Lower levels of resistance were found for gentamicin (3.2%), ciprofloxacin (2.3%), ceftiofur (1.3%), cefotaxime (0.9%), ceftazidime (0.5%) and cefepime (0.5%). A total of 43.3% of the Salmonella isolates were multidrug-resistant and 44 different resistance patterns were found. This study provided data on the prevalence, serovars and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella from retail aquaculture products in Shanghai, and indicated the need for monitoring programs for microbiologic safety in such projects and for more prudent drug use in aquaculture production in order to reduce the risk of development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Production of Recombinant Antimicrobial Polymeric Protein Beta Casein-E 50-52 and Its Antimicrobial Synergistic Effects Assessment with Thymol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Fahimirad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Accelerating emergence of antimicrobial resistance among food pathogens and consumers’ increasing demands for preservative-free foods are two contemporary challenging aspects within the food industry. Antimicrobial packaging and the use of natural preservatives are promising solutions. In the present study, we used beta-casein—one of the primary self-assembly proteins in milk with a high polymeric film production capability—as a fusion partner for the recombinant expression of E 50-52 antimicrobial peptide in Escherichia coli. The pET21a-BCN-E 50-52 construct was transformed to E. coli BL21 (DE3, and protein expression was induced under optimized conditions. Purified protein obtained from nickel affinity chromatography was refolded under optimized dialysis circumstances and concentrated to 1600 µg/mL fusion protein by ultrafiltration. Antimicrobial activities of recombinant BCN-E 50-52 performed against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus flavus, and Candida albicans. Subsequently, the synergistic effects of BCN-E 50-52 and thymol were assayed. Results of checkerboard tests showed strong synergistic activity between two compounds. Time–kill and growth kinetic studies indicated a sharp reduction of cell viability during the first period of exposure, and SEM (scanning electron microscope results validated the severe destructive effects of BCN E 50-52 and thymol in combination on bacterial cells.

  2. 77 FR 59610 - Flonicamid; Applications To Add New Food Uses on Previously Registered Pesticide Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... entities may include, but are not limited to: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS... to illustrate your concerns and suggest alternatives. vii. Explain your views as clearly as possible... factors, may have atypical or disproportionately high and adverse human health impacts or environmental...

  3. 78 FR 48677 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications to Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... document applies to them. Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS..., root (except sugar beet), subgroup 1B; onion, bulb, subgroup 3-07A; Brassica, head and stem, subgroup 5...

  4. 77 FR 4810 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ..., but are not limited to: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food..., chinese onion, daylily bulb, fritillaria bulb, great-headed, garlic, lily bulb, pearl onion, potato onion, serpent garlic, shallot, green onion, beltsville bunching, onion, Chinese chive, fresh leaves, fresh chive...

  5. 78 FR 21945 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS...; Bulb Onion, subgroups 3-07 A and B; Fruiting Vegetable group 8-10; and Greenhouse Tomato. Contact: Rose... Type: Fungicide. Proposed Uses: Bean, succulent; Ginseng; Onion, bulb, subgroup 3-07A; and Onion, green...

  6. 78 FR 14539 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS...), fritillaria (bulb), garlic (bulbs of common, great-headed, serpent), lily (bulb), onion (bulbs of common..., fritillaria (leaves), kurrat, leek, wild leek, lady's leek, Beltsville bunching onion, fresh onion, green...

  7. 76 FR 69732 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... formulation into end-use herbicide products used on cowpea, succulent (Tennessee only); crop subgroup 20B.... Active Ingredient: Sulfentrazone. Proposed Uses: For use on cowpea, succulent (Tennessee only); crop...

  8. 77 FR 30524 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ...; globe artichoke; taro leaves; and watercress. Contact: Rita Kumar, (703) 308-8291, email address: kumar... Classification/Uses: For formulation into technical and end-use herbicide products used on: Artichoke, Cabbage...

  9. 78 FR 32245 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Road, Pasadena, TX 77507-1041. Active ingredient: Novaluron. Product Type: Insecticide; Insect Growth... furniture, animal quarters, carpets, kennels, and poultry houses. Contact: Jennifer Gaines, (703) 305-5967...

  10. Prevalence, seasonal occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in poultry retail products in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdragas, A; Mazaraki, K; Vafeas, G; Giantzi, V; Papadopoulos, T; Ekateriniadou, L

    2012-10-01

    To detect the prevalence, the seasonal occurrence and distribution of Salmonella serotypes in poultry products and to determine the resistance profile of Salmonella isolates. A total of 96 skin-on chicken carcasses and 30 liver samples were analysed between May 2007 and May 2009 from twenty-two different commercial farm brands found in retail market countrywide. Salmonella was isolated from 38 (39·5%) of 96 chicken carcasses and from 10 (33·3%) of 30 liver samples. Higher isolation rate (60·4%) was observed in carcasses detected during summer (May to October), and lower isolation rate (18·7%) was observed in carcasses detected during winter (November to April); in liver samples, the positive rates were 53·4 and 13·2%, respectively. Twelve serotypes were detected with the serotypes Hadar, Enteritidis and Blockley being the most prevalent at 29·2, 22·9 and 12·5%, respectively. Nine of 11 Salm. Enteritidis isolates occurred during summer. Of 48 isolates, 38 (79%) were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobial agents used. The highest resistance rates were found to the following antimicrobials: streptomycin (64·5%), tetracycline (56·2%), nalidixic acid (39·5%), ampicillin and rifampicin (33·3%). The relatively high Salmonella spp. contamination rates of raw chicken meat and liver have been detected. Salm. Enteritidis isolates peaked in summer, increasing the risk to human health. Antibiotic resistance of Salmonella still remains a threat as resistance plasmids may be extensively shared between animal and humans. The study enabled us to improve the data on the seasonal occurrence of Salmonella and to determine the antimicrobial pattern profile and trends in Salmonella strains isolated from poultry retail products in Greece. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. World Health Organization Ranking of Antimicrobials According to Their Importance in Human Medicine: A Critical Step for Developing Risk Management Strategies for the Use of Antimicrobials in Food Production Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collignon, P.; Powers, J. H.; Chiller, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    stakeholders can use this ranking when developing risk management strategies for the use of antimicrobials in food production animals. The ranking allows stakeholders to focus risk management efforts on drugs used in food animals that are the most important to human medicine and, thus, need to be addressed......The use of antimicrobials in food animals creates an important source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria that can spread to humans through the food supply. Improved management of the use of antimicrobials in food animals, particularly reducing the usage of those that are "critically important...

  12. Monitoring diseases based on register data: Methods and application in the Danish swine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes Antunes, Ana Carolina

    The spread of diseases is one of the most important threats to animal production and public health. Disease spread causes considerable economic losses for the agricultural sector and constitutes trade-limiting factors, as transmission to countries free from disease should beavoided. Monitoring...

  13. 77 FR 59186 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... to me? You may be potentially affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food... code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide... cantaloupe, cucumber, pea (succulent), pumpkin, squash (Summer and Winter), watermelon, and vegetable soybean...

  14. 77 FR 75153 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ...: Diglycolamine salt of dicamba. Product Type: Herbicide. Proposed Use: Dicamba glufosinate tolerant MON 88701... Uses: Control of stable fly larvae in cattle barns and horse barns; control of litter beetles in... oil); grapes; raisins; cotton (seed and gin byproducts); tea; milk; cattle, sheep, goat, horse (meat...

  15. Antimicrobials for reduction of Salmonella contamination in uncooked, surface-browned breaded chicken products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschonas, Galatios; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Stopforth, Jarret D; Wach, Damien; Woerner, Dale R; Belk, Keith E; Smith, Gary C; Sofos, John N

    2012-06-01

    Surface-browned but uncooked frozen breaded chicken products have been associated with salmonellosis outbreaks due to inadequate or no cooking of the products before consumption. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of three antimicrobials against Salmonella during manufacture of a surface-browned, uncooked frozen breaded chicken meat product. Fresh chicken breast meat portions (5 by 5 by 5 cm) were inoculated (4 to 5 log CFU/g) with Salmonella and mixed with caprylic acid (CAA; 0.5 and 1.0%), carvacrol (CAR; 0.3 and 0.5%), ε-polylysine (POL; 0.125 and 0.25%), or distilled water (control). Sodium chloride (1.2%) and sodium tripolyphosphate (0.3%) were added to all treatments, and the mixtures were ground (5% total moisture enhancement level) and formed into portions (9 by 5 by 3 cm). The products were breaded and surface browned by baking in an oven (208°C for 15 min) or deep frying in vegetable oil (190°C for 15 s), packaged in polyethylene bags, and stored at -20°C for 7 days. Total reductions of inoculated Salmonella in untreated control oven- or fryer-browned products after frozen storage were 1.2 and 0.8 log CFU/g, respectively. In comparison, treatment with CAA, CAR, or POL reduced initial pathogen counts by 3.3 to >4.5, 4.1 to >4.7, and 1.1 to 1.6 log CFU/g, respectively, regardless of the antimicrobial concentration and browning method. Treatment with 1.0% CAA (oven browned) or 0.5% CAR (oven or fryer browned) reduced Salmonella to nondetectable levels (chicken products.

  16. Biosurfactants production potential of native strains of Bacillus cereus and their antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, Madiha; Rasool, Muhammad Hidayat; Naqvi, Syed Ali Raza; Waseem, Muhammad; Aslam, Bilal

    2018-01-01

    Present study was designed to evaluate the biosurfactant production potential by native strains of Bacillus cereus as well as determine their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The strains isolated from garden soil were characterized as B. cereus MMIC 1, MMIC 2 and MMIC 3. Biosurfactants were extracted as grey white precipitates. Optimum conditions for biosurfactant production were 37°C, the 7th day of incubation, 0.5% NaCl, pH 7.0. Moreover, corn steep liquor was the best carbon source. Biuret test, Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), agar double diffusion and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) characterized the biosurfactants as cationic lipopeptides. Biosurfactants exhibited significant antibacterial and antifungal activity against S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, A. niger and C. albicans at 30 mg/ml. Moreover, they also possessed antiviral activity against NDV at 10 mg/ml. Cytotoxicity assay in BHK-21 cell lines revealed 63% cell survival at 10 mg/ml of biosurfactants and thus considered as safe. They also showed very good antioxidant activity by ferric-reducing activity and DPPH scavenging activity at 2 mg/ml. Consequently, the study offers an insight for the exploration of new bioactive molecules from the soil. It was concluded that lipopeptide biosurfactants produced from native strains of B. cereus may be recommended as safe antimicrobial, emulsifier and antioxidant agent.

  17. Rauvolfia grandiflora (Apocynaceae extract interferes with staphylococcal density, enterotoxin production and antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanamar de Almeida Carlos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococci bacteria are involved in many human and animal infections and development of alternative antimicrobial drugs against pathogenic bacteria is of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry. This study investigated the in vitro effect of Rauvolfia grandiflora methanol extract (root bark fraction (RGE on the density of ATCC strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and a clinical enterotoxin-producer, S. aureus bovine strain. The alkaloid, isoreserpiline, obtained from dichloromethane extract of R. grandiflora was ineffective against the strains tested. After incubation of staphylococci strains in the presence of 1.2 mg.mL-1 RGE, a significant inhibition of cell growth was observed using both spectrophotometry and ELISA assays. Twelve drugs were evaluated for their antimicrobial effects on culture RGE-treated cells using the disk diffusion method. Penicillin resistant strains became sensitive to the drug after RGE treatment. Furthermore, enterotoxin production by RGE-treated S. aureus was evaluated using a standardized ELISA method. Although staphylococcal LSA 88 bovine strain cells remained viable after exposure to the extract, enterotoxin production was precluded in 20% after RGE treatment. Significant interference in staphylococci cell density, drug sensitivity and enterotoxin secretion was observed after treatment. The study highlights the necessity to find new methods of disease prevention and new antibiotic therapies against staphylococcal infections.

  18. Rauvolfia grandiflora (apocynaceae) extract interferes with staphylococcal density, enterotoxin production and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Carlos, Lanamar; da Silva Amaral, Kenas Aguiar; Curcino Vieira, Ivo José; Mathias, Leda; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Silva Samarão, Solange; Vieira-da-Motta, Olney

    2010-07-01

    Staphylococci bacteria are involved in many human and animal infections and development of alternative antimicrobial drugs against pathogenic bacteria is of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry. This study investigated the in vitro effect of Rauvolfia grandiflora methanol extract (root bark fraction) (RGE) on the density of ATCC strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and a clinical enterotoxin-producer, S. aureus bovine strain. The alkaloid, isoreserpiline, obtained from dichloromethane extract of R. grandiflora was ineffective against the strains tested. After incubation of staphylococci strains in the presence of 1.2 μg.mL(-1) RGE, a significant inhibition of cell growth was observed using both spectrophotometry and ELISA assays. Twelve drugs were evaluated for their antimicrobial effects on culture RGE-treated cells using the disk diffusion method. Penicillin resistant strains became sensitive to the drug after RGE treatment. Furthermore, enterotoxin production by RGE-treated S. aureus was evaluated using a standardized ELISA method. Although staphylococcal LSA 88 bovine strain cells remained viable after exposure to the extract, enterotoxin production was precluded in 20% after RGE treatment. Significant interference in staphylococci cell density, drug sensitivity and enterotoxin secretion was observed after treatment. The study highlights the necessity to find new methods of disease prevention and new antibiotic therapies against staphylococcal infections.

  19. Das sprachliche Register (Speech Registers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess-Luttich, Ernest W. B.

    1974-01-01

    The linguistic behavior of a given individual varies; he will on different occasions speak (or write) differently according to what may be roughly described as different social situations: he will use a number of different registers. The application of such registers both in the field of text analysis and in the preparation of teaching materials…

  20. Control of the development and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria of food animal origin in Japan: a new approach for risk management of antimicrobial veterinary medicinal products in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Tetsuo; Hiki, Mototaka; Ozawa, Manao; Koike, Ryoji; Eguchi, Kaoru; Kawanishi, Michiko; Kojima, Akemi; Endoh, Yuuko S; Hamamoto, Shuichi; Sakai, Masato; Sekiya, Tatsuro

    2014-03-01

    Antimicrobial agents are essential for controlling bacterial disease in food-producing animals and contribute to the stable production of safe animal products. The use of antimicrobial agents in these animals affects the emergence and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from animals and animal products. As disease-causing bacteria are often transferred from food-producing animals to humans, the food chain is considered a route of transmission for the resistant bacteria and/or resistance genes. The Food Safety Commission of Japan (FSC) has been assessing the risk posed to human health by the transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria from livestock products via the food chain. In addition to the FSC's risk assessments, the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries has developed risk-management guidelines to determine feasible risk-management options for the use of antimicrobial veterinary medicinal products during farming practices. This report includes information on risk assessment and novel approaches for risk management of antimicrobial veterinary medicinal products for mitigating the risk of development and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria originating from food-producing animals in Japan.

  1. Identification and Antimicrobial Resistance of Bacteria Isolated from Probiotic Products Used in Shrimp Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noor Uddin, Gazi Md; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Christensen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are increasingly used in aquaculture to control diseases and improve feed digestion and pond water quality; however, little is known about the antimicrobial resistance properties of such probiotic bacteria and to what extent they may contribute to the development of bacterial resistance...... in aquaculture ponds. Concerns have been raised that the declared information on probiotic product labels are incorrect and information on bacterial composition are often missing. We therefore evaluated seven probiotics commonly used in Vietnamese shrimp culture for their bacterial species content, phenotypic....... used to identify resistance genes and genetic elements associated with horizontal gene transfer. Thirteen bacterial species declared on the probiotic products could not be identified and 11 non-declared Bacillus spp. were identified. Although our culture-based isolation and identification may have...

  2. Changing innovation into a registered product: From concept to regulatory approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Linda

    2018-05-01

    Innovation in animal health pharmaceuticals is important to address unmet and underserved medical needs, and often comes from products initially developed for human medicine. The purpose of the review is to help readers understand how breakthroughs from human biotechnology may be developed for use in veterinary medicine, while understanding the key drivers to success, the difficulties of regulatory approval, and the realistic risks and rewards of developing applications for animals. The types of human drugs which may be useful for veterinary applications are reviewed, including examples. The regulatory path is discussed, with a review of the various oversight agencies, and the categories of data required to be submitted, including safety, efficacy, manufacturing, environmental impact and human food safety. In conclusion, the cost, development time, and barriers to innovation in veterinary medical pharmaceuticals are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Registering, indexing and digitally preserving RDBCI: Production indicators of 2003 to 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildenir Carolino Santos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The question of explosion and digital preservation issues are totally in vogue today. In this context, the aim of this study is to analyze bibliographically the typeset production and published the “RDBCI: Revista Digital de Biblioteconomia e Ciência da Informação” in these its thirteen years of existence, in order to disclose the analysis of published scientific production, featuring the themes of articles and the most representative authors, contributing to the community area in question as well as enhance the importance of the magazine to the field of Library and Information Science. The journal is entirely digital, born and incubated on free platform OJS/SEER, provided by IBICT since 2004. Moreover, in these years of experience the magazine is effective information vehicle of the area and its existence confirms that electronic publications born in this format, survive in the digital world. From 2013, the RDBCI began to integrate Cariniana Network (IBICT, digitally preserving your entire collection through the LOCKSS software, and other institutions aggregated to the network, and in March 2016 began to integrate The Keepers Registry, making If the first Brazilian publication to be part of this international digital preservation network. The methodology adopted was through a survey of articles published from 2003 to 2016, collecting data such as access numbers, downloads, and other statistical and qualitative indicators, making use of tools such as Google Analytics, Altmetrics, Index h and alternative metrics as well as databases, directories, portals and indexes where the journal is indexed. We believe the result of this work serves as a qualitative analysis model for other periodicals and promotes growth of more national and international scientific publications with open access.

  4. Analysis of silver nanoparticles in antimicrobial products using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huiyuan; Zhang, Zhiyun; Xing, Baoshan; Mukherjee, Arnab; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; He, Lili

    2015-04-07

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most commonly used nanoparticles in consumer products. Concerns over human exposure to and risk from these particles have resulted in increased interest in novel strategies to detect AgNPs. This study investigated the feasibility of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as a method for the detection and quantification of AgNPs in antimicrobial products. By using ferbam (ferric dimethyl-dithiocarbamate) as an indicator molecule that binds strongly onto the nanoparticles, AgNPs detection and discrimination were achieved based on the signature SERS response of AgNPs-ferbam complexes. SERS response with ferbam was distinct for silver ions, silver chloride, silver bulk particles, and AgNPs. Two types of AgNPs with different coatings, citrate and polyvinylpirrolidone (PVP), both showed strong interactions with ferbam and induced strong SERS signals. SERS was effectively applicable for detecting Ag particles ranging from 20 to 200 nm, with the highest signal intensity in the 60-100 nm range. A linear relationship (R(2) = 0.9804) between Raman intensity and citrate-AgNPs concentrations (60 nm; 0-20 mg/L) indicates the potential for particle quantification. We also evaluated SERS detection of AgNPs in four commercially available antimicrobial products. Combined with ICP-MS and TEM data, the results indicated that the SERS response is primarily dependent on size, but also affected by AgNPs concentration. The findings demonstrate that SERS is a promising analytical platform for studying environmentally relevant levels of AgNPs in consumer products and related matrices.

  5. Virulence factors, serogroups and antimicrobial resistance properties of Escherichia coli strains in fermented dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordi, Farhad Safarpoor; Yazdani, Farshad; Mozafari, Jalal; Valizadeh, Yousef

    2014-04-07

    From a clinical perspective, it is essential to know the microbial safety of fermented dairy products. Doogh and kashk are fermented dairies. These products are used by millions of people but their microbial qualities are unknown. Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is one of the most commonly detected pathogens in the cases of food poisoning and food-borne illnesses. The present investigation was carried out in order to study the molecular characterization and antimicrobial resistance properties of STEC strains isolated from fermented dairy products. Six hundred fermented dairy samples were collected and immediately transferred to the laboratory. All samples were cultured immediately and those that were E. coli-positive were analyzed for the presence of O157 , O26, O103, O111, O145, O45, O91, O113, O121 and O128 STEC serogroups, tetA, tetB, blaSHV, CITM, cmlA, cat1, aadA1, dfrA1, qnr, aac (3)-IV, sul1 and ereA antibiotic resistance genes and stx1, stx2, eaeA, ehly, cnf1, cnf2, iutA, cdtB, papA, traT, sfaS and fyuA virulence factors using PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed also using disk diffusion methodology with Mueller-Hinton agar. Fifty out of 600 (8.33%) dairy samples harbored E. coli. In addition, yoghurt was the most commonly contaminated dairy. O157 (26%) and O26 (12%) were the most commonly detected serogroups. A significant difference was found between the frequency of Attaching and Effacing E. coli and Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (P Fermented dairy products can easily become contaminated by antibiotic resistant STEC strains. Our findings should raise awareness about antibiotic resistance in Iran. Clinicians should exercise caution when prescribing antibiotics, especially in veterinary treatments.

  6. Phenotypic and Genotypic Analysis of Antimicrobial Resistance among Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Australian Food Production Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annaleise Wilson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The current global crisis of antimicrobial resistance (AMR among important human bacterial pathogens has been amplified by an increased resistance prevalence. In recent years, a number of studies have reported higher resistance levels among Listeria monocytogenes isolates, which may have implications for treatment of listeriosis infection where resistance to key treatment antimicrobials is noted. This study examined the genotypic and phenotypic AMR patterns of 100 L. monocytogenes isolates originating from food production supplies in Australia and examined this in the context of global population trends. Low levels of resistance were noted to ciprofloxacin (2% and erythromycin (1%; however, no resistance was observed to penicillin G or tetracycline. Resistance to ciprofloxacin was associated with a mutation in the fepR gene in one isolate; however, no genetic basis for resistance in the other isolate was identified. Resistance to erythromycin was correlated with the presence of the ermB resistance gene. Both resistant isolates belonged to clonal complex 1 (CC1, and analysis of these in the context of global CC1 isolates suggested that they were more similar to isolates from India rather than the other CC1 isolates included in this study. This study provides baseline AMR data for L. monocytogenes isolated in Australia, identifies key genetic markers underlying this resistance, and highlights the need for global molecular surveillance of resistance patterns to maintain control over the potential dissemination of AMR isolates.

  7. Production of Low Calorie Bakery Product with Pleasant Flavour, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Ahmed M.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic plants are considered sources of antioxidants, antimicrobial and favouring agents. Four aromatic plants (Thymus vulgaris L., Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum L. and Trigonellafoenum-graecum L. were analysed in the study. Yoghurt was used to produce a low calorie pie. Chemical and rheological parameters, baking performance, staling rate and sensory properties of the pie were investigated. Volatile aroma compounds were anal-ysed with GC and GC/ MS, and antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH and β-carotene assays. The incorporation of yoghurt and some aromatic plants in the pie improved protein, fat, fibre, ash, and minerals contents and allowed achieving about 19% reduction in calories. Sensory evaluation of pie containing the mixture of aromatic plants showed its superior sensory quality. In addition, it could be concluded that aromatic plants were able to inhibit the growth of yeast, mould and bacteria and to prolong the storage periods of pie compared with the control.

  8. Herd-specific interventions to reduce antimicrobial usage in pig production without jeopardising technical and economic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collineau, L; Rojo-Gimeno, C; Léger, A; Backhans, A; Loesken, S; Nielsen, E Okholm; Postma, M; Emanuelson, U; Beilage, E Grosse; Sjölund, M; Wauters, E; Stärk, K D C; Dewulf, J; Belloc, C; Krebs, S

    2017-09-01

    Pig farmers are strongly encouraged to reduce their antimicrobial usage in order to reduce the risk of antimicrobial resistance. Herd-level intervention is needed to achieve national and European reduction targets. Alternative, especially preventive measures, have to be implemented to reduce the need for antimicrobial treatments. However, little is known about the feasibility, effectiveness and return on investment of such measures. The objective of this study was to assess, across four countries, the technical and economic impact of herd-specific interventions aiming at reducing antimicrobial usage in pig production while implementing alternative measures. An intervention study was conducted between February 2014 and August 2015 in 70 farrow-to-finish pig farms located in Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden. Herd-specific interventions were defined together with the farmer and the herd veterinarian. Farms were followed over one year and their antimicrobial usage and technical performance were compared with values from the year before intervention. Compliance with the intervention plan was also monitored. Changes in margin over feed cost and net farm profit were estimated in a subset of 33 Belgian and French farms with sufficient data, using deterministic and stochastic modeling. Following interventions, a substantial reduction in antimicrobial use was achieved without negative impact the overall farm technical performance. A median reduction of 47.0% of antimicrobial usage was achieved across four countries when expressed in terms of treatment incidence from birth to slaughter, corresponding to a 30.5% median reduction of antimicrobial expenditures. Farm compliance with intervention plans was high (median: 93%; min-max: 20; 100) and farms with higher compliance tended to achieve bigger reduction (ρ=-0.18, p=0.162). No association was found between achieved reduction and type or number of alternative measures implemented. Mortality in suckling piglets, weaners and

  9. Antimicrobial resistance and production of biofilms in clinical isolates of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Allori, María Cristina Gaudioso; Jure, María Angela; Romero, Cintia; de Castillo, Marta Elena Cecilia

    2006-08-01

    Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) strains are frequently associated with bacteremia and hospital-acquired infections. 293 CNS strains were isolated from 744 samples from a dialysis center in S. M. de Tucumán, Argentina, from hemocultures, catheters and urine and identified as S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. saprophyticus, S. hominis and S. cohnii. 13 antibiotics were tested for antibacterial resistance. 75% of S. saprophyticus, 66% of S. epidermidis and 57% of S. haemolyticus was resistant to erythromycin and 50% of S. haemolyticus was resistant to ciprofloxacin. OXA resistance was found in 43% of S. haemolyticus. Presence of PBP 2a in OXA-R strains was confirmed with the modified agglutination assay (MRSA) and presence of the mecA gene. 15 strains with intermediate halos for vancomycin and teicoplanin showed a MIC in solid and liquid medium resistance to methicillin and biofilm production are decisive for a prompt and appropriate antimicrobial therapy and limited use of inappropriate glycopeptides.

  10. Photocatalytic hydrogen production on SOLECTRO {sup registered} titanium dioxide layers. Development and characterization of an efficient catalyst; Photokatalytische Wasserstoffgewinnung an SOLECTRO {sup registered} -Titandioxidschichten. Entwicklung und Charakterisierung eines geeigneten Katalysators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saborowski, Sarah

    2010-03-03

    A catalyst for photocatalytic hydrogen production from methanol and water was developed on the basis of SOLECTRO {sup registered} titanium dioxide layers. A test facility was constructed in which several modified catalysts could be tested for this reaction. Detailed characterization of the electronic and optical characteristics of these catalysts made it possible to gain deeper insight into the processes involved in the reaction. (orig.) [German] Auf Basis der SOLECTRO {sup registered} -TiO{sub 2} -Schichten wurde ein Katalysator fuer die photokatalytische Wasserstoffdarstellung aus Methanol und Wasser entwickelt. Der Aufbau einer geeigneten Versuchsanlage ermoeglichte es, verschieden modifizierte Katalysatoren fuer diese Reaktion zu testen. Durch die ausfuehrliche Charakterisierung insbesondere der elektronischen und optischen Eigenschaften dieser Katalysatoren konnten vertiefende Erkenntnisse zu den waehrend der Reaktion ablaufenden Prozessen gewonnen werden. (orig.)

  11. The process greasoline {sup registered}. Catalytic cracking of used vegetable oils and vegetable products; Das greasoline {sup registered} -Verfahren. Katalytisches Cracken von gebrauchten Pflanzenoelen und Pflanzenprodukten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danzig, Joachim; Fastabend, Anna; Greve, Anna; Heil, Volker; Juricev-Spiric, Marko; Kraft, Axel; Krzanowski, Marcin; Meller, Karl; Menne, Andreas; Unger, Christoph; Urban, Wolfgang [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    Converting bio-based waste oils and fats as well as non-edible plant oils into oxygen-free components for quality aviation, shipping and automotive fuels represents a promising option to use these materials. Catalytic cracking over microporous and mesoporous catalysts like activated carbon offers a suitable process of considerable commercial and ecological potential. Moreover, this technology can be applied in order to produce high-caloric fuel gases like bio-based LPG. For example, these gases could be used for upgrading bio-methane into true bio-based synthetic natural gas without adding fossil components. Such a mixture would be ready to be fed into natural gas pipelines. In the future, used bio-hydraulic-oils could be collected and used as biofuels feedstock. Conversion of bio-hydraulic-oils as model substances resulted in organic liquid product yields of up to 64 wt.-%. Catalytic cracking of Jatropha Curcas-oil revealed the catalyst's usage time to be as important as the reaction temperature for optimising fuel gas production. (orig.)

  12. Antimicrobial effect of essential oils on the seafood spoilage micro-organism Photobacterium phosphoreum in liquid media and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Dalgaard, Paw

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the antimicrobial effect of nine essential oils (EO) on P. phosphoreum and determine the effect of oregano oil on the shelf-life of modified atmosphere-packed (MAP) cod fillets. Methods and Results: The antimicrobial effect of EO was studied in a liquid medium and in product...... storage trials. Oils of oregano and cinnamon had strongest antimicrobial activity, followed by lemongrass, thyme, clove, bay, marjoram, sage and basil oils. Oregano oil (0.05%, v/w) reduced growth of P. phosphoreum in naturally contaminated MAP cod fillets and extended shelf-life from 11-12 d to 21-26 d...... at 2degreesC. Conclusions: Oregano oil reduced the growth of P. phosphoreum and extended the shelf-life of MAP cod fillets. Significance and Impact of the Study: Mild and natural preservation using EO can extend the shelf-life of MAP seafood through inhibiting the specific spoilage organism P...

  13. Indications and patterns of therapeutic use of antimicrobial agents in the Danish pig production from 2002 to 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2011-01-01

    This study describes trends in the use and indications for prescriptions of antimicrobial agents in the Danish pig production in the period between 2002 and 2008 and is the first description of a complete prescription pattern for one animal species in an entire country. Data on all prescription...... for pigs in Denmark were retrieved from the VetStat database. Antimicrobial use was measured in defined animal daily doses (ADD) for the specific age-group and in ADDkg as a measure of amounts used. According to the results of the ADDkg data, 26% of all antimicrobials were prescribed for sows, 38....../piglets, by 141% for weaning pigs, and by 81% for finisher pig. The most commonly used class of antibiotics was tetracycline for all age-groups, replacing the previously used macrolide/lincosamide group. The use of pleuromutilin increased in 2008 to the level of macrolides. In sow/piglets, the second most used...

  14. Antimicrobial peptide production and plant-based expression systems for medical and agricultural biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holaskova, Edita; Galuszka, Petr; Frebort, Ivo; Oz, M Tufan

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are vital components of the innate immune system of nearly all living organisms. They generally act in the first line of defense against various pathogenic bacteria, parasites, enveloped viruses and fungi. These low molecular mass peptides are considered prospective therapeutic agents due to their broad-spectrum rapid activity, low cytotoxicity to mammalian cells and unique mode of action which hinders emergence of pathogen resistance. In addition to medical use, AMPs can also be employed for development of innovative approaches for plant protection in agriculture. Conferred disease resistance by AMPs might help us surmount losses in yield, quality and safety of agricultural products due to plant pathogens. Heterologous expression in plant-based systems, also called plant molecular farming, offers cost-effective large-scale production which is regarded as one of the most important factors for clinical or agricultural use of AMPs. This review presents various types of AMPs as well as plant-based platforms ranging from cell suspensions to whole plants employed for peptide production. Although AMP production in plants holds great promises for medicine and agriculture, specific technical limitations regarding product yield, function and stability still remain. Additionally, establishment of particular stable expression systems employing plants or plant tissues generally requires extended time scale for platform development compared to certain other heterologous systems. Therefore, fast and promising tools for evaluation of plant-based expression strategies and assessment of function and stability of the heterologously produced AMPs are critical for molecular farming and plant protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Scoping review to identify potential non-antimicrobial interventions to mitigate antimicrobial resistance in commensal enteric bacteria in North American cattle production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, C P; Fajt, V R; Scott, H M; Foster, M J; Wickwire, P; McEwen, S A

    2016-01-01

    A scoping review was conducted to identify modifiable non-antimicrobial factors to reduce the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in cattle populations. Searches were developed to retrieve peer-reviewed published studies in animal, human and in vitro microbial populations. Citations were retained when modifiable non-antimicrobial factors or interventions potentially associated with antimicrobial resistance were described. Studies described resistance in five bacterial genera, species or types, and 40 antimicrobials. Modifiable non-antimicrobial factors or interventions ranged widely in type, and the depth of evidence in animal populations was shallow. Specific associations between a factor or intervention with antimicrobial resistance in a population (e.g. associations between organic systems and tetracycline susceptibility in E. coli from cattle) were reported in a maximum of three studies. The identified non-antimicrobial factors or interventions were classified into 16 themes. Most reported associations between the non-antimicrobial modifiable factors or interventions and antimicrobial resistance were not statistically significant (P > 0·05 and a confidence interval including 1), but when significant, the results were not consistent in direction (increase or decrease in antimicrobial resistance) or magnitude. Research is needed to better understand the impacts of promising modifiable factors or interventions on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance before any recommendations can be offered or adopted.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from dairy-based food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Steve; Saleh, Imane; Zouhairi, Omar; Baydoun, Elias; Barbour, Elie; Alwan, Nisreen

    2009-06-15

    In this study Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) was isolated from three traditionally consumed Lebanese dairy-based food products. One hundred and sixty four samples (45 samples of Baladi cheese, 36 samples of Shankleesh and 83 of Kishk) were collected from the Bekaa Valley in the Northeast region of Lebanon. Suspected Listeria colonies were selected and initially identified by using standard biochemical tests. Initial identification of the positive L. monocytogenes colonies was confirmed at the molecular level by Polymerase Chain Reaction (n=30) and the confirmed isolates were evaluated for their susceptibility to 10 commonly used antimicrobials. All of the 30 isolates were confirmed to be L. monocytogenes yielding a PCR product of approximately 660 base pairs (bp). L. monocytogenes was detected in 26.67%, 13.89% and 7.23% of the Baladi cheese, Shankleesh and Kishk samples, respectively. The highest resistance in L. monocytogenes isolates was noted against oxacillin (93.33%) followed by penicillin (90%). The results provide an indication of the contamination levels of dairy-based foods in Lebanon and highlight the emergence of multi-drug resistant Listeria in the environment.

  17. Campylobacter coli in Organic and Conventional Pig Production in France and Sweden: Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Kempf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter coli in conventional and organic pigs from France and Sweden. Fecal or colon samples were collected at farms or at slaughterhouses and cultured for Campylobacter. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and gentamicin were determined by microdilution for a total of 263 French strains from 114 pigs from 50 different farms and 82 Swedish strains from 144 pigs from 54 different farms. Erythromycin resistant isolates were examined for presence of the emerging rRNA methylase erm(B gene. The study showed that within the colon samples obtained in each country there was no significant difference in prevalence of Campylobacter between pigs in organic and conventional productions [France: conventional: 43/58 (74%; organic: 43/56 (77% and Sweden: conventional: 24/36 (67%; organic: 20/36 (56%]. In France, but not in Sweden, significant differences of percentages of resistant isolates were associated with production type (tetracycline, erythromycin and the number of resistances was significantly higher for isolates from conventional pigs. In Sweden, the number of resistances of fecal isolates was significantly higher compared to colon isolates. The erm(B gene was not detected in the 87 erythromycin resistant strains tested.

  18. Potential applications of plant based derivatives as fat replacers, antioxidants and antimicrobials in fresh and processed meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hygreeva, Desugari; Pandey, M C; Radhakrishna, K

    2014-09-01

    Growing concern about diet and health has led to development of healthier food products. In general consumer perception towards the intake of meat and meat products is unhealthy because it may increase the risk of diseases like cardiovascular diseases, obesity and cancer, because of its high fat content (especially saturated fat) and added synthetic antioxidants and antimicrobials. Addition of plant derivatives having antioxidant components including vitamins A, C and E, minerals, polyphenols, flavanoids and terpenoids in meat products may decrease the risk of several degenerative diseases. To change consumer attitudes towards meat consumption, the meat industry is undergoing major transformations by addition of nonmeat ingredients as animal fat replacers, natural antioxidants and antimicrobials, preferably derived from plant sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fungal Competitors Affect Production of Antimicrobial Lipopeptides in Bacillus subtilis Strain B9-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilippi, Stefanie; Groulx, Emma; Megalla, Merna; Mohamed, Rowida; Avis, Tyler J

    2018-04-01

    Bacillus subtilis has shown success in antagonizing plant pathogens where strains of the bacterium produce antimicrobial cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) in response to microbial competitors in their ecological niche. To gain insight into the inhibitory role of these CLPs, B. subtilis strain B9-5 was co-cultured with three pathogenic fungi. Inhibition of mycelial growth and spore germination was assessed and CLPs produced by B. subtilis B9-5 were quantified over the entire period of microbial interaction. B. subtilis B9-5 significantly inhibited mycelial growth and spore germination of Fusarium sambucinum and Verticillium dahliae, but not Rhizopus stolonifer. LC-MS analysis revealed that B. subtilis differentially produced fengycin and surfactin homologs depending on the competitor. CLP quantification suggested that the presence of Verticillium dahliae, a fungus highly sensitive to the compounds, caused an increase followed by a decrease in CLP production by the bacterium. In co-cultures with Fusarium sambucinum, a moderately sensitive fungus, CLP production increased more gradually, possibly because of its slower rate of spore germination. With co-cultures of the tolerant fungus Rhizopus stolonifer, B. subtilis produced high amounts of CLPs (per bacterial cell) for the duration of the interaction. Variations in CLP production could be explained, in part, by the pathogens' overall sensitivities to the bacterial lipopeptides and/or the relative growth rates between the plant pathogen and B. subtilis. CLP production varied substantially temporally depending on the targeted fungus, which provides valuable insight concerning the effectiveness of B. subtilis B9-5 protecting its ecological niche against the ingress of these pathogens.

  20. World Health Organization Ranking of Antimicrobials According to Their Importance in Human Medicine: A Critical Step for Developing Risk Management Strategies to Control Antimicrobial Resistance From Food Animal Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignon, Peter C; Conly, John M; Andremont, Antoine; McEwen, Scott A; Aidara-Kane, Awa; Agerso, Yvonne; Andremont, Antoine; Collignon, Peter; Conly, John; Dang Ninh, Tran; Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Fedorka-Cray, Paula; Fernandez, Heriberto; Galas, Marcelo; Irwin, Rebecca; Karp, Beth; Matar, Gassan; McDermott, Patrick; McEwen, Scott; Mitema, Eric; Reid-Smith, Richard; Scott, H Morgan; Singh, Ruby; DeWaal, Caroline Smith; Stelling, John; Toleman, Mark; Watanabe, Haruo; Woo, Gun-Jo

    2016-10-15

    Antimicrobial use in food animals selects for antimicrobial resistance in bacteria, which can spread to people. Reducing use of antimicrobials-particularly those deemed to be critically important for human medicine-in food production animals continues to be an important step for preserving the benefits of these antimicrobials for people. The World Health Organization ranking of antimicrobials according to their relative importance in human medicine was recently updated. Antimicrobials considered the highest priority among the critically important antimicrobials were quinolones, third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, macrolides and ketolides, and glycopeptides. The updated ranking allows stakeholders in the agriculture sector and regulatory agencies to focus risk management efforts on drugs used in food animals that are the most important to human medicine. In particular, the current large-scale use of fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and third-generation cephalosporins and any potential use of glycopeptides and carbapenems need to be addressed urgently. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of copaiba oil: implications on product quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Renata G; Barros, Francisco M; Apel, Miriam A; Poser, Gilsane L von; Andriolli, Jo O L; Filho, Pedro C Campos; Sousa, Dhierlate F; Lobo, Ivon P; Conceiç O, Aline O

    2015-01-01

    The copaiba oil is a common natural product used in cosmetic industry and as a nutraceutical product. However, lack of quality control and scarce knowledge about its antimicrobial activity is a point of concern. The proposal of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties and the antimicrobial activity of five commercial brands of copaiba oil. Acidity and ester index, refractory index, solubility in alcohol, and thin layer chromatography were performed to verify the physicochemical properties of five commercial copaiba oils sold in local pharmacies. Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD/ESI-Q-TOF-MS) was used to investigate diterpene acids while the volatile compounds were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Antibacterial and antifungal activities were also evaluated by agar diffusion technique; and minimal inhibitory concentration and maximal bactericidal concentration were defined for each sample and bacteria. The physical-chemical analysis revealed heterogeneity between all samples analysed. The A1 sample showed characteristics of copaiba oil and was mainly composed by hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes (29.95% β-bisabolene, 25.65% Z-α-bergamotene and 10.27% β-cariophyllene). Among diterpene acids, the UPLCDAD/ESI-Q-TOF-MS data are compatible with presence of copalic and/or kolavenic acid (m/z 305 [M + H]+). Candida albicans was sensitive to almost all samples at high concentration and Saccaromyces. Cerevisiae showed sensitivity to A1 sample at 100 mg/mL. Although variable, all samples showed antibacterial activity. Significant activity was seen for A3 (19.0 ±0 and 15.6 ±0.5 mm), A4 (16.6 ±0.5 and 15.6 ±0 mm), and A5 (17.1 ±0 and 17.1 ±0 mm) on Staphylococcus saprophyticus and S. aureus, respectively. All samples were active against Klebsiella pneumoniae showing ≥15 mm diameter halo inhibition; and only A

  2. Exploring the potential of antimicrobial hand hygiene products in reducing the infectious burden in low-income countries: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Witt Huberts, Jessie; Greenland, Katie; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Curtis, Val

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this review was to understand whether adding antimicrobial agents to hand hygiene products could increase the health benefits of handwashing with plain soap (HWWS) in low-income settings. A review of experimental studies comparing the effects of HWWS with antimicrobial soap and waterless hand sanitizer on health and hand contamination in naturalistic conditions was conducted. In addition, an analysis was completed of the evidence from laboratory studies examining the factors that may affect the impact of antimicrobial soap, taking into account the conditions in low-income settings. The review found no evidence for a superior effect of antimicrobial products compared with HWWS on disease incidence and limited evidence for an effect on hand contamination under naturalistic conditions. An analysis of the effectiveness of antimicrobial soap in laboratory settings suggested that it was only more effective than HWWS when handwashing frequency, duration, and product concentrations were above levels that could be expected in low-income settings. The limited available evidence suggests that under naturalistic conditions, antimicrobial products are no more effective than HWWS in removing pathogens from hands. Without significant improvement in efficacy, antimicrobial products are unlikely to produce greater health gains than HWWS in low-income settings. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Contact allergy to preservatives in patients with occupational contact dermatitis and exposure analysis of preservatives in registered chemical products for occupational use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob Ferløv; Friis, Ulrik Fischer; Menné, Torkil

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study is to investigate risk factors for sensitization to preservatives and to examine to which extent different preservatives are registered in chemical products for occupational use in Denmark. METHODS: A retrospective epidemiological observational analysis of data from...... a university hospital was conducted. All patients had occupational contact dermatitis and were consecutively patch tested with 11 preservatives from the European baseline series and extended patch test series during a 5-year period: 2009-2013. Information regarding the same preservatives in chemical products...... in several product categories, e.g., 'paints and varnishes', 'cleaning agents', 'cooling agents', and 'polishing agents'. Formaldehyde and isothiazolinones were extensively registered in PROBAS. CONCLUSIONS: The extensive use of formaldehyde and isothiazolinones in chemical products for occupational use may...

