Sample records for regional raw water

  1. Preoperational test report, raw water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.


    This represents the preoperational test report for the Raw Water System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system supplies makeup water to the W-030 recirculation evaporative cooling towers for tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. The Raw Water pipe riser and associated strainer and valving is located in the W-030 diesel generator building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  2. Lactic acid microbiota identification in water, raw milk, endogenous starter culture, and fresh Minas artisanal cheese from the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil during the dry and rainy seasons. (United States)

    Castro, R D; Oliveira, L G; Sant'Anna, F M; Luiz, L M P; Sandes, S H C; Silva, C I F; Silva, A M; Nunes, A C; Penna, C F A M; Souza, M R


    Minas artisanal cheese, produced in the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil, is made from raw milk and endogenous starter cultures. Although this cheese is of great historical and socioeconomic importance, little information is available about its microbiological and physical-chemical qualities, or about its beneficial microbiota. This work was aimed at evaluating the qualities of the cheese and the components used for its production, comparing samples collected during the dry and rainy seasons. We also conducted molecular identification and isolated 50 samples of lactic acid bacteria from cheese (n=21), water (n=3), raw milk (n=9), and endogenous starter culture (n=17). The microbiological quality of the cheese, water, raw milk, and endogenous starter culture was lower during the rainy period, given the higher counts of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and total and thermotolerant coliforms. Enterococcus faecalis was the lactic acid bacteria isolated most frequently (42.86%) in cheese samples, followed by Lactococcus lactis (28.57%) and Lactobacillus plantarum (14.29%). Lactobacillus brevis (5.88%), Enterococcus pseudoavium (5.88%), Enterococcus durans (5.88%), and Aerococcus viridans (5.88%) were isolated from endogenous starter cultures and are described for the first time in the literature. The lactic acid bacteria identified in the analyzed cheeses may inhibit undesirable microbiota and contribute to the safety and flavor of the cheese, but this needs to be evaluated in future research. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mild desalination of various raw water streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, C.K.; Broek, W.B.P. van den; Loewenberg, J.; Koeman-Stein-N.E.; Heidekamp, M.; Schepper, W. de


    For chemical industries, fresh water availability is a pre-requisite for sustainable operation. However, in many delta areas around the world, fresh water is scarce. Therefore, the E4Water project ( comprises a case study at the Dow site in Terneuzen, The Netherlands, which is

  4. Determination of oestrogen hormones in raw and treated water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of oestrogen hormones in raw and treated water samples by reverse phase ultra-fast liquid chromatography mass spectrometry – a case study in Johannesburg South, South Africa. ... This is potentially due to the ability of a water treatment process to remove endocrine disruptors during water purification.

  5. Determination of oestrogen hormones in raw and treated water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and may elicit endocrine disruption to organisms. As a result of the ... in raw and treated potable water samples from the Vaal River catchment area in the south of Johannesburg, South Africa. Analytes were ..... polar pesticides in sewage treatment plant effluents, river water and drinking ...

  6. Direct contact membrane distillation: Capability to desalt raw water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Boubakri


    Full Text Available In this work, the potentialities of membrane distillation to desalt raw waters were investigated. The experiments were performed on a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD unit using a flat sheet polypropylene (PP membrane with a low pore size of 0.064 μm. The effect of relevant operating parameters such as transmembrane temperature difference, hydrodynamic conditions and ionic strength on permeate flux and conductivity was studied. The results indicated that a permeate flux increases with increasing transmembrane temperature difference and Reynolds number, and slightly decreases with increasing ionic strength. The permeate flux reached 4.24 L/m2 h at a temperature difference of 60 °C and Reynolds number of 3740 and ionic strength of 8.56 × 10−2 M. DCMD process using PP with low pore size membrane present a very low salt passage through the membrane which was not affected by feed concentration. DCMD process has been applied during a long period to desalt raw water without any pretreatment. For brackish water, the variation of permeate flux and conductivity were slightly changed as function of operating time. For seawater, the permeate flux decreased slightly and the permeate conductivity increased sharply in which a simple pretreatment step is recommended to ameliorate the performance of DCMD process.

  7. Raw water quality weight factors: Vaal basin, South Africa. (United States)

    Dzwairo, B; Otieno, F A O; Ochieng, G M; Bezuidenhout, J J


    Weight factors (WFs) were developed for surface raw water pollution indicator variables in Vaal River's Upper and Middle Vaal sub-basins, in South Africa. The overall objective was to formulate a quantifiable ranking system to indicate importance of pollutant variables given their established effects on human and environmental health. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) was applied to qualitative data that were obtained from South Africa's target water quality ranges as well as from literature which represented expert opinion. The human and environmental health effect choice sets were ranked from 1 to 5 on nine pollutant variable criteria: NH3/NH4+, Cl-, conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, F-, NO3-/NO2-, PO4(3-) and SO4(2-). The weighted-sum method (WSM) then assigned highest and lowest normalised weights (NWs) to F- and Cl-, respectively, for human health effects (ɛhh) alternative. Highest and lowest NWs were assigned to NH3/NH4+ and EC, respectively, for environmental health effects (ɛeh) alternative. After aggregating the ɛhh and ɛeh WFs, resultant values ranked the variables from highest to lowest as follows: F->NO3-/NO2->/NH3/NH4+>DO>pH>SO4(2-)>PO4(3-)>EC>Cl-. The results represented the importance of variables given their established effects on human and environmental health. It was concluded that WFs provided a quantifiable barometer which could signal harmful exposure to elucidate negative effects of using polluted surface raw water in the study area. The values could be incorporated into water quality models like water quality indices. The approach could be used to develop WFs for other sites, taking into account issues like the site's pollution variables of concern as well as using a ranking key constructed from established literature.

  8. THM and HAA formation from NOM in raw and treated surface waters. (United States)

    Golea, D M; Upton, A; Jarvis, P; Moore, G; Sutherland, S; Parsons, S A; Judd, S J


    The disinfection by-product (DBP) formation potential (FP) of natural organic matter (NOM) in surface water sources has been studied with reference to the key water quality determinants (WQDs) of UV absorption (UV 254 ), colour, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. The data set used encompassed raw and treated water sampled over a 30-month period from 30 water treatment works (WTWs) across Scotland, all employing conventional clarification. Both trihalomethane (THM) and haloacetic acid (HAA) FPs were considered. In addition to the standard bulk WQDs, the DOC content was fractionated and analysed for the hydrophobic (HPO) and hydrophilic (HPI) fractions. Results were quantified in terms of the yield (dDBPFP/dWQD) and the linear regression coefficient R 2 of the yield trend. The NOM in the raw waters was found to comprise 30-84% (average 66%) of the more reactive HPO material, with this proportion falling to 18-63% (average 50%) in the treated water. Results suggested UV 254 to be as good an indicator of DBPFP as DOC or HPO for the raw waters, with R 2 values ranging from 0.79 to 0.82 for THMs and from 0.71 to 0.73 for HAAs for these three determinants. For treated waters the corresponding values were significantly lower at 0.52-0.67 and 0.46-0.47 respectively, reflecting the lower HPO concentration and thus UV 254 absorption and commensurately reduced precision due to the limit of detection of the analytical instrument. It is concluded that fractionation offers little benefit in attempting to discern or predict chlorinated carbonaceous DBP yield for the waters across the geographical region studied. UV 254 offered an adequate estimate of DBPFP based on a mean yield of ∼2600 and ∼2800 μg per cm -1 absorbance for THMFP for the raw and treated waters respectively and ∼3800 and2900 μg cm -1 for HAAFP, albeit with reduced precision for the treated waters. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.



    S. Gallina; A Barbaro; M Sommariva; L. Chiavacci; N Vitale; D Adriano


    Raw milk at vending machine is surging in popularity amongst consumers of Northern Italy; indeed in Piedmont Region there are more than 100 vending machines. In June 2008 Piedmont Region set out a specific monitoring plan to check the milk quality. From June to December 2008, 113 raw milk samples were collected at vending machines. Samples were analysed for Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., coagulase positive staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus and Campylobacter. Moreover, 100 samples...

  10. Effect of coagulant treatment on the metal composition of raw water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports the results of an investigation on the use of two coagulants, namely Al2 (SO4)3 and Fe2 (SO4)3 which were investigated for their capabilities to reduce the metal levels of raw river water samples when treated. Generally, the percentage removal of the metals from raw water samples increased with mg/l ...

  11. Modelling raw water quality: development of a drinking water management tool. (United States)

    Kübeck, Ch; van Berk, W; Bergmann, A


    Ensuring future drinking water supply requires a tough management of groundwater resources. However, recent practices of economic resource control often does not involve aspects of the hydrogeochemical and geohydraulical groundwater system. In respect of analysing the available quantity and quality of future raw water, an effective resource management requires a full understanding of the hydrogeochemical and geohydraulical processes within the aquifer. For example, the knowledge of raw water quality development within the time helps to work out strategies of water treatment as well as planning finance resources. On the other hand, the effectiveness of planed measurements reducing the infiltration of harmful substances such as nitrate can be checked and optimized by using hydrogeochemical modelling. Thus, within the framework of the InnoNet program funded by Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, a network of research institutes and water suppliers work in close cooperation developing a planning and management tool particularly oriented on water management problems. The tool involves an innovative material flux model that calculates the hydrogeochemical processes under consideration of the dynamics in agricultural land use. The program integrated graphical data evaluation is aligned on the needs of water suppliers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gallina


    Full Text Available Raw milk at vending machine is surging in popularity amongst consumers of Northern Italy; indeed in Piedmont Region there are more than 100 vending machines. In June 2008 Piedmont Region set out a specific monitoring plan to check the milk quality. From June to December 2008, 113 raw milk samples were collected at vending machines. Samples were analysed for Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., coagulase positive staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus and Campylobacter. Moreover, 100 samples were analysed for the quantification of aflatoxin M1. 26 samples have been resulted Not Conform for the hygienic criteria and 1 exceeded the aflatoxin M1 limit.

  13. EU Raw Materials Information System and Raw Materials Scoreboard: addressing the data needs in support of the EU policies – an example for water use in mining




    In order to count on a sound and continuously updated knowledge base for the support of the EU raw materials policy, the European Commission is developing the Raw Materials Information System and the Raw Materials Scoreboard. Sustainability aspects such as the social and environmental performance of production are also core elements. Among the latter, water is a resource and an environmental compartment of paramount importance in the operation and sustainability of mining activities in multip...

  14. The quality of raw water for drinking water unit in Jakarta-Indonesia (United States)

    Sidabutar, Noni Valeria; Hartono, Djoko M.; Soesilo, Tri Edhi Budhi; Hutapea, Reynold C.


    Water problems, i.e quality, quantity, continuity of clean water faced by the mostly urban area. Jakarta also faces similar issues, because the needs of society higher than the number of water fulfilled by the government. Moreover, Jakarta's water quality does not meet the standard set by the Government and heavily polluted by anthropogenic activities along its rivers. This research employs a quantitative research approach with the mix-method. It examines the raw water quality status for drinking water in West Tarum Canalin 2011-2015. The research results show water quality with this research, using water quality of with the water categorized as heavily-polluted category based on the Ministry of Environment's Decree No 115/2003 regarding the Guidelines for Determination of Water Quality Status. This present research also shown the water quality (parameters pH, temperature, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)) from Jatiluhur Dam to the intake drinking water unit. In thirteen points of sampling also, the results obtained the parameters DO, COD, and BOD are fluctuating and exceed the standard.

  15. National Enforcement Initiative: Keeping Raw Sewage and Contaminated Stormwater Out of Our Nation's Waters (United States)

    This page describes EPA's enforcement activities on water pollution from raw sewage and contaminated stormwater. This is one of EPA's National Enforcement Initiatives. Both enforcement cases, and a map of enforcement actions are provided.

  16. Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization phase I, raw and potable water, subproject W-504

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, G.


    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for extension of existing Raw and Potable systems from 200-East Area systems to two new private contractor facilities for immobilization and disposal of low-activity waste (LAW). The work will include design and installation of almost 3400 m (11,200 ft) of raw water pipe and 2200 in (7,300 ft) of potable water pipe.

