Sample records for regioselectively n-protected monosubstituted

  1. Expedite Protocol for Construction of Chiral Regioselectively N-Protected Monosubstituted Piperazine, 1,4-Diazepane, and 1,4-Diazocane Building Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crestey, François; Witt, Matthias; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W.


    This paper describes the first study of solution-phase synthesis of chiral monosubstituted piperazine building blocks from nosylamide-activated aziridines. The protocol, involving aminolysis of the starting aziridines with ω-amino alcohols and subsequent Fukuyama−Mitsunobu cyclization, offers...... the advantage of mild conditions as well as short reaction times, and it leads to optically pure N-Boc- or N-Ns-protected piperazines. This four-step sequence, requiring only a single final chromatographic purification, was extended to include novel diazepane and diazocane derivatives....

  2. Preparation and characterization of monosubstituted porphyrins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    substituted porphyrins without the production of di-, tri- and tetra-substituted porphyrin side products. The exclusion of the aforementioned side products during the synthesis of monosubstituted porphyrins greatly reduced the complexity during ...

  3. Quantum-chemical investigation of monosubstituted cyclopropanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tupitsyn, I.F.; Shibaev, A.Yu.; Puzanov, Yu.V.


    The applicability of the semiempirical MINDO/3 and MNDO methods is demonstrated for the determination of the relative changes in the strain of the three-carbon ring and examination of the contributions from the effects of substituents X to the stabilization energy of monosubstituted cyclopropanes (substituents H, OCH/sub 3/, NH/sub 2/, F, Cl, CH/sub 3/, CF/sub 3/, COCH/sub 3/, CN, NO/sub 2/). The best results, comparable with the data from nonempirical calculations, were obtained by the MINDO/3 method. The method correctly confers the changes in the geometry of substituted cyclopropane rings but systematically underestimates the strain energy by 20-40 kJ/mole. To judge from the strain/ values, the ..pi..-accepting effect of the substituents NO/sub 2/, COCH/sub 3/, and CN plays a major role in determining the electronic structure, suppressing the destabilizing sigma-acceptor effect. In the case of the substituents F, Cl, OCH/sub 3/, and NH/sub 2/ the stabilizing ..pi..-donor effect is either completely suppressed or is partly balanced by the sigma-acceptor effect.

  4. 40 CFR 721.9700 - Monosubstituted alkoxy-amino-tra-zines (generic name). (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monosubstituted alkoxy-amino-tra-zines (generic name). 721.9700 Section 721.9700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9700 Monosubstituted alkoxy-amino-tra-zines (generic name). (a) Chemical...

  5. Regioselective electrophilic borylation of haloarenes. (United States)

    Del Grosso, Alessandro; Ayuso Carrillo, Josue; Ingleson, Michael J


    Haloarenes undergo direct borylation using amine : BCl3 : AlCl3 in the ratio of 1 : 1 : 2. After esterification the pinacol boronate esters are isolated in good yield with regioselectivity controlled by steric and electronic effects.

  6. Switchable highly regioselective synthesis of 3,4-dihydroquinoxalin-2(1Hones from o-phenylenediamines and aroylpyruvates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Dobiaš


    Full Text Available 3-Acylmethylidene-3,4-dihydroquinoxalin-2(1H-ones are compounds which possess a wide range of physical and pharmaceutical applications. These compounds can be easily prepared by cyclocondensation of o-phenylenediamines and aroylpyruvates. Unsymmetrically substituted o-phenylenediamines can be obtained form regioisomeric mixtures of 3,4-dihydroquinoxalin-2(1H-ones. It is often quite difficult to get a pure regioisomer and determine its structure without controlling the reaction selectivity and exploitation of complex NMR techniques (HSQC, NOESY, HMBC. This article examines the regioselectivity of the cyclocondensation between six monosubstituted o-phenylenediamines (-OMe, -F, -Cl, -COOH, -CN, -NO2 and the derivatives of p-chlorobenzoylpyruvate (ester or acid which we studied. Six regioisomeric 3,4-dihydroquinoxalin-2(1H-one pairs were selectively prepared and characterised. Based on our experiences, a simplified methodology for determining the structure of the regioisomers was proposed. We developed two general and highly selective methodologies starting from the same o-phenylenediamines and activated 4-chlorobenzoylpyruvates (ester or acid enabling switching of 3,4-dihydroquinoxalin-2(1H-one regioselectivity in a predictable manner. For comparison, all regioselective cyclocondensations were performed with the same standardized conditions (DMF, rt, 3 days, differing only by the additives p-TsOH or HOBt/DIC (hydroxybenzotriazole/N,N’-diisopropylcarbodiimide. Both selected methods are simple, general and highly regioselective (72–97%. A mechanism for the regioselectivity was also proposed and discussed. This study can be used as a guide when choosing the most optimal reaction conditions for the synthesis of the desired 3,4-dihydroquinoxalin-2(1H-one regioisomers with the best selectivity. The demonstrated methodologies in this article may also be applied to differently substituted 3,4-dihydroquinoxalin-2(1H-ones in general, which could expand

  7. Second- and third-order nonlinear optical properties of unsubstituted and mono-substituted chalcones (United States)

    Abegão, Luis M. G.; Fonseca, Ruben D.; Santos, Francisco A.; Souza, Gabriela B.; Barreiros, André Luis B. S.; Barreiros, Marizeth L.; Alencar, M. A. R. C.; Mendonça, Cleber R.; Silva, Daniel L.; De Boni, Leonardo; Rodrigues, J. J.


    This work describes the second and third orders of nonlinear optics properties of unsubstituted chalcone (C15H12O) and mono-substituted chalcone (C16H14O2) in solution, using hyper-Rayleigh scattering and Z-Scan techniques to determine the first molecular hyperpolarizability (β) and the two-photon absorption (2PA) cross section respectively. β Values of 25.4 × 10-30 esu and 31.6 × 10-30 esu, for unsubstituted and mono-substituted chalcone, respectively, dissolved in methanol have been obtained. The highest values of 2PA cross-sections obtained were 9 GM and 14 GM for unsubstituted and mono-substituted chalcone, respectively. The experimental 2PA cross sections obtained for each chalcone are in good agreement with theoretical results.

  8. Regioselective Synthesis of Cellulose Ester Homopolymers (United States)

    Daiqiang Xu; Kristen Voiges; Thomas Elder; Petra Mischnick; Kevin J. Edgar


    Regioselective synthesis of cellulose esters is extremely difficult due to the small reactivity differences between cellulose hydroxyl groups, small differences in steric demand between acyl moieties of interest, and the difficulty of attaching and detaching many protecting groups in the presence of cellulose ester moieties without removing the ester groups. Yet the...

  9. Regioselective photoamination of 4-nitroveratrole upon cyclodextrin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Photoamination of 4-nitroveratrole in cyclodextrins with the nucleophiles ammonia, methylamine and hexylamine provides a new route to regioselectivity. This method gives a displaced product para to the nitro group as the predominant product, in contrast to the solution reaction wherein the meta-displaced product ...

  10. Regioselective photoamination of 4-nitroveratrole upon cyclodextrin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Photoamination of 4-nitroveratrole in cyclodextrins with the nucleophiles ammonia, methylamine and hexylamine provides a new route to regioselectivity. This method gives a displaced product para to the nitro group as the predominant product, in contrast to the solution reaction wherein the meta-displaced ...

  11. Acetylenes bearing Aromatic Terminal Groups. : II 13C-NMR Spectra of Monosubstituted Diphenylacetylenes


    野本, 健雄; Nomoto, Takeo


    Six monosubstituted diphenylacetylenes, p-X-C6H4-C≡C-C6H5 1 (Ⅹ=NMe2, NH2, OMe, Cl, and NO2), were synthesized, and 13C-NMR spectra of their acetylenic carbons were measured. Hammett plots of the chemical shifts of the acetylenic α-13C and β-13C (against substituent constants σ) respectively showed a linear relationship, eXCept for β-13C on NMe2 and NH2 groups. The effects of substituents on 13C-Chemical shifts of diphenylacetylenes and effeciency of the C≡C bonds in transmitting the substitue...

  12. Role of ligands in controlling the regioselectivity in ruthenium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Enol esters; DFT; regio-selectivity; ligands; ruthenium(II) catalyst. Abstract. Density functional studies are performed to understand the role of chelating bi-phosphine ligands [(Ph2P(CH2)mPPh2); m=1–4] in modulating the regio-selectivity of benzoic acid addition to 1-hexyne, in presence of ruthenium(II) catalyst ...

  13. Aerobic biodegradation of a mixture of monosubstituted phenols in a sequencing batch reactor. (United States)

    Fernández, Isaac; Suárez-Ojeda, María Eugenia; Pérez, Julio; Carrera, Julián


    A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was inoculated with p-nitrophenol-degrading activated sludge to biodegrade a mixture of monosubstituted phenols: p-nitrophenol (PNP), PNP and o-cresol; and PNP, o-cresol and o-chlorophenol. Settling times were progressively decreased to promote biomass granulation. PNP was completely biodegraded. The PNP and o-cresol mixture was also biodegraded although some transitory accumulation of intermediates occurred (mainly hydroquinone and catechol). o-Chlorophenol was not biodegraded and resulted in inhibition of o-cresol and PNP biodegradation and complete failure of the SBR within a few days. The biomass had very good settling properties when a settling time of 1 min was applied: sludge volume index (SVI₅) below 50 mL g(-1), SVI₅/SVI₃₀ ratio of 1 and average particle size of 200 μm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Regioselectivity in sequential nucleophilic substitution of tetrabromonaphthalene diimides. (United States)

    Suraru, Sabin-Lucian; Würthner, Frank


    Nucleophilic substitution of tetrabromosubstituted naphthalene diimides (NDIs) with aniline was studied in detail to explore the regioselectivity as three different diamino-substituted regioisomeric products can be formed. We found that the regioselectivity of the nucleophilic disubstitution of 2,3,6,7-tetrabromonaphthalene diimide with aniline is dependent on reaction solvents and additives. In dichloromethane and chloroform without an additive the 2,7-diamino-3,6-dibromo-NDI isomer was formed regioselectively, while in DMF under similar reaction conditions the 2,3-diamino-6,7-dibromo isomer was observed as the major regioisomer. The third possible regioisomer 2,6-diamino-3,7-dibromo product was formed, if at all, in an insignificant amount. Tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF) additive exerts a dramatic effect on the regioselectivity of this reaction, as in dichloromethane without TBAF the 2,7-diamino isomer was formed regioselectively, while without TBAF the 2,3-diamino isomer was formed exclusively. This remarkable effect of TBAF can be rationalized in terms of a deprotonation of the monoamino-tribromo-NDI generated in the first step of this sequential reaction as an intermediate by fluoride ions leading to an anionic species as indicated by UV-vis and NMR experiments whose electronic properties direct the regioselective attack of the second amine molecule. Our efforts led to the exclusively regioselective synthesis of 2,7-diamino-3,6-dibromo- and 2,3-diamino-6,7-dibromo-NDIs for the first time.

  15. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy as a Probe or Adsorbate-Surface Bonding: Benzene and Monosubstituted Benzenes Adsorbed at Gold Electrodes (United States)


    Absorption at Gold and Corresponding SERS Bandwidth for eenzene and Monosubstituted Benzenes Adsorbt -te Potential a -AV b F H mV vs sce cm cm cm C6H6 500 978...Bonding: Benzene and Monosubstituted Benzenes Adsorbed at Gold Electrodes by Ping Gao and Michael J. Weaver Prepared for Publication in the Journal of...Raman Spectroscopy as a Probe of Adsorbate-Surface Bonding: Benzene and Mono- Technical Report No. 51 substituted Benzenes Adsorbed at Gold Electrodes

  16. Regioselective hydroarylations and parallel kinetic resolution of Vince lactam. (United States)

    Kamlet, Adam S; Préville, Cathy; Farley, Kathleen A; Piotrowski, David W


    Two regioselective and complementary hydroarylation reactions of an unsymmetrical cyclic olefin have been developed. The products can be transformed in one step into constrained γ-amino acids. Regioselective arylation of Vince lactam is controlled by the choice of phosphine ligand enantiomer and the substituent on the amide nitrogen atom. The method was extended to a general regiodivergent parallel kinetic resolution of the racemic lactam. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Molecular Modeling and Experimental Investigations of Nonlinear Optical Compounds Monosubstituted Derivatives of Dicyanovinylbenzene (United States)

    Timofeeva, Tatiana V.; Nesterov, Vladimir N.; Antipin, Mikhail Yu.; Clark, Ronald D.; Sanghadasa, Mohan; Cardelino, Beatriz H.; Moore, Craig E.; Frazier, Donald O.


    A search for potential nonlinear optical compounds was performed using the Cambridge Structure Database and molecular modeling. We investigated a series of monosubstituted derivatives of dicyanovinylbenzene, since the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of such derivatives (o-methoxy-dicyanovinylbenzene, DIVA) were studied earlier. The molecular geometry of these compounds was investigated with x-ray analysis and discussed along with the results of molecular mechanics and ab initio quantum chemical calculations. The influence of crystal packing on the planarity of the molecules of this series has been revealed. Two new compounds from the series studied, ortho-F and para-Cl-dicyanovinylbenzene, according to powder measurements, were found to be NLO compounds in the crystal state about 10 times more active than urea. The peculiarities of crystal structure formation in the framework of balance between van der Waals and electrostatic interactions have been discussed. The crystal shape of DIVA and two new NLO compounds have been calculated on the basis of the known crystal structure.

  18. Molecular Modeling and Experimental Study of Nonlinear Optical Compounds: Mono-Substituted Derivatives of Dicyanovinylbenzene (United States)

    Timofeeva, Tatyana V.; Nesterov, Vladimir N.; Antipin, Mikhael Y.; Clark, R. D.; Sanghadasa, M.; Cardelino, B. H.; Moore, C. E.; Frazier, Donald O.


    A search for potential nonlinear optical (NLO) compounds has been performed using the Cambridge Structural Database and molecular modeling. We have studied a series of mono-substituted derivatives of dicyanovinylbenzene as the NLO properties of one of its derivatives (o-methoxy-dicyanovinylbenzene, DIVA) were described earlier. The molecular geometry in the series of the compounds studied was investigated with an X- ray analysis and discussed along with results of molecular mechanics and ab initio quantum chemical calculations. The influence of crystal packing on the molecular planarity has been revealed. Two new compounds from the series studied were found to be active for second harmonic generation (SHG) in the powder. The measurements of SHG efficiency have shown that the o-F- and p-Cl-derivatives of dicyanovinylbenzene are about 10 and 20- times more active than urea, respectively. The peculiarities of crystal structure formation in the framework of balance between the van der Waals and electrostatic interactions have been discussed. The crystal morphology of DIVA and two new SHG-active compounds have been calculated on the basis of their known crystal structures.

  19. Turnover capacity of Coprinus cinereus peroxidase for phenol and monosubstituted phenols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitken, M.D.; Heck, P.E. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)


    Coprinus cinereus peroxidase (CIP) and other peroxidases are susceptible to mechanism-based inactivation during the oxidation of phenolic substrates. The turnover capacity of CIP was quantified for phenol and 11 monosubstituted phenols under conditions in which enzyme inactivation by mechanisms involving hydrogen peroxide alone were minimized. Turnover capacities varied by nearly 2 orders of magnitude, depending on the substituent. On a mass basis, the enzyme consumption corresponding to the lowest turnover capacities is considerable and may influence the economic feasibility of proposed industrial applications of peroxidases. Within a range of substituent electronegativity values, molar turnover capacities correlated well (r{sup 2} = 0.89) with substituent effects quantified by radical {sigma} values and semiquantitatively with homolytic O-H bond dissociation energies of the phenolic substrates, suggesting that phenoxyl radical intermediates are probably involved in the suicide inactivation of CIP. The correlation range in each case did not include phenols with highly electron-withdrawing (nitro and cyano) substituents because they are not oxidized by CIP, nor phenols with highly electron-donating (hydroxy and amino) substituents because they led to virtually complete inactivation of the enzyme with minimal substrate removal.

  20. Solution processable monosubstituted hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene self-assembling dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Shijie; Yan, Chao; Vak, Doojin; Jones, David J.; Holmes, Andrew B.; Wong, Wallace W.H. [School of Chemistry, University of Melbourne, Bio21 Institute, Parkville, Victoria (Australia)


    Molecular organization behavior and visible light absorption ability are important factors for organic materials to be used in efficient bulk heterojunction solar cells applications. In this context, a series of monosubstituted fluorenyl hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (FHBC) are synthesized with the aim to combine the self-association property of the FHBC unit with broadened light absorption of a small molecule organic dye, bisthienylbenzothiadiazole (TBT). Optical and electrochemical properties of the FHBC compounds vary according to their structures. Introduction of a TBT unit into the FHBC system broadens the absorption. All of the FHBC compounds show strong {pi}-{pi} intermolecular association in solution. X-ray scattering measurements on thermally extruded filaments and thin films showed ordered alignment of these compounds in the solid state. In atomic force microscopy experiments, nanoscale phase separation is observed in thin films of FHBC and fullerene derivative blends. Solar cell devices with these compounds as donors are fabricated. FHBC compounds with the TBT unit show higher short circuit current while the high open circuit voltages are maintained. With C{sub 60} derivative as acceptor, power conversion efficiency of 1.12% is achieved in the unoptimized solar cell devices under simulated solar irradiation. The efficiency was further improved to 1.64% when C{sub 70} derivative was used as the acceptor. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Switchable regioselectivity in amine-catalysed asymmetric cycloadditions (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Zhou-Xiang; Zhou, Yuan-Chun; Xiao, Wei; Ouyang, Qin; Du, Wei; Chen, Ying-Chun


    Building small-molecule libraries with structural and stereogenic diversity plays an important role in drug discovery. The development of switchable intermolecular cycloaddition reactions from identical substrates in different regioselective fashions would provide an attractive protocol. However, this also represents a challenge in organic chemistry, because it is difficult to control regioselectivity to afford the products exclusively and at the same time achieve high levels of stereoselectivity. Here, we report the diversified cycloadditions of α‧-alkylidene-2-cyclopentenones catalysed by cinchona-derived primary amines. An asymmetric γ,β‧-regioselective intermolecular [6+2] cycloaddition reaction with 3-olefinic (7-aza)oxindoles is realized through the in situ generation of formal 4-aminofulvenes, while a different β,γ-regioselective [2+2] cycloaddition reaction with maleimides to access fused cyclobutanes is disclosed. In contrast, an intriguing α,γ-regioselective [4+2] cycloaddition reaction is uncovered with the same set of substrates, by employing an unprecedented dual small-molecule catalysis of amines and thiols. All of the cycloaddition reactions exhibit excellent regio- and stereoselectivity, producing a broad spectrum of chiral architectures with high structural diversity and molecular complexity.

  2. Green synthesis, optical properties and catalytic activity of silver nanoparticles in the synthesis of N-monosubstituted ureas in water. (United States)

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Babaei, Ferydon; Sajadi, S Mohammad; Ehsani, Ali


    We report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using Euphorbia condylocarpa M. bieb root extract for the synthesis of N-monosubstituted ureas in water. UV-visible studies show the absorption band at 420 nm due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the silver nanoparticles. This reveals the reduction of silver ions (Ag+) to silver (Ago) which indicates the formation of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). This method has the advantages of high yields, simple methodology and easy work up. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Regioselective nitration of aromatic substrates in zeolite cages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    (wherein polynitration is a serious handicap to selective nitration) in zeolite environment is not explored. With these goals in mind, we have reported17 recently regioselective nitration of phenol inside the cages/channels of zeolite media using fuming nitric acid. In our attempts to delineate the mechanism in detail and also to ...

  4. Regioselective Green Electrochemical Approach to the Synthesis of Nitroacetaminophen Derivatives. (United States)

    Salahifar, Eslam; Nematollahi, Davood; Bayat, Mehdi; Mahyari, Amir; Amiri Rudbari, Hadi


    A regioselective green synthesis of nitroacetaminophen derivatives was carried out by electrochemical oxidation of acetaminophen, N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide, and 1-(4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)ethanone in the presence of nitrite ion as a nucleophile. The present work has led to the development of a reagentless green and facile electrochemical method for the synthesis of some nitroacetaminophen derivatives.

  5. Regioselective synthesis and evaluation of 3-alkylidene-1, 3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    compounds into the serotonin binding sites of arabinase protein to predict the analogue binding mode of the compounds to the SSRIs. Keywords. Phthalans; regioselectivity; antidepressant; tail suspension test; forced swim test; molecular docking. 1. Introduction. Depression is a serious disorder with estimates of life-.

  6. Regioselective nitration of aromatic substrates in zeolite cages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Phenol is nitrated regioselectively by fuming nitric acid inside the cages of faujasite zeolites (dependent on the loading level) and a remarkable orthoselectivity is observed in solid state nitration. Toluene and chlorobenzene also containing ortho-/para-orienting substituents, undergo faster nitration, though the ...

  7. Method Development in the Regioselective Glycosylation of Unprotected Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niedbal, Dominika Alina

    and the glycosylations were promoted by tetrabutylammonium bromide. The couplings were completely selective and gave rise to a number of 1,6-linked disaccharides with 1,2- cis-linked orientation. Project 2: Boron-mediated glycosylation of unprotected carbohydrates Boron-mediated regioselective Koenigs...

  8. Catalytic and regioselective oxidation of carbohydrates to synthesize keto-sugars under mild conditions. (United States)

    Muramatsu, Wataru


    A new catalytic and regioselective approach for the synthesis of keto-sugars is described. An organotin catalyst, Oc2SnCl2, in the presence of trimethylphenylammonium tribromide ([TMPhA](+)Br3(-)) accelerates the regioselective oxidation at the "axial"-OH group of 1,2-diol moieties in galactopyranosides. The reaction conditions can also be used for the regioselective oxidation of various carbohydrates.

  9. Exploring Cooperative Effects in Oxidative NHC Catalysis: Regioselective Acylation of Carbohydrates. (United States)

    Cramer, David L; Bera, Srikrishna; Studer, Armido


    The utility of oxidative NHC catalysis for both the regioselective and chemoselective functionalization of carbohydrates is explored. Chiral NHCs allow for the highly regioselective oxidative esterification of various carbohydrates using aldehydes as acylation precursors. The transformation was also shown to be amenable to both cis/trans diol isomers, free amino groups, and selective for specific sugar epimers in competition experiments. Efficiency and regioselectivity of the acylation can be improved upon using two different NHC catalysts that act cooperatively. The potential of the method is documented by the regioselective acylation of an amino-linked neodisaccharide. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Efficient regioselective O3-monodesilylation by hydrochloric acid in cyclodextrins. (United States)

    Gu, Jiamin; Chen, Tong; Wang, Qifang; Chen, Tieyu; Ling, Chang-Chun


    An efficient O3-monodesilylation method has been developed for the derivatization of per-3-O-silylated cyclodextrin (CD) derivatives. Using hydrochloric acid as a reagent, the O3-monodesilylation was found to be regioselective, mild, practical and general as it can be applied to all α-, β- and γ-CDs. The advantage of the methodology is that the acid-catalyzed O3-desilylation can be carried out in a stepwise manner so that different types of functional groups can be introduced to a CD molecule at different stage of the O3-desilylations. This makes the current methodology flexible and versatile. This current methodology constitutes one of the few methodologies available for the regioselective modification of CDs at the secondary face. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. C-6 regioselective bromination of methyl indolyl-3-acetate. (United States)

    Suárez-Castillo, Oscar R; Meléndez-Rodríguez, Myriam; Beiza-Granados, Lidia; Cano-Escudero, Indira C; Morales-Ríos, Martha S; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro


    An efficient route to natural occurring methyl 6-bromoindolyl-3-acetate 1c from methyl indolyl-3-acetate 3 was achieved in 3 steps and 68% overall yield. Thus, in order to regioselectively brominate 3 at the C6-position, introduction of electron withdrawing substituents at N1 and C8 was affected to give intermediate 4 in 82% yield. Bromination of 4 with 8 equiv of bromine in CCl4 and washings with aqueous Na2SO3 gave 5 in 86% yield, which was N- and C-decarbomethoxylated by treatment with NaCN in DMSO, affording 1c in 97% yield. The regioselectivity of bromination was evidenced by NMR spectroscopy and X- ray diffraction analysis.

  12. Structural insights into regioselectivity in the enzymatic chlorination of tryptophan. (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaofeng; De Laurentis, Walter; Leang, Khim; Herrmann, Julia; Ihlefeld, Katja; van Pée, Karl-Heinz; Naismith, James H


    The regioselectively controlled introduction of chlorine into organic molecules is an important biological and chemical process. This importance derives from the observation that many pharmaceutically active natural products contain a chlorine atom. Flavin-dependent halogenases are one of the principal enzyme families responsible for regioselective halogenation of natural products. Structural studies of two flavin-dependent tryptophan 7-halogenases (PrnA and RebH) have generated important insights into the chemical mechanism of halogenation by this enzyme family. These proteins comprise two modules: a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-binding module and a tryptophan-binding module. Although the 7-halogenase studies advance a hypothesis for regioselectivity, this has never been experimentally demonstrated. PyrH is a tryptophan 5-halogenase that catalyzes halogenation on tryptophan C5 position. We report the crystal structure of a tryptophan 5-halogenase (PyrH) bound to tryptophan and FAD. The FAD-binding module is essentially unchanged relative to PrnA (and RebH), and PyrH would appear to generate the same reactive species from Cl(-), O(2), and 1,5-dihydroflavin adenine dinucleotide. We report additional mutagenesis data that extend our mechanistic understanding of this process, in particular highlighting a strap region that regulates FAD binding, and may allow communication between the two modules. PyrH has a significantly different tryptophan-binding module. The data show that PyrH binds tryptophan and presents the C5 atom to the reactive chlorinating species, shielding other potential reactive sites. We have mutated residues identified by structural analysis as recognizing the tryptophan in order to confirm their role. This work establishes the method by which flavin-dependent tryptophan halogenases regioselectively control chlorine addition to tryptophan. This method would seem to be general across the superfamily.

  13. Regioselective Localization and Tracking of Biomolecules on Single Gold Nanoparticles


    Rajeeva, Bharath Bangalore; Hernandez, Derek S.; Wang, Mingsong; Perillo, Evan; Lin, Linhan; Scarabelli, Leonardo; Pingali, Bharadwaj; Liz?Marz?n, Luis M.; Dunn, Andrew K.; Shear, Jason B.; Zheng, Yuebing


    Selective localization of biomolecules at the hot spots of a plasmonic nanoparticle is an attractive strategy to exploit the light?matter interaction due to the high field concentration. Current approaches for hot spot targeting are time?consuming and involve prior knowledge of the hot spots. Multiphoton plasmonic lithography is employed to rapidly immobilize bovine serum albumin (BSA) hydrogel at the hot spot tips of a single gold nanotriangle (AuNT). Regioselectivity and quantity control by...

  14. Structural Insights into Regioselectivity in the Enzymatic Chlorination of Tryptophan (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaofeng; De Laurentis, Walter; Leang, Khim; Herrmann, Julia; Ihlefeld, Katja; van Pée, Karl-Heinz; Naismith, James H.


    The regioselectively controlled introduction of chlorine into organic molecules is an important biological and chemical process. This importance derives from the observation that many pharmaceutically active natural products contain a chlorine atom. Flavin-dependent halogenases are one of the principal enzyme families responsible for regioselective halogenation of natural products. Structural studies of two flavin-dependent tryptophan 7-halogenases (PrnA and RebH) have generated important insights into the chemical mechanism of halogenation by this enzyme family. These proteins comprise two modules: a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-binding module and a tryptophan-binding module. Although the 7-halogenase studies advance a hypothesis for regioselectivity, this has never been experimentally demonstrated. PyrH is a tryptophan 5-halogenase that catalyzes halogenation on tryptophan C5 position. We report the crystal structure of a tryptophan 5-halogenase (PyrH) bound to tryptophan and FAD. The FAD-binding module is essentially unchanged relative to PrnA (and RebH), and PyrH would appear to generate the same reactive species from Cl-, O2, and 1,5-dihydroflavin adenine dinucleotide. We report additional mutagenesis data that extend our mechanistic understanding of this process, in particular highlighting a strap region that regulates FAD binding, and may allow communication between the two modules. PyrH has a significantly different tryptophan-binding module. The data show that PyrH binds tryptophan and presents the C5 atom to the reactive chlorinating species, shielding other potential reactive sites. We have mutated residues identified by structural analysis as recognizing the tryptophan in order to confirm their role. This work establishes the method by which flavin-dependent tryptophan halogenases regioselectively control chlorine addition to tryptophan. This method would seem to be general across the superfamily. PMID:19501593

  15. Stereoselective synthesis of 2,3-disubstituted indoline, pyrrolidine and cyclic ether-fused 1,2-dihydroquinoline derivatives using alkyne iminium ion cyclization of vinylogous carbamates: switch of regioselectivity using an internal hydroxy group as a nucleophile. (United States)

    Gharpure, Santosh J; Prasath, V; Kumar, Vinod


    An intramolecular, alkyne iminium ion cyclization of vinylogous carbamates derived from o-alkynyl anilines and N-protected homopropargyl amines is developed for the stereoselective construction of trans-2,3-disubstituted indolines and pyrrolidine derivatives, respectively. The regioselectivity of the alkyne iminium ion cyclization could be switched using a hydroxy group as an internal nucleophile resulting in cyclic ether-fused 1,2-dihydroquinolines. The entire process of nitrogen heterocycle formation can also be carried out in a 'one-pot' manner starting from o-iodo aniline derivatives.

  16. Regioselective iodination of aryl amines using 1,4-dibenzyl-1,4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1,4-Dibenzyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane dichloroiodate is an efficient and regioselective reagent for iodination of aryl amines. A wide variety of aryl amines in reaction with this reagent afforded regioselectively iodinated products. The iodination reaction can be carried out in solution or under solvent-free condition at ...

  17. Polymerization of 5-alkyl δ-lactones catalyzed by diphenyl phosphate and their sequential organocatalytic polymerization with monosubstituted epoxides

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Junpeng


    Organocatalytic ring-opening polymerization (ROP) reactions of three renewable 5-alkyl δ-lactones, namely δ-hexalactone (HL), δ-nonalactone (NL) and δ-decalactone (DL), using diphenyl phosphate (DPP) were investigated. Room temperature, together with a relatively high monomer concentration (≥3 M), was demonstrated to be suitable for achieving a living ROP behavior, a high conversion of the lactone, a controlled molecular weight and a low dispersity of the polyester. HL, containing a 5-methyl substituent, showed a much higher reactivity (polymerization rate) and a slightly higher equilibrium conversion than the compounds with longer alkyl substituents (NL and DL). The effectiveness of DPP-catalyzed ROP of 5-alkyl δ-lactones facilitated the one-pot performance following the t-BuP4-promoted ROP of monosubstituted epoxides. It has been shown in an earlier study that substituted polyethers acted as "slow initiators" for non-substituted lactones. However, efficient initiations were observed in the present study as substituted lactones were polymerized from the substituted polyethers. Therefore, this reinforces the previously developed "catalyst switch" strategy, making it a more versatile tool for the synthesis of well-defined polyether-polyester block copolymers from a large variety of epoxide and lactone monomers. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  18. Regioselective alkane hydroxylation with a mutant AlkB enzyme (United States)

    Koch, Daniel J.; Arnold, Frances H.


    AlkB from Pseudomonas putida was engineered using in-vivo directed evolution to hydroxylate small chain alkanes. Mutant AlkB-BMO1 hydroxylates propane and butane at the terminal carbon at a rate greater than the wild-type to form 1-propanol and 1-butanol, respectively. Mutant AlkB-BMO2 similarly hydroxylates propane and butane at the terminal carbon at a rate greater than the wild-type to form 1-propanol and 1-butanol, respectively. These biocatalysts are highly active for small chain alkane substrates and their regioselectivity is retained in whole-cell biotransformations.

  19. Regioselective Localization and Tracking of Biomolecules on Single Gold Nanoparticles. (United States)

    Rajeeva, Bharath Bangalore; Hernandez, Derek S; Wang, Mingsong; Perillo, Evan; Lin, Linhan; Scarabelli, Leonardo; Pingali, Bharadwaj; Liz-Marzán, Luis M; Dunn, Andrew K; Shear, Jason B; Zheng, Yuebing


    Selective localization of biomolecules at the hot spots of a plasmonic nanoparticle is an attractive strategy to exploit the light-matter interaction due to the high field concentration. Current approaches for hot spot targeting are time-consuming and involve prior knowledge of the hot spots. Multiphoton plasmonic lithography is employed to rapidly immobilize bovine serum albumin (BSA) hydrogel at the hot spot tips of a single gold nanotriangle (AuNT). Regioselectivity and quantity control by manipulating the polarization and intensity of the incident laser are also established. Single AuNTs are tracked using dark-field scattering spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy to characterize the regioselective process. Fluorescence lifetime measurements further confirm BSA immobilization on the AuNTs. Here, the AuNT-BSA hydrogel complexes, in conjunction with single-particle optical monitoring, can act as a framework for understanding light-molecule interactions at the subnanoparticle level and has potential applications in biophotonics, nanomedicine, and life sciences.

  20. Bulky Monodentate Phosphoramidites in Palladium-Catalyzed Allylic Alkylation Reactions : Aspects of Regioselectivity and Enantioselectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boele, Maarten D.K.; Kamer, Paul C.J.; Lutz, Martin; Spek, Anthony L.; Vries, Johannes G. de; Leeuwen, Piet W.N.M. van; Strijdonck, Gino P.F. van


    A series of bulky monodentate phosphoramidite ligands, based on biphenol, BINOL and TADDOL backbones, have been employed in the Pd-catalysed allylic alkylation reaction. Reaction of disodium diethyl 2-methyl malonate with monosubstituted allylic substrates in the presence of palladium complexes of

  1. A regioselective alkylation at the C-6 hydroxyl group of erythromycin A-oxime derivatives




    Erythromycin A contains five hydroxyl groups. The regioselective alkylation at the C-6 hydroxyl group was achieved to an extent ofmore than 97% when a 9-O-substituted erythromycin A-9-oxime was employed as the substrate.

  2. The Nitrilimine–Alkene Cycloaddition Regioselectivity Rationalized by Density Functional Theory Reactivity Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Molteni


    Full Text Available Conventional frontier molecular orbital theory is not able to satisfactorily explain the regioselectivity outcome of the nitrilimine–alkene cycloaddition. We considered that conceptual density functional theory (DFT could be an effective theoretical framework to rationalize the regioselectivity of the title reaction. Several nitrilimine–alkene cycloadditions were analyzed, for which we could find regioselectivity data in the literature. We computed DFT reactivity indices at the B3LYP/6-311G(2d,p//B3LYP/6-31G(d,p and employed the grand potential stabilization criterion to calculate the preferred regioisomer. Experimental and calculated regioselectivity agree in the vast majority of cases. It was concluded that predominance of a single regioisomer can be obtained by maximizing (i the chemical potential difference between nitrilimine and alkene and (ii the local softness difference between the reactive atomic sites within each reactant. Such maximization can be achieved by carefully selecting the substituents on both reactants.

  3. Highly efficient and enzymatic regioselective undecylenoylation of gastrodin in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran-containing systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongling Yang

    Full Text Available Highly efficient and regioselective acylation of pharmacologically interesting gastrodin with vinyl undecylenic acid has been firstly performed through an enzymatic approach. The highest catalytic activity and regioselectivity towards the acylation of 7'-hydroxyl of gastrodin was obtained with Pseudomonas cepacia lipase. In addition, it was observed the lipase displayed higher activity in the eco-friendly solvent 2-methyltetrahydrofuran-containing systems than in other organic solvents. In the co-solvent mixture of tetrahydrofuran and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (3/1, v/v, the reaction rate was 60.6 mM/h, substrate conversion exceeded 99%, and 7'-regioselectivity was 93%. It was also interesting that the lipase-catalyzed acylation couldn't be influenced by the benzylic alcohol in gastrodin. However, pseudomonas cepacia lipase displayed different regioselectivity towards gastrodin and arbutin.

  4. Novel and highly efficient regioselective route to helicid esters by lipozyme TLL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongling Yang

    Full Text Available Highly regioselective acylation of helicid with fatty acid vinyl esters catalyzed by the lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus has been successfully performed for the first time. For the enzymatic caproylation of helicid, under the optimal conditions, initial reaction rate was 33.2 mM/h, and substrate conversion and regioselectivity were greater than 99%. In addition, the acyl recognition of the enzyme in the regioselective acylation of helicid was investigated. The results showed that although 6'-O-acyl derivatives of helicid were exclusively obtained with all the tested acyl donors, the enzymatic reaction rate varied widely with different acyl donors, presumably owing to their different interactions with the active site of the lipase. It is also interesting that the different configuration of only one hydroxyl group at C-3 in helicid couldn't affect the lipase-catalyzed esterification and helicid has the same regioselectivity as that of D-glucose and arbutin.

  5. The first organocatalytic, ortho-regioselective inverse-electron-demand hetero-Diels-Alder reaction. (United States)

    Hejmanowska, Joanna; Jasiński, Marcin; Wojciechowski, Jakub; Mlostoń, Grzegorz; Albrecht, Łukasz


    The development of the unprecedented ortho-regioselective inverse-electron-demand hetero-Diels-Alder (IEDHDA) reaction is described. It has been demonstrated that by proper choice of reactants and reaction conditions the inverse-electron-demand hetero-Diels-Alder cycloaddition can be realized with unprecedented regioselectivity arising from the reaction between the terminal carbon atom of the dienophile and the heteroatom of the heterodiene.

  6. Regioselective Alcoholysis of Silychristin Acetates Catalyzed by Lipases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vavříková


    Full Text Available A panel of lipases was screened for the selective acetylation and alcoholysis of silychristin and silychristin peracetate, respectively. Acetylation at primary alcoholic group (C-22 of silychristin was accomplished by lipase PS (Pseudomonas cepacia immobilized on diatomite using vinyl acetate as an acetyl donor, whereas selective deacetylation of 22-O-acetyl silychristin was accomplished by Novozym 435 in methyl tert-butyl ether/ n-butanol. Both of these reactions occurred without diastereomeric discrimination of silychristin A and B. Both of these enzymes were found to be capable to regioselective deacetylation of hexaacetyl silychristin to afford penta-, tetra- and tri-acetyl derivatives, which could be obtained as pure synthons for further selective modifications of the parent molecule.

  7. Regioselective deuterium labeling of estrone and catechol estrogen metabolites. (United States)

    Stack, Douglas E; Ritonya, Justin; Jakopovic, Scott; Maloley-Lewis, Brittney


    Increased exposure to estrogens and estrogen metabolites is linked with increased rates of breast, ovarian and other human cancers. Metabolism of estrogen can led to formation of electrophilic o-quinones capable of binding to DNA. In order to gain insight into the mechanism of estrogen-induced DNA damage, estrone and catechol estrogens derived from estrone, have been regioselectively labeled with deuterium at the 1-position. Estrone-1-d, estrone-1,2,4-d3, 4-hydroxyestrone-1-d and 2-hydroxyestrone-1-d have been synthesized with or without deuteriums at the 16-position. The key labeling step involves deuterated trifluoroacetic acid exchange catalyzed by t-butyl alcohol. This economical, straightforward labeling technique makes available a range of estrone compounds containing deuterium at the 1-position. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Organotin-catalyzed highly regioselective thiocarbonylation of nonprotected carbohydrates and synthesis of deoxy carbohydrates in a minimum number of steps. (United States)

    Muramatsu, Wataru; Tanigawa, Satoko; Takemoto, Yuki; Yoshimatsu, Hirofumi; Onomura, Osamu


    Nonprotected carbohydrates: The catalytic regioselective thiocarbonylation of carbohydrates by using organotin dichloride under mild conditions was demonstrated. The reaction afforded various deoxy saccharides in high yields and excellent regioselectivity in a minimum number of steps. The regioselectivity of the thiocarbonylation is attributed to the intrinsic character of the carbohydrates based on the stereorelationship of their hydroxy groups (see scheme). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Selectively N-protected enantiopure 2,5-disubstituted piperazines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Lars Korsgaard; Olsen, Christian Adam; Witt, Matthias


    identified and characterized. This includes nosylated ureas arising from an alternative cyclization pathway. Finally, post-cleavage oxidation gave access to the Fmoc/Boc-protected alpha-amino acid as well as the corresponding aldehyde. The chiral piperazines described in this work will enable construction...... and diazepanes were readily obtained without preceding N-protection of the acyclic intermediate, whereas attempts to extend this protocol to chiral 2,5-disubstituted piperazines failed. Modifications encompassing N-carbamoylation prior to ring-closure were therefore investigated. However, standard carbamoylating...

  10. Regioselective trans-cis photoisomerization of m-styrylstilbenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Y.; Uozy, Y.; Dote, T.; Ueda, M.; Matsuura, T.


    Trans-cis photoisomerization of m-styrylstilbenes, i.e., 2,4,6-triisopropyl-3'-styrylstilbene (TISS), 2,4,6-trimethyl-3'-styrylstilbene (TMSS), and 3-styrylstilbene (SS), and of stilbenes, i.e., 2,4,6-triisopropylstilbene (TIS), 2,4,6-trimethylstilbene (TMS), and stilbene (S), are studied under direct of benzophenone-sensitized irradiation in hexane. Measurements of quantum yields of isomerization have revealed that although the styrylstilbene molecule bears two styryl groups, the reaction is highly regioselective, depending upon the excitation conditions and reactant structures. For example, isomerization of trans, trans-TISS and trans,cis-TISS occurred either at the 2,4,6-trisubstituted styryl side upon direct excitation or at the unstubstituted styryl side upon sensitized excitation. When the starting material carries an unsubstituted cis-styryl group, the major isomerization always occurred at this moiety by either direct or sensitized excitation, e.g., cis,trans-TISS ..-->.. trans,trans-TISS, cis,cis-TISS ..-->.. trans,cis-TISS, and cis,trans-SS ..-->.. trans,trans-SS. Furthermore, the photoisomerization of cis,cis-SS was found to be one-way. These results are interpreted in terms of the usual energy sink concept: the excited-state energies (E/sub S/ and E/sub T/) of the stilbene chromophores depend on molecular distortion in a subtle manner.

  11. Regioselective Cleavage of Thioether Linkages in Microcystin Conjugates. (United States)

    Zemskov, Ivan; Kropp, Heike M; Wittmann, Valentin


    Microcystins are cyanobacterial toxins that can be found in fresh and coastal waters during algal blooms. Microcystin contamination of water can cause severe poisoning of animals and humans. Quantification of these toxins in biological samples is complicated because a major proportion of microcystins is covalently linked to proteins through thioether bonds formed through a Michael-type addition of cysteine residues of proteins to an N-methyldehydroalanine residue in the microcystins. We investigated chemical methods that can be used to cleave such thioether bonds by means of an elimination reaction that leaves the microcystin backbone intact for subsequent analysis. The known reagent O-mesitylenesulfonylhydroxylamine (MSH) led to regioselective thioether cleavage, but a large excess of reagent was needed, thus making purification challenging. An unexpected side reaction observed during the investigation of the base-induced elimination inspired us to develop a new thioether-cleavage methodology based on the addition of propargylamine as a nucleophile that can trap the elimination product. This methodology could be successfully applied to the quantitative cleavage of a microcystin-LF-glutathione conjugate. The alkyne moiety introduced by this procedure offers the possibility for further reactions with azides by using click chemistry, which might be useful for the derivatization or isolation of microcystins. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Transition-metal-free chemo- and regioselective vinylation of azaallyls (United States)

    Li, Minyan; Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Berritt, Simon; Pascual-Escudero, Ana; Yeşilçimen, Ahmet; Yang, Xiaodong; Adrio, Javier; Huang, Georgia; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko; Kozlowski, Marisa C.; Walsh, Patrick J.


    Direct C(sp3)-C(sp2) bond formation under transition-metal-free conditions offers an atom-economical, inexpensive and environmentally benign alternative to traditional transition-metal-catalysed cross-coupling reactions. A new chemo- and regioselective coupling protocol between 3-aryl-substituted-1,1-diphenyl-2-azaallyl derivatives and vinyl bromides has been developed. This is the first transition-metal-free cross-coupling of azaallyls with vinyl bromide electrophiles and delivers allylic amines in excellent yields (up to 99%). This relatively simple and mild protocol offers a direct and practical strategy for the synthesis of high-value allylic amine building blocks that does not require the use of transition metals, special initiators or photoredox catalysts. Radical clock experiments, electron paramagnetic resonance studies and density functional theory calculations point to an unprecedented substrate-dependent coupling mechanism. Furthermore, an electron paramagnetic resonance signal was observed when the N-benzyl benzophenone ketimine was subjected to silylamide base, supporting the formation of radical species upon deprotonation. The unique mechanisms outlined herein could pave the way for new approaches to transition-metal-free C-C bond formations.

  13. A density functional theory study of magneto-electric Jones birefringence of noble gases, furan homologues, and mono-substituted benzenes. (United States)

    Fahleson, Tobias; Norman, Patrick; Coriani, Sonia; Rizzo, Antonio; Rikken, Geert L J A


    We report on the results of a systematic ab initio study of the Jones birefringence of noble gases, of furan homologues, and of monosubstituted benzenes, in the gas phase, with the aim of analyzing the behavior and the trends within a list of systems of varying size and complexity, and of identifying candidates for a combined experimental/theoretical study of the effect. We resort here to analytic linear and nonlinear response functions in the framework of time-dependent density functional theory. A correlation is made between the observable (the Jones constant) and the atomic radius for noble gases, or the permanent electric dipole and a structure/chemical reactivity descriptor as the para Hammett constant for substituted benzenes.

  14. One-pot synthesis of enantiomerically pure N-protected allylic amines from N-protected α-amino esters. (United States)

    Silveira-Dorta, Gastón; Álvarez-Méndez, Sergio J; Martín, Víctor S; Padrón, José M


    An improved protocol for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure allylic amines is reported. N-Protected α-amino esters derived from natural amino acids were submitted to a one-pot tandem reduction-olefination process. The sequential reduction with DIBAL-H at -78 °C and subsequent in situ addition of organophosphorus reagents yielded the corresponding allylic amines without the need to isolate the intermediate aldehyde. This circumvents the problem of instability of the aldehydes. The method tolerates well both Wittig and Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons organophosphorus reagents. A better Z-(dia)stereoselectivity was observed when compared to the previous one-pot method. The (dia)stereoselectivity of the process was affected neither by the reaction solvent nor by the amount of DIBAL-H employed. The method is compatible with the presence of free hydroxy groups as shown with serine and threonine derivatives.

  15. A highly regioselective route to arbutin esters by immobilized lipase from Penicillium expansum. (United States)

    Yang, Rong-Ling; Li, Ning; Li, Ri-Feng; Smith, Thomas J; Zong, Min-Hua


    Immobilized lipase from Penicillium expansum, a novel and inexpensive enzyme preparation that we immobilized in our laboratory, was an excellent catalyst for highly regioselective acylation of arbutin with fatty acid vinyl esters. For the enzymatic butanoylation of arbutin, under the optimal conditions, initial reaction rate was 75.1 mM/h, and substrate conversion and regioselectivity were greater than 99%. In addition, a variety of 6'-esters of arbutin were prepared with high conversion (>99%) and excellent regioselectivity (>99%). It was found that the enzymatic reaction rate varied widely with different acyl donors, presumably owing to their different interactions with the active site of the lipase. The immobilized lipase from P. expansum displayed highest catalytic activity with medium-length straight-chain acyl donors. Acyl donors bearing a substituent or a conjugate double bond gave reduced reaction rates.

  16. Inorganic-metalorganic hybrids based on copper(II)-monosubstituted Keggin polyanions and dinuclear copper(II)-oxalate complexes. Synthesis, X-ray structural characterization, and magnetic properties. (United States)

    Reinoso, Santiago; Vitoria, Pablo; Gutiérrez-Zorrilla, Juan M; Lezama, Luis; San Felices, Leire; Beitia, Javier I


    Reaction of in situ generated copper(II)-monosubstituted Keggin polyoxometalates and copper(II)-bipyridine-oxalate complexes in the corresponding alkaline acetate buffer led to the formation of hybrid metal organic-inorganic compounds K(2)[{SiW(11)O(39)Cu(H(2)O)}{Cu(2)(bpy)(2)(H(2)O)(2)(mu-ox)}(2)].14H(2)O (1), K(14)[{SiW(11)O(39)Cu(H(2)O)}{Cu(2)(bpy)(2)(mu-ox)}](2)[SiW(11)O(39)Cu(H(2)O)].55H(2)O (2), (NH(4))(4)[{SiW(11)O(39)Cu(H(2)O)}{Cu(2)(bpy)(2)(mu-ox)}].10H(2)O (3), and Rb(4)[{SiW(11)O(39)Cu(H(2)O)}{Cu(2)(bpy)(2)(mu-ox)}].10H(2)O (4). Their structures have been established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The main structural feature of these compounds is the presence of copper(II)-monosubstituted alpha-Keggin polyoxoanions as inorganic building blocks, on which the mu-oxalatodicopper metalorganic blocks are supported. Compound 1contains the discrete hybrid polyanion [{SiW(11)O(39)Cu(H(2)O)}{Cu(2)(bpy)(2)(H(2)O)(2)(mu-ox)}(2)](2)(-), whereas the polymeric hybrid polyanion [{SiW(11)O(39)Cu(H(2)O)}{Cu(2)(bpy)(2)(mu-ox)}(2)](n)(4)(n)(-) gives a monodimensional character to compounds 2-4. Magnetic and EPR results are discussed with respect to the crystal structure of the compounds. DFT calculations on both the [Cu(2)(bpy)(2)(H(2)O)(4)(mu-ox)](2+) cationic complex and the metalorganic blocks have been performed in order to determine the optimized geometry and the magnetic coupling constants, respectively.

  17. Regioselective Benzoylation of Diols and Carbohydrates by Catalytic Amounts of Organobase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchao Lu


    Full Text Available A novel metal-free organobase-catalyzed regioselective benzoylation of diols and carbohydrates has been developed. Treatment of diol and carbohydrate substrates with 1.1 equiv. of 1-benzoylimidazole and 0.2 equiv. of 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU in MeCN under mild conditions resulted in highly regioselective benzoylation for the primary hydroxyl group. Importantly, compared to most commonly used protecting bulky groups for primary hydroxyl groups, the benzoyl protective group offers a new protection strategy.

  18. Regioselective alkane hydroxylation with a mutant CYP153A6 enzyme (United States)

    Koch, Daniel J.; Arnold, Frances H.