  4. Contact allergy to preservatives in patients with occupational contact dermatitis and exposure analysis of preservatives in registered chemical products for occupational use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwensen, Jakob Ferløv; Friis, Ulrik Fischer; Menné, Torkil; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate risk factors for sensitization to preservatives and to examine to which extent different preservatives are registered in chemical products for occupational use in Denmark. A retrospective epidemiological observational analysis of data from a university hospital was conducted. All patients had occupational contact dermatitis and were consecutively patch tested with 11 preservatives from the European baseline series and extended patch test series during a 5-year period: 2009-2013. Information regarding the same preservatives in chemical products for occupational use ('substances and materials') registered in the Danish Product Register Database (PROBAS) was obtained. The frequency of preservative contact allergy was 14.2% (n = 141) in 995 patients with occupational contact dermatitis. Patients with preservative contact allergy had significantly more frequently facial dermatitis (19.9 versus 13.1%) and age > 40 years (71.6 versus 45.8%) than patients without preservative contact allergy, whereas atopic dermatitis was less frequently observed (12.1 versus 19.8%). Preservative contact allergy was more frequent in painters with occupational contact dermatitis as compared to non-painters with occupational contact dermatitis (p contact allergy to methylisothiazolinone and contact allergy to formaldehyde. Analysis of the registered substances and materials in PROBAS revealed that preservatives occurred in several product categories, e.g., 'paints and varnishes', 'cleaning agents', 'cooling agents', and 'polishing agents'. Formaldehyde and isothiazolinones were extensively registered in PROBAS. The extensive use of formaldehyde and isothiazolinones in chemical products for occupational use may be problematic for the worker. Appropriate legislation, substitution, and employee education should be prioritized.

  5. Production of Silver Nanoparticles with Strong and Stable Antimicrobial Activity against Highly Pathogenic and Multidrug Resistant Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeb, Amr T. M.; Alshammari, Ahmad S.; Al-Brahim, Hessa; Al-Rubeaan, Khalid A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims. To synthesize, characterize, and analyze antimicrobial activity of AgNPs of Escherichia hermannii (SHE), Citrobacter sedlakii (S11P), and Pseudomonas putida (S5). Methods. The synthesized AgNPs were examined using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and, zeta potential, and the size and the morphology obtained from the three different isolates were also confirmed by TEM. Results. Among the three isolates tested, SHE showed the best antimicrobial activity due to the presence of small (4–12 nm) and stable (−22 mV) AgNPs. Stability of AgNPs was also investigated and found to be dependent on the nature of isolates. Conclusion. Produced AgNPs showed particle stability and antimicrobial efficacy up to 90 days of production. Our AgNPs exhibited greater antimicrobial activity compared with gentamicin against P. aeruginosa isolates and vancomycin against S. aureus and MRSA isolates at very low concentration (0.0002 mg per Microliters). PMID:25093206

  6. Incidence of Salmonella Infantis in poultry meat and products and the resistance of isolates to antimicrobials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaba, V.; Golić, B.; Sladojević, Ž.; Kalaba, D.

    2017-09-01

    Globalisation, climate change, changes in eating habits and the food industry, modern animal husbandry and market demands often have a negative impact on quality assurance, food safety and animal health. After the eradication of some zoonotic diseases that previously often jeopardized the human population, today in developed countries, the focus is mainly on the control of zoonoses transmitted by food. Salmonella is one of the most common pathogens that can be transmitted from animals to humans, and its reservoirs are poultry, cattle and pigs, so one transmission route to humans is from contaminated food of animal origin. Multidrug-resistant isolates of Salmonella, which can transfer their resistance genes to other microorganisms, are considered a serious threat to public health. Control of Salmonella primarily depends on a good monitoring system and knowledge of the presence of serovars and strains in an epizootiological area. During the first nine months of 2016, 1321 samples of poultry meat and products were examined, among which 108 harboured Salmonella. Altogether, 29 of the 108 isolates (26.85%) were Salmonella Infantis. For all 29 S. Infantis isolates, antimicrobial resistance was tested by the disc diffusion method. The isolates showed 100% resistance to amoxicillin, and nalidixic acid.

  7. Production of phytotoxic cationic α-helical antimicrobial peptides in plant cells using inducible promoters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Company

    Full Text Available Synthetic linear antimicrobial peptides with cationic α-helical structures, such as BP100, have potent and specific activities against economically important plant pathogenic bacteria. They are also recognized as valuable therapeutics and preservatives. However, highly active BP100 derivatives are often phytotoxic when expressed at high levels as recombinant peptides in plants. Here we demonstrate that production of recombinant phytotoxic peptides in transgenic plants is possible by strictly limiting transgene expression to certain tissues and conditions, and specifically that minimization of this expression during transformation and regeneration of transgenic plants is essential to obtain viable plant biofactories. On the basis of whole-genome transcriptomic data available online, we identified the Os.hsp82 promoter that fulfilled this requirement and was highly induced in response to heat shock. Using this strategy, we generated transgenic rice lines producing moderate yields of severely phytotoxic BP100 derivatives on exposure to high temperature. In addition, a threshold for gene expression in selected tissues and stages was experimentally established, below which the corresponding promoters should be suitable for driving the expression of recombinant phytotoxic proteins in genetically modified plants. In view of the growing transcriptomics data available, this approach is of interest to assist promoter selection for specific purposes.

  8. Influence of the antimicrobial compound allyl isothiocyanate against the Aspergillus parasiticus growth and its aflatoxins production in pizza crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles, Juan M; Manyes, Lara; Luciano, Fernando; Mañes, Jordi; Meca, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are secondary metabolites produced by different species of Aspergillus, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which possess mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic activities in humans. In this study, active packaging devices containing allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) or oriental mustard flour (OMF) + water were tested to inhibit the growth of A. parasiticus and AFs production in fresh pizza crust after 30 d. The antimicrobial and anti-aflatoxin activities were compared to a control group (no antimicrobial treatment) and to a group added with commercial preservatives (sorbic acid + sodium propionate). A. parasiticus growth was only inhibited after 30 d by AITC in filter paper at 5 μL/L and 10 μL/L, AITC sachet at 5 μL/L and 10 μL/L and OMF sachet at 850 mg + 850 μL of water. However, AFs production was inhibited by all antimicrobial treatments in a dose-dependent manner. More importantly, AITC in a filter paper at 10 μL/L, AITC sachet at 10 μL/L, OMF sachet at 850 mg + 850 μL of water and sorbic acid + sodium propionate at 0.5-2.0 g/Kg completely inhibited AFs formation. The use of AITC in active packaging devices could be a natural alternative to avoid the growth of mycotoxinogenic fungi in refrigerated bakery products in substitution of common commercial preservatives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Registered partnerships

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, family patterns have changed significantly. National laws have taken these changes into account, recognizing new forms of unions, different to heterosexual marriage. Indeed, recently some countries have given the possibility to same-sex couples to enter into various forms of unions. Staff regulations of international organizations are not directly affected by national laws, but in the context of diversity policies, the lack of recognition of these new forms of unions, may appear to discriminate based on sexual orientation and to limit the freedom of choosing marital status. A study by the International Service for Remunerations and Pensions (iSRP) of the OECD in January 2015 (PROS Report (1015) 04) shows that in comparison with other international organizations, CERN offers the least favorable social conditions for its Staff with in a registered partnership. As part of the Five-year review in 2015, it is important that CERN aligns itself with the practice of these other organizations...

  10. Campylobacter coli in Swine Production: Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms and Molecular Epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Thakur, Siddhartha; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial resistance, to evaluate and compare the use of two genotyping methods for molecular epidemiology purposes, and to determine the genotypic diversity of Campylobacter coli of porcine origin. A total of 100 C. coli isolates from swine were tested for susceptibility to six antimicrobials using the agar dilution method and genotyped using two high-resolution fingerprinting approaches: multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electr...

  11. The antimicrobial activity of lavender essential oil (Lavandula angustifolia) and its influence on the production performance of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaszyńska-Skwirzyńska, M; Szczerbińska, D

    2018-04-14

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity (in vitro) of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) essential oil (LEO) and the effect of its addition to the drinking water of broiler chickens on their production performance. Antimicrobial activity was determined by establishing the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using a series of microdilutions. Bird experiments were carried out on a commercial farm on 300 Ross 308 broilers. One-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to three experimental groups of 100 individuals (five replications of 20 individuals each). In the control group, chickens received drinking water without added essential oil throughout the rearing period. In the LEO 0.2 and LEO 0.4 groups, from 1 to 42 days of bird life, the LEO 0.2 group had 0.2 ml/L of essential lavender oil added to the drinking water, while LEO 0.4 had 0.4 ml/L added. The results of the experiment showed the antimicrobial activity of LEO and its positive effect on the production results of broiler chickens. Application of higher concentration of essential oil (0.4 ml/L) significantly affected production results (BW, FCR, WCR-p  .05). In vitro studies indicate a significant effect of LEO on the inhibition of microbial growth. These results encourage further studies on a larger scale that will confirm antimicrobial efficiency and define the mechanisms of action of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil and its individual components. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Register for Suicide Attempts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank

    2004-01-01

    The Register for Suicide Attempts (RSA) is a product of the WHO research project "WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide", which, among other things, had the purpose of collecting data on suicide attempts from 13 European countries. Data is collected in order to calculate trends and identify...

  13. Utilization of Low-Cost Ellagitannins for Ellagic Acid Production and Antimicrobial Phenolics Enhancing By Aspergillus awamorii and Aspergillus oryzae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bialy, H.A.; Abd EL-Aziz, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    Three fungal strains, Aspergillus awamorii A 9 , Aspergillus awamorii A 2 3 and Aspergillus oryzae O 2 , were selected out of ten fungal strains for their activeness in converting pomegranate peel ellagitannins into ellagic acid. When pomegranate peel was fermented by Aspergillus awamorii A 9 , the highest yields of ellagic acid (7.93±0.23 mg/g solid substrate) and total soluble phenolics (14.61±0.36 mg/g solid substrate) were produced at 5 and 10 days of incubation, respectively. Also, blue berry pomace, red grape pomace, strawberry pomace were evaluated as low cost ellagitannin sources for ellagic acid and soluble phenolics production. The antimicrobial activity of soluble phenolics extracted from fermented pomegranate peel and strawberry pomace was tested against two food-borne pathogens (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium). This study also revealed that 3 kGy enhanced the activity of antimicrobial phenolics

  14. Milk kefir: ultrastructure, antimicrobial activity and efficacy on aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaiel, Ahmed A; Ghaly, Mohamed F; El-Naggar, Ayman K

    2011-05-01

    The association of kefir microbiota was observed by electron microscopic examination. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations revealed that kefir grain surface is very rough and the inner portions had scattered irregular holes on its surface. The interior of the grain comprised fibrillar materials which were interpreted as protein, lipid and a soluble polysaccharide, the kefiran complex that surrounds yeast and bacteria in the grain. Yeast was observed more clearly than bacteria on the outer portion of the grain. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) observations of kefir revealed that the grain comprised a mixed culture of yeast and bacteria growing in close association with each other. Microbiota is dominated by budded and long-flattened yeast cells growing together with lactobacilli and lactococci bacteria. Bacterial cells with rounded ends were also observed in this mixed culture. Kefir grains, kefir suspensions, and kefiran were tested for antimicrobial activities against several bacterial and fungal species. The highest activity was obtained against Streptococcus faecalis KR6 and Fusarium graminearum CZ1. Growth of Aspergillus flavus AH3 producing for aflatoxin B1 for 10 days in broth medium supplemented with varying concentrations of kefir filtrate (%, v/v) showed that sporulation was completely inhibited at the higher concentrations of kefir filtrate (7-10%, v/v). The average values of both mycelial dry weights and aflatoxin B1 were completely inhibited at 10% (v/v). This is the first in vitro study about the antifungal characteristics of kefir against filamentous fungi which was manifested by applying its inhibitory effect on the productivity of aflatoxin B1 by A. flavus AH3.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium from humans and production animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; FrimodtMoller, N.

    1997-01-01

    : Poultry strains were usually resistant only to ampicillin, white pig and cattle isolates were most often resistant to sulphonamide, tetracycline and streptomycin. Typing of the strains showed that some animal strains and human strains were indistinguishable. In conclusion, while antimicrobial resistance......We have studied the frequency of antimicrobial resistance and epidemiological relatedness among 473 isolates of Salmonella enterica subsp, enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) from human and veterinary sources. The human strains were clinical isolates from patients with diarrhoea sent...... to the State Serum Institute during August 1993 (228 isolates). The animal strains were isolated from clinical or subclinical infections in cattle (48 isolates), pigs (99 isolates) or poultry (98 isolates), all from 1993. All strains were tested against 22 different antimicrobial agents used in both human...

  16. Antimicrobial Peptides in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangshun Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights new members, novel mechanisms of action, new functions, and interesting applications of antimicrobial peptides reported in 2014. As of December 2014, over 100 new peptides were registered into the Antimicrobial Peptide Database, increasing the total number of entries to 2493. Unique antimicrobial peptides have been identified from marine bacteria, fungi, and plants. Environmental conditions clearly influence peptide activity or function. Human α-defensin HD-6 is only antimicrobial under reduced conditions. The pH-dependent oligomerization of human cathelicidin LL-37 is linked to double-stranded RNA delivery to endosomes, where the acidic pH triggers the dissociation of the peptide aggregate to release its cargo. Proline-rich peptides, previously known to bind to heat shock proteins, are shown to inhibit protein synthesis. A model antimicrobial peptide is demonstrated to have multiple hits on bacteria, including surface protein delocalization. While cell surface modification to decrease cationic peptide binding is a recognized resistance mechanism for pathogenic bacteria, it is also used as a survival strategy for commensal bacteria. The year 2014 also witnessed continued efforts in exploiting potential applications of antimicrobial peptides. We highlight 3D structure-based design of peptide antimicrobials and vaccines, surface coating, delivery systems, and microbial detection devices involving antimicrobial peptides. The 2014 results also support that combination therapy is preferred over monotherapy in treating biofilms.

  17. Antimicrobial polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anjali; Duvvuri, L Sailaja; Farah, Shady; Beyth, Nurit; Domb, Abraham J; Khan, Wahid

    2014-12-01

    Better health is basic requirement of human being, but the rapid growth of harmful pathogens and their serious health effects pose a significant challenge to modern science. Infections by pathogenic microorganisms are of great concern in many fields such as medical devices, drugs, hospital surfaces/furniture, dental restoration, surgery equipment, health care products, and hygienic applications (e.g., water purification systems, textiles, food packaging and storage, major or domestic appliances etc.) Antimicrobial polymers are the materials having the capability to kill/inhibit the growth of microbes on their surface or surrounding environment. Recently, they gained considerable interest for both academic research and industry and were found to be better than their small molecular counterparts in terms of enhanced efficacy, reduced toxicity, minimized environmental problems, resistance, and prolonged lifetime. Hence, efforts have focused on the development of antimicrobial polymers with all desired characters for optimum activity. In this Review, an overview of different antimicrobial polymers, their mechanism of action, factors affecting antimicrobial activity, and application in various fields are given. Recent advances and the current clinical status of these polymers are also discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The effect of production type and antimicrobial usage on the occurrence of tetracycline resistant E. coli in danish slaughter pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struve, Tina; Vigre, Håkan; Wingstrand, Anne

    The Qualysafe project was initiated in 2007 to support and strengthen the sustainable production systems in Danish food production. One of the objectives of the epidemiological investigation was to find new methods to improve food safety in conventional as well as in alternative pig production sy...... of potential risk factors on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in animal production....... (organic, free range and conventional farms) was a risk factor for occurrence of antimicrobial resistance and Tetracycline usage was regarded as an intervening factor between production type and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, the effect of production type and Tetracycline usage...... was estimated in two separate models using logistic regression, taking into account the correlation of results obtained from the same farm. Among the 411 isolates, 129 was found resistant to Tetracycline (Organic: 10%, Free Range: 27 % Conventional: 39 %). Differences was seen in the consumption pattern among...

  19. [Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolated from broiler whole production process in four provinces of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W W; Bai, L; Zhang, X L; Xu, X J; Tang, Z; Bi, Z W; Guo, Y C

    2018-04-06

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolated from broiler production process in 4 provinces of China. Methods: Using convenience sampling method, 238 sample sites from broiler whole production process were chosen in Henan, Jiangsu, Heilongjiang and Shandong provinces in 2012. A total of 11 592 samples were collected and detected to analyze prevalence baseline, including 2 090 samples from breeding chicken farms and hatcheries, 1 421 samples from broiler farms, 5 610 samples from slaughterhouses and 2 471 samples from distribution and retail stores. All Salmonella strains were isolated through selective enrichment, and were serotyped according to Kauffmann-White scheme. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of selected Salmonella strains were determined by the broth microdilution method and fourteen antimicrobial agents were examined. Results: During incubation course, the average prevalence of Salmonella was 5.5% in feces of breeding hens, feces of chicks, and hatching eggs, 123 Salmonella strains were isolated. During cultivation course, the prevalence of Salmonella was 8.0% in feces from broiler farms, soil, feed, and workers, 114 Salmonella strains were isolated. During slaughter course, the prevalence of Salmonella was 24.9% in swabs pre-slaughter, dressed broiler carcasses, pre-cooled broiler carcasses, water from precooling pool, cutter and chipping boards, frozen chicken portions, and workers, 1 438 Salmonella strains were isolated. During distribution and sale course, the prevalence of Salmonella was 20.9% in transport carts, frozen chicken portions, retail chicken portions and workers, 551 Salmonella strains were isolated. The dominant Salmonella serotypes were Salmonella Enteritidis ( n= 1 229) and Salmonella Indiana ( n= 621). Among 1 231 examined strains, 97.2% Salmonella isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, 69.9% Salmonella strains were multi-drug resistant isolates. Conclusion: Our

  20. Production of the antimicrobial peptides Caseicin A and B by Bacillus isolates growing on sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, R M; Guinane, C M; O'Connor, P M; Fitzgerald, G F; Hill, C; Stanton, C; Ross, R P

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify Bacillus isolates capable of degrading sodium caseinate and subsequently to generate bioactive peptides with antimicrobial activity. Sodium caseinate (2.5% w/v) was inoculated separately with 16 Bacillus isolates and allowed to ferment overnight. Protein breakdown in the fermentates was analysed using gel permeation-HPLC (GP-HPLC) and screened for peptides (casein. This study highlights the potential to exploit Bacillus sp. or the enzymes they produce for the generation of bioactive antimicrobial peptides from bovine casein. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Exploring the potential of antimicrobial hand hygiene products in reducing the infectious burden in low-income countries: An integrative review.

    OpenAIRE

    de Witt Huberts, J; Greenland, K; Schmidt, WP; Curtis, V

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to understand whether adding antimicrobial agents to hand hygiene products could increase the health benefits of handwashing with plain soap (HWWS) in low-income settings. A review of experimental studies comparing the effects of HWWS with antimicrobial soap and waterless hand sanitizer on health and hand contamination in naturalistic conditions was conducted. In addition, an analysis was completed of the evidence from laboratory studies examining the factors th...

  2. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Biofilm Production by Salmonella sp. Strains Isolated from Frozen Poultry Carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Sereno

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance and the biofilm-producing ability of Salmonella sp. strains isolated from frozen poultry carcasses. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the disk-diffusion method. Biofilm-producing ability was determined in 96-well polystyrene microplates stained with crystal violet at 1%. Out of the 22 strains tested, all were multiresistant, that is, resistant to more than three antimicrobial classes, and 72.7% were able to form biofilms. The highest resistance rates obtained were against sulfonamides, tetracycline, and quinolones. On the other hand, 100% of the strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol. According to the rate of biofilm formation, 3 (13.6% and 13 (59.1% strains were classified as moderate and weak biofilm-producers, respectively, and 27.3% did not form biofilms. Biofilms increase the tolerance of microorganisms to stress, reducing their sensitivity to disinfectants and antimicrobials; favor equipment corrosion; and act as substrates for the adhesion of bacteria with lower biofilm-producing capacity. The results of the present study stress the importance of cleaning procedures in food processing plants and highlight the public health risks related to the emergence of multiresistant strains.

  3. Prediction, production and characterization of post-translationally modified antimicrobial peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heel, Auke Johan

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria are rapidly becoming resistant to the currently used antibiotics therefore we need novel antibiotics, preferably with new mechanisms of action. One potential source are the so called antimicrobial peptides that are produced by many different organisms. To gain access to these

  4. Do the ban on use of anti-microbial growth promoter impact on technical change and the efficiency of slaughter-pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson, Lartey; Otto, Lars; Jensen, Peter Vig

    2005-01-01

    infections, and in effect stimu-lated the utilization of feedstuff and reduced the mortality rate. However, fears for increas-ing bacteria resistance with subsequent health hazards for humans and livestock has lead to societal debates about the pros and cons of its use in livestock production. Antibiotic......This study aims at investigating the effects of the ban on the use of anti-microbial growth promoters in the production of “Finishing Pigs” for slaughter. We investigate if the ban on the use of anti-microbial growth promoters has for specialised pig-producers altered the productivity of inputs......, technical change and the efficiency of production. This paper complements an earlier paper that investigated the impact of the ban on weaned-pig produc-tion. Background: The study is motivated by the fact that antimicrobial growth promoters have been known world wide to protect livestock from bacteria...

  5. Use of zinc oxide nano particles for production of antimicrobial textiles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 1 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. 77 FR 74003 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) or are required to register pesticides. The following list... remediation, on nonporous and porous surfaces, for residual activity, for mold prevention, and in heating...

  7. A comparison of antimicrobial usage in human and veterinary medicine in France from 1999 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, Gérard; Cavalié, Philippe; Pellanne, Isabelle; Chevance, Anne; Laval, Arlette; Millemann, Yves; Colin, Pierre; Chauvin, Claire

    2008-09-01

    The antimicrobials allowed and amounts sold in veterinary and human medicine in France were compared to see if the same antimicrobial drugs are used in veterinary and human medicine, and to the same extent. Registers of all approved antimicrobial commercial products, kept by the French Agency for Veterinary Medicinal Products (AFSSA ANMV) for animals and the French Health Products Safety Agency (AFSSAPS) for humans, were compared to determine whether the same antimicrobials were approved in 2007 for use in both human and animal populations. Sales data were collected from pharmaceutical companies between 1999 and 2005 by the AFSSA ANMV and AFSSAPS. Usage of the different antimicrobial anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC) classes in human and veterinary medicines was recorded. Data were expressed in tonnes of active ingredients and were then related to the animal and human biomasses to compare usages expressed in mg/kg. All antimicrobial ATC classes were used in both human and veterinary medicine. Tetracyclines accounted for the most sales in veterinary medicine. beta-Lactams predominated in human medicine. A decrease in the amounts consumed by both human and animal populations was observed during the study. In 2005, 760 tonnes were used in human medicine and 1320 tonnes in veterinary medicine, corresponding to 199 and 84 mg/kg of live weight in human and animal populations, respectively. The same antimicrobial drugs were used in human and veterinary medicines but the quantitative patterns of use were different. Expression of antimicrobial usage is a key point to address when comparing usage trends.

  8. Effects of irradiation, antimicrobial agents and modified packaging on histamine production by Morganella morganii in mackerel fillets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aytac, S.A.; Ozbas, Z.Y.; Vural, H.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation (0.5 and 2.0 kGy), antimicrobial agents (5% sodium chloride and 1% potassium sorbate) and modified atmosphere (100% CO2) packaging (MAP) on histamine production by Morganella morganii were examined in mackerel fillets during 8 days of cold storage. MAP combined with antimicrobial agents was also applied to the fillets. The changes in histamine levels, M. morganii and total aerobic bacterial counts were determined during the storage. All methods used in this study showed beneficial effect in controlling bacterial growth and histamine production on mackerel fillets during 2-3 days of storage. MAP combined with 5% sodium chloride has more retarding effect on production of histamine than the other methods. For M. morganii, maximum inhibition effect was found at the dose of 2.0 kGy. Irradiation with a dose of 2.0 kGy, MAP combined with sodium chloride and MAP were also found to have the most inhibiting effects on total aerobic bacterial count during the storage

  9. Investigation of antimicrobial activity and statistical optimization of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant production in solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghribi, Dhouha; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Mnif, Ines; Kammoun, Radhouan; Ayadi, Imen; Saadaoui, Imen; Maktouf, Sameh; Chaabouni-Ellouze, Semia

    2012-01-01

    During the last years, several applications of biosurfactants with medical purposes have been reported. Biosurfactants are considered relevant molecules for applications in combating many diseases. However, their use is currently extremely limited due to their high cost in relation to that of chemical surfactants. Use of inexpensive substrates can drastically decrease its production cost. Here, twelve solid substrates were screened for the production of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant and the maximum yield was found with millet. A Plackett-Burman design was then used to evaluate the effects of five variables (temperature, moisture, initial pH, inoculum age, and inoculum size). Statistical analyses showed that temperature, inoculum age, and moisture content had significantly positive effect on SPB1 biosurfactant production. Their values were further optimized using a central composite design and a response surface methodology. The optimal conditions of temperature, inoculum age, and moisture content obtained under the conditions of study were 37°C, 14 h, and 88%, respectively. The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of this compound was carried out against 11 bacteria and 8 fungi. The results demonstrated that this biosurfactant exhibited an important antimicrobial activity against microorganisms with multidrug-resistant profiles. Its activity was very effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumonia, and so forth.

  10. Investigation of Antimicrobial Activity and Statistical Optimization of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 Biosurfactant Production in Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhouha Ghribi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, several applications of biosurfactants with medical purposes have been reported. Biosurfactants are considered relevant molecules for applications in combating many diseases. However, their use is currently extremely limited due to their high cost in relation to that of chemical surfactants. Use of inexpensive substrates can drastically decrease its production cost. Here, twelve solid substrates were screened for the production of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant and the maximum yield was found with millet. A Plackett-Burman design was then used to evaluate the effects of five variables (temperature, moisture, initial pH, inoculum age, and inoculum size. Statistical analyses showed that temperature, inoculum age, and moisture content had significantly positive effect on SPB1 biosurfactant production. Their values were further optimized using a central composite design and a response surface methodology. The optimal conditions of temperature, inoculum age, and moisture content obtained under the conditions of study were 37°C, 14 h, and 88%, respectively. The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of this compound was carried out against 11 bacteria and 8 fungi. The results demonstrated that this biosurfactant exhibited an important antimicrobial activity against microorganisms with multidrug-resistant profiles. Its activity was very effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumonia, and so forth.

  11. Detection of biofilm production of Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from infected children and comparative antimicrobial susceptibility of biofilm versus planktonic forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, A; Kyratsa, A; Ioannidou, V; Bersimis, S; Chatzipanagiotou, S

    2014-06-01

    The ability of Yersinia species to produce biofilms has not been hitherto systematically studied, although there is evidence, that Y. enterocolitica is able to form biofilms on inanimate surfaces. The present study aimed to detect the production of biofilms by 60 clinical strains of Y. enterocolitica and to compare the antimicrobial susceptibility of planktonic versus biofilm-forming bacteria. Y. enterocolitica strains were collected from stool and blood cultures collected from β-thalassaemic children, with gastroenteritis and/or septicemia. The isolated bacterial strains were grouped by biotyping and serotyping and the antimicrobial susceptibility of the planktonic forms was investigated by MIC determination. Biofilm formation was detected by the use of silicone disks and for the biofilm forming strains the minimum inhibitory concentration for bacterial regrowth (MICBR) of 11 clinically important antimicrobials was determined. The presence of the waaE, a gene reported to be related with biofilm formation was investigated in all the strains. All of 60 strains were positive for biofilm production by the use of silicone disks. The great majority of the biofilm forms were resistant to all the antimicrobials. In antimicrobial concentrations far higher than the CLSI breakpoints, bacterial regrowth from the biofilms was still possible. None of the strains bore the waaE gene. These results, indicate that biofilm formation by Y. enterocolitica might be an inherent feature. The presence of biofilms increased dramatically the MICBR in all antimicrobials. The way in which biofilms could contribute to Y. enterocolitica pathogenicity in humans is a matter needing further investigation.

  12. Use of Nanostructured ZnO for Production of Antimicrobial Textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chit Ko Ko Htwe

    2011-12-01

    An awareness of general sanitation, contact disease transmission, and personal protection has led to the development of antimicrobial textiles. The development of antimicrobial fabrics using nanostructure ZnO has been investigated in this present work. The nanostructure ZnO were produced using a microwave irradiation without any other calcinations and were directly applied on to the fabric using pad-dry-cure method.Synthesized nanostructure ZnO were characterized by XRD and SEM for ZnO purification and particle size examination. The antibacterial activity of the finished fabrics was assessed qualitatively by agar diffusion method. The results show that the finished fabric demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in qualitative test.

  13. Assessment of Antimicrobial Treatment Strategies in Pig Production Using Mathematical Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Amais

    strategies. Dosing factors, along with the in vivo epidemiological parameters, govern the relation between resistance and antimicrobial use. Mathematical modeling and simulation techniques have been used over the past two decades to evaluate the effect of these factors on the development of resistance......, and are considered to be powerful tools in designing treatment strategies. The overall aim of the thesis was to develop an in vivo bacterial growth model to predict and assess the effect of dosing factor on resistance growth in order to optimize treatment strategies. Specific aims were to a) estimate pharmacodynamic...... concentration (MIC). These parameters along with MIC should be taken into account when studying the effect of antimicrobials on the bacterial growth. These parameters were used as an input to the in vivo growth model of multiple bacterial strains. For almost all treatments, high resistance levels were found...

  14. Oregano Essential Oil as an Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Additive in Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Garcia, I; Silva-Espinoza, B A; Ortega-Ramirez, L A; Leyva, J M; Siddiqui, M W; Cruz-Valenzuela, M R; Gonzalez-Aguilar, G A; Ayala-Zavala, J F

    2016-07-26

    Food consumers and industries urged the need of natural alternatives to assure food safety and quality. As a response, the use of natural compounds from herbs and spices is an alternative to synthetic additives associated with toxic problems. This review discusses the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of oregano essential oil (OEO) and its potential as a food additive. Oregano is a plant that has been used as a food seasoning since ancient times. The common name of oregano is given to several species: Origanum (family: Lamiaceae) and Lippia (family: Verbenaceae), amongst others. The main compounds identified in the different OEOs are carvacrol and thymol, which are responsible for the characteristic odor, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activity; however, their content may vary according to the species, harvesting season, and geographical sources. These substances as antibacterial agents make the cell membrane permeable due to its impregnation in the hydrophobic domains, this effect is higher against gram positive bacteria. In addition, the OEO has antioxidant properties effective in retarding the process of lipid peroxidation in fatty foods, and scavenging free radicals. In this perspective, the present review analyzes and discusses the state of the art about the actual and potential uses of OEO as an antimicrobial and antioxidant food additives.

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... menu Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  17. Comparative analysis of copper and zinc based agrichemical biocide products: materials characteristics, phytotoxicity and in vitro antimicrobial efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harikishan Kannan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, copper based biocides have been extensively used in food crop protection including citrus, small fruits and in all garden vegetable production facilities. Continuous and rampant use of copper based biocides over decades has led to accumulation of this metal in the soil and the surrounding ecosystem. Toxic levels of copper and its derivatives in both the soil and in the run off pose serious environmental and public health concerns. Alternatives to copper are in great need for the agriculture industry to produce food crops with minimal environmental risks. A combination of copper and zinc metal containing biocide such as Nordox 30/30 or an improved version of zinc-only containing biocide would be a good alternative to copper-only products if the efficacy can be maintained. As of yet there is no published literature on the comparative study of the materials characteristics and phyto-compatibility properties of copper and zinc-based commercial products that would allow us to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of both versions of pesticides. In this report, we compared copper hydroxide and zinc oxide based commercially available biocides along with suitable control materials to assess their efficacy as biocides. We present a detailed material characterization of the biocides including morphological studies involving electron microscopy, molecular structure studies involving X-ray diffraction, phytotoxicity studies in model plant (tomato and antimicrobial studies involving surrogate plant pathogens (Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Zinc based compounds were found to possess comparable to superior antimicrobial properties while exhibiting significantly lower phytotoxicity when compared to copper based products thus suggesting their potential as an alternative.

  18. Antimicrobial and antifungal activity of 2-(1H-tetrazolo-5-ylanilines and products of their structural modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Antypenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Virtually any molecule of antibiotic can be inactivated in the microbial cell by particular resistance mechanism. In this regard, each antibiotic effectiveness starts to decrease, which necessitates the synthesis of new antimicrobial agents. Aim. To examine the previously synthesized substituted 2-(1H-tetrazolo-5-ylanilines and products of their structural modification for antimicrobial and antifungal activity. Materials and methods. The study of biological activity was conducted by disco-diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar on these strains of microorganisms: Gram-positive cocci (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus aeruginosa, E. faecalis ATCC 29212, Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa PSS27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, facultative anaerobic gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumonia and fungi (Candida albicans ATCC 885653. Results. The studies showed, that the antifungal activity was characteristic only for S-substituted of tetrazolo[1,5-c]quinazoline-(6H-5-ones(thiones. The growth of gram-positive cocci Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, more effectively detained 5-(N,N-dialkylaminoethylthio-tetrazolo[1,5-c]quinazolines (4.4-4.6. 1-(2- (1H-tetrazolo-5-yl-R1-phenyl-3-R2-phenyl(ethylureas (2.1-2.31 were more selective against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. Analysis of «structure-activity relationship» showed, that the introduction of halogen to the aniline fragment leads to increase of activity. Thus, the compound 2.3 with fluorine stopped the growth of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia for 31 mm and 21 mm, respectively. Structures with chlorine (2.4 and bromine (2.5 stopped the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 20 mm and 23 mm, respectively. And the presence of trifluoromethyl group in the phenylureide fragment and chlorine in aniline fragment of compound 2.27 led to the highest growth delay zone 25 mm. Among the investigated compounds only 1-(4-methoxyphenyl-2

  19. Safety Evaluation of the Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Microbiota of Salami: Superantigenic Toxin Production and Antimicrobial Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Soares Casaes Nunes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The risks of contracting staphylococci food poisoning by the consumption of improperly manufactured salami and the possibility of this food being reservoirs for antibiotic resistance were evaluated. Nineteen coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS strains were found in commercial and artisanal salami. The species in commercial salami were S. saprophyticus, S. sciuri, S. xylosus, and S. carnosus. Artisanal salami showed S. succinus, S. epidermidis, and S. hominis but no S. carnosus. Phylogenetic analyses grouped the strains into three major staphylococcal species groups, comprised of 4 refined clusters with similarities superior to 90%. Fifteen strains harbored multiple enterotoxin genes, with high incidence of seb/sec and sea, 57% and 50%, respectively, intermediate incidence of sed/seh/selm and sei/seln/tst-H, 33% and 27%, correspondingly, and low incidence of see/selj/selo and seg, of respectively 13% and 1%. Real time RT-PCR and enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays confirmed the enterotoxigenicity of the strains, which expressed and produced enterotoxins in vitro. The CNS strains showed multiresistance to several antimicrobials of therapeutic importance in both human and veterinarian medicine, such as β-lactams, vancomycin, and linezolid. The effective control of undue staphylococci in fermented meat products should be adopted to prevent or limit the risk of food poisoning and the spread of antimicrobial-resistant strains.

  20. Green production of microalgae-based silver chloride nanoparticles with antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Ferreira, Veronica; ConzFerreira, Mateus Eugenio; Lima, Luís Maurício T R; Frasés, Susana; de Souza, Wanderley; Sant'Anna, Celso

    2017-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles are powerful antimicrobial agents. Here, the synthesis of silver chloride nanoparticles (AgCl-NPs) was consistently evidenced from a commercially valuable microalgae species, Chlorella vulgaris. Incubation of C. vulgaris conditioned medium with AgNO 3 resulted in a medium color change to yellow/brown (with UV-vis absorbance at 415nm), indicative of silver nanoparticle formation. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of purified nanoparticles confirmed the presence of both silver and chlorine atoms, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the typical pattern of cubic crystalline AgCl-NPs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that most particles (65%) were spherical, with average diameter of 9.8±5.7nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of purified nanoparticle fractions suggested that proteins are the main molecular entities involved in AgCl-NP formation and stabilization. AgCl-NPs (from 10μg/mL) decreased by 98% the growth of Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Klebsiella pneumoniae bacterial pathogens, and had a dose-dependent effect on cell viability, which was measured by automated image-based high content screening (HCS). Ultrastructural analysis of treated bacteria by TEM revealed the abnormal arrangement of the chromosomal DNA. Our findings strongly indicated that the AgCl-NPs from C. vulgaris conditioned medium is a promising 'green' alternative for biomedical application as antimicrobials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. HIF-1α is essential for effective PMN bacterial killing, antimicrobial peptide production and apoptosis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Berger

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α, is a transcription factor that controls energy metabolism and angiogenesis under hypoxic conditions, and a potent regulator of innate immunity. The studies described herein examined the role of HIF-1α in disease resolution in BALB/c (resistant, cornea heals mice after ocular infection with Pseudomonas (P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, the current studies focused on the neutrophil (PMN, the predominant cell infiltrate in keratitis. Using both siRNA and an antagonist (17-DMAG, the role of HIF-1α was assessed in P. aeruginosa-infected BALB/c mice. Clinical score and slit lamp photography indicated HIF-1α inhibition exacerbated disease and corneal destruction. Real time RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, ELISA, Greiss and MPO assays, bacterial load, intracellular killing, phagocytosis and apoptosis assays further tested the regulatory role of HIF-1α. Despite increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and increased MPO levels after knocking down HIF-1α expression, in vivo studies revealed a decrease in NO production and higher bacterial load. In vitro studies using PMN provided evidence that although inhibition of HIF-1α did not affect phagocytosis, both bacterial killing and apoptosis were significantly affected, as was production of antimicrobial peptides. Overall, data provide evidence that inhibition of HIF-1α converts a normally resistant disease response to susceptible (corneal thinning and perforation after induction of bacterial keratitis. Although this inhibition does not appear to affect PMN transmigration or phagocytosis, both in vivo and in vitro approaches indicate that the transcriptional factor is essential for effective bacterial killing, apoptosis and antimicrobial peptide production.

  2. Partial budget analysis of prepartum antimicrobial therapy and Escherichia coli J5 vaccination of dairy heifers and their effect on milk production and milk quality parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renison T. Vargas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed to determine whether prepartum antimicrobial and/or Escherichia coli J5 vaccination in dairy heifers influence the milk production, milk quality, and estimate their economic benefit. Thus, 33 dairy heifers were enrolled in four groups using a split-splot design. Groups were: (G1 prepartum antimicrobial infusion and vaccination with an E. coli J5 bacterin, (G2 prepartum antimicrobial infusion, (G3 vaccination with an E. coli J5 bacterin, and (G4 control heifers. Composite milk samples for somatic cell count, total bacteria count and milk composition were collected 15 days after calving and every 15 days until the end of the experiment. Bacteriological analysis was carried out at the end of study. The milk production and the incidence of clinical cases of mastitis, as well as the costs associated with them were recorded. The results demonstrate a reduction on clinical mastitis rates by preventive strategies, which implicated in lower volume of discarded milk (0.99, 1.01, 1.04 and 3.98% for G1, G2, G3 and G4, respectively and higher economic benefit. Thus, in well-managed dairy herds the prevention of heifer mastitis by vaccination or antimicrobial therapy can reduce the amount of antimicrobials needed to treat clinical mastitis cases and the days of discarded milk.

  3. Antimicrobial Activity and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Three Isolates of Lactic Acid Bacteria From Fermented Fish Product, Budu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liasi, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB from the fermented food product, Budu, were identified as genus lactobacillus (Lactobacillus casei LA17, Lactobacillus plantarum LA22 and L. paracasei LA02, and the highest population was Lb. paracasei LA02. The antibacterial agent produced by the isolates inhibited the growth of a range of gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. Antimicrobial sensitivity test to 18 different types of antibiotic were evaluated using the disc diffusion method. Inhibition zone diameter was measured and calculated from the means of five determinations and expressed in terms of resistance or susceptibility. All the LAB isolates were resistant to colestin sulphate, streptomycin, amikacin, norfloxacin, nalidixic acid, mecillinam, sulphanethoxazole/ trimethoprim, kanamycin, neomycin, bacitracin and gentamycin but susceptible to erythromycin, penicillin G, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ampicillin and nitrofurantion.