  17. Study on the TOC concentration in raw water and HAAs in Tehran's water treatment plant outlet. (United States)

    Ghoochani, Mahboobeh; Rastkari, Noushin; Nabizadeh Nodehi, Ramin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nasseri, Simin; Nazmara, Shahrokh


    A sampling has been undertaken to investigate the variation of haloacetic acids formation and nature organic matter through 81 samples were collected from three water treatment plant and three major rivers of Tehran Iran. Changes in the total organic matter (TOC), ultraviolet absorbance (UV254), specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) were measured in raw water samples. Haloacetic acids concentrations were monitored using a new static headspace GC-ECD method without a manual pre-concentration in three water treatment plants. The average concentration of TOC and HAAs in three rivers and three water treatment plants in spring, summer and fall, were 4, 2.41 and 4.03 mg/L and 48.75, 43.79 and 51.07 μg/L respectively. Seasonal variation indicated that HAAs levels were much higher in spring and fall.

  18. Apparatus comprising trace element dosage and method for treating raw water in biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    elements such as certain metals (Cu, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, W, Zn or a mixture thereof). The apparatus comprising - a volume provided with an inlet (2) for raw water and an outlet (3) for water having been subjected to microbial activity, a filter and a trace element dosage device (13) are placed in this volume...... the inlet (2) to the outlet (3) or in the reverse direction, - the trace element dosage device (13) is positioned upstream of the porous filter material and microbial biomass and is configured to dose trace element(s) to the water flowing through the filter. A method for treating raw water by microbial...

  19. Characterization of traditional raw materials used in housing construction in Huambo region - Angola (United States)

    Pedro, Elsa; Duarte, Isabel; Varum, Humberto; Pinho, António; Norman, Antónia


    The sustainability of buildings associated to the use of raw earth has motivated the studies and the development of techniques and methods in the context of this type of construction. In the region of Huambo, Angola, these construction techniques are widely used, especially for low-income families who represent the majority of the population. Much of the buildings in Huambo province are built with adobe. Due to the climate in this region, subtropical, hot and humid, with altitudes above 1000 meters and extensive river system, these buildings are particularly vulnerable to the action of water and develop, in many situations, early degradation. The Huambo Province is located in central Angola, has 36 km2 area and approximately 2 million inhabitants. This work aims to evaluate, by conducting in-situ tests, physical and mechanical properties of adobe blocks typically used in the construction of those buildings. The methodology is based on field campaigns where in-situ expeditious tests were performed in soils (smell test, color, touch, brightness, sedimentation, ball, hardness, etc.) and tests on adobes blocks made with traditional procedures, particularly in terms of durability and erodibility (erosion test at Geelong method; evaluation test of wet / dry cycle, applying the New Zealand standards 4297: 1998; 4297: 1998 and 4297: 1999). The results will contribute to the characterization of the geomaterials and methods used in construction with earth in Huambo Province, contributing to the improvement of these sustainable solutions, with a strong presence in this region. The results of this study will also contribute to the proposal of constructive solutions with improved performance characteristics, comfort, safety and durability.

  20. [Effectiveness and characteristics of treating algae-laden raw water by stocking silver carp]. (United States)

    Fan, Zhen-Qiang; Cui, Fu-Yi; Ma, Hua; He, Wen-Jie; Yin, Pei-Jun


    To reduce the negative effect of algae on conventional water treatment, a full-scale research of removing algae from algae-laden raw water by stocking filter-feeding silver carp was processed. After the pretreatment in a presedimentation tank with silver carp, the concentration of phytoplankton, the biomass of cyanobacteria and Microsystis flos-aquae in algae-laden raw water with Microsystis flos-aquae its dominant species decreased 61.8%, 76.1% and 78.2% respectively. This effective decrease of algae load on conventional process created favorable conditions for water treatment. Analysis indicates that food habit of silver carp and algae size are two causes of different removal efficiency between cyanobacteria and green algae. The results show that biomanipulation of silver carp is applicable for treating algae-laden raw water in which colonial cyanobacteria is dominant.

  1. Social-economic processes of fuel and raw materials region: diversification, mathematical modeling and regularities (United States)

    Novichikhin, A. V.; Fryanov, V. N.; Petrova, T. V.; Pavlova, L. D.; Temlyantsev, M. V.


    The paper proposes the structure of production diversification in the fuel and raw material region. A distinctive feature of diversification is the provision of regional reproduction of natural resources - reserves of mineral deposits, as well as fuel and energy deposits - traditionally consumed energy products. The algorithm for determining the regularities of socio-economic processes in the region is developed and the results of its concretization are presented. The difference of the proposed algorithm is the joint accounting of quantitative and qualitative information, the emergence properties of social and economic systems under favorable and the following problem situations: crisis, resource scarcity, uncertainty of the prediction of changes in external conditions, changes in legislative bases. It is suggested to implement identification of possible negative processes at the initial stage and when eliminating them step by step: the formation of a hypothesis about the existence of regularity, cognitive modeling, formulation of statements. Based on the results of cognitive modeling of development scenarios for fuel and raw material regions, a set of statements that form the methodological basis for correcting hypotheses about regularities is justified. Four regularities of social and economic processes of the fuel and raw materials region are revealed.

  2. Use of Water Extract of Moringa Oleifera Seeds (WEMOS) in Raw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Availability of clean water is a serious problem, especially in developing countries like Nigeria, where conventional treatment methods are inappropriate due to high cost and low availability of chemical coagulants like alum. The paper presents the use of moringa seeds extract as alternative to alum in raw water treatment.

  3. Microelements and heavy metals in raw cow milk from various regions in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živkov-Baloš Milica


    Full Text Available In this study, the investigation results of raw milk and animal feed samples from farms located around industrial areas and from rural areas in Serbia are presented. Various microelements and heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb and Cd were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. Mean concentration of Zn, Cu, Fe and Cd in raw milk were 5.94, 0.239, 2.034 and below 0.005 mg/kg, respectively. The mean lead concentration found in milk from a farm located near industrial area was 0.242±0.166 mg/kg (mean Pb concentrations for other four investigated farms were below 0.05 mg/kg. The obtained results indicate that particular attention should be paid to control of Pb residues in food, water and environment. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31084

  4. Pentachlorophenol reduction in raw Cauca river water through activated carbon adsorption in water purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Hernán Cruz Vélez


    Full Text Available Reducing chemical risk in raw water from the River Cauca (caused by the presence of pentachlorophenol and organic matter (real color, UV254 absorbance was evaluated at bench scale by using three treatment sequences: adsorption with powdered ac-tivated coal (PAC; adsorption – coagulation; and, adsorption – disinfection – coagulation. The results showed that although PAC is appropriate for pentachlorophenol removal, and its use together with the coagulant (aluminium sulphate significantly impro-ved phenolic compound and organic matter removal (promoting enhanced coagulation, the most efficient treatment sequence was adsorption – disinfection - coagulation, achieving minor pentachlorophenol levels than detection (1.56 μg/l and WHO li-mits (9μg/l due to the effect of chloride on PAC.

  5. Suitability of artificial sweeteners as indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater. (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Hu, Jiangyong; Li, Jinhua; Ong, Say Leong


    There is no quantitative data on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in the aquatic environment in Southeast Asian countries, particularly no information on their suitability as indicators of raw wastewater contamination on surface water and groundwater. This study provided the first quantitative information on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in raw wastewater, surface water and groundwater in the urban catchment area in Singapore. Acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin, and sucralose were ubiquitous in raw wastewater samples at concentrations in the range of ng/L-μg/L, while other sweeteners were not found or found only in a few of the raw wastewater samples. Residential and commercial effluents were demonstrated to be the two main sources of artificial sweeteners entering the municipal sewer systems. Relatively higher concentrations of the detected sweeteners were frequently found in surface waters at the sampling sites located in the residential/commercial areas. No significant difference in the concentrations of the detected sweeteners in surface water or groundwater was noted between wet and dry weather conditions (unpaired T-test, p> 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations and detection frequencies of acesulfame, cyclamate and saccharin in surface water samples were observed at the potentially impacted sampling sites, while these sweeteners were absent in most of the background surface water samples. Similarly, acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin were found in most groundwater samples at the monitoring well (GW6), which is located close to known leaking sewer segment; whereas these were absent in the background monitoring well, which is located in the catchment with no known wastewater sources. Taken together, the results suggest that acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin can be used as potential indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Removal of DON in micro-polluted raw water by coagulation and adsorption using activated carbon]. (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Yu, Guo-Zhong; Gu, Li; Zhao, Cheng-Mei; Li, Qing-Fei; Zhai, Hui-Min


    Dissolved organic nitrogen as a precursor of new type nitrogenous disinfection by-products in drinking water attracted gradually the attention of scholars all over the world. In order to explore the mechanism of DON removal in micro-polluted raw water by coagulation and adsorption, water quality parameters, such as DON, DOC, NH4(+) -N, UV254, pH and dissolved oxygen, were determined in raw water and the molecular weight distribution of the DON and DOC was investigated. The variations in DON, DOC and UV254 in the coagulation and adsorption tests were investigated, and the changes of DON in raw water were characterized using three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy. The results showed that DON, DOC and UV254 were 1.28 mg x L(-1), 8.56 mg x L(-1), 0.16 cm(-1), and DOC/DON and SUVA were 6.69 mg x mg(-1), 1.87 m(-1) x (mg x L(-1))(-1) in raw water, respectively. The molecular weight distribution of the DON in raw water showed a bimodal distribution. The small molecular weight ( 20 000) fractions accounted for about 22%. The removal of DON, DOC and UV254 was about 20%, 26% and 70%, respectively, in the coagulation test and the dosage of coagulant was 10 mg x L(-1). The removal of DON, DOC and UV254 was about 60%, 35% and 100%, respectively, in the adsorption test and the dosage of activated carbon was 1.0 g. In the combination of coagulation and adsorption, the removal of DON and DOC reached approximately 82% and 64%, respectively. 3DEEM revealed that the variation of DON in the coagulation and adsorption tests depended intimately on tryptophan protein-like substances, aromatic protein-like substances and fulvic acid-like substances.

  7. Microbial water quality of treated water and raw water sources in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial water quality is an essential aspect in the provision of potable water for domestic use. The provision of adequate amounts of safe water for domestic purposes has become difficult for most municipalities mandated to do so in Zimbabwe. Morton-Jaffray Treatment Plant supplies potable water to Harare City and ...

  8. Prevalence of arcobacter species in drinking water, spring water, and raw milk as determined by multiplex PCR. (United States)

    Ertas, Nurhan; Dogruer, Yusuf; Gonulalan, Zafer; Guner, Ahmet; Ulger, Ismail


    The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of Arcobacter species in water sources and raw milk from healthy animals in Kayseri, Turkey. A total of 175 samples of drinking water (n = 100), spring water (n = 25), and raw milk (n = 50) were examined. Arcobacter species were isolated using the membrane filtration technique. Overall, 7 (4%) of the 175 samples yielded Arcobacter spp.: 3 (3%) drinking water samples, 1 (4%) spring water sample, and 3 (6%) raw milk samples. Two species of Arcobacter were recovered from the seven positive samples: Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter skirrowii, and A. butzleri plus A. skirrowii found in 3 (1.7%), 2 (1.1%), and 2 (1.1%) samples, respectively. Our study is the first to report the isolation of both A. butzleri and A. skirrowii together from drinking water and is the first report of Arcobacter in milk from healthy cows in Turkey. Based on these findings, the presence of Arcobacter species in environmental waters and raw milk may pose a potential hazard for human health.