    Cytochrome P450 CYP153A6 from Myobacterium sp. strain HXN1500 was engineered using in-vivo directed evolution to hydroxylate small-chain alkanes regioselectively. Mutant CYP153A6-BMO1 selectively hydroxylates butane and pentane at the terminal carbon to form 1-butanol and 1-pentanol, respectively, at rates greater than wild-type CYP153A6 enzymes. This biocatalyst is highly active for small-chain alkane substrates and the regioselectivity is retained in whole-cell biotransformations.

  19. HClO4-silica-catalysed regioselective opening of benzylidene acetals and its application towards regioselective HO-4 glycosylation of benzylidene acetals in one-pot. (United States)

    Dara, Saidulu; Saikam, Varma; Yadav, Mahipal; Singh, Parvinder Pal; Vishwakarma, Ram A


    Here we report a high-yielding method for the regioselective reductive ring opening of 4,6-O-benzylidene acetals of hexapyranosides using inexpensive and robust HClO4-SiO2 as the acidic catalyst and triethylsilane as the hydride donor. Under the optimized condition, gluco- and mannopyranosides give the respective 6-O-benzyl derivative in good to excellent yields while the corresponding galactopyranoside gives the corresponding 6-O-benzyl derivative in lower yield. As the optimized condition involves acidic catalyst, we also successfully developed further application of the present method for the tandem regioselective opening and glycosylation in one-pot. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Facile route for the regioselective synthesis of 1, 4-disubstituted 1, 2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Facile route for the regioselective synthesis of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole using copper nanoparticles supported on nanocellulose as recyclable heterogeneous catalyst. MITALI CHETIA ABDUL A ALI ANKUR BORDOLOI DIGANTA SARMA. RAPID COMMUNICATION Volume 129 Issue 8 August 2017 pp 1211-1217 ...

  1. Solvent-dependent regioselective oxidation of trans-chalcones using aqueous hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Wang; Jiabin, Yang; Lushen, Li, E-mail: [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering; Jin, Cai; Chunlong, Sun; Min, Ji [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering


    A novel method for regioselective oxidation of trans-chalcones with hydrogen peroxide in acetonitrile to afford cinnamic acids is reported. Only trans-b-arylacrylic acids were observed. A wide range of functionalized products can be effectively produced from various chalcones in good to excellent yields. (author)

  2. Regioselective conversion of primary alcohols into iodides in unprotected methyl furanosides and pyranosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaanderup, Philip Robert; Poulsen, Carina Storm; Hyldtoft, Lene


    Two methods are described for the regioselective displacement of the primary hydroxy group in methyl glycosides with iodide. The first method is a modification of a literature procedure employing triphenylphosphine and iodine, where purification has been carried out on a reverse phase column...

  3. Regioselective Wacker Oxidation of Internal Alkenes: Rapid Access to Functionalized Ketones Facilitated by Cross-Metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Morandi, Bill


    Wacka wacka: The title reaction makes use of a wide range of directing groups (DG) to enable the highly regioselective oxidation of alkenes, and occurs predictably at the distal position. Both E and Z alkenes afford valuable functionalized ketones and cross-metathesis was shown to facilitate the preparation of the starting materials. BQ=benzoquinone.

  4. Regioselective desymmetrization of diaryltetrahydrofurans via directed ortho-lithiation: an unexpected help from green chemistry. (United States)

    Mallardo, Valentina; Rizzi, Ruggiero; Sassone, Francesca C; Mansueto, Rosmara; Perna, Filippo M; Salomone, Antonio; Capriati, Vito


    An efficient functionalization of diaryltetrahydrofurans via a regioselective THF-directed ortho-lithiation is first described. This reaction can be successfully carried out in cyclopentyl methyl ether as a "greener" alternative to Et2O, with better results in terms of yield and selectivity and, surprisingly, also in protic eutectic mixtures competitively with protonolysis.

  5. Regioselectivity Control of the Ring Opening of Epoxides With Sodium Azide in a Microreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munirathinam, Rajesh; Joe, D.J.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Verboom, Willem


    The reaction of different types of aromatic and aliphatic epoxides with sodium azide to give vicinal azido alcohols was studied in a microreactor with and without pillars in the channels. Dependent on the substrate, the regioselectivity of the ring opening is affected by the used solvent system,

  6. The regioselectivity of glutathione adduct formation with flavonoid quinone methides is pH-dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awad, H.M.; Boersma, M.G.; Boeren, S.; Vervoort, J.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.


    In the present study, the formation of glutathionyl adducts from a series of 3',4'-dihydroxy flavonoid o-quinone/p-quinone methides was investigated with special emphasis on the regioselectivity of the glutathione addition as a function of pH. The flavonoid o-quinones were generated using

  7. Palladium-Catalyzed Regioselective C8-H Amination of 1-Naphthylamine Derivatives with Aliphatic Amines. (United States)

    Li, Zexian; Sun, Suyan; Qiao, Huijie; Yang, Fan; Zhu, Yu; Kang, Jianxun; Wu, Yusheng; Wu, Yangjie


    A simple and facile protocol for palladium-catalyzed picolinamide-directed C8-H amination of 1-naphthylamine derivatives with simple secondary aliphatic amines was developed, thereby providing a new route to 1,8-naphthalenediamine derivatives. It is noteworthy that the picolinamide moiety as a bidentate directing group may play a key role in this regioselective transformation.

  8. Regioselective synthesis and molecular structure of the first derivative of praseodymium-containing metallofullerenes. (United States)

    Zhou, Qin; Li, Hui; Lian, Yongfu; Suzuki, Mitsuaki; Bao, Lipiao; Cai, Wenting; Wang, Weiwei; Nagase, Shigeru; Lu, Xing; Akasaka, Takeshi


    Regioselective cycloaddition of adamantylidene carbene to Pr@C(2v)(9)-C82 affords the first derivative of praseodymium-containing metallofullerenes. Single-crystal X-ray crystallographic data in combination with theoretical studies demonstrate that the addition is dictated by the single metal ion encapsulated inside the fullerene cage.

  9. Facile route for the regioselective synthesis of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    was examined up to five times without significant loss of catalytic activity. Keywords. Heterogeneous catalysis; cycloaddition; regioselectivity; click reaction; copper nanoparticles. 1. Introduction. 1,2,3-Triazoles are an important and most useful class of five-membered heterocycles which have plethora of applications starting ...

  10. Modulating the regioselectivity of a Pasteurella multocida sialyltransferase for biocatalytic production of 3'- and 6'-sialyllactose. (United States)

    Guo, Yao; Jers, Carsten; Meyer, Anne S; Li, Haiying; Kirpekar, Finn; Mikkelsen, Jørn D


    Several bacterial sialyltransferases have been reported to be multifunctional also catalysing sialidase and trans-sialidase reactions. In this study, we examined the trans-sialylation efficacy and regioselectivity of mutants of the multifunctional Pasteurella multocida sialyltransferase (PmST) for catalysing the synthesis of 3'- and 6'-sialyllactose using casein glycomacropeptide as sialyl-donor and lactose as acceptor. The mutation P34H led to a 980-fold increase in α-2,6-sialyltransferase activity (with cytidine-5'-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid as donor), while its α-2,3-sialyltransferase activity was abolished. Histidine in this position is conserved in α-2,6-sialyltransferases and has been suggested, and recently confirmed, to be the determinant for strict regiospecificity in the sialyltransferase reaction. Our data verified this theorem. In trans-sialidase reactions, the P34H mutant displayed a distinct preference for 6'-sialyllactose synthesis but low levels of 3'-sialyllactose were also produced. The sialyllactose yield was however lower than when using PmSTWT under optimal conditions for 6'-sialyllactose formation. The discrepancy in regiospecificity between the two reactions could indicate subtle differences in the substrate binding site in the two reactions. In contrast, the two mutations E271F and R313Y led to preferential synthesis of 3'-sialyllactose over 6'-sialyllactose and the double mutant (PmSTE271F/R313Y) exhibited the highest α-2,3-regioselectivity via reduced sialidase and α-2,6-trans-sialidase activity. The double mutant PmSTE271F/R313Y thus showed the highest α-2,3-regioselectivity and constitutes an interesting enzyme for regioselective synthesis of α-2,3-sialylated glycans. This study has expanded the understanding of the structure-function relationship of multifunctional, bacterial sialyltransferases and provided new enzymes for regioselective glycan sialylation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    A series of 8-chloro-5-hydroxy-2-(alkylamino)tetralins were prepared in a one-step reaction using a hexachlorocyclohexadienone as regioselective chlorinating agent. The reaction proceeds in a highly selective but unexpected manner.

  12. Isolation of two N-monosubstituted protoporphyrins, bearing either the whole drug or a methyl group on the pyrrole nitrogen atom, from liver of mice given griseofulvin. (United States)

    Holley, A E; Frater, Y; Gibbs, A H; De Matteis, F; Lamb, J H; Farmer, P B; Naylor, S


    1. A hepatic green pigment with inhibitory properties towards the enzyme ferrochelatase has been isolated from the liver of mice treated with griseofulvin and identified as N-methylprotoporphyrin. 2. All four structural isomers of N-methylprotoporphyrin have been demonstrated to be present, NA, where ring A of protoporphyrin IX is N-methylated, being the predominant isomer. 3. In addition to N-methylprotoporphyrin, a second green pigment, present in far greater amounts, was also isolated from the liver of griseofulvin-treated mice. This second green pigment is also an N-monosubstituted protoporphyrin, but in this case the substituent on the pyrrole nitrogen atom appears to be intact griseofulvin rather than a methyl group. 4. The fragmentation of this adduct in tandem m.s. studies suggests that griseofulvin is bound to the pyrrole nitrogen through one of its carbon atoms and further suggests that N-methylprotoporphyrin may arise as a secondary product from the major griseofulvin pigment. PMID:2012610

  13. Pyriculins A and B, two monosubstituted hex-4-ene-2,3-diols and other phytotoxic metabolites produced by Pyricularia grisea isolated from buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris). (United States)

    Masi, Marco; Meyer, Susan; Górecki, Marcin; Mandoli, Alessandro; Di Bari, Lorenzo; Pescitelli, Gennaro; Cimmino, Alessio; Cristofaro, Massimo; Clement, Suzette; Evidente, Antonio


    Pyricularia grisea has been identified as a foliar pathogen on buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris) in North America and was studied as a potential source of phytotoxins for buffelgrass control. Two monosubstituted hex-4-ene-2,3-diols, named pyriculins A and B, were isolated from its culture filtrate organic extract together with (10S,11S)-(-)-epipyriculol, trans-3,4-dihydro-3,4,8-trihydroxy-1(2H)-napthalenone, and (4S)-(+)-isosclerone. Pyriculins A and B were characterized by spectroscopic (essentially nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR], High-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry [HRESIMS]) and chemical methods such as (4E)-1-(4-hydroxy-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-1-yl)hex-4-ene-2,3-diols. The relative and absolute configuration of these compounds was determined by a combination of spectroscopic (NMR, electronic circular dichroism [ECD]) and computational tools. When bioassayed in a buffelgrass coleoptile and radicle elongation test, (10S,11S)-(-)-epipyriculol proved to be the most toxic compound. Seed germination was much reduced and slowed with respect to the control and radicles failed to elongate. All five compounds delayed germination, but only (10S,11S)-(-)-epipyriculol was able to prevent radicle development of buffelgrass seedlings. It had no effect on coleoptile elongation, while the other four compounds caused significantly increased coleoptile development relative to the control. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A Novel and Highly Regioselective Synthesis of New Carbamoylcarboxylic Acids from Dianhydrides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Ochoa-Terán


    Full Text Available A regioselective synthesis has been developed for the preparation of a series of N,N′-disubstituted 4,4′-carbonylbis(carbamoylbenzoic acids and N,N′-disubstituted bis(carbamoyl terephthalic acids by treatment of 3,3′,4,4′-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (1 and 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (2 with arylalkyl primary amines (A-N. The carbamoylcarboxylic acid derivatives were synthesized with good yield and high purity. The specific reaction conditions were established to obtain carbamoyl and carboxylic acid functionalities over the thermodynamically most favored imide group. Products derived from both anhydrides 1 and 2 were isolated as pure regioisomeric compounds under innovative experimental conditions. The chemo- and regioselectivity of products derived from dianhydrides were determined by NMR spectroscopy and confirmed by density functional theory (DFT. All products were characterized by NMR, FTIR, and MS.

  15. Pd-Catalyzed regioselective C-H halogenation of quinazolinones and benzoxazinones. (United States)

    Dabiri, Minoo; Farajinia Lehi, Noushin; Kazemi Movahed, Siyavash; Khavasi, Hamid Reza


    A Pd-catalyzed ortho-selective halogenation of benzoxazinone and quinazolinone scaffolds has been described employing N-halosuccinimide as both a halogen source and an oxidant reagent via C-H bond activation. This transformation shows high chemo- and regioselectivities and demonstrates a broad range of benzoxazinone and quinazolinone substrates with different functional groups and has been scaled up to the gram level.

  16. A facile regioselective synthesis of novel spiroacenaphthene pyrroloisoquinolines through 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrafi, Yaghoub; Asghari, Asieh; Sadatshahabi, Marzieh, E-mail: [Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamzehloueian, Mahshid [Department of Chemistry, Jouybar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Jouybar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alimohammadi, Kamal [Department of Chemistry, Dr. Shariati Branch, University of Farhangian, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    An efficient one-pot three-component procedure for the synthesis of novel spiroacenaphthene pyrroloisoquinolines with high regioselectivity is described. These compounds were prepared from 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of an azomethine ylide generated from acenaphthenequinone and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline via [1,5]-H shift, with chalcone and nitrostyrene derivatives as dipolarophiles. The structure and stereochemistry of the cycloadducts have been established by single crystal X-ray structure and spectroscopic techniques. (author)

  17. A Scalable Method for Regioselective 3-Acylation of 2-Substituted Indoles under Basic Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Karl Henrik; Urruticoechea, Andoni; Larsen, Inna


    Privileged structures such as 2-arylindoles are recurrent molecular scaffolds in bioactive molecules. We here present an operationally simple, high yielding and scalable method for regioselective 3-acylation of 2-substituted indoles under basic conditions using functionalized acid chlorides. The ....... The method shows good tolerance to both electron-withdrawing and donating substituents on the indole scaffold and gives ready access to a variety of functionalized 3-acylindole building blocks suited for further derivatization....

  18. Pauson-Khand Reaction of Internal Dissymmetric Trifluoromethyl Alkynes. Influence of the Alkene on the Regioselectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Aiguabella


    Full Text Available The scope of the Pauson-Khand reaction (PKR of internal trifluoromethyl alkynes, previously described with norbornadiene, is expanded to norbornene and ethylene. A thorough structural analysis of the resulting PK adducts has been carried out to unveil that α-trifluoromethylcyclopentenones are preferred in all cases, independently of the electronic properties of the alkyne. The regioselectivity observed with norbornadiene and ethylene is higher than in the case of norbornene.

  19. Palladium(II)-catalyzed regioselective arylation of naphthylamides with aryl iodides utilizing a quinolinamide bidentate system. (United States)

    Huang, Lehao; Li, Qian; Wang, Chen; Qi, Chenze


    A palladium(II)-catalyzed quinolinamide-directed 8-arylation of 1-naphthylamides with aryl iodides is reported. The bidentate directing group (quinolinamide) proved to be crucial for a highly regioselective transformation. In addition, the amide directing group can be easily hydrolyzed under basic conditions to offer a range of 8-aryl-1-naphthylamine derivatives. The theoretical calculations suggest that the C-H arylation reaction proceeds through a sequential C-H activation/oxidative addition pathway.

  20. Regioselective β-silylation of porphyrins via iridium-catalyzed C-H bond activation. (United States)

    Sugita, Noriaki; Hayashi, Satoshi; Shibata, Masashi; Endo, Taiga; Noji, Masahiro; Takatori, Kazuhiko; Takanami, Toshikatsu


    An efficient approach to meso-unsubstituted β-silylporphyrins was developed through highly regioselective Ir-catalyzed C-H activation, in the presence of HSiMe(OSiMe3)2 as the Si source, from meso-unsubstituted porphyrins. Further transformations of the silyl group, such as oxidation, halogenation, and cross-coupling reactions, could be achieved under mild conditions, demonstrating the synthetic utility of β-silylporphyrins as a multipurpose synthon for fabricating porphyrin derivatives.

  1. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Regioselective C-H Bond Acetoxylation on Carbazole and Indole Frameworks. (United States)

    Okada, Takeshi; Nobushige, Kazunori; Satoh, Tetsuya; Miura, Masahiro


    The regioselective C-H bond cleavage/C-O bond formation takes place smoothly upon treatment of 9-(pyridin-2-yl)carbazoles with acetic acid in the presence of a silver salt oxidant under ruthenium catalysis to afford the corresponding C1- and C8-diacetoxylated products. Under similar conditions, the acetoxylation of 2-aryl-1-(pyridin-2-yl)indoles as well as 1-aryl-7-azaindoles can also be conducted efficiently.

  2. Engineering of glucoside acceptors for the regioselective synthesis of beta-(1-->3)-disaccharides with glycosynthases. (United States)

    Marton, Zsuzanna; Tran, Vinh; Tellier, Charles; Dion, Michel; Drone, Jullien; Rabiller, Claude


    Glycosynthase mutants obtained from Thermotogamaritima were able to catalyze the regioselective synthesis of aryl beta-D-Galp-(1-->3)-beta-D-Glcp and aryl beta-D-Glcp-(1-->3)-beta-D-Glcp in high yields (up to 90 %) using aryl beta-D-glucosides as acceptors. The need for an aglyconic aryl group was rationalized by molecular modeling calculations, which have emphasized a high stabilizing interaction of this group by stacking with W312 of the enzyme. Unfortunately, the deprotection of the aromatic group of the disaccharides was not possible without partial hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond. The replacement of aryl groups by benzyl ones could offer the opportunity to deprotect the anomeric position under very mild conditions. Assuming that benzyl acceptors could preserve the stabilizing stacking, benzyl beta-d-glucoside firstly assayed as acceptor resulted in both poor yields and poor regioselectivity. Thus, we decided to undertake molecular modeling calculations in order to design which suitable substituted benzyl acceptors could be used. This study resulted in the choice of 2-biphenylmethyl beta-D-glucopyranoside. This choice was validated experimentally, since the corresponding beta-(1-->3) disaccharide was obtained in good yields and with a high regioselectivity. At the same time, we have shown that phenyl 1-thio-beta-D-glucopyranoside was also an excellent substrate leading to similar results as those obtained with the O-phenyl analogue. The NBS deprotection of the S-phenyl group afforded the corresponding disaccharide quantitatively.

  3. Modulating the regioselectivity of a Pasteurella multocida sialyltransferase for biocatalytic production of 3'- and 6'-sialyllactose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yao; Jers, Carsten; Meyer, Anne S.


    ST) for catalysing the synthesis of 3'- and 6'-sialyllactose using casein glycomacropeptide as sialyl-donor and lactose as acceptor. The mutation P34H led to a 980-fold increase in α-2,6-sialyltransferase activity (with cytidine-5'-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid as donor), while its α-2,3-sialyltransferase......Several bacterial sialyltransferases have been reported to be multifunctional also catalysing sialidase and trans-sialidase reactions. In this study, we examined the trans-sialylation efficacy and regioselectivity of mutants of the multifunctional Pasteurella multocida sialyltransferase (Pm...... and α-2,6-trans-sialidase activity. The double mutant PmSTE271F/R313Y thus showed the highest α-2,3-regioselectivity and constitutes an interesting enzyme for regioselective synthesis of α-2,3-sialylated glycans. This study has expanded the understanding of the structure-function relationship...

  4. Efficient synthesis and first regioselective C-3 direct arylation of imidazo[1,2-b]pyrazoles. (United States)

    Grosse, Sandrine; Pillard, Christelle; Massip, Stéphane; Léger, Jean Michel; Jarry, Christian; Bourg, Stéphane; Bernard, Philippe; Guillaumet, Gérald


    Highly regioselective: An efficient synthesis of the imidazo[1,2-b]pyrazole core has been developed, and the first regioselective palladium-catalyzed direct arylation of the C-3 position is described (see scheme). Good to excellent yields were obtained for a wide range of aryl partners with electron-rich and electron-poor substituents. This methodology allows rapid access to a large variety of imidazo[1,2-b]pyrazole products and could open the way to the design of new biologically active compounds. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Effects of Active-Site Modification and Quaternary Structure on the Regioselectivity of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase. (United States)

    Law, Brian J C; Bennett, Matthew R; Thompson, Mark L; Levy, Colin; Shepherd, Sarah A; Leys, David; Micklefield, Jason


    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an important therapeutic target in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, is also being developed for biocatalytic processes, including vanillin production, although lack of regioselectivity has precluded its more widespread application. By using structural and mechanistic information, regiocomplementary COMT variants were engineered that deliver either meta- or para-methylated catechols. X-ray crystallography further revealed how the active-site residues and quaternary structure govern regioselectivity. Finally, analogues of AdoMet are accepted by the regiocomplementary COMT mutants and can be used to prepare alkylated catechols, including ethyl vanillin. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  6. RS-Predictor models augmented with SMARTCyp reactivities: robust metabolic regioselectivity predictions for nine CYP isozymes. (United States)

    Zaretzki, Jed; Rydberg, Patrik; Bergeron, Charles; Bennett, Kristin P; Olsen, Lars; Breneman, Curt M


    RS-Predictor is a tool for creating pathway-independent, isozyme-specific, site of metabolism (SOM) prediction models using any set of known cytochrome P450 (CYP) substrates and metabolites. Until now, the RS-Predictor method was only trained and validated on CYP 3A4 data, but in the present study, we report on the versatility the RS-Predictor modeling paradigm by creating and testing regioselectivity models for substrates of the nine most important CYP isozymes. Through curation of source literature, we have assembled 680 substrates distributed among CYPs 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C19, 2C8, 2C9, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4, the largest publicly accessible collection of P450 ligands and metabolites released to date. A comprehensive investigation into the importance of different descriptor classes for identifying the regioselectivity mediated by each isozyme is made through the generation of multiple independent RS-Predictor models for each set of isozyme substrates. Two of these models include a density functional theory (DFT) reactivity descriptor derived from SMARTCyp. Optimal combinations of RS-Predictor and SMARTCyp are shown to have stronger performance than either method alone, while also exceeding the accuracy of the commercial regioselectivity prediction methods distributed by Optibrium and Schrödinger, correctly identifying a large proportion of the metabolites in each substrate set within the top two rank-positions: 1A2 (83.0%), 2A6 (85.7%), 2B6 (82.1%), 2C19 (86.2%), 2C8 (83.8%), 2C9 (84.5%), 2D6 (85.9%), 2E1 (82.8%), 3A4 (82.3%), and merged (86.0%). Comprehensive datamining of each substrate set and careful statistical analyses of the predictions made by the different models revealed new insights into molecular features that control metabolic regioselectivity and enable accurate prospective prediction of likely SOMs.

  7. Reactivity and Regioselectivity in the Heck Reaction - A Hammett Study of 4-Substituted Styrenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Peter; Le Quement, Sebastian; Tanner, David Ackland


    The regioselectivity in the cationic Heck reaction of 4-substituted styrenes was addressed by a Hammett study. In this branching reaction, plots based on the substrate reactivity did not give meaningful data, whereas the product distribution was variable due to differing preferences for further...... substitution under the reaction conditions and, thus, unsuitable for Hammett plots. Mechanistically meaningful graphs were obtained by combination of the measured initial branching ratio with the approximately constant substrate reactivity. For the alpha-substitution a clear Hammett relation is observed...

  8. Stereo- and regioselectivity of the hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of nitroso derivatives with conjugated dienes. (United States)

    Brulíková, Lucie; Harrison, Aidan; Miller, Marvin J; Hlaváč, Jan


    The hetero-Diels-Alder reaction between a nitroso dienophile and a conjugated diene to give the 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,2-oxazine scaffold is useful for the synthesis of many biologically interesting molecules due to the diverse opportunities created by subsequent transformations of the resulting 1,2-oxazine ring. This review discusses the rationale for the observed regio- and stereoselectivity and the methods developed in recent years used to control and improve the stereo- and regioselectivity for the synthesis of 1,2-oxazine scaffolds.

  9. Stereo- and regioselectivity of the hetero-Diels–Alder reaction of nitroso derivatives with conjugated dienes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Brulíková


    Full Text Available The hetero-Diels–Alder reaction between a nitroso dienophile and a conjugated diene to give the 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,2-oxazine scaffold is useful for the synthesis of many biologically interesting molecules due to the diverse opportunities created by subsequent transformations of the resulting 1,2-oxazine ring. This review discusses the rationale for the observed regio- and stereoselectivity and the methods developed in recent years used to control and improve the stereo- and regioselectivity for the synthesis of 1,2-oxazine scaffolds.

  10. Regioselective Synthesis of Procyanidin B6, A 4-6-Condensed (+)-Catechin Dimer, by Intramolecular Condensation. (United States)

    Higashino, Yusuke; Okamoto, Taisuke; Mori, Kazuki; Kawasaki, Takashi; Hamada, Masahiro; Nakajima, Noriyuki; Saito, Akiko


    Proanthocyanidins, also known as condensed tannins or oligomeric flavonoids, are found in many edible plants and exhibit interesting biological activities. Herein, we report a new, simple method for the stereoselective synthesis of procyanidin B6, a (+)-catechin-(4-6)-(+)-catechin dimer, by Lewis acid-catalyzed intramolecular condensation. The 5- O - t -butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) group of 5,7,3'4'-tetra- O -TBDMS-(+)-catechin was regioselectively removed using trifluoroacetic acid, leading to the "regio-controlled" synthesis of procyanidin B6. The 5-hydroxyl group of the 7,3',4'-tri- O -TBDMS-(+)-catechin nucleophile and the 3-hydroxyl group of 5,7,3',4'-tetra- O -benzylated-(+)-catechin electrophile were connected with an azelaic acid. The subsequent SnCl₄-catalyzed intramolecular condensation proceeded smoothly to give the 4-6-condensed catechin dimer. This is the first report on the complete regioselective synthesis of a 4-6-connected oligomer without modifying the 8-position.

  11. Bioactivation and Regioselectivity of Pig Cytochrome P450 3A29 towards Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wu


    Full Text Available Due to unavoidable contaminations in feedstuff, pigs are easily exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 and suffer from poisoning, thus the poisoned products potentially affect human health. Heretofore, the metabolic process of AFB1 in pigs remains to be clarified, especially the principal cytochrome P450 oxidases responsible for its activation. In this study, we cloned CYP3A29 from pig liver and expressed it in Escherichia coli, and its activity has been confirmed with the typical P450 CO-reduced spectral characteristic and nifedipine-oxidizing activity. The reconstituted membrane incubation proved that the recombinant CYP3A29 was able to oxidize AFB1 to form AFB1-exo-8,9-epoxide in vitro. The structural basis for the regioselective epoxidation of AFB1 by CYP3A29 was further addressed. The T309A mutation significantly decreased the production of AFBO, whereas F304A exhibited an enhanced activation towards AFB1. In agreement with the mutagenesis study, the molecular docking simulation suggested that Thr309 played a significant role in stabilization of AFB1 binding in the active center through a hydrogen bond. In addition, the bulk phenyl group of Phe304 potentially imposed steric hindrance on the binding of AFB1. Our study demonstrates the bioactivation of pig CYP3A29 towards AFB1 in vitro, and provides the insight for understanding regioselectivity of CYP3A29 to AFB1.

  12. Iridium-catalysed regioselective borylation of carboranes via direct B-H activation (United States)

    Cheng, Ruofei; Qiu, Zaozao; Xie, Zuowei


    Carboranes are carbon-boron molecular clusters, which can be viewed as three-dimensional analogues to benzene. They are finding many applications in medicine, materials and organometallic chemistry. On the other hand, their exceptional thermal and chemical stabilities, as well as 3D structures, make them very difficult to be functionalized, in particular the regioselective functionalization of BH vertex among ten similar B-H bonds. Here we report a very efficient iridium-catalysed borylation of cage B(3,6)-H bonds of o-carboranes with excellent yields and regioselectivity using bis(pinacolato)diboron (B2pin2) as a reagent. Selective cage B(4)-H borylation has also been achieved by introducing a bulky TBDMS (tert-butyldimethylsilyl) group to one cage carbon vertex. The resultant 3,6-(Bpin)2-o-carboranes are useful synthons for the synthesis of a wide variety of B(3,6)-difunctionalized o-carboranes bearing cage B-X (X=O, N, C, I and Br) bonds.

  13. Regioselective cope rearrangement and prenyl transfers on indole scaffold mimicking fungal and bacterial dimethylallyltryptophan synthases. (United States)

    Thandavamurthy, Karthikeyan; Sharma, Deepti; Porwal, Suheel K; Ray, Dale; Viswanathan, Rajesh


    Aromatic prenyltransferases are an actively mined enzymatic class whose biosynthetic repertoire is growing. Indole prenyltransferases catalyze the formation of a diverse set of prenylated tryptophan and diketopiperazines, leading to the formation of fungal toxins with prolific biological activities. At a fundamental level, the mechanism of C4-prenylation of l-tryptophan recently has surfaced to engage a debate between a "direct" electrophilic alkylation mechanism (for wt DMATS and FgaPT2) versus an indole C3-C4 "Cope" rearrangement followed by rearomatization (for mutant FgaPT2). Herein we provide the first series of regioselectively tunable conditions for a Cope rearrangement between C3 and C4 positions. Biomimetic conditions are reported that effect a [3,3]-sigmatropic shift whose two-step process is interrogated for intramolecularity and rate-limiting general base-promoted mechanism. Solvent polarity serves a crucial role in changing the regioselectivity, resulting in sole [1,3]-shifts under decalin. An intermolecular variant is also reported that effectively prenylates the C3 position of l-tryptophan, resulting in products that mimic the structures accessed by bacterial indole prenyltransferases. We report an elaborate investigation that includes screening various substituents and measuring steric and electronic effects and stereoselectivity with synthetically useful transformations.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of regioselectively substituted curdlan hetero esters via an unexpected acyl migration. (United States)

    Chien, Chih-Ying; Enomoto-Rogers, Yukiko; Takemura, Akio; Iwata, Tadahisa


    Regioselectively substituted curdlan esters were synthesized by protecting the C6 primary hydroxyl group with a triphenylmethyl group followed by the acylation of the secondary hydroxyl groups at C2 and C4. The subsequent detritylation of C6 trityl group under acidic conditions revealed an unexpected acyl migration from C4 to C6. This unique acyl migration in curdlan was first observed, which haven't been reported in other polysaccharides such as cellulose. The rate of this migration was found to be dependent on the length of the acyl group, leading to the proposal of a new mechanism for this transformation. Based on these results, we synthesized 2,6-di-O-acetyl-4-O-propionyl-curdlan, which was fully characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, COSY, HSQC and HMBC analyses. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry measurements revealed that the regioselective esterification to curdlan promoted its crystallization compared with randomly mixed ester derivatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Regioselective Nucleophilic Ring Opening of Epoxides and Aziridines derived from Homoallylic Alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Groth, Thomas


    , the epoxy alcohols gave poorer regioselectivity than the N-tosyl aziridino alcohols, for which selectivities of >95:5 were routinely obtained. The activating effect of a phenyl group at C-4 led to a switch in regiochemistry, with the 1,3-diol or 1,3-amino alcohol derivative as the major product. (C) 1997......The regioselectivity of nucleophilic ring opening of some 3,4-epoxy and 3,4-aziridino alcohols has been studied. The nucleophiles chosen were complex hydrides (LiAlH4, Red-Al and DIBAL) and Lipshutz- or Gilman-type organocuprate reagents. The C-4 substituent in the substrates was varied in order...... to study steric and electronic effects on the ring opening reactions. For alkyl substituents at C-4, most of the results can be explained on the basis of intramolecular delivery of the nucleophile to C-3 via a six-membered transition state, leading to 1,4-diols or 1,4-amino alcohol derivatives. In general...

  16. A first theoretical study on the origin of the metal-mediated regioselective opening of 2,3-epoxy alcohols.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Infante, Ivan; Bonini, Carlo; Lelj, Francesco; Righi, Giuliana


    Hybrid density functional theory (B3LYP) method allows the study of the role of metal ions (Li(+)) in the regioselective opening of 2,3-epoxy alcohols with lithium halides (Cl, Br, I) to the corresponding halohydrins. The theoretical results largely confirm the experimental results, especially with

  17. A facile and regioselective synthesis of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles using click chemistry (United States)

    The reaction of α-tosyloxy ketones, sodium azide and terminal alkynes in presence of copper(I) in aqueous polyethylene glycol afforded regioselectively 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles in good yield at ambient temperature. The one-pot exclusive formation of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2...

  18. Regioselective Glycosylation of Unprotected Phenyl 1‐Thioglycopyranosides with Phenylboronic Acid as a Transient Masking Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Thomas Hauch; Madsen, Robert


    A useful protocol is described for the regioselective glycosylation of the secondary alcohols in unprotected glycosyl acceptors. Phenyl 1‐thioglycopyranosides derived from D‐glucose, D‐galactose, D‐glucosamine, L‐rhamnose, and L‐fucose were treated with phenylboronic acid to install a temporary...

  19. Regioselective Hydration of an Alkene and Analysis of the Alcohol Product by Remote Access NMR: A Classroom Demonstration (United States)

    Smith, Maureen E.; Johnson, Sara L.; Masterson, Douglas S.


    A two-part demonstration was conducted in our first-semester organic chemistry course designed to introduce students to the formation of alcohols, regioselective reactions, and analysis of organic products by NMR analysis. This demonstration utilized the oxymercuration-demercuration sequence to prepare an alcohol from an alkene in a Markovnikov…

  20. Regioselective Palmitoylation of 9-(2,3-Dihydroxy-propyl)adenine Catalyzed by a Glycopolymer-enzyme Conjugate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabcová, Jana; Blažek, Jiří; Krečmerová, Marcela; Vondrášek, Jiří; Palomo, J. M.; Zarevúcka, Marie


    Roč. 21, č. 5 (2016), č. článku 648. ISSN 1420-3049 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200551203 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : regioselectivity * palmitoylation * glycosylation * chemical modification Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.861, year: 2016

  1. Reações de 1,2-dicloro-4,5-dinitrobenzeno com aminas: monossubstituição de nitro e dissubstituição de cloro e nitro Reactions of 1,2-dichloro-4,5-dinitrobenzene with amines: monosubstitution of chlorine and disubstitution of chlorine and nitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Gava Menezes


    Full Text Available 1,2-dichloro-4,5-dinitrobenzene (DCDNB reacts with primary and secondary amines, in acetonitrile, at room temperature, to give a monosubstituted nitro product with a yield of 85 to 95%. The chloro-nitro-disubstituted product is formed with excess amine under reflux. Piperidine, pyrroline, dimethylamine and methylamine were the most reactive reagents in both mono- and disubstitution.

  2. Computational studies on the regioselectivity of metal-catalyzed synthesis of 1,2,3 triazoles via click reaction: a review. (United States)

    Hosseinnejad, Tayebeh; Fattahi, Bahareh; Heravi, Majid M


    Recently, the experimental and computational chemists have been attracted widely to the click synthesis of 1,2,3 triazoles and their derivatives, mainly due to the fact that they are interesting from structural and mechanistic points of view. Moreover, catalyzed click have been well established as a successful strategy showing high regioselectivity and high yield for the synthesis of 1,2,3-triazoles. In this review, we try to highlight the recently reported computational assessments on the origins and predection of regioselectivity in the catalyzed click synthesis of triazoles from the mechanistic and thermodynamical points of view. In this light, density functional theory (DFT) calculations on the free energy profiles of azide-alkyne cycloaddition reactions have been underscored. The stereoelectronic features for the role of copper, ruthenium, and iridium as catalyst on regioselectivity of click reactions have also be discussed. Graphical Abstract Computational origins for the regioselective behavior of 1,2,3 triazoles click synthesis.

  3. Ni-catalyzed regioselective three-component coupling of alkyl halides, arylalkynes, or enynes with R-M (M = MgX', ZnX')


    Terao, Jun; Bando, Fumiaki; Kambe, Nobuaki


    A new method for the regioselective three-component cross-coupling of alkyl halides, alkynes, or enynes with organomagnesium or organozinc reagents in the presence of a nickel catalyst and a dppb ligand has been developed.

  4. Ni-catalyzed regioselective three-component coupling of alkyl halides, arylalkynes, or enynes with R-M (M = MgX', ZnX'). (United States)

    Terao, Jun; Bando, Fumiaki; Kambe, Nobuaki


    A new method for the regioselective three-component cross-coupling of alkyl halides, alkynes, or enynes with organomagnesium or organozinc reagents in the presence of a nickel catalyst and a dppb ligand has been developed.

  5. Green synthesis of CuO nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Gundelia tournefortii and evaluation of their catalytic activity for the synthesis of N-monosubstituted ureas and reduction of 4-nitrophenol. (United States)

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Maham, Mehdi; Sajadi, S Mohammad


    A facile, efficient and environmentally-friendly protocol has been developed for the green synthesis of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) by aqueous extract of Gundelia tournefortii as a mild, renewable and non-toxic reducing agent. CuO NPs were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, EDS, FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopy. More importantly, the green synthesized CuO NPs presented excellent catalytic activity for reduction of 4-nitrophenol and synthesis of N-monosubstituted ureas via hydration of cyanamides with the aid of acetaldoxime as an effective water surrogate in ethanol as a green solvent. The catalyst was easily separated and the recovered catalyst was reused many times without any significant loss of the catalytic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Organocatalytic chemo- and regioselective oxyarylation of styrenes via a cascade reaction: remote activation of hydroxyl groups. (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Chen; Jiang, Fei; Wang, Shu-Liang; Shi, Feng; Tu, Shu-Jiang


    The first organocatalytic oxyarylation of styrenes has been established through a cascade of vinylogous Michael addition/alkoxyl transfer reactions of o- or p-hydroxylstyrenes with quinone imine ketals. The process leads to a highly chemo- and regioselective oxyarylation of styrenes and provides access to m-alkylated anilines in generally high yields and excellent diastereoselectivity (up to 99% yield, >95:5 dr). An investigation of the reaction pathway revealed that the existence and position of the hydroxyl group of styrene played crucial roles in the cascade reaction, suggesting that the two reactants were simultaneously activated by binaphthyl-derived phosphoric acid via hydrogen bonding interactions and long-distance conjugative effects. In addition, the activating group of the hydroxyl functionality in the products can be easily removed or transformed, demonstrating the applicability and utility of this strategy in styrene oxyarylation and in the synthesis of styrene-based compounds.

  7. Regioselectivity and Tautomerism of Novel Five-Membered Ring Nitrogen Heterocycles Formed via Cyclocondensation of Acylthiosemicarbazides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel D. Klika


    Full Text Available A series of 1-acyl-4-phenyl/(acridin-9-ylthiosemicarbazides 3, including fournew compounds, were prepared in order to study substituent effects on cyclizationreactions with oxalyl chloride (producing imidazolidine-4,5-diones 4, dimethylacetylenedicarboxylate (to give thiazolidin-4-ones 7 and 8 and autocondensation underalkaline conditions (to yield 1,2,4-triazoles 9. A positional isomer, 10 of compound 3f wasalso prepared. Altogether, twenty new compounds characterized and identified by IR, UV,1H, 13C and 2D NMR and quantum chemical calculations are described. The tautomerismof the products and regioselectivity of the reactions were evaluated. Compounds 3f−h,3h·2HCl, 7b,d and 10 were screened for cytotoxic activity against the L1210 leukemia cellline and all compounds, except for 3f, exhibited promising inhibitions of cell growth.

  8. Thiophene fused azacoronenes: regioselective synthesis, self organization, charge transport, and its incorporation in conjugated polymers (United States)

    Liu, Yi; He, Bo


    A regioselective synthesis of an azacoronene fused with two peripheral thiophene groups has been realized through a concise synthetic route. The resulting thienoazacoronene (TAC) derivatives show high degree of self-organization in solution, in single crystals, in the bulk, and in spuncast thin films. Spuncast thin film field-effect transistors of the TACs exhibited mobilities up to 0.028 cm.sup.2V.sup.-1 S.sup.-1, which is among the top field effect mobilities for solution processed discotic materials. Organic photovoltaic devices using TAC-containing conjugated polymers as the donor material exhibited a high open-circuit voltage of 0.89 V, which was ascribable to TAC's low-lying highest occupied molecular orbital energy level.

  9. Synthesis of chitosan-PEO hydrogels via mesylation and regioselective Cu(I)-catalyzed cycloaddition. (United States)

    Tirino, Pasquale; Laurino, Rosaria; Maglio, Giovanni; Malinconico, Mario; d'Ayala, Giovanna Gomez; Laurienzo, Paola


    In this work, a well-defined hydrogel was developed by coupling chitosan with PEO through "click chemistry". Azide functionalities were introduced onto chitosan, through mesylation of C-6 hydroxyl groups, and reacted with a di-alkyne PEO by a regioselective Cu(I)-catalyzed cycloaddition. This synthetic approach allowed us to obtain a hydrogel with a controlled crosslinking degree. In fact, the extent of coupling is strictly dependent on the amount of azido groups on chitosan, which in turn can be easily modulated. The obtained hydrogel, with a crosslinking degree of around 90%, showed interesting swelling properties. With respect to chitosan hydrogels reported in literature, a considerably higher equilibrium uptake was reached (940%). The possibility to control the crosslinking degree of hydrogel and its capability to rapidly absorb high amounts of water make this material suitable for several applications, such as controlled drug release and wound healing. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Chemical methods and approaches to the regioselective formation of multiple disulfide bonds. (United States)

    Shimamoto, Shigeru; Katayama, Hidekazu; Okumura, Masaki; Hidaka, Yuji


    Disulfide-bond formation plays an important role in the stabilization of the native conformation of peptides and proteins. In the case of multidisulfide-containing peptides and proteins, numerous folding intermediates are produced, including molecules that contain non-native and native disulfide bonds during in vitro folding. These intermediates can frequently be trapped covalently during folding and subsequently analyzed. The structural characterization of these kinetically trapped disulfide intermediates provides a clue to understanding the oxidative folding pathway. To investigate the folding of disulfide-containing peptides and proteins, in this unit, chemical methods are described for regulating regioselective disulfide formation (1) by using a combination of several types of thiol protecting groups, (2) by incorporating unique SeCys residues into a protein or peptide molecule, and (3) by combining with post-translational modification. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. A Simple, Effective, Green Method for the Regioselective 3-Acylation of Unprotected Indoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Hoang Tran


    Full Text Available A fast and green method is developed for regioselective acylation of indoles in the 3-position without the need for protection of the NH position. The method is based on Friedel-Crafts acylation using acid anhydrides. The method has been optimized, and Y(OTf3 in catalytic amounts is found to be the best catalyst together with the commercially available ionic liquid [BMI]BF4 (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoro-borate as solvent. The reaction is completed in a very short time using monomode microwave irradiation. The catalyst can be reused up to four times without significant loss of activity. A range of substituted indoles are investigated as substrates, and thirteen new compounds have been synthesized.

  12. An example of regioselective esterification by intramolecular acyl transfer from a tertiary amine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, T.G.; Rambalakos, T.; Christie, K.R. (Univ. of Tennessee, Chattanooga (United States))


    Despite the fact that the famous antimarlarial quinine (1) has been known for 170 years, there is still considerable interest in its chemical and biological properties. Much of the most recent attention is due to the utility of quinine as a chiral resolving agent and catalyst. Important and new chemistry of quinine may yet be discovered. To this point, the authors became interested in constructing quinine derivatives which have built into their structures electrophilic centers which might make covalent bonds with cellular protein or nucleic acid nucleophilic sites. In order to preserve the noncovalent binding properties of quinine, functionalization and derivatization of the remote vinyl group were desired. In an esterification step of the derivatization, a structurally hindered ester was formed, to our surprise. The mechanism for this regioselective reaction are discussed.

  13. On the origin of the regioselective hydrolysis of a naphthoquinone diacetate: a molecular orbital study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Ricardo L.


    Full Text Available The regioselectivity found in the mild basic hydrolysis of the 2,5-dimethyl-1,4-naphthohydroquinone diacetate (Nunes, R.L.; Bieber, L.W.; Longo, R.L. J. Nat. Prod. 1999, 62, 1600 has been studied with ab initio and semiempirical molecular orbital methods. In the gas phase (isolated systems, these methods were not able to provide results that could explain the observed selectivity. However, when the solvent effects were included in the AM1 method using the discrete solvation model it was possible to establish that this selectivity is due to the relative stability of the tetrahedral intermediates and their transitions states. The origin of this relative stability and thus of the observed selectivity is due to the repulsive interactions between the 2-methyl substituent in the naphthalene ring and the methyl group in the 4-acetate substituent, as well as their hindrance towards the hydration of the ionic group in the tetrahedral intermediates.

  14. Regioselective hydroxylation of cholecalciferol, cholesterol and other sterol derivatives by steroid C25 dehydrogenase. (United States)

    Rugor, A; Tataruch, M; Staroń, J; Dudzik, A; Niedzialkowska, E; Nowak, P; Hogendorf, A; Michalik-Zym, A; Napruszewska, D B; Jarzębski, A; Szymańska, K; Białas, W; Szaleniec, M


    Steroid C25 dehydrogenase (S25DH) from Sterolibacterium denitrificans Chol-1S is a molybdenum oxidoreductase belonging to the so-called ethylbenzene dehydrogenase (EBDH)-like subclass of DMSO reductases capable of the regioselective hydroxylation of cholesterol or cholecalciferol to 25-hydroxy products. Both products are important biologically active molecules: 25-hydroxycholesterol is responsible for a complex regulatory function in the immunological system, while 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (calcifediol) is the activated form of vitamin D3 used in the treatment of rickets and other calcium disorders. Studies revealed that the optimal enzymatic synthesis proceeds in fed-batch reactors under anaerobic conditions, with 6-9 % (w/v) 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin as a solubilizer and 1.25-5 % (v/v) 2-methoxyethanol as an organic co-solvent, both adjusted to the substrate type, and 8-15 mM K3[Fe(CN)6] as an electron acceptor. Such thorough optimization of the reaction conditions resulted in high product concentrations: 0.8 g/L for 25-hydroxycholesterol, 1.4 g/L for calcifediol and 2.2 g/L for 25-hydroxy-3-ketosterols. Although the purification protocol yields approximately 2.3 mg of pure S25DH from 30 g of wet cell mass (specific activity of 14 nmol min-1 mg-1), the non-purified crude extract or enzyme preparation can be readily used for the regioselective hydroxylation of both cholesterol and cholecalciferol. On the other hand, pure S25DH can be efficiently immobilized either on powder or a monolithic silica support functionalized with an organic linker providing NH2 groups for enzyme covalent binding. Although such immobilization reduced the enzyme initial activity more than twofold it extended S25DH catalytic lifetime under working conditions at least 3.5 times.

  15. Aerobic Oxidation of 4-Alkyl-N,N-dimethylbenzylamines Catalyzed by N-Hydroxyphthalimide: Protonation-Driven Control over Regioselectivity. (United States)

    Bietti, Massimo; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Lapi, Andrea; Martin, Teo; Mazzonna, Marco; Polin, Mariangela; Salamone, Michela


    A change in regioselectivity has been observed in the hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactions from 4-alkyl-N,N-dimethylbenzylamines (alkyl = ethyl, isopropyl, and benzyl) to the phthalimide N-oxyl radical (PINO) by effect of protonation. This result can be rationalized on the basis of an acid-induced deactivation of the C-H bonds α to nitrogen toward HAT to PINO as evidenced by the 10(4)-10(7)-fold decrease in the HAT rate constants in acetonitrile following addition of 0.1 M HClO4. This acid-induced change in regioselectivity has been successfully applied for selective functionalization of the less activated benzylic C-H bonds para to the CH2N(CH3)2 group in the aerobic oxidation of 4-alkyl-N,N-dimethylbenzylamines catalyzed by N-hydroxyphthalimide in acetic acid.

  16. The synthesis of amphipathic prodrugs of 1,2-diol drugs with saccharide conjugates by high regioselective enzymatic protocol. (United States)

    Quan, Jing; Chen, Zhichun; Han, Chengyou; Lin, Xianfu


    A facile, high regioselective enzymatic synthesis approach for the preparation of amphipathic prodrugs with saccharides of mephenesin and chlorphenesin was developed. Firstly, transesterification of two drugs with divinyl dicarboxylates with different carbon chain length was performed under the catalysis of Candida antarctica lipase acrylic resin and Lipozyme in anhydrous acetone at 50 degrees C, respectively. A series of lipophilic derivatives with vinyl groups of mephenesin and chlorphenesin were prepared. The influences of different organic solvents, enzyme sources, reaction time, and the acylation reagents on the synthesis of vinyl esters were investigated. And then, protease-catalyzed high regioselective acylation of D-glucose and D-mannose with vinyl esters of mephenesin and chlorphenesin gave drug-saccharide derivatives in good yields. The studies of lipophilicity and hydrolysis in vitro of prodrugs verified that drug-saccharide derivatives had amphipathic properties, and both lipophilic and amphipathic drug derivatives had obvious controlled release characteristics.

  17. Synthesis of the rare disaccharide nigerose by structure-based design of a phosphorylase mutant with altered regioselectivity. (United States)

    Kraus, M; Görl, J; Timm, M; Seibel, J


    In the absence of the natural acceptor inorganic phosphate wild-type sucrose phosphorylase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis (BaSP) produces maltose (4-O-α-d-glucopyranosyl-d-glucose) and kojibiose (2-O-α-d-glucopyranosyl-d-glucose) as sole transfer products. A Q345F exchange switches the enzyme's regioselectivity from 2 to 3 exclusively, yielding the rare sugar nigerose (3-O-α-d-glucopyranosyl-d-glucose, sakebiose).

  18. Harnessing non-covalent interactions to exert control over regioselectivity and site-selectivity in catalytic reactions


    Davis, Holly J; Phipps, Robert J.


    Asymmetric catalysis has been revolutionised by the realisation that attractive non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonds and ion pairs can act as powerful controllers of enantioselectivity when incorporated into appropriate small molecule chiral scaffolds. Given these tremendous advances it is surprising that there are still a relatively limited number of examples of non-covalent interactions being harnessed for control of regioselectivity or site-selectivity in catalysis, two other f...

  19. Orthogonal protection of saccharide polyols through solvent-free one-pot sequences based on regioselective silylations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Traboni


    Full Text Available tert-Butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS and tert-butyldiphenylsilyl (TBDPS are alcohol protecting groups widely employed in organic synthesis in view of their compatibility with a wide range of conditions. Their regioselective installation on polyols generally requires lengthy reactions and the use of high boiling solvents. In the first part of this paper we demonstrate that regioselective silylation of sugar polyols can be conducted in short times with the requisite silyl chloride and a very limited excess of pyridine (2–3 equivalents. Under these conditions, that can be regarded as solvent-free conditions in view of the insolubility of the polyol substrates, the reactions are faster than in most examples reported in the literature, and can even be further accelerated with a catalytic amount of tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB. The strategy proved also useful for either the selective TBDMS protection of secondary alcohols or the fast per-O-trimethylsilylation of saccharide polyols. In the second part of the paper the scope of the silylation approach was significantly extended with the development of unprecedented “one-pot” and “solvent-free” sequences allowing the regioselective silylation/alkylation (or the reverse sequence of saccharide polyols in short times. The developed methodologies represent a very useful and experimentally simple tool for the straightforward access to saccharide building-blocks useful in organic synthesis.