  4. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... least 10 countries (Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Japan, Norway, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden and the United Kingdom ... plan Global report on surveillance Country situation analysis Policy to combat antimicrobial resistance More on antimicrobial resistance ...

  5. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can prevent and manage antimicrobial resistance. It is collaborating with partners to strengthen the evidence base and ... on the global action plan. WHO has been leading multiple initiatives to address antimicrobial resistance: World Antibiotic ...

  6. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua Isolated from Ready-to-Eat Products of Animal Origin in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escolar, Cristina; Gómez, Diego; Del Carmen Rota García, María; Conchello, Pilar; Herrera, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance in Listeria spp. isolated from food of animal origin. A total of 50 Listeria strains isolated from meat and dairy products, consisting of 7 Listeria monocytogenes and 43 Listeria innocua strains, were characterized for antimicrobial susceptibility against nine antimicrobials. The strains were screened by real-time PCR for the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes: tet M, tet L, mef A, msr A, erm A, erm B, lnu A, and lnu B. Multidrug resistance was identified in 27 Listeria strains, 4 belonging to L. monocytogenes. Resistance to clindamycin was the most common resistance phenotype and was identified in 45 Listeria strains; the mechanisms of resistance are still unknown. A medium prevalence of resistance to tetracycline (15 and 9 resistant and intermediate strains) and ciprofloxacin (13 resistant strains) was also found. Tet M was detected in Listeria strains with reduced susceptibility to tetracycline, providing evidence that both L. innocua and L. monocytogenes displayed acquired resistance. The presence of antimicrobial resistance genes in L. innocua and L. monocytogenes indicates that these genes may be transferred to commensal and pathogenic bacteria via the food chain; besides this, antibiotic resistance in L. monocytogenes could compromise the effective treatment of listeriosis in humans.

  7. In vitro antimicrobial activity of mouth washes and herbal products against dental biofilm-forming bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiana B Da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate in vitro, the antimicrobial effect of Cymbopogon citrates (lemon grass, Plectranthusamboinicus (Mexican mint and Conyzabonariensis (hairy fleabane tinctures as well as pure and diluted commercial mouth washes (Malvatricin® , Periogard® and Listerine® on wild isolates of Streptococcusmutans and reference strains of S. mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus oralis and Lactobacillus casei by determination of minimum inhibitory dilution (MID. Materials and Methods: 0.12% chlorhexidine and 70% corn alcohol were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Saliva samples were collected from 3 volunteers and seeded in MSB broth to obtain Streptococcus isolates after 72-hour incubation. Using the agar diffusion method, susceptibility tests were performed with overnight incubation in microaerophilia at 37°C. All tests were performed in duplicate. Results: The bacterial species were resistant to the tinctures and Listerine® , but were susceptible to 0.12% chlorhexidine, Malvatricin® and Periogard® , with MIDs ranging from 12.5% to 1.56%. Conclusions: Plectrantusamboinicus, Conyzabonariensis and Cymbopongoncitratus tinctures and Listerine® did not show inhibitory action against the tested biofilm-forming bacteria.

  8. Phenolic acids and flavonoids of peanut by-products: Antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Regitano-d'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Rasera, Gabriela Boscariol; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; do Prado-Silva, Leonardo; Alvarenga, Verônica Ortiz; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2017-12-15

    Peanut skin (PS) and meal from dry-blanched peanuts (MDBP) were evaluated as sources of phenolic compounds. PS rendered the highest total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity towards ABTS radical cation, DPPH and hydroxyl radicals as well as reducing power. Phenolic acids were present in PS and MDBP whereas proanthocyanidins and monomeric flavonoids were found only in PS as identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS n . Procyanidin-rich extracts prevented oxidation in non-irradiated and gamma-irradiated fish model system. Both extracts inhibited the growth of gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Geobacillus stearothermophilus) and gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli). Regardless of the strain, phenolic acid-rich extracts showed the lowest minimum inhibitory capacity (MIC); therefore presenting higher antibacterial effect. The MIC of phenolic acid-rich extracts (24-49μgphenolics/mL) was higher but comparable to Ampicillin (10μg/mL). Thus, phenolics in PS and MDBP may serve as antioxidants and antimicrobial compounds. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Antioxidant, antimicrobial activity and mineral composition of low-temperature fractioning products of Malus domestica Borkh (common Antonovka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kuznetsova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The low-temperature fractionation of fruit Malus domestica Borkh (Common Antonovka has been performed. We obtained by fractionation the biologically active products that are the dehydrated concentrate of juice and the powder of pomace fibers. Use of low temperature minimizes biological value losses during processing. These fractions of fruit Malus domestica Borkh (Common Antonovka are experimentally studied. It is found that the fractions have high antioxidant activity and include bioflavonoids and organic and phenol carboxylic acids. Analysis of chromatograms showed availability of the identical compounds in the products of low-temperature fractionation. Sodium and potassium are part of the cells of biological systems as highly mobile ionic forms. Therefore, these elements prevail in the concentrated juice. Iron, manganese, copper, and zinc are biogenic trace elements or components of enzyme systems and are evenly distributed as in plant cell walls as well in protoplasm. It follows from the results of the study of the mineral composition that the products of the low-temperature fractioning can be used for a functional food as a result of its high content of magnesium and iron. The low-temperature fractionation of fruit Malus domestica Borkh (Common Antonovka has antimicrobial activity against the standard strains of spoilage: Bacillus subtilis VKM-B-501, Micrococcus luteus VKM-As-2230, Aspergillus flavus VKM-F-1024, Penicillium expansion VKM-F-275, Mucor mucedo VKM- F-1257, Rhizopus stolonifer VKM- F-2005. Experimental data show that the products of low-temperature fractioning of Malus domestica Borkh (Common Antonovka inhibit microorganism's growth. The detected composition of Malus domestica Borkh (Common Antonovka fractions allows using these products as natural additives in food technology to maintain and increase period of storage and also for preventive nutrition.

  10. Infectious bronchitis corona virus establishes productive infection in avian macrophages interfering with selected antimicrobial functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Amarasinghe

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV causes respiratory disease leading to loss of egg and meat production in chickens. Although it is known that macrophage numbers are elevated in the respiratory tract of IBV infected chickens, the role played by macrophages in IBV infection, particularly as a target cell for viral replication, is unknown. In this study, first, we investigated the ability of IBV to establish productive replication in macrophages in lungs and trachea in vivo and in macrophage cell cultures in vitro using two pathogenic IBV strains. Using a double immunofluorescent technique, we observed that both IBV Massachusetts-type 41 (M41 and Connecticut A5968 (Conn A5968 strains replicate in avian macrophages at a low level in vivo. This in vivo observation was substantiated by demonstrating IBV antigens in macrophages following in vitro IBV infection. Further, IBV productive infection in macrophages was confirmed by demonstrating corona viral particles in macrophages and IBV ribonucleic acid (RNA in culture supernatants. Evaluation of the functions of macrophages following infection of macrophages with IBV M41 and Conn A5968 strains revealed that the production of antimicrobial molecule, nitric oxide (NO is inhibited. It was also noted that replication of IBV M41 and Conn A5968 strains in macrophages does not interfere with the induction of type 1 IFN activity by macrophages. In conclusion, both M41 and Con A5968 IBV strains infect macrophages in vivo and in vitro resulting productive replications. During the replication of IBV in macrophages, their ability to produce NO can be affected without affecting the ability to induce type 1 IFN activity. Further studies are warranted to uncover the significance of macrophage infection of IBV in the pathogenesis of IBV infection in chickens.

  11. National Register Historic Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

  12. Comparison of antimicrobial consumption patterns in the Swiss and Danish cattle and swine production (2007-2013)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Luis Pedro; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Alban, Lis

    2017-01-01

    antimicrobials are reported at sales level without any information on the consumption by different animal species. This hinders a proper comparison of antimicrobial consumption at the species level between countries. However, it is imperative to improve our understanding on antimicrobial usage patterns...... consumption of different antimicrobial classes were also evident. Sulfonamides/trimethoprim and tetracyclines were consumed in a higher proportion in Switzerland than in Denmark, whereas the relative consumption of penicillins was higher in Denmark. The differences observed in veterinary antimicrobial...... consumption are not solely related to animal demographic characteristics in these two countries. Other factors, such as the level of biosecurity and farming practices, veterinarians and farmers’ education, or governmental/industry programs put in place might also partly explain these variations...

  13. Uses of antimicrobial genes from microbial genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorek, Rotem; Rubin, Edward M.

    2013-08-20

    We describe a method for mining microbial genomes to discover antimicrobial genes and proteins having broad spectrum of activity. Also described are antimicrobial genes and their expression products from various microbial genomes that were found using this method. The products of such genes can be used as antimicrobial agents or as tools for molecular biology.

  14. Antimicrobial effect of lactobacillus and bacillus derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on the screening, production, extraction of biosurfactants from Lactobacillus and Bacillus bacteria and their antimicrobial properties against causal microorganisms of food borne infections (food borne pathogens). The biosurfactants were investigated for potential antimicrobial activity using disk diffusion.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health challenge, which has accelerated by the overuse of antibiotics worldwide. Increased antimicrobial resistance is the cause of severe infections, complications, longer hospital stays and increased mortality. Overprescribing of antibiotics......-the-counter sale of antibiotics, the use of antimicrobial stewardship programmes, the active participation of clinicians in audits, the utilization of valid rapid point-of-care tests, the promotion of delayed antibiotic prescribing strategies, the enhancement of communication skills with patients with the aid...

  16. Genetic diversity, virulotyping and antimicrobial resistance susceptibility of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from pigs and porcine products in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Kwai Lin; Tan, Lai Kuan; Ooi, Peck Toung

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the antimicrobial resistance, virulotypes and genetic diversity of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from uncooked porcine food and live pigs in Malaysia. Thirty-two non-repeat Y. enterocolitica strains of three bioserotypes (3 variant/O:3, n = 27; 1B/O:8, n = 3; 1A/O:5, n = 2) were analysed. Approximately 90% of strains were multidrug-resistant with a multiple antibiotic resistance index Yersinia enterocolitica could be distinguished distinctly into three clusters by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, with each belonging to a particular bioserotype. Strains of 3 variant/O:3 were more heterogeneous than others. Eleven of the 15 virulence genes tested (hreP, virF, rfbC, myfA, sat, inv, ail, ymoA, ystA, tccC, yadA) and pYV virulence plasmid were present in all the bioserotpe 3 variant/03 strains. The occurrence of virulent strains of Y. enterocolitica in pigs and porcine products reiterated that pigs are important reservoirs for Y. enterocolitica. The increasing trend of multidrug resistant strains is a public health concern. This is the first report on the occurrence of potential pathogenic and resistant strains of Y. enterocolitica in pigs in Malaysia. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. High-titer production and strong antimicrobial activity of sophorolipids from Rhodotorula bogoriensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodotorula bogoriensis produces sophorolipids (SLs) that contain 13-hydroxydocosanoic acid (OH-C22) as the lipid moiety. A systematic study was conducted to further understand the fermentative production of SLs containing OH-C22 (C22-SL) by R. bogoriensis. Shake-flask studies showed that R. bogor...

  18. Longterm Work Productivity Costs Due to Absenteeism and Permanent Work Disability in Patients with Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Nationwide Register Study of 7831 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martikainen, Janne A; Kautiainen, Hannu; Rantalaiho, Vappu; Puolakka, Kari T

    2016-12-01

    To estimate the development and potential disproportional distribution of longterm productivity costs (PC) and their determinants leading to work absenteeism and permanent work disability in working-aged patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A cohort of subjects with early RA was created by identifying the new cases of RA from the national drug reimbursement register that had been granted a special reimbursement for their antirheumatic medications for RA from 2000-2007. The dataset was enriched by cross-linking with other national registries detailing work absenteeism days and permanent disability pensions. In the base case, the human capital approach was applied to estimate PC based on subjects' annual number of absenteeism days and incomes. Hurdle regression analysis was applied to study the determinants of PC. Among the 7831 subjects with early RA, the mean (bootstrapped 95% CI) annual PC per person-observation year was €4800 (4547-5070). The annual PC declined after the first year of RA diagnosis, but increased significantly in subsequent years. In addition, the PC was heavily disproportionally concentrated in a small fraction of patients with RA, because only around 20% of patients accounted for the majority of total annual PC. The initiation of active drug treatment during the first 3 months after RA diagnosis significantly reduced the cumulative PC when compared with no drug treatment. The longterm PC increased significantly in parallel with years elapsing after RA diagnosis. Further, the majority of these PC are incurred by a small proportion of patients.

  19. Optimal Concentration of Organic Solvents to be Used in the Broth Microdilution Method to Determine the Antimicrobial Activity of Natural Products Against Paenibacillus Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Cugnata Noelia Melina; Guaspari Elisa; Pellegrini Maria Celeste; Fuselli Sandra Rosa; Alonso-Salces Rosa Maria

    2017-01-01

    American Foulbrood (AFB) is a bacterial disease, caused by Paenibacillus larvae, that affects honeybees (Apis mellifera). Alternative strategies to control AFB are based on the treatment of the beehives with antimicrobial natural substances such as extracts, essential oils and/or pure compounds from plants, honey by-products, bacteria and moulds. The broth microdilution method is currently one of the most widely used methods to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of a substan...

  20. Microbial-derived products as potential new antimicrobials: A report from the Second Alternatives to Antibiotics Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of the continuing global concerns involving antibiotic resistance, there is a pressing need to have scientific forums to assess scientific advancements regarding development of antimicrobials to combat the global increase in antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens. The objectives of ...

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  2. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance More in Antimicrobial ... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated ...

  3. Insect proteins as a potential source of antimicrobial peptides in livestock production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Józefiak, A; Engberg, Ricarda Margarete

    2017-01-01

    in the nutrition of different livestock. The great potential for the use of AMPs in animal production is primarily associated with the growing problem of antibiotics resistance, which has triggered the search for alternatives to antibiotics in livestock production. The review presents the current knowledge...... been identified in different organisms, including plants, fungi, bacteria and animals. Insects are a primary source of AMPs which are considered as not resulting in the development of natural bacterial resistance. In general, they are characterized as heat-stable with no adverse effects on eukaryotic...... cells. These characteristics contribute to the potential use of these proteins in human and veterinary medicine and in animal nutrition. Depending on their mode of action, insect AMPs may be applied as single peptides, as a complex of different AMPs and as an active fraction of insect proteins...

  4. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Antimicrobial Activity of Some Types of Egyptian Bees’ Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboul Magd, D.A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Api therapy (the medicinal use of honey bee products) has recently become the focus of attention as a form of folk and preventive medicine for treating certain conditions and diseases, as well as promoting overall health and well-being (Pyrzynska and Biesaga, 2009). Honeybees are master chemists and chemical engineers. Their success in the animal kingdom is greatly because of their unique chemistry and the application of their different products: honey, pollen, beeswax, propolis, royal jelly and bee venom. The first three products are chemically synthesized by the bees themselves while, the other three are derived from plants and are modified and engineered by the bees for their own use (Taha, 2004). Honey is the most important primary product of bee keeping from both a quantitative and an economic point of view (Adenekan et al., 2010). Honey is defined as the natural sweet substance, produced by the honeybees from the nectar, secretions of living parts or excretions of plant-sucking insects on the living parts of plants, which the bees collect, transform by combining with specific substances of their own, deposit, dehydrate, store and leave in honey combs to ripen and mature (Codex Alimentarius, 2001). Hippocrates, the great Greek scientist, prescribed a simple diet, favoring honey given as oxymel (vinegar and honey) for pain, hydromel (water and honey) for thirst, and a mixture of honey, water and various medical substances for acute fevers. Also, he utilized honey for baldness, contraception, wound healing, cough and sore throat, eye diseases, topical antisepsis, prevention and treatment of scars (Al-Jabri, 2005). During the biblical era, honey received a religious endorsement by both Islam and Christianity. Thus, the Holy Koran, the heritage of Islamic sciences, has time and again emphasized the medicinal virtue of honey (Sheikh et al., 1995). The last scripture enlisted it as a miraculous food in a separate Surah; ''Al-Nahl (The BEE).

  5. Eubiotics for Food Security at Farm Level: Yeast Cell Wall Products and Their Antimicrobial Potential Against Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santovito, Elisa; Greco, Donato; Logrieco, Antonio F; Avantaggiato, Giuseppina

    2018-06-06

    The population increase in the last century was the first cause of the industrialization of animal productions, together with the necessity to satisfy the high food demand and the lack of space and land for the husbandry practices. As a consequence, the farmers moved from extensive to intensive agricultural systems and introduced new practices, such as the administration of antimicrobial drugs. Antibiotics were then used as growth promoters and for disease prevention. The uncontrolled and continuous use of antibiotics contributed to the spread of antibiotic resistance in animals, and this had adverse impacts on human health. This emergence led the European Union, in 2003, to ban the marketing and use of antibiotics as growth promoters, and for prophylaxis purposes from January 2006. This ban caused problems in farms, due to the decrease in animal performances (weight gain, feed conversion ratio, reproduction, etc.), and the rise in the incidence of certain diseases, such as those induced by Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes. The economic losses due to the ban increased the interest in researching alternative strategies for the prophylaxis of infectious diseases and for health and growth promotion, such as feed additives. Yeast-based materials, such as cell wall extract, represent promising alternatives to antibiotics, on the base of their prebiotic activity and their claimed capacity to bind enteropathogenic bacteria. Several authors reported examples of the effectiveness of yeast cell wall products in adsorbing bacteria, but there is a lack of knowledge on the mechanisms involved in this interaction. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current approaches used for the control of pathogenic bacteria in feed, with a particular focus on the use of yeast-derived materials proposed to control zoonoses at farm level, and on their effect on animal health.

  6. Longitudinal study of distributions of similar antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella serovars in pigs and their environment in two distinct swine production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keelara, Shivaramu; Scott, H Morgan; Morrow, William M; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Correa, Maria; Nayak, Rajesh; Stefanova, Rossina; Thakur, Siddhartha

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine and compare the prevalences and genotypic profiles of antimicrobial-resistant (AR) Salmonella isolates from pigs reared in antimicrobial-free (ABF) and conventional production systems at farm, at slaughter, and in their environment. We collected 2,889 pig fecal and 2,122 environmental (feed, water, soil, lagoon, truck, and floor swabs) samples from 10 conventional and eight ABF longitudinal cohorts at different stages of production (farrowing, nursery, finishing) and slaughter (postevisceration, postchill, and mesenteric lymph nodes [MLN]). In addition, we collected 1,363 carcass swabs and 205 lairage and truck samples at slaughter. A total of 1,090 Salmonella isolates were recovered from the samples; these were isolated with a significantly higher prevalence in conventionally reared pigs (4.0%; n = 66) and their environment (11.7%; n = 156) than in ABF pigs (0.2%; n = 2) and their environment (0.6%; n = 5) (P antimicrobial resistance (AR) were exhibited to tetracycline (71%), sulfisoxazole (42%), and streptomycin (17%). Multidrug resistance (resistance to ≥ 3 antimicrobials; MDR) was detected in 27% (n = 254) of the Salmonella isolates from the conventional system. Our study reports a low prevalence of Salmonella in both production systems in pigs on farms, while a higher prevalence was detected among the carcasses at slaughter. The dynamics of Salmonella prevalence in pigs and carcasses were reciprocated in the farm and slaughter environment, clearly indicating an exchange of this pathogen between the pigs and their surroundings. Furthermore, the phenotypic and genotypic fingerprint profile results underscore the potential role played by environmental factors in dissemination of AR Salmonella to pigs.

  7. Identification and Antimicrobial Resistance of Bacteria Isolated from Probiotic Products Used in Shrimp Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noor Uddin, Gazi Md; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Christensen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    in aquaculture ponds. Concerns have been raised that the declared information on probiotic product labels are incorrect and information on bacterial composition are often missing. We therefore evaluated seven probiotics commonly used in Vietnamese shrimp culture for their bacterial species content, phenotypic...... that they contained macrolide (ermD), tetracycline (tetL), phenicol (fexA) and trimethoprim (dfrD, dfrG and dfrK) resistance genes, but not known structures associated with horizontal gene transfer. Probiotic bacterial strains used in Vietnamese shrimp culture seem to contribute with very limited types and numbers...

  8. Bacterial contaminants from frozen puff pastry production process and their growth inhibition by antimicrobial substances from lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumjuankiat, Kittaporn; Keawsompong, Suttipun; Nitisinprasert, Sunee

    2017-05-01

    Seventy-five bacterial contaminants which still persisted to cleaning system from three puff pastry production lines (dough forming, layer and filling forming, and shock freezing) were identified using 16S rDNA as seven genera of Bacillus , Corynebacterium , Dermacoccus , Enterobacter , Klebsiella, Pseudomonas , and Staphylococcus with detection frequencies of 24.00, 2.66, 1.33, 37.33, 1.33, 2.66, and 30.66, respectively. Seventeen species were discovered while only 11 species Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, B. pumilus, Corynebacterium striatum , Dermacoccus barathri , Enterobacter asburiae, Staphylococcus kloosii, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. warneri , and S. aureus were detected at the end of production. Based on their abundance, the highest abundance of E. asburiae could be used as a biomarker for product quality. While a low abundance of the mesophile pathogen C. striatum , which causes respiratory and nervous infection and appeared only at the shock freezing step was firstly reported for its detection in bakery product. Six antimicrobial substances (AMSs) from lactic acid bacteria, FF1-4, FF1-7, PFUR-242, PFUR-255, PP-174, and nisin A were tested for their inhibition activities against the contaminants. The three most effective were FF1-7, PP-174, and nisin A exhibiting wide inhibition spectra of 88.00%, 85.33%, and 86.66%, respectively. The potential of a disinfectant solution containing 800 AU/ml of PP-174 and nisin A against the most resistant strains of Enterobacter , Staphylococcus , Bacillus and Klebsiella was determined on artificially contaminated conveyor belt coupons at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 hr. The survival levels of the test strains were below 1 log CFU/coupon at 0 hr. The results suggested that a combined solution of PP-174 and nisin A may be beneficial as a sanitizer to inhibit bacterial contaminants in the frozen puff pastry industry.

  9. Arthroplasty register for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen, Anja

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific background: The annual number of joint replacement operations in Germany is high. The introduction of an arthroplasty register promises an important contribution to the improvement of the quality of patient’s care. Research questions: The presented report addresses the questions on organization and functioning, benefits and cost-benefits as well as on legal, ethical and social aspects of the arthroplasty registers. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in September 2008 in the medical databases MEDLINE, EMBASE etc. and was complemented with a hand search. Documents describing arthroplasty registers and/or their relevance as well as papers on legal, ethical and social aspects of such registers were included in the evaluation. The most important information was extracted and analysed. Results: Data concerning 30 arthroplasty registers in 19 countries as well as one international arthroplasty register were identified. Most of the arthroplasty registers are maintained by national orthopedic societies, others by health authorities or by their cooperation. Mostly, registries are financially supported by governments and rarely by other sources.The participation of the orthopedists in the data collection process of the arthroplasty registry is voluntary in most countries. The consent of the patients is usually required. The unique patient identification is ensured in nearly all registers.Each data set consists of patient and clinic identification numbers, data on diagnosis, the performed intervention, the operation date and implanted prostheses. The use of clinical scores, patient-reported questionnaires and radiological documentation is rare. Methods for data documentation and transfer are paper form, electronic entry as well as scanning of the data using bar codes. The data are mostly being checked for their completeness and validity. Most registers offer results of the data evaluation to the treating orthopedists and

  10. Response of Paenibacillus polymyxa to iron: alternations in cellular chemical composition and the production of fusaricidin type antimicrobial compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waseem Raza

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, growth, cellular chemical composition and production of fusaricidin type antimicrobial compounds by P. polymyxa SQR-21 were compared in tryptone broth supplemented with four concentrations of iron (25, 50, 100 and 200 µM. The data revealed that the growth of P. polymyxa SQR-21 was increased by 3-8% with the increase in concentration of ferric ion (Fe3+. The production of fusaricidin type compounds was increased by 33-49% only up to 50 µM Fe3+ and the highest level of Fe3+ was inhibitory. Increase in the liquid culture Fe3+concentration increased the intracellular protein (2%, intracellular carbohydrate (14%, extracellular protein (7% and polysaccharide contents (18% while the intracellular lipid contents were increased (11% only up to 50 µM Fe3+. In addition, the regulatory effects of Fe3+ were also reflected by the increase in total RNA contents and relative expression of the fusaricidin synthetase gene (FusA by 3-13 and 35-56%, respectively, up to 50 µM Fe3+, after that a continuous decrease was observed.Tipo compostos do fusaricidin do produto das tensões do polymyxa de Paenibacillus que é ativo de encontro a uma variedade larga das bactérias e de fungos gram-positive. O crescimento, a composição química celular e a produção do fusaricidin datilografam compostos antimicrobial pelo P. o polymyxa SQR-21 foi comparado no caldo de carne do tryptone suplementado com as quatro concentrações (25, µM 50, 100 e 200 do ferro. Os dados revelaram que o crescimento do P. o polymyxa foi aumentado por 3-8% com o aumento na concentração do íon férrico (Fe3+ e o tipo produção do fusaricidin dos compostos foi aumentado 33-49% somente até 50 pelo µM Fe3+ quando o nível o mais elevado de Fe3+ era inhibitory. O aumento na concentração de Fe3+ na cultura líquida aumentou a proteína intracellular (2% e os índices de hidrato de carbono (14% e a proteína extracellular (7% e os índices do polysaccharide (18% quando os

  11. The Danish Pathology Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Beth; Larsen, Ole B

    2011-01-01

    The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established.......The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established....

  12. Registered Nurse (Associate Degree).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of registered nurse (with an associate degree), lists technical competencies and competency builders for 19 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 5 units specific to the occupation of registered nurse. The following…

  13. The Danish Adoption Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-01

    The Danish Adoption Register was established in 1963-1964 to explore the genetic and environmental contribution to familial aggregation of schizophrenia.......The Danish Adoption Register was established in 1963-1964 to explore the genetic and environmental contribution to familial aggregation of schizophrenia....

  14. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Bacillus cereus isolated from beef products in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyad Shawish

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne pathogens have the main concern in public health and food safety. Bacillus cereus food poisoning is one of the most important foodborne pathogens worldwide. In the present study, a total of 200 random beef product samples were collected from different supermarkets located at Menofia and Cairo governorates were examined for the presence of B. cereus. In addition, the presence of some virulence encoding genes was evaluated using Multiplex PCR. Finally, the antibiogram testing was conveyed to illustrate the resistance pattern of the confirmed B. cereus. The data showed that B. cereus was recovered from 22.5%, 30%, 25%, 37.5% and 15% of the minced meat, burger, sausage, kofta, and luncheon respectively. Among the 20 examined isolates 18/20 (90% were harbor hblC enterotoxin encoding gene compared with 20/20 (100 were have cytK enterotoxin encoding gene. The isolated strains of B. cereus were resistant to penicillin G and sensitive to oxacillin, clindamycin, vancomycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and ceftriaxone. In all, the obtained data showed the importance of emerging B. cereus in disease control and prevention programs, and in regular clinical and food quality control laboratories in Egypt.

  15. Josephson shift registers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybysz, J.X.

    1989-01-01

    This paper gives a review of Josephson shift register circuits that were designed, fabricated, or tested, with emphasis on work in the 1980s. Operating speed is most important, since it often limits system performance. Older designs used square-wave clocks, but most modern designs use offset sine waves, with either two or three phases. Operating margins and gate bias uniformity are key concerns. The fastest measured Josephson shift register operated at 2.3 GHz, which compares well with a GaAs shift register that consumes 250 times more power. The difficulties of high-speed testing have prevented many Josephson shift registers from being operated at their highest speeds. Computer simulations suggest that 30-GHz operation is possible with current Nb/Al 2 O 3 /Nb technology. Junctions with critical current densities near 10 kA/cm 2 would make 100-GHz shift registers feasible

  16. Production and characterization of curcumin microcrystals and evaluation of the antimicrobial and sensory aspects in minimally processed carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Anderson Clayton da; Santos, Priscila Dayane de Freitas; Palazzi, Nicole Campezato; Leimann, Fernanda Vitória; Fuchs, Renata Hernandez Barros; Bracht, Lívia; Gonçalves, Odinei Hess

    2017-05-24

    Nontoxic conserving agents are in demand by the food industry due to consumers concern about synthetic conservatives, especially in minimally processed food. The antimicrobial activity of curcumin, a natural phenolic compound, has been extensively investigated but hydrophobicity is an issue when applying curcumin to foodstuff. The objective of this work was to evaluate curcumin microcrystals as an antimicrobial agent in minimally processed carrots. The antimicrobial activity of curcumin microcrystals was evaluated in vitro against Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) microorganisms, showing a statistically significant (p minimally processed carrots. Sensory analyses were carried out showing no significant difference (p minimally processed carrots without causing noticeable differences that could be detected by the consumer. One may conclude that the analyses of the minimally processed carrots demonstrated that curcumin microcrystals are a suitable natural compound to inhibit the natural microbiota of carrots from a statistical point of view.

  17. Register-based studies of healthcare costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Christiansen, Terkel

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this paper is to provide an overview and a few examples of how national registers are used in analyses of healthcare costs in Denmark. Research topics: The paper focuses on health economic analyses based on register data. For the sake of simplicity, the studies are divided...... into three main categories: economic evaluations of healthcare interventions, cost-of-illness analyses, and other analyses such as assessments of healthcare productivity. Conclusion: We examined a number of studies using register-based data on healthcare costs. Use of register-based data renders...

  18. 'Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains from raw meat and meat products in Zaria, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndahi, M D; Kwaga, J K P; Bello, M; Kabir, J; Umoh, V J; Yakubu, S E; Nok, A J

    2014-03-01

    The bacterial genera Listeria and Staphylococcus have been frequently isolated from food products and are responsible for a number of animal and human diseases. The aim of the study was to simultaneously isolate and characterize L. monocytogenes and Staphylococcus species from 300 samples of raw meat and meat products, to determine the susceptibility of the organisms to commonly used antimicrobial agents and to determine the presence of haemolysin A (hyl) virulence gene in L. monocytogenes and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mecA (SCCmec) gene in the Staph. aureus isolates using PCR. Of the 85 Listeria isolates tested, 12 L. monocytogenes were identified and tested for their sensitivity to 14 antimicrobial agents. All the 12 isolates (100%) were resistant to nine antimicrobial agents, but however sensitive to gentamicin. Only one isolate was found to harbour the hylA gene. Twenty-nine isolates were confirmed as Staph. aureus by the Microbact 12S identification system and were all presumptively identified as methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus species using oxacillin-resistant Staph. aureus basal medium (ORSAB). The 29 Staph. aureus isolates were tested for their sensitivity to 16 antimicrobial agents, and 11 were resistant to methicillin. None of the 11 Staph. aureus isolates harboured the methicillin resistance, mecA gene. Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus are important agents of foodborne diseases. Occurrence of these infectious agents was established in meat and meat products in Zaria, Nigeria. Majority of isolates obtained from this study, displayed multidrug resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents, including methicillin resistance among the Staph. aureus isolates. The potential virulence of L. monocytogenes found in ready-to-eat food was documented by the carriage of hly A gene by one of the isolates. A different mechanism of methicillin resistance or different homologue of mec A gene may be circulating among Nigerian

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video) Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Chinese Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance French Translation of ...

  20. Recombinant production of a chimeric antimicrobial peptide in E. coli and assessment of its activity against some avian clinically isolated pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanhaiean, Abass; Azghandi, Marjan; Razmyar, Jamshid; Mohammadi, Elyas; Sekhavati, Mohammad Hadi

    2018-06-08

    Over the last decades, poultry industry faced to the rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria as a global concern. Antimicrobial peptide (AMPs) known as potential antibiotic alternative and were considered as a new antimicrobial agent. Current methods of production and purification of AMPs have several limitations such as: costly, time-consuming and killing the producing host cells in recombinant form. In the present study, a chimeric peptide derived from camel lactoferrin was produced in Escherichia coli periplasmic space using a pET-based expression system and its antibacterial activity was determined on some avian pathogens in vitro. A carboxy-terminal polyhistidine tag was used for purification by Ni 2+ affinity chromatography with an average yield of 0.42 g/L. The His-tagged chimeric peptide showed different range of antimicrobial activity against clinically isolated avian pathogens with low chicken blood hemolysis activity and high serum stability. Overall, the results of this investigation showed the recombinant chimeric peptide was successfully expressed in pET-based expression system and could be considered as a proper alternative for some currently used antibiotics in poultry industry and drugs veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA regulates pesticides under the statutory authority of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). The registration requirements for antimicrobial pesticides differ somewhat from those of other pesticides. Find out more.

  2. Improved antimicrobial compound production by a new isolate Streptomyces hygroscopicus MTCC 4003 using Plackett-Burman design and response Surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neha; Rai, Vibhuti

    2012-01-01

    An active strain, isolated from soil of Chhattisgarh, India, showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against various pathogenic bacteria and fungi in glucose soybean meal broth. Strain was characterized as Streptomyces hygroscopicus MTCC 4003 based on 16S rRNA sequencing from Microbial Type culture Collection (MTCC), IMTECH, Chandigarh, India. Identification of the purified antimicrobial compound was done by using Infra-red (IR), Mass, Ultraviolet (UV), 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and response surface methodology (RSM) methods were used for the optimization of antibiotic production. Effects of the four medium components soybean meal, glucose, CaCO3 and MgSO4 showed positive effect on antibiotic production, were investigated with the help of PBD. The individual and interaction effects of the selected variables were determined by RSM using central composite design (CCD). Applying statistical design, antibiotic production was improved nearly ten times (412 mg/L) compared with unoptimized production medium (37 mg/L).

  3. Federal Register in XML

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — The Federal Register is the official daily publication for rules, proposed rules, and notices of Federal agencies and organizations, as well as executive orders and...

  4. The Danish Adoption Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-07-01

    The Danish Adoption Register was established in 1963-1964 to explore the genetic and environmental contribution to familial aggregation of schizophrenia. The register encompass information on all 14,425 non-familial adoptions of Danish children legally granted in Denmark 1924-1947. It includes name and date of birth of each adoptee and his or her biological and adoptive parents, date of transfer to adoptive parents and date of formal adoption. The linkage to biological and adoptive parents is close to complete, even biological fathers are registered for 91.4% of the adoptees. Adoption registers are a unique source allowing disentangling of genetic and familial environmental influences on traits, risk of diseases, and mortality.

  5. Molecular Electronic Shift Registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beratan, David N.; Onuchic, Jose N.

    1990-01-01

    Molecular-scale shift registers eventually constructed as parts of high-density integrated memory circuits. In principle, variety of organic molecules makes possible large number of different configurations and modes of operation for such shift-register devices. Several classes of devices and implementations in some specific types of molecules proposed. All based on transfer of electrons or holes along chains of repeating molecular units.

  6. IT Risk register

    OpenAIRE

    Kohout, Karel

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical part of the thesis analyzes several selected methodologies and best-practices related to information technology risks management, with focus on documents and guidance developed by ISACA. It builds a set of ideas and basic requirements for effective model of an IT risk register. Strong emphasis is placed on mapping CobiT 4.1 based Risk IT to COBIT 5. The practical part describes implementation of an exploratory web-based IT risk register in Python programming language utilizing...

  7. Antimicrobial product and process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, K.B.

    1997-12-16

    A composition for controlling a plant disease caused by a plant pathogenic bacterium is disclosed. The composition comprises an activity for inhibiting the growth of the plant pathogenic bacterium and is extracted in an aqueous solvent from particles of malted cereal grain. The composition is used either in dry or wet form by application to plant parts, such as potato seed pieces, that are to be protected from the pathogenic bacteria. 6 figs.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance and the guidelines of the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, H

    2012-04-01

    The International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH) is an international tripartite cooperation programme that brings together regulatory authorities and industry representatives from the European Union, Japan and the United States, with Australia, New Zealand and Canada as observers. VICH aims to improve international coordination and cooperation to achieve greater harmonisation of the requirements for veterinary product registration in the regions concerned. VICH develops harmonised data requirements, i.e., standards for the scientific studies on quality, safety and efficacy that are required to obtain a marketing authorisation for a veterinary medicinal product. It does this by publishing guidelines that provide uniform and consistent guidance for sponsors to follow in developing data for application dossiers as well as for post-marketing safety monitoring of veterinary medicinal products. Of the 49 VICH guidelines that have been developed so far, two guidelines in particular address issues related to antimicrobial resistance.

  9. ACVIM Consensus Statement on Therapeutic Antimicrobial Use in Animals and Antimicrobial Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Weese, J.S.; Gigu?re, S.; Guardabassi, L.; Morley, P.S.; Papich, M.; Ricciuto, D.R.; Sykes, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    The epidemic of antimicrobial resistant infections continues to challenge, compromising animal care, complicating food animal production and posing zoonotic disease risks. While the overall role of therapeutic antimicrobial use in animals in the development AMR in animal and human pathogens is poorly defined, veterinarians must consider the impacts of antimicrobial use in animal and take steps to optimize antimicrobial use, so as to maximize the health benefits to animals while minimizing the...

  10. Antimicrobial resistance of fecal Salmonella spp. isolated from all phases of pig production in 20 herds in Alberta and Saskatchewan

    OpenAIRE

    Rosengren, Leigh B.; Waldner, Cheryl L.; Reid‐Smith, Richard J.; Checkley, Sylvia L.; McFall, Margaret E.; Rajíc, Andrijana

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella spp. (n = 468), isolated from the feces of sows, nursery, and grow‐finish pigs in 20 farrow‐to‐finish herds in Alberta and Saskatchewan, were tested for susceptibility to 16 antimicrobials. No resistance was identified to amikacin, amoxicillin‐clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin or nalidixic acid, and less than 1% of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin and gentamicin. Isolates were most commonly resistant to tetracycline (35%) and sulfamethoxazole (27%). Ove...

  11. Production of the antimicrobial peptide UBI 29-41 labelled with 99mTc by an indirect method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevares, Noemi; Crudo, Jose L.; Zapata, Miguel; Castiglia, Silvia G. de

    2003-01-01

    The infection processes are a major problem in human health causing a high number of human deaths all around the world. Diagnostic imaging in nuclear medicine is an attractive option in the detection of infection processes due to its sensitivity. The antimicrobial peptides are very important in the development of new radiopharmaceuticals, since their antimicrobial activity towards a great variety of microorganisms have been proven. The aim of this work was to obtain the antimicrobial peptide UBI 29-41 labelled with technetium 99 m, by an indirect method via NHS-Hynic and tricine as a coligand, and evaluate its stability and its ability to discriminate between infection and inflammation sites. The radiochemical purity of the labeling procedure was 95.5±1,2 %. The cysteine challenge showed a great stability of the 99mTc UBI-Hynic, and the stability in human serum showed that the 81% of the radioactivity remained bounded to UBI-Hynic at 48 hs of incubation. The bio distribution's studies showed main elimination via kidney of 99mTc UBI-Hynic and the target/non target ratio was 1,81 for infected mice and 1,16 for inflamed mice. (author)

  12. Gross and histologic evaluation of effects of photobiomodulation, silver sulfadiazine, and a topical antimicrobial product on experimentally induced full-thickness skin wounds in green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Lara M; Mayer, Joerg; Cutler, Daniel C; Rissi, Daniel R; Divers, Stephen J

    2018-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess effects of photobiomodulation, silver sulfadiazine, and a topical antimicrobial product for the treatment of experimentally induced full-thickness skin wounds in green iguanas (Iguana iguana). ANIMALS 16 healthy subadult green iguanas. PROCEDURES Iguanas were anesthetized, and three 5-mm cutaneous biopsy specimens were obtained from each iguana (day 0). Iguanas were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups, each of which had a control treatment. Wounds in the topical treatment group received silver sulfadiazine, a topical antimicrobial product, or no treatment. Wounds in the laser treatment group received treatment with a class 4 laser at 5 or 10 J/cm 2 or no treatment. Wound measurements were obtained daily for 14 days. Iguanas were euthanized, and treatment sites were evaluated microscopically to detect ulceration, bacterial contamination, reepithelialization, necrosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and collagen maturity. RESULTS On day 14, wounds treated with a laser at 10 J/cm 2 were significantly smaller than those treated with silver sulfadiazine, but there were no other significant differences among treatments. Histologically, there were no significant differences in ulceration, bacterial infection, reepithelialization, necrosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and collagen maturity among treatments. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Photobiomodulation at 10 J/cm 2 appeared to be a safe treatment that was tolerated well by green iguanas, but it did not result in substantial improvement in histologic evidence of wound healing, compared with results for other treatments or no treatment.

  13. Hello! Are You Registered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for Political/Legal Education, Sewell, NJ.

    Organizational procedures and appropriate forms for high school students to conduct a community survey of non-registered voters are provided. Duties for student coordinator, field staff, and clerical staff are described and a flow chart depicts the relationship of personnel to one another and to the community. Students are instructed to notify…

  14. EU Transparency Register

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mańko, R.; Thiel, M.; Bauer, E.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread lobbying in the EU institutions has led to criticism regarding the transparency and accountability of the EU's decision-making process. In response to these concerns, the Parliament set up its transparency register in 1995, followed by the Commission in 2008. The two institutions merged

  15. The Danish heart register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrøm, Steen Z; Madsen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The Danish Heart Register (DHR) is a clinical database of invasive procedures within cardiology. Content: All providers of these procedures have been obliged to report to DHR since 2000. DHR is used to monitor the activity and quality of the procedures and serves as a data source...