  9. Microbial quality and associated health risks of raw milk marketed in the Tanga region of Tanzania. (United States)

    Swai, E S; Schoonman, L


    To evaluate microbial quality and associated health risks of raw milk marketed in the Tanga region of Tanzania. A microbial quality assessment of marketed raw milk was undertaken by evaluating 59 samples of milk from selling points (collecting centres =15), bicycle boys (12) and kiosks/restaurants (32) in Tanga city during April-May 2005. Quality and milk-borne hazards were assessed using a combination of tests in order to quantify the occurrence of Brucellosis (milk ring test), Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 (culture), the coliform bacteria as well as standard plate count (SPC). Specific gravity (SG) determination was used as an indicator of adulteration. The mean coliform plate count (c.f.u/mL) of milk handled by bicycle boys (4.2×10(6)) was significantly higher than that handled by collecting centres (3.0×10(6)) and kiosk/ restaurants (1.4×10(6)), respectively (P milk samples collected, 33 (56%) were Brucella milk ring test (MRT)-positive and 78% and 17% of the samples graded satisfactorily based on SG and coliform plate counts as prescribed by East African Community standards for raw milk. There was no verocytotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) O157: H7 in any of the milk samples collected and analysed during the present study. It can be concluded that raw market milk in the study area is of poor bacteriological quality and hazardous for human consumption. This highlights the need to implement good hygiene practices and effective monitoring from production through the delivery chain to the consumer. Further studies are needed for detection of toxins that are produced by E. coli, other pathogenic spore forming bacteria (Bacillus spp. and Clostridium spp.) and other harmful microorganisms.

  10. [Algae-removal effect of AS/PDM composite coagulants to winter Taihu Lake raw water]. (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Lei; Zhang, Yue-Jun; Li, Xiao-Xiao; Liu, Cheng; Zhu, Ling-Ling


    The series of stable AS/PDM composite coagulants prepared by polydimethyldiallylammonium chloride (PDM) and aluminium sulphate (AS) were used to research the algae-removal effect to winter Taihu Lake raw water. The effects of dosage of composite coagulants, composite mass ratios (20:1-5:1) of AS and PDM, intrinsic viscosity values (0.55-3.99 dL/g) of PDM on algae-removal rates were studied through coagulation and algae-removal experiments. The feasibility of using composite coagulants to substitute prechlorination process was analysed. The results show that when residual turbidity of 2 NTU to water after coagulation and sediment is required by water plant, the dosage (based on Al2O3) of AS, AS/PDM (0.55/20:1-3.99/5:1) composite coagulants are 4.24 mg/L, 3.96-1.87 mg/L, and the algae-removal rates are 83.00%, 87.52%-90.93% respectively. When dosage to raw water are 4.24 mg/L, the algae-removal rates of AS, AS/PDM (0.55/20:1-3.99/5:1) composite coagulants are 83.00%, 88.29%-97.66%, and the residual turbidities are 2.00 NTU, 1.76-0.43 NTU respectively. When dosage to chlorine-added water are 4.50 mg/L, the treatment effect of AS/PDM (1.53/10:1) composite coagulant to raw water is better than that of AS to chlorine-added water, and the treatment effect of AS/PDM (3.99/5:1) composite coagulant to raw water is better than that of AS, AS/PDM (0.55/20:1) and AS/PDM (1.53/10:1) composite coagulants to chlorine-added water. So using AS/PDM composite coagulants can enhance evidently the treatment effect of AS to winter Taihu Lake raw water. Compared with using AS solely, the dosage of AS in composite coagulants are saved when the residual turbidities are required in same level, and the treatment effect of AS is enhanced when the dosage of AS in composite coagulants are same as that of using AS solely. Moreover, using composite coagulants can replace the part chlorine-added function on increasing coagulation and algae-removal in prechlorination process and profitably increases

  11. Proteolytic and lipolytic microbiota of refrigerated raw milk from northeast and southern regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Ribeiro Junior


    Full Text Available The shelf life of milk and milk derivatives is directly related to the microbiological quality of refrigerated raw milk. Spoilage microorganisms with proteolytic and/or lipolytic properties are primarily responsible for the decrease in the quality of milk, which is reflected in the shelf life of pasteurized milk and all derivatives. The aim of this study was to determine the spoilage microbial load of refrigerated raw milk from the northeast and southern regions of Brazil, which have different climatic and technological conditions of production. We evaluated 46 samples of milk from the state of Paraná in the southern region, and 10 samples of milk from the state of Maranhão in the northeast region, totaling 56 samples collected from November 2013 to November 2014. The producers of Paraná were divided into large (20 or small (26 according to the average daily production. All producers of Maranhão were considered small (<500L/day. The proteolytic and lipolytic microorganism counts were conducted in milk agar and tributyrin agar, respectively. Milk from the large producers of Paraná had average counts of 1.4 × 104 CFU/mL for proteolytic microorganisms and 1.2 × 103 CFU/mL for lipolytics microorganisms, significantly (p <0.05 lower than the small producers in the same state, and the producers of Maranhão. Producers of Maranhao had counts of 1.1 × 105 CFU/mL for proteolytic microorganisms and 2 × 105 CFU/mL for lipolytic microorganisms, with the proteolytic count significantly lower than that of small Paraná producers. The amount of proteolytic and lipolytic spoilage microorganisms in milk is influenced by the adaptation of the microorganisms to cold, promoted by the cooling of milk, which is practiced less frequently in the country’s northeastern region. The amount of spoilage microorganisms is also affected by the implementation of milking hygiene practices, which reduce contamination. Such practices are more frequently and efficiently

  12. Microbial water quality of treated water and raw water sources in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Oct 5, 2015 ... tions, due to a lack of financial resources (Maponga et al., 2013). The city of Harare is the capital of ..... bubbles. 40% yes: brown suspension. Reports of pipe bursts recently in the area? Were they repaired since then? Yes :70% reported. 30% did not report. Outbreaks due to water-borne diseases in the ...

  13. The role of transport corridors in Timan-North Ural Region mineral-raw-material base development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Grigor'evna Burtseva


    Full Text Available The development of mineral-raw-material base on underdeveloped territories of the Urals North and Timan is determined by the capabilities of inter-regionalcooperation on the basis of the new transportcorridorscreation. Thefailure of the «Industrial Ural — Polar Ural» project substantially defined the attitudeto the mineral-raw material base of the Ural North; but the actual analysis of the project failure causes does not allow to blame the mineral-raw-material base in that fact. This paper considers the prospects of Timan — North Ural region mineral-raw-material base development and the existing problems of nowadays, The question of revaluation necessity as of the regions existing mineral resource base, as well as the possible variants of its transport development is raised.

  14. Evolution of Pretreatment Methods for Nanofiltration Membrane Used for Dissolved Organic Matter Removal in Raw Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirikul Siriraksophon


    Full Text Available Coagulation and microfiltration using polyaluminium chloride (PACl were investigated as a pretreatment process by nanofiltration to reduce dissolved organic matter in both raw water and treated water at water treatment plants. The dissolved organic matter in the raw water supply may be a precursor of carcinogens produced during the disinfection process. Raw water from pumping stations and treated water from Hat Yai Provincial Waterworks Authority, Songkhla Province, Thailand were used as samples for this study. Fractionation of raw water samples by DAX-8 and XAD-4 resin revealed that they contained hydrophilic, transphilic and hydrophobic groups with hydrophilic the major organic component. PACl coagulation resulted in a higher dissolved organic matter removal than microfiltration techniques. A hybrid coagulation-nanofiltration process was studied. This effectively reduced dissolved organic matter as dissolved organic carbon and UV-254 by 86% and 94% respectively. The hybrid coagulation-nanofiltration process reduced dissolved organic carbons of the hydrophobic group more effectively than the hydrophilic group. Chloroform and bromodichloroform were the two major species of the trihalomethane group produced when raw water reacted with chlorine. The hybrid coagulation-nanofiltration process reduced the trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP in raw water samples by up to 90%

  15. Evaluation of Universitas Indonesia’s Recharge Pond Performance and Potential Utilization for Raw Water Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Suwartha


    Full Text Available The UI recharge pond has been constructed 5 years ago. However, monitoring and evaluation activities on its performances are very lack. Aims of this study are to understand the recharge rate, and to evaluate existing quantity and water quality of the pond during dry and rainy season. Measurement of water depth, rainfall intensity, and evaporation is conducted to determine water availability, recharge rate, and water balance of the recharge pond. Amount of surface water is collected from recharge pond and river at three sampling point to determine existing water quality of the pond. The results showed that recharge rate of the pond between dry season (3.2 mm/day and wet season (6.1 mm/day are considered as insignificant different. The water balance of the recharge pond shows an excessive rate. Various physics and chemical parameters (turbidity, color, TDS, pH, and  Cl are found to have concentration lower than the water quality standard. The results suggest that the pond surface water is remain suitable to be recharged into aquifer zone so that sustaining ground water conservation campaign, and it is potential to be utilized as an additional  raw water source for domestic water demand of UI Campus Depok.

  16. Assessment of Trihalomethane Formation in Chlorinated Raw Waters with Differential UV Spectroscopy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Özdemir


    Full Text Available In this study, the changes in UV absorbance of water samples were characterized using defined differential UV spectroscopy (DUV, a novel spectroscopic technique. Chlorination experiments were conducted with water samples from Terkos Lake (TL and Büyükçekmece Lake (BL (Istanbul, Turkey. The maximum loss of UV absorbance for chlorinated TL and BL raw water samples was observed at a wavelength of 272 nm. Interestingly, differential absorbance at 272 nm (ΔUV272 was shown to be a good indicator of UV absorbing chromophores and the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs resulting from chlorination. Furthermore, differential spectra of chlorinated TL waters were similar for given chlorination conditions, peaking at 272 nm. The correlations between THMs and ΔUV272 were quantified by linear equations with R2 values >0.96. The concentration of THMs formed when natural organic matter is chlorinated increases with increasing time and pH levels. Among all THMs, CHCl3 was the dominant species forming as a result of the chlorination of TL and BL raw water samples. The highest chloroform (CHCl3, dichlorobromomethane (CHCl2Br, and dibromochloromethane (CHBr2Cl concentration were released per unit loss of absorbance at 272 nm at pH 9 with a maximum reaction time of 168 hours and Cl2/dissolved organic carbon ratio of 3.2.

  17. Assessment of Trihalomethane Formation in Chlorinated Raw Waters with Differential UV Spectroscopy Approach (United States)

    Özdemir, Kadir; Toröz, İsmail; Uyak, Vedat


    In this study, the changes in UV absorbance of water samples were characterized using defined differential UV spectroscopy (DUV), a novel spectroscopic technique. Chlorination experiments were conducted with water samples from Terkos Lake (TL) and Büyükçekmece Lake (BL) (Istanbul, Turkey). The maximum loss of UV absorbance for chlorinated TL and BL raw water samples was observed at a wavelength of 272 nm. Interestingly, differential absorbance at 272 nm (ΔUV272) was shown to be a good indicator of UV absorbing chromophores and the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) resulting from chlorination. Furthermore, differential spectra of chlorinated TL waters were similar for given chlorination conditions, peaking at 272 nm. The correlations between THMs and ΔUV272 were quantified by linear equations with R 2 values >0.96. The concentration of THMs formed when natural organic matter is chlorinated increases with increasing time and pH levels. Among all THMs, CHCl3 was the dominant species forming as a result of the chlorination of TL and BL raw water samples. The highest chloroform (CHCl3), dichlorobromomethane (CHCl2Br), and dibromochloromethane (CHBr2Cl) concentration were released per unit loss of absorbance at 272 nm at pH 9 with a maximum reaction time of 168 hours and Cl2/dissolved organic carbon ratio of 3.2. PMID:24363624

  18. [Migration of main odorous compounds in a water supply system with Huangpu River as raw water in Shanghai]. (United States)

    Bai, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Ming-De; Jia, Cheng-Shen


    Migration and variation of odorous compounds as geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and residual chlorine in drinking water taken from Huangpu River were studied by using headspace solid phase microextraction procedure (HSPME) and gas chromatograph with mass spectrometry. The results showed that, raw water, processed water, pipe water (taken from pump station) and secondary-supply water all contained MIB and geosmin ranging from 2 ng/L to 18 ng/L and 2.68 ng/L to 5.06 ng/L respectively and decreased dramatically during the water processing and distribution system. MIB is proved to be a kind of the odorous compounds in drinking water of Shanghai by comparing the concentrations of MIB and GSM with their odor threshold. The concentration of residual chlorine declined greatly in the distribution system, but because of the high value at the outlet of waterworks, it still may exceeded the influence of MIB and cause the odour problems.