  20. Claisen rearrangements of benzyl vinyl ethers: theoretical investigation of mechanism, substituent effects, and regioselectivity. (United States)

    Krenske, Elizabeth H; Burns, Jed M; McGeary, Ross P


    Recently we reported the aromatic Claisen rearrangements of benzyl ketene acetals, which form one of the few examples of aromatic Claisen rearrangements involving benzyl vinyl ethers (as opposed to allyl aryl ethers, which are the usual substrates for aromatic Claisen rearrangements). Theoretical calculations predict that these rearrangements proceed via a concerted [3,3]-sigmatropic transition state, which is similar in geometry to the TS for the Claisen rearrangement of an allyl aryl ether but has a 4 kcal mol-1 higher barrier. The effects of donor (OMe) and acceptor (CN) substituents on the kinetics of the [3,3]-rearrangement mirror those reported for allyl vinyl ethers: the largest substituent effects are seen for 1-OMe, 2-OMe, 2-CN, and 4-CN substituents, which lower the barrier by 5-9 kcal mol-1. Substituents on the aromatic ring have smaller effects on the barrier (≤2 kcal mol-1). The regioselectivities of Claisen rearrangements of meta-substituted benzyl ketene acetals favour 1,2,3-trisubstituted products in preference to the less sterically congested 1,2,4-isomers due to favourable orbital interactions in the 1,2,3 transition state.

  1. Regioselective synthesis and preliminary cytotoxic activity properties of tetrazole appendage N-substituted piperazine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kommula Dileep


    Full Text Available A series of 1-(4-substituted-4-(3-((1-(substituted-1H-tetrazol-5-ylthiopropylpiperazine derivatives were ( 6a-t synthesized by KF-Al2O3 mediated S-alkylation of 5-thio-substituted tetrazole with 1-(3-chloropropyl-4-(4-substitutedpiperazine. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were characterized by NMR and MS spectral data. Further, the regioselective formation of C-S bond was unambiguously confirmed by single crystal X- ray diffraction. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their in vitro cytotoxic activities against two cancer cell lines: DU-145 (prostate cancer and HeLa (cervical cancer. These cell lines were utilized in MTT assays and the obtained results were compared to doxorubicin, and their IC 50 values were determined. Among the compounds tested, 6f, 6j, 6m, 6n, 6o, 6q, 6r and 6t showed considerable potent activity, while the compound 6p exhibited significant potent activity against DU-145 and HeLa cancer cell lines compare to standard Doxorubicin.

  2. Reactivity and regioselectivity in Diels-Alder reactions of anion encapsulated fullerenes. (United States)

    Cui, Cheng-Xing; Zhang, Zhao-Pei; Zhu, Lei; Qu, Ling-Bo; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Lan, Yu


    Encapsulation and surface chemical modification are methodologies to enhance the properties of fullerenes for various applications. Herein, density functional theory calculations are performed to study the Diels-Alder (DA) reactivity of anion encapsulated C60, including [X@C60](-) (X = F, Cl, Br, or I), [S@C60](2-), and [N@C60](3-). Computational results reveal that encapsulated Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), or S(2-) anions are located close to the center of the C60 molecule; however, encapsulated F(-) is displaced from the center. Encapsulated N(3-) bonds to the inner surface of the carbon cage, which leads to a negative charge transfer to the C60. In [N@C60](3-), C-C bonds near to the encapsulated N atom are more reactive. Our calculations reveal that encapsulated halogen or S anions decrease the DA reactivity because of the stronger closed-shell repulsion of the encapsulated anion. However, encapsulated N(3-) increases the DA reactivity. The higher distortion energy of the halogen- or S(2-)-anion encapsulated C60 leads to lower reactivity of the 6-5 bond. Opposite regioselectivity of the DA reaction with [N@C60](3-) is attributed to distortion energy of the cyclopentadiene (CPD) moiety. The asymmetrical transition state geometry leads to a lower distortion energy of the CPD moiety.

  3. Synthesis of Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Regioselective Ring Opening of Oxabicycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Camilla Arboe

    . These oligosaccharides participate in multiple mechanisms by which breast-fed infants become protected against infections and they are believed to serve as nutrients for the early brain development. The synthesized oligosaccharides are based on the motif Gal1–3/4GlcNAc1– 3Gal1–4Glc, which is the core of many human milk....... The tetrasaccharides were formed both by sequential and the developed one-pot method. Deprotection of the protecting group at the C-2-position on the galactose moiety liberated an acceptor for the fucosylation eventually creating the two linear pentasaccharides Lacto-N-fucopentaose I and Lacto-N-neofucopentaose I...... HO OH HO O OH O NHAc OH O O HO HO O HOOH OH Lacto-N-fucopentaose OH O HO HO O OH O HO O HO OH O O OH HO NHAc Lacto-N-neofucopentaose OH O O HO HO O HOOH OH The second chapter describes the regioselective ring opening of enantiopure oxabicycles primarily by the use of rhodium catalysts and phosphine...

  4. Regioselectivity and Reaction Mechanism of Ru-Catalyzed Hydrogenolysis of Squalane and Model Alkanes. (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Oya, Shin-Ichi; Kanno, Daisuke; Nakaji, Yosuke; Tamura, Masazumi; Tomishige, Keiichi


    The dependence of the C-C hydrogenolysis activity on reaction parameters and the structure of the substrate alkanes was investigated for Ru/CeO2 catalyst with very small (dispersion: H/Ru=0.89) Ru particles. The substrate concentration and reaction temperature did not have a significant effect on the selectivity pattern, except that methane production was promoted at high temperatures. However, the hydrogen pressure had a marked effect on the selectivity pattern. Ctertiary -C bond dissociation, terminal Csecondary -Cprimary bond dissociation, and fragmentation to form excess methane had negative reaction order with respect to hydrogen partial pressure, whereas Csecondary -Csecondary bond dissociation had an approximately zero reaction order. Therefore, a high hydrogen pressure is essential for the regioselective hydrogenolysis of Csecondary -Csecondary bonds in squalane. Ru/SiO2 catalyst with larger Ru particles showed similar changes in the product distribution during the change in hydrogen pressure. The reaction mechanism for each type of C-C bond dissociation is proposed based on reactivity trends and DFT calculations. The proposed intermediate species for the internal Csecondary -Csecondary dissociation, terminal Csecondary -Cprimary dissociation, and Ctertiary -C dissociation is alkyls, alkylidynes, and alkenes, respectively. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Understanding reactivity and regioselectivity in Diels-Alder reactions of a sugar-derived dienophile bearing two competing EWGs. An experimental and computational study. (United States)

    Giri, Germán F; Sarotti, Ariel M; Spanevello, Rolando A


    The effect of an extra EWG in the reactivity and regioselectivity in Diels-Alder reactions of β-cyanolevoglucosenone and 4 different dienes was studied by a joint computational and experimental study. Conceptual DFT analysis successfully predicted an important enhancement in the reactivity, and correctly anticipated the regioselectivity in the reactions with isoprene. However, this static treatment failed when dealing the regiochemical preference of the reactions involving a substituted anthracene as diene. MPW1K/6-31G* calculations correctly reproduced the experimental observations. Based on the collected data, we found that when dealing with dienes and dienophiles with no clear electronically activated position, the ease of pyramidalization of the interacting atoms dictates the regioselectivity of the DA reaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis of stereotetrads by regioselective cleavage of diastereomeric MEM-protected 2-methyl-3,4-epoxy alcohols with diethylpropynyl aluminum. (United States)

    Torres, Wildeliz; Torres, Gerardo; Prieto, José A


    The regioselectivity of the epoxide ring opening of 2-methyl-3,4-epoxy alcohols with diethylpropynylalane has been studied as a function of the C1 alcohol protecting group. An efficient selective method was developed using MEM as the protecting group. The reaction proceeded in a highly regioselective manner providing the useful 1,3-diol motif. The undesired 1,4-diol product produced by some free alcohol diastereomers was not observed. This highly stereoselective method provides access to termini-differentiated stereotetrads, which are essential building bocks for polypropionate synthesis.

  7. Regioselective Synthesis of 1-(2,6-Dichloro-4-Trifluoromethylphenyl- 4-Alkyl-1H-[1,2,3]-Triazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixue Zhang


    Full Text Available A new and efficient method for the synthesis of 1-(2,6-dichloro-4-trifluoromethylphenyl-4-alkyl-1H-[1,2,3]-triazoles by the room temperature 1,3-dipolarcycloaddition of (2-azido-1,3-dichloro-5-trifluoromethylbenzene with terminal alkynes inthe presence of Cu (I salt as catalyst is reported. All the reactions gave 1,4-disubstitutedproducts with high regioselectivity, as no 1,5-disubstituted product was formed. Thestructures of all the title compounds have been confirmed by elemental analysis, 1H- and13C-NMR and in addition, the structure of compound 5a was investigated by X-raycrystallography.

  8. Direct Regioselective Esterification at O-2 of β-Cyclodextrin and Hydrolysis by Neighboring-group Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Zhong Wang


    Full Text Available A simple and efficient strategy for direct regioselective esterification at O-2 of β-cyclodextrin was developed by using the combination of N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole and carbonate buffer in 1,4-dioxane, which does not require large amounts of polar organic solvents such as DMF, toxic solvents such as CH3CN, or flammable bases such as NaH. Moreover, their hydrolyses by neighboring-group participation were observed. Mono-2-tosyl-β-cyclodextrin was liable to epoxidation, while mono-2-(p-methylbenzoyl-β-cyclodextrin liable to isomerization. They had different mechanisms of hydrolysis.

  9. Iridium-catalyzed C–H coupling reaction of heteroaromatic compounds with bis(pinacolato)diboron: regioselective synthesis of heteroarylboronates


    Takagi, Jun; Sato, Kazuaki; Hartwig, John F; Ishiyama, Tatsuo; Miyaura, Norio


    The C–H coupling of aromatic heterocycles with bis(pinacolato)diboron was carried out in octane at 80–100°C in the presence of a 1/2[IrCl(COD)]2-(4,4 -di-tert-butyl-2,2 -bipyridine) catalyst (3 mol%). The reactions of five-membered substrates such as thiophene, furan, pyrrole, and their benzo-fused derivatives exclusively produced 2-borylated products, whereas those of six-membered heterocycles including pyridine and quinoline selectively occurred at the 3-position. Regioselective sy...

  10. Theoretical Study on Regioselectivity of the Diels-Alder Reaction between 1,8-Dichloroanthracene and Acrolein. (United States)

    Sultan, Mujeeb A; Karama, Usama; Almansour, Abdulrahman I; Soliman, Saied M


    A theoretical study of the regioselectivity of the Diels-Alder reaction between 1,8-dichloroanthracene and acrolein is performed using DFT at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory. The FMO analysis, global and local reactivity indices confirmed the reported experimental results. Potential energy surface analysis showed that the cycloadditions (CAs) favor the formation of the anti product. These results are in good agreement with the reported results obtained experimentally where the anti is the major product.

  11. Theoretical Study on Regioselectivity of the Diels-Alder Reaction between 1,8-Dichloroanthracene and Acrolein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujeeb A. Sultan


    Full Text Available A theoretical study of the regioselectivity of the Diels-Alder reaction between 1,8-dichloroanthracene and acrolein is performed using DFT at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p level of theory. The FMO analysis, global and local reactivity indices confirmed the reported experimental results. Potential energy surface analysis showed that the cycloadditions (CAs favor the formation of the anti product. These results are in good agreement with the reported results obtained experimentally where the anti is the major product.

  12. Rh-Catalyzed, Regioselective, C-H Bond Functionalization: Access to Quinoline-Branched Amines and Dimers. (United States)

    Reddy, M Damoder; Fronczek, Frank R; Watkins, E Blake


    Rh-catalyzed, chelation-induced, C-5 regioselective C-H functionalization of 8-amidoquinolines with a range of N-Boc aminals is reported for the first time. The addition of in situ generated imines to C(sp2)-H bonds afforded branched amines in good to excellent yields. Moreover, this transformation features good functional group compatibility, broad substrate scope, and mild reaction conditions and is suitable for gram-scale synthesis. In addition, an unprecedented, chelation-induced, site-selective, remote dimerization of quinolines led to the formation of dimer frameworks in moderate yields under Rh-catalyzed conditions.

  13. Characterization of a new sn-1,3-regioselective triacylglycerol lipase from Malbranchea cinnamomea. (United States)

    Tong, Xiaoxue; Busk, Peter Kamp; Lange, Lene


    The thermophilic ascomycetous fungus Malbranchea cinnamomea produces lipases (EC that allow it to grow efficiently on medium containing triacylglycerol substrates such as plant oils or tributyrin as sole carbon source. In the transcriptome of M. cinnamomea grown on olive oil, we found one cDNA sequence encoding a putative extracellular lipase. This gene, termed as MclipA, was cloned and heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant protein, rMclipA, catalyzed the hydrolysis of short-chain fatty acid ester such as p-nitrophenyl butyrate (C4) and long-chain fatty acid ester such as p-nitrophenyl myristate (C14). These results indicate that MclipA is a true triacylglycerol lipase. For rMclipA, the optimum lipase activity was obtained at 45 °C, and more than 93% of enzyme activity was retained after 24 H of incubation at temperatures up to 50 °C. rMclipA was active toward p-nitrophenyl esters of various carbon chain lengths with peak activity on long-chain fatty acid (C14). rMclipA displayed high sn-1,3-regioselectivity on hydrolyzing triolein. rMclipA can catalyze oleic acid methyl ester synthesis resulting in a 71% esterification degree after 24 H of reaction at 40 °C. These properties suggest that rMclipA has potential application in, for example, selective hydrolysis of oil, modification of triacylglycerol, and production of biodiesel. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Immobilization of Neutral Protease from Bacillus subtilis for Regioselective Hydrolysis of Acetylated Nucleosides: Application to Capecitabine Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Bavaro


    Full Text Available This paper describes the immobilization of the neutral protease from Bacillus subtilis and its application in the regioselective hydrolysis of acetylated nucleosides, including building blocks useful for the preparation of anticancer products. Regarding the immobilization study, different results have been obtained depending on the immobilization procedure. Epoxy hydrophobic carriers gave a poorly stable derivative that released almost 50% of the immobilized protein under the required reaction conditions. On the contrary, covalent immobilization on a differently activated hydrophilic carrier (agarose resulted in very stable enzyme derivatives. In an attempt to explain the obtained enzyme immobilization results, the hypothetical localization of lysines on the enzyme surface was predicted in a 3D structure model of B. subtilis protease N built in silico by using the structure of Staphylococcus aureus metalloproteinase as the template. The immobilized enzyme shown a high regioselectivity in the hydrolysis of different peracetylated nucleosides. A stable enzyme derivative was obtained and successfully used in the development of efficient preparative bioprocesses for the hydrolysis of acetylated nucleosides, giving new intermediates for the synthesis of capecitabine in high yield.

  15. In-situ Dimanganese Catalyst for Fast Screening of Molecular Recognition Catalysts for Regioselective Oxygenation of an sp3 C–H Bond (United States)

    Das, Siddhartha; Brudvig, Gary W.; Crabtree, Robert H.


    We report a rapid method for assembling our di-μ-oxo dimanganese catalyst, verified by ESI-MS and EPR, assessing its water oxidation activity by a Clark electrode O2-assay study and its regioselective C–H activation activity by product analysis in catalytic runs. PMID:20617108

  16. Synthesis of unnatural amino acids via microwave-assisted regio-selective one-pot multi-component reactions of sulfamidates (United States)

    Synthesis of triazole-based unnatural amino acids, triazole bisaminoacids and β-amino triazole has been described via stereo and regioselective one-pot multi-component reaction of sulfamidates, sodium azide, and alkynes under MW irradiation conditions. The developed method is app...

  17. Microwave-Enhanced Sulphated Zirconia and SZ/MCM-41 Catalyzed Regioselective Synthesis of β-Amino Alcohols Under Solvent-Free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo González-Zamora


    Full Text Available A solvent-free approach for the regioselective synthesis of β-amino alcohols inshorter reaction times and higher yields, compared to conventional heating is described. Itinvolves microwave (MW exposure of undiluted reactants in the presence of sulphatedzirconia (SZ or sulphated zirconia over MCM-41 (SZM as catalyst. Both acid materialscan be easily recovered and reused.

  18. C8-Selective Acylation of Quinoline N-Oxides with α-Oxocarboxylic Acids via Palladium-Catalyzed Regioselective C-H Bond Activation. (United States)

    Chen, Xiaopei; Cui, Xiuling; Wu, Yangjie


    A facile and efficient protocol for palladium-catalyzed C8-selective acylation of quinoline N-oxides with α-oxocarboxylic acids has been developed. In this approach, N-oxide was utilized as a stepping stone for the remote C-H functionalization. The reactions proceeded efficiently under mild reaction conditions with excellent regioselectivity and broad functional group tolerance.

  19. Multicomponent Synthesis of a N-Protected Alpha-Amino Ester: Ethyl 2-((4-Methoxyphenyl)Amino)-3-Phenylpropanoate (United States)

    Le Gall, Erwan; Pignon, Antoine


    This laboratory experiment describes the preparation of a N-protected phenylalanine ethyl ester by a zinc-mediated Mannich-like multicomponent reaction between benzyl bromide, "p"-anisidine, and ethyl glyoxylate. The one-step reaction involves the in situ metallation of benzyl bromide into a benzylzinc reagent and its addition onto imine (Barbier…

  20. Controlled acrylate insertion regioselectivity in diazaphospholidine- sulfonato palladium(II) complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Wucher, Philipp


    Diazaphospholidine-sulfonato Pd(II) complexes [{κ2-P,O-(N- Ar2C2H4N2P)C6H 4SO3}PdMe(L)] 1-L (L = dmso, pyridine, lutidine, or μ-LiCl(solvent); 1a: Ar = Ph, 1b: Ar = 2-MeC6H4, 1c: Ar = 2-MeOC6H4, 1d: Ar = 2,4,6-Me3C 6H2, 1e: Ar = 2,6-iPr2C6H 3, 1f: Ar = 2,6-(p-tolyl)2C6H3) were prepared and structurally characterized. The regioselectivity of methyl acrylate (MA) insertion into the Pd-Me bond is entirely inverted from >93% 1,2-insertion for bulky substituents (1d-f, yielding the insertion products [(P̂O)Pd{κ2-C,O-CH2CHMeC(O)OMe], 12) to the usual electronically controlled 2,1-insertion (>95%) for the less bulky Ar = Ph (1a, yielding the insertion product [(P̂O)Pd{κ2-C,O- CHEtC(O)OMe], 11, and β-H elimination product methyl crotonate). DFT studies underline that this is due to a more favorable insertion transition state (2,1- favored by 12 kJ mol-1 over 1,2- for 1a) vs destabilization of the 2,1-insertion transition state in 1d,e. By contrast, MA insertion into the novel isolated and structurally characterized hydride and deuteride complexes [{κ2-P,O-(N-Ar2C 2H4N2P)C6H4SO 3}PdR(lutidine)] (Ar = 2,6-iPr2C6H3; 9e: R = H, 10e: R = D) occurs 2,1-selectively. This is due to the insertion occurring from the isomer with the P-donor and the olefin in trans arrangement, rather than the insertion into the alkyl from the cis isomer in which the olefin is in proximity to the bulky diazaphospholidine. 1a-f are precursors to active catalysts for ethylene polymerization to highly linear polyethylene with M n up to 35 000 g mol-1. In copolymerization experiments, norbornene was incorporated in up to 6.1 mol % into the polyethylene backbone. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  1. Structures in solid state and solution of dimethoxy curcuminoids: regioselective bromination and chlorination (United States)


    Background Several papers described the structure of curcumin and some other derivatives in solid and in solution. In the crystal structure of curcumin, the enol H atom is located symmetrically between both oxygen atoms of the enolone fragment with an O···O distance of 2.455 Å, which is characteristic for symmetrical H-bonds. In the solution, the geometry of the enolone fragment is attributed to the inherent disorder of the local environment, which solvates one of the basic sites better than the other, stabilizing one tautomer over the other. In this paper, how the position of methoxy groups in dimethoxy curcuminoids influence the conformation of molecules and how the halogen atoms change it when they are bonded at α-position in keto-enol part of molecules is described. Results Six isomers of dimethoxy curcuminoids were prepared. Conformations in solid state, which were determined by X-ray single crystallography and 1H MAS and 13C CPMAS NMR measurements, depend on the position of methoxy groups in curcuminoid molecules. In solution, a fast equilibrium between both keto-enol forms exists. A theoretical calculation finding shows that the position of methoxy groups changes the energy of HOMO and LUMO. An efficient protocol for the highly regioselective bromination and chlorination leading to α-halogenated product has been developed. All α-halogenated compounds are present mainly in cis keto-enol form. Conclusions The structures in solid state of dimethoxy curcuminoids depend on the position of methoxy groups. The NMR data of crystalline solid samples of 3,4-diOCH3 derivative, XRD measurements and X-ray structures lead us to the conclusion that polymorphism exists in solids. The same conclusion can be done for 3,5-diOCH3 derivative. In solution, dimethoxy curcuminoids are present in the forms that can be described as the coexistence of two equivalent tautomers being in fast equilibrium. The position of methoxy groups has a small influence on the enolic hydrogen

  2. Ligandless Palladium-Catalyzed Regioselective Direct C-H Arylation of Imidazo[1,2-a]imidazole Derivatives. (United States)

    Grosse, Sandrine; Pillard, Christelle; Massip, Stéphane; Marchivie, Mathieu; Jarry, Christian; Bernard, Philippe; Guillaumet, Gérald


    Herein a novel access to functionalizable 6-substituted imidazo[1,2-a]imidazole scaffolds is described. The reactivity of this heterobicyclic unit toward direct C-H arylation was studied, and conditions allowing regioselective arylation at position 3 were successfully developed. The practicability of this method is manifested by the ligandless conditions and low catalyst loading. The strategy is functional group tolerant and provides rapid access to a large variety of 3,6-di(hetero)arylated imidazo[1,2-a]imidazole derivatives. A second arylation at position 2 was then carried out, and a library of diversified 2,3,6-tri(hetero)arylated imidazo[1,2-a]imidazoles was generated in good yields. A one-pot, two-step procedure was finally developed.

  3. Regioselective C-H hydroxylation of omeprazole sulfide by Bacillus megaterium CYP102A1 to produce a human metabolite. (United States)

    Jang, Hyun-Hee; Ryu, Sang-Hoon; Le, Thien-Kim; Doan, Tiep Thi My; Nguyen, Thi Huong Ha; Park, Ki Deok; Yim, Da-Eun; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kang, Choong-Kyung; Ahn, Taeho; Kang, Hyung-Sik; Yun, Chul-Ho


    To find a simple enzymatic strategy for the efficient synthesis of the expensive 5'-hydroxyomeprazole sulfide, a recently identified minor human metabolite, from omeprazole sulfide, which is an inexpensive substrate. The practical synthetic strategy for the 5'-OH omeprazole sulfide was accomplished with a set of highly active CYP102A1 mutants, which were obtained by blue colony screening from CYP102A1 libraries with a high conversion yield. The mutant and even the wild-type enzyme of CYP102A1 catalyzed the high regioselective (98 %) C-H hydroxylation of omeprazole sulfide to 5'-OH omeprazole sulfide with a high conversion yield (85-90 %). A highly efficient synthesis of 5'-OH omeprazole sulfide was developed using CYP102A1 from Bacillus megaterium as a biocatalyst.

  4. Radical S-adenosyl methionine epimerases: regioselective introduction of diverse D-amino acid patterns into peptide natural products. (United States)

    Morinaka, Brandon I; Vagstad, Anna L; Helf, Maximilian J; Gugger, Muriel; Kegler, Carsten; Freeman, Michael F; Bode, Helge B; Piel, Jörn


    PoyD is a radical S-adenosyl methionine epimerase that introduces multiple D-configured amino acids at alternating positions into the highly complex marine peptides polytheonamide A and B. This novel post-translational modification contributes to the ability of the polytheonamides to form unimolecular minimalistic ion channels and its cytotoxic activity at picomolar levels. Using a genome mining approach we have identified additional PoyD homologues in various bacteria. Three enzymes were expressed in E. coli with their cognate as well as engineered peptide precursors and shown to introduce diverse D-amino acid patterns into all-L peptides. The data reveal a family of architecturally and functionally distinct enzymes that exhibit high regioselectivity, substrate promiscuity, and irreversible action and thus provide attractive opportunities for peptide engineering. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Utilising Sodium-Mediated Ferration for Regioselective Functionalisation of Fluoroarenes via C-H and C-F Bond Activations. (United States)

    Hevia, Eva; Maddock, Lewis C H; Nixon, Tracy; Kennedy, Alan R; Probert, Michael R; Clegg, William


    While Fe(II) complexes have shown little promise in deprotonative metallation chemistry, pairing iron bis(amide) Fe(HMDS)2 with Na(HMDS) to form new sodium ferrate base [(dioxane)0.5·NaFe(HMDS)3] (1) enables regioselective mono and di-ferration (via direct Fe-H exchange) of a wide range of fluoroaromatic substrates under mild reaction conditions. Trapping of several ferrated intermediates has provided key insight into how synchronised Na/Fe cooperation operates in these transformations. Furthermore using excess 1 at 80oC switches on a remarkable cascade process inducing the collective 2-fold C-H/3-fold C-F bond activation, where each C-H bond is transformed to C-Fe bonds whereas each C-F bond is transformed into a C-N bond. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Computational insights into active site shaping for substrate specificity and reaction regioselectivity in the EXTL2 retaining glycosyltransferase. (United States)

    Mendoza, Fernanda; Lluch, José M; Masgrau, Laura


    Glycosyltransferases are enzymes that catalyze a monosaccharide transfer reaction from a donor to an acceptor substrate with the synthesis of a new glycosidic bond. They are highly substrate specific and regioselective, even though the acceptor substrate often presents multiple reactive groups. Currently, many efforts are dedicated to the development of biocatalysts for glycan synthesis and, therefore, a better understanding of how natural enzymes achieve this goal can be of valuable help. To gain a deeper insight into the catalytic strategies used by retaining glycosyltransferases, the wild type EXTL2 (CAZy family GT64) and four mutant forms (at positions 293 and 246) were studied using QM(DFT)/MM calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. Existing hypotheses on the roles of Arg293, an enigmatic residue in the CAZy family GT64 that seemed to contradict a mechanism through an oxocarbenium intermediate, and of Asp246 have been tested. We also provide a molecular interpretation for the results of site-directed mutagenesis experiments. Moreover, we have investigated why an Asp, and not a Glu like in the family GT6, is found on the β-face of the transferred GlcNAc. It is predicted that an Asp246Glu mutant of EXTL2 would be unable to catalyze the α-1,4 transfer. The results herein presented clarify the roles that Arg293, Asp246 and Leu213 have at different stages of the catalytic process (for binding but also for efficient chemical reaction). Altogether, we provide a molecular view that connects the identity and conformation of these residues to the substrate specificity and regioselectivity of the enzyme, illustrating a delicate interplay between all these aspects.

  7. C-H nickellation of phenol-derived phosphinites: regioselectivity and structures of cyclonickellated complexes. (United States)

    Mangin, Loïc P; Zargarian, Davit


    This report describes the results of a study on the ortho-C-H nickellation of the aryl phosphinites i-Pr2P(OAr) derived from the following four groups of substituted phenols: 3-R-C6H4OH (R = F (b), Me (c), MeO (d), Cl (e)); 3,5-R2-C6H3OH (R = F (f), Me (g), Cl (h), OMe (i)); 2-R-C6H4OH (R = Me (j), Ph(k)); and 2,6-R2-C6H3OH (R = Me (l), Ph (m)). No nickellation was observed with the phosphinites derived from the 3,5-disubstituted phenols g and h, and the 2,6-disubstituted phenols l and m; in all other cases nickellation occurred at an ortho-C-H to generate either the Br-bridged dimers [{κ(P),κ(C)-(i-Pr)2POAr}Ni(μ-Br)]2 (1b-1f, 1j, and 1k) or the monomeric acetonitrile adduct {κ(P),κ(C)-ArOP(i-Pr)2}Ni(Br)(NCMe) (1i-NCMe). Analysis of C-H nickellation regioselectivity with 3-R-C6H4OH pointed to the importance of substituent sterics, not electronics: nickellation occurred at the least hindered position either exclusively (for R = Me (c), MeO(d), and Cl (e)) or predominantly (for R = F (b); 6 : 1). This conclusion is also consistent with the observation that C-H nickellation is possible with the 3,5-disubstituted aryl phosphinites bearing F and OMe, but not with the more bulky substituents Me or Cl. For the 2-substituted aryl phosphinites, C-H nickellation occurs at the unsubstituted ortho-C-H and not on the R substituent, regardless of whether the alternative C-H moiety of the substituent is sp(3) (R = Me (j)) or sp(2) (R = Ph (k)). The system thus reveals a strong preference for formation of 5-membered metallacycles. Consistent with this reactivity, no nickellation occurs with (2,6-R2-C6H3O)P(i-Pr)2. Tests with the parent dimer derived from i-Pr2P(OPh) showed that conversion to the monomeric acetonitrile adduct is highly favored, going to completion with only a small excess of MeCN. All new cyclonickellated complexes reported in this study were fully characterized, including by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The solid state structures of the

  8. Pd-catalysed ligand-enabled carboxylate-directed highly regioselective arylation of aliphatic acids (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Chen, Xiaolan; Yuan, Chunchen; Li, Guobao; Zhang, Jingyu; Zhao, Yingsheng


    α-amino acids bearing aromatic side chains are important synthetic units in the synthesis of peptides and natural products. Although various β-C-H arylation methodologies for amino acid derivatives involving the assistance of directing groups have been extensively developed, syntheses that directly employ N-protected amino acids as starting materials remain rare. Herein, we report an N-acetylglycine-enabled Pd-catalysed carboxylate-directed β-C(sp3)-H arylation of aliphatic acids. In this way, various non-natural amino acids can be directly prepared from phthaloylalanine in one step in good to excellent yields. Furthermore, a series of aliphatic acids have been shown to be amenable to this transformation, affording β-arylated propionic acid derivatives in moderate to good yields. More importantly, this ligand-enabled direct β-C(sp3)-H arylation could be easily scaled-up to 10 g under reflux conditions, highlighting the potential utility of this synthetic method.

  9. Research Update: A hafnium-based metal-organic framework as a catalyst for regioselective ring-opening of epoxides with a mild hydride source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey J. Stephenson


    Full Text Available Reaction of styrene oxide with sodium cyanoborohydride and a catalytic amount of Hf-NU-1000 yields the anti-Markovnikov product, 2-phenylethanol, with over 98% regioselectivity. On the other hand, propylene oxide is ring opened in a Markovnikov fashion to form 2-propanol with 95% regioselectivity. Both styrene oxide and propylene oxide failed to react with sodium cyanoborohydride without the addition of Hf-NU-1000 indicative of the crucial role of Hf-NU-1000 as a catalyst in this reaction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of a metal-organic framework material as a catalyst for ring-opening of epoxides with hydrides.

  10. Regioselective insertion of o-carborynes into the α-C-H bond of tertiary amines: synthesis of α-carboranylated amines. (United States)

    Zhao, Da; Zhang, Jiji; Xie, Zuowei


    o-Carboryne can undergo α-CH bond insertion with tertiary amines, thus affording α-carboranylated amines in very good regioselectivity and isolated yields. In this process, the nucleophilic addition of tertiary amines to the multiple bond of o-carboryne generates a zwitterionic intermediate. An intramolecular proton transfer, followed by a nucleophilic attack leads to the formation of the final product. Thus, regioselectivity is highly dependent upon the acidity of α-CH proton of tertiary amines. This approach serves as an efficient methodology for the preparation of a series of 1-aminoalkyl-o-carboranes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Preparation and characterization of monosubstituted porphyrins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    the support environment, but also enables easy recovery and reuse of the catalyst through simple separation. ... tered with gold. The morphologies were observed on an. SEM (SIRION, FEI, USA). Elemental analysis was performed by a CHN analyser system (Elementar, model. Vario EL III). 2.3 Synthesis of supports.

  12. Regioselective Sequential Modification of Chitosan via Azide-Alkyne Click Reaction: Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Derivatives and Nanoparticles


    Atif Sarwar; Haliza Katas; Siti Noradila Samsudin; Noraziah Mohamad Zin


    Recently, the attention of researchers has been drawn toward the synthesis of chitosan derivatives and their nanoparticles with enhanced antimicrobial activities. In this study, chitosan derivatives with different azides and alkyne groups were synthesized using click chemistry, and these were further transformed into nanoparticles by using the ionotropic gelation method. A series of chitosan derivatives was successfully synthesized by regioselective modification of chitosan via an azide-alkyn...

  13. Chemo- and Regioselective Direct Functional Group Installation through Catalytic Hydroxy Group Selective Conjugate Addition of Amino Alcohols to α,β-Unsaturated Sulfonyl Compounds. (United States)

    Li, Zhao; Yazaki, Ryo; Ohshima, Takashi


    A chemoselective functional group installation through catalytic hydroxy group selective conjugate addition of amino alcohols to a variety of functionalized α,β-unsaturated sulfonyl derivatives was developed. Azide group installation for click chemistry and facile fluorescent labeling onto the less reactive hydroxy group demonstrated the synthetic utility of the present chemoselective catalysis. Moreover, chemo- and regioselective reaction of an unprotected amino diol was achieved for the first time.

  14. Additive- and Metal-Free, Predictably 1,2- and 1,3-Regioselective, Photoinduced Dual C–H/C–X-Borylation of Haloarenes (United States)

    Mfuh, Adelphe M.; Nguyen, Vu T.; Chhetri, Bhuwan; Burch, Jessica E.; Doyle, John D.; Nesterov, Vladimir N.; Arman, Hadi D.; Larionov, Oleg V.


    We report herein a simple, additive- and metal-free, photoinduced, dual C–H/C–X-borylation of chloro-, bromo-, and iodoarenes. The reaction produces 1,2- and 1,3-diborylarenes on gram scales under batch and continuous flow conditions. The regioselectivity of the dual C–H/C–X-borylation is determined by the solvent and the substituents in the parent haloarenes. PMID:27347688

  15. Straightforward Access to Hexahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]indole Core by a Regioselective C3-Azo Coupling Reaction of Arenediazonium Compounds with Tryptamines. (United States)

    Stephens, David E; Larionov, Oleg V


    A base-mediated regioselective electrophilic addition of arenediazonium salts at the C3-position of tryptamines followed by cyclization provides an efficient entry to C3-nitrogenated hexahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]indoles (HPIs) that can subsequently be transformed into 3-arylhexahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]indoles and other HPI derivatives. The reaction is the first example of a 1,2-diamination that utilizes easily accessible arenediazonium salts as nitrogenous electrophiles.

  16. Additive- and Metal-Free, Predictably 1,2- and 1,3-Regioselective, Photoinduced Dual C-H/C-X Borylation of Haloarenes. (United States)

    Mfuh, Adelphe M; Nguyen, Vu T; Chhetri, Bhuwan; Burch, Jessica E; Doyle, John D; Nesterov, Vladimir N; Arman, Hadi D; Larionov, Oleg V


    We report herein a simple, additive- and metal-free, photoinduced, dual C-H/C-X borylation of chloro-, bromo-, and iodoarenes. The reaction produces 1,2- and 1,3-diborylarenes on gram scales under batch and continuous flow conditions. The regioselectivity of the dual C-H/C-X borylation is determined by the solvent and the substituents in the parent haloarenes.

  17. A quantitative indicator diagram for lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases reveals the role of aromatic surface residues in HjLPMO9A regioselectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Danneels

    Full Text Available Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs have changed our understanding of lignocellulosic degradation dramatically over the last years. These metalloproteins catalyze oxidative cleavage of recalcitrant polysaccharides and can act on the C1 and/or C4 position of glycosidic bonds. Structural data have led to several hypotheses, but we are still a long way from reaching complete understanding of the factors that determine their divergent regioselectivity. Site-directed mutagenesis enables the investigation of structure-function relationship in enzymes and will be of major importance in unraveling this intriguing matter. In this context, it is crucial to have an enzyme assay or screening approach with a direct correlation with the desired functionality. LPMOs render this search extra challenging due to their insoluble substrates, complex pattern of reaction products and lack of synthetic standards of most oxidized products. Here, we describe a regioselectivity indicator diagram based on the time-course of only 2 HPAEC-PAD signals. The diagram was successfully used to confirm the hypothesis that aromatic surface residues influence the C1/C4 oxidation ratio in Hypocrea jecorina LPMO9A. Consequently, the diagram should become a valuable tool in the search towards better understanding and engineering of regioselectivity in LPMOs.

  18. A Mild and Green Route for Regio-selective Amination of Oxiranes Using Nanomagnetic Supported Ferrous Ion as a Solid Lewis Acid Catalyst in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Mansouri


    Full Text Available A mild, green and highly efficient route for regio-selective amination of oxiranes was developed via incorporation of Mn(II, Fe(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II cations onto the surface of hydroxyapatite-encapsulated γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3@HAp. Among six magnetically recoverable catalytic systems denoted as [γ-Fe2O3@HAp-MII], the catalyst in which M designated as Fe(II showed the best efficiency as well as regio-selectivity in amination of oxiranes under an ambient reaction condition. A wide variety of aromatic and aliphatic amines were reacted with epoxides using magnetically separable iron catalyst to give the corresponding amino alcohols in excellent yields and selectivities in water as solvent at room temperature. In addition, recovery of the catalyst was successfully carried out in subsequent runs without any decrease in activity even after 5 runs. High regio-selectivity toward terminal ring-opening, efficient catalyst reusability using simple magnetic separation, high yields, simplicity in operation and diversity for various substrates are of advantages of this study.

  19. Purification and characterization of Acremonium implicatum alpha-glucosidase having regioselectivity for alpha-1,3-glucosidic linkage. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takeshi; Unno, Takehiro; Watanabe, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Mikio; Okuyama, Masayuki; Mori, Haruhide; Chiba, Seiya; Kimura, Atsuo


    alpha-Glucosidase with a high regioselectivity for alpha-1,3-glucosidic linkages for hydrolysis and transglucosylation was purified from culture broth of Acremonium implicatum. The enzyme was a tetrameric protein (M.W. 440,000), of which the monomer (M.W. 103,000; monomeric structure was expected from cDNA sequence) was composed of two polypeptides (M.W. 51,000 and 60,000) formed possibly by posttranslational proteolysis. Nigerose and maltose were hydrolyzed by the enzyme rapidly, but slowly for kojibiose. The k(0)/K(m) value for nigerose was 2.5-fold higher than that of maltose. Isomaltose was cleaved slightly, and sucrose was not. Maltotriose, maltotetraose, p-nitrophenyl alpha-maltoside and soluble starch were good substrates. The enzyme showed high affinity for maltooligosaccharides and p-nitrophenyl alpha-maltoside. The enzyme had the alpha-1,3- and alpha-1,4-glucosyl transfer activities to synthesize oligosaccharides, but no ability to form alpha-1,2- and alpha-1,6-glucosidic linkages. Ability for the formation of alpha-1,3-glucosidic linkage was two to three times higher than that for alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkage. Eight kinds of transglucosylation products were synthesized from maltose, in which 3(2)-O-alpha-nigerosyl-maltose and 3(2)-O-alpha-maltosyl-maltose were novel saccharides.

  20. Ruthenium hydride-catalyzed regioselective addition of benzaldehyde to dienes leading to β,γ-unsaturated ketones: a DFT study. (United States)

    Meng, Qingxi; Wang, Fen; Li, Ming


    Density functional theory (DFT) was used to investigate the ruthenium hydride-catalyzed regioselective addition reactions of benzaldehyde to isoprene leading to the branched β,γ-unsaturated ketone. All intermediates and the transition states were optimized completely at the B3LYP/6-31 G(d,p) level (LANL2DZ(f) for Ru, LANL2DZ(d) for P and Cl). Calculated results indicated that three catalysts RuHCl(CO)(PMe(3))(3) (1), RuH(2)(CO)(PMe(3))(3) (2), and RuHCl(PMe(3))(3) (3) exhibited different catalysis, and the first was the most excellent. The most favorable reaction pathway included the coordination of 1 to the less substituted olefin of isoprene, a hydrogen transfer reaction from ruthenium to the carbon atom C1, the complexation of benzaldehyde to ruthenium, the carbonyl addition, and the hydride elimination reaction. The carbonyl addition was the rate-determining step. The dominant product was the branched β,γ-unsaturated ketone. Furthermore, the presence of one toluene molecule lowered the activation free energy of the transition state of the carbonyl addition by hydrogen bonds between the protons of toluene and the chlorine, carbonyl oxygen of the ruthenium complex. On the whole, the solvent effect decreased the free energies of the species.

  1. Investigation of regioselectivity on the reaction of 5-bromo-2,4-dichloro-6-methylpyrimidine with ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhassan Doulah


    Full Text Available Regioselective displacement reaction of ammonia with 5-bromo-2,4-dichloro-6-methylpyrimidine was studied by X-ray crystallography analysis and showed the formation of 5-bromo-2-chloro-6-methylpyrimidin-4-amine as a main product. Reaction of the latter compound with secondary amines in boiling ethanol afforded 4-amino-5-bromo-2-substituted aminopyrimidines. The synthesized compound in this paper crystallized in the monoclinic crystal system space group P21/n. In the title cocrystal, 5-bromo-2-chloro-6-methylpyrimidin-4-amine·3H2O, the asymmetric unit contains one crystallographically independent 5-bromo-2-chloro-6-methylpyrimidin-4-amine and three crystallization of water molecules. The typical intramolecular O−H⋯N as well as O−H⋯O hydrogen bond is observed in the crystalline network of the title compound. It is interesting to point out that the crystal structure is further stabilized by O−H⋯O hydrogen bonds created by (H2O∞ clusters.

  2. Regioselectivity of enzymatic and photochemical single electron transfer promoted carbon-carbon bond fragmentation reactions of tetrameric lignin model compounds. (United States)

    Cho, Dae Won; Latham, John A; Park, Hea Jung; Yoon, Ung Chan; Langan, Paul; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Mariano, Patrick S


    New types of tetrameric lignin model compounds, which contain the common β-O-4 and β-1 structural subunits found in natural lignins, have been prepared and carbon-carbon bond fragmentation reactions of their cation radicals, formed by photochemical (9,10-dicyanoanthracene) and enzymatic (lignin peroxidase) SET-promoted methods, have been explored. The results show that cation radical intermediates generated from the tetrameric model compounds undergo highly regioselective C-C bond cleavage in their β-1 subunits. The outcomes of these processes suggest that, independent of positive charge and odd-electron distributions, cation radicals of lignins formed by SET to excited states of sensitizers or heme-iron centers in enzymes degrade selectively through bond cleavage reactions in β-1 vs β-O-4 moieties. In addition, the findings made in the enzymatic studies demonstrate that the sterically large tetrameric lignin model compounds undergo lignin peroxidase-catalyzed cleavage via a mechanism involving preliminary formation of an enzyme-substrate complex.

  3. Reversible Cleavage/Formation of the Chromium-Chromium Quintuple Bond in the Highly Regioselective Alkyne Cyclotrimerization. (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Siang; Huang, Gou-Tao; Liu, Yao-Lun; Yu, Jen-Shiang K; Tsai, Yi-Chou


    Herein we report the employment of the quintuply bonded dichromium amidinates [Cr{κ(2) -HC(N-2,6-(i) Pr2 C6 H3 )(N-2,6-R2 C6 H3 )}]2 (R=iPr (1), Me (7)) as catalysts to mediate the [2+2+2] cyclotrimerization of terminal alkynes giving 1,3,5-trisubstituted benzenes. During the catalysis, the ultrashort Cr-Cr quintuple bond underwent reversible cleavage/formation, corroborated by the characterization of two inverted arene sandwich dichromium complexes (μ-η(6) :η(6) -1,3,5-(Me3 Si)3 C6 H3 )[Cr{κ(2) -HC(N-2,6-(i) Pr2 C6 H3 )(N-2,6-R2 C6 H3 )}]2 (R=(i) Pr (5), Me (8)). In the presence of σ donors, such as THF and 2,4,6-Me3 C6 H2 CN, the bridging arene 1,3,5-(Me3 Si)3 C6 H3 in 5 and 8 was extruded and 1 and 7 were regenerated. Theoretical calculations were employed to disclose the reaction pathways of these highly regioselective [2+2+2] cylcotrimerization reactions of terminal alkynes. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Regioselective 1,4- over 1,2-addition of 3,3-bis(silyl) allyloxy lithium to enals, enones and enoates. The remarkable α-effect of silicon. (United States)

    Ye, Xincui; Sun, Xianwei; Huang, Zhenggang; Yang, Na; Su, Zhishan; Hu, Changwei; Song, Zhenlei


    A remarkable α-effect of silicon has been discovered that results in soft nucleophilicity at the Cγ of 3,3-bis(silyl) allyloxy lithium 1. The addition of 1 to α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds, including enals, proceeds in a 1,4- over 1,2-manner with medium to good regioselectivity, whereas the parent allyloxy lithium 4 undergoes complete 1,2-addition. The results from DFT calculations of HMPAcomplexed 1 and 4 provide the rationale to explain this different regioselectivity.

  5. Microwave assisted chemistry: A rapid and regioselective route for direct ortho-acylation of phenols and naphthols by methanesulfonic acid as catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Naeimi


    Full Text Available Direct ortho-acylation of phenols and naphthols with methanesulfonic acid (MSA as the catalyst has been studied under microwave stimulation. The microwave assisted reaction was environmentally benign in terms of faster reaction, useful conditions and higher yield of the desired products. However, after 3–4 min reaction time at 200–300 Watt, selectivity to over 98% ortho-acylation products was obtained. These reactions have some advantages in competition with other methods such as; short reaction times, high yield and regioselectivity of products, mild reaction conditions and easy workup of the reactions.

  6. Formation of the first derivatives of praseodymium-containing metallofullerenes via regioselective carbene addition to Pr rate at C{sub 2v}(9)-C{sub 82}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qin; Li, Hui; Wang, Yan; Lian, Yongfu [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Heilongjiang University, Harbin (China)


    The first derivatives of praseodymium-containing metallofullerenes are formed through regioselective cycloaddition of adamantylidene carbene to Pr rate at C{sub 2v}(9)-C{sub 82}, and two isomers out of the 35 possible monoadducts are successfully isolated. Optical adsorption and electrical chemistry characterizations indicate that the electronic property of Pr rate at C{sub 2v}(9)-C{sub 82} is largely pertained in these derivatives, since their π-electron systems are not altered markedly. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Ir-Catalyzed Asymmetric and Regioselective Hydrogenation of Cyclic Allylsilanes and Generation of Quaternary Stereocenters via the Hosomi-Sakurai Allylation. (United States)

    Rabten, Wangchuk; Margarita, Cristiana; Eriksson, Lars; Andersson, Pher G


    A number of cyclic dienes containing the allylsilane moiety were prepared by a Birch reduction and subjected to iridium-catalyzed regioselective and asymmetric hydrogenation, which provided chiral allylsilanes in high conversion and enantiomeric excess (up to 99 % ee). The compounds were successively used in the Hosomi-Sakurai allylation with various aldehydes employing TiCl 4 as Lewis acid, providing adducts with two additional stereogenic centers in excellent diastereoselectivity. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Ligand-induced reactivity of β-diketiminate magnesium complexes for regioselective functionalization of fluoroarenes via C-H or C-F bond activations. (United States)

    Davin, Laia; McLellan, Ross; Kennedy, Alan R; Hevia, Eva


    Using β-diketiminate Mg(ii) complexes containing either alkyl, aryl or amide groups, the regioselective functionalization of a wide range of fluoroarenes is accomplished but in uniquely different ways. Overcoming common limitations of traditional s-block bases, kinetically activated [((Dipp)Nacnac)Mg(TMP)] (1) deprotonates these molecules at room temperature, trapping sensitive fluoroaryl anions that can then engage in Negishi cross-coupling; whereas [((Dipp)Nacnac)Mg(R)THF] (R = (n)Bu, Ph, benzofuryl) have proved to be effective reagents for C-F bond alkylation/arylation via pyridine directed C-F bond cleavage.

  9. Si-Imidazole-HSO4 Functionalized Magnetic Fe3O4 Nanoparticles as an Efficient and Reusable Catalyst for the Regioselective Ring Opening of Epoxides in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshagh Rezaee Nezhad


    Full Text Available An efficient and simple method for the preparation of Si-Imidazole-HSO4 functionalized magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Si-Im-HSO4 MNPs and used as an efficient and reusable magnetic catalysts for the regioselective ring opening of epoxides under green conditions in water. This catalyst was used for the ring opening of epoxide corresponding to the thiocyanohydrins and azidohydrines. Compared to the classical ring opening of epoxides, this new method consistently has the advantage of excellent yields, short reaction times, and methodological simplicity.

  10. Cross-conjugated Trienamine Catalysis with α'-Alkylidene 2-Cyclohexenones: Application in β,γ-Regioselective Aza-Diels-Alder Reaction. (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Zhou-Xiang; Ouyang, Qin; Xiao, Wei; Du, Wei; Chen, Ying-Chun


    Endo-type cross-conjugated trienamines between highly congested α'-alkylidene 2-cyclohexenones and a chiral primary amine catalyst serve as HOMO-raised dienophiles in inverse-electron-demand aza-Diels-Alder cycloadditions with a number of 1-azadiene substrates. The reactions exhibit exclusive β,γ-regioselectivity, and multifunctional products with high molecular complexity are efficiently constructed in excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivity (>19:1 d.r., up to 99 % ee). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Substituent Effects on Regioselectivity of the Diels-Alder Reactions: Reactions of 10-Allyl-1,8-dichloroanthracene with 2-Chloroacrylonitrile, 1-Cyanovinyl Acetate and Phenyl Vinyl Sulfone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujeeb A. Sultan


    Full Text Available Diels-Alder reaction of 10-allyl-1,8-dichloroanthracene (3 with 2-chloroacrylonitrile (4 and 1-cyanovinyl acetate (5 gives exclusively the ortho isomer while its reaction with phenyl vinyl sulfone (10 yields a mixture of two isomeric adducts with priority to ortho isomer. The reactions proceeded under microwave condition in xylene. Configurations of these isomers have been assigned with the help of NMR spectra. The results indicated that the steric effect is dominating toward the isomer regioselectivity in the Diels-Alder reaction of the present compounds.