  16. Migration of Spanish nurses 2009-2014. Underemployment and surplus production of Spanish nurses and mobility among Spanish registered nurses: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbany-Estragués, Paola; Nelson, Sioban

    2016-11-01

    After the financial crisis of 2008, increasing numbers of nurses from Spain are going abroad to work. To examine the health and workforce policy trends in Spain between 2009 and 2014 and to analyze their correlation with the migration of nurses. Single embedded case study. We examined data published by: Health Statistics, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (1996 to 2013); Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports (2006 to 2013); Ministry of Employment and Social Security (2009 to 2014); Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality (1997 to 2014); and National Institute of Statistics (1976 to 2014). In addition to reviewing the scholarly literature on the topic in Spanish and English, we also examined Spanish mobility laws and European directives. We used the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development definition of "professionally active nurses" which defines practising nurses and other nurses as those for whom their education is a prerequisite for employment as a nurse. Moreover, we used the term "nursing graduate" as defined by Spanish Ministry of Education to describe those who have obtained a recognized qualification in nursing in a given year, the term "registered nurses" is defined by Spanish law as nurses registered in the Nurses Associations and "unemployed nurses" are those without work and registered as seeking employment. A transformation of the Spanish health system has reduced the number of employed nurses per capita since 2010. Moreover, reductions in public spending, labour market reforms and widespread unemployment have affected nurses in two ways: first by increasing the number of applicants per vacancy between 2009 and 2013, and second, by an increase in casual positions. However, despite the poor job market and decreasing job security, the number of registered nurses and nursing graduates in Spain per year has continued to grow, increasing the pressure on the labour market. Spain is transforming from a stable

  17. Longitudinal Study of the Persistence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Campylobacter Strains in Distinct Swine Production Systems on Farms, at Slaughter, and in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana-Hayashi, Macarena P.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare and characterize the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant (AR) Campylobacter in conventional and antimicrobial-free (ABF) production systems on farms, at slaughter, and in the environment. Fecal and environmental samples were collected from ABF farms (pigs, 1,239; environment, 797) and conventional farms (pigs, 1,650; environment, 1,325). At slaughter, we collected samples from carcasses, including postevisceration swabs, postchill swabs, and mesenteric lymph nodes from ABF systems (postevisceration swabs, 182; postchill swabs, 199; mesenteric lymph nodes, 184) and conventional systems (postevisceration swabs, 272; postchill swabs, 271; mesenteric lymph nodes, 255) at separate processing facilities. We also sampled the processing plant environment, including truck and lairage floor swab samples (ABF, 115; conventional, 90). Overall, a total of 2,908 Campylobacter isolates, including Campylobacter coli (farm, 2,557, 99.8%; slaughter, 341, 98.3%) and Campylobacter jejuni (farm, 4, 0.2%; slaughter, 6, 1.7%), were isolated in the study. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of Campylobacter between ABF and conventionally raised pigs (farrowing, P = 0.20; nursery, P = 0.06; finishing, P = 0.24) and the environment (P = 0.37). At slaughter, Campylobacter was isolated from all of the stages, including postchill. The highest frequencies of resistance were exhibited against tetracycline (ABF, 48.2%; conventional, 88.3%). Ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli isolates were observed in conventionally raised (17.1%) and ABF (1.2%) pigs (P = 0.11). Antimicrobial use data from conventional farms indicated significant associations between oxytetracycline use and tetracycline resistance in the nursery pigs (P = 0.01), between tiamulin exposure and azithromycin and erythromycin resistance in nursery (P < 0.01) and finishing (P < 0.01) pigs, and between enrofloxacin exposure and ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid resistance in

  18. Spasmolytic, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of 5-phenylpentyl isothiocyanate, a new glucosinolate autolysis product from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana P. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb., Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekić, Milan S; Radulović, Niko S; Stojanović, Nikola M; Randjelović, Pavle J; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica Z; Najman, Stevo; Stojanović, Sanja

    2017-10-01

    Detailed analyses of horseradish autolysates led to the identification of a new natural product, 5-phenylpentyl isothiocyanate (PhPeITC). The structural assignment was corroborated by synthesis, and the identity unequivocally established by spectral means. The occurrence of PhPeITC is the first direct proof of the existence of a 5-phenylpentyl glucosinolate in the aerial parts of this species as one of the possible "mustard oil" precursors. To verify its possible contribution to the horseradish functional food status, horseradish above- and underground autolysates, together with five ω-phenylalkyl isothiocyanates were tested for their spasmolytic, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities. Specifically, the cytotoxic effect on Caco-2, HeLa (cancer) and MDCK (non-cancer) cell lines was established. Additionally, the five tested ITCs exerted significant spasmolytic activity (on rat distal colon), with PhPeITC being almost 100 times more potent than papaverine. A non-selective antimicrobial activity of all ITCs was revealed in the case of 6 bacterial and 2 fungal strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Genetic Diversity of Listeria spp. Isolated from Raw Chicken Meat and Chicken-Related Products in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Pui San; Ang, Geik Yong; Yu, Choo Yee; Tan, Eng Lee; Tee, Kok Keng; Yin, Wai Fong; Chan, Kok Gan; Tan, Geok Yuan Annie

    2018-02-01

    Listeria spp. are ubiquitous in nature and can be found in various environmental niches such as soil, sewage, river water, plants, and foods, but the most frequently isolated species are Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua. In this study, the presence of Listeria spp. in raw chicken meat and chicken-related products sold in local markets in Klang Valley, Malaysia was investigated. A total of 44 Listeria strains (42 L. innocua and 2 L. welshimeri) were isolated from 106 samples. Antibiotic susceptibility tests of the L. innocua strains revealed a high prevalence of resistance to clindamycin (92.9%), ceftriaxone (76.2%), ampicillin (73.8%), tetracycline (69%), and penicillin G (66.7%). Overall, 31 L. innocua and 1 L. welshimeri strain were multidrug resistant, i.e., nonsusceptible to at least one antimicrobial agent in three or more antibiotic classes. The majority of the L. innocua strains were placed into five AscI pulsogroups, and overall 26 distinct AscI pulsotypes were identified. The detection of multidrug-resistant Listeria strains from different food sources and locations warrants attention because these strains could serve as reservoirs for antimicrobial resistance genes and may facilitate the spread and emergence of other drug-resistant strains.

  20. Antimicrobial drugs for treating cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovici-Weissman, Ya'ara; Neuberger, Ami; Bitterman, Roni; Sinclair, David; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Paul, Mical

    2014-06-19

    Cholera is an acute watery diarrhoea caused by infection with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which if severe can cause rapid dehydration and death. Effective management requires early diagnosis and rehydration using oral rehydration salts or intravenous fluids. In this review, we evaluate the additional benefits of treating cholera with antimicrobial drugs. To quantify the benefit of antimicrobial treatment for patients with cholera, and determine whether there are differences between classes of antimicrobials or dosing schedules. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); PubMed; EMBASE; African Index Medicus; LILACS; Science Citation Index; metaRegister of Controlled Trials; WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform; conference proceedings; and reference lists to March 2014. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled clinical trials in adults and children with cholera that compared: 1) any antimicrobial treatment with placebo or no treatment; 2) different antimicrobials head-to-head; or 3) different dosing schedules or different durations of treatment with the same antimicrobial. Two reviewers independently applied inclusion and exclusion criteria, and extracted data from included trials. Diarrhoea duration and stool volume were defined as primary outcomes. We calculated mean difference (MD) or ratio of means (ROM) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI), and pooled data using a random-effects meta-analysis. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Thirty-nine trials were included in this review with 4623 participants. Antimicrobials versus placebo or no treatment Overall, antimicrobial therapy shortened the mean duration of diarrhoea by about a day and a half compared to placebo or no treatment (MD -36.77 hours, 95% CI -43.51 to -30.03, 19 trials, 1013 participants, moderate quality evidence). Antimicrobial therapy also

  1. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The synthesized chelating agent and metal(II) complexes were screened for ... Coordination compounds, Antimicrobial study ... The biological activity of Zn(II), Cu(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) with imidazole derivative (DIPO) ... product in 86% yield. .... [Ni(DIPO)Br2]. 2.0. 2.5. 2.5. 3.0. 3.0. 3.0. 9. Maxipime. 10.6. D iam eter o f in h ib itio.

  2. ANTIMICROBIALS USED IN ACTIVE PACKAGING FILMS

    OpenAIRE

    Dıblan, Sevgin; Kaya, Sevim

    2017-01-01

    Active packaging technology is one of the innovativemethods for preserving of food products, and antimicrobial packaging films is amajor branch and promising application of this technology. In order to controlmicrobial spoilage and also contamination of pathogen onto processed or fresh food,antimicrobial agent(s) is/are incorporated into food packaging structure.Polymer type as a carrier of antimicrobial can be petroleum-based plastic orbiopolymer: because of environmental concerns researcher...

  3. CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF Lavandula angustifolia Mill. WHICH IS A PHYTOCOSMETIC SPECIES AND INVESTIGATION OF ITS ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT IN COSMETIC PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslıhan Cesur Turgut

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lavander (Lavandula sp. is a precious essential oil plant from the Lamiaceae family. There are 39 lavender species (Lavandula sp. most of which have Mediterranean origin and among them three have high commercial value. While the essential oil quality of the lavender species (British lavender is high the lavandin species (hybrid lavender have high essential oil yield [2, 52]. In this study, the content of the extracts obtained from Lavandula angustifolia, which were grown in Burdur Örtülü locality, was determined via HPLC and GC analysis and the anti-microbial effect of the essential oil L. angustifolia was investigated. The study was made with the dried flowers of L. angustifolia. Some of the dried flowers were extracted and the essential oil was distilled from the remaining part. Various phenolic compounds in the extract were quantitatively determined by HPLC. Quantitatively cafeic, rosemeric and the 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were the most abundant phenolic acids in the content in decreasing order. In the GC analysis 31 different compounds were determined: Linalool and Linalil Acetate having the highest concentration. Anti-microbial effect was determined against the most frequently encountered microorganisms in the cosmetics: Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus brasiliensis. According to the results it is concluded that the essential oil, L. angustifolia, can be used either directly or incorporated into the cosmetics without the necessity for any other extra preservative against the said microrganisms. According to the literature these microorganisms, which are frequently found in creams, cause various diseases. It was observed that the essential oil L. Angustifolia could completely remove the contamination caused by the said micro-organisms as of the 14. day.

  4. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  5. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts to select the appropriate antimicrobial ...

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over ...

  8. Evaluation and selection of Bacillus species based on enzyme production, antimicrobial activity and biofilm synthesis as direct-fed microbials candidates for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D Latorre

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Social concern about misuse of antibiotics as growth promoters (AGP and generation of multidrug-resistant bacteria have restricted the dietary inclusion of antibiotics in livestock feed in several countries. Direct-fed microbials (DFM are one of the multiple alternatives commonly evaluated as substitutes of AGP. Sporeformer bacteria from the genus Bacillus have been extensively investigated because of their extraordinary properties to form highly-resistant endospores, production of antimicrobial compounds and synthesize different exogenous enzymes. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and select Bacillus spp. from environmental and poultry sources as DFM candidates, considering their enzyme production profile, biofilm synthesis capacity and pathogen-inhibition activity. Thirty one Bacillus isolates were screened for in vitro relative enzyme activity of amylase, protease, lipase and phytase using a selective media for each enzyme, with 3/31 strains selected as superior enzyme producers. These three isolates were identified as B. subtilis (1/3, and B. amyloliquefaciens (2/3 based on biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. For evaluation of biofilm synthesis, the generation of an adherent crystal violet-stained ring was determined in polypropylene tubes, resulting in 11/31 strains showing a strong biofilm formation. Moreover, all Bacillus strains were evaluated for growth inhibition activity against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (26/31, Escherichia coli (28/31 and Clostridioides difficile (29/31. Additionally, in previous in vitro and in vivo studies, these selected Bacillus strains have shown to be resistant to different biochemical conditions of the gastrointestinal tract of poultry. Results of the present study suggest that the selection and consumption of Bacillus-DFM, producing a variable set of enzymes and antimicrobial compounds may contribute to enhanced performance through improving nutrient digestibility

  9. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica isolated from broiler chickens, pigs and meat products in Thailand-Cambodia border provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trongjit, Suthathip; Angkititrakul, Sunpetch; Tuttle, R Emerson; Poungseree, Jiratchaya; Padungtod, Pawin; Chuanchuen, Rungtip

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Salmonella isolates from broiler chickens, pigs and their associated meat products in the Thailand-Cambodia border provinces. A total of 941 samples were collected from pigs and broiler chickens at slaughter houses and from carcasses at local fresh markets in Sa Kaeo, Thailand (n = 554) and Banteay Meanchey, Cambodia (n = 387) in 2014 and 2015. From these samples, 345 Salmonella isolates were collected from Sa Keao (n = 145; 23%) and Banteay Meanchey (n = 200; 47%) and assayed for antimicrobial susceptibility, class 1 integrons and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes. Serovars Typhimurium (29%) and Rissen (29%) were the most common serotypes found in Thai and Cambodian isolates, respectively. Multidrug resistance was detected in 34% and 52% of isolates from Sa Keao and Banteay Meanchey, respectively. The majority of the Thai isolates were resistant to ampicillin (72.4%), whereas most Cambodian isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole (71%). Eleven isolates from Sa Keao and 44 from Banteay Meanchey carried class 1 integrons comprising resistance gene cassettes. The most common gene cassette array was dfrA12-aadA2 (61.1%). Six isolates were ESBL producers. The β-lactamase genes found included bla TEM-1 , bla CTX-M-55 and bla CMY-2 . Some of these class 1 integrons and ESBL genes were located on conjugative plasmid. In conclusion, multidrug-resistant Salmonella are common in pigs, chickens and their products in the Thailand-Cambodia border provinces. Our findings indicate that class 1 integrons play a role in spread of AMR in the strains in this study. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Register / Andri Ksenofontov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ksenofontov, Andri, 1962-

    2007-01-01

    Näitused: Eesti Kujundusgraafikute Liidu aastanäitus "Register 2007" Kunstihoone galeriis, Signe Kivi "Võimuvaibad ja vaimukleidid" Arhitektuuri- ja Disainigaleriis, "Kehaturg / Sex market" (Dagmar Kase, Eveli Variku tööd) Tallinna Kunstihoones, Andrei Maksimjuki "Surematu klassika" Ühispanga galeriis, Katrin Veegeni "Varsti" A-galeriis, Eda Lõhmuse "Ülespoole" ja Rein Kelpmani "Grosso modo" ArtDepoo Galeriis, Jaan Elkeni "Valge valgus" Galeriis 008, Paul Rodgersi "Transplants" Hobusepea galeriis, Masayo Ave "Haptic Interface Design" Arhitektuuri- ja Disainigaleriis ja workshop Eesti Kunstiakadeemias

  11. Registered Replication Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouwmeester, S.; Verkoeijen, P. P.J.L.; Aczel, B.

    2017-01-01

    and colleagues. The results of studies using time pressure have been mixed, with some replication attempts observing similar patterns (e.g., Rand et al., 2014) and others observing null effects (e.g., Tinghög et al., 2013; Verkoeijen & Bouwmeester, 2014). This Registered Replication Report (RRR) assessed...... the size and variability of the effect of time pressure on cooperative decisions by combining 21 separate, preregistered replications of the critical conditions from Study 7 of the original article (Rand et al., 2012). The primary planned analysis used data from all participants who were randomly assigned...

  12. The Danish Education Registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Myrup; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    to adults continuing education and training stem from administrative education reports. Therefore, for cohorts born 1945-1990, 97 percent of the Danish population has a valid education identifier. For the immigrant population born in the same cohorts the coverage is 85-90 percent. Despite a higher level......Collection of systematic information on education is a long established practice in Denmark. Since 1910, the Danish Ministry of Education's annual reports collects information about individual-level test scores in e.g. compulsory schooling. Today, several registers from compulsory schooling...

  13. The Danish Education Registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Myrup; Würtz Rasmussen, Astrid

    to adults continuing education and training stem from administrative education reports. Therefore, for cohorts born 1945-1990, 97 percent of the Danish population has a valid education identifier. For the immigrant population born in the same cohorts the coverage is 85-90 percent. Despite a higher level......Collection of systematic information on education is a long established practice in Denmark. Since 1910, the Danish Ministry of Education’s annual reports collects information about individual-level test scores in e.g. compulsory schooling. Today, several registers from compulsory schooling...

  14. The Danish Education Registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Myrup; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    2011-01-01

    Collection of systematic information on education is a long established practice in Denmark. Since 1910, the Danish Ministry of Education’s annual reports collects information about individual-level test scores in e.g. compulsory schooling. Today, several registers from compulsory schooling...... to adults continuing education and training stem from administrative education reports. Therefore, for cohorts born 1945-1990, 97 percent of the Danish population has a valid education identifier. For the immigrant population born in the same cohorts the coverage is 85-90 percent. Despite a higher level...

  15. ER stress stimulates production of the key antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin, by forming a previously unidentified intracellular S1P signaling complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyungho; Ikushiro, Hiroko; Seo, Ho Seong; Shin, Kyong-Oh; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Jong Youl; Lee, Yong-Moon; Yano, Takato; Holleran, Walter M; Elias, Peter; Uchida, Yoshikazu

    2016-03-08

    We recently identified a previously unidentified sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling mechanism that stimulates production of a key innate immune element, cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP), in mammalian cells exposed to external perturbations, such as UVB irradiation and other oxidative stressors that provoke subapoptotic levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, independent of the well-known vitamin D receptor-dependent mechanism. ER stress increases cellular ceramide and one of its distal metabolites, S1P, which activates NF-κB followed by C/EBPα activation, leading to CAMP production, but in a S1P receptor-independent fashion. We now show that S1P activates NF-κB through formation of a previously unidentified signaling complex, consisting of S1P, TRAF2, and RIP1 that further associates with three stress-responsive proteins; i.e., heat shock proteins (GRP94 and HSP90α) and IRE1α. S1P specifically interacts with the N-terminal domain of heat shock proteins. Because this ER stress-initiated mechanism is operative in both epithelial cells and macrophages, it appears to be a universal, highly conserved response, broadly protective against diverse external perturbations that lead to increased ER stress. Finally, these studies further illuminate how ER stress and S1P orchestrate critical stress-specific signals that regulate production of one protective response by stimulating production of the key innate immune element, CAMP.

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System ... If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  17. Use of antimicrobial agents in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y H; Hwang, S Y; Hong, M K; Kwon, K H

    2012-04-01

    The aquaculture industry has grown dramatically, and plays an important role in the world's food supply chain. Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria associated with food animals receives much attention, and drug use in aquaculture is also an important issue. There are many differences between aquatic and terrestrial management systems, such as the methods used for administration of drugs. Unique problems are related to the application of drugs in aquatic environments. Residual drugs in fish products can affect people who consume them, and antimicrobials released into aquatic environments can select for resistant bacteria. Moreover, these antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, or their resistance genes, can be transferred to humans. To decrease the risks associated with the use of antimicrobials, various regulations have been developed. In addition, it is necessary to prevent bacterial diseases in aquatic animals by vaccination, to improve culture systems, and to monitor the amount of antimicrobial drugs used and the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria.

  18. Antimicrobial Drugs in Fighting against Antimicrobial Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Guyue; Dai, Menghong; Ahmed, Saeed; Hao, Haihong; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    The outbreak of antimicrobial resistance, together with the lack of newly developed antimicrobial drugs, represents an alarming signal for both human and animal healthcare worldwide. Selection of rational dosage regimens for traditional antimicrobial drugs based on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic principles as well as development of novel antimicrobials targeting new bacterial targets or resistance mechanisms are key approaches in tackling AMR. In addition to the cellular level resistance (i....

  19. Antimicrobial substances produced by bacteria isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... We report here the preliminary antimicrobial activity of substances produced by Bacillus subtilis NB-6. (air flora isolate) ... Key words: Antimicrobial activity, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Corynebacterium, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. .... products contaminated with animal MRSA is very plausible ...

  20. Optimal Concentration of Organic Solvents to be Used in the Broth Microdilution Method to Determine the Antimicrobial Activity of Natural Products Against Paenibacillus Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cugnata Noelia Melina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available American Foulbrood (AFB is a bacterial disease, caused by Paenibacillus larvae, that affects honeybees (Apis mellifera. Alternative strategies to control AFB are based on the treatment of the beehives with antimicrobial natural substances such as extracts, essential oils and/or pure compounds from plants, honey by-products, bacteria and moulds. The broth microdilution method is currently one of the most widely used methods to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of a substance. In this regard, the fact that most natural products, due to their lipophilic nature, must be dissolved in organic solvents or their aqueous mixtures is an issue of major concern because the organic solvent becomes part of the dilution in the incubation medium, and therefore, can interfere with bacterial viability depending on its nature and concentration. A systematic study was carried out to determine by the broth microdilution method the MIC and the maximum non inhibitory concentration (MNIC against P. larvae of the most common organic solvents used to extract or dissolve natural products, i.e. ethanol, methanol, acetonitrile, n-butanol, dimethylsulfoxide, and acidified hydromethanolic solutions. From the MIC and MNIC for each organic solvent, recommended maximum concentrations in contact with P. larvae were established: DMSO 5% (v/v, acetonitrile 7.5% (v/v, ethanol 7.5% (v/v, methanol 12% (v/v, n-butanol 1% (v/v, and methanol-water-acetic acid (1.25:98.71:0.04, v/v/v.

  1. Fatty acid oxidation products ('green odour') released from perennial ryegrass following biotic and abiotic stress, potentially have antimicrobial properties against the rumen microbiota resulting in decreased biohydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huws, S A; Scott, M B; Tweed, J K S; Lee, M R F

    2013-11-01

    In this experiment, we investigated the effect of 'green odour' products typical of those released from fresh forage postabiotic and biotic stresses on the rumen microbiota and lipid metabolism. Hydroperoxyoctadecatrienoic acid (HP), a combination of salicylic and jasmonic acid (T), and a combination of both (HPT) were incubated in vitro in the presence of freeze-dried ground silage and rumen fluid, under rumen-like conditions. 16S rRNA (16S cDNA) HaeIII-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism-based (T-RFLP) dendrograms, canonical analysis of principal coordinates graphs, peak number and Shanon-Weiner diversity indices show that HP, T and HPT likely had antimicrobial effects on the microbiota compared to control incubations. Following 6 h of in vitro incubation, 15.3% of 18:3n-3 and 4.4% of 18:2n-6 was biohydrogenated in control incubations, compared with 1.3, 9.4 and 8.3% of 18:3n-3 for HP, T and HPT treatments, respectively, with negligible 18:2n-6 biohydrogenation seen. T-RFLP peaks lost due to application of HP, T and HPT likely belonged to as yet uncultured bacteria within numerous genera. Hydroperoxyoctadecatrienoic acid, T and HPT released due to plant stress potentially have an antimicrobial effect on the rumen microbiota, which may explain the decreased biohydrogenation in vitro. These data suggest that these volatile chemicals may be responsible for the higher summer n-3 content of bovine milk. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Assessment of process parameters influencing the enhanced production of prodigiosin from Serratia marcescens and evaluation of its antimicrobial, antioxidant and dyeing potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulani, C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Prodigiosin is a bright red pigment produced by certain strains of Serratia marcescens, characterized by a common pyrrolylpyrromethane skeleton. This pigment is found to possess antibacterial, antifungal, immunosuppressive and antiproliferative activity. The present study aimed at designing process parameters for the enhanced production of this pigment.Methodology and Results: Peptone glycerol broth was selected as the best synthetic medium. The effects of various media components and process parameters like carbon and nitrogen sources, temperature, pH, incubation period and other supplements were investigated. Maximal amount of prodigiosin was produced at temperature 25 °C, pH 7.0 andincubation period of 48 h. Supplementation of media with maltose and peptone yielded maximal amount of prodigiosin. Incorporation of minimal amount of supplements like silica gel, iron salts, inorganic phosphate also showed promising results. Chromatographic separations suggested that prodigiosin is made up of three different fractions (purple, orange and red. Further investigation of antimicrobial properties of prodigiosin revealed that it is a potent inhibitor against gram positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus and fungal pathogens like Candida albicans, C.parapsilosis and Cryptococcus sp. This antimicrobial potency remained stable under a wide range of temperature and pH. The antioxidant capacity of prodigiosin was found to be 22.05 Bg ascorbic acid equivalents/ml of extract. When applied to textiles, prodigiosin resisted the action of acid, alkali and detergent. Conclusion, Significance and Impact of study: Besides combating gram positive bacterial pathogens and some pathogenic yeasts, prodigiosin with strong dyeing and antioxidant activity may find broad applications in textile and therapeutic industries.

  3. Endophytic Paraconiothyrium sp. from Zingiber officinale Rosc. Displays Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity by Production of Danthron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisha, C; Sachidanandan, P; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2018-03-01

    The bioactivity spectrum of fungal endophytes isolated from Zingiber officinale was analyzed against clinical pathogens and against the phytopathogen Pythium myriotylum, which causes Pythium rot in ginger. One of the isolates GFM13 showed broad bioactivity against various pathogens tested including P. myriotylum. The spore suspension as well as the culture filtrate of the endophytic fungal isolate was found to effectively protect ginger rhizomes from Pythium rot. By molecular identification, the fungal endophyte was identified as Paraconiothyrium sp. The bioactive compound produced by the isolate was separated by bioactivity-guided fractionation and was identified by GC-MS as danthron, an anthraquinone derivative. PCR amplification showed the presence of non-reducing polyketide synthase gene (NR-PKS) in the endophyte GFM13, which is reported to be responsible for the synthesis of anthraquinones in fungi. This is the first report of danthron being produced as the biologically active component of Paraconiothyrium sp. Danthron is reported to have wide pharmaceutical and agronomic applications which include its use as a fungicide in agriculture. The broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of danthron and the endophytic origin of Paraconiothyrium sp. offer immense applications of the study.

  4. Augmentation of Cationic Antimicrobial Peptide Production with Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors as a Novel Epigenetic Therapy for Bacterial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan D. Yedery

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of antibiotic resistance seriously threatens our ability to treat many common and medically important bacterial infections. Novel therapeutics are needed that can be used alone or in conjunction with antibiotics. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs are important effectors of the host innate defense that exhibit broad-spectrum activity against a wide range of microorganisms. CAMPs are carried within phagocytic granules and are constitutively or inducibly expressed by multiple cell types, including epithelial cells. The role of histone modification enzymes, specifically the histone deacetylases (HDAC, in down-regulating the transcription of CAMP-encoding genes is increasingly appreciated as is the capacity of HDAC inhibitors (HDACi to block the action of HDACs to increase CAMP expression. The use of synthetic and natural HDACi molecules to increase CAMPs on mucosal surfaces, therefore, has potential therapeutic applications. Here, we review host and pathogen regulation of CAMP expression through the induction of HDACs and assess the therapeutic potential of natural and synthetic HDACi based on evidence from tissue culture systems, animal models, and clinical trials.

  5. Application of natural antimicrobial compounds for reservoir souring and MIC prevention in offshore oil and gas production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Skovhus, Torben Lund; Mashietti, Marco

    Offshore oil production facilities are subjectable to internal corrosion, potentially leading to human and environmental risk and significant economic losses. Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) and reservoir souring - sulphide production by sulfate reducing microorganisms in the reservo...

  6. Antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology of Salmonella Rissen from animals, food products, and patients in Thailand and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Bangtrakulnonth, Aroon; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat

    2008-01-01

    Rissen isolates recovered from humans, food products, and animals in Denmark and Thailand. Additionally, risk factors due to travel and consumption of specific food products were analyzed and evaluated. A total of 112 Salmonella Rissen isolates were included in this study from Thailand and Denmark. Thai...... isolates were recovered from humans, uncooked food, and ready-to-eat food. Danish isolates were obtained from humans (with and without a history of travel to Thailand prior to the infection), Danish pig or pork products, imported pig or pork products, turkeys, and animal feed. A total of 63 unique Xba...... was detected in tetracycline-resistant isolates. Statistical analysis and molecular subtyping identified the combination of travel to Thailand and consumption of imported pig or pork products as well consumption of as pig or pork products produced in Denmark as risk factors for Salmonella Rissen infection...

  7. Use of natural antimicrobials to improve the quality characteristics of fresh "Phyllo" - A dough-based wheat product - Shelf life assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiraki, Maria I; Karam, Layal; Abiad, Mohamad G; Yehia, Hany M; Savvaidis, Ioannis N

    2017-04-01

    This study explores the effects of chitosan and natamycin on the quality of fresh "Phyllo" - a dough-based wheat product, by monitoring the microbiological, physicochemical and sensory parameters. Four different lots of phyllo samples stored under aerobic packaging conditions, in the absence or presence of the aforementioned antimicrobials, were prepared and stored at 4 °C. Microbiological data suggested that, the combination of chitosan and natamycin resulted in significant reductions (1-3 log cfu/g) of the microbial species examined (mesophilic total viable counts; TVC), yeasts/molds, psychrotrophic and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms) by day 10. The pH values of treated phyllo samples were lower on final day 10, as compared to the untreated phyllo, and of the Hunter color parameters (L*, b* and a*) that were evaluated, mostly the combined treatment of chitosan and natamycin maintained the original lightness (L*) and color (yellowness) stability (b*) of phyllo product during the storage period. Sensory data, based on overall acceptability (mean values of appearance and odor) scores confirmed the superiority of combined treatment of chitosan and natamycin, resulting in almost a doubling of the shelf-life of fresh phyllo, while retaining excellent sensorial characteristics (appearance and odor) even on final storage day (10). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhanced production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) copolymer and antimicrobial yellow pigmentation from Cupriavidus sp. USMAHM13 with antibiofilm capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Iszatty; Gurusamy, Tana Poorani; Ramachandran, Hema; Al-Ashraf Amirul, Abdullah

    2017-04-21

    Antibiofilm polymers have the ability to inhibit bacterial biofilm formation, which is known to occur ubiquitously in the environment and pose risks of infection. In this study, production of P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer and antimicrobial yellow pigment from Cupriavidus sp. USMAHM13 are enhanced through medium optimization. Before the improvement of yellow pigment production, screening for the best additional supplement was performed resulting in high-yield yellow pigmentation using yeast extract with optimum concentration of 2 g/L. Effects of different concentrations of 1,4-butanediol, ammonium acetate, and yeast extract were studied using central composite design. Under optimal conditions, 53 wt% of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) content, 0.35 g/L of pigment concentration, and 5.87 g/L of residual biomass were achieved at 0.56 wt% C of 1,4-butanediol, 1.14 g/L of ammonium acetate, and 2 g/L of yeast extract. Antibiofilm tests revealed that the yellow pigment coated on P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer had significant effect on the inhibition of bacteria proliferation and colonization from 6 hr onward reaching 100% inhibition by 12 hr, hence effectively inhibiting the biofilm formation.

  9. Optimization of nutritional and non-nutritional factors involved for production of antimicrobial compounds from Lactobacillus pentosus SJ65 using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appukuttan Saraniya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria are ribosomal synthesized antibacterial proteins/ peptides having wide range of applications. Lactobacillus pentosus SJ65, isolated from fermented Uttapam batter (used to prepare south Indian pan cake, produces bacteriocin having a broad spectrum of activity against pathogens. Optimization studies are of utmost important to understand the source of utilization and the conditions to enhance the production of metabolites. In the present study, an attempt was made to identify the parameters involved for maximal production of antimicrobial compounds especially bacteriocin from the isolate L. pentosus SJ65. Initially, optimal conditions, such as incubation period, pH, and temperature were evaluated. Initial screening was done using methodology onevariable-at-a-time (OVAT for various carbon and nitrogen sources. Further evaluation was carried out statistically using Plackett-Burman design and the variables were analyzed using response surface methodology using central composite design. The optimum media using tryptone or soy peptone, yeast extract, glucose, triammonium citrate, MnSO4, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate and tween 80 produced maximum bacteriocin activity.

  10. Effect of Maillard reaction products on the physical and antimicrobial properties of edible films based on ε-polylysine and chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingying; Liu, Fuguo; Liang, Chunxuan; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang

    2014-11-01

    Edible films based on Maillard reaction products (MRPs) of ε-polylysine and chitosan, without the use of any plasticiser, were prepared by solution casting. The effect of Maillard reaction parameters (reaction time and the ratio of polylysine/chitosan) of ε-polylysine and chitosan on the structure, moisture content, water solubility, total colour difference and mechanical properties of edible films formed by MRPs were systematically evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that edible films prepared by the MRPs of ε-polylysine and chitosan through the Maillard reaction exhibited a more compact and dense structure than those from the mixture of biopolymers without the presence of MRPs. The tensile strength and % elongation values of films from the mixture were decreased significantly with the rise of ε-polylysine (P Maillard reaction, whereas water solubility was decreased and total colour difference was increased significantly (P Maillard reaction time. In addition, antimicrobial activity of chitosan films against E. coli and S. aureus. could be achieved by incorporating ε-polylysine into chitosan. These films can ensure food quality and safety, especially for coating highly perishable foods, such as meat products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Portable shift register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Bourret, S.C.; Hansen, W.J.; Hicks, D.V.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Krick, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    An electronics package for a small, battery-operated, self-contained, neutron coincidence counter based on a portable shift-register (PSR) has been developed. The counter was developed for applications not adequately addressed by commercial packages, including in-plant measurements to demonstrate compliance with regulations (domestic and international), in-plant process control, and in-field measurements (environmental monitoring or safeguards). Our package's features, which address these applications, include the following: Small size for portability and ease of installation;battery or mains operation; a built-in battery to power the unit and a typical detector such as a small sample counter, for over 6 h if power lines are bad or noisy, if there is a temporary absence of power, or if portability is desired; complete support, including bias, for standard neutron detectors; a powerful communications package to easily facilitate robust external control over a serial port; and a C-library to simplify creating external control programs in computers or other controllers. Whereas the PSR specifically addresses the applications mentioned above, it also performs all the measurements made by previous electronics packages for neutron coincidence counters developed at Los Alamos and commercialized. The PSR electronics package, exclusive of carrying handle, is 8 by 10 by 20 cm; it contains the circuit boards, battery, and bias supply and weighs less than 2 kg. This instrument package is the second in an emerging family of portable measurement instruments being developed; the first was the Miniature and Modular Multichannel Analyzer (M 3 CA). The PSR makes extensive use of hardware and software developed for the M 3 CA; like the M 3 CA, it is intended primarily for use with an external controller interfaced over a serial channel

  12. Antimicrobial food packaging: potential and pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Bhanu; Keshwani, Anu; Kharkwal, Harsha

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays food preservation, quality maintenance, and safety are major growing concerns of the food industry. It is evident that over time consumers’ demand for natural and safe food products with stringent regulations to prevent food-borne infectious diseases. Antimicrobial packaging which is thought to be a subset of active packaging and controlled release packaging is one such promising technology which effectively impregnates the antimicrobial into the food packaging film material and subsequently delivers it over the stipulated period of time to kill the pathogenic microorganisms affecting food products thereby increasing the shelf life to severe folds. This paper presents a picture of the recent research on antimicrobial agents that are aimed at enhancing and improving food quality and safety by reduction of pathogen growth and extension of shelf life, in a form of a comprehensive review. Examination of the available antimicrobial packaging technologies is also presented along with their significant impact on food safety. This article entails various antimicrobial agents for commercial applications, as well as the difference between the use of antimicrobials under laboratory scale and real time applications. Development of resistance amongst microorganisms is considered as a future implication of antimicrobials with an aim to come up with actual efficacies in extension of shelf life as well as reduction in bacterial growth through the upcoming and promising use of antimicrobials in food packaging for the forthcoming research down the line. PMID:26136740

  13. Determination and production of antimicrobial compounds by Aspergillus clavatonanicus strain MJ31, an endophytic fungus from Mirabilis jalapa L. using UPLC-ESI-MS/MS and TD-GC-MS analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Kumar Mishra

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi associated with medicinal plants are reported as potent producers of diverse classes of secondary metabolites. In the present study, an endophytic fungi, Aspergillus clavatonanicus strain MJ31, exhibiting significant antimicrobial activity was isolated from roots of Mirabilis jalapa L., was identified by sequencing three nuclear genes i.e. internal transcribed spacers ribosomal RNA (ITS rRNA, 28S ribosomal RNA (28S rRNA and translation elongation factor 1- alpha (EF 1α. Ethyl acetate extract of strain MJ31displayed significant antimicrobial potential against Bacillus subtilis, followed by Micrococccus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of 0.078, 0.156 and 0.312 mg/ml respectively. In addition, the strain was evaluated for its ability to synthesize bioactive compounds by the amplification of polyketide synthase (PKS and non ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS genes. Further, seven antibiotics (miconazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, ampicillin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, and rifampicin were detected and quantified using UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Additionally, thermal desorption-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS analysis of strain MJ31 showed the presence of 28 volatile compounds. This is the first report on A. clavatonanicus as an endophyte obtained from M. jalapa. We conclude that A. clavatonanicus strain MJ31 has prolific antimicrobial potential against both plant and human pathogens and can be exploited for the discovery of new antimicrobial compounds and could be an alternate source for the production of secondary metabolites.

  14. Uptake and biodegradation of the antimicrobial sulfadimidine by the species Tripolium pannonicum acting as biofilter and its further biodegradation by anaerobic digestion and concomitant biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios, Ariel E; Weichgrebe, Dirk; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2016-11-01

    This project analyses the uptake and biodegradation of the antimicrobial sulfadimidine (SDI) from the culture medium and up to the anaerobic digestion. Tripolium pannonicum was grown under hydroponic conditions with different concentrations of SDI (0, 5 and 10mg·L(-1)) and the fresh biomass, containing different amounts of SDI taken up, was used as substrate for biogas production. SDI was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to positive ion electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI LC-MS). Based on the findings, T. pannonicum is able to uptake SDI. The more SDI is in the culture medium, the higher the SDI content in the plant tissue. According to this study, it is possible to produce high yields of biogas using biomass of T. pannonicum containing SDI and at the same time biodegradation of SDI is carried out. The highest specific biogas yield is obtained using shoots as substrate of the plants cultivated at 5mg·L(-1) SDI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Antimicrobial Effect of Filipendula ulmaria Plant Extract Against Selected Foodborne Pathogenic and Spoilage Bacteria in Laboratory Media, Fish Flesh and Fish Roe Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Proestos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-methanol extract from Filipendula ulmaria contains a variety of phenolic compounds, such as caffeic, p-coumaric and vanillic acid, myricetin, etc, which demonstrate antibacterial activity. Monitoring this activity in the broth using absorbance measurements showed that species of the Enterobacteriaceae family were more resistant than other Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria tested. Acidic environment enhanced the antibacterial activity of Filipendula ulmaria extract when it was tested against Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A. The efficacy of Filipendula ulmaria extract against selected foodborne psychrotrophic bacteria was also tested using solid laboratory media and low incubation temperatures for better simulation of food preservation conditions. Higher concentrations of the extract, compared to minimum inhibitory concentration determined in the broth, were needed for satisfactory inhibition of spoilage bacteria. Potential use of Filipendula ulmaria extract as natural food preservative was also examined against natural spoilage flora and inoculated pathogenic bacteria on fish flesh and fish roe product (tarama salad. No significant differences of viable populations of spoilage or pathogenic bacteria were found between the treated samples and controls. Further trials of Filipendula ulmaria extract should be carried out in acidic foods with low fat and protein content, supplemented with additional adjuncts, in order to explore its potential as effective natural food antimicrobial agent.

  16. Antimicrobial Resistance of Faecal Escherichia coli Isolates from Pig Farms with Different Durations of In-feed Antimicrobial Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, J F; Boland, F; Egan, J; Fanning, S; Markey, B K; Leonard, F C

    2016-05-01

    Antimicrobial use and resistance in animal and food production are of concern to public health. The primary aims of this study were to determine the frequency of resistance to 12 antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from 39 pig farms and to identify patterns of antimicrobial use on these farms. Further aims were to determine whether a categorization of farms based on the duration of in-feed antimicrobial use (long-term versus short-term) could predict the occurrence of resistance on these farms and to identify the usage of specific antimicrobial drugs associated with the occurrence of resistance. Escherichia coli were isolated from all production stages on these farms; susceptibility testing was carried out against a panel of antimicrobials. Antimicrobial prescribing data were collected, and farms were categorized as long term or short term based on these. Resistance frequencies and antimicrobial use were tabulated. Logistic regression models of resistance to each antimicrobial were constructed with stage of production, duration of antimicrobial use and the use of 5 antimicrobial classes included as explanatory variables in each model. The greatest frequencies of resistance were observed to tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole and streptomycin with the highest levels of resistance observed in isolates from first-stage weaned pigs. Differences in the types of antimicrobial drugs used were noted between long-term and short-term use farms. Categorization of farms as long- or short-term use was sufficient to predict the likely occurrence of resistance to 3 antimicrobial classes and could provide an aid in the control of resistance in the food chain. Stage of production was a significant predictor variable in all models of resistance constructed and did not solely reflect antimicrobial use at each stage. Cross-selection and co-selection for resistance was evident in the models constructed, and the use of trimethoprim/sulphonamide drugs in particular was

  17. Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms among Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Kinga; Osek, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. Campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. Antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. The most common antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Campylobacter infections are macrolides, such as erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Tetracyclines have been suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of clinical campylobacteriosis but in practice are not often used. However, during the past few decades an increasing number of resistant Campylobacter isolates have developed resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams. Trends in antimicrobial resistance have shown a clear correlation between use of antibiotics in the veterinary medicine and animal production and resistant isolates of Campylobacter in humans. In this review, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter are discussed.

  18. Antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Engberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    Campylobacter has become the leading cause of zoonotic enteric infections in developed and developing countries world-wide. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged among Campylobacter mainly as a consequence of the use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production. Resistance to drugs of choice...... for the treatment of infections, macrolides and fluoroquinolones has emerged as a clinical problem and interventions to reduce this are recommended. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides is mediated by chromosomal mutations. Resistance to other relevant antimicrobial agents, mediated by acquired resistance...... genes, has not become widespread so far. However, resistance genes originating from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species have been found, showing the potential for acquired resistance to emerge in Campylobacter....

  19. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A.brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for the final healthy product – natural preservatives in yoghurt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stojkovic, D.S.; Reis, F.S.; Glamoclija, J.; Ciric, A.; Barros, L.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R.; Sokovic, M.

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic

  20. The Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundtoft, Per Hviid; Varnum, Claus; Pedersen, Alma Becic

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register (DHR) is to continuously monitor and improve the quality of treatment of primary and revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) in Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: The DHR is a Danish nationwide arthroplasty register established in January 1995...