  19. Lithic raw material procurement in the Moravian Neolithic: the search for extra-regional networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kuča


    Full Text Available The study of lithic raw material procurement can contribute to the study of ancient networks. Petrographic analysis combined with systematic mapping of raw material outcrops has been conducted in Moravia and adjacent territories by A. Přichystal over a period of more than three decades. Combined with well excavated (including wet-screening and 14C (radiometric dated sites,allows us to study changes in the distribution networks of raw materials during the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods.


    CERN Multimedia


    The CERN Raw Materials Stores has recently acquired a new water-jet cutting machine. The machine is capable of cutting all types and shapes of materials up to 70 mm in thickness, with an accuracy of +/- 0.1mm/m. For the time being, users requiring materials to be cut should supply drawings in DXF, DWG or IGES (AutoCad) file format. The machine will be operational as of 1st October 2007. The Stores Team Paulo Dos Santos FI-LS-MM 72308

  1. Developing a program to identify and track corrosion in nuclear plant raw water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spires PE, G.V. [KTA - Tator Inc., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Pickles PE, S.B. [Senior Engineer, Ontario Power Generation, Ontario (Canada)


    Findings derived from a comprehensive plant performance survey at Ontario Power Generation's (OPG) nuclear units convinced management that it would be prudent to expand the ongoing power piping Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) induced wall thinning base-lining and tracking program to encompass the raw cooling water systems as well. Such systems are subject to a distinctly different class of pipe wall thinning (PWT) mechanisms than the FAC that degrades high-energy power piping. This paper describes the PWT corrosion assessment and tracking program that has been developed and is currently being implemented by OPG for the raw cooling water (i.e., Service Water) systems within it's nuclear generating stations. Interim databases are used prior to initial inspection rounds to catalogue the prospective locations. For each piping system being surveyed, these interim databases include physical coordinates for the candidate locations, the type and wall thickness of the components comprising each location, ranking indications and recommended NDE methodologies as a function of the anticipated corrosion mechanisms. Rationales for assessing corrosion susceptibility and ranking prospective inspection sites are expounded by way of notations built into the database. (authors)

  2. Optimisation of the coagulation-flocculation process of raw water by optimal design method. (United States)

    Franceschi, M; Girou, A; Carro-Diaz, A M; Maurette, M T; Puech-Costes, E


    In the present paper, a systematic study of the influence of raw water quality and operating conditions on the effectiveness of the coagulation-flocculation process using aluminium sulphate (AS) is presented. The influence of raw water composition is studied at two levels, fractional factorial designs and a Doehlert uniform shell design to determine the influence of the operating conditions. The analysis of the experimental responses (residual turbidity and minimally AS dose are denoted as (Tu(m)) and (AS(m)), respectively) shows that the parameters which have the greatest influence change depending on the response. It is not always possible, for a given water composition, to obtain simultaneously low residual turbidity and minimally AS dose. However, under the conditions of this study, the search for a criterion of optimisation must bear the minimisation of residual turbidity, because it remains the principal criterion of effectiveness of the process, even, if in a few cases, it results in an increase in the cost of treatment.

  3. Study on the TOC concentration in raw water and HAAs in Tehran’s water treatment plant outlet (United States)


    A sampling has been undertaken to investigate the variation of haloacetic acids formation and nature organic matter through 81 samples were collected from three water treatment plant and three major rivers of Tehran Iran. Changes in the total organic matter (TOC), ultraviolet absorbance (UV254), specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) were measured in raw water samples. Haloacetic acids concentrations were monitored using a new static headspace GC-ECD method without a manual pre-concentration in three water treatment plants. The average concentration of TOC and HAAs in three rivers and three water treatment plants in spring, summer and fall, were 4, 2.41 and 4.03 mg/L and 48.75, 43.79 and 51.07 μg/L respectively. Seasonal variation indicated that HAAs levels were much higher in spring and fall. PMID:24283403

  4. Solubility of fragrance raw materials in water: Experimental study, correlations, and Mod. UNIFAC (Do) predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanska, Urszula, E-mail: [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Paduszynski, Kamil; Niszczota, Zaneta K. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)


    The (liquid + liquid) and (solid + liquid) phase equilibria of nine binary mixtures containing fragrance raw materials (FRM) such as aliphatic ketones and compounds based on cyclohexane with water were investigated. The systems {l_brace}2-heptanone, or 2-nonanone, or 2-undecanone, or 2-tridecanone, or cyclohexyl carboxylic acid (CCA), or cyclohexyl acetic acid (CAA), or 2-cyclohexyl ethanol (2CE) or cyclohexyl acetate (CA), or 2-cyclohexyl ethyl acetate (2CEA) + water (2){r_brace} have been measured by a dynamic method in wide range of temperatures from (290 to 360) K and ambient pressure. For all systems immiscibility in the liquid phase was detected. The experimental data was correlated by means of the NRTL equation, utilizing parameters derived from the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium. Additionally, the binary mixtures were predicted with the Mod. UNIFAC (Do) model, with known from literature parameters, with very good results.

  5. Detection of antibiotics residues in cow raw milk in Bostanabad Region, Iran


    Mohammad Hosein Movassagh


    This study was carried out to screen of antibiotic residues in cows' raw milk in Bostanabad milk collection center. 50 samples of cows' raw milk were collected from April to September 2010 by systematic random sampling method. All samples were examined by Copan milk test (CHR. Hansen, Denmark) for the presence of antibiotics reidues. Twelve samples (24%) were positive for antibiotic residues. The study revealed that antibiotic residues in milk were high in Bo...

  6. Measurement of water-holding capacity in raw and freeze-dried broiler breast meat with visible and near-infrared spectroscopy. (United States)

    Bowker, B; Hawkins, S; Zhuang, H


    The feasibility of using visible/near-infrared spectroscopy (vis/NIR) to segregate broiler breast fillets by water-holding capacity (WHC) was determined. Broiler breast fillets (n = 72) were selected from a commercial deboning line based on visual color assessment. Meat color (L*a*b*), pH (2 and 24 h), drip loss, and salt-induced water uptake were measured. Reflectance measurements were recorded from 400 to 2,500 nm in both raw and freeze-dried breast meat samples. Raw and freeze-dried samples had similar spectra in the visible region (400-750 nm), but the freeze-dried samples exhibited numerous bands in the NIR region (750-2,500 nm) corresponding to muscle proteins and lipids that were not observed in the NIR spectra of the raw samples. Linear discriminate analyses were used to classify fillets as high-WHC or low-WHC according to predicted meat quality characteristics. Using the visible spectra (400-750 nm), fillets could be correctly classified into high-WHC and low-WHC groups based on drip loss and salt-induced water uptake with 88 to 92% accuracy in raw samples and 79 to 86% accuracy in freeze-dried samples. Using the NIR spectra (750-2,500 nm), fillets could be correctly classified into high-WHC and low-WHC groups with 74 to 76% accuracy in raw samples and 85 to 86% accuracy in freeze-dried samples. Thus, freeze-drying enhanced the accuracy of WHC classification using the NIR portion of the spectra. Data from this study demonstrate the potential for utilizing vis/NIR spectroscopy as a method for classifying broiler breast meat according to WHC. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in raw water from the Atibaia river, Campinas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCO Regina Maura Bueno


    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis are waterborne parasites that have caused several outbreaks of gastrointestinal disease associated with drinking water. Due to the lack of studies about the occurrence of these protozoa in water in the Southeast of Brazil, an investigation was conducted to verify the presence of cysts and oocysts in superficial raw water of the Atibaia River. The water samples were submitted to membrane filtration (3.0 mum and elution was processed by (1 scraping and rinsing of membrane (RM method and (2 acetone-dissolution (ADM method. Microbiologic and chemical parameters were analyzed. Aliquots of the pellets were examined by immunofluorescence (Merifluor, Meridian Diagnostics, Cincinnati, Ohio. All water samples were positive for Cryptosporidium and Giardia, in spite of the high turbidity. Higher recovery rates occurred in samples treated by the RM method than by the ADM technique. The goal for future work is the assessment of viability of cysts and oocysts to determine the public health significance of this finding.

  8. Removal of aniline and phenol from water using raw and aluminum hydroxide-modified diatomite. (United States)

    Wu, C D; Zhang, J Y; Wang, L; He, M H


    The feasibility of using raw diatomite and aluminum hydroxide-modified diatomite (Al-diatomite) for removal of aniline and phenol from water was investigated. Their physicochemical characteristics such as pHsolution, point of zero charge (pHPZC), surface area, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy was determined. After the raw diatomite was modified, the surface area of Al-diatomite increases from 26.67 to 82.65 m(2) g(-1). The pHPZC and pHsolution (10%) occurred around pH 5.2 and pH 8.6, respectively. The removal rates of aniline and phenol on diatomite and Al-diatomite decreased with increasing solution pH, while surface charge density decreased. The adsorption of aniline and phenol on diatomite presented a good fit to the Langmuir and Freundlich models, but the models are not fit to forecast the adsorption of aniline and phenol on Al-diatomite. The study indicated that electrostatic interaction was a dominating mechanism of aniline and phenol sorption onto Al-diatomite.

  9. Investigation of the Corrosion and Scaling Potentials of Raw and Treated Water and Its Effect on Concrete Tanks at Al-Tayyaraa Water Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Abdulkareem Mokif


    Full Text Available This study is conducted to evaluate corrosion and scaling potentials of raw and treated water at Al-Tayyaraa water treatment plant during a period of twelve months, starting from January to December 2016. Three indices of corrosion and scaling in this study are considered including Ryznar Index (RI, Langelier Saturation Index (LSI, and Aggressive Index (AI. Water quality parameters pH, Alk, (Ca, temperature, calcium as CaCO3, and (TDS are measured. For raw water, the values of LSI and RI are (0.14-0.504 and (6.956 -7.62, respectively, whereas for treated water, the values of LSI and RI are (0.03-0.4 and (7.02-7.7, respectively. The values of AI are (11.77-12 for raw water and (11.67-11.948 for treated water. The calculated values of Langelier Saturation Index (LSI reveal that the treated and raw water are balanced to some faint coating (light scale forming. The values of RI point that the raw and treated water are corrosive and values of aggressive index show that the water is moderate corrosion and no obvious effect on concrete tank at water treatment plants.

  10. Regional water footprint and water management: the case of Madrid region (Spain)


    Soler Rovira, José; Arroyo Sanz, Juan Manuel; Conde Marcos, Hugo; Sanz Zudaire, Carlos; Mesa Moreno, Alfredo; Gil Pascual, Sergio


    Water resources and water footprint of the production and consumption in Madrid region were estimated, considering blue water (water resources), green water (soil moisture), grey water (polluted water) and virtual water (water trade in products imported and exported in the region). Water resources in Madrid relay mainly in surface waters and rainfall, so the periodic occurrence of meteorological droughts implies the scarcity of water supply. The main users of blue water are households, munici...

  11. Raw Water Ammonia: Implications on Water Quality, Regulatory Compliance, and Management Strategies (United States)

    The objective of the talk will be to present engineering design considerations associated with the biological reduction of ammonia from source water. Also, the application of ion exchange softening to address elevated ammonia is presented.

  12. Utilization of radiation on treatment of raw water. Trial in OPRRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Atsuhiko


    The report describes a preliminary study that seeks to convert raw water into 'tasty' water by applying radiations. It is concluded that gamma-ray irradiation of about 1 kGy can work effectively without adverse influence. Major results are as follows: (1) the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of a solution containing ten trihalomethane precursors (3.9 - 6.3 ppm) is reduced to about 50 percent by applying radiations up to 2 - 7 kGy, (2) irradiatioin of a 200 ppm-TOC humic acid solution with about 70 kGy gamma-rays causes an increase in molecular weight, which may be attributed to crosslinking, (3) irradiation to 0.003 - 0.34 and 0.006 - 0.9 kGy is required to eliminate the odor of a pure water and river water, respectively, containing diosmine or 2-methyl isoborneol in a concentration which is twice, three times or five times as high as the limit concentration for odor, (4) for a solution containing the three organic compounds that are called the 'high-tech contaminants' to a concentration that is twice, three times or five times as high as the regulatory limit concentration, irradiation to 0.007 - 0.09 kGy is required to reduce the concentration to the limit, and (5) the Ames test shows no mutagenisity in humic solution irradiated to about 8 kGy, and mutagenisity in river water is reduced to some extent by irradiation to 10 kGy with the toxicity eliminated. Various other techniques should also be used to achieve the goal. (Nogami, K.).