  12. Regioselectivity in Sonogashira synthesis of 6-(4-nitrobenzyl)-2-phenylthiazolo[3,2-b]1,2,4-triazole: a quantum chemistry study. (United States)

    Hosseinnejad, Tayebeh; Heravi, Majid M; Firouzi, Rohoullah


    In the present research, the experimentally observed regioselectivity in Sonogashira synthesis of 6-(4-nitrobenzyl)-2-phenylthiazolo[3,2-b]1,2,4triazole has been modeled by means of density functional theory (DFT) employed to investigate the structural and thermochemical aspects of this synthesis in the gas and solution phases. Comparison of our calculated structural parameters of the title compound with the available X-ray crystallographical data demonstrate a reliable agreement. Then, the effect of two different solvents, DMF and ethanol, are examined via polarized continuum model calculations, showing a significant decrease in the computed values of the reaction enthalpy and free energy changes compared with the gas phase results. We have also considered two tautomeric structures of the intermediate species that it seems the mode of its intermolecular cyclization has an important role in regioselectivity of the final products. Moreover, all obtained results in the gas and solution phases also confirm that the synthesis of the title compound is thermodynamically more favorable than the other regioisomeric product. We also discuss the thermodynamical feasibility of this reaction at higher temperatures. Finally, we concentrate on the survey of substituent effect by choosing electron-withdrawing and electron-donating groups on the aryl iodide. Our calculated thermochemical data in the gas and solution phases indicate that the use of electron-withdrawing moieties is more favorable thermodynamically than electron-donating ones which has been previously concluded via the experimental elucidations.

  13. Regioselective synthesis of 2,3,4- or 2,3,5-trisubstituted pyrroles via [3,3] or [1,3] rearrangements of O-vinyl oximes. (United States)

    Wang, Heng-Yen; Mueller, Daniel S; Sachwani, Rachna M; Kapadia, Rachel; Londino, Hannah N; Anderson, Laura L


    The regioselective synthesis of 2,3,4- or 2,3,5-trisubstituted pyrroles has been achieved via [3,3] and [1,3] sigmatropic rearrangements of O-vinyl oximes, respectively. Iridium-catalyzed isomerization of easily prepared O-allyl oximes enables rapid access to O-vinyl oximes. The regioselectivity of pyrrole formation can be controlled by either the identity of the α-substituent or through the addition of an amine base. When enolization is favored, a [3,3] rearrangement followed by a Paal-Knorr cyclization provides a 2,3,4-trisubstituted pyrrole; when enolization is disfavored, a [1,3] rearrangement occurs prior to enolization to produce a 2,3,5-trisubstituted pyrrole after cyclization. Optimization and scope of the O-allyl oxime isomerization and subsequent pyrrole formation are discussed and mechanistic pathways are proposed. Conditions are provided for selecting either the [3,3] rearrangement or the [1,3] rearrangement product with β-ester O-allyl oxime substrates. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  14. Regioselective synthesis of 2-amino-substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives via reagent-based cyclization of thiosemicarbazide intermediate. (United States)

    Yang, Seung-Ju; Lee, Seok-Hyeong; Kwak, Hyun-Jung; Gong, Young-Dae


    A regioselective, reagent-based method for the cyclization reaction of 2-amino-1,3,4-oxadiazole and 2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole core skeletons is described. The thiosemicarbazide intermediate 3 was reacted with EDC·HCl in DMSO or p-TsCl, triethylamine in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone to give the corresponding 2-amino-1,3,4-oxadiazoles 4 and 2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazoles 5 through regioselcective cyclization processes. The regioselectivity was affected by both R(1) and R(2) in p-TsCl mediated cyclization. It is shown in select sets of thiosemicarbazide 3 with R(1)(benzyl) and R(2)(phenyl). 2-Amino-1,3,4-oxadiazole 4 was also shown in the reaction of p-TsCl mediated cyclization. The resulting 2-amino-1,3,4-oxadiazole and 2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole core skeleton are functionalized with various electrophiles such as alkyl halide, acid halides, and sulfornyl chloride in high yields.

  15. Transition Metal Catalyzed, Regioselective B(4)-Halogenation and B(4,5)-Diiodination of Cage B-H Bonds in o-Carboranes. (United States)

    Lyu, Hairong; Quan, Yangjian; Xie, Zuowei


    Transition metal catalyzed, regioselective carborane-cage B(4)-H iodination, bromination, and chlorination as well as B(4,5)-H diiodination were achieved by using NXS (X=I, Br), FeCl3 , or IOAc as the halogenating agent, respectively. A series of previously inaccessible B(4)-halogenated o-carboranes were synthesized in a simple one-pot process, and proved to be valuable synthons for the functionalization of carboranes. Mono- and di-selectivity can be controlled by in situ removal of the carboxy directing group. The resultant 4-I-o-C2 B10 H11 can serve as a versatile feedstock for the construction of cage B-C(sp(2) ), B-C(sp), B-O, and B-N bonds. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Insights into regioselective metabolism of mefenamic acid by cytochrome P450 BM3 mutants through crystallography, docking, molecular dynamics, and free energy calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capoferri, Luigi; Leth, Rasmus; Ter Haar, Ernst


    of the protein mutant M11 was expressed, purified, and crystallized, and its X-ray structure was used as template for modeling. A multistep approach was used that combines molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, and binding free-energy calculations to address protein flexibility. In this way...... of mefenamic acid by M11 and its mutants by including protein flexibility and dynamics in free-energy computation. In addition, we could obtain structural insights into the change in regioselectivity of mefenamic acid hydroxylation due to single active-site mutations. Our findings confirm that use of MD...... and binding free-energy calculation is useful for studying biocatalysis in those cases in which enzyme binding is a critical event in determining the selective metabolism of a substrate. Proteins 2016; 84:383-396. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  17. KH 2PO4 as a novel catalyst for regioselective monobromination of aralkyl ketones using N-bromosuccinimide: a green methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Md. Khaja Mohinuddin


    Full Text Available A simple, regioselective and green method has been developed for the preparation of monobrominated ketones from various aralkyl ketones by using N-bromosuccinimide in presence of KH 2PO 4 in EtOH at reflux temperature. The present method is of short reaction time and simple with excellent isolated yields of products. The use of eco-friendly solvent, reuse of organic waste (succinimide and recyclable catalyst used for 4 times without loss of activity are advantageous. This is the first example of the use of KH 2PO 4 as a useful catalyst in organohalogen chemistry and the present method meets reduce-reuse-recycle (RRR principle towards development of green protocol.

  18. Bisindeno-annulated pentacenes with exceptionally high photo-stability and ordered molecular packing: Simple synthesis by a regio-selective Scholl reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Naibi Lakshminarayana, Arun


    Bisindeno-annulated pentacenes 3a and 3b were synthesized by a simple regio-selective, FeCl3-mediated Scholl reaction from the corresponding 6,13-diaryl pentacene precursors. The fusion of two indeno-units dramatically changes the electronic properties and chemical reactivity of pentacene and the obtained compounds exhibited exceptionally high photo-stability in the solution, with a half-life time of 11.2 (3a) and 32.0 (3b) days under ambient light and air conditions. Ordered molecular packing with a small π-π stacking distance was observed in the single crystals of 3a and 3b. Our research provides a promising strategy to access stable higher order acenes with controlled molecular order. This journal is

  19. Sequential Dy(OTf)3-Catalyzed Solvent-Free Per-O-Acetylation and Regioselective Anomeric De-O-Acetylation of Carbohydrates. (United States)

    Yan, Yi-Ling; Guo, Jiun-Rung; Liang, Chien-Fu


    Dysprosium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate-catalyzed per-O-acetylation and regioselective anomeric de-O-acetylation of carbohydrates can be tuned by adjusting the reaction medium. In this study, the per-O-acetylation of unprotected sugars by using a near-stoichiometric amount of acetic anhydride under solvent-free conditions resulted in the exclusive formation of acetylated saccharides as anomeric mixtures, whereas anomeric de-O-acetylation in methanol resulted in a moderate-to-excellent yield. Reactions with various unprotected monosaccharides or disaccharides followed by a semi-one-pot sequential conversion into the corresponding acetylated glycosyl hemiacetal also resulted in high yields. Furthermore, the obtained hemiacetals could be successfully transformed into trichloroimidates after Dy(OTf) 3 -catalyzed glycosylation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Diels-Alder reactions using 4,7-dioxygenated indanones as dienophiles for regioselective construction of oxygenated 2,3-dihydrobenz[f]indenone skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Regioselective construction of 4,8,9-trioxygenated 2,3-dihydrobenz[f]indenones, key intermediates for the synthesis of kinamycin antibiotics, was achieved via Diels-Alder reactions (DAR using 4,7-dioxygenated indanone-type compounds as dienophiles. Reaction of indanetrione with 1-methoxybutadiene gave a 1 : 1 mixture of undesired 4,5,9-trioxygenated 2,3-dihydrobenz[f]indenone and [4.4.3]propellane. The addition of Lewis acid did not affect the product ratio, whereas the use of the 6-bromoindanetrione exclusively afforded the latter propellane. On the other hand, DAR of benzyne derived from bromoindan and furan gave 5,8-epoxy-2,3-dihydrobenz[f]indene, which was subjected to acid-induced ring opening to give 2,3-dihydrobenz[f]indenone with undesired 4,5,9-trioxy functions.

  1. Understanding the regioselective hydrolysis of ginkgolide B under physiological environment based on generation, detection, identification, and semi-quantification of the hydrolyzed products. (United States)

    Li, Xue-Jing; Yang, Kui; Du, Gang; Xu, Liang; Lan, Ke


    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method coupled with specialized sample-preparation strategies was developed to investigate the hydrolysis of ginkgolide B (GB) in physiological environments in comparison with that of ginkgolide A (GA). The rapid hydrolysis processes were captured by the direct injection of samples prepared in the volatile buffers. The LC-MS behavior of the hydrolyzed products, including three monocarboxylates and three dicarboxylates, was acquired. The monocarboxylates were identified by fragmentation analysis, and the dicarboxylates were accordingly tentatively identified by reaction sequences. The base-catalyzed hydrolysis of GB and GA was characterized at 4 °C within pH 7.0-10.7. The regioselective reactions on the lactone-C and lactone-F were revealed by thermodynamic studies at pH 6.8 and 7.4. It was revealed that the 1-hydroxyl group on the skeleton of GB blocks the reactivity of the lactone-E. On the basis of these results, a distinctive hydrolysis phenomenon of GB was confirmed in plasma of humans, rats, and dogs as a rapid degradation of the trilactone along with the only production of the lactone-F-hydrolyzed product. This phenomenon is also closely associated with the 1-hydroxyl group, because it was not observed in GA. More interestingly, the underlying mechanism was revealed not to be associated with any typical enzyme-catalyzed process, but to be potentially involved with a selective reaction of the intact or broken lactone-C moiety with endogenous small-molecule reactants in plasma. This in-depth knowledge of the hydrolysis of GB versus GA not only facilitated understanding of their pharmacological mechanisms but also provided potential routes to study the structure-activity relationships of ginkgolides. Graphical Abstract Regioselective hydrolysis of ginkgolide B in pH 7.4 buffers and plasma.

  2. Ni@Ru and NiCo@Ru Core-Shell Hexagonal Nanosandwiches with a Compositionally Tunable Core and a Regioselectively Grown Shell. (United States)

    Hwang, Hyeyoun; Kwon, Taehyun; Kim, Ho Young; Park, Jongsik; Oh, Aram; Kim, Byeongyoon; Baik, Hionsuck; Joo, Sang Hoon; Lee, Kwangyeol


    The development of highly active electrocatalysts is crucial for the advancement of renewable energy conversion devices. The design of core-shell nanoparticle catalysts represents a promising approach to boost catalytic activity as well as save the use of expensive precious metals. Here, a simple, one-step synthetic route is reported to prepare hexagonal nanosandwich-shaped Ni@Ru core-shell nanoparticles (Ni@Ru HNS), in which Ru shell layers are overgrown in a regioselective manner on the top and bottom, and around the center section of a hexagonal Ni nanoplate core. Notably, the synthesis can be extended to NiCo@Ru core-shell nanoparticles with tunable core compositions (Ni 3 Co x @Ru HNS). Core-shell HNS structures show superior electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) to a commercial RuO 2 black catalyst, with their OER activity being dependent on their core compositions. The observed trend in OER activity is correlated to the population of Ru oxide (Ru 4+ ) species, which can be modulated by the core compositions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Regioselective O-glucosylation by sucrose phosphorylase: a promising route for functional diversification of a range of 1,2-propanediols. (United States)

    Luley-Goedl, Christiane; Sawangwan, Thornthan; Brecker, Lothar; Wildberger, Patricia; Nidetzky, Bernd


    1,2-Propanediol and 3-aryloxy/alkyloxy derivatives thereof are bulk commodities produced directly from glycerol. Glycosylation is a promising route for their functional diversification into useful fine chemicals. Regioselective glucosylation of the secondary hydroxyl in different 1,2-propanediols was achieved by a sucrose phosphorylase-catalyzed transfer reaction where sucrose is the substrate and 2-O-alpha-d-glucopyranosyl products are exclusively obtained. Systematic investigation for optimization of the biocatalytic synthesis included prevention of sucrose hydrolysis, which occurs in the process as a side reaction of the phosphorylase. In addition to 'nonproductive' depletion of donor substrate, the hydrolysis also resulted in formation of maltose and kojibiose (up to 45%) due to secondary enzymatic glucosylation of the glucose thus produced. Using 3-ethoxy-1,2-propanediol as the acceptor substrate (1.0M), the desired transfer product was obtained in about 65% yield when employing a moderate (1.5-fold) excess of sucrose donor. Loss of the glucosyl substrate to 'glucobiose' by-products was minimal (1,2-propanediol>3-allyloxy-1,2-propanediol>3-(o-methoxyphenoxy)-1,2-propanediol>3-tert-butoxy-1,2-propanediol. Glucosylated 1,2-propanediols were not detectably hydrolyzed by sucrose phosphorylase so that their synthesis by transglucosylation occurred simply under quasi-equilibrium reaction conditions. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Use of a temporary "solubilizing" peptide tag for the Fmoc solid-phase synthesis of human insulin glargine via use of regioselective disulfide bond formation. (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammed Akhter; Belgi, Alessia; Lin, Feng; Zhang, Suode; Shabanpoor, Fazel; Chan, Linda; Belyea, Chris; Truong, Hue-Trung; Blair, Amy R; Andrikopoulos, Sof; Tregear, Geoffrey W; Wade, John D


    Solid-phase peptide synthesis has been refined to a stage where efficient preparation of long and complex peptides is now achievable. However, the postsynthesis handling of poorly soluble peptides often remains a significant hindrance to their purification and further use. Several synthetic schemes have been developed for the preparation of such peptides containing modifications to aid their solubility. However, these require the use of complex chemistry or yield non-native sequences. We describe a simple approach based on the use of penta-lysine "tags" that are linked to the C-terminus of the peptide of interest via a base-labile linker. After ready purification of the now freely solubilized peptide, the "tag" is removed by simple, brief base treatment giving the native sequence in much higher overall yield. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the novel preparation of insulin glargine via solid-phase synthesis of each of the two chains--including the notoriously poorly soluble A-chain--followed by their combination in solution via regioselective disulfide bond formation. At the conclusion of the chain combination, the solubilizing peptide tag was removed from the A-chain to provide synthetic human glargine in nearly 10% overall yield. This approach should facilitate the development of new insulin analogues as well as be widely applicable to the improved purification and acquisition of otherwise poorly soluble synthetic peptides.

  5. A More Challenging Interpretative Nitration Experiment Employing Substituted Benzoic Acids and Acetanilides (United States)

    Treadwell, Edward M.; Lin, Tung-Yin


    An experiment is described involving the nitration of ortho or meta monosubstituted benzoic acids (XC[subscript 6]H[subscript 4]CO[subscript 2]H, X = Halogen, Me, OH, or OMe) and monochlorinated acetanilides with nitric acid to determine the regioselectivity of addition by [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling. Students were…

  6. Using IEC 61850 GOOSE Service for Adaptive ANSI 67/67N Protection in Ring Main Systems with Distributed Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Silos


    Full Text Available Smart Grids are electricity networks that use digital technology to co-ordinate the needs and capabilities of all generators, grid operators, end users and electricity market stakeholders in such a way that it can optimize asset utilization and operation while maintaining system reliability, resilience and stability. However, Smart Grids are increasingly proposing a much more distributed architecture with the integration of multiple Distributed Energy Resources (DERs that demand different control and protection schemes. In that sense, the implementation of standards such as IEC 61850 and the integration with Ethernet-based communication networks provide novel tools to manage DER efficiently. This paper analyses the potential usage and benefits of ANSI 67/67N protection in combination with Generic Object Oriented Substation Event (GOOSE communication service, from the standard 61850 of the International Electro-technical Commission (IEC, for providing adaptive network protection, specifying the configuration and implementation and exposing the obtained results.

  7. An easy access to α-aryl substituted γ-ketophosphonates: Lewis acid mediated reactions of 1,3-diketones with α-hydroxyphosphonates and tandem regioselective C-C bond cleavage. (United States)

    Pallikonda, Gangaram; Chakravarty, Manab; Sahoo, Manoj K


    A range of α-aryl substituted γ-ketophosphonates is synthesised by Lewis acid mediated reactions of 1,3-diketones and easily accessible, inexpensive benzylic α-hydroxyphosphonates in an operationally simple method under solvent-free conditions without exclusion of air/moisture. A regioselective C-C bond cleavage for 1,3-diketones in a tandem fashion has also been demonstrated. Synthesis of a γ-ketophosphonate with phenol functionality at the α-position (structural analogue of raspberry ketone, a natural product) has also been presented.

  8. Purification and Properties of Extracellular Lipases with Transesterification Activity and 1,3-Regioselectivity fromRhizomucor mieheiandRhizopus oryzae. (United States)

    Takó, Miklós; KotogÁn, Alexandra; Papp, TamÁs; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Alharbi, Naiyf S; VÁgvölgyi, Csaba


    Rhizomucor miehei NRRL 5282 and Rhizopus oryzae NRRL 1526 can produce lipases with high synthetic activities in wheat bran-based solid-state culture. In this study, the purification and biochemical characterization of the lipolytic activities of these lipases are presented. SDS-PAGE indicated a molecular mass of about 55 and 35 kDa for the purified R. miehei and Rh. oryzae enzymes, respectively. p -Nitrophenyl palmitate ( p NPP) hydrolysis was maximal at 40°C and pH 7.0 for the R. miehei lipase, and at 30°C and pH 5.2 for the Rh. oryzae enzyme. The enzymes showed almost equal affinity to p NPP, but the V max of the Rh. oryzae lipase was about 1.13 times higher than that determined for R. miehei using the same substrate. For both enzymes, a dramatic loss of activity was observed in the presence of 5 mM Hg 2+ , Zn 2+ , or Mn 2+ , 10 mM N -bromosuccinimide or sodium dodecyl sulfate, and 5-10% (v/v) of hexanol or butanol. At the same time, they proved to be extraordinarily stable in the presence of n -hexane, cyclohexane, n -heptane, and isooctane. Moreover, isopentanol up to 10% (v/v) and propionic acid in 1 mM concentrations increased the p NPP hydrolyzing activity of R. miehei lipase. Both enzymes had 1,3-regioselectivity, and efficiently hydrolyzed p -nitrophenyl ( p NP) esters with C8-C16 acids, exhibiting maximum activity towards p NP-caprylate ( R. miehei ) and pNP-dodecanoate ( Rh. oryzae ). The purified lipases are promising candidates for various biotechnological applications.

  9. Biochemical Characterization and Structural Basis of Reactivity and Regioselectivity Differences between Burkholderia thailandensis and Burkholderia glumae 1,6-Didesmethyltoxoflavin N-Methyltransferase. (United States)

    Fenwick, Michael K; Almabruk, Khaled H; Ealick, Steven E; Begley, Tadhg P; Philmus, Benjamin


    Burkholderia glumae converts the guanine base of guanosine triphosphate into an azapteridine and methylates both the pyrimidine and triazine rings to make toxoflavin. Strains of Burkholderia thailandensis and Burkholderia pseudomallei have a gene cluster encoding seven putative biosynthetic enzymes that resembles the toxoflavin gene cluster. Four of the enzymes are similar in sequence to BgToxBCDE, which have been proposed to make 1,6-didesmethyltoxoflavin (1,6-DDMT). One of the remaining enzymes, BthII1283 in B. thailandensis E264, is a predicted S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent N-methyltransferase that shows a low level of sequence identity to BgToxA, which sequentially methylates N6 and N1 of 1,6-DDMT to form toxoflavin. Here we show that, unlike BgToxA, BthII1283 catalyzes a single methyl transfer to N1 of 1,6-DDMT in vitro. In addition, we investigated the differences in reactivity and regioselectivity by determining crystal structures of BthII1283 with bound S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) or 1,6-DDMT and SAH. BthII1283 contains a class I methyltransferase fold and three unique extensions used for 1,6-DDMT recognition. The active site structure suggests that 1,6-DDMT is bound in a reduced form. The plane of the azapteridine ring system is orthogonal to its orientation in BgToxA. In BthII1283, the modeled SAM methyl group is directed toward the p orbital of N1, whereas in BgToxA, it is first directed toward an sp(2) orbital of N6 and then toward an sp(2) orbital of N1 after planar rotation of the azapteridine ring system. Furthermore, in BthII1283, N1 is hydrogen bonded to a histidine residue whereas BgToxA does not supply an obvious basic residue for either N6 or N1 methylation.

  10. Quantification of Competing H3PO4 Versus HPO3 + H2O Neutral Losses from Regioselective 18O-Labeled Phosphopeptides (United States)

    Cui, Li; Yapici, Ipek; Borhan, Babak; Reid, Gavin E.


    Abundant neutral losses of 98 Da are often observed upon ion trap CID-MS/MS of protonated phosphopeptide ions. Two competing fragmentation pathways are involved in this process, namely, the direct loss of H3PO4 from the phosphorylated residue and the combined losses of HPO3 and H2O from the phosphorylation site and from an additional site within the peptide, respectively. These competing pathways produce product ions with different structures but the same m/z values, potentially limiting the utility of CID-MS3 for phosphorylation site localization. To quantify the relative contributions of these pathways and to determine the conditions under which each pathway predominates, we have examined the ion trap CID-MS/MS fragmentation of a series of regioselective 18O-phosphate ester labeled phosphopeptides prepared using novel solution-phase amino acid synthesis and solid-phase peptide synthesis methodologies. By comparing the intensity of the -100 Da (-H3PO3 18O) versus -98 Da (-[HPO3 + H2O]) neutral loss product ions formed upon MS/MS, quantification of the two pathways was achieved. Factors that affect the extent of formation of the competing neutral losses were investigated, with the combined loss pathway predominantly occurring under conditions of limited proton mobility, and with increased combined losses observed for phosphothreonine compared with phosphoserine-containing peptides. The combined loss pathway was found to be less dominant under ion activation conditions associated with HCD-MS/MS. Finally, the contribution of carboxylic acid functional groups and backbone amide bonds to the water loss in the combined loss fragmentation pathway was determined via methyl esterification and by examination of a phosphopeptide lacking side-chain hydroxyl groups.

  11. Regioselective biooxidation of (+-valencene by recombinant E. coli expressing CYP109B1 from Bacillus subtilis in a two-liquid-phase system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Rolf D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background (+-Nootkatone (4 is a high added-value compound found in grapefruit juice. Allylic oxidation of the sesquiterpene (+-valencene (1 provides an attractive route to this sought-after flavoring. So far, chemical methods to produce (+-nootkatone (4 from (+-valencene (1 involve unsafe toxic compounds, whereas several biotechnological approaches applied yield large amounts of undesirable byproducts. In the present work 125 cytochrome P450 enzymes from bacteria were tested for regioselective oxidation of (+-valencene (1 at allylic C2-position to produce (+-nootkatone (4 via cis- (2 or trans-nootkatol (3. The P450 activity was supported by the co-expression of putidaredoxin reductase (PdR and putidaredoxin (Pdx from Pseudomonas putida in Escherichia coli. Results Addressing the whole-cell system, the cytochrome CYP109B1 from Bacillus subtilis was found to catalyze the oxidation of (+-valencene (1 yielding nootkatol (2 and 3 and (+-nootkatone (4. However, when the in vivo biooxidation of (+-valencene (1 with CYP109B1 was carried out in an aqueous milieu, a number of undesired multi-oxygenated products has also been observed accounting for approximately 35% of the total product. The formation of these byproducts was significantly reduced when aqueous-organic two-liquid-phase systems with four water immiscible organic solvents – isooctane, n-octane, dodecane or hexadecane – were set up, resulting in accumulation of nootkatol (2 and 3 and (+-nootkatone (4 of up to 97% of the total product. The best productivity of 120 mg l-1 of desired products was achieved within 8 h in the system comprising 10% dodecane. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the identification of new P450s capable of producing valuable compounds can basically be achieved by screening of recombinant P450 libraries. The biphasic reaction system described in this work presents an attractive way for the production of (+-nootkatone (4, as it is safe and can easily be

  12. Lutein ester profile in wheat and tritordeum can be modulated by temperature: Evidences for regioselectivity and fatty acid preferential of enzymes encoded by genes on chromosomes 7D and 7Hch. (United States)

    Mattera, M G; Hornero-Méndez, D; Atienza, S G


    The increase of lutein retention through the food chain is desirable for wheat breeding. Lutein esters are more stable than free lutein during post-harvest storage and two loci on chromosomes 7D and 7H ch are important for esterification. We investigated the effect of temperature during grain filling on carotenoid accumulation and lutein ester profile including fatty acid selectivity (palmitic vs. linoleic) and regioselectivity (esterification at positions 3 vs. 3'). Three different temperature regimes were assayed (controlled, semi-controlled and non-controlled). Lutein esters were more stable than free carotenoids in vivo and the enzymes encoded by chromosomes 7H ch and 7D are complementary. Indeed, they show differential preferences for the fatty acid (palmitic and linoleic, respectively) and regioselectivity (3 and 3', respectively). Besides, H. chilense has additional genes for esterification. Finally, the increase of temperature favoured the accumulation of lutein esters with linoleic acid and the synthesis of regioisomers at position 3'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Activation of carboxylic acids by pyrocarbonates. Synthesis of symmetric anhydrides and esters of N-protected amino acids using dialkyl pyrocarbonates as condensing reagents. (United States)

    Pozdnev, V F


    Activation of carboxylic acids was achieved via dialkyl pyrocarbonates (ROCO)2O, R = C2H5, i-C3H7, sec-C4H9, tert.-C4H9) in aprotic solvents in the presence tertiary amines. A convenient procedure for the preparation of carboxylic acid anhydrides from carboxylic acids and di-tert.-butyl pyrocarbonate in the presence of pyridine is reported. Analogously, di-isopropyl- or diethyl pyrocarbonate may be used in the presence of N-methylmorpholine (triethylamine). With pyridine, di-isopropyl- or diethyl pyrocarbonate carboxylic acids form isopropyl- or ethyl esters, respectively. A wide variety of esters were prepared in good yields in a one-pot procedure from carboxylic acids, including N-protected amino acids, and alcohols or from phenols by means of di-tert.-butyl pyrocarbonate in the presence of pyridine (Boc2O-pyridine system). t-Butyl esters of carboxylic acids were obtained by the same procedure with 4-dimethylaminopyridine. In the absence of carboxylic acid, with 4-dimethylaminopyridine Boc2O and alcohols generate alkyl tert.-butyl carbonates.

  14. Regioselective Sequential Modification of Chitosan via Azide-Alkyne Click Reaction: Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Derivatives and Nanoparticles (United States)

    Sarwar, Atif; Katas, Haliza; Samsudin, Siti Noradila; Zin, Noraziah Mohamad


    Recently, the attention of researchers has been drawn toward the synthesis of chitosan derivatives and their nanoparticles with enhanced antimicrobial activities. In this study, chitosan derivatives with different azides and alkyne groups were synthesized using click chemistry, and these were further transformed into nanoparticles by using the ionotropic gelation method. A series of chitosan derivatives was successfully synthesized by regioselective modification of chitosan via an azide-alkyne click reaction. The amino moieties of chitosan were protected during derivatization by pthaloylation and subsequently unblocked at the end to restore their functionality. Nanoparticles of synthesized derivatives were fabricated by ionic gelation to form complexes of polyanionic penta-sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) and cationic chitosan derivatives. Particle size analysis showed that nanoparticle size ranged from 181.03 ± 12.73 nm to 236.50 ± 14.32 nm and had narrow polydispersity index and positive surface charge. The derivatives and corresponding nanoparticles were evaluated in vitro for antibacterial and antifungal activities against three gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and three fungal strains, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of all derivatives ranged from 31.3 to 250 µg/mL for bacteria and 188 to1500 µg/mL for fungi and was lower than that of native chitosan. The nanoparticles with MIC ranging from 1.56 to 25 µg/mLfor bacteria and 94 to 750 µg/mL for fungi exhibited higher activity than the chitosan derivatives. Chitosan O-(1-methylbenzene) triazolyl carbamate and chitosan O-(1-methyl phenyl sulfide) triazolyl carbamate were the most active against the tested bacterial and fungal strains. The hemolytic assay on erythrocytes and cell viability test on two different cell lines (Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells V79 and Human hepatic cell line WRL68) demonstrated the safety; suggesting that these derivatives could be used in future

  15. Regioselective Sequential Modification of Chitosan via Azide-Alkyne Click Reaction: Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Derivatives and Nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif Sarwar

    Full Text Available Recently, the attention of researchers has been drawn toward the synthesis of chitosan derivatives and their nanoparticles with enhanced antimicrobial activities. In this study, chitosan derivatives with different azides and alkyne groups were synthesized using click chemistry, and these were further transformed into nanoparticles by using the ionotropic gelation method. A series of chitosan derivatives was successfully synthesized by regioselective modification of chitosan via an azide-alkyne click reaction. The amino moieties of chitosan were protected during derivatization by pthaloylation and subsequently unblocked at the end to restore their functionality. Nanoparticles of synthesized derivatives were fabricated by ionic gelation to form complexes of polyanionic penta-sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP and cationic chitosan derivatives. Particle size analysis showed that nanoparticle size ranged from 181.03 ± 12.73 nm to 236.50 ± 14.32 nm and had narrow polydispersity index and positive surface charge. The derivatives and corresponding nanoparticles were evaluated in vitro for antibacterial and antifungal activities against three gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and three fungal strains, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of all derivatives ranged from 31.3 to 250 µg/mL for bacteria and 188 to1500 µg/mL for fungi and was lower than that of native chitosan. The nanoparticles with MIC ranging from 1.56 to 25 µg/mLfor bacteria and 94 to 750 µg/mL for fungi exhibited higher activity than the chitosan derivatives. Chitosan O-(1-methylbenzene triazolyl carbamate and chitosan O-(1-methyl phenyl sulfide triazolyl carbamate were the most active against the tested bacterial and fungal strains. The hemolytic assay on erythrocytes and cell viability test on two different cell lines (Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells V79 and Human hepatic cell line WRL68 demonstrated the safety; suggesting that these derivatives could be

  16. Adenine derivatives as phosphate-activating groups for the regioselective formation of 3',5'-linked oligoadenylates on montmorillonite: possible phosphate-activating groups for the prebiotic synthesis of RNA (United States)

    Prabahar, K. J.; Ferris, J. P.


    Methyladenine and adenine N-phosphoryl derivatives of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (5'-AMP) and uridine 5'-monophosphate (5'-UMP) are synthesized, and their structures are elucidated. The oligomerization reactions of the adenine derivatives of 5'-phosphoramidates of adenosine on montmorillonite are investigated. 1-Methyladenine and 3-methyladenine derivatives on montmorillonite yielded oligoadenylates as long as undecamer, and the 2-methyladenine and adenine derivatives on montmorillonite yielded oligomers up to hexamers and pentamers, respectively. The 1-methyladenine derivative yielded linear, cyclic, and A5'ppA-derived oligonucleotides with a regioselectivity for the 3',5'-phosphodiester linkages averaging 84%. The effect of pKa and amine structure of phosphate-activating groups on the montmorillonite-catalyzed oligomerization of the 5'-phosphoramidate of adenosine are discussed. The binding and reaction of methyladenine and adenine N-phosphoryl derivatives of adenosine are described.

  17. Regioselectivity of the bromination of 1-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene and 6,7-dimethyl-1-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene, and thiabiscyclanones synthesis on their basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available On the basis of quantum chemical (PM3 and RHF/6-31G* study, the regioselectivity of the bromination of 1-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (1 and 6,7-dimethyl-1-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (2 at their alicyclic and aromatic fragments was quantum chemically substantiated and confirmed experimentally. It was found that the above compounds undergo aromatic at the a-methylene position. The conditions for bromination at the positions 5, 8 of benzannelated ring were established. For the first time, non- and 2,2’-dibromosubstituted with respect to the oxo group bis(6,7-dimethyl-1-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphth-2-yl sulphides (7, 8a, b were obtained. The latter were found to show promise as stabilizing agents for the storage of cholera sera.

  18. Regioselective Reversal in the Cyclization of 2-Diazo-3,5-dioxo-6-ynoates (Ynones, Ynamide): Construction of γ-Pyrones and 3(2H)-Furanones Starting from Identical Materials. (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Lu, Shengle; Chen, Bo; Zhou, Yali; Yang, Ying; Deng, Guisheng


    The AgSbF6-catalyzed cyclization of 2-diazo-3,5-dioxo-6-ynoates (ynones, ynamide) in alcoholic solvents affords γ-pyrones, whereas the AgOAc-catalyzed cyclization in 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) produces 3(2H)-furanones. The cyclization reactions proceeded cleanly under mild reaction conditions, and the desired γ-pyrones or 3(2H)-furanones were obtained in excellent yield. It was observed for the first time that both the catalyst and solvent play key roles in the selective formation. This unique method for the reversal of regioselectivity proved to be highly efficient except for substrates with aliphatic and Me3Si groups at the triple bond position.



    Hassan Sheibani and Bahman Massomi Nejad


    4-Acyl-3-alkyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one derivatives were prepared by the regioselective acylation of 3-alkyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-ones in the presence of base catalysts such as calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2], magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] and nanosized magnesium hydroxide. In the presence of nanosized magnesium hydroxide, excellent yields of products were obtained and reaction times were significantly reduced.

  20. Regioselective binding of spermine, N1,N12-bismethylspermine, and N1,N12-bisethylspermine to tRNAPhe as revealed by 750 MHz 1H-NMR and its possible correlation with cell cycling and cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frydman Benjamin


    Full Text Available The binding of spermine (SPM, N¹,N12-bismethylspermine (BMS and N¹,N12-bisethylspermine (BES to tRNA Phe was studied using ¹H-NMR at 750 MHz. The polyamines were enriched in 13C at the 5-CH2 and 8-CH2 residues and the nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE cross peaks connecting the ¹H-NMR resonances of the13C-methylenes and several base paired imino protons of tRNA Phe were obtained using 1D13C-half filteredspectra. It was found that while SPM and BMS bind to the N(3-H of base pairs T54-m¹A58, U50-A64 and U52-A62, BES binds only to T54-m¹A58 and U50-A64. This regioselectivity in the binding of the three polyamines to tRNA was correlated with their biological effects on cell growth. Using human melanoma cancer cells (MALME-3M, we found that SPM and BMS were without effect and cytostatic, respectively, while BES was distinctly cytotoxic. The latter also affected cell cycling and, at variance with SPM and BMS, lead to a distinctG1/S cell cycle arrest.

  1. Tunable regioselectivity in 1,3-butadiene polymerization by using 2,6-bis(dimethyl-2-oxazolin-2-yl)pyridine incorporated transition metal (Cr, Fe and Co) catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Dirong


    Tridentate complexes Cr(III)Cl3L, [L = 2,6-bis(dimethyl-2-oxazolin-2-yl) pyridine], Fe(III)Cl3L, Fe(II)Cl2L and Co(II)Cl2L have been prepared and fully characterized. The solid structures of Cr(III)Cl3L, Fe(III)Cl3L and Co(II)Cl2L have been revealed by single crystal X-ray diffraction, and the Cr(III)Cl3L and Fe(III)Cl3L complexes both exhibit a distorted octahedral geometry, while the Co(II)Cl2L complex has a trigonal bipyramidal conformation. Four complexes have been examined in regioselective polymerization of butadiene in combination with MAO in toluene at room temperature. The trans-1,4, cis-1,4 enchainment of resultant polybutadiene are controlled by the metal center. Activated by MAO, complex Cr(III)Cl3L produces high level of trans-1,4 selectivity (trans-1,4 up to 93.3%) with moderate polymer yield, complexes Fe(III)Cl3L and Fe(II)Cl2L both show equal cis-1,4 and trans-1,4 with minor 1,2 selectivity (<10%), and Co(II)Cl2L catalyst displays predominated cis-1,4 selectivity, which can be shifted to 1,2 selectivity by adding PPh3 as an additive. Thus, tuning of the cis-1,4, trans-1,4 and 1,2 selectivity in full range via central metal and additive chosen by these 2,6-bis(dimethyl-2-oxazolin-2-yl) pyridine supported catalysts has been achieved. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Regioselective thioacetylation of chitosan end-groups for nanoparticle gene delivery systems† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc00038f Click here for additional data file. (United States)

    Pickenhahn, V. D.; Darras, V.; Dziopa, F.; Biniecki, K.; De Crescenzo, G.


    Chitosan (CS) end-group chemistry is a conjugation strategy that has been minimally exploited in the literature to date. Although the open-chain form of the CS reducing extremity bears a reactive aldehyde moiety, the most common method to generate a reactive end-group on CS is nitrous acid depolymerization, which produces a 2,5-anhydro-d-mannose unit (M-Unit) bearing also an aldehyde moiety. However, the availability of the latter might be low, since previous literature suggests that its hydrated and non-reactive form, namely the gem-diol form, is predominant in acidic aqueous conditions. Oxime-click chemistry has been used to react on such aldehydes with various degrees of success, but the use of a co-solvent and additional chemical reagents remain necessary to obtain the desired and stable covalent linkage. In this study, we have assessed the availability of the aldehyde reactive form on chitosan treated with nitrous acid. We have also assessed its reactivity towards thiol-bearing molecules in acidic conditions where CS amino groups are fully protonated and thus unreactive towards aldehyde. LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy methods (1H and DOSY, respectively) confirmed the regioselective thioacetylation of the reactive aldehyde with conversion rates between 55 and 70% depending on the thiol molecule engaged. The stabilization of the hemithioacetal intermediates into the corresponding thioacetals was also found to be facilitated upon freeze-drying of the reaction medium. The PEGylation of the CS M-Unit aldehyde by thioacetylation was also performed as a direct application of the proposed conjugation approach. CS-b-PEG2 block copolymers were successfully synthesized and were used to prepare block ionomer complexes with plasmid DNA, as revealed by their spherical morphology vs. the rod-like/globular/toroidal morphology observed for polyplexes prepared using native unmodified chitosan. This novel aqueous thiol-based conjugation strategy constitutes an alternative to the

  3. Regioselective chemical modification of monoclonal antibodies (United States)

    Ranadive, Girish; Rosenzweig, Howard S.; Epperly, Michael; Bloomer, William


    A method of selectively modifying an immunoglobulin having at least one Fab region and at least one Fc region, each region having an isoelectric point wherein said isoelectric point of the Fab fragment of said immunoglobulin is different than the isoelectric point of the Fc fragment of the immunoglobulin, said method comprising modification of the immunoglobulin at a pH between the respective isoelectric points of the Fab and Fc fragments of the immunoglobulin.

  4. Efficient mechanochemical synthesis of regioselective persubstituted cyclodextrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo Jicsinszky


    Full Text Available A number of per-6-substituted cyclodextrin derivative syntheses have been effectively carried out in a planetary ball mill under solvent-free conditions. The preparation of Bridion® and important per-6-amino/thiocyclodextrin intermediates without polar aprotic solvents, a source of byproducts and persistent impurities, could be performed. Isolation and purification processes could also be simplified. Considerably lower alkylthiol/halide ratio were necessary to reach the complete reaction in comparison with thiourea or azide reactions. While the presented mechanochemical syntheses were carried out on the millimolar scale, they are easily scalable.

  5. Regioselective dimerization of ferulic acid in a micellar solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, E; Andreasen, Mette Findal; Christensen, L P


    that regioisomeric ferulic acid dehydrodimers can be obtained in one step from trans-ferulic acid after attachment to these micelles and using the biomimetic peroxidase-H2O2 system. The surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium hydroxide yielded trans-4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-5...

  6. C3 Epimerization of Glucose, via Regioselective Oxidation and Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jumde, Varsha R.; Eisink, Niek N. H. M.; Witte, Martin D.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.


    Palladium-catalyzed oxidation can single out the secondary hydroxyl group at C3 in glucose, circumventing the more readily accessible hydroxyl at C6 and the more reactive anomeric hydroxyl. Oxidation followed by reduction results in either allose or allitol, each a rare sugar that is important in

  7. short communication regioselective iodination of aryl amines using 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    . Hamel, E.; Jung, M.K.; Kremmidiotis, G. J. Med. Chem. 2011, 54, 6014. 26. Kanıskan, N.; Kökten, S.; Çelik, I. ARKIVOC 2012, 8, 198. 27. Xiao, W.J.; Alper, H. J. Org. Chem. 1999, 64, 9646. 28. Lizos, D.E.; Murphy, J.A. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2003 ...

  8. Regioselective synthesis and evaluation of 3-alkylidene-1, 3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organic Chemistry Division, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai 600 020, India; Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Mother Theresa Post Graduate and Research Institute of Health Sciences, Puducherry 605 006, India; Bioinformatics Centre, Pondicherry University, Puducherry 605 014, India ...

  9. Regioselective transformation of octaethylporphyrin into a phytoporphyrin analogue. (United States)

    Kunieda, Michio; Mikata, Yuji; Tamiaki, Hitoshi


    An octaethylporphyrin derivative, 1, possessing an exo-five-membered ring fused at the 13- and 15-positions was oxidized by osmium tetroxide to give two isomeric chlorins, 3 and 5, possessing beta,beta'-dihydroxy groups at the A- and C-rings, respectively. Single dehydration of 2,3-dihydroxychlorin 3 gave a mixture of 2- and 3-(1-hydroxyethyl)porphyrins 7, while that of 12,13-dihydroxychlorin 5 resulted in the sole formation of 131-hydroxyporphyrin 9. The latter was modified smoothly to the phytoporphyrin analogue 2, whose molecular skeleton was similar to that of naturally occurring chlorophylls possessing a 131-oxo group fixed on an exo-five-membered ring.

  10. Regioselectivity in the Reductive Bond Cleavage of Diarylalkylsulfonium Salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmeier, Jack; Mansurul Hoque, AKM; D. Saeva, Franklin


    - tolylethylsulfonium and di-4-tolyl-2-phenylethylsulfonium salts by a variety of one-electron reducing agents ranging in potential from -0.77 to +2.5 eV (vs SCE) and including thermal reductants, indirect electrolyses mediated by a series of cyanoaromatics, and excited singlet states. We report that the cleavage...

  11. Role of ligands in controlling the regioselectivity in ruthenium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ious polymers and copolymers.2 The most efficient method for the ... tance of this transformation.6 To increase the efficiency and versatility of this method ...... energetics ( GS. L) plot shown in figure 5. It is evident from the calculated energy profiles that pathways trac- ing the cationic vinylidenes (7′ a/d; dotted black line) are.

  12. Mechanism and regioselectivity of 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present analysis reveals that the cycloaddition ... step, five-centre cycloaddition, and involves 4π elec- trons from the 1,3-dipole and ..... S(1,5) = ( s. −. X3 − s. +. C4. )2 +. ( s. −. C1 − s. +. C5. )2 . (10b). As the values of S reveal, the reaction channel with lower activation energy corresponding to predominant regioisomer is ...

  13. Bottlenecks in the prediction of regioselectivity of [4+ 2] cycloaddition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    based descriptors such as the local softness ( s k + and s k − ), Fukui function indices ( f k + and f k − ), global electrophilicity index () and local electrophilicity index () were found to be better than the conventional FMO predictions.

  14. High regioselective acetylation of vitamin A precursors using lipase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of different reaction parameters was explored on the acylation of primary hydroxyl group of 1,6-diol by lipase B from Candida antarctica catalysis in organic solvent. First, the effect of the organic solvents was investigated, and the highest conversion rate was obtained in n-hexane. Then, the effect of the acyl donor ...

  15. Regioselective 1-N-Alkylation and Rearrangement of Adenosine Derivatives. (United States)

    Oslovsky, Vladimir E; Drenichev, Mikhail S; Mikhailov, Sergey N


    Several methods for the preparation of some N(6)-substituted adenosines based on selective 1-N-alkylation with subsequent Dimroth rearrangement were developed. The proposed methods seem to be effective for the preparation of natural N(6)-isopentenyl- and N(6)-benzyladenosines, which are known to possess pronounced biological activities. Direct 1-N-alkylation of 2',3',5'-tri-O-acetyladenosine and 3',5'-di-O-acetyl-2'-deoxyadenosine with alkyl halides in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) in the presence of BaCO3 and KI gave 1-N-substituted derivatives with quantitative yields, whereas 1-N-alkylation of adenosine was accompanied by significant O-alkylation. Moreover, the reaction of trimethylsilyl derivatives of N(6)-acetyl-2',3',5'-tri-O-acetyladenosine and N(6)-acetyl-3',5'-di-O-acetyl-2'-deoxyadenosine with alkyl halides leads to the formation of the stable 1-N-substituted adenosines. Dimroth rearrangement of 1-N-substituted adenosines in aqueous ammonia yields pure N(6)-substituted adenosines.

  16. Chemo- and Regioselective Oxidation of Secondary Alcohols in Vicinal Diols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisink, Niek; Minnaard, Adriaan; Witte, Martin

    Oxidation of secondary hydroxyl groups in vicinal diols enables the straightforward functionalization of biomolecules and biomaterials. The resulting hydroxy ketone can for example be used to form derivatives, such as the epimeric alcohol and imines, and it may be employed for chemical probe

  17. short communication regioselective iodination of aryl amines using 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    solvent-free conditions for iodination of aromatic compounds. Reactions under solvent-free conditions have received increasing attention in recent years. The advantage of these methods over conventional homogeneous reactions is that they provide greater selectivity, proceed with enhanced reaction rates, give cleaner ...

  18. Electronic properties of mono-substituted tetraferrocenyl porphyrins in solution and on a gold surface: assessment of the influencing factors for photoelectrochemical applications. (United States)

    Vecchi, Andrea; Erickson, Nathan R; Sabin, Jared R; Floris, Barbara; Conte, Valeria; Venanzi, Mariano; Galloni, Pierluca; Nemykin, Victor N


    Two unsymmetric meso-tetraferrocenyl-containing porphyrins of general formula Fc3 (FcCOR)Por (Fc=ferrocenyl, R=CH3 or (CH2)5 Br, Por=porphyrin) were prepared and characterized by a variety of spectroscopic methods, whereas their redox properties were investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) approaches. The mixed-valence [Fc3 (FcCOR)Por](n+) (n=1,3) were investigated using spectroelectrochemical as well as chemical oxidation methods and corroborated with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Inter-valence charge-transfer (IVCT) transitions in [Fc3 (FcCOR)Por](+) were analyzed, and the resulting data matched closely previously reported complexes and were assigned as Robin-Day class II mixed-valence compounds. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of a thioacetyl derivative (Fc3 (FcCO(CH2)5 SCOCH3 )Por) were also prepared and characterized. Photoelectrochemical properties of SAMs in different electrolyte systems were investigated by electrochemical techniques and photocurrent generation experiments, showing that the choice of electrolyte is critical for efficiency of redox-active SAMs. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Properties of cationic monosubstituted tetraalkylammonium cyclodextrin derivatives – their stability, complexation ability in solution or when deposited on solid anionic surface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popr, M.; Filippov, Sergey K.; Matushkin, Nikolai; Dian, J.; Jindřich, J.


    Roč. 11, February (2015), s. 192-199 ISSN 1860-5397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0640 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : cyclodextrin s * inclusion properties * solid surface Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.697, year: 2015

  20. Keggin type inorganic-organic hybrid material containing Mn(II) monosubstituted phosphotungstate and S-(+)-sec-butyl amine: Synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Ketan [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002 (India); Patel, Anjali, E-mail: [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002 (India)


    Graphical abstract: A new organic-inorganic hybrid material containing Keggin type manganese substituted phosphotungstate and S-(+)-sec-butyl amine was synthesized and systematically characterized. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New hybrid material comprising Mn substituted phosphotungstate (PW{sub 11}Mn) and S-(+)-sec-butyl amine (SBA) was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The spectral studies reveal the attachment of SBA to the PW{sub 11}Mn without any distortion of structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesized material comprises chirality. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesized hybrid material can be used as a heterogeneous catalyst for carrying out asymmetric synthesis. -- Abstract: A new inorganic-organic POM-based hybrid material comprising Keggin type mono manganese substituted phosphotungstate and enantiopure S-(+)-sec-butyl amine was synthesized in an aqueous media by simple ligand substitution method. The synthesized hybrid material was systematically characterized in solid as well as solution by various physicochemical techniques such as elemental analysis, TGA, UV-vis, FT-IR, ESR and multinuclear solution NMR ({sup 31}P, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C). The presence of chirality in the synthesized material was confirmed by CD spectroscopy and polarimeter. The above study reveals the attachment of S-(+)-sec-butyl amine to Keggin type mono manganese substituted phosphotungstate through N {yields} Mn bond. It also indicates the retainment of Keggin unit and presence of chirality in the synthesized material. An attempt was made to use the synthesized material as a heterogeneous catalyst for carrying out aerobic asymmetric oxidation of styrene using molecular oxygen. The catalyst shows the potential of being used as a stable recyclable catalytic material after simple regeneration without significant loss in conversion.

  1. One-step synthesis of N-protected glycosylamines from sugar hemiacetals. (United States)

    Liautard, Virginie; Pillard, Christelle; Desvergnes, Valérie; Martin, Olivier R


    Protected pentofuranose, hexofuranose and hexopyranose hemiacetals were found to react efficiently with amines carrying a deactivating group (alkoxycarbonyl, tosyl or phosphoryl group) in the presence of a Lewis acid to give the corresponding, stable glycosylamines. Such glycosylamine derivatives are useful substrates for further elaboration into nitrogen-containing natural products and carbohydrate mimetics.