  1. Target Product Profile for a Diagnostic Assay to Differentiate between Bacterial and Non-Bacterial Infections and Reduce Antimicrobial Overuse in Resource-Limited Settings: An Expert Consensus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Dittrich

    Full Text Available Acute fever is one of the most common presenting symptoms globally. In order to reduce the empiric use of antimicrobial drugs and improve outcomes, it is essential to improve diagnostic capabilities. In the absence of microbiology facilities in low-income settings, an assay to distinguish bacterial from non-bacterial causes would be a critical first step. To ensure that patient and market needs are met, the requirements of such a test should be specified in a target product profile (TPP. To identify minimal/optimal characteristics for a bacterial vs. non-bacterial fever test, experts from academia and international organizations with expertise in infectious diseases, diagnostic test development, laboratory medicine, global health, and health economics were convened. Proposed TPPs were reviewed by this working group, and consensus characteristics were defined. The working group defined non-severely ill, non-malaria infected children as the target population for the desired assay. To provide access to the most patients, the test should be deployable to community health centers and informal health settings, and staff should require 90% and >80% for sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Other key characteristics, to account for the challenging environment at which the test is targeted, included: i time-to-result <10 min (but maximally <2 hrs; ii storage conditions at 0-40°C, ≤90% non-condensing humidity with a minimal shelf life of 12 months; iii operational conditions of 5-40°C, ≤90% non-condensing humidity; and iv minimal sample collection needs (50-100μL, capillary blood. This expert approach to define assay requirements for a bacterial vs. non-bacterial assay should guide product development, and enable targeted and timely efforts by industry partners and academic institutions.

  2. Production of a pseudo-random square wave using a shift register with binary feedbacks; Generation d'un creneau pseudo-aleatoire par un registre a decalage a contre-reaction binaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, T E; Cazemajou, J; Macherez, B; Valat, J; Vignon, A

    1964-07-01

    We summarize here the theoretical basis for the production of square wave having the values '1' or '0', the switching times being 'pseudo-random'. More precisely, the square-wave may or may not change value at regular time intervals of length {delta}, with probability approximately. 5 for each alternative. The wave-form is obtained by means of a shift-register having modulo-2 feedback. If the interval {delta} and the feedback connections are well chosen, it is possible to produce a waveform whose autocorrelation function is very close to a Dirac delta function. The square-wave therefore behaves like a quantized white noise, which has very interesting properties in cross-correlation techniques. (authors) [French] On resume ici les bases theoriques permettant d'obtenir un creneau prenant les valeurs '1' ou '0', les instants de commutation etant pseudo-aleatoires. Plus exactement, le creneau a la possibilite de changer (ou de ne pas changer) d'etat a intervalles de temps reguliers, separes par intervalle elementaire {delta}, chacune des deux possibilites possedant une probabilite d'apparition tres voisine de 0,5. Le creneau est obtenu par un registre a decalage (shift register) a contre-reactions logiques modulo-2. Si l'intervalle {delta} et les contre-reactions sont judicieusement choisis, il est possible d'obtenir pour le creneau une fonction d'autocorrelation triangulaire tres voisine d'une impulsion de Dirac. Par suite le creneau se comporte comme un bruit blanc quantifie possedant de tres interessantes proprietes pour les techniques statistiques d'intercorrelation. (auteurs)

  3. 30 CFR 45.4 - Independent contractor register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Independent contractor register. 45.4 Section... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS INDEPENDENT CONTRACTORS § 45.4 Independent contractor register. (a) Each independent contractor shall provide the production-operator in writing the following information: (1) The independent...

  4. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search Popular ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will ...

  5. Antimicrobial Treatments and Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    To limit exposure to indoor biological contamination a risk-management approach which employs various antimicrobial treatments can effectively control contaminants and reduce exposure. Antimicrobial treatment of biological contaminants, especially mold in buildings, it is often n...

  6. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance Go to Information for Researchers ► Credit: ... and infectious diseases. Why Is the Study of Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance a Priority for NIAID? Over time, ...

  7. Extraction and refining of essential oil from Australian tea tree, Melaleuca alterfornia, and the antimicrobial activity in cosmetic products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Q.; Phan, T. D.; Thieu, V. Q. Q.; Tran, S. T.; Do, S. H.

    2012-03-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) comes from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifornia that belongs to the myrtle family (Myrtaceae). It is one of the most powerful immune system stimulants and sorts out most viral, bacterial and fungal infections in a snap, while it is great to heal wounds and acnes. In Vietnam, Melaleuca trees can grow on acid land that stretches in a large portion of lands in the Mekong Delta region. So, there are some Melaleuca plantations developed under the Vietnamese government plans of increasing plantation forests now. However, TTO contains various amounts of 1,8-cineole that causes skin irritant. So TTO purification is very necessary. In this study, the purification of TTO that meet International Standard ISO 4730 was carried out via two steps. The first step is steam distillation to obtain crude TTO (terpinen-4-ol 35% v/v) and the average productivity is among 2.37% (v/wet-wt) or 1.23% (v/dry-wt). In the second step, the cleaned TTO is collected by vacuum distillation column and extraction yield of the whole process is about 0.3% (w/w). Besides, high concentration essential oil was applied in the cosmetic products to increase its commercial value.

  8. Extraction and refining of essential oil from Australian tea tree, Melaleuca alterfornia, and the antimicrobial activity in cosmetic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, Q; Phan, T D; Thieu, V Q Q; Tran, S T; Do, S H

    2012-01-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) comes from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifornia that belongs to the myrtle family (Myrtaceae). It is one of the most powerful immune system stimulants and sorts out most viral, bacterial and fungal infections in a snap, while it is great to heal wounds and acnes. In Vietnam, Melaleuca trees can grow on acid land that stretches in a large portion of lands in the Mekong Delta region. So, there are some Melaleuca plantations developed under the Vietnamese government plans of increasing plantation forests now. However, TTO contains various amounts of 1,8-cineole that causes skin irritant. So TTO purification is very necessary. In this study, the purification of TTO that meet International Standard ISO 4730 was carried out via two steps. The first step is steam distillation to obtain crude TTO (terpinen-4-ol 35% v/v) and the average productivity is among 2.37% (v/wet-wt) or 1.23% (v/dry-wt). In the second step, the cleaned TTO is collected by vacuum distillation column and extraction yield of the whole process is about 0.3% (w/w). Besides, high concentration essential oil was applied in the cosmetic products to increase its commercial value.

  9. EPA-Registered Bed Bug Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rest or hide in hampers, bed frames, even furniture); Failing to treat adjacent areas where bed bugs ... to work (some pesticides, such as desiccators or growth regulators, may be very effective but take some ...

  10. Local and systemic antimicrobial therapy in periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, David; Matesanz, Paula; Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Sanz, Mariano

    2012-09-01

    This review aimed to update the current evidence on the efficacy of the adjunctive use of local and systemic antimicrobials in the treatment of periodontitis and to assess whether it might improve the clinical limitations and shortcomings of standard nonsurgical treatment in the management of periodontitis. Relevant randomized clinical trials (RCT) with more than 3 months of follow-up, published from 2010 to 2012 for systemic antimicrobials and from 2008 to 2012 for local antimicrobials, were searched in Medline and critically analyzed. Scientific evidence evaluated in different systematic reviews and reviews presented at European and World Workshops were also included. Only adjunctive therapies were considered in the present review: articles comparing debridement alone or plus placebo, versus debridement plus systemic or local antimicrobials were included. Adjunctive systemic antimicrobials have been evaluated both in aggressive and chronic periodontitis: in aggressive periodontitis, amoxicillin and metronidazole have been extensively studied, reporting clinical and microbiological benefits; in chronic periodontitis, different products are under scrutiny, such as azithromycin. The clinical efficacy of local antimicrobials, although extensively demonstrated, is still surrounded by a constant debate on the cost-effectiveness evaluation and on its adequate indications. Despite the clinical efficacy of the adjunctive use of local and systemic antimicrobials, demonstrated in RCTs and in systematic reviews, there is a lack of evidence to support well-defined clinical protocols, including products and dosages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacillus Strains Isolated from Primary Starters for African Traditional Bread Production and Characterization of the Bacitracin Operon and Bacitracin Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Kim I.; Thorsen, Line; Stuer-Lauridsen, Birgitte; Abdelgadir, Warda S.; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Derkx, Patrick M. F.; Jespersen, Lene

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus spp. are widely used as feed additives and probiotics. However, there is limited information on their resistance to various antibiotics, and there is a growing concern over the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes. The MIC for 8 antibiotics was determined for 85 Bacillus species strains, Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis (n = 29), Bacillus licheniformis (n = 38), and Bacillus sonorensis (n = 18), all of which were isolated from starters for Sudanese bread production. All the strains were sensitive to tetracycline (8.0 mg/liter), vancomycin (4.0 mg/liter), and gentamicin (4.0 mg/liter) but resistant to streptomycin. Sensitivity to clindamycin, chloramphenicol, and kanamycin was species specific. The erythromycin resistance genes ermD and ermK were detected by PCR in all of the erythromycin-resistant (MIC, ≥16.0 mg/liter) B. licheniformis strains and one erythromycin-sensitive (MIC, 4.0 mg/liter) B. licheniformis strain. Several amino acid changes were present in the translated ermD and ermK nucleotide sequences of the erythromycin-sensitive strain, which could indicate ErmD and ErmK protein functionalities different from those of the resistance strains. The ermD and ermK genes were localized on an 11.4-kbp plasmid. All of the B. sonorensis strains harbored the bacitracin synthetase gene, bacA, and the transporter gene bcrA, which correlated with their observed resistance to bacitracin. Bacitracin was produced by all the investigated species strains (28%), as determined by ultra-high-definition quadrupole time-of-flight liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHD-QTOF LC/MS). The present study has revealed species-specific variations in the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Bacillus spp. and provides new information on MIC values, as well as the occurrence of resistance genes in Bacillus spp., including the newly described species B. sonorensis. PMID:22941078

  12. Antimicrobial Peptides: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Evan F; Mansour, Sarah C; Hancock, Robert E W

    2017-01-01

    The "golden era" of antibiotic discovery has long passed, but the need for new antibiotics has never been greater due to the emerging threat of antibiotic resistance. This urgency to develop new antibiotics has motivated researchers to find new methods to combat pathogenic microorganisms resulting in a surge of research focused around antimicrobial peptides (AMPs; also termed host defense peptides) and their potential as therapeutics. During the past few decades, more than 2000 AMPs have been identified from a diverse range of organisms (animals, fungi, plants, and bacteria). While these AMPs share a number of common features and a limited number of structural motifs; their sequences, activities, and targets differ considerably. In addition to their antimicrobial effects, AMPs can also exhibit immunomodulatory, anti-biofilm, and anticancer activities. These diverse functions have spurred tremendous interest in research aimed at understanding the activity of AMPs, and various protocols have been described to assess different aspects of AMP function including screening and evaluating the activities of natural and synthetic AMPs, measuring interactions with membranes, optimizing peptide function, and scaling up peptide production. Here, we provide a general overview of AMPs and introduce some of the methodologies that have been used to advance AMP research.

  13. Registering Researchers in Authority Files

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altman, M.; Conlon, M.; Cristan, A.L.; Dawson, L.; Dunham, J.; Hickey, T.; Hook, D.; Horstmann, W.; MacEwan, A.; Schreur, P.; Smart, L.; Smith-Yoshimura, K.; Wacker, M.; Woutersen, S.

    2014-01-01

    Registering researchers in some type of authority file or identifier system has become more compelling as both institutions and researchers recognize the need to compile their scholarly output. The report presents functional requirements and recommendations for six stakeholders: researchers,

  14. Antimicrobial drugs for treating cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovici-Weissman, Ya'ara; Neuberger, Ami; Bitterman, Roni; Sinclair, David; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Paul, Mical

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholera is an acute watery diarrhoea caused by infection with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which if severe can cause rapid dehydration and death. Effective management requires early diagnosis and rehydration using oral rehydration salts or intravenous fluids. In this review, we evaluate the additional benefits of treating cholera with antimicrobial drugs. Objectives To quantify the benefit of antimicrobial treatment for patients with cholera, and determine whether there are differences between classes of antimicrobials or dosing schedules. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); PubMed; EMBASE; African Index Medicus; LILACS; Science Citation Index; metaRegister of Controlled Trials; WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform; conference proceedings; and reference lists to March 2014. Selection criteria Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled clinical trials in adults and children with cholera that compared: 1) any antimicrobial treatment with placebo or no treatment; 2) different antimicrobials head-to-head; or 3) different dosing schedules or different durations of treatment with the same antimicrobial. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers independently applied inclusion and exclusion criteria, and extracted data from included trials. Diarrhoea duration and stool volume were defined as primary outcomes. We calculated mean difference (MD) or ratio of means (ROM) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI), and pooled data using a random-effects meta-analysis. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Main results Thirty-nine trials were included in this review with 4623 participants. Antimicrobials versus placebo or no treatment Overall, antimicrobial therapy shortened the mean duration of diarrhoea by about a day and a half compared to placebo or no treatment (MD -36.77 hours, 95% CI -43

  15. Relating timed and register automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Figueira

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Timed automata and register automata are well-known models of computation over timed and data words respectively. The former has clocks that allow to test the lapse of time between two events, whilst the latter includes registers that can store data values for later comparison. Although these two models behave in appearance differently, several decision problems have the same (undecidability and complexity results for both models. As a prominent example, emptiness is decidable for alternating automata with one clock or register, both with non-primitive recursive complexity. This is not by chance. This work confirms that there is indeed a tight relationship between the two models. We show that a run of a timed automaton can be simulated by a register automaton, and conversely that a run of a register automaton can be simulated by a timed automaton. Our results allow to transfer complexity and decidability results back and forth between these two kinds of models. We justify the usefulness of these reductions by obtaining new results on register automata.

  16. Comparison of the antimicrobial consumption in weaning pigs in Danish sow herds with different vaccine purchase patterns during 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Temtem, Carolina; Kruse, Amanda Brinch; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is growing concern about development of antimicrobial resistance due to use of antimicrobials (AMs) in livestock production. Identifying efficient alternatives, including vaccination, is a priority. The objective of this study was to compare the herd-level amount of AMs prescribed...... for weaner pigs, between Danish sow herds using varying combinations of vaccines against Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MYC) and Lawsonia intracellularis (LAW). It was hypothesised that herds purchasing vaccines, use these to prevent disease, and hence reduce their AM consumption......, compared to herds purchasing fewer or no vaccines against these pathogens. Data summarised over year 2013 were obtained from the Danish Central Husbandry Register and the Danish VetStat database, in which prescriptions of medication are recorded. All one-site indoor pig herds with >50 sows and >200 weaners...

  17. Novel natural food antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Dwivedi, Hari P; Yan, Xianghe

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds could be applied as food preservatives to protect food quality and extend the shelf life of foods and beverages. These compounds are naturally produced and isolated from various sources, including plants, animals and microorganisms, in which they constitute part of host defense systems. Many naturally occurring compounds, such as nisin, plant essential oils, and natamycin, have been widely studied and are reported to be effective in their potential role as antimicrobial agents against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Although some of these natural antimicrobials are commercially available and applied in food processing, their efficacy, consumer acceptance and regulation are not well defined. This manuscript reviews natural antimicrobial compounds with reference to their applications in food when applied individually or in combination with other hurdles. It also reviews the mechanism of action of selected natural antimicrobials, factors affecting their antimicrobial activities, and future prospects for use of natural antimicrobials in the food industry.

  18. The effect of prebiotics on production of antimicrobial compounds, resistance to growth at low pH and in the presence of bile, and adhesion of probiotic cells to intestinal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, M; Todorov, S D; Martin, J H; Senekal, M; Dicks, L M T

    2006-04-01

    Screening of five bile salt-resistant and low pH-tolerant lactic acid bacteria for inhibitory activity against lactic acid bacteria and bacterial strains isolated from the faeces of children with HIV/AIDS. Determining the effect of prebiotics and soy milk-base on cell viability and adhesion of cells to intestinal mucus. Lactobacillus plantarum 423, Lactobacillus casei LHS, Lactobacillus salivarius 241, Lactobacillus curvatus DF 38 and Pediococcus pentosaceus 34 produced the highest level of antimicrobial activity (12,800 AU ml(-1)) when grown in MRS broth supplemented with 2% (m/v) dextrose. Growth in the presence of Raftilose Synergy1, Raftilose L95 and Raftiline GR did not lead to increased levels of antimicrobial activity. Cells grown in the presence of Raftilose Synergy1 took longer to adhere to intestinal mucus, whilst cells grown in the absence of prebiotics showed a linear rate of binding. A broad range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were inhibited. Dextrose stimulated the production of antimicrobial compounds. Adhesion to intestinal mucus did not increase with the addition of prebiotics. The strains may be incorporated in food supplements for HIV/AIDS patients suffering from gastro-intestinal disorders.

  19. Impact of raised without antibiotics practices on occurrences of antimicrobial resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The increasing occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant human infections has been attributed to the use of antimicrobials in a variety of applications including food-animal production. "Raised without antibiotics" (RWA) meat production has been offered as a practice to reduce antimicrobial-...

  20. Production of Antimicrobial Films by Incorporation of Partially Purified Lysozyme into Biodegradable Films of Crude Exopolysaccharides Obtained from Aureobasidium pullulans Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay Kandemir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial films were produced by incorporating partially purified lysozyme into films of crude exopolysaccharides (59 % pullulan obtained from Aureobasidium pullulans fermentation. After film making, the films containing lysozyme at 100, 260, 520 and 780 μg/cm2 showed 23 to 70 % of their expected enzyme activities. The highest recovery of enzyme activity (65–70 % after the film making was obtained in films prepared by incorporating lysozyme at 260 μg/cm2 (1409 U/cm2. The incorporation of disodium EDTA×2H2O and sucrose did not affect the initial lysozyme activity of the films significantly. With or without the presence of disodium EDTA×2H2O at 52 or 520 μg/cm2, lysozyme activity showed sufficient stability in the films during 21 days of cold storage. However, the presence of sucrose at 10 mg/cm2 in the films caused the destabilization of part of enzyme activity (almost 35 % at the end of storage. The combinational incorporation of lysozyme at 780 μg/cm2 (4227 U/cm2 and disodium EDTA×2H2O at 520 μg/cm2 gave antimicrobial films effective on Escherichia coli. However, in the studied lysozyme concentration range the films did not show any antimicrobial activity against Lactobacillus plantarum. This study clearly showed that the partially purified lysozyme and crude exopolysaccharides from Aureobasidium pullulans may be used to obtain antimicrobial films to increase the safety of foods.

  1. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobials for textile applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windler, Lena; Height, Murray; Nowack, Bernd

    2013-03-01

    Many antimicrobial technologies are available for textiles. They may be used in many different textile applications to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Due to the biological activity of the antimicrobial compounds, the assessment of the safety of these substances is an ongoing subject of research and regulatory scrutiny. This review aims to give an overview on the main compounds used today for antimicrobial textile functionalization. Based on an evaluation of scientific publications, market data as well as regulatory documents, the potential effects of antimicrobials on the environment and on human health were considered and also life cycle perspectives were taken into account. The characteristics of each compound were summarized according to technical, environmental and human health criteria. Triclosan, silane quaternary ammonium compounds, zinc pyrithione and silver-based compounds are the main antimicrobials used in textiles. The synthetic organic compounds dominate the antimicrobials market on a weight basis. On the technical side the application rates of the antimicrobials used to functionalize a textile product are an important parameter with treatments requiring lower dosage rates offering clear benefits in terms of less active substance required to achieve the functionality. The durability of the antimicrobial treatment has a strong influence on the potential for release and subsequent environmental effects. In terms of environmental criteria, all compounds were rated similarly in effective removal in wastewater treatment processes. The extent of published information about environmental behavior for each compound varies, limiting the possibility for an in-depth comparison of all textile-relevant parameters across the antimicrobials. Nevertheless the comparative evaluation showed that each antimicrobial technology has specific risks and benefits that should be taken into account in evaluating the suitability of different antimicrobial products. The

  2. Novel food packaging systems with natural antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irkin, Reyhan; Esmer, Ozlem Kizilirmak

    2015-10-01

    A new type of packaging that combines food packaging materials with antimicrobial substances to control microbial surface contamination of foods to enhance product microbial safety and to extend shelf-life is attracting interest in the packaging industry. Several antimicrobial compounds can be combined with different types of packaging materials. But in recent years, since consumer demand for natural food ingredients has increased because of safety and availability, these natural compounds are beginning to replace the chemical additives in foods and are perceived to be safer and claimed to alleviate safety concerns. Recent research studies are mainly focused on the application of natural antimicrobials in food packaging system. Biologically derived compounds like bacteriocins, phytochemicals, enzymes can be used in antimicrobial food packaging. The aim of this review is to give an overview of most important knowledge about application of natural antimicrobial packagings with model food systems and their antimicrobial effects on food products.

  3. Register

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Denotes required field. Privacy Statement. The names and email addresses entered here will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of AJOL. We take your privacy seriously and we protect your personal information, which will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party. AJOL African Journals ...

  4. Register

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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  5. Alternative Antimicrobial Approach: Nano-Antimicrobial Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Nurit Beyth; Yael Houri-Haddad; Avi Domb; Wahid Khan; Ronen Hazan

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous existing potent antibiotics and other antimicrobial means, bacterial infections are still a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the need to develop additional bactericidal means has significantly increased due to the growing concern regarding multidrug-resistant bacterial strains and biofilm associated infections. Consequently, attention has been especially devoted to new and emerging nanoparticle-based materials in the field of antimicrobial chemotherapy. The ...

  6. The Danish Medical Birth Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Broe, Anne; Pottegård, Anton

    2018-01-01

    The Danish Medical Birth Register was established in 1973. It is a key component of the Danish health information system. The register enables monitoring of the health of pregnant women and their offspring, it provides data for quality assessment of the perinatal care in Denmark, and it is used...... on all births in Denmark and comprises primarily of data from the Danish National Patient Registry supplemented with forms on home deliveries and stillbirths. It contains information on maternal age provided by the Civil Registration System. Information on pre-pregnancy body mass index and smoking...

  7. Danish registers on aspects of reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blenstrup, Lene Tølbøll; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The establishing of three Danish population based registers, namely the Fertility Database, the Register of Legally Induced Abortions and the In Vitro Fertilisation register aimed at providing data for surveying of reproductive outcome. Content: The registers include information...... on births, abortions and assisted reproduction as well as selected characteristics of the women (and men) involved. Validity and Coverage: Both the validity and coverage of each register is considered of high quality. Conclusions: These registers provide, both individually and in combination, unique...

  8. Antimicrobial screening of Cichorium intybus seed extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauseef shaikh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants play an important role in the field of natural products and human health care system. Chemical constituents present in the various parts of the plants can resist to parasitic attack by using several defense mechanisms. One such mechanism is the synthesis of antimicrobial compound. Cichorium intybus is one of the important medicinal plants which belong to Asteraceae family. In the present work, antimicrobial screening of C. intybus seed extract was studied by agar well diffusion assay by using aqueous and organic extracts. The pathogenic microorganisms tested include Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. All the seed extracts showed antimicrobial activity against tested microorganisms whereas S. aureus was found to be most sensitive against aqueous extract and had the widest zone of inhibition. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extract were found to be significant against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. The results obtained from antimicrobial screening scientifically support the effectiveness of the medicinal plant.

  9. Antimicrobial Resistance in the Food Chain: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verraes, Claire; Van Boxstael, Sigrid; Van Meervenne, Eva; Van Coillie, Els; Butaye, Patrick; Catry, Boudewijn; de Schaetzen, Marie-Athénaïs; Van Huffel, Xavier; Imberechts, Hein; Dierick, Katelijne; Daube, George; Saegerman, Claude; De Block, Jan; Dewulf, Jeroen; Herman, Lieve

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistant zoonotic pathogens present on food constitute a direct risk to public health. Antimicrobial resistance genes in commensal or pathogenic strains form an indirect risk to public health, as they increase the gene pool from which pathogenic bacteria can pick up resistance traits. Food can be contaminated with antimicrobial resistant bacteria and/or antimicrobial resistance genes in several ways. A first way is the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria on food selected by the use of antibiotics during agricultural production. A second route is the possible presence of resistance genes in bacteria that are intentionally added during the processing of food (starter cultures, probiotics, bioconserving microorganisms and bacteriophages). A last way is through cross-contamination with antimicrobial resistant bacteria during food processing. Raw food products can be consumed without having undergone prior processing or preservation and therefore hold a substantial risk for transfer of antimicrobial resistance to humans, as the eventually present resistant bacteria are not killed. As a consequence, transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes between bacteria after ingestion by humans may occur. Under minimal processing or preservation treatment conditions, sublethally damaged or stressed cells can be maintained in the food, inducing antimicrobial resistance build-up and enhancing the risk of resistance transfer. Food processes that kill bacteria in food products, decrease the risk of transmission of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:23812024

  10. The Pediatric Cataract Register (PECARE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haargaard, Birgitte; Nyström, Alf; Rosensvärd, Annika

    2015-01-01

    examination with a pencil light at age 5 weeks, whereas newborn red reflex examination using a handheld ophthalmoscope is routine protocol in Swedish maternity wards. Data regarding age of referral were derived from the Pediatric Cataract Register (PECARE). All children operated on before 1 year of age...

  11. Are Local Registers the Solution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldwin, R.; English, C.; Lemmen, C.H.J.; Rose, I.; Smith, A.; Solovov, A.; Sullivan, T.

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the possibility of using local registers to manage and update land rights. Secure land rights are largely taken for granted in the developed world. Yet for many people in developing nations, clear and enforceable land rights are not a reality. In the developed world, land rights

  12. Use and Misuse of Antimicrobial Drugs in Poultry and Livestock: Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Poole* and Cynthia Sheffield

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Food safety begins on the farm with management practices that contribute to an abundant, safe, and affordable food supply. To attain this goal antimicrobials have been used in all stages of food animal production in the United States and elsewhere around the world at one time or another. Among food–production animals antimicrobials are used for growth promotion, disease prophylaxis or disease treatment, and are generally administered to the entire flock or herd. Over many decades bacteria have become resistant to multiple antimicrobial classes in a cumulative manner. Bacteria exhibit a number of well characterized mechanisms of resistance to antimicrobials that include: 1 modification of the antimicrobial; 2 alteration of the drug target; 3 decreased access of drug to target; and 4 implementation of an alternative metabolic pathway not affected by the drug. The mechanisms of resistance are complex and depend on the type of bacterium involved (e.g. Gram–positive or Gram–negative and the class of drug. Some bacterial species have accumulated resistance to nearly all antimicrobial classes due to a combination of intrinsic and acquired processes. This has and will continue to lead to clinical failures of antimicrobial treatment in both human and animal medicine.

  13. Oral antimicrobials increase antimicrobial resistance in porcine E. coli--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, E; Simoneit, C; Tenhagen, B-A; Käsbohrer, A

    2014-03-01

    Administration of antimicrobials to livestock increases the risk of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in commensal bacteria. Antimicrobials in pig production are usually administered per pen via feed which implies treatment of sick alongside with healthy animals. The objective of this systematic literature review was to investigate the effect of orally administered antimicrobials on AMR in Escherichia coli of swine. Studies published in peer reviewed journals were retrieved from the international online databases ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Scopus and the national electronic literature data base of Deutsches Institut für Medizinische Dokumentation und Information. The studies were assessed using the eligibility criteria English or German language, access to full paper version, defined treatment and control group (initial value or non-treatment) as well as administration and resistance testing of the same antimicrobial class. In the qualitative synthesis, only studies were included presenting the summary measures odds ratio or prevalence of resistance, the category of the applied antimicrobial and the dosage. An effect of the antimicrobial on AMR in E. coli was evaluated as an "increase", "no effect" or "decrease" if the odds or alternatively the prevalence ratio were >1.0, 1.0 or antimicrobial substance and dosage was missing in 4 and 5 of the 11 finally selected studies. The 36 identified trials were inhomogenous in usage and provision of information on sample size. Oral administration of antimicrobials increases the risk of AMR in E. coli from swine. There is however a lack of studies on the impact of dosage and longitudinal effects of treatment. The published studies have a number of issues concerning their scientific quality. More high quality research is needed to better address and quantifiy the effect of orally administered antimicrobials on AMR in swine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Microwave Assisted Convenient One-Pot Synthesis of Coumarin Derivatives via Pechmann Condensation Catalyzed by FeF3 under Solvent-Free Conditions and Antimicrobial Activities of the Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Vahabi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and efficient solvent-free one-pot synthesis of coumarin derivatives by Pechmann condensation reactions of phenols with ethyl acetoacetate using FeF3 as a catalyst under microwave irradiation is described. This one-pot synthesis on a solid inorganic support provides the products in good yields. The newly synthesized compounds were systematically characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS and elemental CHN analyses. The proposed solvent-free microwave irradiation method using the environmentally friendly catalyst FeF3 offers the unique advantages of high yields, shorter reaction times, easy and quick isolation of the products, excellent chemoselectivity, and a one-pot, green synthesis. The products were screened for antimicrobial activity, and the results showed that the compounds reacted against all the tested bacteria.

  15. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for final healthy product - natural preservatives in yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S.; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Van Griensven, Leo J.L.D.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.; Soković, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both s...

  16. A survey of antimicrobial usage in animals in South Africa with specific reference to food animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagar, Hayley; Swan, Gerry; van Vuuren, Moritz

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to set a benchmark for a monitoring and surveillance programme on the volumes of antimicrobials available and consumed by animals for the benefit of animal health in South Africa. This survey was collated from data available from 2002 to 2004. The authorised antimicrobials available in South Africa were firstly reviewed. The majority of available antimicrobials were registered under the Stock Remedies Act 36 1947. Secondly, volumes of antimicrobials consumed were then surveyed and it was found that the majority of consumed antimicrobials were from the macrolide and pleuromutilin classes, followed by the tetracycline class, the sulphonamide class and lastly the penicillin class.Results showed that 68.5% of the antimicrobials surveyed were administered as in-feed medications. 17.5% of the total volume of antimicrobials utilised were parenteral antimicrobials, whereas antimicrobials for water medication constituted 12% of the total and 'other' dosage forms, for example the topical and aural dosage forms, constituted 1.5% of the total. Intramammary antimicrobials represented 0.04% of the total. The surveillance systems for veterinary antimicrobials used by other countries were scrutinised and compared. It was concluded that a combination of the surveillance systems applied by Australia and the United Kingdom is the best model (with modifications) to apply to the animal health industry in South Africa. Such a surveillance system, of the volumes of veterinary antimicrobials consumed, should ideally be implemented in conjunction with a veterinary antimicrobial resistance surveillance and monitoring programme. This will generate meaningful data that will contribute to the rational administration of antimicrobials in order to preserve the efficacy of the existing antimicrobials in South Africa.

  17. A survey of antimicrobial usage in animals in South Africa with specific reference to food animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Eagar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to set a benchmark for a monitoring and surveillance programme on the volumes of antimicrobials available and consumed by animals for the benefit of animal health in South Africa. This survey was collated from data available from 2002 to 2004. The authorised antimicrobials available in South Africa were firstly reviewed. The majority of available antimicrobials were registered under the Stock Remedies Act 36 1947. Secondly, volumes of antimicrobials consumed were then surveyed and it was found that the majority of consumed antimicrobials were from the macrolide and pleuromutilin classes, followed by the tetracycline class, the sulphonamide class and lastly the penicillin class.Results showed that 68.5% of the antimicrobials surveyed were administered as in-feed medications. 17.5% of the total volume of antimicrobials utilised were parenteral antimicrobials, whereas antimicrobials for water medication constituted 12% of the total and ’other‘ dosage forms, for example the topical and aural dosage forms, constituted 1.5% of the total. Intramammary antimicrobials represented 0.04% of the total. The surveillance systems for veterinary antimicrobials used by other countries were scrutinised and compared. It was concluded that a combination of the surveillance systems applied by Australia and the United Kingdom is the best model (with modifications to apply to the animal health industry in South Africa. Such a surveillance system, of the volumes of veterinary antimicrobials consumed, should ideally be implemented in conjunction with a veterinary antimicrobial resistance surveillance and monitoring programme. This will generate meaningful data that will contribute to the rational administration of antimicrobials in order to preserve the efficacy of the existing antimicrobials in South Africa.

  18. The Copenhagen School Health Records Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer L; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-01

    The Copenhagen School Health Records Register is an electronic register of health examination information on 372,636 children who attended school in Copenhagen, Denmark from 1936 to 2005.......The Copenhagen School Health Records Register is an electronic register of health examination information on 372,636 children who attended school in Copenhagen, Denmark from 1936 to 2005....

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Search FDA Submit search ... & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated Report Data Meetings ... Deutsch | 日本語 | فارسی | English FDA Accessibility Careers FDA Basics FOIA No FEAR ...

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pin it Email Print The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in ...

  2. Alternative Antimicrobial Approach: Nano-Antimicrobial Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurit Beyth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite numerous existing potent antibiotics and other antimicrobial means, bacterial infections are still a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the need to develop additional bactericidal means has significantly increased due to the growing concern regarding multidrug-resistant bacterial strains and biofilm associated infections. Consequently, attention has been especially devoted to new and emerging nanoparticle-based materials in the field of antimicrobial chemotherapy. The present review discusses the activities of nanoparticles as an antimicrobial means, their mode of action, nanoparticle effect on drug-resistant bacteria, and the risks attendant on their use as antibacterial agents. Factors contributing to nanoparticle performance in the clinical setting, their unique properties, and mechanism of action as antibacterial agents are discussed in detail.

  3. Providing context: antimicrobial resistance from multiple environmental sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Animal agriculture has been identified as encouraging the spread of resistance due to the use of large quantities of antimicrobials for animal production purposes. When antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is reported in agricultural settings without comparison to other environments there is a...

  4. original article antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of lactic acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. Currently, the efficacies of antimicrobials have been threatened due to the development of resistance to antibiotics by some microorganisms. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from fermented products, may act as reservoir of antimicrobial resistance-genes that could be transferred to pathogens, either in the food matrix or ...

  5. National register of research projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-03-01

    This Register is intended to serve as a source of information on research which is being conducted in all fields (both natural and human sciences) in the Republic of South Africa. New research projects commenced during 1983 or 1984, and significantly changed research projects, as well as project that were completed or terminated during this period, on which information was received by the compilers before December 1984, are included, with the exception of confidential projects.

  6. VISUALIZATION OF REGISTERED SUBSURFACE ANATOMY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method for visualization of subsurface anatomy includes obtaining a first image from a first camera and a second image from a second camera or a second channel of the first camera, where the first and second images contain shared anatomical structures. The second camera and the secon....... A visual interface displays the registered visualization of the first and second images. The system and method are particularly useful for imaging during minimally invasive surgery, such as robotic surgery....

  7. Declines in Outpatient Antimicrobial Use in Canada (1995–2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Rita; Glass-Kaastra, Shiona K.; Hutchinson, Jim; Patrick, David M.; Weiss, Karl; Conly, John

    2013-01-01

    Background With rising reports of antimicrobial resistance in outpatient communities, surveillance of antimicrobial use is imperative for supporting stewardship programs. The primary objective of this article is to assess the levels of antimicrobial use in Canada over time. Methods Canadian antimicrobial use data from 1995 to 2010 were acquired and assessed by four metrics: population-adjusted prescriptions, Defined Daily Doses, spending on antimicrobials (inflation-adjusted), and average Defined Daily Doses per prescription. Linear mixed models were built to assess significant differences among years and antimicrobial groups, and to account for repeated measurements over time. Measures were also compared to published reports from European countries. Results Temporal trends in antimicrobial use in Canada vary by metric and antimicrobial grouping. Overall reductions were seen for inflation-adjusted spending, population-adjusted prescription rates and Defined Daily Doses, and increases were observed for the average number of Defined Daily Doses per prescription. The population-adjusted prescription and Defined Daily Doses values for 2009 were comparable to those reported by many European countries, while the average Defined Daily Dose per prescription for Canada ranked high. A significant reduction in the use of broad spectrum penicillins occurred between 1995 and 2004, coupled with increases in macrolide and quinolone use, suggesting that replacement of antimicrobial drugs may occur as new products arrive on the market. Conclusions There have been modest decreases of antimicrobial use in Canada over the past 15 years. However, continued surveillance of antimicrobial use coupled with data detailing antimicrobial resistance within bacterial pathogens affecting human populations is critical for targeting interventions and maintaining the effectiveness of these products for future generations. PMID:24146863

  8. Antimicrobial use on Canadian dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, V; McClure, J T; Léger, D; Dufour, S; Sheldon, A G; Scholl, D T; Barkema, H W

    2012-03-01

    Antimicrobial use (AMU) data are critical for formulating policies for containing antimicrobial resistance. The present study determined AMU on Canadian dairy farms and characterized variation in AMU based on herd-level factors such as milk production, somatic cell count, herd size, geographic region and housing type. Drug use data were collected on 89 dairy herds in 4 regions of Canada, Alberta, Ontario, Québec, and the Maritime provinces (Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia) for an average of 540 d per herd. Dairy producers and farm personnel were asked to deposit empty drug containers into specially provided receptacles. Antimicrobial use was measured as antimicrobial drug use rate (ADUR), with the unit being number of animal defined-daily doses (ADD)/1,000 cow-days. Antimicrobial drug use rates were determined at farm, region, and national level. Combined ADUR of all antimicrobial classes was 14.35 ADD/1,000 cow-days nationally. National level ADUR of the 6 most commonly used antimicrobial drug classes, cephalosporins, penicillins, penicillin combinations, tetracyclines, trimethoprim-sulfonamide combinations, and lincosamides were 3.05, 2.56, 2.20, 1.83, 0.87, and 0.84 ADD/1,000 cow-days, respectively. Dairy herds in Ontario were higher users of third-generation cephalosporins (ceftiofur) than in Québec. Alberta dairy herds were higher users of tetracyclines in comparison to Maritimes. Antimicrobial drug use rate was higher via systemic route as compared with intramammary and other routes of administration (topical, oral, and intrauterine). The ADUR of antimicrobials used intramammarily was higher for clinical mastitis treatment than dry cow therapy. For dry cow therapy, penicillin ADUR was greater than ADUR of first-generation cephalosporins. For clinical mastitis treatment, ADUR of intramammary penicillin combinations was greater than ADUR of cephapirin. Herd-level milk production was positively associated with overall ADUR, ADUR of

  9. Veterinary drug usage and antimicrobial resistance in bacteria of animal origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2005-01-01

    In the production of food animals, large amounts of antimicrobial agents are used for therapy and prophylaxis of bacterial infections and in feed to promote growth. There are large variations in the amounts of antimicrobial agents used to produce the same amount of meat among the different Europe...... monitoring the occurrence and development of resistance and consumption of antimicrobial agents are strongly desirable, as is research into the most appropriate ways to use antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine....

  10. Spatial patterns of antimicrobial resistance genes in a cross-sectional sample of pig farms with indoor non-organic production of finishers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkegård, Anna Camilla; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in pig populations is a public health concern. There is a lack of information of spatial distributions of AMR genes in pig populations at large scales. The objective of the study was to describe the spatial pattern of AMR genes in faecal samples from pig farms...... spatial clusters were identified for ermB, ermF, sulII and tet(W). The broad spatial trends in AMR resistance evident in the risk maps were in agreement with the results of the cluster analysis. However, they also showed that there were only small scale spatial differences in the gene levels. We conclude...

  11. Antimicrobial Peptides in Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoek, Monique L.

    2014-01-01

    Reptiles are among the oldest known amniotes and are highly diverse in their morphology and ecological niches. These animals have an evolutionarily ancient innate-immune system that is of great interest to scientists trying to identify new and useful antimicrobial peptides. Significant work in the last decade in the fields of biochemistry, proteomics and genomics has begun to reveal the complexity of reptilian antimicrobial peptides. Here, the current knowledge about antimicrobial peptides in reptiles is reviewed, with specific examples in each of the four orders: Testudines (turtles and tortosises), Sphenodontia (tuataras), Squamata (snakes and lizards), and Crocodilia (crocodilans). Examples are presented of the major classes of antimicrobial peptides expressed by reptiles including defensins, cathelicidins, liver-expressed peptides (hepcidin and LEAP-2), lysozyme, crotamine, and others. Some of these peptides have been identified and tested for their antibacterial or antiviral activity; others are only predicted as possible genes from genomic sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis of the reptile genomes is presented, revealing many predicted candidate antimicrobial peptides genes across this diverse class. The study of how these ancient creatures use antimicrobial peptides within their innate immune systems may reveal new understandings of our mammalian innate immune system and may also provide new and powerful antimicrobial peptides as scaffolds for potential therapeutic development. PMID:24918867

  12. Understanding the potential benefits of thyme and its derived products for food industry and consumer health: From extraction of value-added compounds to the evaluation of bioaccessibility, bioavailability, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Jose M; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin; Gavahian, Mohsen; Marszałek, Krystian; Eş, Ismail; Munekata, Paulo E S; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Barba, Francisco J

    2018-05-17

    Natural bioactive compounds isolated from several aromatic plants have been studied for centuries due to their unique characteristics that carry great importance in food, and pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. For instance, several beneficial activities have been attributed to some specific compounds found in Thymus such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiseptic properties. Moreover, these compounds are classified as Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) which means they can be used as an ingrident of may food producs. Conventional extraction processes of these compounds and their derived forms from thyme leaves are well established. Hoewever, they present some important drawbacks such as long extraction time, low yield, high solvent consumption and degradation thermolabile compounds. Therefore, innovative extraction techniques such as ultrasound, microwave, enzyme, ohmic and heat-assisted methods can be useful strategies to enhance the exytraction yield and to reduce processing temperature, extraction time, and energy and solvent consumption. Furthermore, bioaccessibility and bioavailability aspects of these bioactive compounds as well as their metabolic fates are crucial for developing novel functional foods. Additionally, immobilization methods to improve stability, solubility, and the overall bioavailability of these valuable compounds are necessary for their commercial applications. This review aims to give an overall perspective of innovative extraction techniques to extract the targeted compounds with anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Moreover, the bioaccessi-bility and bioavailability of these compounds before and after processing discussed. In addition, some of the most important characteristics of thyme and their derived products discussed in this paper.