  13. Contamination risk of raw drinking water caused by PFOA sources along a river reach in south-western Finland. (United States)

    Happonen, Maiju; Koivusalo, Harri; Malve, Olli; Perkola, Noora; Juntunen, Janne; Huttula, Timo


    Transport of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was simulated in the beginning of River Kokemäenjoki in Finland using one-dimensional SOBEK river model. River Kokemäenjoki is used as a raw water source for an artificial groundwater recharge plant, and the raw water intake plant is located near the downstream end of the model application area. Measured surface water and wastewater concentrations were used to determine the PFOA input to the river and to evaluate the simulation results. The maximum computed PFOA concentrations in the river at the location of the raw water intake plant during the simulation period Dec. 1, 2011-Feb. 16, 2014 were 0.92 ng/l and 3.12 ng/l for two alternative modeling scenarios. These concentration values are 2.3% and 7.8%, respectively, of the 40 ng/l guideline threshold value for drinking water. The current annual median and maximum PFOA loads to the river were calculated to be 3.9 kg/year and 10 kg/year respectively. According to the simulation results, the PFOA load would need to rise to a level of 57 kg/year for the 40 ng/l guideline value to be exceeded in river water at the raw water intake plant during a dry season. It is thus unlikely that PFOA concentration in raw water would reach the guideline value without the appearance of new PFOA sources. The communal wastewater treatment plants in the study area caused on average 11% of the total PFOA load. This raises a concern about the origin of the remaining 89% of the PFOA load and the related risk factors.

  14. Water resources management in Rostov region (Russia) (United States)

    Nazarenko, O.


    Proper management of water resources leads to the development of the region. Nowadays there is an urgent problem - water shortage. Many European countries face this problem, Russia is not the excluding. In addition, there is a problem not only of water quantity, but quality as well. Although Rostov region is well provided with fresh water, the water resources are unevenly disturbed within region. Rostov region is heavily populated and receive moderate rainfall. Groundwater has a limited capacity for renewal. At the same time, Rostov region is industrial and agricultural one that is why pressures from agriculture, industry and domestic users affect the quantity of water resources. Both water quality and availability must be integrated in long-term planning and policy implications concerning water management. In Russia there are high standards for water quality. Effectively managed water-supply and resource protection systems generate the indispensable basis for agricultural and industrial production. Throughout the Region, urban and rural development has thrived where water sources have been effectively managed. Rostov region can be divided into three parts: northern districts, central part of the region and southern ones. Main cities in the region have not enough available drinking water. In the region ground water is used for curing and water supplying purpose.

  15. Bacteriological quality of raw camel milk along the market value chain in Fafen zone, Ethiopian Somali regional state. (United States)

    Abera, Tsegalem; Legesse, Yoseph; Mummed, Behar; Urga, Befekadu


    The camel is a multipurpose animal with a huge productive potential. Camel milk is a key food in arid and semi-arid areas of the African and Asian countries. The quality of milk is influenced by different bacteria present in milk. This study was conducted to evaluate total bacterial content in raw camel milk along the market chain in Fafen zone, Ethiopian Somali Regional State. One hundred twenty-six raw camel milk samples were collected from Gursum (47.1 %) and Babile (52.9 %) districts. The three sampling levels included were udder (14.7 %), milking bucket (29.4 %) and market (55.9 %). Milk samples were analyzed for total bacterial counts (TBC) and coliform counts (CC). Furthermore, major pathogens were isolated and identified. 108 (85.7 %) of raw camel milk samples demonstrated bacterial contamination. The overall mean TBC and CC of contaminated raw camel milk samples was 4.75 ± 0.17 and 4.03 ± 0.26 log CFU/ml, respectively. TBC increased from udder to market level and was higher in Gursum compared to Babile district (P camel milk samples were in the range considered unsafe for human utility. Staphylococcus spp. (89.8 %), Streptococcus spp. (53.7 %), E. coli (31.5 %), Salmonella spp. (17.6 %), Klebsiella spp. (5.6 %) and Enterobacter spp. (5.6 %) were the major bacterial microorganisms isolated. The majority of the bacterial isolates in this study showed high incidence in market as compared to production level. These results indicate a lack of compliance with good production practices and hygiene at milking, transportation and market of raw camel milk.

  16. Anti-inflammatory effect of the water fraction from hawthorn fruit on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells (United States)

    Li, Chunmei


    The hawthorn fruit (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge var. typica Schneider) is used as a traditional medicine in Korea. The objective of this study was to understand the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects of the water fractionated portion of hawthorn fruit on a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cellular model. The level of nitric oxide (NO) production in the water fraction and LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells were determined with an ELISA. The cytotoxicity of the water fraction and LPS was measured with an MTT assay. Expression of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) mRNA were analyzed with a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The water fraction of hawthorn fruit was determined to be safe and significantly inhibited NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and suppressed COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 expression. The observed anti-inflammatory effects of the water fraction of hawthorn fruit might be attributed to the down-regulation of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. PMID:21556222

  17. TGA-DTA and chemical composition study of raw material of Bikaner region for electrical porcelain (United States)

    Tak, S. K.; Shekhawat, M. S.; Mangal, R.


    Porcelains are vitrified and a fine grained ceramic product, used either glazed or unglazed and is often manufactured from a tri-axial body mix of clays, quartz and alkaline feldspar. Physical properties associated with porcelain include those of permeability, high strength, hardness, glassiness, durability, whiteness, translucence, resonance, brittleness, high resistance to the passage of electricity, high resistance to thermal shock and high elasticity[1,2]. Porcelain insulators are made from three raw materials; clay; feldspar and quartz. For porcelain manufacture the clay is categorized in two groups; ball clay and kaolin, each of which plays an important role, either in the preparation of the product or in the properties of the finished products. The following research highlights the importance that suits these materials for their contributions to the final properties of the product. Keeping this view a TGA-DTA and chemical composition of these raw materials were observed and these materials are found suitable for production of Electrical Porcelain.

  18. Assessment of Lead and cadmium contamination and influencing factors in raw milk from regions of Hamadan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Vahidinia


    Full Text Available Regarding the significance of harmful effects of heavy metals in human diet, this study aimed to investigate the concentrations of lead and cadmium in raw milk samples. To achieve this goal, a total number of 48 samples was collected from various regions of Hamadan province during April 2011. The samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. According to the results, the mean concentrations of lead and cadmium estimated at 4.48 and 3.21µg/kg, respectively which were below the approved level determined by WHO as well as FAO. Although, concentrations of Pb and Cd among the various sampling regions revealed a significant (p

  19. Modelling geosmin concentrations in three sources of raw water in Quebec, Canada. (United States)

    Parinet, Julien; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sérodes, Jean-Baptiste


    The presence of off-flavour compounds such as geosmin, often found in raw water, significantly reduces the organoleptic quality of distributed water and diverts the consumer from its use. To adapt water treatment processes to eliminate these compounds, it is necessary to be able to identify them quickly. Routine analysis could be considered a solution, but it is expensive and delays associated with obtaining the results of analysis are often important, thereby constituting a serious disadvantage. The development of decision-making tools such as predictive models seems to be an economic and feasible solution to counterbalance the limitations of analytical methods. Among these tools, multi-linear regression and principal component regression are easy to implement. However, due to certain disadvantages inherent in these methods (multicollinearity or non-linearity of the processes), the use of emergent models involving artificial neurons networks such as multi-layer perceptron could prove to be an interesting alternative. In a previous paper (Parinet et al., Water Res 44: 5847-5856, 2010), the possible parameters that affect the variability of taste and odour compounds were investigated using principal component analysis. In the present study, we expand the research by comparing the performance of three tools using different modelling scenarios (multi-linear regression, principal component regression and multi-layer perceptron) to model geosmin in drinking water sources using 38 microbiological and physicochemical parameters. Three very different sources of water, in terms of quality, were selected for the study. These sources supply drinking water to the Québec City area (Canada) and its vicinity, and were monitored three times per month over a 1-year period. Seven different modelling methods were tested for predicting geosmin in these sources. The comparison of the seven different models showed that simple models based on multi-linear regression provide sufficient

  20. Bacterial contamination of raw vegetables, vegetable-related water and river water in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. (United States)

    Ha, Nguyen Thi Van; Kitajima, Masaaki; Hang, Nguyen Vo Minh; Matsubara, Koichi; Takizawa, Satoshi; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Oguma, Kumiko; Ohgaki, Shinichiro


    The study attempts to identify the potential routes of bacterial infection via consumption of raw vegetables, drinking water and vegetable-related water in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). Vegetables in the markets and restaurants had higher total coliforms and E. coli counts than the vegetables at the vegetable cultivation fields. In search of the potential contamination sources, it was found that vegetables are washed in nearby canals after harvesting. Those canals are contaminated with human and animal excreta, which in turn may contaminate the vegetables. At the markets, although the tap water was found to be free of microbes, contaminated and non-contaminated vegetables are mixed and washed in the same bowl, which may bring about further spreading of infectious bacteria. The results of this study suggested that an integrated countermeasure that incorporates reducing microbial contamination of canals, raising the awareness of microbial infection among the local farmers and wholesalers, and providing enough clean water to the food markets should be implemented to reduce the incidence of food-borne illness in HCMC. IWA Publishing 2008.

  1. Identification of dissolved organic matter in raw water supply from reservoirs and canals as precursors to trihalomethanes formation. (United States)

    Musikavong, Charongpun; Wattanachira, Suraphong


    The characteristic and quantity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) as trihalomethanes precursors in water from the U-Tapao Basin, Songkhla, Thailand was investigated. The sources of water in the basin consisted of two reservoirs and the U-Tapao canal. The canal receives water discharge from reservoirs, treated and untreated wastewater from agricultural processes, communities and industries. Water downstream of the canal is utilized as a raw water supply. Water samples were collected from two reservoirs, upstream and midstream of the canal, and the raw water supply in the rainy season and summer. The DOM level in the canal water was higher than that of the reservoir water. The highest trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) was formed in the raw water supply. Fourier-transform infrared peaks of the humic acid were detected in the reservoir and canal waters. Aliphatic hydrocarbon and organic nitrogen were the major chemical classes in the reservoir and canal water characterized by a pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometer. The optimal condition of the poly aluminum chloride (PACl) coagulation was obtained at a dosage of 40 mg/L at pH 7. This condition could reduce the average UV-254 to 57%, DOC to 64%, and THMFP to 42%. In the coagulated water, peaks of O-H groups or H-bonded NH, C˭O of cyclic and acyclic compounds, ketones and quinines, aromatic C˭C, C-O of alcohols, ethers, and carbohydrates, deformation of COOH, and carboxylic acid salts were detected. The aliphatic hydrocarbon, organic nitrogen and aldehydes and ketones were the major chemical classes. These DOM could be considered as the prominent DOM for the water supply plant that utilized PACl as a coagulant.

  2. Improving Spectral Crop Coefficient Approach with Raw Image Digital Count Data to Estimate Crop Water Use (United States)

    Shafian, S.; Maas, S. J.; Rajan, N.