  2. Enzymatic Halogenation: A Timely Strategy for Regioselective C-H Activation. (United States)

    Schnepel, Christian; Sewald, Norbert


    Halogenating enzymes are increasingly attracting attention for biocatalytic C-H functionalization. Despite its importance for synthetic chemistry, selective introduction of halogens using conventional approaches often remains challenging, whereas biocatalysis offers excellent catalyst-controlled selectivity without requiring protecting groups or hazardous reagents. Owing to the high prevalence of halogenated secondary metabolites, a still growing repertoire of halogenases has been identified. Recently, flavin-dependent tryptophan halogenases came into focus for synthetic use. Nevertheless, these enzymes still suffer from severe deficiencies. Herein, current attempts in optimizing tryptophan halogenases have been compiled. Enzyme discovery, structure elucidation and mechanisms are reviewed with focus on biosynthesis of halogenated arenes. Emphasis is also given to random and rational engineering, high-throughput screening and implementation of halogenases into one-pot processes. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Immobilization and Characterization of a New Regioselective and Enantioselective Lipase Obtained from a Metagenomic Library (United States)

    Alnoch, Robson Carlos; Martini, Viviane Paula; Glogauer, Arnaldo; Costa, Allen Carolina dos Santos; Piovan, Leandro; Muller-Santos, Marcelo; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio; Mitchell, David Alexander; Krieger, Nadia


    In previous work, a new lipase and its cognate foldase were identified and isolated from a metagenomic library constructed from soil samples contaminated with fat. This new lipase, called LipG9, is a true lipase that shows specific activities that are comparable to those of well-known industrially-used lipases with high activity against long-chain triglycerides. In the present work, LipG9 was co-expressed and co-immobilized with its foldase, on an inert hydrophobic support (Accurel MP1000). We studied the performance of this immobilized LipG9 (Im-LipG9) in organic media, in order to evaluate its potential for use in biocatalysis. Im-LipG9 showed good stability, maintaining a residual activity of more than 70% at 50°C after incubation in n-heptane (log P 4.0) for 8 h. It was also stable in polar organic solvents such as ethanol (log P -0.23) and acetone (log P -0.31), maintaining more than 80% of its original activity after 8 h incubation at 30°C. The synthesis of ethyl esters was tested with fatty acids of different chain lengths in n-heptane at 30 °C. The best conversions (90% in 3 h) were obtained for medium and long chain saturated fatty acids (C8, C14 and C16), with the maximum specific activity, 29 U per gram of immobilized preparation, being obtained with palmitic acid (C16). Im-LipG9 was sn-1,3-specific. In the transesterification of the alcohol (R,S)-1-phenylethanol with vinyl acetate and the hydrolysis of the analogous ester, (R,S)-1-phenylethyl acetate, Im-LipG9 showed excellent enantioselectivity for the R-isomer of both substrates (E> 200), giving an enantiomeric excess (ee) of higher than 95% for the products at 49% conversion. The results obtained in this work provide the basis for the development of applications of LipG9 in biocatalysis. PMID:25706996

  4. Immobilization and characterization of a new regioselective and enantioselective lipase obtained from a metagenomic library.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Carlos Alnoch

    Full Text Available In previous work, a new lipase and its cognate foldase were identified and isolated from a metagenomic library constructed from soil samples contaminated with fat. This new lipase, called LipG9, is a true lipase that shows specific activities that are comparable to those of well-known industrially-used lipases with high activity against long-chain triglycerides. In the present work, LipG9 was co-expressed and co-immobilized with its foldase, on an inert hydrophobic support (Accurel MP1000. We studied the performance of this immobilized LipG9 (Im-LipG9 in organic media, in order to evaluate its potential for use in biocatalysis. Im-LipG9 showed good stability, maintaining a residual activity of more than 70% at 50 °C after incubation in n-heptane (log P 4.0 for 8 h. It was also stable in polar organic solvents such as ethanol (log P -0.23 and acetone (log P -0.31, maintaining more than 80% of its original activity after 8 h incubation at 30 °C. The synthesis of ethyl esters was tested with fatty acids of different chain lengths in n-heptane at 30 °C. The best conversions (90% in 3 h were obtained for medium and long chain saturated fatty acids (C8, C14 and C16, with the maximum specific activity, 29 U per gram of immobilized preparation, being obtained with palmitic acid (C16. Im-LipG9 was sn-1,3-specific. In the transesterification of the alcohol (R,S-1-phenylethanol with vinyl acetate and the hydrolysis of the analogous ester, (R,S-1-phenylethyl acetate, Im-LipG9 showed excellent enantioselectivity for the R-isomer of both substrates (E> 200, giving an enantiomeric excess (ee of higher than 95% for the products at 49% conversion. The results obtained in this work provide the basis for the development of applications of LipG9 in biocatalysis.

  5. Improving similarity-driven library design: customized matching and regioselective feature trees. (United States)

    Fischer, J Robert; Lessel, Uta; Rarey, Matthias


    Reduced graph descriptors, like feature trees, are frequently applied in cases where the relative arrangement of functional groups is more important than exact substructure matches. Due to their ability to deal with fragmented molecules, they are well-suited for fragment space search and library design. We recently presented LoFT, a novel focused library design approach based on feature trees. During evaluation two drawbacks of the reduced graph descriptor were discovered: First, regioisomeric substructures cannot be distinguished in feature tree mappings which results in a large information loss especially when connecting R-groups to cores. Second, the automatic matching procedure might result in undesired alignments, since the knowledge on what is considered as core by the user is not taken into account. In the following, we will present two approaches to overcome those drawbacks. The generation of the feature trees is modified, so that different arene substitution patterns can be recognized and a customized matching is introduced, allowing the user to determine the parts of the query, where the reagents are allowed to match. Subsequently we investigate the improvements on library design by reviewing the design scenarios which were already used for the evaluation of LoFT.

  6. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity of ulvan-like polymer obtained by regioselective oxidation of gellan exopolysaccharide. (United States)

    Redouan, Elboutachfaiti; Emmanuel, Petit; Michelle, Pillon; Bernard, Courtois; Josiane, Courtois; Cédric, Delattre


    Gellan is an exopolysaccharide produced in high yield by the non-pathogenic bacterium Sphingomonas elodea ATCC 31461. In this study, four carboxylated derivatives of gellan (OG-1, OG-2, OG-3 and OG-4) with different uronics acid content were prepared using the TEMPO (nitroxyl radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical) mediated oxidation and their antioxidant activities were investigated including scavenging activity of hydroxyl, superoxide anion and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radicals. The results of chemical analysis and (13)C NMR spectrums indicated that the modification was successful. In addition, certain derivative exhibited stronger antioxidant activity compared to that of native ones. The high uronic acids derivative (OG-4) showed the most excellent antioxidant activity in three assays. These results suggested the potential of TEMPO-mediated oxidation in developing water-soluble antioxidative polysaccharides from gellan still taking advantage of its low-cost production. The original carbohydrate structure of OG-4 derivative might find use as surrogates of ulvan, a cell-wall polysaccharides extracted from green seaweeds Ulva sp. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Mild Method for Regioselective Labeling of Aromatics with Radioactive Iodine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnest, Mads Holger; Nissen, Felix; Pedersen, Palle Jacob


    A novel technique to label ortho‐, meta‐, and para‐trimethylsilyl‐substituted aryl substituents with radioactive iodide is described. The method takes advantage of the ipso‐directing and activating properties of trimethylsilyl substituents on the arenes. The method was demonstrated...

  8. Regioselectivity in the hetero-Diels–Alder reactions of styrenes with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    It is worth mentioning that the reaction yield is nor- mally increased by putting the electron-withdrawing substituents on the ... tal studies, the reaction mechanism, substituent effects and the molecular orbital viewpoint (for justifying the ..... calization of lone pair of nitrogen atom, LP(N), to the vacant orbital of boron atom, LP. ∗.

  9. Synthesis of icariin from kaempferol through regioselective methylation and para-Claisen–Cope rearrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinggang Mei


    Full Text Available The hemisynthesis of the naturally occurring bioactive flavonoid glycoside icariin (1 has been accomplished in eleven steps with 7% overall yield from kaempferol. The 4′-OH methylation of kaempferol, the 8-prenylation of 3-O-methoxymethyl-4′-O-methyl-5-O-prenyl-7-O-benzylkaempferol (8 via para-Claisen–Cope rearrangement catalyzed by Eu(fod3 in the presence of NaHCO3, and the glycosylation of icaritin (3 are the key steps.

  10. FeCl3 catalysed regioselective allylation of phenolic substrates with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hydroxy) allylphosphonates is presented. ... organic transformations.3 The latter compounds have been utilised for the ...... c In these cases both the products were formed but we could isolate only one of them in pure form. Figure 1. Molecular ...

  11. A simple, effective, green method for regioselective 3-acylation of unprotected indoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Phuong Huong; Tran, Hai N.; Hansen, Poul Erik


    to be the best catalyst together with the commercially available ionic liquid [BMI]BF4 (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoro-borate) as solvent. The reaction is completed in a very short time using monomode microwave irradiation. The catalyst can be reused up to four times without significant loss of activity...

  12. Transition Metal-Catalyzed Regioselective Asymmetric Mono-hydrogenation of Dienes and Polyenes. (United States)

    Margarita, Cristiana; Rabten, Wangchuk; Andersson, Pher G


    Organic compounds containing multiple C=C bonds are attractive substrates for catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation. The full saturation of prochiral double bonds, controlling the creation of two or more stereocenters in one step, is obviously a remarkable goal. However, another fascinating and useful option is to selectively introduce a new defined stereogenic center, while leaving other double bonds untouched. Thus, the retained functionalities can be further exploited in synthesis. Examples of regio- and enantioselective mono-hydrogenations of polyolefins are highlighted in this Concept article, and are divided according to the nature of the reduced double bond and the transition-metal catalyst used. Alkenes bearing coordinating functional groups are often preferentially hydrogenated by Rh- and Ru-complexes, while the more recently developed Ir-based catalysts promote the selective saturation on alkyl-substituted olefins. Relevant applications of this effective methodology in the synthesis of natural products are included to demonstrate its value in organic synthesis. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Computational Methods to Predict the Regioselectivity of Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions of Heteroaromatic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruszyk, Monika; Jessing, Mikkel; Kristensen, Jesper L


    The validity of calculated NMR shifts to predict the outcome of electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions on different heterocyclic compounds has been examined. Based on an analysis of >130 literature examples it was found that the lowest calculated 13C and/or 1H chemical shift of a heterocycle...... correlates qualitatively with the regiochemical outcome of halogenation reactions in >80% of the investigated cases. In the remaining cases, the site of electrophilic aromatic substitution can be explained by the calculated HOMO orbitals obtained using density functional theory. Using a combination...

  14. Multiple and regioselective introduction of protected sulfates into carbohydrates using sulfuryl imidazolium salts. (United States)

    Desoky, Ahmed Y; Taylor, Scott D


    Selective incorporation of trichloroethyl (TCE)-protected sulfates into monosaccharides was examined using reagent 2. In general, sulfation of 4,6-O-benzylidene acetals of galactosides and glucosides (2-OH versus 3-OH sulfations) proceeded in good to excellent yield and selectivity. Sulfation occurred predominantly at the 2-OH in 4,6-O-benzylidene acetals of alpha-glucosides and at the 3-OH in 4,6-O-benzylidene acetals of beta-galactosides and beta-glucosides. Good yields and selectivity was also achieved for the 3-OH in 3,4-diols of glucosides and galactosides. A glucoside bearing a 2-amino moiety and 6-OH group gave mainly the N-sulfated product in good yield. Selective sulfation of the primary 6-OH in galactose and glucose derivatives bearing one or two free secondary hydroxyl groups was also achieved usually in good yield and selectivity. Reagent 2 was also effective for the direct disulfation of diols of glucosides and galactosides, and trisulfated monosaccharides could be prepared from the disulfated compounds.

  15. Stannylene‐Mediated Regioselective 6‐O‐Glycosylation of Unprotected Phenyl 1‐Thioglycopyranosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggi, Agnese; Madsen, Robert


    acetal, and then subjected to selective glycosylation at the 6‐position with the Koenigs–Knorr protocol. Peracylated glycosyl bromides of D‐glucose, D‐galactose, D‐mannose and D‐glucosamine were employed as the donors to give the corresponding (1→6)‐linked disaccharides in moderate to good yields...

  16. Phosphonium Salts as Pseudohalides: Regioselective Nickel-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Complex Pyridines and Diazines. (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; McNally, Andrew


    Heterobiaryls are important pharmacophores that are challenging to prepare by traditional cross-coupling methods. An alternative approach is presented where pyridines and diazines are converted into heteroaryl phosphonium salts and coupled with aryl boronic acids. Nickel catalysts are unique for selective heteroaryl transfer, and the reaction has a broad substrate scope that includes complex pharmaceuticals. Phosphonium ions also display orthogonal reactivity in cross-couplings compared to halides, enabling chemoselective palladium- and nickel-catalyzed coupling sequences. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. FeCl 3 catalysed regioselective allylation of phenolic substrates with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hydroxy) allylphosphonates is presented. It is observed that catalytic FeCl3 is sufficient to accomplish the allylation. Interestingly, the reaction led to the formation of allylphosphonates in addition to vinylphosphonates, depending upon the ...

  18. Regioselectivity and reversibility of the glutathione conjugation of quercetin quinone methide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, M.G.; Vervoort, J.; Szymusiak, H.; Lemanska, K.; Tyrakowska, B.; Cenas, N.; Segura-Aguilar, J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.


    The chemical reactivity, isomerization, and glutathione conjugation of quercetin o-quinone were investigated. Tyrosinase was used to generate the unstable quercetin o-quinone derivative which could be observed upon its subsequent scavenging by glutathione. Identification of the products revealed

  19. FAME 2: Simple and Effective Machine Learning Model of Cytochrome P450 Regioselectivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sicho, M.; Kops, C.B.; Stork, C.; Svozil, Daniel; Kirchmair, J.


    Roč. 57, č. 8 (2017), s. 1832-1846 ISSN 1549-9596 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1220; GA MŠk LM2015063 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : cyp-mediated sites * predicting drug-metabolism * xenobiotic metabolism * population analysis * pathway prediction * wave-functions * rs-predictor * p450 * reactivity * smartcyp Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.760, year: 2016

  20. Regioselectivity in lithiation of 1-methylpyrazole: experimental, density functional theory and multinuclear NMR study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Thomas; Begtrup, Mikael; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W.


    Reaction of 1-methylpyrazole with n-BuLi in THF followed by reaction with monodeuteromethanol (CH3OD) under kinetically controlled conditions leads to functionalisation at the methyl group, whereas reaction under thermodynamically controlled conditions leads to functionalisation at the pyrazole 5...

  1. Regioselective Synthesis of Some Pyrazole Scaffolds Attached to Benzothiazole and Benzimidazole Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila A. Kheder


    Full Text Available Condensation of 2-(benzothiazol-2-ylacetonitrile (1 or 2-(1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-ylacetonitrile (2 with thiophene-2-carbaldehyde afforded the corresponding acrylonitrile derivatives 3 or 4, respectively. The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of the acrylonitrile 3 or 4 with nitrile-imine 6 gave novel pyrazole derivatives pendant to benzothiazole and benzimidazole. The pyrazoline derivative 7 was converted into the corresponding pyrazole derivative 11 via thermal elimination of hydrogen cyanide upon heating in sodium ethoxide solution. The structures of the synthesized products were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, and mass spectral techniques.

  2. Regioselective chlorination and bromination of unprotected anilines under mild conditions using copper halides in ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Wang


    Full Text Available By using ionic liquids as solvents, the chlorination or bromination of unprotected anilines at the para-position can be achieved in high yields with copper halides under mild conditions, without the need for potentially hazardous operations such as supplementing oxygen or gaseous HCl.

  3. Spectral, DFT and X-ray diffraction studies on regioselective synthesis of thiazolo-quinazoline system (United States)

    Gautam, Deepika; Gautam, Poonam; Chaudhary, R. P.


    Unsymmetrical quinazoline-3-thione 2, obtained from one pot condensation of 2-tetralone, p-chlorobenzaldehyde and thiourea in acidic medium, on reaction with α-halo acids afforded thiazolo-quinazoline derivatives 3, 7 and not their regioisomers 4 and 8 respectively. The cyclised product obtained by the reaction of thione 2 with 1,2-dibromoethane has been assigned structure 5. Condensation of thione 2 with 3-chloropropionic acid and 1,3-dibromopropane furnished thiazino-quinazoline derivatives 10 and 12 instead of their regioisomers 11 and 13 respectively. The structure of the cyclised products has been established by means of spectral data (IR, NMR and Mass). X-ray diffraction studies of a representative compound supported our claim on structural assignments. DFT studies on regioisomers further validated the claim for assigned structures. The reaction of thione 2 with 3-chloropropionc acid in presence of acetic acid yielded thiazinan-4-one 10.

  4. Stereo- and regioselective direct multi-deuterium-labeling methods for sugars. (United States)

    Sawama, Yoshinari; Yabe, Yuki; Iwata, Hiroki; Fujiwara, Yuta; Monguchi, Yasunari; Sajiki, Hironao


    Deuterium-labeled sugars can be utilized as powerful tools for the architectural analyses of high-sugar-containing molecules represented by the nucleic acids and glycoproteins, and chiral building blocks for the syntheses of new drug candidates (heavy drugs) due to their potential characteristics, such as simplifying the (1)H NMR spectra and the stability of C-D bonds compared with C-H bonds. We have established a direct and efficient synthetic method of deuterated sugars from non-labeled sugars by using the heterogeneous Ru/C-catalyzed H-D exchange reaction in D(2)O under a hydrogen atmosphere with perfect chemo- and stereoselectivities. The direct H-D exchange reaction can selectively proceed on carbons adjacent to the free hydroxyl groups, and the deuterium labeling of various pyranosides (such as glucose and disaccharides), as well as furanosides, represented by ribose and deoxyribose was realized. Furthermore, the desired number of deuterium atoms can be freely incorporated into selected positions by the site-selective protection of the hydroxyl groups using acetal-type protective groups because the deuterium exchange reaction never proceeds on positions adjacent to the protected hydroxyl groups. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Mechanism of the N-protecting group dependent annulations of 3-aryloxy alkynyl indoles under gold catalysis: a computational study. (United States)

    Cheng, Bing; Huang, Genping; Xu, Liang; Xia, Yuanzhi


    The mechanism of the gold-catalyzed annulations of 3-aryloxy alkynyl indoles developed by Tu et al. was studied by DFT calculations. It was found that both indole derivatives of electron-donating and electron-withdrawing protective groups would first undergo the 5-exo-dig cyclization simultaneously upon activation by cationic [PR(3)Au(+)] species. However, divergent reactivity of the resulting spirocyclic intermediate in competitive 1,2-alkenyl migration and nucleophilic water addition reactions towards C3 was predicted. When protected by electron-donating group, the 1,2-alkenyl migration occurs to generate a tricyclic intermediate, from which an aromatic Claisen rearrangement/nucleophilic addition sequence results in the observed 1,2-phenoxy migration. In case of electron-withdrawing group, the 1,2-alkenyl migration would be unfavorable. Instead, the nucleophilic addition of water oxygen to C3 is more facile, and leads to the hemiketal intermediate. The possible roles of water-cluster and OTf anion as proton shuttles in both reactions were also evaluated.

  6. Direct, catalytic, and regioselective synthesis of 2-alkyl-, aryl-, and alkenyl-substituted N-heterocycles from N-oxides. (United States)

    Larionov, Oleg V; Stephens, David; Mfuh, Adelphe; Chavez, Gabriel


    A one-step transformation of heterocyclic N-oxides to 2-alkyl-, aryl-, and alkenyl-substituted N-heterocycles is described. The success of this broad-scope methodology hinges on the combination of copper catalysis and activation by lithium fluoride or magnesium chloride. The utility of this method for the late-stage modification of complex N-heterocycles is exemplified by facile syntheses of new structural analogues of several antimalarial, antimicrobial, and fungicidal agents.

  7. Direct, Catalytic and Regioselective Synthesis of 2-Alkyl, Aryl, and Alkenyl-Substituted N-Heterocycles from N-Oxides (United States)

    Larionov, Oleg V.; Stephens, David; Mfuh, Adelphe; Chavez, Gabriel


    A one-step transformation of heterocyclic N-oxides to 2-alkyl, aryl, and alkenyl-substituted N-heterocycles is described. The success of this broad-scope methodology hinges on the combination of copper catalysis and activation by lithium fluoride or magnesium chloride. The utility of this method for the late-stage modification of complex N-heterocycles is exemplified by facile syntheses of new structural analogs of several antimalarial, antimicrobial and fungicidal agents. PMID:24410049

  8. Synthetic and mechanistic aspects of the regioselective base-mediated reaction of perfluoroalkyl- and perfluoroarylsilanes with heterocyclic N-oxides. (United States)

    Stephens, David E; Chavez, Gabriel; Valdes, Martin; Dovalina, Monica; Arman, Hadi D; Larionov, Oleg V


    The scope and mechanistic implications of the direct transformation of heterocyclic N-oxides to 2-trifluoromethyl-, and related perfluoroalkyl- and perfluoroaryl-substituted N-heterocycles has been studied. The reaction is effected by perfluoroalkyl- and perfluorophenyltrimethylsilane in the presence of strong base. In situ displacement of the para-fluoro substituent in the pentafluorophenyl ring and the methoxy group in 8-methoxyquinolines with additional nucleophiles allows for further site-selective refunctionalization of the N-heterocyclic products.

  9. Mechanism and Regioselectivity of Rh(III)-Catalyzed Intermolecular Annulation of Aryl-Substituted Diazenecarboxylates and Alkenes: DFT Insights

    KAUST Repository

    Ajitha, Manjaly John


    The mechanism of Rh-catalyzed intermolecular annulation of aryl-substituted diazenecarboxylates and alkenes was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) (PCM-M062X/6-311+G(d,p)//M062X/6-31G(d)). The acetate ligand (OAc)-assisted C-H activation via the formation of a five-membered rhodacycle (I-TS1; ΔG‡ = 19.4 kcal/mol) is more favorable compared to that via a four-membered intermediate (II-TS1; ΔG‡ = 27.8 kcal/mol). Our results also revealed that the seven-membered intermediate (I-3, ΔGrel = -6.8 kcal/mol) formed after the alkene insertion could undergo a coordination switch with the adjacent nitrogen atom (via TScs; ΔG‡ = 16.5 kcal/mol) to produce a thermodynamically stable six-membered intermediate (II-3, ΔGrel = -10.4 kcal/mol), eventually leading to a cyclization process followed by a barrierless ligand-assisted protonation to yield the final product. The β-hydride elimination product was found to be kinetically and thermodynamically undesirable. The rate-determining step is identified as the initial C-H activation, consistent with the previous kinetic studies. Notably, DFT studies offered important insights on the ability of the substrate (diazene carboxylate) to promote the switchable coordination site selectivity during the reaction to achieve a lower energy pathway. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  10. Chemistry of [(Perfluoroalkyl)Methyl] Oxiranes. Regioselectivity of Ring Opening with O-Nucleophiles and the Preparation of Amphiphilic Monomers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Církva, Vladimír; Améduri, B.; Boutevin, B.; Paleta, O.


    Roč. 84, č. 1 (1997), s. 53-61 ISSN 0022-1139 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : fluoroalkyl thiiranes * nucleophilic oxirane ring opening Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.714, year: 1997

  11. Simple Efficient Routes for the Preparation of Pyrazoleamines and Pyrazolopyrimidines: Regioselectivity of Pyrazoleamines Reactions with Bidentate Reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Sherief Moustafa


    Full Text Available Simple and efficient routes for the preparation of 2-amino-5-phenyl-4,5-dihydrofuran-3-carbonitrile (12, 2-oxo-5-phenyl-tetrahydrofuran-3-carbonitrile (13 and the 3,5-diaminopyrazole derivative 2h were developed. The results of the reactivity profiles of 12 and 2h are reported and the previously investigated reaction of pyrazole-3,5-diamine (2b with acrylonitrile to yield compound (31, a N-1 acylation product, is currently justified by using X-ray crystallographic analysis. Taken together, the observation of alkenes and alkynes substitution when reacting with 3,5-diaminopyrazole derivative 2h is explained by the terminal electron withdrawing group. This pattern of substitution is attributed to involvement of sterically unhindered electrophiles primarily at the N-1 position. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. Chemo- and regioselective functionalization of nortrilobolide: application for semi-synthesis of the natural product 2-acetoxytrilobolide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doan, Thi Quynh Nhu; Crestey, François; Olsen, Carl Erik


    time, a stereoselective synthesis of the 2-acetoxytrilobolide (4) is described, which involves two key reactions: the first chemical step is a one-pot substitution-oxidation reaction of an allylic ester into its corresponding α,β-unsaturated ketone. The second process consists of a stereoselective α......´-acyloxylation of the key intermediate α,β-unsaturated ketone to afford its corresponding acetoxyketone, which was converted into 2-acetoxytrilobolide (4) in a few steps. This innovative approach would allow the synthesis of a broad library of novel and valuable penta- and hexaoxygenated guaianolides as potential...

  14. Regioselective synthesis of 3-arylpyrido[2,3-b]pyrazines by reaction of arylglyoxals with 2,3-diaminopyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabbar Khalafy


    Full Text Available A series of pyrido[2,3-b]pyrazine derivatives were synthesized in good to excellent yields by condensation reactions of arylglyoxals with 2,3-diaminopyridine in dimethylformamide and ethanol at 90 oC.

  15. Efficient, regioselective ring-opening of activated aziridine-2-carboxylates with [18F]fluoride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth-Eskesen, Christina; Hansen, Paul Robert; Kjær, Andreas


    Aziridines can undergo a range of ring-opening reactions with nucleophiles. The regio- and stereochemistry of the products depend on the substituents on the aziridine. Aziridine ring-opening reactions have rarely been used in radiosynthesis. Herein we report the ring opening of activated aziridin...

  16. Halide-mediated regioselective 6-O-glycosylation of unprotected hexopyranosides with perbenzylated glycosyl bromide donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niedbal, Dominika Alina; Madsen, Robert


    bromide. The couplings were completely selective for both glucose and galactose donors and acceptors as long as the stannylene acetal of the acceptor was soluble in dichloromethane. This gave rise to a number of 1,2-cis-linked disaccharides in reasonable yields. Mannose donors and acceptors, on the other...

  17. Antimycobacterial activity: a facile three-component [3+2]-cycloaddition for the regioselective synthesis of highly functionalised dispiropyrrolidines. (United States)

    Wei, Ang Chee; Ali, Mohamed Ashraf; Yoon, Yeong Keng; Ismail, Rusli; Choon, Tan Soo; Kumar, Raju Suresh; Arumugam, Natarajan; Almansour, Abdulrahman I; Osman, Hasnah


    A series of twelve dispiropyrrolidines were synthesized using [3+2]-cycloaddition reactions. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis H(37)Rv and INH resistant M. tuberculosis strains using agar dilution method, four of them showed good activity with MIC of less than 1 μM. Compound 4'-[5-(4-fluorophenyl)pyridin-3-yl]-1'-methyldispiro[indan-2,2' pyrrolidine-3',2″-indan]-1,3,1″-trione (4b) was found to be the most active with MIC of 0.1215 and 5.121 μM, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Facial Regioselective Synthesis of Novel Bioactive Spiropyrrolidine/Pyrrolizine-Oxindole Derivatives via a Three Components Reaction as Potential Antimicrobial Agents. (United States)

    Hassaneen, Huwaida M E; Eid, Elshimaa M; Eid, Hamid A; Farghaly, Thoraya A; Mabkhot, Yahia Nasser


    This article presents the synthesis of new derivatives of spirooxindole-spiropiperidinone- pyrrolidines 6a-j and spirooxindole-spiropiperidinone-pyrrolizines 8a-j, through a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of azomethineylides generated from isatin, sarcosine, and l-proline, through a decarboxylative route with dipolarophile 4a-j. All of the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities and their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against most of the test organisms. The tested compounds displayed excellent activity against all of the tested microorganisms.

  19. Total Synthesis of γ-Indomycinone and Kidamycinone by Means of Two Regioselective Diels-Alder Reactions. (United States)

    Mabit, Thibaud; Siard, Aymeric; Pantin, Mathilde; Zon, Doumadé; Foulgoc, Laura; Sissouma, Drissa; Guingant, André; Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Lebreton, Jacques; Carreaux, François; Dujardin, Gilles; Collet, Sylvain


    An efficient access for the synthesis of pluramycinones is described. Total syntheses of racemic γ-indomycinone and kidamycinone were achieved by means of two Diels-Alder reactions. A first Diels-Alder condensation followed by a Stille cross-coupling is used for the elaboration of the desired substituted dienes which will be involved in the second pericyclic reaction with juglone to construct the tetracyclic core of pluramycinones.

  20. Synthesis of the proteinase inhibitor LEKTI domain 6 by the fragment condensation method and regioselective disulfide bond formation. (United States)

    Vasileiou, Zoe; Barlos, Kostas K; Gatos, Dimitrios; Adermann, Knut; Deraison, Celine; Barlos, Kleomenis


    Proteinase inhibitors are of high pharmaceutical interest and are drug candidates for a variety of indications. Specific kallikrein inhibitors are important for their antitumor activity and their potential application to the treatment of skin diseases. In this study we describe the synthesis of domain 6 of the kallikrein inhibitor Lympho-Epithilial Kazal-Type Inhibitor (LEKTI) by the fragment condensation method and site-directed cystine bridge formation. To obtain the linear LEKTI precursor, the condensation was best performed in solution, coupling the protected fragment 1-22 to 23-68. This method yielded LEKTI domain 6 of high purity and equipotent to the recombinantly produced peptide. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. [Ring cleavage of N-arylpyridinium salts by nucleophiles--regioselectivity and stereochemistry of the products. 2]. (United States)

    Möhrle, H; Niessen, R


    The reaction of quaternary 3-pyridinecarboxamide compounds 2, 7 and 14 with alkali does not--contrary to literature--result in regiospecific ring opening, but yields mixtures of position isomer penta-2,4-dienal derivatives. With increasing steric hindrance by the 3-substituent, the hydroxide ion prefers the attack at 6-position. Usually products with all trans configuration are obtained. Only the 2-substituted aldehydes from 2 and 14 additionally occur in the 2,3-cis configuration as 5b and 21b, explainable by a hydrogen bond between the formyl and carbamoyl group. Surprisingly the "ring opened" 5-aminopenta-2,4-dienals 5 and 6 resp. 21 and 22 in acetone solution show an equilibrium of the positional isomers in each case, which must be generated by recyclization via the intermediates 24 resp. 25. With hydroxylamine 2, 7 and 14 only react to the 4-substituted pentadienal derivatives, which represent E,Z oxime mixtures. This is proved by dehydration to uniform nitriles and the synthesis from the corresponding aldehydes by oximation.

  2. Computational Study of Chemical Reactivity Using Information-Theoretic Quantities from Density Functional Reactivity Theory for Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions. (United States)

    Wu, Wenjie; Wu, Zemin; Rong, Chunying; Lu, Tian; Huang, Ying; Liu, Shubin


    The electrophilic aromatic substitution for nitration, halogenation, sulfonation, and acylation is a vastly important category of chemical transformation. Its reactivity and regioselectivity is predominantly determined by nucleophilicity of carbon atoms on the aromatic ring, which in return is immensely influenced by the group that is attached to the aromatic ring a priori. In this work, taking advantage of recent developments in quantifying nucleophilicity (electrophilicity) with descriptors from the information-theoretic approach in density functional reactivity theory, we examine the reactivity properties of this reaction system from three perspectives. These include scaling patterns of information-theoretic quantities such as Shannon entropy, Fisher information, Ghosh-Berkowitz-Parr entropy and information gain at both molecular and atomic levels, quantitative predictions of the barrier height with both Hirshfeld charge and information gain, and energetic decomposition analyses of the barrier height for the reactions. To that end, we focused in this work on the identity reaction of the monosubstituted-benzene molecule reacting with hydrogen fluoride using boron trifluoride as the catalyst in the gas phase. We also considered 19 substituting groups, 9 of which are ortho/para directing and the other 9 meta directing, besides the case of R = -H. Similar scaling patterns for these information-theoretic quantities found for stable species elsewhere were disclosed for these reactions systems. We also unveiled novel scaling patterns for information gain at the atomic level. The barrier height of the reactions can reliably be predicted by using both the Hirshfeld charge and information gain at the regioselective carbon atom. The energy decomposition analysis ensued yields an unambiguous picture about the origin of the barrier height, where we showed that it is the electrostatic interaction that plays the dominant role, while the roles played by exchange-correlation and

  3. B(HSO4)3: a novel and efficient solid acid catalyst for the regioselective conversion of epoxides to thiocyanohydrins under solvent-free conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ali Reza Kiasat; Mehdi Fallah-Mehrjardi


    B(HSO4)3 was easily prepared and used as a novel and efficient solid acid catalyst for conversion of epoxides to the corresponding thiocyanohydrins under solvent-free conditions with high isolated yields...

  4. Microwave-Assisted Improved Regioselective Synthesis of 12H-Benzopyrano[3,2-c][1]benzopyran-5-ones by Radical Cyclisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradipta Kumar Basu


    Full Text Available Two new effective methodologies have been adopted for the preparation of 4-(2′-bromobenzyloxybenzopyran-7-ones 3(a–h. In the first methodology, 4-hydroxy[1]benzopyran-2-ones 1(a–d was alkylated with 2-bromobenzyl bromide 2a or 2-bromo-5-methoxy benzyl bromide 2b under phase transfer catalysis condition using lithium hydroxide/tetrabutyl ammonium bromide in N,N-dimethylformamide at 40–50°C and in the second method the microwave irradiation protocol has been exploited by simply mixing of 4-hydroxy[1]benzopyran-2-ones 1(a–d with 25% excess of 2-bromobenzyl bromide 2a or 2-bromo-5-methoxy benzyl bromide 2b. A catalytic amount of TBAB and potassium carbonate were added and irradiated in an open Erlenmeyer flask in a microwave oven for 4–10 min. The tributyltin-hydride-mediated radical cyclisation of 3(a–h was carried out under microwave irradiation to generate 12H-benzopyrano[3,2-c][1]benzopyran-5-ones 4(a–h in 78–88% yield and in this technique yields were significantly improved and reaction time was shortened compared to the previously reported conventional radical cyclisation method.

  5. Biomimetic iron(III) complexes of facially and meridionally coordinating tridentate 3N ligands: tuning of regioselective extradiol dioxygenase activity in organized assemblies. (United States)

    Sankaralingam, Muniyandi; Saravanan, Natarajan; Anitha, Natarajan; Suresh, Eringathodi; Palaniandavar, Mallayan


    Four mononuclear iron(III) complexes of the type [Fe(L)Cl3] 1-4, where L is a tridentate 3N ligand such as (2-pyridin-2-ylethyl)(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amine (L1), (methyl)(2-pyridin-2-ylethyl)(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amine (L2), bis(pyridin-2-ylethyl)amine (L3), and (1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-ylmethyl)(pyridin-2-ylethyl)amine (L4), have been isolated and studied as functional models for catechol dioxygenase enzymes. In [Fe(L2)Cl3] 2, the ligand L2 is coordinated facially to iron(III) whereas in [Fe(L1)Cl3] 1 and [Fe(L4)Cl3] 4 the ligands L1 and L4 are coordinated meridionally. In DCM, CH3CN and aqueous SDS, CTAB and TX-100 micellar media, the positions of both the low and high energy catecholate-to-iron(III) LMCT bands (465-530, 690-860 nm) observed for the 3,4-di-tert-butylcatecholate (DBC(2-)) adducts of the iron(III) complexes vary in the order 2 > 1 > 3 > 4, which reflects the influence of the stereoelectronic factors, mode of coordination and the chelate ring size formed by the tridentate ligands. Spectral and electrochemical studies disclose the formation and location of the cationic adducts as solvated [Fe(L)(DBC)(H2O)](+) species mostly in the aqueous micellar pseudophases of SDS and TX-100 and in the aqueous phase of CTAB micellar solution. The [Fe(L)(DBC)Cl] adducts of 1, 3 and 4, generated in situ, afford major amounts of intradiol cleavage products (17.0-70.0%) and smaller amounts of extradiol (1.2-4.2%) products with varying extradiol to intradiol cleavage product selectivity (E/I: 1, 0.08 : 1; 3, 0.02 : 1; 4, 0.3 : 1). On the other hand, interestingly, the adduct [Fe(L2)(DBC)Cl] of 2 generated in DCM yields a major amount of extradiol (54.0%) and a lower amount (18.3%) of the intradiol cleavage products (E/I, 3 : 1). Remarkably, in aqueous SDS micellar media, it shows exclusive extradiol cleavage products (79.4%) while all the other complexes show very low selectivity (E/I: 1, 0.03 : 1; 2, 79.4 : 0, 3, 0.06 : 1, 4, 0.06 : 1), suggesting the suitability of SDS medium for 2 to elicit exclusive extradiol cleavage. The TX-100 micellar medium also provides a suitable hydrophobic environment for 2 to elicit extradiol cleavage. However, in CTAB micellar medium, 2 shows cleavage selectivity lower than others. Also, the rate of dioxygenation is higher in SDS micellar medium than in DCM, and is dependent upon the chelate ring size.

  6. DFT-Based Explanation of the Effect of Simple Anionic Ligands on the Regioselectivity of the Heck Arylation of Acrolein Acetals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Signe Teuber; Tanner, David Ackland; Cacchi, Sandro


    The Heck arylation of acrolein acetal has been studied computationally and compared to the corresponding reaction with allyl ethers. The reaction can be controlled to give either cinnamaldehydes or arylpropanoic esters by addition of different coordinating anions, acetate, or chloride....... The computational study reveals that coordinating acetate raises the energy of an intermediate sufficiently to block the access to an otherwise favorable beta-hydride elimination. The reaction path is also compared to that of allyl ethers, which always give significant amounts of cinnamyl ether products under all...... reaction conditions. The difference between the two substrate classes could be rationalized in terms of relative hydride donating power of the two substrates....

  7. Regioselective and stereospecific acylation across oxirane- and silyloxy systems as a novel strategy to the synthesis of enantiomerically pure mono-, di- and triglycerides. (United States)

    Stamatov, Stephan D; Stawinski, Jacek


    A trifluoroacetate-catalyzed opening of the oxirane ring of glycidyl derivatives bearing allylic acyl or alkyl functionalities with trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA), provides an efficient entry to configurationally homogeneous 1(3)-acyl- or 1(3)-O-alkyl-sn-glycerols. Selective introduction of tert-butyldimethylsilyl- (TBDMS), or triisopropylsilyl- (TIPS) transient protections at the terminal sites within these key intermediates secures 1(3)-acyl- or 1(3)-O-alkyl-3(1)-O-TBDMS (or TIPS)-sn-glycerols as general bifunctional precursors to 1,2(2,3)-diacyl-, 1(3)-O-alkyl-2-acyl- and 1,3-diacyl-sn-glycerols and hence triester isosters. Incorporation of a requisite acyl residue at the central carbon of the silylated synthons with a subsequent Et(3)N.3HF-promoted, direct trichloroacetylation across the siloxy system by trichloroacetic anhydride (TCAA), followed by cleavage of the trichloroacetyl group, affords the respective 1,2(2,3)-diacyl- or 1(3)-O-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycerols. Alternatively, a reaction sequence involving: (i) attachment of a trichloroacetyl fragment at the stereogenic C2-centre of the monosilylated glycerides; (ii) replacement of the silyl moiety by a short- or long-chain carboxylic acid residue by means of the acylating agent: tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBABr)-carboxylic acid anhydride (CAA)-trimethylsilyl bromide (TMSBr); and (iii) removal of the trichloroacetyl replacement, provides pure 1,3-diacyl-sn-glycerols. The TBABr-CAA-TMSBr reagent system allows also a one-step conversion of 1,2-diacylglycerol silyl ethers into homochiral triglycerides with predefined asymmetry and degree of unsaturation. These compounds can also be accessed via a two-step one-pot approach where the trichloroacetyl derivatives of 1,2(2,3)- or 1,3-diacyl-sn-glycerols serve as triester building blocks for establishing the third ester bond at preselected C3(1)- or C2-positions within the glycerol skeleton at the very last synthetic stage. In all instances, the target compounds were produced under mild conditions, in high enantiomeric purity, and in practically quantitative yields.


    AbstractEquilenin acetate and dihydroequilenin acetate were oxidized with iodosobenzene and a rhodium(III) porphyrin catalyst. The selectivity of the reactions differs from that with the corresponding Mn(III) catalyst, or from that of free radical chain oxidation.

  9. Synthesis of Azanucleosides through Regioselective Ring-Opening of Epoxides Catalyzed by Sulphated Zirconia under Microwave and Solvent-Free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo E. Negrón-Silva


    Full Text Available New azanucleosides were obtained using sulphated zirconia (ZS as catalyst in the nucleophilic oxirane ring opening reaction of 1-allyl-3-(oxiran-2-ylmethyl pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H-dione and 1-allyl-5-methyl-3-(oxiran-2-ylmethyl-pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H-dione, with (S-prolinol. The new templates were obtained with good yields following a route which exploits the reactivity of epoxides in the presence of sulphated zirconia as catalyst. The key step was carried out using microwave and solvent-free conditions and proceeds with high selectivity.

  10. Digging Deeper into CYP3A Testosterone Metabolism: Kinetic, Regioselectivity, and Stereoselectivity Differences between CYP3A4/5 and CYP3A7. (United States)

    Kandel, Sylvie E; Han, Lyrialle W; Mao, Qingcheng; Lampe, Jed N


    The metabolism of testosterone to 6β-hydroxytestosterone (6β-OH-T) is a commonly used assay to evaluate human CYP3A enzyme activities. However, previous reports have indicated that CYP3A7 also produces 2α-hydroxytestosterone (2α-OH-T) and that a 2α-OH-T/6β-OH-T ratio may be a unique endogenous biomarker of the activity of the enzyme. Until now, the full metabolite and kinetic profile for testosterone hydroxylation by CYP3A7 has not been fully examined. To this end, we performed a complete kinetic analysis of the 6β-OH-T, 2α-OH-T, and 2β-hydroxytestosterone metabolites for recombinant Supersome CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP3A7 enzymes and monitored metabolism in fetal and adult human liver microsomes for comparison. In general, a decrease in the velocity of the reaction was observed between CYP3A4 and the two other enzymes, with CYP3A7 showing the lowest metabolic capacity. Interestingly, we found that the 2α-OH-T/6β-OH-T ratio varied with substrate concentration when testosterone was incubated with CYP3A7, suggesting that this ratio would likely not function well as a biomarker for CYP3A7 activity. In silico docking studies revealed at least two different binding modes for testosterone between CYP3A4 and CYP3A7. In CYP3A4, the most energetically favorable docking mode places testosterone in a position with the methyl groups directed toward the heme iron, which is more favorable for oxidation at C6β, whereas for CYP3A7 the testosterone methyl groups are positioned away from the heme, which is more favorable for an oxidation event at C2α In conclusion, our data indicate an alternative binding mode for testosterone in CYP3A7 that favors the 2α-hydroxylation, suggesting significant structural differences in its active site compared with CYP3A4/5. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  11. Efficient One-Pot Synthesis of Thiazol-2-imine Derivatives through Regioselective Reaction Between Primary Amines, Phenylisothiocyanate, and α-Chloroacetaldehyde. (United States)

    Nasiri, Farough; Sabahi-Agabager, Leila


    Thiazol-2-imine derivatives are interested for their pharmaceutical and biologic activities. A literature survey reveals that there have been no any reports on the synthesis of thiazol-2-imine derivatives without substituents in position C-4 and C-5 via one-pot reaction. Herein we report an efficient one-pot route for synthesis of these compounds in good to high yields. To a stirred mixture of amine (1 mmol) and phenylisothiocyanate (1 mmol) in EtOH (2 ml), KI (0.1 mmol) and DABCO (0.2 mmol) were added under reflux condition. Then α- chloroacetaldehyde (2 mmol) was added drop wise to the reaction mixture. After completion of the reaction, the product was purified over a silica gel short column (EtOAc/n-Hexane, 1:9). One pot reaction of primary amine, phenylisocyanate, and α-chloroacetaldehyde was carried out in the presence of various base and KI in different solvents. It was found that the maximum yield was obtained when the temperature reaches to the boiling point of EtOH. Comparing the reaction results in EtOH, CH3CN, THF, CH2Cl2, and H2O at reflux in the presence of various base, demonstrate that the yield of reaction in EtOH in the presence of DABCO was the most effective. When the reaction runs at the 20 mol% of the DABCO and 10 mol% of the KI, the yield and the time of the reaction were excellent. One-pot procedure can be used for the synthesis of thiazol-2-imine derivatives via the reaction of primary amines, α-chloroacetaldehyde, and phenylisothiocyanate in the presence of a catalytic amount of DABCO and potassium iodide in ethanol. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  12. p-TSA/Base-Promoted Propargylation/Cyclization of β-Ketothioamides for the Regioselective Synthesis of Highly Substituted (Hydro)thiophenes. (United States)

    Nandi, Ganesh Chandra; Singh, Maya Shankar


    Metal-free, p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TSA)-mediated, straightforward propargylation of β-ketothioamides with aryl propargyl alcohol has been achieved at room temperature. In addition, the reaction also provided thiazole rings as byproducts. Furthermore, the propargylated thioamides undergo intramolecular 1,5-cyclization to afford fully substituted (hydro)thiophenes in the presence of base. Notably, the approach is pot, atom, and step economical (PASE).

  13. The Crystal Structure of the Ivy delta4-16:0-ACP Desaturase Reveals Structural Details of the Oxidized Active Site and Potential Determinants of Regioselectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guy,J.; Whittle, E.; Kumaran, D.; Lindqvist, Y.; Shanklin, J.


    The multifunctional acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase from Hedera helix (English ivy) catalyzes the {Delta}{sup 4} desaturation of 16:0-ACP and the{Delta}{sup 9} desaturation of 18:0-ACP and further desaturates{Delta}{sup 9}-16:1 or {Delta}{sup 9}-18:1 to the corresponding {Delta}{sup 4,9} dienes. The crystal structure of the enzyme has been solved to 1.95{angstrom} resolution, and both the iron-iron distance of 3.2{angstrom} and the presence of a {mu}-oxo bridge reveal this to be the only reported structure of a desaturase in the oxidized FeIII-FeIII form. Significant differences are seen between the oxidized active site and the reduced active site of the Ricinus communis (castor) desaturase; His{sup 227} coordination to Fe2 is lost, and the side chain of Glu{sup 224}, which bridges the two iron ions in the reduced structure, does not interact with either iron. Although carboxylate shifts have been observed on oxidation of other diiron proteins, this is the first example of the residue moving beyond the coordination range of both iron ions. Comparison of the ivy and castor structures reveal surface amino acids close to the annulus of the substrate-binding cavity and others lining the lower portion of the cavity that are potential determinants of their distinct substrate specificities. We propose a hypothesis that differences in side chain packing explains the apparent paradox that several residues lining the lower portion of the cavity in the ivy desaturase are bulkier than their equivalents in the castor enzyme despite the necessity for the ivy enzyme to accommodate three more carbons beyond the diiron site.

  14. Combining substrate dynamics, binding statistics, and energy barriers to rationalize regioselective hydroxylation of octane and lauric acid by CYP102A1 and mutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, K Anton; Starikov, Eugene B; Urlacher, Vlada B; Commandeur, Jan N M; Vermeulen, Nico P E

    Hydroxylations of octane and lauric acid by Cytochrome P450-BM3 (CYP102A1) wild-type and three active site mutants--F87A, L188Q/A74G, and F87V/L188Q/A74G--were rationalized using a combination of substrate orientation from docking, substrate binding statistics from molecular dynamics simulations,

  15. A theoretical investigation on the regioselectivity of the intramolecular hetero Diels-Alder and 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of 2-vinyloxybenzaldehyde derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzehloueian Mahshid


    Full Text Available The present study reports a systematic computational analysis of the two possible pathways, fused and bridged, for an intramolecular hetero Diels-Alder (IMHDA and an intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (IMDCA of 2-vinyloxybenzaldehyde derivatives. The potential energy surface analysis for both reactions is in agreement with experimental observations. The activation energies associated with the two regioisomeric channels in IMHDA reaction show that the bridged product is favored, although in IMDCA, the most stable TS results the fused product. The global electronic properties of fragments within each molecule were studied to discuss the reactivity patterns and charge transfer direction in the intramolecular processes. The asynchronicity of the bond formation and aromaticity of the optimized TSs in the Diels-Alder reaction as well as cycloaddition reaction were evaluated. Finally, 1H NMR chemical shifts of the possible regioisomers have been calculated using the GIAO method which of the most stable products are in agreement with the experimental data in the both reaction.

  16. Regioselectivity of Sc2C2@C3v(8)-C82: Role of the Sumanene-Type Hexagon in Diels-Alder Reaction. (United States)

    Zhao, Pei; Zhao, Xiang; Ehara, Masahiro


    Recently, several experiments have demonstrated high chemical reactivity of the sumanene-type hexagon in Sc2C2@C82. To further uncover its reactivity, the Diels-Alder reaction to all the nonequivalent C-C bonds of C82 and Sc2C2@C82 has been investigated by density functional theory calculations. For the free fullerene, the [5,6] bond 7 is the thermodynamically most favored, whereas the addition on the [6,6] bond 3 has the lowest activation energy. Diels-Alder reaction has no preference for addition sites in the sumanene-type hexagon. However, in the case of the endohedral fullerene, the [6,6] bond 19 in the special hexagon becomes the most reactive site according to both kinetic and thermodynamic considerations. Further analyses reveal that bond 19 in Sc2C2@C82 exhibits the shortest bond length and third largest π-orbital axis vector. In addition, the LUMOs of bond 19 are also symmetry-allowed to interact with butadiene.

  17. Prediction of the chemo- and regioselectivity of Diels-Alder reactions of o-benzoquinone derivatives with thiophenes by means of DFT-based reactivity indices (United States)

    Ghomri, Amina; Mekelleche, Sidi Mohamed


    Global and local reactivity indices derived from density functional theory were used to elucidate the regio- and chemoselectivity of Diels-Alder reactions of masked o-benzoquinones with thiophenes acting as dienophiles. The polarity of the studied reactions is evaluated in terms of the difference of electrophilicity powers between the diene and dienophile partners. Preferential cyclisation modes of these cycloadditions are predicted using Domingo's polar model based on the local electrophilicity index, ωk, of the electrophile and the local nucleophilicity index, Nuk, of the nucleophile. The theoretical calculations, carried out at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level of theory, are in good agreement with experimental findings.