  13. Highly Enantioselective Production of Chiral Secondary Alcohols Using Lactobacillus paracasei BD101 as a New Whole Cell Biocatalyst and Evaluation of Their Antimicrobial Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Durmuşhan; Şahin, Engin; Dertli, Enes

    2017-11-01

    Chiral secondary alcohols are valuable intermediates for many important enantiopure pharmaceuticals and biologically active molecules. In this work, we studied asymmetric reduction of aromatic ketones to produce the corresponding chiral secondary alcohols using lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as new biocatalysts. Seven LAB strains were screened for their ability to reduce acetophenones to their corresponding alcohols. Among these strains, Lactobacillus paracasei BD101 was found to be the most successful at reducing the ketones to the corresponding alcohols. The reaction conditions were further systematically optimized for this strain and high enantioselectivity (99%) and very good yields were obtained. These secondary alcohols were further tested for their antimicrobial activities against important pathogens and significant levels of antimicrobial activities were observed although these activities were altered depending on the secondary alcohols as well as their enantiomeric properties. The current methodology demonstrates a promising and alternative green approach for the synthesis of chiral secondary alcohols of biological importance in a cheap, mild, and environmentally useful process. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  14. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... June 6, 2018 HIV Vaccine Elicits Antibodies in Animals that Neutralize Dozens of HIV Strains , June 4, 2018 ... Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance > Understanding share with facebook share with twitter share ...

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of ... and other key audiences. We hope this animation will make the concept more understandable to non-scientists ...

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for ... issue of antimicrobial resistance is that the subject material appears abstract and is complex. This video was ...

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... produced material may be copied, reproduced, and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance ( ...

  18. What are Antimicrobial Pesticides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial pesticides are substances or mixtures of substances used to destroy or suppress the growth of harmful microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi on inanimate objects and surfaces.

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... complex. This video was designed to make the concept of antimicrobial resistance more real and understandable to ... audiences. We hope this animation will make the concept more understandable to non-scientists by showing how ...

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated Report Data Meetings and Publications Resources Judicious Use of Antimicrobials Page Last Updated: ... Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health ...

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One of the major obstacles to understanding the issue of antimicrobial resistance is that the subject material ... Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888- ...

  2. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains ... bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts to select the appropriate ... and human medicine to preserve the effectiveness of these drugs. One ...

  3. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts ... Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular ...

  4. Antimicrobial compounds in tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Alison M

    2013-12-01

    The tear film coats the cornea and conjunctiva and serves several important functions. It provides lubrication, prevents drying of the ocular surface epithelia, helps provide a smooth surface for refracting light, supplies oxygen and is an important component of the innate defense system of the eye providing protection against a range of potential pathogens. This review describes both classic antimicrobial compounds found in tears such as lysozyme and some more recently identified such as members of the cationic antimicrobial peptide family and surfactant protein-D as well as potential new candidate molecules that may contribute to antimicrobial protection. As is readily evident from the literature review herein, tears, like all mucosal fluids, contain a plethora of molecules with known antimicrobial effects. That all of these are active in vivo is debatable as many are present in low concentrations, may be influenced by other tear components such as the ionic environment, and antimicrobial action may be only one of several activities ascribed to the molecule. However, there are many studies showing synergistic/additive interactions between several of the tear antimicrobials and it is highly likely that cooperativity between molecules is the primary way tears are able to afford significant antimicrobial protection to the ocular surface in vivo. In addition to effects on pathogen growth and survival some tear components prevent epithelial cell invasion and promote the epithelial expression of innate defense molecules. Given the protective role of tears a number of scenarios can be envisaged that may affect the amount and/or activity of tear antimicrobials and hence compromise tear immunity. Two such situations, dry eye disease and contact lens wear, are discussed here. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nanosilver: Potent antimicrobial agent and its biosynthesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VIKAS

    2014-01-22

    Jan 22, 2014 ... synthesis of silver nanoparticles, potential and the possible mechanism of antimicrobial actions. NANOSILVER SYNTHESIS- AN OVERVIEW. Nano silver are one of the promising products in the nanotechnology industry. The development of consistent processes for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles is an.

  6. Bacterial Resistance to the Tetracyclines and Antimicrobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimizing of tetracycline antibiotics dosing and duration in human and animal healthcare and food production might help minimize the emergence of resistance in some situations. New approaches to antimicrobial chemotherapy are needed if we are to survive the increasing rates of tetracycline antibiotic resistance ...

  7. Antimicrobial residues and resistance against critically important antimicrobials in non-typhoidal Salmonella from meat sold at wet markets and supermarkets in Vietnam.

    OpenAIRE

    Nhung, NT; Van, NTB; Cuong, NV; Duong, TTQ; Nhat, TT; Hang, TTT; Nhi, NTH; Kiet, BT; Hien, VB; Ngoc, PT; Campbell, J; Thwaites, G; Carrique-Mas, J

    2017-01-01

    Excessive antimicrobial usage and deficiencies in hygiene in meat production systems may result in undesirable human health hazards, such as the presence of antimicrobial drug residues and non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS), including antimicrobial resistant (AMR) NTS. Recently, Vietnam has witnessed the emergence of integrated intensive animal production systems, coexisting with more traditional, locally-sourced wet markets. To date no systematic studies have been carried out to compare health h...

  8. Antimicrobial lipids from the hemolymph of brachyuran crabs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravichandran, S.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Rameshkumar, G.

    The potential of marine crabs as a source of biologically active products is largely unexplored. In the present study, antimicrobial activity of the hemolymph (plasma) and hemocytes (plasma cells) of six brachyuran crabs was investigated against 16...

  9. Antimicrobial profile of Moringa oleifera Lam. Extracts against some

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    The chloroform and ethanol extracts of seeds and leaf of Moringa oleifera were investigated for antimicrobial activity .... calyx juice (zobo), fresh tomato, bread, lettuce, carrot and fried groundnut. ... variation exist in the production of these.

  10. Global trends in antimicrobial use in food animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Brower, Charles; Gilbert, Marius; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Levin, Simon A.; Robinson, Timothy P.; Teillant, Aude; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2015-01-01

    Demand for animal protein for human consumption is rising globally at an unprecedented rate. Modern animal production practices are associated with regular use of antimicrobials, potentially increasing selection pressure on bacteria to become resistant. Despite the significant potential consequences for antimicrobial resistance, there has been no quantitative measurement of global antimicrobial consumption by livestock. We address this gap by using Bayesian statistical models combining maps of livestock densities, economic projections of demand for meat products, and current estimates of antimicrobial consumption in high-income countries to map antimicrobial use in food animals for 2010 and 2030. We estimate that the global average annual consumption of antimicrobials per kilogram of animal produced was 45 mg⋅kg−1, 148 mg⋅kg−1, and 172 mg⋅kg−1 for cattle, chicken, and pigs, respectively. Starting from this baseline, we estimate that between 2010 and 2030, the global consumption of antimicrobials will increase by 67%, from 63,151 ± 1,560 tons to 105,596 ± 3,605 tons. Up to a third of the increase in consumption in livestock between 2010 and 2030 is imputable to shifting production practices in middle-income countries where extensive farming systems will be replaced by large-scale intensive farming operations that routinely use antimicrobials in subtherapeutic doses. For Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, the increase in antimicrobial consumption will be 99%, up to seven times the projected population growth in this group of countries. Better understanding of the consequences of the uninhibited growth in veterinary antimicrobial consumption is needed to assess its potential effects on animal and human health. PMID:25792457

  11. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for the final healthy product--natural preservatives in yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2014-07-25

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both species proved to be a good source of bioactive compounds. A. brasiliensis was richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed the highest concentration of phenolic acids, and tocopherols. A. bisporus showed the highest monounsaturated fatty acids and ergosterol contents. A. brasiliensis revealed the highest antioxidant potential, and its ethanolic extract displayed the highest antibacterial potential; the methanolic extract of A. bisporus revealed the highest antifungal activity. A. brasiliensis possessed better preserving properties in yoghurt.

  12. Wavefunctions for topological quantum registers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardonne, E.; Schoutens, K.

    2007-01-01

    We present explicit wavefunctions for quasi-hole excitations over a variety of non-abelian quantum Hall states: the Read-Rezayi states with k ≥ 3 clustering properties and a paired spin-singlet quantum Hall state. Quasi-holes over these states constitute a topological quantum register, which can be addressed by braiding quasi-holes. We obtain the braid properties by direct inspection of the quasi-hole wavefunctions. We establish that the braid properties for the paired spin-singlet state are those of 'Fibonacci anyons', and thus suitable for universal quantum computation. Our derivations in this paper rely on explicit computations in the parafermionic conformal field theories that underly these particular quantum Hall states

  13. Production of antimicrobial substances by Bacillus subtilis LFE-1, B. firmus HO-1 and B. licheniformis T6-5 isolated from an oil reservoir in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenblum, E; der Weid, I; Santos, A L S; Rosado, A S; Sebastián, G V; Coutinho, C M L M; Magalhães, F C M; Paiva, M M; Seldin, L

    2005-01-01

    Forty Bacillus strains isolated from a Brazilian oil reservoir were tested against each other to select strains producing antimicrobial substances (AMS). Three strains, Bacillus subtilis (LFE-1), Bacillus firmus (H2O-1) and Bacillus licheniformis (T6-5), were selected due to their ability to inhibit more than 65% of the Bacillus strains tested. These three strains were also investigated for their capability to inhibit sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Furthermore, physiological and biochemical characteristics of the antimicrobial compounds produced by the selected strains were determined. Among the forty strains tested, 36 (90%) strains were able to inhibit at least one Bacillus strain used as indicator in plate assays and three of them (LFE-1, T6-5 and H2O-1) were able to inhibit 65, 70 and 97.5% of the 40 strains studied here respectively. Clear zones of inhibition were observed when H2O-1 was tested against SRB-containing consortium T6-lab and Desulfovibrio alaskensis strain NCIMB 13491, while strain T6-5 was able to inhibit only the D. alaskensis strain. The three substances showed to be insensitive to different enzymes and chemicals, were heat stable and the substances produced by strains T6-5 and H2O-1 were active over a wide pH range. Three different AMS produced by Bacillus strains from an oil reservoir, two of them with activity against SRB, are presented here. The preliminary characterization of these AMS points to their potential use as biocides in the petroleum industry for controlling problems associated with SRB.

  14. Antagonistic Properties of Some Halophilic Thermoactinomycetes Isolated from Superficial Sediment of a Solar Saltern and Production of Cyclic Antimicrobial Peptides by the Novel Isolate Paludifilum halophilum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frikha Dammak, Donyez; Zarai, Ziad; Najah, Soumaya; Abdennabi, Rayed; Belbahri, Lassaad; Rateb, Mostafa E.; Mejdoub, Hafedh

    2017-01-01

    This study has focused on the isolation of twenty-three halophilic actinomycetes from two ponds of different salinity and the evaluation of their ability to exert an antimicrobial activity against both their competitors and several other pathogens. From the 23 isolates, 18 strains showed antagonistic activity, while 19 showed activities against one or more of the seven pathogen strains tested. Six strains exhibited consistent antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens characterized at the physiological and molecular levels. These strains shared only 94-95% 16S rRNA sequence identity with the closely related species of the Thermoactinomycetaceae family. Among them, the potent strain SMBg3 was further characterized and assigned to a new genus in the family for which the name Paludifilum halophilum (DSM 102817T) is proposed. Sequential extraction of the antimicrobial compounds with ethyl acetate revealed that the crude extract from SMBg3 strain had inhibitory effect on the growth of the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Based on the HRESI-MS spectral data, the cyclic lipopeptide Gramicidin S and four cyclic dipeptides (CDPs) named cyclo(L-4-OH-Pro-L-Leu), cyclo(L-Tyr-L-Pro), cyclo(L-Phe-L-Pro), and cyclo(L-Leu-L-Pro) were detected in the fermentation broth of Paludifilum halophilum. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation of these compounds from members of the Thermoactinomycetaceae family. PMID:28819625

  15. Registered indians and tobacco taxation: a culturally-appropriate strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardman, A E Dennis; Khan, Nadia A

    2005-01-01

    Taxation of tobacco is a widely-used strategy that prompts smoking cessation among adults and reduces cigarette consumption among continuing smokers. Registered Indian tobacco use prevalence is at least double that of the rest of Canadians and is in part due to the lower cost of tobacco products purchased on reserve by Registered Indians (RIs) as they are tax exempt. Although registered Indian communities have the ability to collect tax on tobacco products and direct the use of these revenues, this strategy is rarely utilized. Tobacco taxation could have substantial health and economic benefits to RI communities, but perhaps is not culturally-appropriate. In order to better support RI communities, governments and other organizations need to examine this policy instrument in the context of RI populations.

  16. Antimicrobial Peptides for Therapeutic Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsogbadrakh Mishig-Ochir

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have been considered as potential therapeutic sources of future antibiotics because of their broad-spectrum activities and different mechanisms of action compared to conventional antibiotics. Although AMPs possess considerable benefits as new generation antibiotics, their clinical and commercial development still have some limitations, such as potential toxicity, susceptibility to proteases, and high cost of peptide production. In order to overcome those obstacles, extensive efforts have been carried out. For instance, unusual amino acids or peptido-mimetics are introduced to avoid the proteolytic degradation and the design of short peptides retaining antimicrobial activities is proposed as a solution for the cost issue. In this review, we focus on small peptides, especially those with less than twelve amino acids, and provide an overview of the relationships between their three-dimensional structures and antimicrobial activities. The efforts to develop highly active AMPs with shorter sequences are also described.

  17. Development of antimicrobial optimum glass ionomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angioletto, E.; Tezza, V.B.; Santos, M.J.; Montedo, O.R.K.; Pich, C.T.; Fiori, M.A.; Angioletto, Ev.

    2010-01-01

    The use of glass ionomer for restorations in dentistry for lower income population is a well established practice in public clinics of Brazil. However the average price of this kind of material and its low durability still have a negative impact on public health for being imported and frequently replaced it becomes expensive for the manufacturers and for public agencies. In glass ionomer the main antimicrobial agent is fluoride, which is released gradually. The material used for filling provides an average life of five years and its durability can be increased if the ionomer contains other oligodynamic elements. It was formulated, merged a new optimized glass ionomer which was characterized by X-ray diffraction, ion measurement and antimicrobial activity. This new product showed promising results, that pointed structural stability an increase of antimicrobial efficiency. (author)

  18. Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance among food animals: Principles and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2004-01-01

    Large amounts of antimicrobial agents are in the production of food animals used for therapy and prophylactics of bacterial infections and in feed to promote growth. The use of antimicrobial agents causes problems in the therapy of infections through the selection for resistance among bacteria...... pathogenic for animals or humans. Current knowledge regarding the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in food animals, the quantitative impact of the use of different antimicrobial agents on selection for resistance and the most appropriate treatment regimes to limit the development of resistance......, there are major differences between programmes designed to detect changes in a national population, individual herds or groups of animals. In addition, programmes have to be designed differently according to whether the aim is to determine changes in resistance for all antimicrobial agents or only...

  19. Genome-Wide Identification of Antimicrobial Intrinsic Resistance Determinants in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Leng, Bingfeng; Haaber, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance severely threatens our ability to treat bacterial infections. While acquired resistance has received considerable attention, relatively little is known of intrinsic resistance that allows bacteria to naturally withstand antimicrobials. Gene products...... that confer intrinsic resistance to antimicrobial agents may be explored for alternative antimicrobial therapies, by potentiating the efficacy of existing antimicrobials. In this study, we identified the intrinsic resistome to a broad spectrum of antimicrobials in the human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus. We...... with the atpA mutant compared to wild type cells with gentamicin at a clinically relevant concentration. Our results demonstrate that many gene products contribute to the intrinsic antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus. Knowledge of these intrinsic resistance determinants provides alternative targets...

  20. Nisin and its Antimicrobial Effect in Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamparsun Hampikyan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Nisin is a bacteriocin which is produced by Lactococcus lactis and takes its place in I. class bacteriocins which are known as lantibiotics. Nisin has antimicrobial and bactericidal activity against a broad spectrum of gram positive bacteria and spores of Clostridium spp. and Bacillus spp. According to toxicity studies nisin is considered not toxic to humans. Its first established used was as a preservative in processed cheese products and since than numerous other applications in various foods such as meat and meat products, poultry products, sea products and beverages such as beer, wine have been used safely. In this review, the characteristics of nisin, its usage in food and its antimicrobial effect are considered. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(2.000: 142-147

  1. Antimicrobial activity of fluoride and its in vivo importance: identification of research questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loveren, C

    2001-01-01

    This manuscript discusses the antimicrobial activity of fluoride and its in vivo importance in order to identify research questions. There is a lot of information on mechanisms by which fluoride may interfere with bacterial metabolism and dental plaque acidogenicity. The antimicrobial activity of fluoride products is enhanced when fluoride is associated with antimicrobial cations like Sn(2+) and amine. It is not clear whether the antimicrobial mechanisms of fluoride are operating in vivo or even to what extent antimicrobial activity can contribute to caries prevention. This latter question may be the most important one in research. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Antimicrobials, stress and mutagenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro Rodríguez-Rojas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cationic antimicrobial peptides are ancient and ubiquitous immune effectors that multicellular organisms use to kill and police microbes whereas antibiotics are mostly employed by microorganisms. As antimicrobial peptides (AMPs mostly target the cell wall, a microbial 'Achilles heel', it has been proposed that bacterial resistance evolution is very unlikely and hence AMPs are ancient 'weapons' of multicellular organisms. Here we provide a new hypothesis to explain the widespread distribution of AMPs amongst multicellular organism. Studying five antimicrobial peptides from vertebrates and insects, we show, using a classic Luria-Delbrück fluctuation assay, that cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs do not increase bacterial mutation rates. Moreover, using rtPCR and disc diffusion assays we find that AMPs do not elicit SOS or rpoS bacterial stress pathways. This is in contrast to the main classes of antibiotics that elevate mutagenesis via eliciting the SOS and rpoS pathways. The notion of the 'Achilles heel' has been challenged by experimental selection for AMP-resistance, but our findings offer a new perspective on the evolutionary success of AMPs. Employing AMPs seems advantageous for multicellular organisms, as it does not fuel the adaptation of bacteria to their immune defenses. This has important consequences for our understanding of host-microbe interactions, the evolution of innate immune defenses, and also sheds new light on antimicrobial resistance evolution and the use of AMPs as drugs.

  3. Preventive effects of the novel antimicrobial peptide Nal-P-113 in a rat Periodontitis model by limiting the growth of Porphyromonas gingivalis and modulating IL-1β and TNF-α production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Yan; Lin, Li; Fu, Wei; Yu, Hui-Yuan; Yu, Ning; Tan, Li-Si; Cheng, Jya-Wei; Pan, Ya-Ping

    2017-08-29

    P-113 (AKRHHGYKRKFH-NH2) is a 12-amino-acid histidine-rich peptide derived from histatin 5 that is highly degradable in high salt concentrations and biological fluids such as serum, plasma and saliva. Nal-P-113, a novel antimicrobial peptide whose histidine residues are replaced by the bulky amino acids β-naphthylalanine, causes the antimicrobial peptide to retain its bactericidal activity even in physiological environments. This study evaluated the effect of the novel antimicrobial peptide Nal-P-113 in a rat periodontitis model and the mechanisms of action of Nal-P-113 for suppressing periodontitis. Periodontitis was induced in mandibular first molars in rats receiving a ligature and infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis. Animals were randomly divided into six groups: a, P. gingivalis W83 alone; b, P. gingivalis W83 with 6.25 μg/mL of Nal-P-113; c, P. gingivalis W83 with 25 μg/mL of Nal-P-113; d, P. gingivalis W83 with 100 μg/mL of Nal-P-113; e, P. gingivalis W83 with 400 μg/mL of Nal-P-113; and f, control without P. gingivalis W83 or Nal-P-113. Morphometric analysis was used to evaluate alveolar bone loss. Microbiological assessment of the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and total bacteria was performed using absolute quantitative real-time PCR and scanning electron microscopy. Gingival tissue was collected for western blot and immunohistochemical assays of IL-1β and TNF-α levels. Alveolar bone loss was inhibited by 100 μg/mL or 400 μg/mL of Nal-P-113 compared to the control group (P periodontal tissue (P periodontitis in rats by limiting the amount of bacteria and modulating IL-1β and TNF-α production. The use of Nal-P-113 in vivo might serve as a beneficial preventive or therapeutic approach for periodontitis.

  4. Self-stratifying antimicrobial coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yagci, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Today, antimicrobial polymers/coatings are widely used in various areas, such as biomedical devices, pharmaceuticals, hospital buildings, textiles, food processing, and contact lenses, where sanitation is needed. Such wide application facilities have made antimicrobial materials very attractive for

  5. Antimicrobial stewardship: Limits for implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, Bhanu

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic stewardship programme (ASP) is a multifaceted approach to improve patients' clinical outcomes, prevent the emergence of antimicrobial resistance, and reduce hospital costs by prudent and focused antimicrobial use. Development of local treatment guidelines according to local ecology, rapid

  6. General principles of antimicrobial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekha, Surbhi; Terrell, Christine L; Edson, Randall S

    2011-02-01

    Antimicrobial agents are some of the most widely, and often injudiciously, used therapeutic drugs worldwide. Important considerations when prescribing antimicrobial therapy include obtaining an accurate diagnosis of infection; understanding the difference between empiric and definitive therapy; identifying opportunities to switch to narrow-spectrum, cost-effective oral agents for the shortest duration necessary; understanding drug characteristics that are peculiar to antimicrobial agents (such as pharmacodynamics and efficacy at the site of infection); accounting for host characteristics that influence antimicrobial activity; and in turn, recognizing the adverse effects of antimicrobial agents on the host. It is also important to understand the importance of antimicrobial stewardship, to know when to consult infectious disease specialists for guidance, and to be able to identify situations when antimicrobial therapy is not needed. By following these general principles, all practicing physicians should be able to use antimicrobial agents in a responsible manner that benefits both the individual patient and the community.

  7. Structural, physicochemical characterization and antimicrobial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structural, physicochemical characterization and antimicrobial activities of a new Tetraaqua ... Antimicrobial activity of 1 was tested. ... was prepared as good quality yellow single crystals .... at 540 nm. Increase of OD was compared to control.

  8. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXYDANT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VOUNDI

    2016-04-20

    Apr 20, 2016 ... antimicrobial activities of some spices' essential oils on ... antimicrobial effect of their essential oils on some food pathogenic bacteria, namely, Staphylococcus aureus ...... by Origanum compactum essential oil. J. Appl.

  9. Pollutant Release and Transfer Register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Since 1974 a number of organisations have been working closely together in this pollutant register (PRTR) project to collect and formally establish the yearly releases of pollutants to air, water and soil in the Netherlands. Results of this project serve to underpin the national environmental policy. Data is in this way also provided for the many environmental reports to international organisations such as the European Union and the United Nations, e.g. the National Inventory Report for the Kyoto Protocol. This website shows the yearly releases (emissions) of the most important pollutants in the Netherlands. You can explore the emission data through various channels, such as maps, graphs and tables. But you can also download all the details into your own database. The data shown in this website is updated 2 to 3 times a year. The current release shows emissions for 1990, 1995, 2000, 2004, 2005 and 2006 The 2006 emissions are preliminary data and not yet shown in the maps. We expect to add an extra year in August 2008 [nl

  10. Antimicrobial durability of air filters coated with airborne Sophora flavescens nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Eui-seok; Hwang, Gi Byoung; Nho, Chu Won; Kwon, Bo Mi; Lee, Jung Eun; Seo, SungChul; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Jung, Jae Hee

    2013-01-01

    Airborne biological particles containing viruses, bacteria, and/or fungi can be toxic and cause infections and allergy symptoms. Recently, natural materials such as tea tree oil and Sophora flavescens have shown promising antimicrobial activity when applied as air filter media. Although many of these studies demonstrated excellent antimicrobial efficacy, only a few of them considered external environmental effects such as the surrounding humidity, temperature, and natural degradation of chemicals, all of which can affect the antimicrobial performance of these natural materials. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial durability of air filters containing airborne nanoparticles from S. flavescens for 5 months. Antimicrobial tests and quantitative chemical analyses were performed every 30 days. Morphological changes in the nanoparticles were also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The major antimicrobial compounds remained stable and active for ∼ 90 days at room temperature. After about 90 days, the quantities of major antimicrobial compounds decreased noticeably with a consequent decrease in antimicrobial activity. These results are promising for the implementation of new technologies using natural antimicrobial products and provide useful information regarding the average life expectancy of antimicrobial filters using nanoparticles of S. flavescens. - Graphical abstract: Variations in (a) the concentrations of major antimicrobial chemical compounds on S. flavescens nanoparticle-coated filters: kurarinone, kuraridin, and sophoraflavanone-G and (b) the inactivation rate of antimicrobial filters as a function of time.

  11. Antimicrobial durability of air filters coated with airborne Sophora flavescens nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Eui-seok; Hwang, Gi Byoung [Center for Environment, Health, and Welfare Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Nho, Chu Won [Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST Gangneung Institute), Gangneung, Gangwon-do 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Bo Mi [Center for Environment, Health, and Welfare Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Eun [Biosafety Research Team, National Institute of Environmental Research, Kyungseo-Dong, Seo-Gu, Incheon 404-170 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, SungChul [Department of Environmental Health, College of Medicine, Korea University, Anam-dong 5-ga, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Gwi-Nam, E-mail: gnbae@kist.re.kr [Center for Environment, Health, and Welfare Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae Hee, E-mail: jaehee@kist.re.kr [Center for Environment, Health, and Welfare Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-01

    Airborne biological particles containing viruses, bacteria, and/or fungi can be toxic and cause infections and allergy symptoms. Recently, natural materials such as tea tree oil and Sophora flavescens have shown promising antimicrobial activity when applied as air filter media. Although many of these studies demonstrated excellent antimicrobial efficacy, only a few of them considered external environmental effects such as the surrounding humidity, temperature, and natural degradation of chemicals, all of which can affect the antimicrobial performance of these natural materials. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial durability of air filters containing airborne nanoparticles from S. flavescens for 5 months. Antimicrobial tests and quantitative chemical analyses were performed every 30 days. Morphological changes in the nanoparticles were also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The major antimicrobial compounds remained stable and active for ∼ 90 days at room temperature. After about 90 days, the quantities of major antimicrobial compounds decreased noticeably with a consequent decrease in antimicrobial activity. These results are promising for the implementation of new technologies using natural antimicrobial products and provide useful information regarding the average life expectancy of antimicrobial filters using nanoparticles of S. flavescens. - Graphical abstract: Variations in (a) the concentrations of major antimicrobial chemical compounds on S. flavescens nanoparticle-coated filters: kurarinone, kuraridin, and sophoraflavanone-G and (b) the inactivation rate of antimicrobial filters as a function of time.

  12. Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Sadredinamin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are extensive group of molecules that produced by variety tissues of invertebrate, plants, and animal species which play an important role in their immunity response. AMPs have different classifications such as; biosynthetic machines, biological sources, biological functions, molecular properties, covalent bonding patterns, three dimensional structures, and molecular targets.These molecules have multidimensional properties including antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, antifungal activity, anti-parasite activity, biofilm control, antitumor activity, mitogens activity and linking innate to adaptive immunity that making them promising agents for therapeutic drugs. In spite of this advantage of AMPs, their clinical developments have some limitation for commercial development. But some of AMPs are under clinical trials for the therapeutic purpose such as diabetic foot ulcers, different bacterial infections and tissue damage. In this review, we emphasized on the source, structure, multidimensional properties, limitation and therapeutic applications of various antimicrobial peptides.

  13. Laurel leaf extracts for honeybee pest and disease management: antimicrobial, microsporicidal, and acaricidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Natalia; Fernández, Natalia J; Porrini, Martín P; Gende, Liesel B; Álvarez, Estefanía; Buffa, Franco; Brasesco, Constanza; Maggi, Matías D; Marcangeli, Jorge A; Eguaras, Martín J

    2014-02-01

    A diverse set of parasites and pathogens affects productivity and survival of Apis mellifera honeybees. In beekeeping, traditional control by antibiotics and molecules of synthesis has caused problems with contamination and resistant pathogens. In this research, different Laurus nobilis extracts are tested against the main honeybee pests through an integrated point of view. In vivo effects on bee survival are also evaluated. The ethanol extract showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 208 to 416 μg/mL, having the best antimicrobial effect on Paenibacillus larvae among all substances tested. Similarly, this leaf extract showed a significant antiparasitic activity on Varroa destructor, killing 50 % of mites 24 h after a 30-s exposure, and on Nosema ceranae, inhibiting the spore development in the midgut of adult bees ingesting 1 × 10(4) μg/mL of extract solution. Both ethanol extract and volatile extracts (essential oil, hydrolate, and its main component) did not cause lethal effects on adult honeybees. Thus, the absence of topical and oral toxicity of the ethanol extract on bees and the strong antimicrobial, microsporicidal, and miticidal effects registered in this study place this laurel extract as a promising integrated treatment of bee diseases and stimulates the search for other bioactive phytochemicals from plants.

  14. Antimicrobial Drugs in the Home

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Survey participants in the United Kingdom admitted keeping leftover antimicrobial drugs for future use and taking them without medical advice. Dr. J. Todd Weber, director of CDC's Office of Antimicrobial Resistance, advises against the practice, which can be dangerous and can promote antimicrobial drug resistance.

  15. Registers of multiple sclerosis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Henriksen, N; Magyari, M; Laursen, B

    2015-01-01

    between a number of different environmental exposures in the past and the subsequent risk of MS. Some of these studies have been able to exonerate suspected risk factors. The other register, the nationwide Danish Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Register, is a follow-up register for all patients who have......There are two nationwide population-based registers for multiple sclerosis (MS) in Denmark. The oldest register is The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry (DMSR), which is an epidemiological register for estimation of prevalence and incidence of MS and survival, and for identifying exposures earlier...... received disease-modifying treatments since 1996. It has, in particular, contributed to the knowledge of the role of antibodies against the biological drugs used for the treatment of MS....

  16. EPA-Registered Repellents for Mosquitoes Transmitting Emerging Viral Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Radha V; Shaeer, Kristy M; Patel, Pooja; Garmaza, Aleksey; Wiangkham, Kornwalee; Franks, Rachel B; Pane, Olivia; Carris, Nicholas W

    2016-12-01

    In many parts of the United States, mosquitoes were previously nuisance pests. However, they now represent a potential threat in the spread of viral diseases. The Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex species mosquitoes are endemic to the United States and together may transmit a variety of viral diseases of growing concern, including West Nile virus, chikungunya, dengue fever, and Zika virus. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommend N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) as a first-line mosquito repellent, but for patients refusing to use DEET or other conventional repellents, guidance is limited to any EPA-registered product. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify which EPA-registered personal mosquito repellent provides the best protection from A. aegypti, A. albopictus, and Culex spp. mosquitoes. We abstracted data from 62 published reports of EPA-registered mosquito repellents. The conventional repellent picaridin has the strongest data to support its use as a second-line agent, while IR3535 and oil of lemon eucalyptus are reasonably effective natural products. Citronella, catnip, and 2-undecanone offer limited protection or have limited data. These results can be used by pharmacists and other health care professionals to advise patients on the selection of an EPA-registered mosquito repellent. Regardless of the repellent chosen, it is vital for patients to follow all instructions/precautions in the product labeling to ensure safe and effective use. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  17. Antimicrobial resistance challenged with metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Aziz, Alaa S; Agatemor, Christian; Etkin, Nola

    2017-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance threatens the achievements of science and medicine, as it deactivates conventional antimicrobial therapeutics. Scientists respond to the threat by developing new antimicrobial platforms to prevent and treat infections from these resistant strains. Metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules are emerging as an alternative to conventional platforms because they combine multiple mechanisms of action into one platform due to the distinctive properties of metals. For example, metals interact with intracellular proteins and enzymes, and catalyse various intracellular processes. The macromolecular architecture offers a means to enhance antimicrobial activity since several antimicrobial moieties can be conjugated to the scaffold. Further, these macromolecules can be fabricated into antimicrobial materials for contact-killing medical implants, fabrics, and devices. As volatilization or leaching out of the antimicrobial moieties from the macromolecular scaffold is reduced, these medical implants, fabrics, and devices can retain their antimicrobial activity over an extended period. Recent advances demonstrate the potential of metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules as effective platforms that prevent and treat infections from resistant strains. In this review these advances are thoroughly discussed within the context of examples of metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules, their mechanisms of action and biocompatibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of nanotechnology in antimicrobial finishing of biomedical textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zille, Andrea; Almeida, Luís; Amorim, Teresa; Carneiro, Noémia; Esteves, Maria Fátima; Souto, António Pedro; Silva, Carla J

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the antimicrobial nanofinishing of biomedical textiles has become a very active, high-growth research field, assuming great importance among all available material surface modifications in the textile industry. This review offers the opportunity to update and critically discuss the latest advances and applications in this field. The survey suggests an emerging new paradigm in the production and distribution of nanoparticles for biomedical textile applications based on non-toxic renewable biopolymers such as chitosan, alginate and starch. Moreover, a relationship among metal and metal oxide nanoparticle (NP) size, its concentration on the fabric, and the antimicrobial activity exists, allowing the optimization of antimicrobial functionality. (topical review)

  19. Application of nanotechnology in antimicrobial finishing of biomedical textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zille, Andrea; Almeida, Luís; Amorim, Teresa; Carneiro, Noémia; Fátima Esteves, Maria; Silva, Carla J.; Souto, António Pedro

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, the antimicrobial nanofinishing of biomedical textiles has become a very active, high-growth research field, assuming great importance among all available material surface modifications in the textile industry. This review offers the opportunity to update and critically discuss the latest advances and applications in this field. The survey suggests an emerging new paradigm in the production and distribution of nanoparticles for biomedical textile applications based on non-toxic renewable biopolymers such as chitosan, alginate and starch. Moreover, a relationship among metal and metal oxide nanoparticle (NP) size, its concentration on the fabric, and the antimicrobial activity exists, allowing the optimization of antimicrobial functionality.

  20. Validation of a Cerebral Palsy Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Monica; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Uldall, P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse completeness and validity of data in the Cerebral Palsy Register in Denmark, 1979-1982. METHODS: Completeness has been assessed by comparing data from The Danish National Patient Register (DNPR) with the cases included in the Cerebral Palsy Register (CPR). Agreement between......, but gestational age was subject to a systematic error, and urinary infections in pregnancy (kappa = 0.43) and placental abruption (kappa = 0.52) were seriously under-reported in the CPR. CONCLUSIONS: Completeness of the Cerebral Palsy Register in Denmark, 1979-1982, has been assessed to maximal 85%, emphasizing...

  1. Public health risk of antimicrobial resistance transfer from companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomba, Constança; Rantala, Merja; Greko, Christina; Baptiste, Keith Edward; Catry, Boudewijn; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Mateus, Ana; Moreno, Miguel A; Pyörälä, Satu; Ružauskas, Modestas; Sanders, Pascal; Teale, Christopher; Threlfall, E John; Kunsagi, Zoltan; Torren-Edo, Jordi; Jukes, Helen; Törneke, Karolina

    2017-04-01

    Antimicrobials are important tools for the therapy of infectious bacterial diseases in companion animals. Loss of efficacy of antimicrobial substances can seriously compromise animal health and welfare. A need for the development of new antimicrobials for the therapy of multiresistant infections, particularly those caused by Gram-negative bacteria, has been acknowledged in human medicine and a future corresponding need in veterinary medicine is expected. A unique aspect related to antimicrobial resistance and risk of resistance transfer in companion animals is their close contact with humans. This creates opportunities for interspecies transmission of resistant bacteria. Yet, the current knowledge of this field is limited and no risk assessment is performed when approving new veterinary antimicrobials. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the use and indications for antimicrobials in companion animals, drug-resistant bacteria of concern among companion animals, risk factors for colonization of companion animals with resistant bacteria and transmission of antimicrobial resistance (bacteria and/or resistance determinants) between animals and humans. The major antimicrobial resistance microbiological hazards originating from companion animals that directly or indirectly may cause adverse health effects in humans are MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, VRE, ESBL- or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Gram-negative bacteria. In the face of the previously recognized microbiological hazards, a risk assessment tool could be applied in applications for marketing authorization for medicinal products for companion animals. This would allow the approval of new veterinary medicinal antimicrobials for which risk levels are estimated as acceptable for public health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For

  2. Feasibility study of veterinary antibiotic consumption in Germany--comparison of ADDs and UDDs by animal production type, antimicrobial class and indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Roswitha; Robanus, Matthias; Hegger-Gravenhorst, Christine; Mollenhauer, Yvonne; Hajek, Peter; Käsbohrer, Annemarie; Honscha, Walther; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2014-01-08

    Within a feasibility study the use of antibiotics in pigs and cattle was determined in 24 veterinary practices in Lower Saxony and on 66 farms in North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany. Focus was laid on the comparison of the Used Daily Doses (UDD) (dose per animal and day prescribed by the veterinarians) with the Defined Animal Daily Doses (ADD) (dose per animal and day calculated by means of recommended dosages and estimated live weights). For piglets and calves most of the UDD (50% and 46% of nUDD, respectively) were above the ADD (i.e. UDD/ADD-ratio above 1.25). Regarding sows, fattening pigs, dairy and beef cattle, most of the UDDs (49% to 65% of nUDD) were lower than the respective ADD (i.e. UDD/ADD-ratio below 0.8). In pigs, the UDDs of beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins, and in cattle, those of macrolides and beta-lactams were often below the ADDs. Tetracyclines were frequently used above the recommended dose.Enteric diseases were more often treated below the recommended dose than respiratory diseases, possibly due to overestimation of the live weight (diarrhea in young animals, respiratory diseases in elder animals) and consequently overestimation of the recommended dose. Comparisons between UDD and ADD can be used to observe differences between antimicrobials and trends in the usage of antibiotics. But individual treatment comparisons of UDD and ADD must be interpreted carefully, because they may be due to lower live weights than estimated. Correlating such data with data on the occurrence of resistant bacteria in future may help to improve resistance prevention and control.

  3. Use and misuse of antimicrobial drugs in poultry and livestock: Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food safety begins on the farm with management practices that contribute to an abundant, safe, and affordable food supply. To attain this goal, antimicrobials have been used in all stages of food animal production in the United States and elsewhere around the world at one time or another. Among fo...

  4. Human Health Hazards from Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli of Animal Origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, A. M.; Heuer, Ole Eske

    2009-01-01

    of antimicrobial agents in food animals may add to the burden of antimicrobial resistance in humans. Bacteria from the animal reservoir that carry resistance to antimicrobial agents that are regarded as highly or critically important in human therapy (e.g., aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and third- and fourth......Because of the intensive use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production, meat is frequently contaminated with antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli. Humans can be colonized with E. coli of animal origin, and because of resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents, these bacteria may...... cause infections for which limited therapeutic options are available. This may lead to treatment failure and can have serious consequences for the patient. Furthermore, E. coli of animal origin may act as a donor of antimicrobial resistance genes for other pathogenic E. coli. Thus, the intensive use...

  5. Statins: antimicrobial resistance breakers or makers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey H.T. Ko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The repurposing of non-antibiotic drugs as adjuvant antibiotics may help break antimicrobial resistance (AMR. Statins are commonly prescribed worldwide to lower cholesterol. They also possess qualities of AMR “breakers”, namely direct antibacterial activity, synergism with antibiotics, and ability to stimulate the host immune system. However, statins’ role as AMR breakers may be limited. Their current extensive use for cardiovascular protection might result in selective pressures for resistance, ironically causing statins to be AMR “makers” instead. This review examines statins’ potential as AMR breakers, probable AMR makers, and identifies knowledge gaps in a statin-bacteria-human-environment continuum. The most suitable statin for repurposing is identified, and a mechanism of antibacterial action is postulated based on structure-activity relationship analysis. Methods A literature search using keywords “statin” or “statins” combined with “minimum inhibitory concentration” (MIC was performed in six databases on 7th April 2017. After screening 793 abstracts, 16 relevant studies were identified. Unrelated studies on drug interactions; antifungal or antiviral properties of statins; and antibacterial properties of mevastatin, cerivastatin, antibiotics, or natural products were excluded. Studies involving only statins currently registered for human use were included. Results Against Gram-positive bacteria, simvastatin generally exerted the greatest antibacterial activity (lowest MIC compared to atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, and fluvastatin. Against Gram-negative bacteria, atorvastatin generally exhibited similar or slightly better activity compared to simvastatin, but both were more potent than rosuvastatin and fluvastatin. Discussion Statins may serve as AMR breakers by working synergistically with existing topical antibiotics, attenuating virulence factors, boosting human immunity, or aiding in wound healing. It

  6. Use practices of antimicrobials and other compounds by shrimp and fish farmers in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thi Kim Chi, Tran; Clausen, Jesper H.; Van, Phan Thi

    2017-01-01

    that 20 different antimicrobial products were used for disease prevention and treatment in shrimp and marine fish culture. Banned products used included chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin and malachite green. Cage fish farmers said they purchased antimicrobial tablets readily available at a local pharmacy...

  7. Phytoaccumulation of antimicrobials by hydroponic Cucurbita pepo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Niroj; Reinhold, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Consumer use of antimicrobial-containing products continuously introduces triclocarban and triclosan into the environment. Triclocarban and triclosan adversely affect plants and animals and have the potential to affect human health. Research examined the phytoaccumulation of triclocarban and triclosan by pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo cultivar Howden) and zucchini (Cucurbita pepo cultivar Gold Rush) grown hydroponically. Pumpkin and zucchini were grown in nutrient solution spiked with 0.315 microg/mL triclocarban and 0.289 microg/mL triclosan for two months. Concentrations of triclocarban and triclosan in nutrient solutions were monitored weekly. At the end of the trial, roots and shoots were analyzed for triclocarban and triclosan. Research demonstrated that pumpkin and zucchini accumulated triclocarban and triclosan. Root accumulation factors were 1.78 and 0.64 and translocation factors were 0.001 and 0.082 for triclocarban and triclosan, respectively. The results of this experiment were compared with a previous soil column study that represented environmentally relevant exposure of antimicrobials from biosolids and had similar root mass. Plants were not as efficient in removing triclocarban and triclosan in hydroponic systems as in soil systems. Shoot concentrations of antimicrobials were the same or lower in hydroponic systems than in soil columns, indicating that hydroponic system does not overpredict the concentrations of antimicrobials.