    Water resources and agricultural applications require knowledge of crop water use (CWU) over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Due to the spatial density of meteorological stations, the resolution of CWU estimates based on these data is fairly coarse and not particularly suitable or reliable for water resources planning, irrigation scheduling and decision making. Various methods have been developed for quantifying CWU of agricultural crops. In this study, an improved version of the spectral crop coefficient which includes the effects of stomatal closure is applied. Raw digital count (DC) data in the red, near-infrared, and thermal infrared (TIR) spectral bands of Landsat-7 and Landsat-8 imaging sensors are used to construct the TIR-ground cover (GC) pixel data distribution and estimate the effects of stomatal closure. CWU is then estimated by combining results of the spectral crop coefficient approach and the stomatal closer effect. To test this approach, evapotranspiration was measured in 5 agricultural fields in the semi-arid Texas High Plains during the 2013 and 2014 growing seasons and compared to corresponding estimated values of CWU determined using this approach. The results showed that the estimated CWU from this approach was strongly correlated (R2 = 0.79) with observed evapotranspiration. In addition, the results showed that considering the stomatal closer effect in the proposed approach can improve the accuracy of the spectral crop coefficient method. These results suggest that the proposed approach is suitable for operational estimation of evapotranspiration and irrigation scheduling where irrigation is used to replace the daily CWU of a crop.

  3. Evaluation of coagulation sludge from raw water treated with Moringa oleifera for agricultural use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Jairo Feria


    Full Text Available Coagulation-flocculation is a physical-chemical process responsible for producing the largest amount of sludge in the purification of natural raw water. Conventionally, aluminum sulfate or alum has been used as a coagulant. However, disposal of the sludge produced has been problematic for the environment due to excess aluminum. Currently, the convenience of using natural coagulants such as seed extracts from Moringa oleifera (MO is being studied, although, the properties of sewage sludge produced and its possible reuse are unknown. In this paper the physical-chemical, nutritional and dangerous characteristics from MO sludge were evaluated by using standard methods to verify its potential use in agricultural soils. Results indicated that pH, electrical conductivity, ion exchange capacity, organic matter and micronutrients from sludge were suitable for application to soils with agricultural potential; but deficiency of macronutrients and presence of fecal coliforms limits it to be used as soil improver and not as fertilizer. Sludge stabilization with hydrated lime at doses greater than or equal to 3 % was effective to ensure the elimination of pathogenic microorganisms and to obtain a Class A sludge, unrestricted for agricultural use and suitable for acid soils.

  4. Startup pattern and performance enhancement of pilot-scale biofilm process for raw water pretreatment. (United States)

    Yang, Guang-Feng; Feng, Li-Juan; Yang, Qi; Zhu, Liang; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiang-Yang


    The quality of raw water is getting worse in developing countries because of the inadequate treatment of municipal sewage, industrial wastewater and agricultural runoff. Aiming at the biofilm enrichment and pollutant removal, two pilot-scale biofilm reactors were built with different biological carriers. Results showed that compared with the blank carrier, the biofilm was easily enriched on the biofilm precoated carrier and less nitrite accumulation occurred. The removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N, DOC and UV254 increased under the aeration condition, and a optimum DO level for the adequate nitrification was 1.0-2.6mgL(-1) with the suitable temperature range of 21-22°C. Study on the trihalomethane prediction model indicated that the presentence of algae increased the risk of disinfection by-products production, which could be effectively controlled via manual algae removing and light shading. In this study, the performance of biofilm pretreatment process could be enhanced under the optimized condition of DO level and biofilm carrier. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of waste coal from the enterprises of Kemerovo region as raw materials for production of ceramic materials (United States)

    Stolboushkin, A. Yu; Akst, D. V.; Fomina, O. A.; Ivanov, A. I.; Syromyasov, V. A.


    The analysis of waste coal from mining enterprises of Kemerovo region as raw materials for production of building ceramics is given. The results of studies of material, chemical and mineralogical compositions of waste coal from Abashevskaya processing plant (Novokuznetsk) are presented. It was established that the chemical composition of waste coal refers to aluminosilicate raw materials with a high content of alumina and coloring oxides, the residual carbon content in the wastes is 12-25 %. According to the granulometric composition the waste coal is basically a sandy-dusty fraction with a small amount of clay particles (1-3 %). Additional grinding of coal waste and the introduction of a clay additive in an amount of up to 30 % are recommended. The results of the study of the mineral composition of waste coal are presented. Clay minerals are represented in the descending order by hydromuscovite, montmorillonite and kaolinite, minerals-impurities consist of quartz, feldspar fine-dispersed carbonates. The results of the investigation of ceramic-technological properties of waste coal, which belong to the group of moderately plastic low-melting raw materials, are given. As a result of a comprehensive study it was been established that with chemical, granulometric and mineralogical compositions waste coal with the reduced residual carbon can be used in the production of ceramic bricks.

  6. [Algae removal of high algae raw water by coagulation enhanced by ozonation]. (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Long; Yang, Dong; Zhao, Zhi-Yong; Li, Zheng-Jian; Cheng, Fang-Qin


    Apparent molecular weight distribution (AMWD) and resin fractionation were used to characterize organic matters of the raw water. Removal of algae, change and removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), disinfection by products (DBPs) control during the preozonation enhanced coagulation treatments in the jar-scale and pilot-scale experiment were studied. Algae activity (AA) was measured and used to elucidate the mechanisms of algae removal by above treatments. Results show that algae removal can be improved distinctively by proper preozonation, as the ozone dose 1.0 mg x L(-1), for instance. Algae removal could be increased from 55%-85% by traditional coagulation to 95% by enhanced coagulation after preozonation; and the best removal achieved 99.3% with ozone 1.0 mg x L(-1) and PACl 3.0 mg x L(-1); the residual THMFP (Trihalomethanes formation potential) was lowered from 117 microg x L(-1) by traditional coagulation to 46 microg x L(-1). But higher dose of ozone (as > or = 2.0 mg x L(-1)) impairs organic matter removal, although it decreases algae activity further. Significant differences were found in algae removal by AA detection between ozonation and traditional coagulation. Traditional coagulation had little effect on AA no matter the different PAC1 doses; while AA decreased clearly after ozonation. AA was lowered below 12 under 0.5-2.0 mg x L(-1) ozonation; and it kept decreasing with increase of ozone dosage. During the following coagulation, coagulant or some of its hydrolysised components enhanced the AA decrease by ozonation. Compared to the method of normal microscopy counting, AA test expresses the influence of algae living state by water treatment processes more clearly; which would provide treatment process designer with more distinct information about algae removal mechanisms and how to arrange the treatment processes to improve algae removal.


    The New England region (including the 6 New Englandstates plus upstate New York) offers a very diverse geography,matched by an equally diverse economy and humanpopulation. Livelihoods throughout the region are basedon service industries that depend heavily on comm...

  8. Investigating the dynamics of two herbicides at a karst spring in Germany: Consequences for sustainable raw water management. (United States)

    Hillebrand, Olav; Nödler, Karsten; Geyer, Tobias; Licha, Tobias


    While karst aquifers are considered as rapid flow and transport systems, their high potential for long-term storage is often ignored. However, to achieve a sustainable raw water quality for drinking water production, the understanding of this potential is highly essential. In this study, the transport dynamics of the two herbicides metazachlor and atrazine as well as a degradation product of the latter (desethylatrazine) were investigated at a karst spring over 1 year. Even 20 years after its ban in Germany, atrazine and its degradation product were almost always detectable in the spring water in the low ng L(-1) range (up to 5.2ng L(-1)). Metazachlor could only be detected after precipitation events, and the observed concentrations (up to 82.9ng L(-1)) are significantly higher than atrazine or desethylatrazine. Comparing the dynamics of the herbicides with the inorganic ions Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and electrical conductivity, a positive correlation of atrazine with these parameters could be observed. From this observation, atrazine is concluded to be located within the aquifer matrix. To achieve a sustainable raw water management at karst springs, the rapidness of these systems needs to be highlighted as well as their long-term storage potential. Persistent substances or transformation products are prone to deteriorate the raw water quality for decades. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cold-water coral microbiomes (Lophelia pertusa) from Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean: raw data (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The files in this data release are the raw deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence files referenced in the submitted journal article by Christina A. Kellogg, Dawn B....

  10. [Composition of NOM in raw water of Danjiangkou Reservoir of South-to-North Water Diversion Project and comparison of efficacy of enhanced coagulation]. (United States)

    Cheng, Tuo; Xu, Bin; Zhu, He-Zhen; Xia, Sheng-Ji; Chu, Wen-Hai; Hu, Guang-Xin


    The best enhanced coagulation conditions for the raw water of Danjiangkou Reservoir of South-to-North Water Diversion Project and the molecular weights as well as hydrophobicity composition of Natural organic matter (NOM) in the water were investigated in this study. The results showed that the NOM in the raw water of Danjiangkou Reservoir of South-to-North Water Diversion Project was mainly composed of the fraction with a molecular weight of NOM, but the THMFP of the hydrophobic fraction had the highest percentage. And when the raw water of Danjiangkou Reservoir was treated using polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS, 4 mg x L(-1)) and poly-acrylamide (PAM, 0.4 mg x L(-1)) , the optimal removal rates of turbidity, DOC, UV254 and THMFP were 76.33%, 25.57%, 37.78% and 23.16%, respectively. The results of this paper can provide theoretical and technological basis for upgrading of the process and operation optimization of original drinking water treatment plants in the intake area of South-to-North Water Diversion Project.

  11. Cold-water coral microbiomes (Paramuricea placomus) from Baltimore Canyon: raw and processed data (United States)

    Kellogg, Christina A.


    The files in this data release are the raw and processed DNA sequence files referenced in the submitted journal article by Kellogg et. al. titled "Bacterial Community Diversity of the Deep-Sea Octocoral Paramuricea placomus." They represent a 16S rRNA gene amplicon survey of the coral's microbiome completed using Roche 454 pyrosequencing with titanium reagents. Baltimore Canyon is in the Atlantic Ocean and the samples were collected in 2012-2013. The raw data files associated with this study have also been submitted to the NCBI Sequence Read Archive under Bioproject number PRJNA297333. For more information, please see the README file.

  12. Rapid quantitative analysis of microcystins in raw surface waters with MALDI MS utilizing easily synthesized internal standards. (United States)

    Roegner, Amber F; Schirmer, Macarena Pírez; Puschner, Birgit; Brena, Beatriz; Gonzalez-Sapienza, Gualberto


    The freshwater cyanotoxins, microcystins (MCs), pose a global public health threat as potent hepatotoxins in cyanobacterial blooms; their persistence in drinking and recreational water has been associated with potential chronic effects in addition to acute intoxications. Rapid and accurate detection of the over 80 structural congeners is challenged by the rigorous and time consuming clean up required to overcome interference found in raw water samples. MALDI-MS has shown promise for rapid quantification of individual congeners in raw water samples, with very low operative cost, but so far limited sensitivity and lack of available and versatile internal standards (ISs) has limited its use. Two easily synthesized S-hydroxyethyl-Cys(7)-MC-LR and -RR ISs were used to generate linear standard curves in a reflectron MALDI instrument, reproducible across several orders of magnitude for MC-LR, -RR and -YR. Minimum quantification limits in direct water samples with no clean up or concentration step involved were consistently below 7 μg/L, with recoveries from spiked samples between 80 and 119%. This method improves sensitivity by 30 fold over previous reports of quantitative MALDI-TOF applications to MCs and provides a salient option for rapid throughput analysis for multiple MC congeners in untreated raw surface water blooms as a means to identify source public health threats and target intervention strategies within a watershed. As demonstrated by analysis of a set of samples from Uruguay, utilizing the reaction of different MC congeners with alternate sulfhydryl compounds, the m/z of the IS can be customized to avoid overlap with interfering compounds in local surface water samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Regional approaches to water pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijtema, P.E.; Bolt, van der F.J.E.