  18. Purification of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor protein by affinity chromatography using a regioselectively modified and reversibly immobilized alpha-toxin from Naja nigricollis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringler, P; Kessler, P; Menez, A; Brisson, A


    A new method of affinity chromatography purification of the detergent-solubilized nicotinic acetylcholine receptor protein (nAChR) is presented, based on the reversible coupling of a chemically monomodified alpha-toxin from Naja nigricollis to a resin. The alpha-toxin was monothiolated on the

  19. Click chemistry approach: regioselective one-pot synthesis of some new 8-trifluoromethylquinoline based 1,2,3-triazoles as potent antimicrobial agents. (United States)

    Garudachari, B; Isloor, Arun M; Satyanarayana, M N; Fun, Hoong-Kun; Hegde, Gurumurthy


    Three series of 8-trifluoromethylquinoline based 1,2,3-triazoles derivatives (5a-c, 6a-d and 7a-c) were synthesized by multi-step reactions by click chemistry approach. Synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral studies and X-ray analysis. The final compounds were screened for their in-vitro antimicrobial activity by well plate method (zone of inhibition). Compounds 5c, 6b, 8b, 11 and 12 were found to be active against tested microbial strains. The results are summarized in Tables 5 and 6. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis of pyrazole containing α-amino acids via a highly regioselective condensation/aza-Michael reaction of β-aryl α,β-unsaturated ketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilfillan, Lynne; Artschwager, Raik; Harkiss, Alexander H.; Liskamp, Rob M J; Sutherland, Andrew


    A synthetic approach for the preparation of a new class of highly conjugated unnatural α-amino acids bearing a 5-arylpyrazole side-chain has been developed. Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction of an aspartic acid derived β-keto phosphonate ester with a range of aromatic aldehydes gave β-aryl

  1. A green approach to the synthesis of novel phytosphingolipidyl β-cyclodextrin designed to interact with membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Miao


    Full Text Available This work reports the synthesis of a new family of mono-substituted amphiphilic cyclodextrins using a green methodology. Reactions using greener and safer catalysts with more environmentally friendly purification solvents were performed. Four unreported mono-substituted cyclodextrins bearing a phytosphingolipidyl chain and a fatty acid chain (C10, C12, C14 and C18 were successfully obtained with a promising yield.

  2. Copper–phenanthroline catalysts for regioselective synthesis of pyrrolo[3′,4′:3,4]pyrrolo[1,2-a]furoquinolines/phenanthrolines and of pyrrolo[1,2-a]phenanthrolines under mild conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupankar Paira


    Full Text Available A new series of pyrrolo[3′,4′:3,4]pyrrolo[1,2-a]furoquinolines/phenanthrolines and pyrrolo[1,2-a]phenanthrolines were efficiently built up from an 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative or phenanthroline via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction involving non-stabilized azomethine ylides, generated in situ from the parent furo[3,2-h]quinoliniums/phenanthroliums, in presence of a copper(II chloride–phenanthroline catalytic system. The methodology combines general applicability with high yields.

  3. Facile synthesis of (S)-beta-hydroxy-beta-trichloromethylated aromatic ketones by the regioselective ring cleavage of chiral beta-trichloromethyl-beta-propiolactone under the Friedel-Crafts conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujisawa, T; Ito, T; Fujimoto, K; Shimizu, M; Wynberg, H; Staring, EGJ


    The reaction of enantiomerically pure beta-trichloromethyl-beta-propiolactone (1) as a chiral building block with an aromatic compound in the presence of Lewis acid provided an acylated product with a chiral trichloromethyl carbinol moiety. The acylated product was used as an effective chiral

  4. Towards large amounts of Janus nanoparticles through a protection-deprotection route. (United States)

    Perro, Adeline; Reculusa, Stéphane; Pereira, Franck; Delville, Marie-Hélène; Mingotaud, Christophe; Duguet, Etienne; Bourgeat-Lami, Elodie; Ravaine, Serge


    Janus silica nanoparticles, regioselectively functionalized by two different chemical groups, were synthesized through a multistep procedure based on the use of a polystyrene nodule as a protecting mask.

  5. Ring-strain-enabled reaction discovery: new heterocycles from bicyclo[1.1.0]butanes. (United States)

    Walczak, Maciej A A; Krainz, Tanja; Wipf, Peter


    Mechanistically as well as synthetically, bicyclo[1.1.0]butanes represent one of the most fascinating classes of organic compounds. They offer a unique blend of compact size (four carbon atoms), high reactivity (strain energy of 66 kcal/mol), and mechanistic pathway diversity that can be harvested for the rapid assembly of complex scaffolds. The C(1)-C(3) bond combines the electronic features of both σ and π bonds with facile homolytic and heterolytic bond dissociation properties and thereby readily engages pericyclic, transition-metal-mediated, nucleophilic, and electrophilic pathways as well as radical acceptor and donor substrates. Despite this multifaceted reaction profile and recent advances in the preparation of bicylo[1.1.0]butanes, the current portfolio of synthetic applications is still limited compared with those of cyclopropanes and cyclobutanes. In this Account, we describe our work over the past decade on the exploration of substituent effects on the ring strain and the reactivity of bicyclo[1.1.0]butanes, particularly in the context of metal-mediated processes. We first describe Rh(I)-catalyzed cycloisomerization reactions of N-allyl amines to give pyrrolidine and azepine heterocycles. The regioselectivity of the C,C-bond insertion/ring-opening step in these reactions is controlled by the phosphine ligand. After metal carbene formation, an intramolecular cyclopropanation adds a second fused ring system. A proposed mechanism rationalizes why rhodium(I) complexes with monodentate ligands favor five-membered heterocycles, as opposed to Rh(I)-bidentate ligand catalysts, which rearrange N-allyl amines to seven-membered heterocycles. The scope of Rh(I)-catalyzed cycloisomerization reactions was extended to allyl ethers, which provide a mixture of five- and seven-membered cyclic ethers regardless of the nature of the phosphine additive and Rh(I) precatalyst. The chemical diversity of these cycloisomerization products was further expanded by a consecutive

  6. Facile synthesis of 2-amino-4-alkoxypyrimidines via consecutive nucleophilic aromatic substitution (S{sub N}Ar) reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Juhyeon; Cho, Yong Seo [Center for Neuro-Medicine, Brain Science Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Min, Sun Joon [Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Hanyang University , Ansan (Korea, Republic of)


    A transition-metal-free and regioselective synthesis of a series of 2-amino-4-alkoxypyrimidines is described. The SNAr alkoxylation of 2,4-dichloropyrimidines regioselectively provided 2-chloro-4-alkoxypyrimidines, which were subsequently subject to the second SNAr amination with cyclic amines in the presence of triethylamine at high temperature to afford 2-amino-4-alkoxypyrimidines in good overall yield.

  7. cycloaddition reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    models of regioselectivity in pericyclic reactions. In addition, local hard and soft acid base (HSAB) princi- ples have been also employed to predict the observed regioselectivity.2 In recent years, the conceptual density functional theory has been remarkably successful in explaining the reactivity and site selectivity.3 The.

  8. Synthesis of (±)-Brazilin Using IBX


    Huang, Yaodong; Zhang, Jinsong; Pettus, Thomas R. R.


    A short synthesis of (±)-brazilin is reported. This synthesis uses several interesting and underutilized transformations including a regioselective dirhodium-catalyzed aryl C–H insertion, a regioselective IBX phenol → o-quinone oxidation, a tautomerization of an o-quinone to a p-quinone methide, and an intramolecular aryl cyclization with a p-quinone methide.

  9. Synthesis of 2-substituted tetraphenylenes via transition-metal-catalyzed derivatization of tetraphenylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulei Pan


    Full Text Available A new strategy for the synthesis of 2-substituted tetraphenylenes through a transition-metal-catalyzed derivatization has been developed. Three types of functionalities, including OAc, X (Cl, Br, I and carbonyl, were introduced onto tetraphenylene, which allows the easy access to a variety of monosubstituted tetraphenylenes. These reactions could accelerate research on the properties and application of tetraphenylene derivatives.

  10. Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of levodropropizine. (United States)

    Caselli, Emilia; Tosi, Giovanni; Forni, Arrigo; Bucciarelli, Maria; Prati, Fabio


    Levodropropizine, an antitussive drug, was prepared in high enantiomeric excess in three steps, starting from dichloroacetone (2). Monosubstitution of 2 with sodium benzoate and subsequent baker's yeast reduction stereoselectively afforded the corresponding chlorohydrin in 73% ee, which was converted to levodropropizine and enantiomerically enriched up to 95% ee by fractional crystallisation.

  11. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of some α-hydroxy acids by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Nov 8, 2004 ... Abstract. The oxidation of lactic acid, mandelic acid and ten monosubstituted mandelic acids by hexa- methylenetetramine-bromine (HABR) in glacial acetic acid, leads to the formation of the corresponding oxoacid. The reaction is first order with respect to each of the hydroxy acids and HABR. It is proposed.

  12. Systematic B-metal substitution in CaNi5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Bjerrum, Niels


    The aim of this work has been to study the effect of B metal substitutions in CaNi5 (AB(5)) which is known to suffer from poor cycling stability as a hydride electrode material. Systematic monosubstitutions of nickel with the most common other B metals (i.e. Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn and Sn...

  13. Synthesis of Quinuclidines by Intramolecular Silver-​Catalysed Amine Additions to Alkynes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breman, A.C.; Ruiz-Olalla, A.; van Maarseveen, J.H.; Ingemann, S.; Hiemstra, H.


    A new method has been developed for the synthesis of 2-​alkylidenequinuclidines based on a silver triflate catalyzed intramol. hydroamination of 4-​(prop-​2-​ynyl)​piperidines. Monosubstituted piperidines reacted less efficiently than cis-​disubstituted piperidines, and the reaction was selective

  14. Radical-mediated 5-exo-trig cyclizations of 3-silylhepta-1,6-dienes. (United States)

    James, Philippe; Schenk, Kurt; Landais, Yannick


    Regioselectivity of the sulfonyl radical mediated 5-exo-trig cyclization of 3-silylheptadienyl systems 3a-d has been studied. At low temperature, the reaction of the sulfonyl radical occurs regioselectively at the allylsilane terminus, while a reversal of regioselectivity is observed at 80 degrees C. This general trend has been rationalized on the basis of polar effects and radical stabilization. Thiyl-mediated radical cyclization of dienes 3a, 3c-d, 7 with subsequent sulfur atom transfer was also studied, providing thiabicyclo[3.3.0] skeleton in one step with excellent stereocontrol.

  15. Chemo-, regio-, and stereoselective cyclizations of 1,3-bis(trimethylsilyloxy)-1,3-butadienes with alpha-chloroacetic acid chlorides and alpha-chloroacetic acetals. (United States)

    Langer, P; Krummel, T


    Treatment of 1,3-bis(trimethylsilyloxy)-1,3-butadienes with alpha-chlorocarboxylic acid chlorides resulted in chemo- and regioselective formation of 6-chloro3,5-dioxo esters, which were regioselectively converted into functionalised 3(2H)furanones. Chemo- and regioselective condensation of 1,3-bis(trimethylsilyloxy)-1,3-butadienes with alpha-chloroacetic dimethyl acetal afforded 6-chloro-5-methoxy-3-oxo esters, which could be regio- and stereoselectively transformed into 2-alkylidene-4-methoxytetrahydrofurans.

  16. Supplementary Information Cyclometallated ruthenium(II) carbonyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Pal

    thiosemicarbazones: Regioselective ruthenation of the 1-pyrenyl group. RUPESH NARAYANA PRABHU and SAMUDRANIL PAL. School of Chemistry, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046, India e-mail: Contents.

  17. Biotechnica 󈨙 International Congress for Biotechnology Held in Hannover, Germany, D.R. on 8-10 October 1985, (United States)


    Wandrey also stated that for the and transesterifications , (2) lipase - future, the greatest potential for bio- catalyzed regioselective acylation of...possible also to transform or optically active compounds via lipase - even synthesize more lipophilic pro- catalyzed stereospecific esterifications ducts

  18. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    oxoketenedithioacetals and -nitro--phenylenediamine exploited to achieve the regioselectivity in the synthesis of 2-thiomethyl ether substituted isomer of the privileged nucleus of 1,5-benzodiazepines over to its 4-substituted isomers · Priyanka Chaudhary ...

  19. The preparation of trisubstituted alkenyl nucleoside phosphonates under ultrasound-assisted olefin cross-metathesis. (United States)

    Sari, Ozkan; Hamada, Manabu; Roy, Vincent; Nolan, Steven P; Agrofoglio, Luigi A


    Intermolecular ultrasound-assisted olefin cross-metathesis is reported. This approach allows an easy access to challenging trisubstituted alkenyl nucleoside phosphonates. Regioselective chemoenzymatic deacetylation and Mitsunobu coupling are also described.

  20. Synthesis of substituted 2-cyanoarylboronic esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysén, Morten; Hansen, Henriette M; Begtrup, Mikael


    The synthesis of substituted 2-cyanoarylboronic esters is described via lithiation/in situ trapping of the corresponding methoxy-, trifluoromethyl-, fluoro-, chloro-, and bromobenzonitriles. The crude arylboronic esters were obtained in high yields and purities and with good regioselectivities....

  1. Hard and soft electrophilic and nucleophilic dissymmetry of α ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    oxoketenedithioacetals and p-nitro-o-phenylenediamine exploited to achieve the regioselectivity in the synthesis of 2-thiomethyl ether substituted isomer of the privileged nucleus of 1,5-benzodiazepines over to its 4-substituted isomers. PRIYANKA CHAUDHARY.

  2. Hard and soft electrophilic and nucleophilic dissymmetry of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    oxoketenedithioacetals and -nitro--phenylenediamine exploited to achieve the regioselectivity in the synthesis of 2-thiomethyl ether substituted isomer of the privileged nucleus of 1,5-benzodiazepines over to its 4-substituted isomers. Priyanka Chaudhary ...

  3. Rapid synthesis of long chain fatty acid esters of steroids in ionic liquids with microwave irradiation: expedient one-pot procedure for estradiol monoesters. (United States)

    Deb, Somdatta; Wähälä, Kristiina


    We report the rapid synthesis (1min) in high yield of fatty acid ester (FAE) derivatives of several steroids under microwave irradiation in an ionic liquid (IL). An expedient regioselective hydrolysis at C-3 of estradiol diesters is also reported.

  4. Bacterial biocatalysts : Molecular Biology, Three-Dimensional Structures, and Biotechnological Applications of Lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, K-E.; Dijkstra, B.W.; Reetz, M.T.


    Bacteria produce and secrete lipases, which can catalyze both the hydrolysis and the synthesis of long-chain acylglycerols. These reactions usually proceed with high regioselectivity and enantioselectivity, and, therefore, lipases have become very important stereoselective biocatalysts used in

  5. A conformationally locked tricyclic nucleoside. Synthesis, crystal structure and incorporation into oligonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Jacob; Thorup, Niels; Nielsen, Poul


    A tricyclic nucleoside is synthesised from a bicyclic nucleoside precursor by applying a stereoselective dihydroxylation, a regioselective tosylation and an intramolecular ether formation. This tricyclic nucleoside is constructed as a conformationally locked thymidine analogue and has been analys...

  6. Platinum Catalyzed Ring-Opening of 1,2-Cyclopropanated Sugars with O-Nucleophiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Jürgen; Skaanderup, Philip Robert; Madsen, Robert


    In the presence of a catalytic amount of Zeise's dimer 1,2-cyclopropanated sugars undergo regioselective ring-opening at C-1 with O-nucleophiles including alcohols, phenols and water to produce 2-C-branched carbohydrates....

  7. Uma metodologia simples e eficiente para a cloração de compostos aromáticos ativados utilizando o ácido tricloro-isocianúrico A simple and efficient methodology for chlorination of activated aromatic compounds using trichloroisocyanuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela F. Mendonça


    Full Text Available The chlorination of activated aromatic rings is efficiently achieved under mild conditions by reaction of aromatic compounds with trichloroisocyanuric acid in acetonitrile, at room temperature, leading to products in 60-95% isolated yields and good regioselectivity.

  8. Microbial transformation of tetralin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, J.


    Biocatalytic oxidation of cyclic hydrocarbons has many potential applications in the production of fine chemicals. Especially regioselective hydroxylation of aromatics and the stereospecific formation of secondary alcohols is of interest for the pharmaceutical and flavoring industries.

  9. Lipase-catalysed selective deacetylation of phenolic/enolic acetoxy groups in peracetylated benzyl phenyl ketones. (United States)

    Parmar, V S; Pati, H N; Azim, A; Kumar, R; Himanshu; Bisht, K S; Prasad, A K; Errington, W


    Highly chemo- and regioselective de-esterification has been observed in the deacetylation of peracetylated enolic forms of polyphenolic benzyl phenyl ketones by lipase from porcine pancreas (PPL) suspended in tetrahydrofuran (THF). The enzyme selectively deacetylates the enolic acetoxy over the phenolic acetoxy group(s) and continuation of the reaction resulted, in addition the regioselective deacetylation of acetoxy function para to the nuclear carbonyl group.

  10. Palladium-Catalyzed C-H Arylation of α,β-Unsaturated Imines: Catalyst-Controlled Synthesis of Enamine and Allylic Amine Derivatives. (United States)

    Li, Minyan; González-Esguevillas, María; Berritt, Simon; Yang, Xiaodong; Bellomo, Ana; Walsh, Patrick J


    A unique chemo- and regioselective α- and γ-arylation of palladium azapentadienyl intermediates is presented. Two distinct catalysts and sets of conditions successfully controlled the regioselectivity of the arylation. These methods provide the first umpolung C-H functionalization of azapentadienyl palladium intermediates and enable the divergent synthesis of allylic amine and enamine derivatives, which are of significant interest in the pharmaceutical industry. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Regioselective intramolecular ring closure of 2-amino-6-bromo-2,6-dideoxyhexono-1,4-lactones to 5- or 6-membered iminuronic acid analogues:synthesis of 1-deoxymannojirimycin and 2,5-dideoxy-2,5-imino-D-glucitol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malle, Birgitte Mølholm; Lundt, Inge; Wrodnigg, Tanja M.


    1-Deoxymannojirimycin (8c) was synthesised from 2-amino-6-bromo-2,6-dideoxy- D-mannono-1,4-lactone (7) by intramolecular direct displacement of the C-6 bromine employing non-aqueous base treatment followed by reduction of the intermediate methyl ester. Likewise, using aqueous base at pH 12, ring...... the corresponding six-membered ring 1,5-iminuronic acid mimetics, namely (2R,3R,4S,5R)-3,4,5-trihydroxypipecolic acid (2,6-dideoxy-2,6- imino-D-galactonic acid, 16) and (2S,3R,4S,5R)-3,4,5-trihydroxypipecolic acid (2,6-dideoxy-2,6- imino-D-talonic acid, 17), were obtained. The corresponding enantiomers, L...... closure took place by 5-exo attack on the 5,6-epoxide leading to 2,5-dideoxy-2,5-imino-L-gulonic acid (9b), which was reduced to 2,5-dideoxy-2,5-imino-D-glucitol (9c). The method was further applied to 2-amino-6-bromo-2,6-dideoxy-D-galacto- as well as D-talo-1,4-lactones (14 and 15). However, only...

  12. Heterocyclic replacements for benzene: Maximising ADME benefits by considering individual ring isomers. (United States)

    Ritchie, Timothy J; Macdonald, Simon J F


    The impact of replacing a mono-substituted benzene (phenyl) ring with thirty three aromatic and nine aliphatic heterocycles on nine ADME-related screens (solubility, lipophilicity, permeability, protein binding CYP450 inhibition and metabolic clearance) was assessed using matched molecular pair analysis. The results indicate that the influence on the ADME profile can differ significantly depending on the ring identity and importantly on the individual regioisomers that are possible for some rings. This information enables the medicinal chemist to make an informed choice about which rings and regioisomers to employ as mono-substituted benzene replacements, based upon the knowledge of how such replacements are likely to influence ADME-related parameters, for example to target higher solubility whilst avoiding CYP450 liabilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Activation of dinitrogen-derived hafnium nitrides for nucleophilic N-C bond formation with a terminal isocyanate. (United States)

    Semproni, Scott P; Chirik, Paul J


    Better by Hf: Anion coordination to a bridging hafnocene nitride complex, prepared from CO-induced N2 cleavage, increases the nucleophilicity of the nitrogen atom, thus promoting additional NC bond formation with a typically inert terminal isocyanate ligand. This cascade sequence allows synthesis of otherwise challenging mono-substituted ureas using N2 , CO, and an appropriate electrophile. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A facile, one-pot synthesis of beta-substituted (Z)-acrylonitriles utilizing an alpha-diaminoboryl carbanion. (United States)

    Tomioka, Takashi; Takahashi, Yusuke; Vaughan, Trey G; Yanase, Takayoshi


    A simple three-step single-pot procedure for Z-stereoselective synthesis of beta-monosubstituted acrylonitriles has been established. The reaction involves olefination of aldehydes with an in situ generated alpha-diaminoboryl carbanion species. Various aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes were smoothly converted into the corresponding (Z)-olefin products (up to 96:4 ratio) in good yields (80-98%).

  15. One-Electron Standard Reduction Potentials of Nitroaromatic and Cyclic Nitramine Explosives (United States)


    monosubstituted nitrobenzenes. Examples of reductants include Fe (II) sorbed on goethite (Colon et al., 2006a) or magnetite (Klausen et al., 1995), soluble...determining-step. On the other hand, the slopes were signif- icantly lower than 1.0 for Fe(II) sorbed on goethite and magnetite (Klausen et al., 1995...bath. Upon removal from the acid bath, glassware and plasticware was rinsed with DDW and air dried prior to use. Glass - ware and plasticware that had

  16. The intriguing modeling of cis–trans selectivity in ruthenium-catalyzed olefin metathesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Cavallo


    Full Text Available In this study we have investigated computationally the origin of the cis–trans selectivity in the Ru-catalyzed cross metathesis (CM of a prototype monosubstituted olefin, i.e., propene. Our calculations suggest that the origin of the preferential formation of trans-olefins is in the product release step, which prevents the initially formed cis-olefin from escaping the metal, and returns it to the reaction pool until the trans-olefin is formed.

  17. Accurate spectroscopic characterization of ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide isotopologues: a route toward their astrophysical detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puzzarini, C. [Dipartimento di Chimica, " Giacomo Ciamician," Università diBologna, Via F. Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Senent, M. L. [Departamento de Química y Física Teóricas, Institsuto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-C.S.I.C., Serrano 121, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); Domínguez-Gómez, R. [Doctora Vinculada IEM-CSIC, Departamento de Ingeniería Civil, Cátedra de Química, E.U.I.T. Obras Públicas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain); Carvajal, M. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Unidad Asociada IEM-CSIC-U.Huelva, Universidad de Huelva, E-21071 Huelva (Spain); Hochlaf, M. [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire de Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 boulevard Descartes, F-77454 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Al-Mogren, M. Mogren, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, PO Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)


    Using state-of-the-art computational methodologies, we predict a set of reliable rotational and torsional parameters for ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide monosubstituted isotopologues. This includes rotational, quartic, and sextic centrifugal-distortion constants, torsional levels, and torsional splittings. The accuracy of the present data was assessed from a comparison to the available experimental data. Generally, our computed parameters should help in the characterization and the identification of these organo-sulfur molecules in laboratory settings and in the interstellar medium.

  18. Application of Taguchi design to produce polyols based on castor oil derivatives with diethylene glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Alessandre da Silva


    Full Text Available Castor oil (CO is one of the most valuable oils, because of its characteristics and potential use in synthesis.  A simple way to modify the castor oil structure is the transesterification reaction with an alcohol. Through this reaction, a renewable polyol could be produced and applied in the polyurethane industry.  In this study, the transesterification was done by KOH catalysis following a Taguchi experimental design.  The chosen alcohol was diethylene glycol (DEG and the product components were estimated by GPC.  This chromatographic technique allowed establishment of the most favorable conditions to produce monosubstituted DEG or disubstituted DEG.  In the conditions suggested by the Taguchi design, the condition that favors monosubstituted DEG is 9:1 DEG:CO molar ratios, 200°C for 4 h and 0.5% KOH.  This condition leads to approximately 75% monosubstituted DEG and 11% disubstituted DEG in a mixture with the remaining acylglycerols.  The hydroxyl value of this product is 407, a high value for a product with a relatively low molecular weight.  These characteristics suggest that it can be used as a polyol for polyurethanes.

  19. Synthesis of isoflavene-thiosemicarbazone hybrids and evaluation of their anti-tumor activity. (United States)

    Yee, Eugene M H; Brandl, Miriam B; Black, David StC; Vittorio, Orazio; Kumar, Naresh


    Phenoxodiol is an isoflavene with potent anti-tumor activity. In this study, a series of novel mono- and di-substituted phenoxodiol-thiosemicarbazone hybrids were synthesized via the condensation reaction between phenoxodiol with thiosemicarbazides. The in vitro anti-proliferative activities of the hybrids were evaluated against the neuroblastoma SKN-BE(2)C, the triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231, and the glioblastoma U87 cancer cell lines. The mono-substituted hybrids exhibited potent anti-proliferative activity against all three cancer cell lines, while the di-substituted hybrids were less active. Selected mono-substituted hybrids were further investigated for their cytotoxicity against normal MRC-5 human lung fibroblast cells, which identified two hybrids with superior selectivity for cancer cells over normal cells as compared to phenoxodiol. This suggests that mono-substituted phenoxodiol-thiosemicarbazone hybrids have promising potential for further development as anti-cancer agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Pluronic F-127 on the photosensitizing activity of tetraphenylporphyrins in organic and aqueous phases (United States)

    Savko, M. A.; Aksenova, N. A.; Akishina, A. K.; Khasanova, O. V.; Glagolev, N. N.; Rumyantseva, V. D.; Zhdanova, K. A.; Spokoinyi, A. L.; Solov'eva, A. B.


    The solubilization of hydrophobic porphyrin photosensitizers (PPSes) to obtain corresponding water-soluble forms is an important line of modern antimicrobial photodynamic therapy. It is shown that a triblock copolymer of ethylene and propylene oxides, Pluronic F-127, one of the most nontoxic and effective polymer surface active substances (SASes), can be used for the conversion of hydrophobic tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) and monosubstituted and tetrasubstituted hydroxy, amino, and nitro TPPs into water-soluble forms. It is found that Pluronic has a substantially higher solubilizing affinity (defined as the minimum molar concentration of an SAS required for the complete migration of porphyrin with a specific molar concentration to the aqueous phase) toward monosubstituted TPPs than to corresponding tetrasubstituted porphyrins. It is shown that with Pluronic in the organic phase, the activity of tetraphenylporphyrin in a test reaction of the oxidation of anthracene is higher than that of its monosubstituted and tetrasubstituted derivatives. In an aqueous medium, the activity of solubilized mono derivatives of TPP is comparable to that of unsubstituted TPP and is higher than the activity of the corresponding tetra derivatives of TPP.

  1. Rapid Access to β-Trifluoromethyl-Substituted Ketones: Harnessing Inductive Effects in Wacker-Type Oxidations of Internal Alkenes

    KAUST Repository

    Lerch, Michael M.


    We present a practical trifluoromethyl-directed Wacker-type oxidation of internal alkenes that enables rapid access to β-trifluoromethyl-substituted ketones. Allylic trifluoromethyl-substituted alkenes bearing a wide range of functional groups can be oxidized in high yield and regioselectivity. The distance dependence of the regioselectivity was established by systematic variation of the number of methylene units between the double bond and the trifluoromethyl group. The regioselectivity enforced by traditional directing groups could even be reversed by introduction of a competing trifluoromethyl group. Besides being a new powerful synthetic method to prepare fluorinated molecules, this work directly probes the role of inductive effects on nucleopalladation events. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Biocatalytic Synthesis of Novel Partial Esters of a Bioactive Dihydroxy 4-Methylcoumarin by Rhizopus oryzae Lipase (ROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar


    Full Text Available Highly regioselective acylation has been observed in 7,8-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin (DHMC by the lipase from Rhizopus oryzae suspended in tetrahydrofuran (THF at 45 °C using six different acid anhydrides as acylating agents. The acylation occurred regioselectively at one of the two hydroxy groups of the coumarin moiety resulting in the formation of 8-acyloxy-7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarins, which are important bioactive molecules for studying biotansformations in animals, and are otherwise very difficult to obtain by only chemical steps. Six monoacylated, monohydroxy 4-methylcoumarins have been biocatalytically synthesised and identified on the basis of their spectral data and X-ray crystal analysis.

  3. Glucosyl Rubusosides by Dextransucrases Improve the Quality of Taste and Sweetness. (United States)

    Ko, Jin-A; Ryu, Young Bae; Park, Ji-Young; Kim, Cha Young; Kim, Joong Su; Nam, Seung-Hee; Lee, Woo Song; Kim, Young-Min


    Glucosyl rubusosides were synthesized by two dextransucrases. LcDexT was obtained from Leuconosotoc citreum, that LlDexT was obtained from Leuconostoc lactis. LcDexT and LlDexT regioselectively transferred a glucosyl residue to the 13-O-glucosyl moiety of rubusoside with high yield of 59-66% as analyzed by TLC and HPLC. Evaluation of the sweetness of these glucosyl rubusosides showed that their quality of taste, in particular, was superior to that of rubusoside. These results indicate that transglucosylation at the 13-O-glucosyl moiety of rubusoside by different regioselective dextransucrases can be applicable for increasing its sweetness and quality of taste.

  4. Gold-catalyzed addition of N-hydroxy heterocycles to alkynes and subsequent 3,3-sigmatropic rearrangement. (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Scobie, Martin; Mashuta, Mark S; Hammond, Gerald B; Xu, Bo


    Gold-catalyzed intermolecular addition of hydroxybenzotriazole derivatives to alkynes at room temperature, gives vinyl ethers 3 in high yields and with excellent regioselectivity. Unlike many other vinyl ethers, 3 can easily be purified by regular silica-gel chromatography. On heating, 3,3-sigmatropic rearrangement of 3 gives access to highly functionalized benzotriazoles. This two-step sequence represents an efficient oxygen transfer protocol which incorporates a nucleophilic oxygen atom into an alkyne group. Reaction of 3 with an electrophilic fluorinating reagent (Selectfluor) gives a fluorinated ketone regioselectively and in high yield.

  5. Biocatalytic Synthesis of Novel Partial Esters of a Bioactive Dihydroxy 4-Methylcoumarin by Rhizopus oryzae Lipase (ROL). (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Mathur, Divya; Srivastava, Smriti; Malhotra, Shashwat; Rana, Neha; Singh, Suraj K; Singh, Brajendra K; Prasad, Ashok K; Varma, Anjani J; Len, Christophe; Kuhad, Ramesh C; Saxena, Rajendra K; Parmar, Virinder S


    Highly regioselective acylation has been observed in 7,8-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin (DHMC) by the lipase from Rhizopus oryzae suspended in tetrahydrofuran (THF) at 45 °C using six different acid anhydrides as acylating agents. The acylation occurred regioselectively at one of the two hydroxy groups of the coumarin moiety resulting in the formation of 8-acyloxy-7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarins, which are important bioactive molecules for studying biotansformations in animals, and are otherwise very difficult to obtain by only chemical steps. Six monoacylated, monohydroxy 4-methylcoumarins have been biocatalytically synthesised and identified on the basis of their spectral data and X-ray crystal analysis.

  6. Three Component Divergent Reactions: Base-Controlled Amphiphilic Synthesis of Benzimidazole-Linked Thiazetidines and Fused Thiadiazines. (United States)

    Selvaraju, Manikandan; Dhole, Sandip; Sun, Chung-Ming


    A divergent reaction of 2-aminobenzimidazole with isothiocyanates and dihalomethanes has been developed for the selective synthesis of benzoimidazothiazetidine and benzoimidazothiadiazine. A single-pot reaction of 2-aminobenzimidazole in the presence of sodium hydride delivers benzoimidazothiazetidine, whereas triethylamine promotes the formation of benzoimidazothiadiazine via a sequential stepwise fashion. The reaction sequence involves the initial formation of thiourea followed by regioselective nucleophilic addition and intramolecular ring-closing with dihalo electrophiles. The observed regioselectivity of this reaction is governed by the nature of bases and the reaction sequence.

  7. Synthesis of apio analogues of neplanocin A as potential inhibitors of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase. (United States)

    Lee, Jeong A; Yoo, Byul Nae; Choi, Won Jun; Moon, Hyung Ryong; Jeong, Lak Shin


    Stereoselective synthesis of apio-neplanocin A and its related purine nucleosides which combined the properties of neplanocin A and apio nucleoside was achieved, starting from D-ribose via regioselective hydroxymethylation and ring-closing metathesis (RCM) as key steps. However, all synthesized compounds did not show significant inhibitory activity against S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase, unlike neplanocin A.

  8. The role of double covalent flavin binding in chito-oligosaccharide oxidase from Fusarium graminearum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuts, Dominic P. H. M.; Winter, Remko T.; Damsma, Gerke E.; Janssen, Dick B.; Fraaije, Marco W.


    ChitO (chito-oligosaccharide oxidase) from Fusarium graminearum catalyses the regioselective oxidation of N-acetylated oligosaccharides. The enzyme harbours an FAD cofactor that is covalently attached to His(94) and Cys(154). The functional role of this unusual bi-covalent flavin-protein linkage was

  9. Supramolecular Control of Selectivity in Hydroformylation of Vinyl Arenes: Easy Access to Valuable β-​Aldehyde Intermediates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dydio, P.; Reek, J.N.H.


    A rationally designed regioselective formylation catalyst, in which noncovalent ligand-​substrate interactions allow the unprecedented reversal of selectivity from the typical α-​aldehyde to the otherwise unfavored β-​aldehyde, is reported. Thus, hydroformylation of o-​vinyl arene(or

  10. Reaction of (13S)-13-iodo-6beta-methoxy-3alpha,5-cyclo-13,14-seco-5alpha-androstane-14,17-dione with hydroxylamine and its application to the synthesis of new 13,14-seco steroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khripach, V.A.; Zhabinskii, V.N.; Kuchto, A.I.; Fando, G.P.; Zhiburtovich, Y.Y.; Lyakhov, A.S.; Govorova, A.A.; Groen, M.B.; Louw, van der J.; Groot, de Æ.


    The synthesis of 13,14-seco steroids starting from easily available (13S)-13-iodo-6-methoxy-3,5-cyclo-13,14-seco-5-androsta-14,17-dione is described. The C-17 ketone was converted regioselectively into its oxime with simultaneous stereoselective deiodination at C-13. The remaining C-14 carbonyl

  11. Structural and biochemical characterization of 3-hydroxybenzoate 6-hydroxylase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montersino, S.


    The thesis deals with the characterization of a new flavoprotein hydroxylase 3 hydroxybenzoate 6-hydroxylase (3HB6H) from Rhodococcus jostii RHA1. 3HB6H is able to insert exclusively oxygen in para-position and the enzyme has been chosen to study the structural basis of such regioselectivity. As

  12. Metal-free hydration of aromatic haloalkynes to α-halomethyl ketones

    KAUST Repository

    Ye, Min


    A highly regioselective and efficient metal-free hydration of aromatic haloalkynes to alpha-halomethyl ketones using cheap tetrafluoroboric acid as catalyst is described. The protocol is conducted under convenient conditions and affords products in good to excellent yields, with broad substrate scope, including a variety of aromatic alkynyl chlorides, alkynyl bromides, and alkynyl iodides. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Scalable and chromatography-free synthesis of 2-(2-formylalkyl) arenecarboxylic acid derivatives through the supramolecularly controlled hydroformylation of vinylarene-2-carboxylic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dydio, P.; Reek, J.N.H.


    This protocol describes how to prepare 2-(2-formylalkyl)-arenecarboxylic acid derivatives, common building blocks for the synthesis of various valuable chemicals (e.g., anti-obesity and Alzheimer's disease treatment pharmaceuticals), by using the fully regioselective hydroformylation of vinyl arene


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Lanthanide and group 3 carbyls Cp*2LnCH(SiMe3)2 (1, Ln = Y; 2, Ln = La; 3, Ln = Ce) are active catalyst precursors for the oligomerization of terminal alyknes HC = CR (R = alkyl, aryl, SiMe3). The regioselectivity and the extent of oligomerization depend strongly on the lanthanide applied as well as

  15. Catalytic Oligomerization of Terminal Alkynes by Lanthanide Carbyls (η5-C5Me5)2LnCH(SiMe3)2 (Ln = Y, La, Ce)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeres, H.J.; Teuben, J.H.


    Lanthanide and group 3 carbyls Cp*2LnCH(SiMe3)2 (1, Ln = Y; 2, Ln = La; 3, Ln = Ce) are active catalyst precursors for the oligomerization of terminal alkynes HC≡CR (R = alkyl, aryl, SiMe3). The regioselectivity and the extent of oligomerization depend strongly on the lanthanide applied as well as

  16. Catalyst-controlled reverse selectivity in C-C bond formation: NHC-Cu-catalyzed α-selective allylic alkylation with organolithium reagents. (United States)

    Pizzolato, Stefano F; Giannerini, Massimo; Bos, Pieter H; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Feringa, Ben L


    An efficient and highly α-selective copper-catalyzed allylic alkylation of allylic halides with organolithium reagents is presented. The use of N-heterocyclic carbenes as ligands is key to reverse the common γ-selectivity of this transformation and gives rise to the corresponding linear products with high levels of regioselectivity.

  17. NBS as a Powerful Catalyst for the Synthesis of β-Hydroxysulphides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N-Bromosuccinimide (NBS) catalyses the ring opening of various epoxides with different thiols in CH3CN at room temperature under mild reaction conditions. The corresponding β-hydroxysulphides are obtained in short reaction times and in good to high yields with nearly complete regioselectivity. The catalyst was ...

  18. Selective discrimination of cyclodextrin diols using cyclic sulfates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrillo, Marta; Marinescu, Lavinia; Rousseau, Cyril


    A method for selective monofunctionalition of readily available cyclodextrin diols (2(A-F),3(A-F),6(B,C,E,F)-hexadeca-O-benzyl-alpha-cyclodextrin and 2(A-G),3(A-G),6(B,C,E-G)-nonadeca-O-benzyl-beta-cyclodextrin) by regioselective nucleophilic opening of their cyclic sulfates is presented. Although...

  19. RS-Predictor models augmented with SMARTCyp reactivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaretzki, Jed; Rydberg, Patrik; Bergeron, Charles


    (82.3%) and merged(86.0%). Comprehensive datamining of each substrate set and careful statistical analyses of the predictions made by the different models revealed new insights into molecular features that control metabolic regioselectivity and enable accurate prospective prediction of likely SOMs....

  20. Selective alkylation by photogenerated aryl and vinyl cation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegt, Micha


    Seven para-substituted phenyl cations and the parent phenyl cation were prepared from iodonium salt precursors. Product studies revealed remarkable chemoselectivity and regioselectivity that could be related to the spin multiplicity of the cations. Also an universal method to fingerprint singlet and

  1. Synthesis and supramolecular properties of regioisomers of mononaphthylallyl derivatives of .gamma.-cyclodextrin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bláhová, M.; Filippov, Sergey K.; Kováčik, L.; Horský, Jiří; Hybelbauerová, S.; Syrová, Z.; Křížek, T.; Jindřich, J.


    Roč. 13, 27 November (2017), s. 2509-2520 ISSN 1860-5397 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-07164S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14009 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : gamma- cyclodextrin * naphthylallyl derivatives * regioselective alkylation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 2.337, year: 2016

  2. Synthesis of isofagomine-pyrrolidine hybrid sugars and analogues of (-)-steviamine and (+)-hyacinthacine C5 using 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions. (United States)

    Lahiri, Rima; Palanivel, Ashokkumar; Kulkarni, Sudhir A; Vankar, Yashwant D


    Highly regioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions between d-arabinose-derived nitrones and d-mannitol-derived trans-olefins have been utilized to synthesize isofagomine-pyrrolidine hybrid sugars, hydroxymethylated analogues of (-)-steviamine and analogues of (+)-hyacinthacine C5. All of the new compounds were subsequently tested against several commercially available glycosidases, and some of them showed good and selective glycosidase inhibition.

  3. Using NMR to Probe the Regio- and Stereochemistry of the Hydration of 1-Hexene (United States)

    Saba, Shahrokh; Clarke, Donald D.; Iwanoski, Christa; Lobasso, Thomas


    This undergraduate organic laboratory experiment complements previously described and popular experiments on hydration of 1-hexene where students experimentally establish the Markovnikov regioselectivity of alkene hydration. In this experiment, students explore not only the regiochemistry but also the stereochemistry of 1-hexene hydration and…

  4. A regiodivergent synthesis of ring a C-prenylflavones. (United States)

    Minassi, Alberto; Giana, Anna; Ech-Chahad, Abdellah; Appendino, Giovanni


    Capitalizing on the use of orthogonal protecting groups and the development of a modified Robinson flavone synthesis that avoids harsh acidic conditions, a regioselective synthesis of 6- and 8-prenylflavones from the same prenylated disilylated phloracetophenone (9) has been developed, targeting cannflavin B (1d), the COX-inhibiting principle of marijuana, and its unnatural isomer isocannflavin B (1e) as model compounds.

  5. An atom-economic approach to carboxylic acids via Pd-catalyzed direct addition of formic acid to olefins with acetic anhydride as a co-catalyst. (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Ren, Wenlong; Shi, Yian


    An effective Pd-catalyzed hydrocarboxylation of olefins using formic acid with acetic anhydride as a co-catalyst is described. A variety of carboxylic acids are obtained in good yields with high regioselectivities under mild reaction conditions without the use of toxic CO gas.

  6. A Stepwise Approach for the Synthesis of Folic Acid Conjugates with Protein Kinase Inhibitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krajčovičová, S.; Gucký, Tomáš; Hendrychová, Denisa; Kryštof, Vladimír; Soural, M.


    Roč. 82, č. 24 (2017), s. 13530-13541 ISSN 0022-3263 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-15264S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES * FOLATE RECEPTOR * REGIOSELECTIVE SYNTHESIS Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 4.849, year: 2016


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Cyclodextrin. Regioselective photamination of 4-nitrovera- trole upon cyclodextrin complexation. 273. Cyclohexanone. Hydrogen transfer reaction of cyclohexanone with 2-propanol catalysed by CeO2-ZnO materials: Promoting effect of ceria. 561. DFT. Measures to evaluate heteroaromaticity and their limitations: Story of ...

  8. Nitration of Substituted Phenols by Different Efficient Heterogeneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    sulphate (III) and 4) silica sulphuric acid (IV) in CH2Cl2 at room temperature and high yields. Optimum conditions for theses systems and the regioselectivities of the reactions are reported. KEYWORDS. Nitration, nitrophenols, sodium nitrate, oxalic acid dihydrate, sodium hydrogen sulphate, aluminum hydrogen sulphate, ...

  9. Pd/C-mediated synthesis of α-pyrone fused with a five-membered nitrogen heteroaryl ring: A new route to pyrano[4,3-c]pyrazol-4(1H-ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhilli Rao Gorja


    Full Text Available Pd/C-mediated alkynylation of 5-iodo-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid, involving the first regioselective construction of α-pyrone ring on a pyrazol moiety via tandem coupling–cyclization process, has been developed to afford pyrano[4,3-c]pyrazol-4(1H-one in a single pot.

  10. DFT study on the mechanism of InBr3-catalyzed [2+2] cycloaddition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Density functional theory calculations at the M06-2X level were done to study the reaction mech- anism and regioselectivity for the [2+2] cycloaddition of allyltrimethylsilane with alkynones using InBr3 as the catalyst. The solvent effect was described by the single-point calculations with SMD model in 1,2-.

  11. Microwave-promoted Facile and Efficient Preparation of N-(alkoxycarbonylmethyl Nucleobases − Building Blocks for Peptide Nucleic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Xia


    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, and regioselective approach for the synthesis of N-(methoxy-carbonylmethyl- and N-(n-propoxycarbonylmethyl nucleobases was developed. By using DMF as the solvent and in the presence of K2CO3 as the base, all the desired products were obtained in moderate yields within 8 min under microwave irradiation.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iron complexes to develop a green chemistry approach [7]. Catalysis based on such metal complexes have been recognized as powerful synthetic tool in organic synthesis. Roustan et al. reported the first Fe–catalyzed allylic substitution and observed good regioselectivity, where substitution preferentially occurred at the ...

  13. An Intramolecular Heck reaction that Prefers a 5-endo- to a 6-exo-trig Cyclization Pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vital, Paulo; Norrby, Per-Ola; Tanner, David Ackland


    A regioselective aromatic Claisen rearrangement was used to prepare 17a, the precursor of triflate 17e. The intramolecular Heck reaction of 17e is promoted only by bidentate phosphine ligands, giving exclusively and in excellent yield 20, the product of a 5-endo-trig cyclization, despite...

  14. model synthetic studies towards palitantin total synthesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis of palitantin, 5-(1'E, 3'E-heptadienyl)~cis-2,3-dihydroxy-6-hydroxy- methylcyclohexan-l-oue (1), model ... envisioned a rctrosynthctic approach based on a one-pot Michael-Wittig reactions followed by standard .... the material may have been converted to the polyhydroxylated ester (21). The loss of regioselectivity ...

  15. Mild and Efficient Nickel-Catalyzed Heck Reactions with Electron-Rich Olefins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøgsig, Thomas; Kleimark, Jonatan; Lill, Sten O. Nilsson


    to the conventional regioselective arylation of vinyl ethers. A catalytic system comprised of Ni(COD)2 and 1,1′-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene (DPPF) in combination with the tertiary amine Cy2NMe proved effective in the olefination of a wide range of aryl triflates. Both electron-deficient and electron-rich arenes...

  16. De novo synthesis of multisubstituted aryl amines using alkene cross metathesis. (United States)

    Tatton, Matthew R; Simpson, Iain; Donohoe, Timothy J


    The olefin cross-metathesis reaction allows rapid access to 1,5-dicarbonyl intermediates which, upon treatment with a primary or secondary amine, allow the synthesis of a range of multisubstituted carbocyclic aryl amines. This de novo arene synthesis yields nonclassical substitution patterns in a regioselective and predictable approach that is compatible with several functional groups.

  17. Highly enantioselective synthesis of chiral cyclic allylic amines via Rh-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation. (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Liu, Tang-Lin; Cao, Min; Xue, Zejian; Lv, Hui; Zhang, Xumu


    Highly regioselective and enantioselective asymmetric hydrogenation of cyclic dienamides catalyzed by an Rh-DuanPhos complex has been developed, which provides a readily accessible method for the synthesis of chiral cyclic allylic amines in excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee). The products are valuable chiral building blocks and could be easily transformed to multisubstituted cyclohexane derivatives.

  18. Unexpected reversible pyrazine based methylation in a Ru(II) complex bearing a pyrazin-2’-yl-1,2,4-triazolato ligand and its effect on acid/base and photophysical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brennan, Claire; Draksharapu, Apparao; Browne, Wesley R.; McGarvey, John J.; Vos, Johannes G.; Pryce, Mary T.


    The regioselective methylation of a ruthenium polypyridyl complex bearing both a 1,2,4-triazolato and a pyrazine moiety is reported. In contrast to previous studies in which methylation of the 1,2,4-triazolato ring was observed, in the present system methylation takes place exclusively at the

  19. Mononuclear non-heme iron (III) complexes of linear and tripodal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 123; Issue 2. Mononuclear non-heme iron(III) complexes of linear and tripodal tridentate ligands as functional models for catechol dioxygenases: Effect of -alkyl substitution on regioselectivity and reaction rate. Mallayan Palaniandavar Kusalendiran Visvaganesan.

  20. 1,4-Hydroiodination of dienyl alcohols with TMSI to form homoallylic alcohols containing a multisubstituted Z-alkene and application to Prins cyclization. (United States)

    Xu, Yongjin; Yin, Zhiping; Lin, Xinglong; Gan, Zubao; He, Yanyang; Gao, Lu; Song, Zhenlei


    A regioselective 1,4-hydroiodination of dienyl alcohols has been developed using trimethylsilyl iodide as Lewis acid and iodide source. A range of homoallylic alcohols containing a multisubstituted Z-alkene was synthesized with good to excellent configurational control. The approach was applied in sequential hydroiodination/Prins cyclization to afford multisubstituted tetrahydropyrans diastereoselectively.

  1. An efficient and green method for regio- and chemo-selective Friedel–Crafts acylations using a deep eutectic mixture ([CholineCl][ZnCl2]3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Tran Phuong; Nguyen, Hai Truong; Hansen, Poul Erik


    are performed with high yields under microwave irradiation with short reaction times for the synthesis of ketones. Interestingly, indole derivatives are regioselectively acylated in the 3-position under mild conditions with high yields without NH protection. Three new ketone products are synthesized. [Choline...

  2. Rh-Catalyzed Anti-Markovnikov Hydrocyanation of Terminal Alkynes. (United States)

    Ye, Fei; Chen, Junting; Ritter, Tobias


    We report the first highly stereo- and regioselective hydrocyanation of terminal alkynes to furnish E-configured alkenyl nitriles. Acrylonitriles can be accessed on gram scale with broad substrate scope and functional group tolerance. The hydrocyanation reaction employs acetone cyanohydrin as a practical alternative to HCN gas.

  3. Synthesis of (--Indolizidine 167B based on domino hydroformylation/cyclization reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Settambolo Roberta


    Full Text Available Abstract The synthesis of (--Indolizidine 167B has been achieved from optically active (R-3-(pyrrol-1-ylhex-1-ene. The key step is a highly regioselective hydroformylation reaction and a one-pot intramolecular cyclization providing a general approach to the indolizine nucleus.

  4. Flavoenzyme-catalyzed oxygenations and oxidations of phenolic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, M.J.H.; Fraaije, M.W.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Laane, C.; Berkel, van W.J.H.


    Flavin-dependent monooxygenases and oxidases play an important role in the mineralization of phenolic compounds. Because of their exquisite regioselectivity and stereoselectivity, these enzymes are of interest for the biocatalytic production of fine chemicals and food ingredients. In our group, we

  5. Biocatalysis of azidolysis of epoxides: Computational evidences on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Inclusion of aqueous solvation effect via Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) increases the activation barrier and makes the reaction endothermic due to extensive solvation of azide anion and oxido anionic products, but does not alter the regioselectivity. Halohydrin dehalogenase from Agrobacterium radiobactor AD1 ...

  6. Gold(III)-Catalyzed Hydration of Phenylacetylene (United States)

    Leslie, J. Michelle; Tzeel, Benjamin A.