  8. In-memory interconnect protocol configuration registers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kevin Y.; Roberts, David A.

    2017-09-19

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for moving the interconnect protocol configuration registers into the main memory space of a node. The region of memory used for storing the interconnect protocol configuration registers may also be made cacheable to reduce the latency of accesses to the interconnect protocol configuration registers. Interconnect protocol configuration registers which are used during a startup routine may be prefetched into the host's cache to make the startup routine more efficient. The interconnect protocol configuration registers for various interconnect protocols may include one or more of device capability tables, memory-side statistics (e.g., to support two-level memory data mapping decisions), advanced memory and interconnect features such as repair resources and routing tables, prefetching hints, error correcting code (ECC) bits, lists of device capabilities, set and store base address, capability, device ID, status, configuration, capabilities, and other settings.

  9. Registered Nurses' views on their professional role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furåker, Carina

    2008-11-01

    The aim is to study Registered Nurses' opinions and reflections about their work tasks, competence and organization in acute hospital care. The definition of the role of nurses has changed over time and it is often discussed whether Registered Nurses have a professional status or not. A qualitative research design was used. Data were derived from written reflections on diaries and from focus group interviews. All respondents had difficulties in identifying the essence of their work. It can be argued that being 'a spider in the web' is an important aspect of the nursing profession. Registered Nurses tend to regard their professional role as vague. Managers must be considered key persons in defining the professional role of Registered Nurses. This study contributes to an understanding of the managers' and the importance of nursing education in Registered Nurses professional development.

  10. In-memory interconnect protocol configuration registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kevin Y.; Roberts, David A.

    2017-09-19

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for moving the interconnect protocol configuration registers into the main memory space of a node. The region of memory used for storing the interconnect protocol configuration registers may also be made cacheable to reduce the latency of accesses to the interconnect protocol configuration registers. Interconnect protocol configuration registers which are used during a startup routine may be prefetched into the host's cache to make the startup routine more efficient. The interconnect protocol configuration registers for various interconnect protocols may include one or more of device capability tables, memory-side statistics (e.g., to support two-level memory data mapping decisions), advanced memory and interconnect features such as repair resources and routing tables, prefetching hints, error correcting code (ECC) bits, lists of device capabilities, set and store base address, capability, device ID, status, configuration, capabilities, and other settings.

  11. Antimicrobial constituents from aerva javanica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, A.; Ahmed, E.; Hussain, M.U.; Malik, A.; Ashraf, M.

    2011-01-01

    In the course of screening program we have isolated six natural products from the whole plant of Aerva javanica. Iso quercetrin (1), 5-methylmellein (2), 2-hydroxy-3-O-beta -primeveroside naphthalene-1,4-dione (3), Apigenin 7-O-glucuronide (4), Kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 -- 2)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (5), 7-(1 hydroxyethyl)-2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3,4-dihydrobenzopyran (6) were isolated for the first time from Aerva javanica. Structural evidences were made by the extensive use of chemical and spectral studies. Different crude extracts (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water) and the all known isolated compounds were tested for their antimicrobial activity which displayed moderate to weak inhibitory activity. (author)

  12. Comparing antimicrobial exposure based on sales data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondt, Nico; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Puister-Jansen, Linda F.

    2013-01-01

    with information about estimated average dosages, to make model calculations of the average number of treatment days per average animal per year, at first based on the assumption that the treatment incidence is the same in all species and production types. Secondly, the exposure in respectively animals for meat......This paper explores the possibilities of making meaningful comparisons of the veterinary use of antimicrobial agents among countries, based on national total sales data. Veterinary antimicrobial sales data on country level and animal census data in both Denmark and the Netherlands were combined...... production and dairy and other cattle (excluding veal and young beef) was estimated, assuming zero use in the dairy and other cattle, and thirdly by assuming respectively 100% oral and 100% parenteral administration. Subsequently, the outcomes of these model calculations were compared with treatment...

  13. Plasmid-Mediated Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococci and Other Firmicutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Stefan; Shen, Jianzhong; Wendlandt, Sarah; Fessler, Andrea T; Wang, Yang; Kadlec, Kristina; Wu, Cong-Ming

    2014-12-01

    In staphylococci and other Firmicutes, resistance to numerous classes of antimicrobial agents, which are commonly used in human and veterinary medicine, is mediated by genes that are associated with mobile genetic elements. The gene products of some of these antimicrobial resistance genes confer resistance to only specific members of a certain class of antimicrobial agents, whereas others confer resistance to the entire class or even to members of different classes of antimicrobial agents. The resistance mechanisms specified by the resistance genes fall into any of three major categories: active efflux, enzymatic inactivation, and modification/replacement/protection of the target sites of the antimicrobial agents. Among the mobile genetic elements that carry such resistance genes, plasmids play an important role as carriers of primarily plasmid-borne resistance genes, but also as vectors for nonconjugative and conjugative transposons that harbor resistance genes. Plasmids can be exchanged by horizontal gene transfer between members of the same species but also between bacteria belonging to different species and genera. Plasmids are highly flexible elements, and various mechanisms exist by which plasmids can recombine, form cointegrates, or become integrated in part or in toto into the chromosomal DNA or into other plasmids. As such, plasmids play a key role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes within the gene pool to which staphylococci and other Firmicutes have access. This chapter is intended to provide an overview of the current knowledge of plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance in staphylococci and other Firmicutes.

  14. Debug register rootkits : A study of malicious use of the IA-32 debug registers

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Emil; Mattsson, Joel

    2012-01-01

    The debug register rootkit is a special type of rootkit that has existed for over a decade, and is told to be undetectable by any scanning tools. It exploits the debug registers in Intel’s IA-32 processor architecture. This paper investigates the debug register rootkit to find out why it is considered a threat, and which malware removal tools have implemented detection algorithms against this threat. By implementing and running a debug register rootkit against the most popular Linux tools, ne...

  15. A Scandinavian Experience of Register Collaboration: The Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelin, Leif I; Robertsson, Otto; Fenstad, Anne M

    2011-01-01

    The Nordic (Scandinavian) countries have had working arthroplasty registers for several years. However, the small numbers of inhabitants and the conformity within each country with respect to preferred prosthesis brands and techniques have limited register research.......The Nordic (Scandinavian) countries have had working arthroplasty registers for several years. However, the small numbers of inhabitants and the conformity within each country with respect to preferred prosthesis brands and techniques have limited register research....

  16. Therapeutic drug monitoring of antimicrobials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jason A; Norris, Ross; Paterson, David L; Martin, Jennifer H

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing the prescription of antimicrobials is required to improve clinical outcome from infections and to reduce the development of antimicrobial resistance. One such method to improve antimicrobial dosing in individual patients is through application of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). The aim of this manuscript is to review the place of TDM in the dosing of antimicrobial agents, specifically the importance of pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) to define the antimicrobial exposures necessary for maximizing killing or inhibition of bacterial growth. In this context, there are robust data for some antimicrobials, including the ratio of a PK parameter (e.g. peak concentration) to the minimal inhibitory concentration of the bacteria associated with maximal antimicrobial effect. Blood sampling of an individual patient can then further define the relevant PK parameter value in that patient and, if necessary, antimicrobial dosing can be adjusted to enable achievement of the target PK/PD ratio. To date, the clinical outcome benefits of a systematic TDM programme for antimicrobials have only been demonstrated for aminoglycosides, although the decreasing susceptibility of bacteria to available antimicrobials and the increasing costs of pharmaceuticals, as well as emerging data on pharmacokinetic variability, suggest that benefits are likely. PMID:21831196

  17. Antimicrobial properties of indigenous Lactobacillus sakei strain

    OpenAIRE

    Vesković-Moračanin Slavica; Obradović D.; Velebit B.; Borović Branka; Škrinjar Marija; Turubatović L.

    2010-01-01

    The strain I 154 of Lactobacillus sakei has been isolated from traditionally fermented sausages in the course of the realization of the international project (INCO PROJECT No ICA4-CT-2002-10037). This strain exhibited the ability for bacteriocin production. Antimicrobial properties of the isolated bacteriocin (sakacine), its sensibility towards proteolytic enzymes, as well as the effect of increased to high temperatures on its stability have been examined in this work. Semi purified bacterioc...

  18. Efficacy of triclosan as an antimicrobial hand soap and its potential impact on antimicrobial resistance: a focused review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Christopher A; Rybak, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    Triclosan is a synthetic biocide found in many household products, including antimicrobial hand soap. Levels of triclosan have been found throughout the environment and in human urine, blood, and even breast milk. Increasing levels of exposure to triclosan have led to concerns over the development of resistance to triclosan and cross-resistance to other antimicrobials. We performed a literature search to assess whether the widespread use of triclosan displays a favorable benefit: risk ratio, defined by evaluation of triclosan's efficacy as an antimicrobial hand soap and its potential effect on the development of antimicrobial resistance. Data from laboratory-based studies regarding the efficacy of triclosan are conflicting, although well-designed studies suggest no significant difference in efficacy over nonantimicrobial soap. In addition, when triclosan was introduced in a community setting, no beneficial effects were observed on the reduction of infections over nonantimicrobial soap. Resistance to triclosan and cross-resistance to antimicrobials have been consistently demonstrated in laboratory settings, although overall resistance rates and cross-resistance rates in the community setting are low. Based on the available evidence, the risk of potential antimicrobial resistance outweighs the benefit of widespread triclosan use in antimicrobial soaps. © 2015 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  19. Fate and transport of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes in soil and runoff following land application of swine manure slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Stacey R; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Snow, Daniel D; Gilley, John E; Woodbury, Bryan L; Parker, David B; Marx, David B; Li, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Due to the use of antimicrobials in livestock production, residual antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) could enter the environment following the land application of animal wastes and could further contaminate surface and groundwater. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of various manure land application methods on the fate and transport of antimicrobials and ARGs in soil and runoff following land application of swine manure slurry. Swine manure slurries were obtained from facilities housing pigs that were fed chlortetracyline, tylosin or bacitracin and were land applied via broadcast, incorporation, and injection methods. Three rainfall simulation tests were then performed on amended and control plots. Results show that land application methods had no statistically significant effect on the aqueous concentrations of antimicrobials in runoff. However, among the three application methods tested broadcast resulted in the highest total mass loading of antimicrobials in runoff from the three rainfall simulation tests. The aqueous concentrations of chlortetracyline and tylosin in runoff decreased in consecutive rainfall events, although the trend was only statistically significant for tylosin. For ARGs, broadcast resulted in significantly higher erm genes in runoff than did incorporation and injection methods. In soil, the effects of land application methods on the fate of antimicrobials in top soil were compound specific. No clear trend was observed in the ARG levels in soil, likely because different host cells may respond differently to the soil environments created by various land application methods.

  20. Antimicrobial use and antimicrobial susceptibility in Escherichia coli on small- and medium-scale pig farms in north-eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ström

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intensification of livestock production seen in many low- and middle-income countries is often believed to be associated with increased use of antimicrobials, and may hence contribute to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study was to map antimicrobial use on small- (n = 25 and medium-scale (n = 27 pig farms in north-eastern Thailand, and to compare antimicrobial susceptibility of commensal Escherichia coli isolated from sows on these farms. Methods Information regarding pig husbandry and antimicrobial treatment regimens was obtained by the use of semi-structured questionnaires. Faecal samples were collected from three healthy sows at each farm, and Escherichia coli was cultured and analysed for antimicrobial susceptibility using the broth microdilution method. Multilevel regression models were used to compare antimicrobial susceptibility between isolates from small- and medium-scale farms. Results All farms included in the study administered antimicrobials to their sows. Small-scale farmers most commonly (64% decided themselves when to give antimicrobials and the majority (60% bought the medicines at the local store or pharmacy, whereas farmers on medium-scale farms always discussed antimicrobial treatment with a veterinarian. Medium-scale farms used a greater diversity of antimicrobials than small-scale farms and did also administer antimicrobials in feed to a higher extent. High levels of antimicrobial resistance to several critically important antimicrobials for human medicine (including ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and ampicillin were found in isolates from both small- and medium-scale farms. Resistance levels were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in isolates from medium-scale farms for several of the antimicrobials tested, as well as the level of multidrug-resistance (P = 0.026. Conclusion The routines regarding access and administration of antimicrobials differed between the small- and

  1. Procedure entry in the register of yachts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorana Kostović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The procedure of ship registration is regulated in the Maritime Code of Croatia (2004. This procedure, in comparison with the recently suspended Maritime Code of Croatia (1994, includes substantial changes, especially in the domain of yacht registration. New Maritime Code has founded special yacht-register for yachts and yachts under construction. A yacht which is registered as a Croatian yacht is entitled to the benefits conffered by the Maritime Code of Croatia (right to fly a Croatian flag, etc.. There are two modes proscribed under the provisions of Maritime Code of Croatia (2004 for yacht-registration: 1 mandatory and 2 facultative. Yachts whose owners are Croatian citizens with residence i Republic Croatia or companies which are registered in the Republic of Croatia are obligated to register under the provisions of Maritime Code of Croatia (2004. On the other hand, yacht whose owners are not Croatian citizens or whose owners are Croatian citizens but without the residence in the Republic of Croatia, can be registered in the Republic of Croatia, depending on the will of the owner. Yachts under construction can be registered in special registers for such kind of vessels if they are built in Croatian shipyards (owners can be either Croatian citizens or foreigners. Jurisdiction in this matter belongs to port authorities and all procedure is carried out in accordance with the rules of administrative procedure.

  2. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion related to a notification from the Oenological Products and Practices International Association (OENOPPIA) on lysozyme from hen‟s egg to be used in the manufacture of wine as an anti-microbial stabilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion related to a notification from the Oenological Products and Practices International Association (OENOPPIA) on lysozyme from hen‟s egg used in t...... reactions in susceptible individuals under the conditions of use proposed by the applicant. © European Food Safety Authority, 2011...... in the manufacture of wine as an anti-microbial stabilizer/additive pursuant to Article 6, paragraph 11 of Directive 2000/13/EC – for permanent exemption from labelling. Allergic sensitisation against lysozyme is common among egg allergic individuals. In winemaking, lysozyme is used for the control of lactic acid...... individuals have been demonstrated in wines treated with lysozyme, and a number of clinical reports (including one double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge with lysozyme) described clinical allergic reactions to lysozyme. The Panel concludes that wines treated with lysozyme may trigger adverse allergic...

  3. The effect of production type and antimicrobial usage on the occurrence of tetracycline resistant E. coli in danish slaughter pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struve, Tina; Vigre, Håkan; Wingstrand, Anne

    The Qualysafe project was initiated in 2007 to support and strengthen the sustainable production systems in Danish food production. One of the objectives of the epidemiological investigation was to find new methods to improve food safety in conventional as well as in alternative pig production...... systems. At nine different slaughterhouses 1500 ceacum samples were collected from slaughter pigs originating from 226 farms. One thousand samples were analyzed and one E. coli isolate per sample was susceptibility tested to Tetracycline. Data on management practice and health status at farm level...... the farm types, with the Organic having the lowest consumption (0.14 doses /annually produced slaughter pig) while Free Range had the highest consumption (0,85 doses/annually produced slaughter pig) and Conventional farms was in between (0.67 doses/annually produced slaughter pig). The effect...

  4. Factors associated with the inappropriate use of antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, W; Dean, W

    2015-04-01

    Antimicrobial resistance continues to grow and antimicrobial use in food animal production and to a lesser extent in human patients is under fire. Much of the criticism has to do with the misapplication of these drugs in both settings. Research indicates that patients, food animal producers, physicians and veterinarians have all played a part in misusing antimicrobials, often because of mistaken beliefs. This paper reviews this research and introduces a theoretical perspective, the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), which broadens our understanding of the motivations for misuse. In particular this approach shows that individuals making decisions about antimicrobial use take into account social pressures from and a sense of obligation to significant others in their social networks. Our own work summarized in this paper indicates that both feedlot veterinarians and feedlot managers' antimicrobial decisions are influenced by both expectations from and obligations to a variety of actors in the feedlot network (other veterinarians, feedlot clients, consumers, pharmaceutical companies, and regulatory bodies). Generally across 4 circumstances of antimicrobial use (for acutely sick cattle, chronically-sick cattle, at-risk cattle, high-risk cattle), it is largely the perception that peers and clients expect feedlot veterinarians to use antimicrobials and feedlot veterinarians sense of obligation to these groups that have the most influence on their decisions to recommend antimicrobials. Based on these findings, the question of engaging in changing the choices made by those working with food animals must start with those who influence the decision to proscribe or use antimicrobials. As our data come from the United States and may be unique relative to other countries, these efforts should begin by ascertaining who influences these decisions. The next step is to then change the beliefs of these significant others. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Prophylactic and metaphylactic antimicrobial use in Belgian fattening pig herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Bénédicte; Persoons, Davy; Maes, Dominiek; Laanen, Maria; Postma, Merel; Boyen, Filip; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Butaye, Patrick; Catry, Boudewijn; Dewulf, Jeroen

    2012-09-01

    The monitoring of antimicrobial use is an essential step to control the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Between January and October 2010 data on prophylactic and metaphylactic antimicrobial use were collected retrospectively on 50 closed or semi-closed pig herds. Ninety-three percent of the group treatments were prophylactic whereas only 7% were methaphylactic. The most frequently used antimicrobials orally applied at group level were colistin (30.7%), amoxicillin (30.0%), trimethoprim-sulfonamides (13.1%), doxycycline (9.9%) and tylosin (8.1%). The most frequently applied injectable antimicrobials were tulathromycin (45.0%), long acting ceftiofur (40.1%) and long acting amoxicillin (8.4%). The treatment incidences (TI) based on the used daily dose pig (UDD(pig) or the actually administered dose per day per kg pig of a drug) for all oral and injectable antimicrobial drugs was on average 200.7 per 1000 pigs at risk per day (min=0, max=699.0), while the TI based on the animal daily dose pig (ADD(pig) or the national defined average maintenance dose per day per kg pig of a drug used for its main indication) was slightly higher (average=235.8, min=0, max=1322.1). This indicates that in reality fewer pigs were treated with the same amount of antimicrobials than theoretically possible. Injectable products were generally overdosed (79.5%), whereas oral treatments were often underdosed (47.3%). In conclusion, this study shows that prophylactic group treatment was applied in 98% of the visited herds and often includes the use of critically important and broad-spectrum antimicrobials. In Belgium, the guidelines for prudent use of antimicrobials are not yet implemented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Shigella spp. isolated from children under 5 years of age attending tertiary care hospitals, Nepal along with first finding of ESBL-production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Subhash; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Pokharel, Bharat Mani; Parajuli, Keshab; Mishra, Shyam Kumar; Sharma, Sangita; Kattel, Hari Prasad; Khadka, Sundar; Khatiwada, Sulochana; Rijal, Basista

    2017-06-05

    Shigella is an important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in resource-poor countries. The treatment of shigellosis mostly requires antibiotics. However, the increase of multidrug resistance along with emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase and ciprofloxacin resistance among Shigella spp. has challenged the situation. This study was conducted to determine the distribution of species and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Shigella species isolated from stool specimen among children less than 5 years of age in Nepal. Out of total 717 stool samples collected, 15 cases of Shigella spp. was isolated which includes 12 S. flexneri and 3 S. sonnei. Multidrug resistance was found among 13(86%) of the isolates. One of the isolates of S. flexneri was found to be ESBL-producer with MIC >256 mg/L for cefixime. The high occurrence of multidrug resistance among Shigella spp. along with a case of ESBL-production for the first time in Nepal alarms the concerns about dissemination of the resistant isolates. So, systemic monitoring of the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Shigella spp. is becoming crucial to guide therapy.

  7. Data register and processor for multiwire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpukhin, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    A data register and a processor for data receiving and processing from drift chambers of a device for investigating relativistic positroniums are described. The data are delivered to the register input in the form of the Grey 8 bit code, memorized and transformed to a position code. The register information is delivered to the KAMAK trunk and to the front panel plug. The processor selects particle tracks in a horizontal plane of the facility. ΔY maximum coordinate divergence and minimum point quantity on the track are set from the processor front panel. Processor solution time is 16 μs maximum quantity of simultaneously analyzed coordinates is 16

  8. In Vitro Antimicrobial Potential of the Lichen Parmotrema sp. Extracts against Various Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Ritika; Abraham, Jayanthi

    2013-01-01

      Objective(s):   The ongoing increasing antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest challenges faced by global public health. The perennial need for new antimicrobials against a background of increasing antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms obliges the scientific community to constantly develop new drugs and antimicrobial agents. Lichens are known prolific sources of natural antimicrobial drugs and biologically active natural products. This study ...

  9. Substandard/counterfeit antimicrobial drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelesidis, Theodoros; Falagas, Matthew E

    2015-04-01

    Substandard/counterfeit antimicrobial drugs are a growing global problem. The most common substandard/counterfeit antimicrobials include beta-lactams (among antibiotics) and chloroquine and artemisin derivatives (among antimalarials). The most common type of substandard/counterfeit antimicrobial drugs have a reduced amount of the active drug, and the majority of them are manufactured in Southeast Asia and Africa. Counterfeit antimicrobial drugs may cause increased mortality and morbidity and pose a danger to patients. Here we review the literature with regard to the issue of substandard/counterfeit antimicrobials and describe the prevalence of this problem, the different types of substandard/counterfeit antimicrobial drugs, and the consequences for the individuals and global public health. Local, national, and international initiatives are required to combat this very important public health issue. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Human Health Consequences of Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Kruse, H.; Grave, K.

    2009-01-01

    industry in many regions of the world and the widespread, intensive, and often unregulated use of antimicrobial agents in this area of animal production, efforts are needed to prevent development and spread of antimicrobial resistance in aquaculture to reduce the risk to human health....... in aquaculture, several are classified by the World Health Organisation as critically important for use in humans. Occurrence of resistance to these antimicrobial agents in human pathogens severely limits the therapeutic options in human infections. Considering the rapid growth and importance of aquaculture...... gene transfer and reach human pathogens, or drug-resistant pathogens from the aquatic environment may reach humans directly. Horizontal gene transfer may occur in the aquaculture environment, in the food chain, or in the human intestinal tract. Among the antimicrobial agents commonly used...

  11. Antimicrobial Drugs in the Home

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-10-19

    Survey participants in the United Kingdom admitted keeping leftover antimicrobial drugs for future use and taking them without medical advice. Dr. J. Todd Weber, director of CDC's Office of Antimicrobial Resistance, advises against the practice, which can be dangerous and can promote antimicrobial drug resistance.  Created: 10/19/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 10/26/2006.

  12. Monetary value of lost productivity over a five year follow up in early rheumatoid arthritis estimated on the basis of official register data on patients' sickness absence and gross income: experience from the FIN-RACo trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puolakka, K; Kautiainen, H; Pekurinen, M; Möttönen, T; Hannonen, P; Korpela, M; Hakala, M; Arkela-Kautiainen, M; Luukkainen, R; Leirisalo-Repo, M

    2006-07-01

    To explore the monetary value of rheumatoid arthritis related loss of productivity in patients with early active disease. In a prospective cohort substudy of the FIN-RACo Trial, 162 patients with recent onset rheumatoid arthritis, aged 18 to 65 years and available to the workforce, were followed up for five years. Loss of work productivity in euros 2002 was estimated by data on absence for sickness and on income (human capital approach) from official databases. Treatment responses were evaluated by area under the curve (AUC) of the ACR-N measure and by increase in number of erosions in radiographs of hands and feet. The health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) at six months was linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). In all, 120 (75%) patients, women more often (82%) than men (61%) (p=0.002), lost work days. The mean lost productivity per patient-year was euro7217 (95% confidence interval (CI), 5561 to 9148): for women, euro6477 (4858 to 8536) and for men, euro8443 (5389 to 12,898). There was an inverse correlation with improvement: euro1101 (323 to 2156) and euro14 952 (10,662 to 19,852) for the highest and lowest quartiles of AUC of ARC-N, respectively. Lost productivity was associated with increase in the number of erosions and with disability in "changing and maintaining body position" subcategory of the ICF. Despite remission targeted treatment with disease modifying antirheumatic drugs, early rheumatoid arthritis results in substantial loss of productivity. A good improvement in the disease reduces the loss markedly.

  13. New developments of the KOMPOFERM {sup registered} system. Lean gas management, SMARTFERM, double membrane roof; Neue Entwicklungen des KOMPOFERM {sup registered} -Systems. Schwachgasmanagement, SMARTFERM, Doppelmembrandach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Striewski, Sandra [KOMPOTEC Kompostierungsanlagen GmbH, Nieheim (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The KOMPOFERM {sup registered} dry fermentation process is a mesophilic batch process for biogas production from solid biomass. The system is developed continuously for higher economic efficiency, emission reduction and environmental protection. The contribution describes the optimisations of the KOMPOFERM {sup registered} system and presents examples of its practical implementation, e.g. thermophilic process control, the KOMPOFERM {sup registered} double membrane roof for optimum gas utilisation and reduction of the lean gas volume, the KOMPOFERM {sup registered} plus process with a percolate fermenter below the fermenter tunnels, the automatic feeding system for the rotting and/or fermenter tunnels and SMARTFERM, the dry fermentation module for plants up to 4m000 Mg input. (org.) [German] Als mesophiles Batchverfahren hat sich das KOMPOFERM {sup registered} -Trockenvergaerungsverfahren zur Erzeugung von Biogas aus fester Biomasse am Markt etabliert. Das System wird stetig weiterentwickelt, um die Wirtschaftlichkeit wie auch den Emissions- und Umweltschutz der Anlagen zu verbessern. Die Optimierungen des KOMPOFERM {sup registered} -Systems werden in diesem Artikel erlaeutert und Beispiele fuer deren praktische Umsetzung gegeben, wie die thermophile Prozessfuehrung des Systems, das KOMPOFERM {sup registered} -Doppelmembrandach zur optimalen Gasnutzung und Reduzierung von Schwachgas, das KOMPOFERM {sup registered} plus-Verfahren mit einem Perkolatfermenter unterhalb der Fermentertunnel, das automatische Eintragungsgeraet fuer Rotte- und/oder Fermentertunnel sowie SMARTFERM, das Trockenfermentationsmodul fuer Anlagen bis 4.000 Mg Input. (org.)

  14. Antibiotic and Antimicrobial Resistance: Threat Report 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Antibiotic / Antimicrobial Resistance Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Antibiotic / Antimicrobial Resistance About Antimicrobial Resistance Biggest Threats Emerging Drug ...

  15. Register-based studies of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrøm, Steen Z; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Madsen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The use of the unique personal identification number in the Nordic database systems enables the researchers to link the registers at the individual level. The registers can be used for both defining specific patient populations and to identify later events during follow-up. This rev...... the hospitalisation rate and treatment of cardiovascular disease. The risk of unmeasured factors affecting the results calls for cautious interpretation of the results.......-up. This review gives three examples within cardiovascular epidemiology to illustrate the use of the national administrative registers available to all researchers upon request. Research topics: The hospitalisation rate of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was expected to be increased and case-fatality rate......-based treatment increased significantly over time and adherence to treatment was high. Finally, use of specific nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs by healthy subjects was associated with a dose-dependent increase in cardiovascular risk. CONCLUSION: The nationwide registers have proven very useful in monitoring...

  16. Job satisfaction of South African registered dietitians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-01-25

    Jan 25, 2012 ... career growth,5,6,9 lack of respect from healthcare professionals,39 competition from ... a reminder was posted in the ADSA monthly newsletter, six weeks ..... research and conduct open interviews with registered dietitians or.

  17. Validation of the danish national diabetes register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Anders; Sortsø, Camilla; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup

    2015-01-01

    The Danish National Diabetes Register (NDR) was established in 2006 and builds on data from Danish health registers. We validated the content of NDR, using full information from the Danish National Patient Register and data from the literature. Our study indicates that the completeness in NDR...... is ≥95% concerning ascertainment from data sources specific for diabetes, ie, prescriptions with antidiabetic drugs and diagnoses of diabetes in the National Patient Register. Since the NDR algorithm ignores diabetes-related hospital contacts terminated before 1990, the establishment of the date...... of encounter, has been taken as the date of inclusion in NDR. We also find that some 20% of the registrations in NDR may represent false positive inclusions of persons with frequent measurements of blood glucose without having diabetes. We conclude that NDR is a novel initiative to support research...

  18. Register-based research on twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; Ohm Kyvik, Kirsten; Holm, Niels V

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The Danish Twin Registry (DTR) has for more than 50 years been based on surveys and clinical investigations and over the two last decades also on register linkage. Currently these two approaches are merged within Statistics Denmark. Research topics: Here we report on three major...... groups of register-based research in the DTR that used the uniqueness of twinning. First, we focus on the ''long-term prognosis'' of being a twin compared with being a singleton and show that Danish twins have health trajectories in adulthood similar to singletons, which is a result of interest for twins...... illustrate how the co-twin control method in a register setting can be used to control for the effect of rearing environment and genetic factors in studies of the association between exposures and health. CONCLUSION: The spectrum of register-based twin studies is very wide and have changed in accordance...

  19. National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses (NSSRN) Download makes data from the survey readily available to users in a one-stop download. The Survey has been...

  20. VacA and cagA genotypes status and antimicrobial resistance properties of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from meat products in Isfahan province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, A; Razavilar, V; Rokni, N; Rahimi, E

    2017-01-01

    Although Helicobacter pylori has a significant impact on the occurrence of severe clinical syndromes, its exact ways of transmission and origin have not been identified. According to the results of some previously published articles, foods with animal origins play a substantial role in the transmission of H. pylori to humans. The present investigation was carried out to study the vacuolating cytotoxin A ( vacA ) and cytotoxin associated gene A ( cagA ) genotypes status and antibiotic resistance properties of H. pylori strains recovered from minced-meat and hamburger samples. A total of 150 meat product samples were collected from supermarkets. All samples were cultured and the susceptive colonies were then subjected to nested-PCR, PCR-based genotyping and disk diffusion methods. 11 out of 150 samples (7.33%) were positive for H. pylori . All the isolates were further identified using the nested-PCR assay. Prevalence of H. pylori in hamburger and minced-meat samples was 1.42% and 12.5%, respectively. S1a , m1a and cagA were the most commonly detected genotypes. The most commonly detected combined genotypes in the H. pylori strains of minced-meat were s1am1a (10%), s1am1b (10%) and s2m1a (10%). Helicobacter pylori strains of meat products harbored the highest levels of resistance against ampicillin (90.90%), erythromycin (72.72%), amoxicillin (72.72%), trimethoprim (63.63%), tetracycline (63.63%), and clarithromycin (63.63%). Hamburger and minced-meat samples may be the sources of virulent and resistant strains of H. pylori . Meat products are possible sources of resistant and virulent strains of H. pylori similar to those vacA and cagA genotypes. Using healthy raw materials and observation of personal hygiene can reduce the risk of H. pylori in meat products.

  1. Register as the Situational Variety of Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya B. Boyeva-Omelechko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem discussed in the article is topical due to the interest of scientists to different types of language variations and especially registers or situational dialects treated by M.A.K. Halliday as use-related varieties of language or varieties used in a particular social setting. As discourse categorization is a very complex problem scholarly consensus has not been reached for the definitions of the term «register». The universal criteria for defining and discriminating registers have not been worked out either. The authors of the article give the review of scientific works devoted to the problem in question especially works by M.A.K. Halliday, R. Quirk, M. Joos, D. Hymes P. Trudgill, E.I. Belyaeva and others and analyze different definitions of the term «register», spectrums of registers and criteria for their discriminating. It enables the authors to come to the conclusion that only registers with the same field (religious, political, business etc. and mode (oral/written, dialogue/monologue can be compared. The difference lies in the sphere of tenor which depends on the degree of formality, distance of power and socio-psychological distance between speakers. The authors believe that it is also necessary to take into account the cooperative/ uncooperative character of conversation and para-verbal and non-verbal components of the speech situation. With this in mind they offer their definition of the register and describe main characteristics of registers in the sphere of oral communication.

  2. The two-domain LysX protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is required for production of lysinylated phosphatidylglycerol and resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Maloney

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The well-recognized phospholipids (PLs of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb include several acidic species such as phosphatidylglycerol (PG, cardiolipin, phosphatidylinositol and its mannoside derivatives, in addition to a single basic species, phosphatidylethanolamine. Here we demonstrate that an additional basic PL, lysinylated PG (L-PG, is a component of the PLs of Mtb H37Rv and that the lysX gene encoding the two-domain lysyl-transferase (mprF-lysyl-tRNA synthetase (lysU protein is responsible for L-PG production. The Mtb lysX mutant is sensitive to cationic antibiotics and peptides, shows increased association with lysosome-associated membrane protein-positive vesicles, and it exhibits altered membrane potential compared to wild type. A lysX complementing strain expressing the intact lysX gene, but not one expressing mprF alone, restored the production of L-PG and rescued the lysX mutant phenotypes, indicating that the expression of both proteins is required for LysX function. The lysX mutant also showed defective growth in mouse and guinea pig lungs and showed reduced pathology relative to wild type, indicating that LysX activity is required for full virulence. Together, our results suggest that LysX-mediated production of L-PG is necessary for the maintenance of optimal membrane integrity and for survival of the pathogen upon infection.

  3. Inhibitory substances production by Lactobacillus plantarum ST16Pa cultured in hydrolyzed cheese whey supplemented with soybean flour and their antimicrobial efficiency as biopreservatives on fresh chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Sabo, Sabrina; Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; Domínguez, José Manuel; de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro

    2017-09-01

    Cheese whey, the main byproduct of the dairy industry, is one of the most worrisome types of industrial waste, not only because of its abundant annual global production but also because it is a notable source of environmental pollution. However, cheese whey can serve as a raw material for the production of biocomposites. In this context, in this study, we assayed the production of a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) and lactate by culturing Lactobacillus plantarum ST16Pa in hydrolyzed fresh cheese whey. The process was improved by studying the enzymatic hydrolysis of cheese whey as well as its supplementation with soybean flour under microaerophilic or anaerobic conditions. Thus, the highest values of BLIS (7367.23 arbitrary units [AU]/mL) and lactate yield (Y lactate/lactose =1.39g/g) were achieved after addition of 10g/L soybean flour in microaerophilia. These conditions were successfully scaled up in a bioreactor because during complete anaerobiosis at 150rpm, L. plantarum ST16Pa attained considerable cell growth (3.14g/L), lactate concentration (14.33g/L), and BLIS activity (8082.56AU/mL). In addition, the cell-free supernatant resulting from this bioprocess showed high biopreservative efficiency in chicken breast fillets artificially contaminated with Enterococcus faecium 711 during 7days of refrigerated storage, thus indicating the potential use of this BLIS as a biopreservative in the food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Potential organic herbicides for squash production: Pelargonic acid herbicides AXXE (registered trademark) and Scythe (registered trademark)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide season- long weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determine the impact of potential organic herbicides on weed control efficacy, crop injury, and y...

  5. IN-VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF BRONCHOSOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska-Banaszczak, Ewa; Michalak, Anna; Kędzia, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Bronchosol is a traditional medicinal product in the form of syrup used in cough and impeded expectoration. The active ingredients that it contains include extracts from the herb of thyme, the root of primrose and thymol. It is recommended in disorders of the respiratory tract when expectoration is impeded and secretion of liquid mucus in bronchi is insufficient. Antimicrobial activity of the components of Bronchosol, especially thyme and thymol, has frequently been reported in the literature. To date, there have not been any studies to confirm such activity of Bronchosol, though. The results of our research are the first one to point to the great activity of Bronchosol against microorganisms causing infections of the respiratory tract. It has been demonstrated that this product displayed antimicrobial activity against reference strains as well as strains of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria and fungi isolated from patients. The confirmation of the antimicrobial activity of Bronchosol provides an explanation of its effectiveness in the therapy of the respiratory tract infections.

  6. Learning from agriculture: understanding low-dose antimicrobials as drivers of resistome expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqi eYou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance is a growing public health challenge worldwide, with agricultural use of antimicrobials being one major contributor to the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. Globally, most antimicrobials are used in industrial food animal production, a major context for microbiomes encountering low-doses or subtherapeutic-levels of antimicrobial agents from all mechanistic classes. This modern practice exerts broad eco-evolutionary effects on the gut microbiome of food animals, which is subsequently transferred to animal waste. This waste contains complex constituents that are challenging to treat, including antimicrobial resistance determinants and low-dose antimicrobials. Unconfined storage or land deposition of a large volume of animal waste causes its wide contact with the environment and drives the expansion of the environmental resistome through mobilome facilitated horizontal genet transfer. The expanded environmental resistome, which encompasses both natural constituents and anthropogenic inputs, can persist under multiple stressors from agriculture and may re-enter humans, thus posing a public health risk to humans. For these reasons, this review focuses on agricultural antimicrobial use as a laboratory for understanding low-dose antimicrobials as drivers of resistome expansion, briefly summarizes current knowledge on this topic, highlights the importance of research specifically on environmental microbial ecosystems considering antimicrobial resistance as environmental pollution, and calls attention to the needs for longitudinal studies at the systems level.

  7. Recent advances in microencapsulation of natural sources of antimicrobial compounds used in food - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Rosas, Javier; Ferreira-Grosso, Carlos Raimundo; Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos Alberto; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Rodríguez-Marín, María Luisa; Guzmán-Ortiz, Fabiola Araceli; Falfan-Cortes, Reyna Nallely

    2017-12-01

    Food safety and microbiological quality are major priorities in the food industry. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the use of natural antimicrobials in food products. An ongoing challenge with natural antimicrobials is their degradation during food storage and/or processing, which reduces their antimicrobial activity. This creates the necessity for treatments that maintain their stability and/or activity when applied to food. Microencapsulation of natural antimicrobial compounds is a promising alternative once this technique consists of producing microparticles, which protect the encapsulated active substances. In other words, the material to be protected is embedded inside another material or system known as wall material. There are few reports in the literature about microencapsulation of antimicrobial compounds. These published articles report evidence of increased antimicrobial stability and activity when the antimicrobials are microencapsulated when compared to unprotected ones during storage. This review focuses mainly on natural sources of antimicrobial compounds and the methodological approach for encapsulating these natural compounds. Current data on the microencapsulation of antimicrobial compounds and their incorporation into food suggests that 1) encapsulation increases compound stability during storage and 2) encapsulation of antimicrobial compounds reduces their interaction with food components, preventing their inactivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Does microbicide use in consumer products promote antimicrobial resistance? A critical review and recommendations for a cohesive approach to risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, Jean-Yves; Bloomfield, Sally; Coelho, Joana Rosado; Collier, Phillip; Cookson, Barry; Fanning, Séamus; Hill, Andrew; Hartemann, Philippe; McBain, Andrew J; Oggioni, Marco; Sattar, Syed; Schweizer, Herbert P; Threlfall, John

    2013-10-01

    The increasing use of microbicides in consumer products is raising concerns related to enhanced microbicide resistance in bacteria and potential cross resistance to antibiotics. The recently published documents on this topic from the European Commission have spawned much interest to better understand the true extent of the putative links for the benefit of the manufacturers, regulators, and consumers alike. This white paper is based on a 2-day workshop (SEAC-Unilever, Bedford, United Kingdom; June 2012) in the fields of microbicide usage and resistance. It identifies gaps in our knowledge and also makes specific recommendations for harmonization of key terms and refinement/standardization of methods for testing microbicide resistance to better assess the impact and possible links with cross resistance to antibiotics. It also calls for a better cohesion in research in this field. Such information is crucial to developing any risk assessment framework on microbicide use notably in consumer products. The article also identifies key research questions where there are inadequate data, which, if addressed, could promote improved knowledge and understanding to assess any related risks for consumer and environmental safety.

  9. Antimicrobial compounds targeting Gram-negative bacteria in food: Their mode of action and combinational effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    compromising food shelf-life or safety. Natural antimicrobial compounds have therefore gained increased interest as a label-friendly alternative that can be added directly to food products. Although natural antimicrobials constitute an interesting source of compounds, it is often not understood how...... they interact with bacterial cells to exert their mechanism of inhibition or killing. Furthermore, natural antimicrobials are often not potent enough as single compounds, and may cause unwanted sensory side-effects, which limit the quantities that can be applied to food. These problems might be circumvented...... by combining antimicrobials to decrease the concentrations needed without compromising their antimicrobial activity. The work described in this dissertation presents two projects concerning the mechanism of action of selected natural antimicrobial compounds primarily against Gram-negative bacteria, and two...