    General aspects of regional modelling of environmental impacts of non-point sources of pollution are discussed. Models range from simple budget to very complex structural models. In groundwater pollution studies structural models are preferable. The choice of the model depends on the aim of the

  14. Biochar from Sugarcane Filtercake Reduces Soil CO2 Emissions Relative to Raw Residue and Improves Water Retention and Nutrient Availability in a Highly-Weathered Tropical Soil (United States)

    Eykelbosh, Angela Joy; Johnson, Mark S.; Santos de Queiroz, Edmar; Dalmagro, Higo José; Guimarães Couto, Eduardo


    In Brazil, the degradation of nutrient-poor Ferralsols limits productivity and drives agricultural expansion into pristine areas. However, returning agricultural residues to the soil in a stabilized form may offer opportunities for maintaining or improving soil quality, even under conditions that typically promote carbon loss. We examined the use of biochar made from filtercake (a byproduct of sugarcane processing) on the physicochemical properties of a cultivated tropical soil. Filtercake was pyrolyzed at 575°C for 3 h yielding a biochar with increased surface area and porosity compared to the raw filtercake. Filtercake biochar was primarily composed of aromatic carbon, with some residual cellulose and hemicellulose. In a three-week laboratory incubation, CO2 effluxes from a highly weathered Ferralsol soil amended with 5% biochar (dry weight, d.w.) were roughly four-fold higher than the soil-only control, but 23-fold lower than CO2 effluxes from soil amended with 5% (d.w.) raw filtercake. We also applied vinasse, a carbon-rich liquid waste from bioethanol production typically utilized as a fertilizer on sugarcane soils, to filtercake- and biochar-amended soils. Total CO2 efflux from the biochar-amended soil in response to vinasse application was only 5% of the efflux when vinasse was applied to soil amended with raw filtercake. Furthermore, mixtures of 5 or 10% biochar (d.w.) in this highly weathered tropical soil significantly increased water retention within the plant-available range and also improved nutrient availability. Accordingly, application of sugarcane filtercake as biochar, with or without vinasse application, may better satisfy soil management objectives than filtercake applied to soils in its raw form, and may help to build soil carbon stocks in sugarcane-cultivating regions. PMID:24897522

  15. Biochar from sugarcane filtercake reduces soil CO2 emissions relative to raw residue and improves water retention and nutrient availability in a highly-weathered tropical soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Joy Eykelbosh

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the degradation of nutrient-poor Ferralsols limits productivity and drives agricultural expansion into pristine areas. However, returning agricultural residues to the soil in a stabilized form may offer opportunities for maintaining or improving soil quality, even under conditions that typically promote carbon loss. We examined the use of biochar made from filtercake (a byproduct of sugarcane processing on the physicochemical properties of a cultivated tropical soil. Filtercake was pyrolyzed at 575°C for 3 h yielding a biochar with increased surface area and porosity compared to the raw filtercake. Filtercake biochar was primarily composed of aromatic carbon, with some residual cellulose and hemicellulose. In a three-week laboratory incubation, CO2 effluxes from a highly weathered Ferralsol soil amended with 5% biochar (dry weight, d.w. were roughly four-fold higher than the soil-only control, but 23-fold lower than CO2 effluxes from soil amended with 5% (d.w. raw filtercake. We also applied vinasse, a carbon-rich liquid waste from bioethanol production typically utilized as a fertilizer on sugarcane soils, to filtercake- and biochar-amended soils. Total CO2 efflux from the biochar-amended soil in response to vinasse application was only 5% of the efflux when vinasse was applied to soil amended with raw filtercake. Furthermore, mixtures of 5 or 10% biochar (d.w. in this highly weathered tropical soil significantly increased water retention within the plant-available range and also improved nutrient availability. Accordingly, application of sugarcane filtercake as biochar, with or without vinasse application, may better satisfy soil management objectives than filtercake applied to soils in its raw form, and may help to build soil carbon stocks in sugarcane-cultivating regions.

  16. Combustion properties, water absorption and grindability of raw/torrefied biomass pellets and Silantek coal (United States)

    Matali, Sharmeela; Rahman, Norazah Abdul; Idris, Siti Shawaliah; Yaacob, Nurhafizah


    Torrefaction, also known as mild pyrolysis, is proven to convert raw biomass into a value-added energy commodity particularly for application in combustion and co-firing systems with improved storage and handling properties. This paper aims to compare the characteristics of Malaysian bituminous coal i.e. Silantek coal with raw and torrefied biomass pellet originated from oil palm frond and fast growing tree species, Leucaena Leucocephala. Biomass samples were initially torrefied at 300 °C for 60 minutes. Resulting torrefied biomass pellets were analysed using a number of standard fuel characterisation analyses i.e. elemental analysis, proximate analysis and calorific content (high heating values) experiments. Investigations on combustion characteristics via dynamic thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), grindability and moisture uptake tests were also performed on the torrefied biomass pellets. Better quality bio-chars were produced as compared to its raw forms and with optimal process conditions, torrefaction may potentially produces a solid fuel with combustion reactivity and porosity equivalent to raw biomass while having compatible energy density and grindability to coal.

  17. Mathematical models of functioning and allocation indicators of road-transport complex resources in the fuel and raw materials region (United States)

    Buyvis, V. A.; Novichikhin, A. V.; Temlyantsev, M. V.


    A number of features of coal industry functioning was determined for the conditions of Kemerovo region, and the specifics of planning and organization of coal transportation were revealed. The analysis of indicators of motor and railway types of transport in the process of coal transportation was executed. The necessity of improving the tools of coal products transportation in the modern conditions is substantiated. Specific features of functioning of a road-transport complex in the fuel and raw material region (on the example of Kemerovo region) are determined. The modern scientific and applied problems of functioning and allocation of the road-transport complex resources are identified. To justify the management decisions on the development and improvement of road-transport complex a set of indicators are proposed: infrastructural, transportation performance, operating, social and economic. Mathematical models of indicators are recommended for formulation and justification of decisions made during operational and strategic planning of development, evaluation and development of algorithms of functioning and allocation of road-transport sector in Kemerovo region in the future.

  18. Effect of NOM on arsenic adsorption by TiO(2) in simulated As(III)-contaminated raw waters. (United States)

    Liu, Guojing; Zhang, Xiangru; Talley, Jeffrey W; Neal, Clive R; Wang, Hangyao


    The effect of natural organic matter (NOM) on arsenic adsorption by a commercial available TiO(2) (Degussa P25) in various simulated As(III)-contaminated raw waters was examined. Five types of NOM that represent different environmental origins were tested. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted under anaerobic conditions and in the absence of light. Either with or without the presence of NOM, the arsenic adsorption reached steady-state within 1h. The presence of 8 mg/L NOM as C in the simulated raw water, however, significantly reduced the amount of arsenic adsorbed at the steady-state. Without NOM, the arsenic adsorption increased with increasing solution pH within the pH range of 4.0-9.4. With four of the NOMs tested, the arsenic adsorption firstly increased with increasing pH and then decreased after the adsorption reached the maximum at pH 7.4-8.7. An appreciable amount of arsenate (As(V)) was detected in the filtrate after the TiO(2) adsorption in the simulated raw waters that contained NOM. The absolute amount of As(V) in the filtrate after TiO(2) adsorption was pH dependent: more As(V) was presented at pH>7 than that at pHNOM were modelled by both Langmuir and Frendlich adsorption equations, with Frendlich adsorption equation giving a better fit for the water without NOM and Langmuir adsorption equation giving a better fit for the waters with NOM. The modelling implies that NOM can occupy some available binding sites for arsenic adsorption on TiO(2) surface. This study suggests that in an As(III)-contaminated raw water, NOM can hinder the uptake of arsenic by TiO(2), but can facilitate the As(III) oxidation to As(V) at TiO(2) surface under alkaline conditions and in the absence of O(2) and light. TiO(2) thus can be used in situ to convert As(III) to the less toxic As(V) in NOM-rich groundwaters.

  19. Cold-water coral microbiomes (Anthothela spp.) from Baltimore and Norfolk Canyons: raw and processed data (United States)

    Kellogg, Christina A.; Lawler, Stephanie N.


    The files in this data release are the raw and processed DNA sequence files referenced in the submitted journal article by Lawler et. al. titled “Coral-associated bacterial diversity is conserved at the host-genus level in deep-sea Anthothela spp." They represent a 16S rRNA gene amplicon survey of the coral's microbiome completed using Roche 454 pyrosequencing with titanium reagents. Baltimore and Norfolk Canyons are in the Atlantic Ocean and the samples were collected in 2012-2013. The raw data files associated with this study have also been submitted to the NCBI Sequence Read Archive under Bioproject number PRJNA296835. For more information, please see the README file.

  20. [Effects of different pre-oxidants on DBPs formation potential by chlorination and chloramination of Yangtze River raw water]. (United States)

    Tian, Fu-Xiang; Xu, Bin; Rong, Rong; Chen, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Tian-Yang; Zhu, He-Zhen


    Yangtze River raw water from Yangshupu Water Plant, Shanghai was studied in this paper for reduced formation potential of chlorination and chloramination disinfection by-products (DBPs) after pre-oxidation by three kinds of common pre-oxidants, whiich were potassium permanganate, chlorine and chlorine dioxide. Results of chlorination showed that removal effectiveness of all the selected oxidants on total chlorination DBPs was not significant, and the reduction percentages by ClO2, Cl2 and KMnO4 were 8.4%, 5.7% and 3.9%, respectively. The order of DBPs control effect was ClO2, > Cl2 > KMnO4. As to Yangtze River raw water in case of chlorine disinfection, using ClO2 as pre-oxidation agent showed relatively better effect on removal of DBPs. However, chloramination results demonstrated that impacts of the three preoxidants on DBPs formation potential were quite different, and the reduction percentages by ClO2 and KMnO4 were 18.1% and 4.1%, respectively, while pre-chlorination increased the potential by 12.3%. These results revealed that ClO2 had the highest removal effectiveness, meanwhile pre-chlorination should be avoided due to its notable increase in DBPs formation.

  1. Risk of Illness with Salmonella due to Consumption of Raw Unwashed Vegetables Irrigated with Water from the Bogotá River. (United States)

    Henao-Herreño, Laura X; López-Tamayo, Ana M; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan P; Haas, Charles N; Husserl, Johana


    The Bogotá River receives untreated wastewater from the city of Bogotá and many other towns. Downstream from Bogotá, water from the river is used for irrigation of crops. Concentrations of indicator organisms in the river are high, which is consistent with fecal contamination. To investigate the probability of illness due to exposure to enteric pathogens from the river, specifically Salmonella, we took water samples from the Bogotá River at six sampling locations in an area where untreated water from the river is used for irrigation of lettuce, broccoli, and cabbage. Salmonella concentrations were quantified by direct isolation and qPCR. Concentrations differed, depending on the quantification technique used, ranging between 10(7.7) and 10(9.9) number of copies of gene invA per L and 10(5.3) and 10(8.4) CFU/L, for qPCR and direct isolation, respectively. A quantitative microbial risk assessment model that estimates the daily risk of illness with Salmonella resulting from consuming raw unwashed vegetables irrigated with water from the Bogotá River was constructed using the Salmonella concentration data. The daily probability of illness from eating raw unwashed vegetables ranged between 0.62 and 0.85, 0.64 and 0.86, and 0.64 and 0.85 based on concentrations estimated by qPCR (0.47-0.85, 0.47-0.86, and 0.41-0.85 based on concentrations estimated by direct isolation) for lettuce, cabbage, and broccoli, respectively, which are all above the commonly propounded benchmark of 10(-4) per year. Results obtained in this study highlight the necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in the region, and emphasize the importance of postharvest practices, such as washing, disinfecting, and cooking. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. The Impact of Climate Change on Raw and Untreated Wastewater Use for Agriculture, Especially in Arid Regions: A Review. (United States)

    Faour-Klingbeil, Dima; Todd, Ewen C D


    Climate change is one of the major challenges of our time that pose unprecedented stress to the environment and threats to human health. The global impacts of climate change are vast, spanning from extreme weather events to changes in patterns and distribution of infectious diseases. Lack of rainfall associated with higher temperatures has a direct influence on agricultural production. This is compounded by a growing population forecasted to expand further with increasing needs for food and water. All this has led to the increasing use of wastewater worldwide. In this review, we more specifically discuss the use of untreated wastewater in agriculture in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries, the most arid region in the world. This presents challenges for agriculture with respect to water availability and increasing wastewater use in agri-food chain. This in turn exerts pressures on the safety of food raised from such irrigated crops. Current practices in the MENA region indicate that ineffective water resource management, lack of water quality policies, and slow-paced wastewater management strategies continue to contribute to a decline in water resources and an increased unplanned use of black and graywater in agriculture. Radical actions are needed in the region to improve water and wastewater management to adapt to these impacts. In this regard, the 2006 WHO guidelines for the use of wastewater contain recommendations for the most effective solutions. They provide a step-by-step guide for series of appropriate health protection measures for microbial reduction targets of 6 log units for viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens, but these need to be combined with new varieties of crops that are drought and pest resistant. More research into economic local treatment procedures for wastewater in the region is warranted.