    A guided inquiry-based experiment exploring the regioselectivity of the hydration of phenylacetylene is described. The experiment uses an acidic gold(III) catalyst in a benign methanol/water solvent system to introduce students to alkyne chemistry and key principles of green chemistry. The experiment can be easily completed in approximately 2 h,…

  7. Enzymatic preparation of arbutin derivatives: lipase-catalyzed direct acylation without the need of vinyl ester as an acyl donor. (United States)

    Ishihara, Kohji; Katsube, Yasuko; Kumazawa, Nozomi; Kuratani, Mari; Masuoka, Noriyoshi; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi


    Direct and regioselective acylation of arbutin with aromatic or aliphatic acid using a lipase obtained from Candida antarctica in an organic solvent was investigated. We achieved the enzymatic synthesis of feruloyl arbutin and lipoyl arbutin without the need of vinyl ferulate and vinyl lipoate as acyl donors, respectively. (c) 2009 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Beyond Classical Reactivity Patterns: Hydroformylation of Vinyl and Allyl Arenes to Valuable β- and γ-Aldehyde Intermediates Using Supramolecular Catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dydio, P.; Detz, R.J.; de Bruin, B.; Reek, J.


    In this study, we report on properties of a series of rhodium complexes of bisphosphine and bisphosphite L1-L7 ligands, which are equipped with an integral anion binding site (the DIM pocket), and their application in the regioselective hydroformylation of vinyl and allyl arenes bearing an anionic

  9. Enantioselective Hydroformylation of Aniline Derivatives (United States)

    Joe, Candice L.; Tan, Kian L.


    We have developed a ligand that reversibly binds to aniline substrates allowing for the control of regioselectivity and enantioselectivity in hydroformylation. In this paper we address how the electronics of the aniline ring affect both binding of the substrate to the ligand and the enantioselectivity in this reaction. PMID:21842847

  10. Synthesis of chiral amino epoxyaziridines: useful intermediates for the preparation of chiral trisubstituted piperidines. (United States)

    Concellón, José M; Riego, Estela; Rivero, Ignacio A; Ochoa, Adrián


    Chiral aminoalkyl epoxyaziridine 1 is synthesized in high yield and diastereoselectivity from L-serine. Ring opening of epoxyaziridine 1 with primary amines is carried out with total chemo- and regioselectivity, affording chiral polyfunctionalized piperidines 8. The structure of these trisubstituted piperidines is established by NMR studies.

  11. Ring opening of nonactivated 2-(1-aminoalkyl) aziridines: unusual regio- and stereoselective C-2 and C-3 cleavage. (United States)

    Concellón, José M; Riego, Estela


    We have studied the ring opening of nonactivated amino aziridines 1 by water under acidic conditions. Depending on the acid used, amino aziridines are cleaved at C-3 or C-2 with high regioselectivity, and total stereoselectivity, affording chiral 2,3-diaminoalkan-1-ols 3 or 1,3-diaminoalkan-2-ols 4 in high yield.

  12. A simple protocol for the michael addition of indoles with electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate catalysed addition of indoles to electron deficient ole- fins in water generated the corresponding Michael adducts in good to excellent yield. The Michael addi- tion of indole occurred regioselectively at position 3 and the N-alkylated products have not been observed.

  13. A simple protocol for the michael addition of indoles with electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate catalysed addition of indoles to electron deficient olefins in water generated the corresponding Michael adducts in good to excellent yield. The Michael addition of indole occurred regioselectively at position 3 and the -alkylated products have not been observed. The synthesized ...

  14. Easily oxidizable triarylamine materials with naphthalene and binaphthalene core: structure-properties relationship

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kerner, L.; Gmucová, K.; Kožíšek, J.; Petříček, Václav; Putala, M.


    Roč. 72, č. 44 (2016), s. 7081-7092 ISSN 0040-4020 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03276S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : triphenylamine * carbazole * regioselective amination * Sonogashira coupling * Negishi alkynylation * hole-transporting materials * OLED * cyclic voltammetry Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.651, year: 2016

  15. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. SAFA ALI-ASGARI. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 126 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 293-302. Mechanism and regioselectivity of 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of sulphur-centred dipoles with furan-2,3-dione: A theoretical study using DFT.

  16. Deeper Insight into the Diels-Alder Reaction through the Activation Strain Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, I.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.


    The Diels–Alder (DA) cycloaddition reaction has the ability to significantly increase molecular complexity regioselectively and stereospecifically in a single synthetic step. In this review it is discussed how the activation strain model of chemical reactivity reveals the physical factors that

  17. Intramolecular and Transannular Diels-Alder Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Ascic, Erhad


    Few reactions can compete with the Diels-Alder (DA) [4+2] cycloaddition for the rapid and efficient generation of molecular complexity. The DA reaction is atom-economic and stereospecific, as well as diastereo- and regioselective. The intramolecular version (IMDA) of the DA cycloaddition and its...

  18. Nickel-Catalyzed Site-Selective C-H Bond Difluoroalkylation of 8-Aminoquinolines on the C5-Position. (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Li, Pinhua; Wang, Min; Wang, Lei


    A simple and efficient protocol for nickel-catalyzed regioselective C-H bond difluoroalkylation of 8-aminoquinoline scaffolds with functionalized difluoromethyl bromides was developed. The reaction has broad substrate scope and provides a facile and useful access to the corresponding C5-functionalized difluoromethylated quinolines in good to excellent yields.

  19. Borylation of Olefin C-H Bond via Aryl to Vinyl Palladium 1,4-Migration. (United States)

    Hu, Tian-Jiao; Zhang, Ge; Chen, Ya-Heng; Feng, Chen-Guo; Lin, Guo-Qiang


    The aryl to vinyl palladium 1,4-migration was realized for the first time. The generated alkenyl palladium species was trapped by diboron reagents under Miyaura borylation conditions, providing a new method to synthesize β,β-disubstituted vinylboronates. The excellent regioselectivity and broad substrate scope were observed for this novel transformation.

  20. cyclo-addition reaction of triplet carbonyl compounds to substituted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    MC-SCF/6-31G* study of the singlet and triplet Pa- terno–Büchi reaction using formaldehyde and ethylene as model systems ... theoretical study on the regioselectivity of the Pa- terno–Büchi photocyclo-addition of triplet acetone ...... A103 1274; (c) Chattaraj P K and Pod- dar J 1999 J. Phys. Chem. A103 8691; (d) Sengupta.

  1. Optimized methods for preparation of 6I-(ω-sulfanyl-alkylene-sulfanyl-β-cyclodextrin derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Bednářová


    Full Text Available A general high-yielding method for the preparation of monosubstituted β-cyclodextrin derivatives which have attached a thiol group in position 6 is described. The thiol group is attached through linkers of different lengths and repeating units (ethylene glycol or methylene. The target compounds were characterized by IR, MS and NMR spectra. A simple method for their complete conversion to the corresponding disulfides as well as a method for the reduction of the disulfides back to the thiols is presented. Both, thiols and disulfides are derivatives usable for well-defined covalent attachment of cyclodextrin to gold or polydopamine-coated solid surfaces.

  2. Molecular Structure of Graphite/Polyimide Interphases (United States)


    ring 7 stretching mode, and to v(13), a mode related to the stretching vibration between the rings and the substituents, respectively. Weak bands due the CNC axial stretching mode (imide II) was also observed in the spectra. Weak bands attributed to the CNC out-of- plane bending and transverse...19a)-C 6H5. Weak bands attributed to the out-of-plane bending modes Y(17b), v(10a), v(1l), and v(4) of thR monosubstituted benzene rings were observed

  3. Exploration of Cocatalyst Effects on a Bimetallic Cobalt Catalyst System: Enhanced Activity and Enantioselectivity in Epoxide Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Widger, Peter C. B.


    Organic ionic compounds were synthesized and investigated as cocatalysts with a bimetallic cobalt complex for enantioselective epoxide polymerization. The identities of both the cation and the anion were systematically varied, and the subsequent reactivity was studied. The nature of the ionic cocatalyst dramatically impacted the rate and enantioselectivity of the catalyst system. The ionic cocatalyst [P(N=P(N(CH2)4)3) 4 +][tBuCO2 -] in combination with a bimetallic cobalt complex produced a catalyst system that exhibited the greatest activity and selectivity for a variety of monosubstituted epoxides. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  4. Synthesis and Optical Properties of Trioxatriangulenium Dyes with One and Two Peripheral Amino Substituents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Just; Laursen, Bo Wegge


    Several derivatives of two new dye systems, with one or two dialkylamino donor groups attached to resonant positions at the periphery of a trioxatriangulenium ion, were synthesized. The mono- and bis-dialkylamino trioxatriangulenium salts (A1-TOTA+ and A2-TOTA+) were prepared from methoxy...... were found to be dependent on symmetry and charge localization in the conjugated framework. The trioxatriangulenium dye with two amino groups (A2-TOTA+) was found to be a strong fluorophore with properties as a blue-shifted rhodamine B. The mono-substituted compound (A1-TOTA+) was found to be only...

  5. In vitro advanced antimycobacterial screening of isoniazid-related hydrazones, hydrazides and cyanoboranes: part 14. (United States)

    Maccari, Rosanna; Ottanà, Rosaria; Vigorita, Maria Gabriella


    As a part of an ongoing search for new isoniazid-related isonicotinoylhydrazones (ISNEs), 2'-monosubstituted isonicotinohydrazides and cyanoboranes, some analogues belonging to these three series of compounds were further evaluated in an in vitro advanced antimycobacterial screening. The results here reported allowed us to extend their structure-activity relationships. A general correlation emerged between their lipophilicity and effectiveness against intracellular M. tuberculosis. On the whole, the most interesting result of this research was that some hydrazides and ISNEs proved to be more effective antimycobacterial agents than parental isoniazid in a TB-infected macrophage model.

  6. Enantioselective synthesis of aziridines using asymmetric transfer hydrogenation as a precursor for chiral derivatives used as bonding agent for rocket solid propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida M. Kawamoto


    Full Text Available A rapid, expedient and enantioselective method for the synthesis of beta-hydroxy amines and monosubstituted aziridines in up to 99% e.e., via asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of a-amino ketones and cyclisation through treatment with tosyl chloride and base, is described. (1R,2R-N-(para-toluenesulfonyl-1,2-ethylenediamine with formic acid has been utilised as a ligand for the Ruthenium (II catalysed enantioselective transfer hydrogenation of the ketones.The chiral 2-methyl aziridine, which is a potentially more efficient bonding agent for Rocket Solid Propellant has been successfully achieved.

  7. Chemical degradation of fluorosulfonamide fuel cell membrane polymer model compounds (United States)

    Alsheheri, Jamela M.; Ghassemi, Hossein; Schiraldi, David A.


    The durability of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell membrane, along with high proton conductivity and mechanical performance is critical to the success of these energy conversion devices. Extending our work in perfluorinated membrane stability, aromatic trifluoromethyl sulfonamide model compounds were prepared, and their oxidative degradation was examined. The chemical structures for the models were based on mono-, di- and tri-perfluorinated sulfonamide modified phenyl rings. Durability of the model compounds was evaluated by exposure to hydroxyl radicals generated using Fenton reagent and UV irradiation of hydrogen peroxide. LC-MS results for the mono-substituted model compound indicate greater stability to radical oxidation than the di-substituted species; loss of perfluorinated fonamide side chains appears to be an important pathway, along with dimerization and aromatic ring hydroxylation. The tri-substituted model compound also shows loss of side chains, with the mono-substituted compound being a major oxidation product, along with a limited amount of hydroxylation and dimerization of the starting material.

  8. Mono- and tetra-substituted zinc(II) phthalocyanines containing morpholinyl moieties: Synthesis, antifungal photodynamic activities, and structure-activity relationships. (United States)

    Zheng, Bi-Yuan; Ke, Mei-Rong; Lan, Wen-Liang; Hou, Lu; Guo, Jun; Wan, Dong-Hua; Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Huang, Jian-Dong


    A series of zinc(II) phthalocyanines (ZnPcs) mono-substituted and tetra-substituted with morpholinyl moieties and their quaternized derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their antifungal photodynamic activities toward Candida albicans. The α-substituted, quaternized, and mono-substituted ZnPcs are found to have higher antifungal photoactivity than β-substituted, neutral, and tetra-substituted counterparts. The cationic α-mono-substituted ZnPc (6a) exhibits the highest photocytotoxicity. Moreover, it is more potent than axially di-substituted analogue. The different photocytotoxicities of these compounds have also been rationalized by investigating their spectroscopic and photochemical properties, aggregation trend, partition coefficients, and cellular uptake. The IC90 value of 6a against C. albicans cells is as low as 3.3 μM with a light dose of 27 J cm(-2), meaning that 6a is a promising candidate as the antifungal photosensitizer for future investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Easy and selective method for the synthesis of various mono-O-functionalized calix[4]arenes: de-O-functionalization using TiCl4. (United States)

    Bois, Joackim; Espinas, Jeff; Darbost, Ulrich; Felix, Caroline; Duchamp, Christian; Bouchu, Denis; Taoufik, Mostafa; Bonnamour, Isabelle


    An efficient and selective method for the monofunctionalization of p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene is described. A mono-de-O-functionalization of disubstituted p-tert-butylcalix[4]arenes using titanium tetrachloride was developed to synthesize a series of monosubstituted p-tert-butylcalix[4]arenes with the pendant functions being ethoxycarbonylmethyloxy, 3-ethoxycarbonylpropyloxy, cyanomethyloxy, 3-cyanopropyloxy, 4-bromobutyloxy, 3-hydroxypropyloxy, propyloxy, 2-methylpropyloxy, 3-butynyloxy, and 3-cyanopropyloxy groups. The reaction mechanism of the formation of 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-26,27,28-trihydroxy-25-(3-ethoxycarbonylpropyloxy) calix[4]arene was studied by (1)H NMR and GC/mass spectroscopy monitoring. Reaction of TiCl4 with the disubstituted p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene produced the corresponding dioxocalix[4]arene titanium dichloride complex, which undergoes elimination of ethyl 4-chlorobutyrate, leading to a trioxocalix[4]arene titanium dichloride complex and to monosubstituted calix[4]arene after hydrolysis. These two complexes were also synthesized, isolated, and fully characterized.

  10. RMN 13C de chalcones protonées: Factorisation des interactions intramoléculaires (United States)

    Membrey, François; Doucet, Jean-Pierre

    13C study of protonated para, para' disubstituted chalcones XC 6H 4CHCHC(OH) +C 6H 4Y, shows for the chemical shift of the carbenium center important deviations from a strict additivity of Substituent Induced Shifts observed in the corresponding monosubstituted ions. By collecting the experimental data into sub-populations where only one substituent (X or Y) varies—the other remaining fixed—a network of linear homogeneous correlations (δ/δ) is obtained. Their largely variable slopes indicate that the susceptibility of the carbenium site to the perturbations induced by one of the substituent groups depends on the nature of the other substituent group. The definition of 'Intrinsic Substituent Parameters' (derived from the SCS observed, in these ions, on the aromatic para positions) allows to separate the action of a substituent group on the electronic interaction mechanism and the global perturbation detected on the observation site. For a quantitative evaluation of these interactions, a Factorization Model is proposed, where deviations to additivity of the SCS are expressed as a product of the intrinsic parameters of X and Y groups. This model is successfully applied to 13C spectra of protonated chalcones and benzophenones. The parallelism between these intrinsic group effects and the SCS observed in monosubstituted benzenes points out the prime importance in these cationic systems, of π polarisation effects modulating the electron transfer toward the carbenium center within a concerted π-inductive mesomeric action.

  11. Supramolecular Influence on Keto-Enol Tautomerism and Thermochromic Properties of o-Hydroxy Schiff Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Zbačnik


    Full Text Available This work presents a study on thermo-optical properties of three Schiff bases (imines in the solid state. The Schiff bases were obtained by means of mechanochemical synthesis using monosubstituted o-hydroxy aromatic aldehydes and monosubstituted aromatic amines. The keto-enol tautomerism and proton transfer via intramolecular O∙∙∙N hydrogen bond of the reported compounds was found to be influenced more by supramolecular interactions than by a temperature change. All products were characterised by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, FT-IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric (TG analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Molecular and crystal structures of compounds 1, 2 and 3 were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD. The molecules of 1 appear to be present as the enol-imine, the molecules of 2 as the keto-amine tautomer and the molecules of 3 exhibit keto-enol tautomeric equilibrium in the solid state. An analysis of Cambridge structural database (CSD data on similar imines has been used for structural comparison. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  12. 4-Methoxy-1-naphthol: chains formed by O-H...O hydrogen bonds and pi-pi stacking interactions. (United States)

    Marciniak, Bernard; Rozycka-Sokolowska, Ewa


    The structure of 4-methoxy-1-naphthol, C(11)H(10)O(2), (I), contains an intermolecular O-H...O hydrogen bond which links the molecules into a simple C(2) chain running parallel to the shortest crystallographic b axis. This chain is reinforced by intermolecular pi-pi stacking interactions. Comparisons are drawn between the crystal structure of (I) and those of several of its simple analogues, including 1-naphthol and some monosubstituted derivatives, and that of its isomer 7-methoxy-2-naphthol. This comparison shows a close similarity in the packing of the molecules of its simple analogues that form pi-stacks along the shortest crystallographic axes. A substantial spatial overlap is observed between adjacent molecules in such stacks. In this group of monosubstituted naphthols, the overlap depends mainly on the position of the substituents carried by the naphthalene moiety, and the extent of the overlap depends on the substituent type. By contrast with (I), in the crystal structure of the isomeric 7-methoxy-2-naphthol there are no O-H...O hydrogen bonds or pi-pi stacking interactions, and sheets are formed by O-H...pi and C-H...pi interactions.

  13. Ultrasonic Synthesis, Molecular Structure and Mechanistic Study of 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Reaction of 1-Alkynylpyridinium-3-olate and Acetylene Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa Aboelnaga


    Full Text Available Regioselectively, ethyl propiolate reacted with 1-(propergyl-pyridinium-3-olate to give two regioisomers; ethyl 4-oxo-8-(prop-2-ynyl-8-aza-bicyclo(3.2.1octa-2,6-diene-6-carboxylate 4, ethyl 2-oxo-8-(prop-2-ynyl-8-aza-bicyclo(3.2.1octa-3,6-diene-6-carboxylate 5 as well as ethyl 2,6-dihydro-6-(prop-2-ynylfuro(2,3-cpyridine-3-carboxylate 6. The obtained compounds were identified by their spectral (IR, mass and NMR data. Moreover, DFT quantum chemical calculations were used to study the mechanism of the cycloaddition reaction. The regioselectivity was explained using transition state calculations, where the calculations agreed with the formation of products 4 and 5 in almost the same ratio. The reaction was also extended for diphenylaceylene as dipolarophile to give only two products instead of three.

  14. Ultrasonic Synthesis, Molecular Structure and Mechanistic Study of 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Reaction of 1-Alkynylpyridinium-3-olate and Acetylene Derivatives. (United States)

    Aboelnaga, Asmaa; Hagar, Mohamed; Soliman, Saied M


    Regioselectively, ethyl propiolate reacted with 1-(propergyl)-pyridinium-3-olate to give two regioisomers; ethyl 4-oxo-8-(prop-2-ynyl)-8-aza-bicyclo(3.2.1)octa-2,6-diene-6-carboxylate 4, ethyl 2-oxo-8-(prop-2-ynyl)-8-aza-bicyclo(3.2.1)octa-3,6-diene-6-carboxylate 5 as well as ethyl 2,6-dihydro-6-(prop-2-ynyl)furo(2,3-c)pyridine-3-carboxylate 6. The obtained compounds were identified by their spectral (IR, mass and NMR) data. Moreover, DFT quantum chemical calculations were used to study the mechanism of the cycloaddition reaction. The regioselectivity was explained using transition state calculations, where the calculations agreed with the formation of products 4 and 5 in almost the same ratio. The reaction was also extended for diphenylaceylene as dipolarophile to give only two products instead of three.

  15. The reaction of safrole derivatives with aluminum chloride: improved procedures for the preparation of catechols or their mono-O-Methylated Derivatives and a mechanistic interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amorim Mauro B. de


    Full Text Available An improved procedure for the "one-pot" preparation of cathecols from methylenedioxy-ring cleavage reaction of safrole derivatives with aluminum chloride is described. In substrates substituted by conjugated electron-withdrawing groups (carboxyaldehyde or nitro groups the regioselective formation of the easily isolable chloromethyl ether intermediates was observed. From these intermediates the syntheses of mono-O-methylated phenols (3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde, 2-bromo-4-methoxy-5-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 2-nitro-4-methoxy-5-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 2-methoxy-4-(2-oxoprop-1-yl-5-nitrophenol were accomplished. Based on these experimental data and semi-empirical (MNDO molecular orbital calculations, a mechanistic rationale that explains the observed regioselectivities was also proposed.

  16. Markovnikov-Selective Radical Addition of S-Nucleophiles to Terminal Alkynes through a Photoredox Process. (United States)

    Wang, Huamin; Lu, Qingquan; Chiang, Chien-Wei; Luo, Yi; Zhou, Jiufu; Wang, Guangyu; Lei, Aiwen


    Direct radical additions to terminal alkynes have been widely employed in organic synthesis, providing credible access to the anti-Markovnikov products. Because of the Kharasch effect, regioselective control for the formation of Markovnikov products still remains a great challenge. Herein, we develop a transition-metal-free, visible light-mediated radical addition of S-nucleophiles to terminal alkynes, furnishing a wide array of α-substituted vinyl sulfones with exclusive Markovnikov regioselectivity. Mechanistic investigations demonstrated that radical/radical cross-coupling might be the key step in this transformation. This radical Markovnikov addition protocol also provides an opportunity to facilitate the synthesis of other valuable α-substituted vinyl compounds. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Simple and cheap steric and electronic characterization of the reactivity of Ru(II) complexes containing oxazoline ligands as epoxidation catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert


    The reactivity of a new family of complexes with general formula [Ru IV(T)(R-D)(O)]2+ (T = trispyrazolylmethane (tpm); D = N-(1-hydroxy-3-methylbutan-(2S)-(-)-2-yl)-(4S)-(-)-4-isopropyl-4, 5-dihydrooxazole-2-carbimidate, R = Bz (1); iPr (2)) has been analyzed. There is a significant difference in regioselectivity between the two catalysts in the epoxidation of 4-vinylcyclohexene; 1 leads to the regioselective oxidation at the ring alkene position, whereas 2 leads to the oxidation at the terminal position. Although computational calculations indicate small energy differences, both the geometry through steric maps and the electronic parameters of the reactants via conceptual DFT, or charges via NPA, explain the reactivity differences found for the catalysts depending on the substituents of the oxazoline ligands. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Acetylation and deacetylation for sucralose preparation by a newly isolated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens WZS01. (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Chen, Liang; Lou, Bo; Bai, Yanbing; Yu, Xinjun; Zhao, Man; Wang, Zhao


    Sucralose is a non-nutritive artificial sweetener used in a broad range of foods and beverages. In the present study, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens WZS01 was isolated, identified, and used as a catalyst both in regioselective acylation and deacetylation for sucralose preparation. Bacterial cells were immobilized on polyurethane foam and utilized to synthesize sucrose-6-acetate regioselectively. The yield of sucrose-6-acetate was >95% with 60 mM sucrose after 22 h of reaction. Free cells could hydrolyze 75 mM sucralose-6-acetate to produce sucralose with >99% yield after 24 h of reaction. B. amyloliquefaciens WZS01 could be considered a potential biocatalyst for sucralose preparation. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Iridium- and ruthenium-catalysed synthesis of 2,3-disubstituted indoles from anilines and vicinal diols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tursky, Matyas; Lorentz-Petersen, Linda Luise Reeh; Olsen, L. B.


    A straightforward and atom-economical method is described for the synthesis of 2,3-disubstituted indoles. Anilines and 1,2-diols are condensed under neat conditions with catalytic amounts of either [Cp*IrCl2](2)/MsOH or RuCl3 center dot xH(2)O/phosphine (phosphine = PPh3 or xantphos). The reaction...... does not require any stoichiometric additives and only produces water and dihydrogen as byproducts. Anilines containing methyl, methoxy, chloro and fluoro substituents can participate in the cyclocondensation. Meta-substituted anilines give good regioselectivity for 6-substituted indoles, while...... unsymmetrical diols afford excellent regioselectivity for the indole isomer with an aryl or large alkyl group in the 2-position. The mechanism for the cyclocondensation presumably involves initial formation of the alpha-hydroxyketone from the diol. The ketone subsequently reacts with aniline to generate...

  20. Electronic effects of ruthenium-catalyzed [3+2]-cycloaddition of alkynes and azides

    KAUST Repository

    Hou, Duenren


    A combined experimental and theoretical study of ruthenium-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (RuAAC) reactions is presented and various electronic analyses were conducted to provide a basis in understanding the observed regioselectivity of the 1,2,3-triazole products. Computational studies using density functional theory (DFT) and atoms in molecules quantum theory (AIM) further yield fresh details on the electronic factors that determine the regioselectivity in the RuAAC. It is found that the formation of 1,2,3-triazole products is irreversible and from the Hammett study, the pathway involving a vinyl cationic intermediate is ruled out. The electronic effect favors the formation of 5-electron-donating-group substituted-1,2,3-trizoles. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis and Modular Reactivity of Pyrazole 5-Trifluoroborates: Intermediates for the Preparation of Fully-Functionalized Pyrazoles.


    Fricero, P.; Bialy, L.; Brown, A. W.; Czechtizky, W.; Mendez, M.; Harrity, J.P.


    The regioselective condensation of hydrazines and ynone trifluoroborates provides access to a range of pyrazole 5-trifluoroborates. The stability of the borate unit allows chemoselective halogenation of the heteroaromatic ring, thereby delivering pyrazole scaffolds that allow orthogonal functionalization at C5 and C4. The modular reactivity of these intermediates is exemplified by cross-coupling reactions, enabling regiocontrolled synthesis of fully-functionalized pyrazole derivatives.

  2. Asymmetric synthesis of apio fluoroneplanocin A analogs as potential AdoHcy hydrolase inhibitor. (United States)

    Park, Ah-Young; Moon, Hyung Ryong; Kim, Kyung Ran; Kang, Jin-Ah; Chun, Moon Woo; Jeong, Lak Shin


    Apio fluoroneplanocin A (apio F-NPA, 3) and its uracil analogue 4 have been designed and asymmetrically synthesized starting from D-ribose. Introduction of fluoro group into vinylic position of 5 was accomplished successfully over 5 steps employing key reactions such as iodination according to an addition-elimination reaction mechanism, stereo- and regioselective reduction of alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone, and electrophilic fluorination. This methodology can be adapted to the synthesis of fluoro compounds extensively.

  3. Electrochemical selenium- and iodonium-initiated cyclisation of hydroxy-functionalised 1,4-dienes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Röse


    Full Text Available The cobalt(I-catalysed 1,4-hydrovinylation reaction of allyloxytrimethylsilane and allyl alcohol with substituted 1,3-dienes leads to hydroxy-functionalised 1,4-dienes in excellent regio- and diastereoselective fashion. Those 1,4-dienols can be converted into tetrahydrofuran and pyran derivatives under indirect electrochemical conditions generating selenium or iodonium cations. The reactions proceed in good yields and regioselectivities for the formation of single diastereomers.

  4. Selective functionalization of 2-fluoropyridine, 2,3-difluoropyridine, and 2,5-difluoropyridine at each vacant position. (United States)

    Bobbio, Carla; Schlosser, Manfred


    The concept of "regioexhaustive substitution" has been successfully applied to 2-fluoro-, 2,3-difluoro-, and 2,5-difluoropyridine. All vacant positions were amenable to regioselective metalation and subsequent carboxylation by employing either chlorine as a neighboring site activating protective group or trimethylsilyl as a neighboring site screening protective group. In this way, approximately half a dozen fluorinated pyridinecarboxylic acids were derived from each starting material.

  5. Highly enantio- and diastereoselective allylic alkylation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates with allyl ketones

    KAUST Repository

    Tong, Guanghu


    The asymmetric allylic alkylation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) carbonates with allyl ketones has been developed. The α-regioselective alkylation adducts, containing a hexa-1,5-diene framework with important synthetic value, were achieved in up to 83% yield, >99% ee, and 50:1 dr by using a commercially available Cinchona alkaloid as the catalyst. From the allylic alkylation adduct, a cyclohexene bearing two adjacent chiral centers was readily prepared. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  6. Formylation of Electron-Rich Aromatic Rings Mediated by Dichloromethyl Methyl Ether and TiCl4: Scope and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Ramos-Tomillero


    Full Text Available Here the aromatic formylation mediated by TiCl4 and dichloromethyl methyl ether previously described by our group has been explored for a wide range of aromatic rings, including phenols, methoxy- and methylbenzenes, as an excellent way to produce aromatic aldehydes. Here we determine that the regioselectivity of this process is highly promoted by the coordination between the atoms present in the aromatic moiety and those in the metal core.

  7. A green Hunsdiecker reaction of cinnamic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sodre, Leonardo R.; Esteves, Pierre M.; Mattos, Marcio C. S. de, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica


    Tribromo- and trichloroisocyanuric acids react with cinnamic acids in NaOH/H{sub 2}O/Et{sub 2}O at room temperature to produce (E)-2-halostyrenes regioselectively in 25-95% yield. Mechanism studies using Hammett correlations and DFT (density functional theory) calculations have shown that this reaction has as rate determining step the electrophilic addition of chlorine atom to the double bond. (author)

  8. Deviation from the anti-Markovnikov rule: a computational study of the regio- and stereoselectivity of diene hydroboration reactions


    Hamdan, Laurence; Abdel-maksoud, Khaled; Radia, Riya; Boodram, Janine; Man, Kwan Y.; McGregor, Iain; Munteanu, Catherine; Muthu, Kishan; Poddar, Jannat; Roberts, Joanna; Sadler, Stephanie; Siddiqi, Nabeela; Tam, Sianne; Andreou, Anna; Scherman, Oren A.


    Hydroboration and subsequent use of boron compounds in novel organic synthesis have been flourishing in recent years largely due to its amiability in producing asymmetric stereo- and regioselective products. Direct products of diene hydroboration, however, have received little attention, with most substrates being assumed to produce the anti-Markovnikov product expected from textbook organic chemistry understanding. Previous experimental studies have observed the presence of a plethora of hyd...

  9. Stereoselective synthesis of tetrasubstituted alkenes via a sequential carbocupration and a new sulfur–lithium exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Unsinn


    Full Text Available We have designed a new sequential carbocupration and sulfur–lithium exchange that leads stereo- and regioselectively to trisubstituted alkenyllithiums. Subsequent trapping with various electrophiles yields tetrasubstituted olefins with good control of the double-bond geometry (E/Z ratio up to 99:1. The novel sulfur–lithium exchange could be extended to the stereoselective preparation of Z-styryl lithium derivatives with almost complete retention of the double-bond geometry.

  10. Alkoxide-induced ring opening of bicyclic 2-vinylcyclobutanones: A convenient synthesis of 2-vinyl-substituted 3-cycloalkene-1-carboxylic acid esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiufang Ji


    Full Text Available The fused 2-vinyl or 2-phenyl substituted cyclobutanones 4 undergo stereoselective ring openings by the action of alkoxide ions (t-BuO− or MeO− to produce novel vicinally disubstituted cycloalkene derivatives 5 and 6 in moderate to high yields. The ring cleavage usually occurs with complete regioselectivity. The accessibility of γ,δ-unsaturated ester or acid derivatives makes this transformation a good supplementary method for the well-established Johnson–Claisen rearrangement.

  11. A synthesis of oxo-thioxo[3.3.3]propellanes from dithiocarbamates and ninhydrin-malononitrile adduct. (United States)

    Yavari, Issa; Khajeh-Khezri, Aliyeh


    An efficient method for the synthesis of oxo-thioxo[3.3.3]propellanes via reaction of dithiocarbamates, generated from primary amines and carbon disulfide, with the Knoevenagel adduct resulting from ninhydrin and malononitrile in [Formula: see text] at room temperature is described. These transformations are highlighted by their chemo- and regioselectivity, lack of activator or metal promoters, inert atmosphere, and formation of four new bonds in one operation.

  12. Procedimiento enzimático para la acilación en posición 3- del resveratrol


    Torres, Pamela; Plou Gasca, Francisco José; Ballesteros Olmo, Antonio


    [ES] Procedimiento enzimático para la acilación regioselective en la posición 3 del resveratrol que utiliza un éster vinílico y lipasas fúngicas y bacterianas específicas, inmovilizada, como biocatalizador. Las lipasas utilizadas en el procedimiento dicho vienen de las bacterias o de los hongos seleccionados entre de Alcaligen, de Pseudomona o de Thermomyces.

  13. Gold film-catalysed benzannulation by Microwave-Assisted, Continuous Flow Organic Synthesis (MACOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjergji Shore


    Full Text Available Methodology has been developed for laying down a thin gold-on-silver film on the inner surface of glass capillaries for the purpose of catalysing benzannulation reactions. The cycloaddition precursors are flowed through these capillaries while the metal film is being heated to high temperatures using microwave irradiation. The transformation can be optimized rapidly, tolerates a wide number of functional groups, is highly regioselective, and proceeds in good to excellent conversion.

  14. One-pot stereoselective synthesis of α,β-differentiated diamino esters via the sequence of aminochlorination, aziridination and intermolecular SN2 reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Xiong


    Full Text Available We report here an efficient one-pot method for the synthesis of α,β-differentiated diamino esters directly from cinnamate esters using N,N-dichloro-p-toluenesulfonamide and benzylamine as nitrogen sources. The key transformations include a Cu-catalyzed aminohalogenation and aziridination, followed by an intermolecular SN2 nucleophilic ring opening by benzylamine. The reactions feature a wide scope of substrates and proceed with excellent stereo- and regioselectivity (anti:syn >99:1 .

  15. One-pot stereoselective synthesis of α,β-differentiated diamino esters via the sequence of aminochlorination, aziridination and intermolecular SN2 reaction. (United States)

    Xiong, Yiwen; Qian, Ping; Cao, Chenhui; Mei, Haibo; Han, Jianlin; Li, Guigen; Pan, Yi


    We report here an efficient one-pot method for the synthesis of α,β-differentiated diamino esters directly from cinnamate esters using N,N-dichloro-p-toluenesulfonamide and benzylamine as nitrogen sources. The key transformations include a Cu-catalyzed aminohalogenation and aziridination, followed by an intermolecular SN2 nucleophilic ring opening by benzylamine. The reactions feature a wide scope of substrates and proceed with excellent stereo- and regioselectivity (anti:syn >99:1) .

  16. Aminative umpolung of aldehydes to α-amino anion equivalents for Pd-catalyzed allylation: an efficient synthesis of homoallylic amines. (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Chen, Jing; Hu, Yifan; Xu, Juan; Gong, Xing; Xu, Dongfang; Zhao, Baoguo; Li, Hexing


    An attractive strategy for generation of α-amino anions from aldehydes with applications in synthesis of homoallylic amines is described. Aromatic aldehydes can be converted to α-amino anion equivalents via amination with 2,2-diphenylglycine and subsequent decarboxylation. The in situ generated α-imino anions are highly reactive for Pd-catalyzed allylation, forming the corresponding homoallylic amines in high yields with excellent regioselectivity.

  17. Preparation of 8-Amido-2-dimethylamino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-dibenzofurans and several fluorinated derivatives via [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of O-aryloximes. (United States)

    Guzzo, Peter R; Buckle, Ronald N; Chou, Ming; Dinn, Sean R; Flaugh, Michael E; Kiefer, Anton D; Ryter, Kendal T; Sampognaro, Anthony J; Tregay, Steven W; Xu, Yao-Chang


    Methodology to prepare 8-amido-2-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-dibenzofurans, analogues with a fluorine substituent incorporated in the 6-, 7-, and 9-positions, and a difluorinated analogue with fluorines in the 6- and 9-positions is described. The tetrahydrodibenzofuran ring systems are prepared by acid-catalyzed [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of O-aryloximes. Regioselective reactions to prepare the requisite O-aryloxime intermediates from commercially available fluorobenzene derivatives are discussed.

  18. Studies toward the synthesis of palhinine lycopodium alkaloids: a Morita-Baylis-Hillman/intramolecular Diels-Alder approach. (United States)

    Sizemore, Nicholas; Rychnovsky, Scott D


    A synthetic route to the isotwistane core of palhinine lycopodium alkaloids is described. A Morita-Baylis-Hillman/intramolecular Diels-Alder (IMDA) strategy sets the vicinal all-carbon quaternary centers present in this family of natural products. The regioselectivity of the IMDA reaction is dictated by the conditions employed for silyl enol ether formation, with one set of conditions providing the core of cardionine and alternate conditions generating the desired isotwistane core of isopalhinine.

  19. Heteroatom-directed alkylcyanation of alkynes. (United States)

    Nakao, Yoshiaki; Yada, Akira; Hiyama, Tamejiro


    Alkanenitriles having a heteroatom such as nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur at the gamma-position are found to add across alkynes stereo- and regioselectively by nickel/Lewis acid catalysis to give highly substituted acrylonitriles. The heteroatom functionalities likely coordinate to the nickel center to make oxidative addition of the C-CN bonds of the alkyl cyanides kinetically favorable, forming a five-membered nickelacycle intermediate and, thus, preventing beta-hydride elimination to allow the alkylcyanation reaction.

  20. Three-component synthesis of highly functionalized aziridines containing a peptide side chain and their one-step transformation into β-functionalized α-ketoamides. (United States)

    Huck, Lena; González, Juan F; de la Cuesta, Elena; Menéndez, J Carlos


    A sequential three-component process is described, starting from 3-arylmethylene-2,5-piperazinediones and involving a one-pot sequence of reactions achieving regioselective opening of the 2,5-diketopiperazine ring and diastereoselective generation of an aziridine ring. This method allows the preparation of N-unprotected, trisubstituted aziridines bearing a peptide side chain under mild conditions. Their transformation into β-trifluoroacetamido-α-ketoamide and α,β-diketoamide frameworks was also achieved in a single step.

  1. Direct access to β-oxodiazo compounds by copper(II)-catalyzed oxidative rearrangement of stabilized vinyl diazo derivatives. (United States)

    Barluenga, José; Lonzi, Giacomo; Riesgo, Lorena; Tomás, Miguel; López, Luis A


    The copper(II)-catalyzed reaction of alkenyldiazo compounds with iodosylbenzene leading to β-oxodiazo derivatives is reported. This process occurs via an unprecedented 1,2-shift of the diazoacetate function. A selection of the synthetic applications of a representative member of this new class of functionalized diazo derivatives in the regioselective synthesis of substituted 1,4-dicarbonyl compounds is also reported.

  2. Intramolecular carbolithiation of N-allyl-ynamides: an efficient entry to 1,4-dihydropyridines and pyridines – application to a formal synthesis of sarizotan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Gati


    Full Text Available We have developed a general synthesis of polysubstituted 1,4-dihydropyridines and pyridines based on a highly regioselective lithiation/6-endo-dig intramolecular carbolithiation from readily available N-allyl-ynamides. This reaction, which has been successfully applied to the formal synthesis of the anti-dyskinesia agent sarizotan, further extends the use of ynamides in organic synthesis and further demonstrates the synthetic efficiency of carbometallation reactions.

  3. Origins of Stereoselectivity in the trans-Diels-Alder Paradigm


    Paton, Robert S.; Mackey, Joel L.; Kim, Woo Han; Lee, Jun Hee; Danishefsky, Samuel J.; Houk, K. N.


    The regioselectivity and stereoselectivity aspects of the Diels-Alder/radical hydrodenitration reaction sequence leading to trans-fused ring systems have been investigated with density functional calculations. A continuum of transition structures representing Diels-Alder and hetero-Diels-Alder cycloadditions as well as a sigmatropic rearrangement have been located, and they all lie very close in energy on the potential energy surface. All three pathways are found to be important in the format...

  4. Cyclobutenone as a Highly Reactive Dienophile: Expanding Upon Diels-Alder Paradigms (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Danishefsky, Samuel J.


    Cyclobutenone was employed as a dienophile in Diels-Alder cycloadditions which provided diverse complex cycloadducts in good yields. Experimental outcome indicated that cyclobutenone was more reactive in comparison with 2-cyclopentenone or 2-cyclohexenone. In addition, cycloadducts bearing strained cyclobutanone moiety were able to undergo regioselective ring expansions to produce corresponding cyclopentanones, lactones, and lactams, which otherwise were difficultly obtained by direct Diels-Alder reactions. PMID:20698657

  5. Enantiospecific Synthesis of β-Substituted Tryptamines. (United States)

    Rubin, Heather N; Van Hecke, Kinney; Mills, Jonathan J; Cockrell, Jennifer; Morgan, Jeremy B


    Functionalized tryptamines are targets of interest for development as small molecule therapeutics. The ring opening of aziridines with indoles is a powerful method for tryptamine synthesis where isomer formation can be controlled. 3,5-Dinitrobenzoyl (DNB)-protected aziridines undergo regioselective, enantiospecific ring opening to produce β-substituted tryptamines for a series of indoles. Attack at the more substituted aziridine carbon occurs in an SN2-like fashion to generate DNB-tryptamine products as synthetic precursors.

  6. Synthesis of 1-Methyl-3-oxo-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2-carboxylic Acid Methyl Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Valdo José da Silva


    Full Text Available A simple and efficient method for the preparation of 1-methyl-3-oxo-7- oxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester (1 is described. The first step is a highly regioselective Diels-Alder reaction between 2-methylfuran and methyl-3-bromo- propiolate. A remarkably difficult ketal hydrolysis reaction was effected by treatment with HCl, a simple reagent that was shown to be more efficient, in this case, than commonly used more elaborate methods.

  7. RS-WebPredictor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaretzki, J.; Bergeron, C.; Huang, T.-W.


    Regioselectivity-WebPredictor (RS-WebPredictor) is a server that predicts isozyme-specific cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated sites of metabolism (SOMs) on drug-like molecules. Predictions may be made for the promiscuous 2C9, 2D6 and 3A4 CYP isozymes, as well as CYPs 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C19 and 2E1...

  8. Neurotrophic peptide aldehydes: Solid phase synthesis of fellutamide B and a simplified analog


    Schneekloth, John S.; John L Sanders; Hines, John; Crews, Craig M.


    A combination of solid phase and solution phase synthetic methods have been used to complete the total synthesis of the neurotrophic lipopeptide aldehyde fellutamide B (2). The β-hydroxy aliphatic tail was prepared by regioselective reductive opening of a cyclic sulfate, and later coupled to a solid phase resin. The synthetic compound was then examined in cytotoxicity and nerve growth factor (NGF) induction assays. A simplified analog of fellutamide B also showed activity.

  9. KO(t)Bu-Mediated, Three-Component Coupling Reaction of Indoles, [60]Fullerene, and Haloalkanes: One-Pot, Transition-Metal-Free Synthesis of Various 1,4-(3-Indole)(organo)[60]fullerenes. (United States)

    Li, Fei; Wang, Lianghui; Wang, Junjie; Peng, Dan; Zhao, Yuqi; Li, Shengli; Zhou, Hongping; Wu, Jieying; Tian, Xiaohe; Tian, Yupeng


    The KO(t)Bu-mediated three-component coupling reaction of indoles, [60]fullerene, and haloalkane has been developed as a practical and efficient protocol for the one-pot synthesis of various 1,4-(3-indole)(organo)[60]fullerenes. The reaction exhibits high regioselectivity at the 3-position of indoles and the 1,4-position on the [60]fullerene core. Furthermore, this methodology features excellent functional group tolerance, such as chloro, ester, cyano, and nitro on indole.

  10. α-Eleostearic acid-containing triglycerides for a continuous assay to determine lipase sn-1 and sn-3 regio-preference. (United States)

    El Alaoui, Meddy; Soulère, Laurent; Noiriel, Alexandre; Queneau, Yves; Abousalham, Abdelkarim


    Lipases are essentially described as sn-1 and sn-3 regio-selective. Actually few methods are available to measure this lipase regio-selectivity, moreover they require chiral chromatography analysis or specific derivations which are discontinuous and time consuming. In this study we describe a new, convenient, sensitive and continuous spectrophotometric method to screen lipases regio-selectivity using synthetic triglycerides (TG) containing α-eleostearic acid (9Z, 11E, 13E-octadecatrienoic acid) either at the sn-1 position [1-α-eleostearoyl-2,3-octadecyl-sn-glycerol (sn-EOO)] or at the sn-3 position [1,2-octadecyl-3-α-eleostearoyl-sn-glycerol (sn-OOE)] and coated onto the wells of microtiter plates. A non-hydrolysable ether bond, with a non UV-absorbing alkyl chain, was introduced at the other sn positions to prevent acyl chain migration during TG synthesis or lipolysis. The synthesis of TG containing α-eleostearic acid was performed from S-glycidol in six steps to obtain sn-EOO and in five steps to sn-OOE. The α-eleostearic acid conjugated triene constitutes an intrinsic chromophore and, consequently, confers the strong UV absorption properties of this free fatty acid as well as of the TG harboring it. The lipase activity on coated sn-EOO or sn-OOE was measured by the increase in the absorbance at 272nm due to the transition of α-eleostearic acid from the adsorbed to the soluble state. Human and porcine pancreatic lipases, guinea pig pancreatic lipase related protein 2, Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase, Candida antarctica lipase A and Candida antarctica lipase B were all used to validate the assay. This continuous high-throughput screening method could determine directly without any processes after lipolysis the regio-selectivity of various lipases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Catalytic enantioselective N-nitroso aldol reaction of γ,δ-unsaturated δ-lactones. (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Akira; Fujinami, Takeo; Oyokawa, Yu; Sugita, Takuya; Yoshida, Kazuhiro


    A catalytic asymmetric N-nitroso aldol reaction of γ,δ-didehydro-δ-lactones with nitrosoarenes was achieved using chiral tin dibromide as the chiral precatalyst and sodium ethoxide as the base precatalyst in the presence of ethanol. Optically active α-hydroxyamino ketones with up to 99% ee were regioselectively obtained in moderate to high yields from various δ-aryl-substituted γ,δ-didehydro-δ-valerolactones and o-substituted nitrosoarenes.

  12. Rhodium-catalyzed ortho C-H bond activation of arylamines for the synthesis of quinoline carboxylates. (United States)

    Gadakh, Sunita K; Dey, Soumen; Sudalai, A


    The rhodium catalyzed annulation of anilines with alkynic esters allowing for the high-yield synthesis of quinoline carboxylates with excellent regioselectivity is described. This unprecedented reaction employs either formic acid as the C1 source and reductant or copper(ii) as the oxidant and is proposed to proceed via rhodacycle of in situ generated amide and enamine ester followed by ortho C-H activation of arylamines with rhodium as the catalyst.

  13. Boron-Catalyzed Aromatic C-H Bond Silylation with Hydrosilanes. (United States)

    Ma, Yuanhong; Wang, Baoli; Zhang, Liang; Hou, Zhaomin


    Metal-free catalytic C-H silylation of a series of aromatic compounds such as N,N-disubstituted anilines with various hydrosilanes has been achieved for the first time using commercially available B(C6F5)3 as a catalyst. This protocol features simple and neutral reaction conditions, high regioselectivity, wide substrate scope (up to 40 examples), Si-Cl bond compatibility, and no requirement for a hydrogen acceptor.

  14. Design and synthesis of multivalent neoglycoconjugates by click conjugations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiqing Ding


    Full Text Available A highly stereoselective BF3∙OEt2-promoted tandem hydroamination/glycosylation on glycal scaffolds has been developed to form propargyl 3-tosylamino-2,3-dideoxysugars in a one-pot manner. Subsequent construction of multivalent 3-tosylamino-2,3-dideoxyneoglycoconjugates with potential biochemical applications was presented herein involving click conjugations as the key reaction step. The copper-catalyzed regioselective click reaction was tremendously accelerated with assistance of microwave irradiation.

  15. (2 + 2) Cycloaddition of Benzyne to Endohedral Metallofullerenes M3N@C80 (M = Sc, Y): A Rotating-Intermediate Mechanism. (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Nagase, Shigeru; Akasaka, Takeshi; Poblet, Josep M; Houk, K N; Ehara, Masahiro; Zhao, Xiang


    The reaction mechanism and origin of regioselectivity of (2 + 2) cycloadditions of benzyne to endohedral metallofullerenes M3N@C80 (M = Sc, Y) were investigated with density functional calculations. The reaction was demonstrated to follow a diradical mechanism rather than a carbene mechanism, in which the formation of the diradical intermediate is the rate-determining step. Through rotation of benzyne moiety on the fullerene surface, the diradical intermediate on 566 site could isomerize to two new diradical intermediates which give rise to two distinct [5,6] and [6,6] benzoadducts, respectively. However, the diradical intermediate on 666 site only produces the [6,6] benzoadduct. The nature of the endohedral cluster not only influences the regioselectivity, but also determines the cycloadduct geometry. For Sc3N@C80, the [5,6] benzoadduct is preferred kinetically and thermodynamically, whereas in the case of Y3N@C80, both [5,6] and [6,6] benzoadducts are favorable. In contrast to closed-cage benzoadducts of Sc3N@C80, Y3N@C80 affords open-cage benzoadducts, making it the first example that the endohedral cluster could alter cycloadducts from the closed cage to open cage. With further analysis, it is revealed that the origin of regioselectivity results from the local strain energy of the fullerene cage.

  16. Palladium-Catalyzed Anti-Markovnikov Oxidation of Allylic Amides to Protected beta-Amino Aldehydes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, Jiajia; Harvey, Emma C.; Fananas-Mastral, Martin; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Bernard


    A general method for the preparation of N-protected beta-amino aldehydes from allylic amines or linear allylic alcohols is described. Here the Pd(II)-catalyzed oxidation of N-protected allylic amines with benzoquinone is achieved in tBuOH under ambient conditions with excellent selectivity toward

  17. Nonlinear optical response of tetra and mono substituted zinc phthalocyanine complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fashina, Adedayo; Nyokong, Tebello, E-mail:


    The nonlinear absorption properties of 6 mono-substituted and 3 symmetric zinc phthalocyanine complexes have been studied in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) using 10 ns pulses at 532 nm. The non linear absorption of the complexes has been studied using the Z-scan technique. The study showed that both the singlet and triplet excited states contribute to the non linear absorption behavior. The nonlinear third-order susceptibility and second-order hyperpolarizability values of the complexes are reported. It was observed that two of the symmetric phthalocyanine complexes (5-α substituted with aminophenoxy and 9-β substituted with carboxyphenoxy) showed better and promising optical nonlinearity when compared to the other complexes studied. - Highlights: • Nonlinear absorption properties of zinc phthalocyanine are reported • Singlet and triplet excited states contribute to the non linear absorption. • Symmetrically tetra substituted phthalocyanines showed better optical nonlinearity.