  10. Antimicrobial Effects of Sodium Fluoride, Xylitol and Metals Salts on in Vitro Growth Inhibition, Acid Production and Ultrastructure of Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mongy, T.M.; Abd EI-Aziz, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF), dietary sugars, sugar alcohols (xylitol and sorbitol) and different metals salts either separately or in combination, by different concentrations at different ph, on the growth inhibition, acid production and ultra structure of Streptococcus mutans. NaF was more effective at low ph, when NaF was added to actively growing Streptococcus mutans broth culture, the growth rate was unaffected by 75 ppm F-, slowed by 150 ppm F-, and immediately arrested by 300 or 600 ppm F-. On the other hand, the best effect of xylitol was at high ph. The effect of xylitol was more marked in the presence of NaF as the acid production was inhibited and the ph did not fall to 5.0. The response of Streptococcus mutans to metals salts was typical of this organism's response to a number of trace metals above optimum concentrations of which may be inhibitory. Synergistic effect observed by addition of metals salts by concentration ranged from 0.2 to 5.0 mML-1, 300 ppm NaF and 5% xylitol. This formula can work at any ph value and causes no drop of the broth culture ph to below 5.0 which is the optimal ph for growth and multiplication of Streptococcus mutans, so this formula worked as ph buffer regulation and growth inhibition for S. mutans. Low concentration of this combined formula after 5 min only at 5.0 and 7.0 ph values caused effective complete destruction of the bacterial viable cells and this effect was observed clearly by Electron Microscope photo graph

  11. Testing methods for antimicrobial activity of TiO2 photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markov Siniša L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a lot of commercial TiO2 photocatalyst products have been developed and extensively studied for prospective and safe antimicrobial application in daily life, medicine, laboratories, food and pharmaceutical industry, waste water treatments and in development of new self-cleaning and antimicrobial materials, surfaces and paints. This paper reviews the studies published worldwide on killing microorganisms, methods for testing the antimicrobial activity, light sources and intensities, as well as calculation methods usually used when evaluating the antimicrobial properties of the TiO2-based products. Additionally, some strengths and weaknesses of the available methods for testing the antimicrobial activity of TiO2 photocatalyst products have been pointed out.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45008

  12. Commercial Essential Oils as Potential Antimicrobials to Treat Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Ané

    2017-01-01

    Essential oils are one of the most notorious natural products used for medical purposes. Combined with their popular use in dermatology, their availability, and the development of antimicrobial resistance, commercial essential oils are often an option for therapy. At least 90 essential oils can be identified as being recommended for dermatological use, with at least 1500 combinations. This review explores the fundamental knowledge available on the antimicrobial properties against pathogens responsible for dermatological infections and compares the scientific evidence to what is recommended for use in common layman's literature. Also included is a review of combinations with other essential oils and antimicrobials. The minimum inhibitory concentration dilution method is the preferred means of determining antimicrobial activity. While dermatological skin pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus have been well studied, other pathogens such as Streptococcus pyogenes, Propionibacterium acnes, Haemophilus influenzae, and Brevibacterium species have been sorely neglected. Combination studies incorporating oil blends, as well as interactions with conventional antimicrobials, have shown that mostly synergy is reported. Very few viral studies of relevance to the skin have been made. Encouragement is made for further research into essential oil combinations with other essential oils, antimicrobials, and carrier oils. PMID:28546822

  13. Resistência antimicrobiana de Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolados de pescado e de cortes e de miúdos de frango Antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from fish and poultry products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Araújo Maia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolados de peixes de água doce e de frangos foram submetidos ao teste de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos utilizando quatorze drogas, com o objetivo de determinar e confrontar os padrões de suscetibilidade deste microrganismo. As cepas oriundas de peixes pertenciam à coleção do Laboratório de Bacterioses/IV/UFRRJ. Para o isolamento das cepas, foram selecionados miúdos (fígado e cortes (coxa e sobrecoxa de frangos adquiridos em estabelecimentos comerciais no município do Rio de Janeiro. A metodologia de isolamento incluiu o enriquecimento em água peptonada, seguido de semeadura em Agar EMB e Agar GSP. Para as cepas oriundas de peixes, procedeu-se à reativação em água peptonada, seguida de reisolamento em Agar EMB. Colônias sugestivas foram transferidas para Agar TSI e LIA para avaliação das características metabólicas. A capacidade de produção de pigmento verde-azulado foi avaliada em Agar Mueller-Hinton e a da enzima citocromo-oxidase, em Agar Nutriente. O teste de suscetibilidade a antimicrobianos realizado nas 63 cepas revelou maiores percentuais de resistência para NAL e NIT (96,8%, TCY (93,6%, AMC (92,1%, CHL (90,5% e SXT (85,7%, destacando-se a multirresistência dos isolados. A totalidade das cepas oriundas de frangos apresentou sensibilidade a CAZ e IPM e nos isolados de peixes a ATM, CAZ, IPM e AMK.Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from fish and chicken products were analyzed using the Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test with 14 drugs to evaluate the susceptibility patterns of this microorganism. Strains isolated from two different sources were evaluated. The fish strains belonged to the collection of Bacterioses Laboratory/IV/UFRRJ, and those from chicken specimens were isolated from the liver and chicken carcasses traded in commercial establishments in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The isolation methodology included enrichment in Peptone Water and then spread on EMB Agar and GSP Agar

  14. Influence of factors on release of antimicrobials from antimicrobial packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Mei; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Hu, Chang-Ying; Nerín, Cristina

    2018-05-03

    Antimicrobial packaging materials (films or coatings) (APMs) have aroused great interest among the scientists or the experts specialized in material science, food science, packaging engineering, biology and chemistry. APMs have been used to package the food, such as dairy products, poultry, meat (e.g., beef), salmon muscle, pastry dough, fresh pasta, bakery products, fruits, vegetables and beverages. Some materials have been already commercialized. The ability of APMs to extend the shelf-life of the food depends on the release rate of the antimicrobials (AMs) from the materials to the food. The optimum rate is defined as target release rate (TRR). To achieve TRR, the influencing factors of the release rate should be considered. Herein we reviewed for the first time these factors and their influence on the release. These factors mainly include the AMs, food (or food simulant), packaging materials, the interactions among them, the temperature and environmental relative humidity (RH).

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About FDA Contact FDA Browse by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  20. The Danish multiple sclerosis treatment register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the database: The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Register (DMSTR) serves as a clinical quality register, enabling the health authorities to monitor the quality of the diseasemodifying treatment, and it is an important data source for epidemiological research. Study population: The DMSTR...... includes all patients with multiple sclerosis who had been treated with disease-modifying drugs since 1996. At present, more than 8,400 patients have been registered in this database. Data are continuously entered online into a central database from all sites in Denmark at start and at regular visits. Main...... variables: Include age, sex, onset year and year of the diagnosis, basic clinical information, and information about treatment, side effects, and relapses. Descriptive data: Notification is done at treatment start, and thereafter at every scheduled clinical visit 3 months after treatment start...

  1. The Danish registers of causes of death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, K; Helweg-Larsen, K

    1999-01-01

    In 1875 registration of causes of death in Denmark was established by the National Board of Health, and annual statistics of death have since been published. Until 1970 the national statistics were based upon punched cards with data collected from the death certificates. Since then the register has...... been fully computerized and includes individual based data of all deaths occurring among all residents in Denmark dying in Denmark. Furthermore, a microfilm of all death certificates from 1943 and onward is kept in the National Board of Health. The Danish Institute for Clinical Epidemiology (DICE) has...... established a computerized register of individual records of deaths in Denmark from 1943 and onwards. No other country covers computerized individual based data of death registration for such a long period, now 54 years. This paper describes the history of the registers, the data sources and access to data...

  2. NUHOMS registered - MP197 transport cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, P.; Sicard, D.; Michels, L.

    2004-01-01

    The NUHOMS registered -MP197 cask is an optimized transport design which can be loaded in the spent fuel pool (wet loading) or loaded the canister from the NUHOMS concrete modules at the ISFSI site. With impact limiters attached, the package can be transported within the states or world-wide. The NUHOMS registered -MP197 packaging can be used to transport either BWR or PWR canisters. The NUHOMS registered -MP197 cask is designed to the ASME B and PV Code and meets the requirements of Section III, Division 3 for Transport Packaging. The cask with impact limiters has undergone drop testing to verify the calculated g loadings during the 9m drops. The test showed good correlation with analytical results and demonstrate that the impact limiters stay in place and protect the package and fuel during the hypothetical accidents

  3. The use of antimicrobial drugs in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, W D

    1984-08-01

    Antibacterial drugs have been used widely in animal production for treatment and prevention of disease and for growth promotion. Concern has been expressed about possible harm to humans, through the use of drugs, in the following ways: increased microbial drug resistance; drug residues in food; allergic reactions and sensitization to antimicrobials; and drug toxicity. Research has shown that microbial resistance in people can develop from drugs used in animals. Farmers, butchers, etc., have been shown to have an increased incidence of drug-resistant organisms. Resistance to antibiotics can develop in two ways; genetic mutation and natural selection, and through R-factor plasmid transfer. Allergic reactions have been reported following the ingestion of penicillin-containing milk; however, residues in other foods have not caused allergic reactions. Sensitization of humans to antimicrobials through the consumption of drug residues in foods has never been documented. Evidence suggests that the residue levels in food are too low to cause sensitization. Drug toxicity, other than allergic reactions, appears not to result from residues of antimicrobial drugs in food. While it has been studied many times, monitoring programs have failed to find any evidence of a problem. This appears to reflect the low toxicity of these agents and the small amounts obtained in the food, however, it could also reflect failure of the monitoring systems.

  4. High Pressure Laminates with Antimicrobial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Magina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure laminates (HPLs are durable, resistant to environmental effects and good cost-benefit decorative surface composite materials with special properties tailored to meet market demand. In the present work, polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB was incorporated for the first time into melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF matrix on the outer layer of HPLs to provide them antimicrobial properties. Chemical binding of PHMB to resin matrix was detected on the surface of produced HPLs by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR. Antimicrobial evaluation tests were carried out on the ensuing HPLs doped with PHMB against gram-positive Listeria innocua and gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria. The results revealed that laminates prepared with 1.0 wt % PHMB in MF resin were bacteriostatic (i.e., inhibited the growth of microorganisms, whereas those prepared with 2.4 wt % PHMB in MF resin exhibited bactericidal activity (i.e., inactivated the inoculated microorganisms. The results herein reported disclose a promising strategy for the production of HPLs with antimicrobial activity without affecting basic intrinsic quality parameters of composite material.

  5. Cationic antimicrobial peptides in penaeid shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Amparyup, Piti; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Supungul, Premruethai

    2011-08-01

    Penaeid shrimp aquaculture has been consistently affected worldwide by devastating diseases that cause a severe loss in production. To fight a variety of harmful microbes in the surrounding environment, particularly at high densities (of which intensive farming represents an extreme example), shrimps have evolved and use a diverse array of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as part of an important first-line response of the host defense system. Cationic AMPs in penaeid shrimps composed of penaeidins, crustins, and anti-lipopolysaccharide factors are comprised of multiple classes or isoforms and possess antibacterial and antifungal activities against different strains of bacteria and fungi. Shrimp AMPs are primarily expressed in circulating hemocytes, which is the main site of the immune response, and hemocytes expressing AMPs probably migrate to infection sites to fight against pathogen invasion. Indeed, most AMPs are produced as early as the nauplii developmental stage to protect shrimp larvae from infections. In this review, we discuss the sequence diversity, expression, gene structure, and antimicrobial activities of cationic AMPs in penaeid shrimps. The information available on antimicrobial activities indicates that these shrimp AMPs have potential therapeutic applications in the control of disease problems in aquaculture.

  6. Impact of Denmark's ban on antimicrobials for growth promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Helen H; Hayes, Dermot J

    2014-06-01

    Denmark was among the first countries to ban the use of antimicrobials for growth promotion (AGPs) in animal production through an on-going series of actions and regulations since 1995. In 2010 the Yellow Card scheme was adopted to decrease total antimicrobial consumption in pig production through additional restrictions on pig farmers. The withdrawal of AGPs and other restrictions have reduced total antimicrobial use, but at the same time therapeutic drug use has increased and resistance in key zoonotic bacteria has not decreased. Improved use of vaccines and management practices can help reduce losses especially for weaner pigs, but come with additional costs to producers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Very wide register : an asymmetric register file organization for low power embedded processors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghavan, P.; Lambrechts, A.; Jayapala, M.; Catthoor, F.; Verkest, D.T.M.L.; Corporaal, H.

    2007-01-01

    In current embedded systems processors, multi-ported register files are one of the most power hungry parts of the processor, even when they are clustered. This paper presents a novel register file architecture, which has single ported cells and asymmetric interfaces to the memory and to the

  8. Antimicrobial packaging with natural compunds - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Packaging problems are an integral part of logistics and the implementation of packaging significantly affects the effectiveness of logistics processes, as a factor which increases the safety and the quality of products being transported. Active packaging is an area of technology needed to meet the requirements of the contemporary consumer. Active packaging creates additional opportunities in systems for packing goods, as well as offering a solution in which the packaging, the product and surroundings interact. Furthermore, active packaging allows packaging to interact with food and the environment and play a dynamic role in food preservation. The main role of antimicrobial packaging is to inhibit the growth of microorganisms that reduce the quality of the packaged product. Methods: The application of natural antimicrobial agents appears to be safe for food products. Also, these compounds have potential applications as a natural preservative in the food packaging industry. This study presents some antibacterial agents, namely chitosan, nisin and pectins. Results and conclusion: Natural substances used in active packaging can eliminate the danger of chemical substances migrating to food.

  9. Isothiocyanates: An Overview of Their Antimicrobial Activity against Human Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Romeo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant-derived products as antimicrobial agents has been investigated in depth. Isothiocyanates (ITCs are bioactive products resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates (GLs, the most abundant secondary metabolites in the botanical order Brassicales. Although the antimicrobial activity of ITCs against foodborne and plant pathogens has been well documented, little is known about their antimicrobial properties against human pathogens. This review collects studies that focus on this topic. Particular focus will be put on ITCs’ antimicrobial properties and their mechanism of action against human pathogens for which the current therapeutic solutions are deficient and therefore of prime importance for public health. Our purpose was the evaluation of the potential use of ITCs to replace or support the common antibiotics. Even though ITCs appear to be effective against the most important human pathogens, including bacteria with resistant phenotypes, the majority of the studies did not show comparable results and thus it is very difficult to compare the antimicrobial activity of the different ITCs. For this reason, a standard method should be used and further studies are needed.

  10. Antimicrobial biosurfactants from marine Bacillus circulans: extracellular synthesis and purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S; Das, P; Sivapathasekaran, C; Sen, R

    2009-03-01

    To purify the biosurfactant produced by a marine Bacillus circulans strain and evaluate the improvement in surface and antimicrobial activities. The study of biosurfactant production by B. circulans was carried out in glucose mineral salts (GMS) medium using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) for quantitative estimation. The biosurfactant production by this strain was found to be growth-associated showing maximum biosurfactant accumulation at 26 h of fermentation. The crude biosurfactants were purified using gel filtration chromatography with Sephadex G-50 matrix. The purification attained by employing this technique was evident from UV-visible spectroscopy and TLC analysis of crude and purified biosurfactants. The purified biosurfactants showed an increase in surface activity and a decrease in critical micelle concentration values. The antimicrobial action of the biosurfactants was also enhanced after purification. The marine B. circulans used in this study produced biosurfactants in a growth-associated manner. High degree of purification could be obtained by using gel filtration chromatography. The purified biosurfactants showed enhanced surface and antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial biosurfactant produced by B. circulans could be effectively purified using gel filtration and can serve as new potential drugs in antimicrobial chemotherapy.

  11. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts and essential oils from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, N C C; Barbosa, L; Seito, L N; Fernandes, A

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus and 16 Escherichia coli strains from human specimens was carried out using the dilution method in Mueller-Hinton agar. Some phenolic compounds with antimicrobial properties were established, and all EOs had a higher antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Matricaria chamomilla extract and E. uniflora EO were efficient against S. aureus strains, while E. uniflora and V. polyanthes extracts and V. polyanthes EO showed the best antimicrobial activity against E. coli strains. Staphylococcus aureus strains were more susceptible to the tested plant products than E. coli, but all natural products promoted antimicrobial growth inhibition.

  12. Effect of in-feed Chlortetracycline prophylaxis in beef cattle on levels of 10 antimicrobial resistance genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The majority of antimicrobial products used in food-animal production are administered in-feed to control or prevent disease. These uses are controversial since it has been argued that they have contributed to increased occurrence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Beef cattle are suscep...

  13. Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Carmona-Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy.

  14. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  15. Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Carrasco, Letícia Dias de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy. PMID:25302615

  16. Danish Register of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Sorknæs, Anne Dichmann

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Register of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (DrCOPD) is a nationwide database aiming to describe the quality of treatment of all patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: DrCOPD comprises data on all patients...

  17. Registered manufacturers of renewable energy devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Registered manufacturers of renewable energy devices in India are listed. The list is arranged under the headings : solar water heating system, solar cooker, solar still and water pumping wind mill. In all 38 manufacturers are listed. The list gives the postal address, name of the contact person and phone number of each manufacturer. (M.G.B.)

  18. Ca teos report in register N 13377

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, S; Arrighetti, R.

    2011-01-01

    This work is about a report about ca teos carried out in register N 13377 in the department of Canelones to know the depth of the field. The drilling done allowed to identify granite and clay. This granite outcrops are developed in the east of the middle course of the stream Pando

  19. Josephson shift register design and layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybysz, J.X.; Buttyan, J.; Blaugher, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Integrated circuit chips were designed and fabricated, based on Josephson shift register circuit that simulated operation at 25 GHz using the SPICE program. The 6.25 mm square chip featured a twelve-gate, four-stage shift register fabricated with Nb/AlO/sub x//Nb Josephson junctions with a design value of 2000 A/cm/sup 2/ critical current density. SUPERCOMPACT, a general program for the design of monolithic microwave integrated circuits, was used to model the effects of layout geometry on the uniformity and phase coherence of logic gate bias currents. Gate bias resistors were treated as resistive transmission lines. A layout geometry for the superconductive transmission lines and thin film bias resistors was developed. The original SPICE-designed circuit was modified as a result of these calculations. Modeling indicated that bias current variations could be limited to 3% for all possible logic states of the shift register, and phase coherence of the gates could be maintained to within 2 degrees of 10 Ghz. The fundamental soundness of the circuit design was demonstrated by the proper operation of fabricated shift registers

  20. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  1. The Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register, 1992-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusa, Andrea-Romana; Kasper, David C; Pollak, Arnold; Gleiss, Andreas; Waldhoer, Thomas; Hayde, Michael

    2015-01-15

    We aimed to determine the incidence of primary gestational infections with Toxoplasma gondii and congenital toxoplasmosis in Austria, a country with a nationwide prenatal serological screening program since 1974. We analyzed retrospective data from the Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register of pregnant women with Toxoplasma infection and their offspring with births between 1992 and 2008, identified by the prenatal mandatory screening program. Treatment was administered to women from diagnosis of a Toxoplasma infection until delivery. Infected infants were treated up to 1 year of life routinely. Clinical manifestations in infected infants were monitored at least for 1 year and documented in the register. The Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register included 2147 pregnant women with suspected Toxoplasma infection. Annually, 8.5 per 10 000 women acquired Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy, and 1.0 per 10 000 infants had congenital toxoplasmosis (13% mean transmission rate). Our data showed that women treated according to the Austrian scheme had a 6-fold decrease in the maternofetal transmission rate compared to women without treatment. Results from the Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register show the efficiency of the prenatal screening program. Our results are of clinical relevance for infants, healthcare systems, and policy makers to consider preventive Toxoplasma screening as a potential tool to reduce the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Single memory with multiple shift register functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a memory device comprising a memory (EM) having at least two predetermined register memory sections addressable by respective address ranges AS1-ASz) and at least one access port (P1-PZ) for providing access to said memory (EM). Furthermore, access control means (A)

  3. Genome-wide identification of antimicrobial intrinsic resistance determinants in Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vestergaard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of antimicrobial resistance severely threatens our ability to treat bacterial infections. While acquired resistance has received considerable attention, relatively little is known of intrinsic resistance that allows bacteria to naturally withstand antimicrobials. Gene products that confer intrinsic resistance to antimicrobial agents may be explored for alternative antimicrobial therapies, by potentiating the efficacy of existing antimicrobials. In this study, we identified the intrinsic resistome to a broad spectrum of antimicrobials in the human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus. We screened the Nebraska Transposon Mutant Library of 1920 single-gene inactivations in S. aureus strain JE2, for increased susceptibility to the anti-staphylococcal antimicrobials (ciprofloxacin, oxacillin, linezolid, fosfomycin, daptomycin, mupirocin, vancomycin and gentamicin. 68 mutants were confirmed by E-test to display at least two-fold increased susceptibility to one or more antimicrobial agents. The majority of the identified genes have not previously been associated with antimicrobial susceptibility in S. aureus. For example, inactivation of genes encoding for subunits of the ATP synthase, atpA, atpB, atpG and atpH, reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of gentamicin 16-fold. To elucidate the potential of the screen, we examined treatment efficacy in the Galleria mellonella infection model. Gentamicin efficacy was significantly improved, when treating larvae infected with the atpA mutant compared to wild type cells with gentamicin at a clinically relevant concentration. Our results demonstrate that many gene products contribute to the intrinsic antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus. Knowledge of these intrinsic resistance determinants provides alternative targets for compounds that may potentiate the efficacy of existing antimicrobial agents against this important pathogen.

  4. Selectivity of Inhibition of N-Succinyl-l,l-Diaminopimelic Acid Desuccinylase in Bacteria: The product of dapE-gene Is Not the Target of l-Captopril Antimicrobial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda, Narasimha Rao; Creus, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of bacterial strains that are resistant to virtually all currently available antibiotics underscores the importance of developing new antimicrobial compounds. N-succinyl-l,l-diaminopimelic acid desuccinylase (DapE) is a metallohydrolase involved in the meso-diaminopimelate (mDAP)/lysine biosynthetic pathway necessary for lysine biosynthesis and for building the peptidoglycan cell wall. Because DapE is essential for Gram-negative and some Gram-positive bacteria, DapE has been proposed as a good target for antibiotic development. Recently, l-captopril has been suggested as a lead compound for inhibition of DapE, although its selectivity for this enzyme target in bacteria remains unclear (Gillner et al. (2009)). Here, we tested the selectivity of l-captopril against DapE in bacteria. Since DapE knockout strains of gram-negative bacteria are viable upon chemical supplementation with mDAP, we reasoned that the antimicrobial activity of compounds targeting DapE should be abolished in mDAP-containing media. Although l-captopril had modest antimicrobial activity in Escherichia coli and in Salmonella enterica, to our surprise, inhibition of bacterial growth was independent both of mDAP supplementation and DapE over-expression. We conclude that DapE is not the main target of l-captopril inhibition in these bacteria. The methods implemented here will be useful for screening DapE-selective antimicrobial compounds directly in bacterial cultures.

  5. Antimicrobial resistance in the environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keen, Patricia L; Montforts, M. H. M. M

    2012-01-01

    ... or antibiotic resistance genes as environmental contaminants. It also considers alternate uses and functions for antimicrobial compounds other than those intended for medicinal purposes in humans, animals, and fish...

  6. Antimicrobial peptides from Capsicum sp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-30

    Dec 30, 2011 ... Key words: Antimicrobial peptides, Capsicum sp, Capsicum chinense, chili pepper, agronomical options, ..... of this human activity is resumed by the simple phrase: produce .... It will be interesting to scale the AMPs extraction.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of Agave sisalana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... cancer treatment, transplantation or are immuno- suppressed for ... machine after the decortication process of the leaves of A. sisalana in a sisal .... Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of two Origanum ...

  8. Production and antimicrobial property of glycolipid biosurfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial glycolipids such as rhamnolipid (RL) and sophorolipid (SL) are an important class of biosurfactants with excellent surface tension-lowering activity. Besides their surfactant- and environment-friendly properties, however, additional value-added property such as bacteriocidal activity is n...

  9. Production and characterization of antimicrobial active substance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elshobary

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... vulgare from Phaeophyceae) were collected seasonally by hand in. 2007 to 2008 from Rocky Bay of Abu Qir (N 31°19` E030°03`). (Figure 1). All samples were brought to the laboratory in plastic bags containing sea water to prevent evaporation. The algae were cleaned from epiphytes and rock debris and ...

  10. Production and characterization of antimicrobial active substance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linnaeus) Lamouroux; Ulva fasciata Delile and Sargassum vulgare C. Agardh] belonging to Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae, respectively, were collected seasonally in 2007 to 2008 from Abu-Qir bay (Alexandria, Egypt).

  11. Antimicrobial stewardship in wound care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipsky, Benjamin A; Dryden, Matthew; Gottrup, Finn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the growing global problem of antibiotic resistance it is crucial that clinicians use antibiotics wisely, which largely means following the principles of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS). Treatment of various types of wounds is one of the more common reasons for prescribing...... of experts in infectious diseases/clinical microbiology (from the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy) and wound management (from the European Wound Management Association) who, after thoroughly reviewing the available literature and holding teleconferences, jointly produced this guidance document...

  12. Analysis of some selected toxic metals in registered herbal products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty brands of herbal remedies were purchased randomly from the Pharmacy shops in Lagos, digested with aquaregia (3:1 HCl: HNO3) and were analysed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (Buck 205 Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer). There was no detectable lead in any of the 20 herbal samples; however, ...

  13. Synthesis and characterization of barbitones as antimicrobial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. SANGANI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Barbitones (3 were synthesised by the condensation of chalcones (2 with barbituric acid. The structure of the synthesized compounds were assigned on the basis of elemental analyses, IR, NMR and mass spectral studies. All the products were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against various strains of bacteria and fungi.

  14. Comparison of antimicrobial activities of brine salting, Chlorinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical preservatives can be used to reduce the overall microbial populations in fish and fish products. This study was set to determine the antimicrobial activities of brine salting, chlorinated solution, and Moringa oleifera plant extracts treatments on enteric bacteria in Rastrineobola argentea and Oreochromis niloticus fish ...

  15. Antimicrobial activities of the bacteriocin-like substances produced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 450 different colonies, isolated from 25 samples of dromedary milk collected from Laâyoune region of Morocco, were tested for antimicrobial compounds production. Out of these, 30 were determined to be lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and able to inhibit the growth of the indicator strain Listeria innocua CECT 4030.

  16. Antimicrobial activities of grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) pomace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grape pomace is a potential source of winery by-products having useful bioactive components. Antimicrobial activities of enzyme-assisted grape pomace polyphenols (GPP) were assessed against Escherichia coli IFO 3301 and Staphylococcus aureus IFO 12732 using plate count and spectrophotometry assays. GPP have ...

  17. Isolation, identification and antimicrobial suscep- tibility profiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    determine the in vitro antimicrobial resistance profiles of the isolates. A to- tal of 266 samples ... meats), cross contamination through direct contact of foods to contaminated surfaces such as stainless steel, hanging ... of contaminated milk and meat products (Endrias Zewdu and Cornelius 2009), through mutation, acquisition ...

  18. Impact of interspecific interactions on antimicrobial activity among soil bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyc, O.; Berg, van den M.; Gerards, S.; Veen, van J.A.; Raaijmakers, J.M.; Boer, de W.; Garbeva, P.

    2014-01-01

    Certain bacterial species produce antimicrobial compounds only in the presence of a competing species. However, little is known on the frequency of interaction-mediated induction of antibiotic compound production in natural communities of soil bacteria. Here we developed a high-throughput method to

  19. A Comparative Study on the Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Laboratory of Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH). Isolates were obtained from urine and swabs of wounds, ear, throat and eye. Identification was carried out by conventional methods and antimicrobial susceptibility was investigated by disk diffusion method. All isolates were tested for beta-lactamase production.

  20. 46 CFR 401.510 - Operation without Registered Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation without Registered Pilots. 401.510 Section 401... REGULATIONS Penalties; Operations Without Registered Pilots § 401.510 Operation without Registered Pilots. (a... Registered Pilot when the vessel or its cargo is in distress or jeopardy. (b) A vessel may be navigated in...

  1. 1 CFR 11.7 - Federal Register Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal Register Index. 11.7 Section 11.7... REGISTER PUBLICATIONS SUBSCRIPTIONS § 11.7 Federal Register Index. The annual subscription price for the monthly Federal Register Index, purchased separately, in paper form, is $29. The price excludes postage...

  2. Antimicrobial resistance among enterococci from pigs in three European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hasman, Henrik; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2002-01-01

    to the amounts of antimicrobial agents used in food animal production in those countries. Similar genes were found to encode resistance in the different countries, but the tet(L) and let(S) genes were more frequently found among isolates from Spain. A recently identified transferable copper resistance gene......Enterococci from pigs in Denmark, Spain, and Sweden were examined for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and copper and the presence of selected resistance genes. The greatest levels of resistance were found among isolates from Spain and Denmark compared to those from Sweden, which corresponds...... was found in all copper-resistant isolates from the different countries....

  3. Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial and anticancer studies of new steroidal pyrazolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsuzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A convenient synthesis of 2′-(2″,4″-dinitrophenyl-5α-cholestano [5,7-c d] pyrazolines 4–6 from cholest-5-en-7-one 1–3 was performed and structural assignment of the products was confirmed on the basis of IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS and analytical data. The synthesized compounds were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity against different strains during which compound 6 showed potent antimicrobial behaviour against Corynebacterium xerosis and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The synthesized compounds were also screened for in vitro anticancer activity against human cancer cell lines during which compound 5 exhibited significant anticancer activity.

  4. Investigation of Industrial Polyurethane Foams Modified with Antimicrobial Copper Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Sportelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial copper nanoparticles (CuNPs were electrosynthetized and applied to the controlled impregnation of industrial polyurethane foams used as padding in the textile production or as filters for air conditioning systems. CuNP-modified materials were investigated and characterized morphologically and spectroscopically, by means of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS. The release of copper ions in solution was studied by Electro-Thermal Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (ETAAS. Finally, the antimicrobial activity of freshly prepared, as well as aged samples—stored for two months—was demonstrated towards different target microorganisms.

  5. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Royal Jelly - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Ioana Bărnuţiu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents the literature data regarding the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of RoyalJelly. Royal Jelly is a secretion from the hypofaringeal glands of worker bees which serves as a food for queen beeand to the growing up larvae. Having biological properties already proven, Royal Jelly has considerable commercialappeal and is today used in many sectors (pharmaceutical, food industries and cosmetic products. Thephysicochemical composition of pure royal jelly are analyzed by determining moisture, ash, lipids, proteins,vitamins,aminoacids, carbohydrates, 10-HDA; RJ is the key substance in the antimicrobial function of the system Apismellifera. The intact Royal Jelly exhibited the highest antibacterial activity.

  6. Enhancing resilience in registered aged care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Fiona; Brownie, Sonya

    2010-06-01

    To identify the factors that impact the resilience of registered aged care nurses, that is their capacity to adapt to the physical, mental and emotional demands of working in aged care facilities. This study explored the lived experience of nine registered nurses working in residential aged care facilities on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, who were asked to reflect on the phenomenon of resilience in the workplace. This study found that clinical expertise, a sense of purpose in a holistic care environment, a positive attitude and work-life balance are important determinants of resilience in aged care nurses. Resilience in nurses in residential aged care facilities is enhanced when they are able to maintain long-term, meaningful relationships with residents. Collegial support that provides opportunities to debrief and validate experiences as well as the use of humour to defuse stress promotes well-being and builds resilience in the workplace.

  7. Registered criminality and sanctioning of schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality, especially violent crimes. AIMS: The aim of the current study was to describe the pattern of crimes committed by Danish patients with schizophrenia and examine the sanctions given for crimes...... in relation to the different periods in the patients' lives: not yet known to the psychiatric hospital system, known to the system but not yet diagnosed with schizophrenia, and after being diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHODS: Information from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register was correlated...... with data from the Danish National Crime Register. RESULTS: One of the more prominent findings was that 16% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia receive a prison sentence or a suspended prison sentence, despite the fact that Denmark is a co-signatory of the European Prison Rules and should treat, rather...

  8. Spiritual care perspectives of Danish Registered Nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kirsten Haugaard; Turner, de Sales

    2008-01-01

    Spiritual care perspectives of Danish Nurses The purpose of this study was to explore how Danish registered nurses understand the phenomenon of spiritual care and how their understanding impacts on their interventions with their patients. Nurses are responsible for the provision of care which...... approach rooted in the philosophy of Gadamer was chosen as methodology. In-depth interviews were used as data collection tool, and six registered nurses who worked within hospital settings in Denmark were interviewed. The findings revealed that deep knowing of the patients were essential before nurses...... would engage in provision of spiritual care. The participants acknowledged that their understanding of spirituality influenced their provision of spiritual care, which was recognized as a challenge requiring the nurse’s initiative and courage. Spirituality was primarily understood as a patient’s private...

  9. National Register of Historic Places - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) NPS National Register Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Geographic Data Committee — A current, accurate spatial representation of all historic properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places is of interest to Federal agencies, the...

  10. Statement of Agreements Registered With The Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    This document contains a statement of all the agreements which had been registered with the Agency by 30 June 1960 under the Regulations for the Registration of Agreements adopted by the Board of Governors in implementation of Article XXII. B of the Statute. In compliance with Article VI of the Regulations this statement is hereby transmitted to all Members of the Agency for their information. A copy is also being sent to the Secretary-General of the United Nations

  11. Statement of Agreements Registered With The Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-09-23

    This document contains a statement of all the agreements which had been registered with the Agency by 30 June 1960 under the Regulations for the Registration of Agreements adopted by the Board of Governors in implementation of Article XXII. B of the Statute. In compliance with Article VI of the Regulations this statement is hereby transmitted to all Members of the Agency for their information. A copy is also being sent to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

  12. Food applications of natural antimicrobial compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucera, Annalisa; Costa, Cristina; Conte, Amalia; Del Nobile, Matteo A.

    2012-01-01

    In agreement with the current trend of giving value to natural and renewable resources, the use of natural antimicrobial compounds, particularly in food and biomedical applications, becomes very frequent. The direct addition of natural compounds to food is the most common method of application, even if numerous efforts have been made to find alternative solutions to the aim of avoiding undesirable inactivation. Dipping, spraying, and coating treatment of food with active solutions are currently applied to product prior to packaging as valid options. The aim of the current work is to give an overview on the use of natural compounds in food sector. In particular, the review will gather numerous case-studies of meat, fish, dairy products, minimally processed fruit and vegetables, and cereal-based products where these compounds found application. PMID:23060862

  13. Food applications of natural antimicrobial compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Alessandro eDel Nobile

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In agreement with the current trend of giving value to natural and renewable resources, the use of natural antimicrobial compounds, particularly in food and biomedical applications, becomes very frequent. The direct addition of natural compounds to food is the most common method of application, even if numerous efforts have been made to find alternative solutions to the aim of avoiding undesirable inactivation. Dipping, spraying and coating treatment of food with active solutions are currently applied to product prior to packaging as valid options. The aim of the current work is to give an overview on the use of natural compounds in food sector. In particular, the review will gather numerous case-studies of meat, fish, dairy products, minimally processed fruit and vegetables and cereal-based products where these compounds found application.

  14. Food applications of natural antimicrobial compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucera, Annalisa; Costa, Cristina; Conte, Amalia; Del Nobile, Matteo A

    2012-01-01

    In agreement with the current trend of giving value to natural and renewable resources, the use of natural antimicrobial compounds, particularly in food and biomedical applications, becomes very frequent. The direct addition of natural compounds to food is the most common method of application, even if numerous efforts have been made to find alternative solutions to the aim of avoiding undesirable inactivation. Dipping, spraying, and coating treatment of food with active solutions are currently applied to product prior to packaging as valid options. The aim of the current work is to give an overview on the use of natural compounds in food sector. In particular, the review will gather numerous case-studies of meat, fish, dairy products, minimally processed fruit and vegetables, and cereal-based products where these compounds found application.

  15. RNA interference and Register Machines (extended abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Hamano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi is a mechanism whereby small RNAs (siRNAs directly control gene expression without assistance from proteins. This mechanism consists of interactions between RNAs and small RNAs both of which may be single or double stranded. The target of the mechanism is mRNA to be degraded or aberrated, while the initiator is double stranded RNA (dsRNA to be cleaved into siRNAs. Observing the digital nature of RNAi, we represent RNAi as a Minsky register machine such that (i The two registers hold single and double stranded RNAs respectively, and (ii Machine's instructions are interpreted by interactions of enzyme (Dicer, siRNA (with RISC com- plex and polymerization (RdRp to the appropriate registers. Interpreting RNAi as a computational structure, we can investigate the computational meaning of RNAi, especially its complexity. Initially, the machine is configured as a Chemical Ground Form (CGF, which generates incorrect jumps. To remedy this problem, the system is remodeled as recursive RNAi, in which siRNA targets not only mRNA but also the machine instructional analogues of Dicer and RISC. Finally, probabilistic termination is investigated in the recursive RNAi system.

  16. Antimicrobial stewardship in a Gastroenterology Department: Impact on antimicrobial consumption, antimicrobial resistance and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedini, Andrea; De Maria, Nicola; Del Buono, Mariagrazia; Bianchini, Marcello; Mancini, Mauro; Binda, Cecilia; Brasacchio, Andrea; Orlando, Gabriella; Franceschini, Erica; Meschiari, Marianna; Sartini, Alessandro; Zona, Stefano; Paioli, Serena; Villa, Erica; Gyssens, Inge C; Mussini, Cristina

    2016-10-01

    A major cause of the increase in antimicrobial resistance is the inappropriate use of antimicrobials. To evaluate the impact on antimicrobial consumption and clinical outcome of an antimicrobial stewardship program in an Italian Gastroenterology Department. Between October 2014 and September 2015 (period B), a specialist in infectious diseases (ID) controlled all antimicrobial prescriptions and decided about the therapy in agreement with gastroenterologists. The defined daily doses of antimicrobials (DDDs), incidence of MDR-infections, mean length of stay and overall in-hospital mortality rate were compared with those of the same period in the previous 12-months (period A). During period B, the ID specialist performed 304 consultations: antimicrobials were continued in 44.4% of the cases, discontinued in 13.8%, not recommended in 12.1%, de-escalated 9.9%, escalated in 7.9%, and started in 4.0%. Comparing the 2 periods, we observed a decreased of antibiotics consumption (from 109.81 to 78.45 DDDs/100 patient-days, p=0.0005), antifungals (from 41.28 to 24.75 DDDs/100pd, p=0.0004), carbapenems (from 15.99 to 6.80 DDDsx100pd, p=0.0032), quinolones (from 35.79 to 17.82 DDDsx100pd, p=0.0079). No differences were observed in incidence of MDR-infections, length of hospital stay (LOS), and mortality rate. ASP program had a positive impact on reducing the consumption of antimicrobials, without an increase in LOS and mortality. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [The antibiotic policy. The Infection Committee and antimicrobial use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, José Miguel; Pérez-Moreno, M Antonia; Gil-Navarro, M Victoria

    2014-10-01

    The antibiotic policy is the set of strategies and activities undertaken to organize the antimicrobial treatment in the hospital, and achieve health outcomes for patients. The basic principles are to be direct evidence-based medicine, local epidemiology and freedom for prescribing physicians. An antibiotic policy is now more necessary than ever for clinical, epidemiological and economic reasons. The Infection Committee is responsible for the antibiotics policy in hospitals. Its functions as an advisory body to the medical directorate are the analysis of the epidemiology of the infections in the center, measures for its prevention and control, improving the appropriate use of antimicrobials, training, and knowledge production. To achieve clinical, environmental and economic policy objectives of antibiotics is not easy. The agreement of hundreds of professionals for recommendations on indications, dosage and duration of antibiotic treatment, based on the best scientific evidence and local guides is complex, but it can be done. The key to this is that the Infection Committee develops antimicrobial stewardship through a multidisciplinary team and professional leadership, and has the institutional support to ensure that the proper use of antimicrobials is a priority for the center, and therefore of each of the services involved, and that the team has the resources for antimicrobial stewardship. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  18. Antimicrobial peptides of buffalo and their role in host defenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khangembam Victoria Chanu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are highly conserved components of the innate immune system found among all classes of life. Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, an important livestock for milk and meat production, is known to have a better resistance to many diseases as compared to cattle. They are found to express many AMPs such as defensins, cathelicidins, and hepcidin which play an important role in neutralizing the invading pathogens. Buffalo AMPs exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Similar to its natural form, synthetic analogs of buffalo AMPs are also antimicrobial against bacteria and even fungus making them a good target for the development of therapeutic antimicrobials. In addition to its antimicrobial effect, AMPs have been demonstrated to have a number of immunomodulatory functions, and their genes are responsive to infections. Further, induction of their gene expression by external factors may help in preventing infectious diseases. This review briefly discusses the AMPs of buffalo identified to date and their possible role in innate immunity.

  19. Antimicrobial peptides of buffalo and their role in host defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanu, Khangembam Victoria; Thakuria, Dimpal; Kumar, Satish

    2018-02-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are highly conserved components of the innate immune system found among all classes of life. Buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis ), an important livestock for milk and meat production, is known to have a better resistance to many diseases as compared to cattle. They are found to express many AMPs such as defensins, cathelicidins, and hepcidin which play an important role in neutralizing the invading pathogens. Buffalo AMPs exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Similar to its natural form, synthetic analogs of buffalo AMPs are also antimicrobial against bacteria and even fungus making them a good target for the development of therapeutic antimicrobials. In addition to its antimicrobial effect, AMPs have been demonstrated to have a number of immunomodulatory functions, and their genes are responsive to infections. Further, induction of their gene expression by external factors may help in preventing infectious diseases. This review briefly discusses the AMPs of buffalo identified to date and their possible role in innate immunity.

  20. In vitro evaluation of antimicrobial features of vasopressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Bostan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drugs administered as intravenous infusion may be contaminated during several stages of production or preparation. However studies focusing on antibacterial effects of vasopressor drugs are very rare. This study investigates the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the clinically used forms of vasopressors. Materials and methods: In vitro antimicrobial activities of vasopressor drugs of different concentrations were investigated by using the micro dilution technique. Microorganisms used in the test were Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ATCC 911, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 43251, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus cereus 702 Roma, Mycobacterium smegmatis ATCC607, Candida albicans ATCC 60193, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae RSKK 251. Antibacterial assays were performed in Mueller-Hinton broth at pH 7.3 and antifungal assays were performed in buffered Yeast Nitrogen Base at pH 7.0. Results: Two different dopamine preparations showed antimicrobial activity. No other study drug showed any antimicrobial activity. Conclusions: In our opinion, dopamine's antibacterial effects may be advantageous for inhibiting the spread of bacterial contamination during the preparation of the infusion solutions. However, it is important that strict guidelines regarding the need for sterile equipment and deliverables be adhered to during all procedures performed in the intensive care units. Keywords: Antimicrobial activities, Vasopressor drugs, Drug contamination