  18. A Molecular-Scale Understanding of Cohesion and Fracture in P3HT:Fullerene Blends

    KAUST Repository

    Tummala, Naga Rajesh


    Quantifying cohesion and understanding fracture phenomena in thin-film electronic devices are necessary for improved materials design and processing criteria. For organic photovoltaics (OPVs), the cohesion of the photoactive layer portends its mechanical flexibility, reliability, and lifetime. Here, the molecular mechanism for the initiation of cohesive failure in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) OPV active layers derived from the semiconducting polymer poly-(3-hexylthiophene) [P3HT] and two mono-substituted fullerenes is examined experimentally and through molecular-dynamics simulations. The results detail how, under identical conditions, cohesion significantly changes due to minor variations in the fullerene adduct functionality, an important materials consideration that needs to be taken into account across fields where soluble fullerene derivatives are used.

  19. The effect of electrostatic interactions on conformational equilibria of multiply substituted tetrahydropyran oxocarbenium ions. (United States)

    Yang, Michael T; Woerpel, K A


    The three-dimensional structures of dioxocarbenium ions related to glycosyl cations were determined by an analysis of spectroscopic, computational, and reactivity data. Hypothetical low-energy structures of the dioxocarbenium ions were correlated with both experimentally determined (1)H NMR coupling constants and diastereoselectivity results from nucleophilic substitution reactions. This method confirmed the pseudoaxial preference of C-3 alkoxy-substituted systems and revealed the conformational preference of the C-5 alkoxymethyl group. Although the monosubstituted C-5 alkoxymethyl substituent preferred a pseudoequatorial orientation, the C-5-C-6 bond rotation was controlled by an electrostatic effect. The preferred diaxial conformer of the trans-4,5-disubstituted tetrahydropyranyl system underscored the importance of electrostatic effects in dictating conformational equilibria. In the 2-deoxymannose system, although steric effects influenced the orientation of the C-5 alkoxymethyl substituent, the all-axial conformer was favored because of electrostatic stabilization.

  20. Calculations of proton chemical shifts in olefins and aromatics

    CERN Document Server

    Escrihuela, M C


    induced reagents on alpha,beta unsaturated ketones has also been investigated in order to deduce molecular structures and to obtain the assignment of the spectra of these molecules. A semi-empirical calculation of the partial atomic charges in organic compounds based on molecular dipole moments (CHARGE3) was developed into a model capable of predicting proton chemical shifts in a wide variety of organic compounds to a reasonable degree of accuracy. The model has been modified to include condensed aromatic hydrocarbons and substituted benzenes, alkenes, halo-monosubstituted benzenes and halo-alkenes. Within the aromatic compounds the influence of the pi electron densities and the ring current have been investigated, along with the alpha, beta and gamma effects. The model gives the first accurate calculation of the proton chemical shifts of condensed aromatic compounds and the proton substituent chemical shifts (SCS) in the benzene ring. For the data set of 55 proton chemical shifts spanning 3 ppm the rms error...

  1. Dissociative electron attachment in nonplanar chlorocarbons with pi*/sigma*-coupled molecular orbitals. (United States)

    Aflatooni, K; Gallup, G A; Burrow, P D


    Total absolute cross sections for the dissociative electron attachment (DEA) process are reported for a series of nonplanar ethylenic and phenylic compounds monosubstituted with (CH(2))(n)Cl groups, where n=1-4. Coupling between the local pi* molecular orbitals provided by the unsaturated moieties and the sigma* (C-Cl) orbital is thus examined as a function of the separation of these groups. In particular, the coupling is viewed from the perspective of the interacting temporary negative ions formed by short lived occupation of these orbitals and their decay into the DEA channel. A theoretical treatment of "remote" bond breaking, presented elsewhere, satisfactorily accounts for DEA in the chloroethylenic compounds presented here and emphasizes not only the delocalization of the coupled anionic wave functions but the importance of their relative phases. The dependence of the cross sections on the vertical attachment energies, measured by electron transmission spectroscopy, is also explored and compared to that found previously in chlorinated alkanes.

  2. Enantioselective epoxide polymerization using a bimetallic cobalt catalyst. (United States)

    Thomas, Renee M; Widger, Peter C B; Ahmed, Syud M; Jeske, Ryan C; Hirahata, Wataru; Lobkovsky, Emil B; Coates, Geoffrey W


    A highly active enantiopure bimetallic cobalt complex was explored for the enantioselective polymerization of a variety of monosubstituted epoxides. The polymerizations were optimized for high rates and stereoselectivity, with s-factors (k(fast)/k(slow)) for most epoxides exceeding 50 and some exceeding 300, well above the threshold for preparative utility of enantiopure epoxides and isotactic polyethers. Values for mm triads of the resulting polymers are typically greater than 95%, with some even surpassing 98%. In addition, the use of a racemic catalyst allowed the preparation of isotactic polyethers in quantitative yields. The thermal properties of these isotactic polyethers are presented, with many polymers exhibiting high T(m) values. This is the first report of the rapid synthesis of a broad range of highly isotactic polyethers via the enantioselective polymerization of racemic epoxides.

  3. Enantioselective Epoxide Polymerization Using a Bimetallic Cobalt Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Thomas, Renee M.


    A highly active enantiopure bimetallic cobalt complex was explored for the enantioselective polymerization of a variety of monosubstituted epoxides. The polymerizations were optimized for high rates and stereoselectivity, with s-factors (kfast/kslow) for most epoxides exceeding 50 and some exceeding 300, well above the threshold for preparative utility of enantiopure epoxides and isotactic polyethers. Values for mm triads of the resulting polymers are typically greater than 95%, with some even surpassing 98%. In addition, the use of a racemic catalyst allowed the preparation of isotactic polyethers in quantitative yields. The thermal properties of these isotactic polyethers are presented, with many polymers exhibiting high T m values. This is the first report of the rapid synthesis of a broad range of highly isotactic polyethers via the enantioselective polymerization of racemic epoxides. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  4. A Ag-La heterometallic 2D layer based on mono-lacunary Keggin polyoxometalate: Synthesis, structure, and photocatalytic property (United States)

    Zhang, Chunjing; Fu, Xin; Ma, Huiyuan; Pang, Haijun; Zhou, Baibin


    A new two-dimensional (2D) purely inorganic 4d-4f heterometallic compound [La(H2O)8][Ag{La(H2O)6}2{SiW11La(H2O)4O39}2]·13H2O (1), based on mono-lacunary Keggin-type {α-SiW11O39} cluster (abbreviated to SiW11), was conventional synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TG, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. In compound 1, two mono-substituted {SiW11La(H2O)4O39}2 clusters (abbreviated to SiW11La) polymerize together to form a dimer. And the dimers are linked by Ag+ and La3+ heterometallic cations displaying a 2D network. Furthermore, the photocatalytic experiment indicates that the title compound presents excellent photocatalytic activity towards degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) dye.

  5. New series of monoamidoxime derivatives displaying versatile antiparasitic activity. (United States)

    Tabélé, Clémence; Cohen, Anita; Curti, Christophe; Bouhlel, Ahlem; Hutter, Sébastien; Remusat, Vincent; Primas, Nicolas; Terme, Thierry; Azas, Nadine; Vanelle, Patrice


    Following the promising antileishmanial results previously obtained in monoamidoxime series, a new series of derivatives was synthesized using manganese(III) acetate, Wittig reactions and Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling reactions. Pharmacomodulation in R(1), R(2) or R(3) substituents on the amidoxime structure is shown to influence antiprotozoan activity in vitro: a monosubstituted phenyl group in R1 (32-35) led to an activity against Leishmania donovani promastigotes (32, IC50 = 9.16 μM), whereas a polysubstituted group (36-37) led to an activity against Plasmodium falciparum (36, IC50 = 2.76 μM). Modulating chemical substituents in R(2) and R(3) only influenced the antiplasmodial activity in vitro. This suggests that the amidoxime scaffold has properties that could make it a promising new antiparasitic pharmacophore. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Versatile diastereoselectivity in formal [3,3]-sigmatropic shifts of substituted 1-alkenyl-3-alkylidenecyclobutanols and their silyl ethers. (United States)

    Jung, Michael E; Nishimura, Nobuko; Novack, Aaron R


    A new method for the preparation of highly substituted cyclohexenones is reported. [2 + 2] Cycloaddition of 2-silyloxydienes with allenecarboxylate affords the 1-alkenyl-3-alkylidenecyclobutanol silyl ethers. Thermolysis of these compounds affords the methylene cyclohexenyl silyl ethers with excellent exo selectivity (>95:5) when monosubstituted alkenyl groups are used, while the use of disubstituted alkenyl groups gives generally low selectivity ( approximately 2:1). However, rearrangement of the anion of the cyclobutanol (prepared by acidic hydrolysis of the TMS silyl ether) at low temperature gives the endo product with good to excellent diastereoselectivity (5-23:1). Two different mechanistic rationales are given for the two different processes: the first via a diradical and the second via a cleavage intramolecular Michael addition. Thus, the same starting material (e.g., 20) can be converted into either the exo or endo product, 22x or 22n, with good diastereocontrol by just changing the rearrangement conditions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The electron-ionization induced mass spectra of twenty six N-monosubstituted cyanoacetamides were recorded and their fragmentation patterns were stu¬died. The effect of N-alkyl and N-aryl substituents to the fragmentation of the investigated compounds was discussed. Mechanistic generalization lead to a conclusion that fission of the carbon-carbon bonds next to carbonyl function or nitrogen were processes common for N-alkyl and N-(4-substituted phenyl cya¬noacetamides. In some amides, the elimination of the acyl group by a ketene fragment gave rise to the more stable ion. Cycloalkyl amides could not frag¬ment by single carbon-carbon bond fission, but subsequent rearrangement resulted in formation of stable even electron ion. N-(4-substituted phenyl cyanoacetamides were more stable showing also characteristic fragmentation depending on substituent present at phenyl ring.

  8. XPS analysis of boron doped heterofullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, B.; Koetz, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Muhr, H.J.; Nesper, R. [ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)


    Boron heterofullerenes were generated through arc-evaporation of doped graphite rods in a helium atmosphere. According to mass spectrometric analysis only mono-substituted fullerenes like C{sub 59}B, C{sub 69}B and higher homologues together with a large fraction of higher undoped fullerenes were extracted and enriched when pyridine was used as the solvent. XPS analysis of the extracts indicated the presence of two boron species with significantly different binding energies. One peak was assigned to borid acid. The second one corresponds to boron in the fullerene cage, which is mainly C{sub 59}B, according to the mass spectrum. This boron is in a somewhat higher oxidation state than that of ordinary boron-carbon compounds. The reported synthesis and extraction procedure opens a viable route for production of macroscopic amounts of these compounds. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs.

  9. An initio computation of electron affinities of substituted benzalacetophenones (chalcones): a new approach to substituent effects in organic electrochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, L.D.; Fry, A.J.; Kurzweil, V.C. [Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT (United States). Chemistry Dept.


    The electron affinities (EAs) of a training set of 29 monosubstituted benzalacetophenones (chalcones) were computed at the ab initio density functional B3LYP/6-31G level of theory. The EAs and experimental reduction potentials of the training set are highly linearly correlated (correlation coefficient of 0.969 and standard deviation of 10.8 mV). An additional 72 di-, tri-, and tetrasubstituted chalcones were then synthesized. Their reduction potentials were predicted from computed EAs using the linear correlation derived from the training set. Agreement between the experimental and computed reduction potentials is remarkably good, with a standard deviation of less than 22 mV for this very large set of substances whose potentials extend over a range of almost 700 mV. (author)

  10. Ab initio computation of electron affinities of substituted benzalacetophenones (chalcones): a new approach to substituent effects in organic electrochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, L.D.; Fry, A.J.; Kurzweil, V.C. [Wesleyan Univ., Middletown, CT (United States). Hall-Atwater Lab.


    The electron affinities (EAs) of a training set of 29 monosubstituted benzalacetophenones (chalcones) were computed at the ab initio density functional B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory. The EAs and experimental reduction potentials of the training set are highly linearly correlated (correlation coefficient of 0.969 and standard deviation of 10.8 mV). An additional 72 di-, tri-, and tetrasubstituted chalcones were then synthesized. Their reduction potentials were predicted from computed EAs using the linear correlation derived from the training set. Agreement between the experimental and computed reduction potentials is remarkably good, with a standard deviation of less than 22 mV for this very large set of substances whose potentials extend over a range of almost 700 mV. (Author)

  11. Density functional theory study on the formation of reactive benzoquinone imines by hydrogen abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Rasmus; Rydberg, Patrik; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen


    Many drug compounds are oxidized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes to form reactive metabolites. This study presents density functional theory calculations of the CYP-mediated metabolism of acetaminophen and a series of related compounds that can form reactive metabolites by hydrogen abstraction. ...... as an in silico method in the design of new compounds with improved metabolic stability.......Many drug compounds are oxidized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes to form reactive metabolites. This study presents density functional theory calculations of the CYP-mediated metabolism of acetaminophen and a series of related compounds that can form reactive metabolites by hydrogen abstraction...... the porphyrin model to determine the activation energies. We have used this correlation on monosubstituted phenols to rationalize the effect of the various substituents in the drug compounds. In addition to facilitating a chemical interpretation, the approach is sufficiently fast and reliable to be used...

  12. Synthesis of the Sterically Related Nickel Gallanediyl Complexes [Ni(CO)3(GaAr′)] (Ar′ = C6H3-2,6-(C6H3-2,6-iPr2)2) and [Ni(CO)3(GaL)] (L = HC[C(CH3)N(C6H3-2,6-iPr2)]2): Thermal Decomposition of [Ni(CO)3(GaAr′)] to give the Cluster [Ni4(CO)7(GaAr′)3


    Serrano, Oracio; Hoppe, Elke; Power, Philip P.


    Reaction of Ni(CO)4 in toluene at room temperature with one equivalent of GaAr′ (Ar′ = C6H3-2,6-(C6H3-2,6-iPr2)2) and GaL (L = HC[C(Me)N(C6H3-2,6-iPr2)]2) formed the mono-substituted Ni(CO)3(GaAr′) (1) and Ni(CO)3(GaL) (3), respectively. Compound 1 decomposed under reduced pressure or upon heating in toluene to give the new cluster species Ni4(CO)7(GaAr′)3 (2). Reaction of 3 with a second equivalent of GaL in toluene at 95 °C afforded the disubstituted complex Ni(CO)2(GaL)2 (4). All the compo...

  13. The effects of gold coated and uncoated zinc oxide nanohexagons on the photophysicochemical properties of the low symmetry zinc phthalocyanine (United States)

    D'Souza, Sarah; Ogbodu, Racheal; Nyokong, Tebello


    A new low symmetry, Zn phthalocyanine monosubstituted with diethylaminoethanethiol (mDEAET ZnPc) was synthesized and characterized. This work reports on its photophysical and photochemical properties of mDEAET ZnPc alone and when conjugated to gold coated and uncoated zinc oxide nanohexagons (ZnO NHXs). The photophysicochemical properties generally improved in the presence of the ZnO NHXs. These complexes were also tested for their photodynamic antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The Pc alone showed remarkable growth inhibition even at concentrations as low as 0.05 mg/mL. The conjugates showed a high photoinactivation of S. aureus after 30 min at a fluence of 90 mW cm-2 at a concentration of 0.05 mg/mL. The ZnPc-ZnO NHX conjugates produced the best antimicrobial results.

  14. Synthesis, Anticancer and Antibacterial Activity of Salinomycin N-Benzyl Amides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Antoszczak


    Full Text Available A series of 12 novel monosubstituted N-benzyl amides of salinomycin (SAL was synthesized for the first time and characterized by NMR and FT-IR spectroscopic methods. Molecular structures of three salinomycin derivatives in the solid state were determined using single crystal X-ray method. All compounds obtained were screened for their antiproliferative activity against various human cancer cell lines as well as against the most problematic bacteria strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Novel salinomycin derivatives exhibited potent anticancer activity against drug-resistant cell lines. Additionally, two N-benzyl amides of salinomycin revealed interesting antibacterial activity. The most active were N-benzyl amides of SAL substituted at -ortho position and the least anticancer active derivatives were those substituted at the -para position.

  15. Electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC): Column design, retention processes, and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, En -Yi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This work describes the continued development of a new separation technique, electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC), from column design, retention mechanisms to pharmaceutical applications. The introduction section provides a literature review of the technique as well as a brief overview of the research in each of the chapters. This section is followed by four chapters which investigate the issues of EMLC column design, the retention mechanism of monosubstituted aromatic compounds, and the EMLC-based applications to two important classes of pharmaceutical compounds (i.e., corticosteroids and benzodiazepines). These four sections have been removed to process separately for inclusion on the database. The dissertation concludes with a general summary, a prospectus, and a list of references cited in the General Introduction. 32 refs.

  16. Synthesis, spectral, and anti-microbial studies of thioiminium iodides and amine hydrochlorides. (United States)

    Britto, Sebastian; Renaud, Philippe; Nallu, Maruthai


    To avoid the undesired deprotonation during the addition of organolithium and organomagnesium reagents to ketones, the thioiminium salts, easily prepared from lactams and amides are converted into 2,2-disubstituted and 2-monosubstituted amines by reaction with simple nucleophiles such as organocerium and organocopper reagents. The reaction of thioiminium iodides with organocerium reagents derived by transmetalation of corresponding lithium reagents with anhydrous cerium(III) chloride has been investigated. These thioiminium iodides act as good electrophiles and accept alkylceriums towards bisaddition. The newly synthesized amines have been characterized by 1H and 13C NMR, IR and mass spectra. The amines have been converted into their hydrochlorides and characterized by COSY. These hydrochlorides have been subjected to antimicrobial screening with clinically isolated microorganisms, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Candida albicans. The hydrochlorides show quite good activity against these bacteria and fungus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Substituent effects on the optical properties of naphthalenediimides: A frontier orbital analysis across the periodic table. (United States)

    Mulder, Joshua R; Guerra, Célia Fonseca; Slootweg, J Chris; Lammertsma, Koop; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias


    A comprehensive theoretical treatment is presented for the electronic excitation spectra of ca. 50 different mono-, di-, and tetrasubstituted naphthalenediimides (NDI) using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) at ZORA-CAM-B3LYP/TZ2P//ZORA-BP86/TZ2P with COSMO for simulating the effect of dichloromethane (DCM) solution. The substituents -XHn are from groups 14-17 and rows 2-5 of the periodic table. The lowest dipole-allowed singlet excitation (S0 -S1 ) of the monosubstituted NDIs can be tuned from 3.39 eV for -F to 2.42 eV for -TeH, while the S0 -S2 transition is less sensitive to substitution with energies ranging between 3.67 eV for -CH3 and 3.44 eV for -SbH2 . In the case of NDIs with group-15 and -16 substituents, the optical transitions strongly depend on the extent to which -XHn is planar or pyramidal as well as on the possible formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The accumulative effect of double and quadruple substitution leads in general to increasing bathochromic shifts, but the increased steric hindrance in tetrasubstituted NDIs can lead to deformations that diminish the effectiveness of the substituents. Detailed analyses of the Kohn-Sham orbital electronic structure in monosubstituted NDIs reveal the mesomeric destabilization of the HOMO as the primary cause of the bathochromic shift of the S0-S1 transition. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. How Are Substrate Binding and Catalysis Affected by Mutating Glu127 and Arg161 in Prolyl-4-hydroxylase? A QM/MM and MD Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Timmins


    Full Text Available Prolyl-4-hydroxylase is a vital enzyme for human physiology involved in the biosynthesis of 4-hydroxyproline, an essential component for collagen formation. The enzyme performs a unique stereo- and regioselective hydroxylation at the C4 position of proline despite the fact that the C5 hydrogen atoms should be thermodynamically easier to abstract. To gain insight into the mechanism and find the origin of this regioselectivity, we have done a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM study on wildtype and mutant structures. In a previous study (Timmins et al., 2017 we identified several active site residues critical for substrate binding and positioning. In particular, the Glu127 and Arg161 were shown to form multiple hydrogen bonding and ion-dipole interactions with substrate and could thereby affect the regio- and stereoselectivity of the reaction. In this work, we decided to test that hypothesis and report a QM/MM and molecular dynamics (MD study on prolyl-4-hydroxylase and several active site mutants where Glu127 or Arg161 are mutated for Asp, Gln, or Lys. Thus, the R161D and R161Q mutants give very high barriers for hydrogen atom abstraction from any proline C–H bond and therefore will be inactive. The R161K mutant, by contrast, sees the regio- and stereoselectivity of the reaction change but still is expected to hydroxylate proline at room temperature. By contrast, the Glu127 mutants E127D and E127Q show possible changes in regioselectivity with the former being more probable to react compared to the latter.

  19. Direct stereospecific synthesis of unprotected N-H and N-Me aziridines from olefins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jat, Jawahar L; Paudyal, Mahesh P; Gao, Hongyin; Xu, Qing-Long; Yousufuddin, Muhammed; Devarajan, Deepa; Ess, Daniel H; Kürti, László; Falck, John R


    Despite the prevalence of the N-H aziridine motif in bioactive natural products and the clear advantages of this unprotected parent structure over N-protected derivatives as a synthetic building block...

  20. Synthesis and Growth Stimulant Properties of 2-Acetyl-3,7-dimethyl-5H-thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidin-5-one Derivatives


    Vergush A. Pivazyan; Ghazaryan, Emma A.; Shainova, Roza S.; Tamazyan, Rafael A.; Ayvazyan, Armen G.; Yengoyan, Aleksandr P.


    A convenient, accessible, and high yield method for preparing of 6-methyl-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydropyrimidin-4(1H)-one (1) by treatment of acetoacetic acid ethyl ester with thiourea in sodium methylate was developed. The alkylation of the latter with 3-chloro-pentane-2,4-dione and further regioselective cyclization of intermediate compound (2) in high yield afforded 2-acetyl-3,7-dimethyl-5H-thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidin-5-one (3). The halogenation and some transformations of synthesized thiazolo[3,2-a]...

  1. Selective C(sp(2))-H Halogenation of "Click" 4-Aryl-1,2,3-triazoles. (United States)

    Goitia, Asier; Gómez-Bengoa, Enrique; Correa, Arkaitz


    Selective bromination reactions of "click compounds" are described. Electron-neutral and electron-deficient arenes selectively undergo unprecedented Pd-catalyzed C-H ortho-halogenations assisted by simple triazoles as modular directing groups, whereas electron-rich arenes are regioselectively halogenated following an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction pathway. These C-H halogenation procedures exhibit a wide group tolerance, complement existing bromination procedures, and represent versatile synthetic tools of utmost importance for the late-stage diversification of "click compounds". The characterization of a triazole-containing palladacycle and density functional theory studies supported the mechanism proposal.

  2. Palladium-Catalyzed, ortho-Selective C-H Halogenation of Benzyl Nitriles, Aryl Weinreb Amides, and Anilides. (United States)

    Das, Riki; Kapur, Manmohan


    A palladium-catalyzed, ortho-selective C-H halogenation methodology is reported herein. The highlight of the work is the highly selective C(sp(2))-H functionalization of benzyl nitriles in the presence of activated C(sp(3))-H bond, which results in good yields of the halogenated products with excellent regioselectivity. Along with benzyl nitriles, aryl Weinreb amides and anilides have been evaluated for the transformation using aprotic conditions. Mechanistic studies yield interesting aspects with respect to the pathway of the reaction and the directing group abilities.

  3. Remote Migratory Cross-Electrophile Coupling and Olefin Hydroarylation Reactions Enabled by in Situ Generation of NiH. (United States)

    Chen, Fenglin; Chen, Ke; Zhang, Yao; He, Yuli; Wang, Yi-Ming; Zhu, Shaolin


    A highly efficient strategy for remote reductive cross-electrophile coupling has been developed through the ligand-controlled nickel migration/arylation. This general protocol allows the use of abundant and bench-stable alkyl bromides and aryl bromides for the synthesis of a wide range of structurally diverse 1,1-diarylalkanes in excellent yields and high regioselectivities under mild conditions. We also demonstrated that alkyl bromide could be replaced by the proposed olefin intermediate while using n-propyl bromide/Mn(0) as a potential hydride source.

  4. Synthesis, Optical Properties and Applications for New Trianguleniums Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santella, Marco

    structures. These dyes possess excellent emissive properties with possible applications as cell staining agents or as fluorescent probes. Lastly, I focused on the use of triangulenes as binding group for molecular electronics. It has been shown that TATA can form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on a gold...... was undertaken. Taking advantage of the regioselectivity of the intramolecular ringclosure reaction with either nitrogen or oxygen centered nucleophiles starting from asymmetric electron rich propeller shaped cations, it was possible to obtain a series of dyes with tetramethoxy rhodamine and acridinium...

  5. Tandem dinucleophilic cyclization of cyclohexane-1,3-diones with pyridinium salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Kiamehr


    Full Text Available The cyclization of cyclohexane-1,3-diones with various substituted pyridinium salts afforded functionalized 8-oxa-10-aza-tricyclo[,7]trideca-2(7,11-dienes. The reaction proceeds by regioselective attack of the central carbon atom of the 1,3-dicarbonyl unit to 4-position of the pyridinium salt and subsequent cyclization by base-assisted proton migration and nucleophilic addition of the oxygen atom to the 2-position, as was elucidated by DFT computations. Fairly extensive screening of bases and additives revealed that the presence of potassium cations is essential for formation of the product.

  6. Synthesis and antiestrogenic activity of [3,4-dihydro-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-naphthalenyl][4-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)ethoxy]-phenyl]methanone, methanesulfonic acid salt. (United States)

    Jones, C D; Suarez, T; Massey, E H; Black, L J; Tinsley, F C


    Acylation of the sodio anion of beta-tetralone with phenyl anisoate, followed by a Grignard reaction of the resultant 4 with 4-methoxyphenylmagnesium bromide, gave rise to two novel dihydronaphthalene isomers 5 and 6. Regioselective demethylation of either 5 or 6 by NaSEt produced [3,4-dihydro-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-naphthalenyl](4-hydroxyphenyl)methanone (7). Etherification of the phenolic group of 7 by N-(2-chloroethyl)pyrrolidine and subsequent methanesulfonate salt formation provided [3,4-dihydro-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-maphthalenyl

  7. Methoxylation of Singly Bonded 1,4-1',4'-BnC60-C60Bn Dimer: Preferential Formation of 1,4-C60 Adduct with Sterically Less Demanding Addends and Stability Difference between 1,2- and 1,4-OMe(Bn)C60. (United States)

    He, Fa-Gui; Li, Zong-Jun; Gao, Xiang


    Methoxylation of the singly bonded 1,4-1',4'-BnC60-C60Bn dimer afforded 1,4-OMe(Bn)C60, a 1,4-C60 adduct with sterically less demanding addends, as the major adduct. The situation was different from that of direct functionalization of C60, where 1,2-OMe(Bn)C60 was obtained as the major product. The reaction was studied with in situ vis-NIR spectroscopy and computational calculations to obtain a better understanding of this unusual regioselectivity. The stability difference between 1,2- and 1,4-OMe(Bn)C60 was studied.

  8. Recent Advances in the C-H-Functionalization of the Distal Positions in Pyridines and Quinolines. (United States)

    Stephens, David E; Larionov, Oleg V


    This review summarizes recent developments in the C-H-functionalization of the distal positions of pyridines, quinolines and related azaheterocycles. While the functionalization of the C2 position has been known for a long time and is facilitated by the proximity to N1, regioselective reactions in the distal positions are more difficult to achieve and have only emerged in the last decade. Recent advances in the transition metal-catalyzed distal C-H-functionalization of these synthetically-important azaheterocycles are discussed in detail, with the focus on the scope, site-selectivity and mechanistic aspects of the reactions.

  9. Part I, copper(I) iodide dimethyl sulfide catalyzed 1,4- addition of alkenyl groups from alkenylzirconium and alkenylzinc reagents and their application toward the total synthesis of azaspirene : Part II, aqueous Wittig chemistry employing stabilized ylides and aldehydes


    El-Batta, Amer Adnan


    Hydrozirconation of alkynes, utilizing Schwartz's reagent, }Cp2Zr(H)Cl}, is a superb protocol for making regioselective alkenylzirconocene reagents. We recently reported the direct conjugate addition of the alkenyl group in high yield from an alkenylzirconocene in the presence of a catalytic amount of the CuI0.75SMe2 complex. Specifically, this Cu(I) additive is the most efficient when compared to several other copper(I) and copper(II) sources. While organozirconocenes have been used in many ...

  10. Synthesis of Fluoroalkoxy Substituted Arylboronic Esters by Iridium-Catalyzed Aromatic C–H Borylation

    KAUST Repository

    Batool, Farhat


    The preparation of fluoroalkoxy arylboronic esters by iridium-catalyzed aromatic C–H borylation is described. The fluoroalkoxy groups employed include trifluoromethoxy, difluoromethoxy, 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethoxy, and 2,2-difluoro-1,3-benzodioxole. The borylation reactions were carried out neat without the use of a glovebox or Schlenk line. The regioselectivities available through the iridium-catalyzed C–H borylation are complementary to those obtained by the electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions of fluoroalkoxy arenes. Fluoroalkoxy arylboronic esters can serve as versatile building blocks.

  11. Stereoselective synthesis of hernandulcin, peroxylippidulcine A, lippidulcines A, B and C and taste evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco G. Rigamonti


    Full Text Available The first stereoselective synthesis of lippidulcines A, B and C has been accomplished starting from (+-hernandulcin, which has been prepared on a multigram scale. The previously assigned absolute configurations have been confirmed. The key steps of this synthesis are based on a modified version of the Kornblum–DeLaMare rearrangement, and on a highly regioselective and stereoselective ketone reduction with the MeCBS reagent. The taste evaluations indicate that none of these sesquiterpenes are sweet, instead the lippidulcine A is a cooling agent with a mint after taste.

  12. The mechanism of the phosphine-free palladium-catalyzed hydroarylation of alkynes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlquist, Mårten Sten Gösta; Fabrizi, G.; Cacchi, S.


    The mechanism of the Pd-catalyzed hydroarylation and hydrovinylation reaction of alkynes has been studied by a combination of experimental and theoretical methods (B3LYP), with an emphasis on the phosphine-free version. The regioselectivity of the hydroarylation and hydrovinylation shows unexpected...... differences, which could be attributed mainly to the higher steric demand of the cyclohexenyl group as compared to the phenyl group. Hydroarylation of alpha,beta-acetylenic carbonyl substrates yields a very unusual anti-Michael selectivity, which is shown to result from reaction of the nonconjugated double...

  13. Titanium-mediated reductive cross-coupling reactions of imines with terminal alkynes: An efficient route for the synthesis of stereodefined allylic amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebin Mao


    Full Text Available Low-valency titanium species, generated in situ by using Ti(OiPr4/2 c-C5H9MgCl reagent, react with imines to give a titanium-imine complex that can couple with terminal alkynes to provide azatitanacyclopentenes with excellent regioselectivity. Stereodefined allylic amines are obtained in good yields after hydrolysis or iodonolysis of the corresponding azatitanacyclopentenes. When ethynylcyclopropane is used as the coupling partner to react with imines in this reaction, the initially generated allylic amine undergoes an unexpected 1,3-amino migration on silica gel during the column chromatography.

  14. Secondary amine-initiated three-component synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidinones and thiones involving alkynes, aldehydes and thiourea/urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Ping Wan


    Full Text Available The three-component reactions of aldehydes, electron deficient alkynes and ureas/thioureas have been smoothly performed to yield a class of unprecedented 3,4-dihydropyrimidinones and thiones (DHPMs. The reactions are initiated by the key transformation of an enamine-type activation involving the addition of a secondary amine to an alkyne, which enables the subsequent incorporation of aldehydes and ureas/thioureas. This protocol tolerates a broad range of aryl- or alkylaldehydes, N-substituted and unsubstituted ureas/thioureas and alkynes to yield the corresponding DHPMs with specific regioselectivity.

  15. Regio- and stereoselective carbometallation reactions of N-alkynylamides and sulfonamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Minko


    Full Text Available The carbocupration reactions of heterosubstituted alkynes allow the regio- and stereoselective formation of vinyl organometallic species. N-Alkynylamides (ynamides are particularly useful substrates for the highly regioselective carbocupration reaction, as they lead to the stereodefined formation of vinylcopper species geminated to the amide moiety. The latter species are involved in numerous synthetically useful transformations leading to valuable building blocks in organic synthesis. Here we describe in full the results of our studies related to the carbometallation reactions of N-alkynylamides.

  16. Employing BINOL-Phosphoroselenoyl Chloride for Selective Inositol Phosphorylation and Synthesis of Glycosyl Inositol Phospholipid from Entamoeba histolytica. (United States)

    Aiba, Toshihiko; Suehara, Sae; Choy, Siew-Ling; Maekawa, Yuuki; Lotter, Hannelore; Murai, Toshiaki; Inuki, Shinsuke; Fukase, Koichi; Fujimoto, Yukari


    The chemical synthesis of glycosyl inositol phospholipids from Entamoeba histolytica is reported. The key feature of this synthesis is a regioselective phosphorylation reaction that occurs through desymmetrization of a myo-inositol derivative with phosphoroselenoyl chloride. A new protecting-group strategy was developed that utilizes allyl and alloc groups to synthesize complex glycolipids bearing unsaturated lipids. These developments provided an efficient synthetic route for various complex inositol phospholipids and their analogues. Furthermore, the binding affinity of the synthetic inositol phospholipids with mouse CD1d molecules has been evaluated, as well as the immunostimulatory activity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Cycloaddition of CO 2 to challenging N -tosyl aziridines using a halogen-free niobium complex: Catalytic activity and mechanistic insights

    KAUST Repository

    Arayachukiat, Sunatda


    An efficient and facile approach to the regioselective synthesis of N-tosyloxazolidinones from the corresponding N-tosylaziridines and CO2 was developed using dual catalytic systems involving an early transition metal coordination compound as a Lewis acid and a nucleophilic cocatalyst. Among the screened Lewis acids, halogen-free niobium pentaethoxide (Nb(OEt)5) displayed the best catalytic activity when used in the presence of tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI). Systematic DFT calculations, supported by catalytic experiments, demonstrate that CO2 insertion is the rate determining step for this process and it is highly dependent on the steric hindrance at the niobium center.

  18. Novel selectfluor and deoxo-fluor-mediated rearrangements. New 5(6)-methyl and phenyl methanopyrrolidine alcohols and fluorides. (United States)

    Krow, Grant R; Lin, Guoliang; Moore, Keith P; Thomas, Andrew M; DeBrosse, Charles; Ross, Charles W; Ramjit, Harri G


    Stereoselective syntheses of novel 5,6-difunctionalized-2-azabicyclo[2.1.1]hexanes containing 5-anti-fluoro or hydroxyl in one methano bridge and a variety of syn- or anti-chloro, fluoro, hydroxy, methyl, or phenyl substituents in the other methano bridge have been effected. Rearrangements of iodides to alcohols were initiated using Selectfluor. Rearrangement of alcohols to fluorides was initiated using Deoxo-Fluor. Ring opening of 2-azabicyclo[2.2.0]hex-5-ene exo-epoxide with organocopper reagents is regioselective at C(5).

  19. Novel lipase-catalysed highly selective acetylation studies on D-arabino- and D-threo-polyhydroxyalkyltriazoles. (United States)

    Prasad, Ashok K; Himanshu; Bhattacharya, Anupam; Olsen, Carl E; Parmar, Virinder S


    Capabilities of lipases from Candida antarctica, Candida rugosa and porcine pancreas have been evaluated for regioselective acetylation of 2-phenyl-4-(D-arabino-tetrahydroxybutyl)-2H-1,2,3-triazole, 2-phenyl-4-(D-arabino-O-1',2'-isopropylidene-3',4'-dihydroxybutyl)-2H-1,2,3-triazole and 2-phenyl-4-(D-threo-trihydroxypropyl)-2H-1,2,3-triazole, precursors for the synthesis of triazolylacyclonucleosides. C. antarctica lipase and porcine pancreatic lipase exhibited exclusive selectivity for the acetylation of primary hydroxyl group over secondary hydroxyl group(s) in all the three cases.

  20. Heteroaromatic belts through fold-in synthesis: mechanistic insights into a macrocycle-templated Friedel-Crafts alkylation. (United States)

    Kondratowicz, Mateusz; Myśliwiec, Damian; Lis, Tadeusz; Stępień, Marcin


    Direct alkylation of 9,9',9''-triethyl[2.2.2](2,7)carbazolophane with dimethoxymethane or paraformaldehyde affords a belt-like heteroaromatic structure, which forms as a kinetic product in acid-catalyzed condensations. In a competing, thermodynamically favored process, polymeric structures are formed by a largely regioselective condensation of stereochemically rigid "semi-belts". The relationship between these reactivity routes is rationalized in terms of strain release and differential reversibility of consecutive condensation steps. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Synthesis of New 3-(2-Chloroquinolin-3-yl)-5-Phenylisoxazole Derivatives via Click-Chemistry Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Galleguillos, Carlos; Saavedra, Luis A.; Gutierrez, Margarita [Laboratorio de Sintesis Organica, Instituto de Quimica de Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Talca (Chile)


    Herein, we report the synthesis of new substituted 3-(2-chloroquinolin-3-yl)-5-phenylisoxazole (3a-j) by click chemistry in good to moderate yields. This approach is based on the regioselective copper(I)-catalyzed cycloaddition between different nitrile oxides derived from 2-chloroquinoline- 3-carbaldehyde (2a-j) and phenylacetylene. Finally these derivatives were screened for their antibacterial evaluation in vitro against three Gram-negative clinical bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii using standard methods. (author)

  2. Frustrated Lewis pairs-assisted reduction of carbonyl compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marek, Ales; Pedersen, Martin Holst Friborg


    An alternative and robust method for the reduction of carbonyl groups by frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs) is reported in this paper. With its very mild reaction conditions, good to excellent yields, absolute regioselectivity and the non-metallic character of the reagent, it provides an excellent tool...... for H-1, H-2 as well as H-3 chemistry. It is a new strategy for the one-pot synthesis of aromatic alcohols selectively labeled with heavy isotopes of hydrogen. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  3. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons via Iron(III)-Catalyzed Carbonyl-Olefin Metathesis. (United States)

    McAtee, Christopher C; Riehl, Paul S; Schindler, Corinna S


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are important structural motifs in organic chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, and materials science. The development of a new synthetic strategy toward these compounds is described based on the design principle of iron(III)-catalyzed carbonyl-olefin metathesis reactions. This approach is characterized by its operational simplicity, high functional group compatibility, and regioselectivity while relying on FeCl3 as an environmentally benign, earth-abundant metal catalyst. Experimental evidence for oxetanes as reactive intermediates in the catalytic carbonyl-olefin ring-closing metathesis has been obtained.

  4. One-Pot Acid-Catalyzed Ring-Opening/Cyclization/Oxidation of Aziridines with N-Tosylhydrazones: Access to 1,2,4-Triazines. (United States)

    Crespin, Lorène; Biancalana, Lorenzo; Morack, Tobias; Blakemore, David C; Ley, Steven V


    A new, three-step, telescoped reaction sequence for the regioselective conversion of N-tosyl hydrazones and aziridines to 3,6-disubstituted and 3,5,6-trisubstituted 1,2,4-triazines is described. The process involves an efficient nucleophilic ring opening of the aziridine, giving access to a wide range of aminohydrazones, isolated with excellent yields. A "one-pot" procedure, combining the ring opening with a cyclization and an oxidation step, allows the preparation of diversified triazines in good yields.

  5. Structure-selectivity relationship in the cleavage of spirocyclopropyl oxindoles: An experimental and theoretical investigation (United States)

    García-Vázquez, J. Benjamín; Bañuelos-Hernández, Angel E.; Trujillo-Serrato, Joel J.; Suárez-Castillo, Oscar R.; Ariza-Castolo, Armando; Morales-Ríos, Martha S.


    Heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation of strained nitrile substituted spirocyclopropyl oxindoles in acetic anhydride, allowed to the regioselective formation of ring-opened 2-oxohomotryptamines accompanied by the ring-retained spirocyclopropyl acetamides as by products. The C3sbnd C9 bond fission would be induced by H atom attack via the plausible intermediacy of a stabilized benzolactam carbon-centered radical. The substituent effects on the stability of such radicals were analyzed in terms of the energy of SOMO orbitals, showing good agreement with σm Hammett constants. The theoretical results reflect experimental findings on the reactivity of the analyzed compounds.

  6. 2-nitroveratryl as a photocleavable thiol-protecting group for directed disulfide bond formation in the chemical synthesis of insulin. (United States)

    Karas, John A; Scanlon, Denis B; Forbes, Briony E; Vetter, Irina; Lewis, Richard J; Gardiner, James; Separovic, Frances; Wade, John D; Hossain, Mohammed A


    Chemical synthesis of peptides can allow the option of sequential formation of multiple cysteines through exploitation of judiciously chosen regioselective thiol-protecting groups. We report the use of 2-nitroveratryl (oNv) as a new orthogonal group that can be cleaved by photolysis under ambient conditions. In combination with complementary S-pyridinesulfenyl activation, disulfide bonds are formed rapidly in situ. The preparation of Fmoc-Cys(oNv)-OH is described together with its use for the solid-phase synthesis of complex cystine-rich peptides, such as insulin. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Copper-Catalyzed Oxidative C(sp(3))-H Functionalization for Facile Synthesis of 1,2,4-Triazoles and 1,3,5-Triazines from Amidines. (United States)

    Huang, Huawen; Guo, Wei; Wu, Wanqing; Li, Chao-Jun; Jiang, Huanfeng


    A facile and versatile catalytic system involving copper catalyst, K3PO4 as the base, and O2 as the oxidant has been developed to enable efficient synthesis of 2,4,6-trisubstituted and 2,6-disubstituted 1,3,5-triazines and 1,3-disubstituted 1,2,4-triazoles from amidines with trialkylamines, DMSO, and DMF as the reaction partners, respectively. This protocol features inexpensive metal catalyst, green oxidant, good functional group tolerance, and high regioselectivity, providing an efficient entry to those products that are challenging to prepare by traditional methods. A single-electron-transfer (SET) mechanism is proposed for these transformations.

  8. Organocatalytic cascade aza-Michael/hemiacetal reaction between disubstituted hydrazines and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes: Highly diastereo- and enantioselective synthesis of pyrazolidine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Cong Geng


    Full Text Available The catalytic synthesis of nitrogen-containing heterocycles is of great importance to medicinal and synthetic chemists, and also a challenge for modern chemical methodology. In this paper, we report the synthesis of pyrazolidine derivatives through a domino aza-Michael/hemiacetal sequence with chiral or achiral secondary amines as organocatalysts. Thus, a series of achiral pyrazolidine derivatives were obtained with good yields (up to 90% and high diastereoselectivities (>20:1 with pyrrolidine as an organocatalyst, and enantioenriched pyrazolidines are also achieved with good results (up to 86% yield, >10/1 regioselectivity, >20:1 dr, 99% ee in the presence of (S-diphenylprolinol trimethylsilyl ether catalyst.

  9. Using aqueous ammonia in hydroaminomethylation reactions: ruthenium-catalyzed synthesis of tertiary amines. (United States)

    Wu, Lipeng; Fleischer, Ivana; Zhang, Min; Liu, Qiang; Franke, Robert; Jackstell, Ralf; Beller, Matthias


    The direct synthesis of tertiary amines from ammonia and olefins is presented. Using a combination of Ru3 (CO)12 and 2-phosphino-substituted imidazole ligand as catalyst system allows for hydroaminomethylation reactions of bulk aliphatic and functionalized olefins. Tertiary amines are obtained in an atom-efficient domino process in moderate to good isolated yields (45-76%) with excellent regioselectivities (n/iso up to 99:1). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. YCl3-Catalyzed Highly Selective Ring Opening of Epoxides by Amines at Room Temperature and under Solvent-Free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuttichai Natongchai


    Full Text Available A simple, efficient, and environmentally benign approach for the synthesis of β-amino alcohols is herein described. YCl3 efficiently carried out the ring opening of epoxides by amines to produce β-amino alcohols under solvent-free conditions at room temperature. This catalytic approach is very effective, with several aromatic and aliphatic oxiranes and amines. A mere 1 mol % concentration of YCl3 is enough to deliver β-amino alcohols in good to excellent yields with high regioselectivity.

  11. Nickel-catalyzed regio- and enantioselective aminolysis of 3,4-epoxy alcohols. (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Yamamoto, Hisashi


    The first catalytic regio- and enantioselective aminolysis of 3,4-epoxy alcohols has been accomplished. Under the catalysis of Ni(ClO4)2·6H2O, the C4 selective ring opening of various 3,4-epoxy alcohols proceeded in a stereospecific manner with high regioselectivities. Furthermore, with the Ni-BINAM catalytic system the enantioselective ring opening of 3,4-epoxy alcohols furnished various γ-hydroxy-δ-amino alcohols as products with complete regiocontrol and high enantioselectivities (up to 94% ee).

  12. Palladium-catalyzed ring-opening reactions of cyclopropanated 7-oxabenzonorbornadiene with alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Tait


    Full Text Available Palladium-catalyzed ring-opening reactions of cyclopropanated 7-oxabenzonorbornadiene derivatives using alcohol nucleophiles were investigated. The optimal conditions were found to be 10 mol % PdCl2(CH3CN2 in methanol, offering yields up to 92%. The reaction was successful using primary, secondary and tertiary alcohol nucleophiles and was compatible with a variety of substituents on cyclopropanated oxabenzonorbornadiene. With unsymmetrical C1-substituted cyclopropanated 7-oxabenzonorbornadienes, the regioselectivity of the reaction was excellent, forming only one regioisomer in all cases.

  13. Postligation-desulfurization: a general approach for chemical protein synthesis. (United States)

    Ma, Jimei; Zeng, Jing; Wan, Qian


    Native chemical ligation, involving regioselective and chemoselective coupling of two unprotected peptide segments, enabled the synthesis of polypeptide with more than 200 amino acids. However, cysteine was indispensable in this synthetic technique in its initial format, which limited its further application. Thus, considerable effort has been put into breaking the restriction of cysteine-containing ligation. As a consequence, postligation-desulfurization, concerning thiol-mediated ligation followed by desulfurization, was developed. This review describes the development and recent progress on the chemical synthesis of peptides and proteins encompassing postligation-desulfurization at alanine, valine, lysine, threonine, leucine, proline, arginine, aspartic acid, glutamate, phenylalanine, glutamine, and tryptophan.

  14. Synthesis and Application of Plant Cell Wall Oligogalactans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Christian Franch

    of polysaccharides and proteins that changes during the different developmental stages of the cell. This makes it very challenging to address the function of individual components in living cells. Alternatively, structurally defined oligosaccharides can be used as models for the more complex polysaccharide...... a disaccharide donor the number of glycosylations were reduced significantly and late stage regioselective deprotection made it possible to introduce various branches. By the same general strategy, seven linear or branched β-(1→3)-linked- and three linear β-(1→6)-linked D-galactosides were prepared as part...

  15. Facile synthesis of 1H-imidazo[1,2-b]pyrazoles via a sequential one-pot synthetic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Demjén


    Full Text Available 5-Aminopyrazole-4-carbonitrile and ethyl 5-aminopyrazole-4-carboxylate, as potential trifunctional building blocks are introduced in a facile, chemo- and regioselective multicomponent assembly of imidazo[1,2-b]pyrazoles via the Groebke–Blackburn–Bienaymé reaction (GBB reaction. Besides the synthetic elaboration of a green-compatible isocyanide-based access in three-component mode, we describe an operationally simple, one-pot two-step GBB protocol for the rapid construction of a 46 membered imidazo[1,2-b]pyrazole library with yields up to 83%.

  16. Copper-catalyzed CuAAC/intramolecular C–H arylation sequence: Synthesis of annulated 1,2,3-triazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Jeyachandran


    Full Text Available Step-economical syntheses of annulated 1,2,3-triazoles were accomplished through copper-catalyzed intramolecular direct arylations in sustainable one-pot reactions. Thus, catalyzed cascade reactions involving [3 + 2]-azide–alkyne cycloadditions (CuAAC and C–H bond functionalizations provided direct access to fully substituted 1,2,3-triazoles with excellent chemo- and regioselectivities. Likewise, the optimized catalytic system proved applicable to the direct preparation of 1,2-diarylated azoles through a one-pot C–H/N–H arylation reaction.

  17. Three-component synthesis of highly functionalized aziridines containing a peptide side chain and their one-step transformation into β-functionalized α-ketoamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Huck


    Full Text Available A sequential three-component process is described, starting from 3-arylmethylene-2,5-piperazinediones and involving a one-pot sequence of reactions achieving regioselective opening of the 2,5-diketopiperazine ring and diastereoselective generation of an aziridine ring. This method allows the preparation of N-unprotected, trisubstituted aziridines bearing a peptide side chain under mild conditions. Their transformation into β-trifluoroacetamido-α-ketoamide and α,β-diketoamide frameworks was also achieved in a single step.

  18. Synthesis of Carbasugars from Aldonolactones: Ritter-Type Epoxide Opening of Polyhydroxylated Aminocyclopentanes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundt, Inge; Johansen, Steen Karsk; Kornø, Hanne Tøfting


    Using the cis-fused cyclopentane-1,4-lactone, 1(R),5(S)-7(R),8(R)-dihydroxy-2-oxabicyclo[3.3.0]oct-3-one (1), as starting material, 5-deoxycarba-*-L-xylo-hexofuranose (6) together with ?- (12) and ?-1-amino-1,5-dideoxycarba-L-xylo-hexofuranose (16) have been prepared using a number...... of stereoselective transformations. The key step was the regioselective opening of the epoxide 1(R),5(S)-7(R),8(R)-epoxy-2-oxabicyclo[3.3.0]oct-3-one (4) with different nucleophiles....

  19. RS-predictor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaretzki, Jed; Bergeron, Charles; Rydberg, Patrik


    This article describes RegioSelectivity-Predictor (RS-Predictor), a new in silico method for generating predictive models of P450-mediated metabolism for drug-like compounds. Within this method, potential sites of metabolism (SOMs) are represented as "metabolophores": A concept that describes...... shown to reliably identify at least one observed site of metabolism in the top two rank-positions on 78% of the substrates. Comparisons between RS-Predictor and previously described regioselectivity prediction methods reveal new insights into how in silico metabolite prediction methods should...

  20. Enantiopure cyclopentane building blocks from iridoid glucosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Holbech

    achieved by chromatography. It was found that S. woronowic and S. subvelutina were the best sources of 348, while S. albida was a good source of 5. Catalpol (5) and scutellarioside I (348) were used as starting materials in the syntheses of cyclopentanoid building blocks. Through a short sequence...... tetrabutylammonium salts of 6-substituted purines were prepared and tested in a reaction with a primary carbohydrate triflate (332). 6-Iodopurine tetrabutylammonium salt (339) gave superior results both considering the N-9/N-7 regioselectivity and yield. The coupling reaction followed by a deprotection...