  3. Water crisis: the metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, regional water supply conflict

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.


    Many large population centres are currently facing considerable difficulties with planning issues to secure future water supplies, as a result of water allocation and environmental issues, litigation, and political dogma. A classic case occurs in the metropolitan Atlanta area, which is a rapidly growing, large population centre that relies solely on surface water for supply. Lake Lanier currently supplies about 70% of the water demand and has been involved in a protracted legal dispute for more than two decades. Drought and environmental management of the reservoir combined to create a water shortage which nearly caused a disaster to the region in 2007 (only about 35 days of water supply was in reserve). While the region has made progress in controlling water demand by implementing a conservation plan, per capita use projections are still very high (at 511 L/day in 2035). Both non-potable reuse and indirect reuse of treated wastewater are contained in the most current water supply plan with up to 380,000 m3/day of wastewater treated using advanced wastewater treatment (nutrient removal) to be discharged into Lake Lanier. The water supply plan, however, includes no additional or new supply sources and has deleted any reference to the use of seawater desalination or other potential water sources which would provide diversification, thereby relying solely on the Coosa and Chattahoochee river reservoirs for the future. © 2014 IWA Publishing.

  4. Class frequency distribution for a surface raw water quality index in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A harmonised in-stream water quality guideline was constructed to develop a water quality index for the Upper and Middle Vaal Water Management Areas, in the Vaal basin of South Africa. The study area consisted of 12 water quality monitoring points; V1, S1, B1, S4, K9, T1, R2, L1, V7, V9, V12, and V17. These points are ...

  5. Class frequency distribution for a surface raw water quality index in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 1, 2013 ... Vaal Water Management Areas, in the Vaal basin of South Africa. The study area consisted of 12 water quality ... This is desirable, especially in cases where decisions require interpretation of the severity or ...... BOHENSKY EL (2008) Discovering resilient pathways for South. African water management: two ...

  6. trend analysis of raw water parameters in river benue at the reach of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    This study ascertained the extent of pollution of the water body of river Benue at the reach of Makurdi. Trend analysis gives an insight to the ... degradation of surface waters have rendered most water bodies unsuitable for their ... Bridge, the river is 1.194Km wide with average depth and cross sectional area of 7.82m and.

  7. Physicochemical, microbiological and toxicological quality of raw milk in cattle basins of the region Puno-Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaly Brousett-Minaya


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of raw milk in seven representative basins of the region Puno. The results were compared with the standards established by the International Standard for milk and milk products NTP 200.001-2003 and the Official Mexican Standard NOM-155-SCFI-2012 for the parameters of protein and lactose in the absence of Peruvian parameters. For physicochemical characterization pH, acidity, density, fat, protein, lactose, total solids, fat solids was determined microbiological analysis of E. coli and mesophilic, just as we also performed the study spanned pesticide residue analysis such as organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates and pyrethroids with sensitivity 1.0ug / g sample which gave negative results for the four groups of pesticides, the physicochemical determinations over 50% of the basins (except for pH and acidity is found within the standards of the NTP and NOM. The presence of mesophilic were mostly found within the parameters except for two milksheds and as for E. Coli any basin met established standards found one poor quality milk hygienic.

  8. Nutritional and Hygienic Quality of Raw Milk in the Mid-Northern Region of Algeria: Correlations and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumeya Adjlane-Kaouche


    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the overall quality of raw milk in the mid-northern region of Algeria. The analysis results showed a decrease in the average temperature for the delivery of 1,54°C with P0.05 was observed in almost all the physical and nutritional parameters studied (pH, fat content, and protein content between M1 and M2. The average contamination by total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB, coliforms, yeasts, molds, and different pathogens in samples taken at M1 showed significant changes at M2. This was confirmed by the decrease of reduction time of methylene blue (RTMB, about 54%. The variation was described as follows: (P>0.05 for yeasts and (P<0.05 for molds in M1 and M2, (P<0.05 for TMAB in M1, and (P<0.001 for TC, FC, and TMAB in M2. The analysis for the detection of Salmonella spp. showed no contamination in all samples tested, while antibiotic residues were detected in 35% of milks delivered. In conclusion, several risk factors have been identified in this study, namely, the effect of the season and the distance between the farm and the dairy unit.

  9. Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. Oocysts in raw sewage and creek water in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farias Eveline Wilma Coutinho


    Full Text Available The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium has emerged as one of the most important contaminants of water, causing waterborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide. To monitor and understand the public health significance of this pathogen in environmental samples, several methods have been developed to isolate and detect Cryptosporidium oocysts. The purpose of this study was to perform the first investigation on the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in raw sewage and creek water in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The oocysts were concentrated by flocculation and membrane filtration. The results showed the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in all wastewater samples analyzed, indicating a possible risk for dissemination of these pathogens in aquatic environment and in the community.

  10. Defluoridation of Ethiopian Rift Valley Region water using reverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the same range of feed concentration, the retention and permeate fluoride concentration is comparable for raw ground water and artificially constituted fluoride water. However, the membrane fouling was serious. About 85% of the flux loss was recovered by treating the membrane with HNO3 solution with pH 2 at 50 °C.

  11. Production test IP-750 raw water as a reactor coolant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frymier, J.W.; Geier, R.G.


    Approximately ten years ago single-tube tests demonstrated the feasibility of using unfiltered river water as a reactor coolant from the standpoint of aluminum corrosion and film formation. However, some effluent activity penalty was indicated. Inasmuch as both current water plant operation and the characteristics of Columbia River water have changed, it was deemed appropriate to reinvestigate the use of partially treated water as a reactor coolant. This report summarizes the results of a half-reactor test carried out at F Reactor.

  12. [Research progress in water eco-functional regionalization]. (United States)

    Li, Yan-mei; Zeng, Wen-lu; Zhou, Qi-xing


    Water eco-functional regionalization is a new zoning approach based on the study of regional differences in water ecosystem, aimed to reveal the spatial differentiation characteristics and distribution patterns of water environment at different regional and zonal scales. This paper discussed the methodologies, objectives, and limitations of water function zoning, water environmental function zoning, geoecology zoning, ecoregion classification, and water eco-functional regionalization, summarized the research progress in the water eco-functional regionalization, and compared the regionalization system at home and abroad. The disadvantages of our water eco-functional regionalization system were pointed out, and its development trend was prospected.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Shelomentsev


    Full Text Available In clause the methodical approach to an estimation of influence of development of a mineral-raw complex on a social and economic condition of regions is offered. The list of indicators of the influence, including both economic and the social indicators is developed, allowing to calculate an integrated rating and to define type of the subject of Federation on a level of influence of a raw complex on its social and economic development. The decision of these problems promotes creation of spatial preconditions of steady social and economic development of regions and Russia as a whole, supports of competitiveness of regions and settlements, identical availability of subjects of managing to the economic and social resources of development.

  14. Trend Analysis of Raw Water Parameters in River Benue at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study ascertained the extent of pollution of the water body of river Benue at the reach of Makurdi. ... and some laboratory analysis were used to estimate the trend of Escherichia Coli (E.coli), Biochemical oxygen Demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in river Benue at the reach of Makurdi, Benue State.

  15. Class frequency distribution for a surface raw water quality index in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 1, 2013 ... The IF-THEN-ELSE function then sub-classified the data from 1 to 5 while the daily index was calculated as a median of that day's sub-classes. ... them by using feedback mechanisms from continuous assess- ments (Even et ... constant that relates to a particular water body at a specific time of sampling, but ...

  16. Sea Water Characterization at Ujung Kulon Coastal Depth as Raw Water Source for Desalination and Potential Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugisidi Dan


    Full Text Available Fresh water is basic need for life while the source is limited. Therefore, sea water is used as fresh water through desalination process. Sea water has different physical and chemical properties ranging from the surface to the seabed. The energy potential that can be obtained from the hydrostatic pressure also changes according to the depth. As part of the research of the utilization of sea water into fresh water, the aim of this study is to know the characteristics of sea water in the depth that can be utilized as source of fresh water. The sea water samples were taken at 11km from Ujung Kulon beach with depth of 0m, 20m, 40m, 60m, 80m, and 100m under the surface. The results showed that the physical properties at every depth were below the maximum allowable drinking water except for the amount of dissolved solids. Chemical characteristics at any depth above allowable level were fluoride, hardness (CaCo3, chloride, sodium, sulphate, and (KMnO4. In addition to the properties, pressure is one of the considerations in this study to determine the depth of sea water as sources for desalination. Pressure increased by 36.11% as the depth of the sea increased.

  17. Occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in raw and pasteurized milk in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil. (United States)

    Sgarioni, Sônia Aparecida; Hirata, Rosario Dominguez Crespo; Hirata, Mario Hiroyuki; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; de Prince, Karina Andrade; de Andrade Leite, Sergio Roberto; Filho, Dirceu Vedovello; Siqueira, Vera Lucia Dias; Caleffi-Ferracioli, Katiany Rizzieri; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti


    Milk is widely consumed in Brazil and can be the vehicle of agent transmission. In this study, was evaluated the occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in raw and pasteurized milk consumed in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil. Fifty-two milk samples (20 pasteurized and 32 raw) from dairy farms near the municipality of Maringa, Parana State, Brazil were collected. Milk samples were decontaminated using 5% oxalic acid method and cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media at 35 °C and 30 °C, with and without 5-10% CO2. Mycobacteria isolates were identified by morphological features, PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis (PCR-PRA) and Mycolic acids analysis. Thirteen (25%) raw and 2 (4%) pasteurized milk samples were positive for acid fast bacilli growth. Nine different species of NTM were isolated (M. nonchromogenicum, M. peregrinum, M. smegmatis, M. neoaurum, M. fortuitum, M. chelonae, M. flavescens, M. kansasii and M. scrofulaceum). M. bovis was not detected. Raw and pasteurized milk may be considered one source for NTM human infection. The paper reinforces the need for intensification of measures in order to avoid the milk contamination and consequently prevent diseases in the south of Brazil.

  18. Occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM in raw and pasteurized milk in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Aparecida Sgarioni


    Full Text Available Milk is widely consumed in Brazil and can be the vehicle of agent transmission. In this study, was evaluated the occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM in raw and pasteurized milk consumed in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil. Fifty-two milk samples (20 pasteurized and 32 raw from dairy farms near the municipality of Maringa, Parana State, Brazil were collected. Milk samples were decontaminated using 5% oxalic acid method and cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media at 35 °C and 30 °C, with and without 5-10% CO2. Mycobacteria isolates were identified by morphological features, PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis (PCR-PRA and Mycolic acids analysis. Thirteen (25% raw and 2 (4% pasteurized milk samples were positive for acid fast bacilli growth. Nine different species of NTM were isolated (M. nonchromogenicum, M. peregrinum, M. smegmatis, M. neoaurum, M. fortuitum, M. chelonae, M. flavescens, M. kansasii and M. scrofulaceum. M. bovis was not detected. Raw and pasteurized milk may be considered one source for NTM human infection. The paper reinforces the need for intensification of measures in order to avoid the milk contamination and consequently prevent diseases in the south of Brazil.

  19. Population dynamics of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in an aerated submerged biofilm reactor for micropolluted raw water pretreatment. (United States)

    Qin, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Xiao-Wen; Ren, Hong-Qiang; Li, Dao-Tang; Yang, Hong


    Population dynamics of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in a full-scale aerated submerged biofilm reactor for micropolluted raw water pretreatment was investigated using molecular techniques for a period of 1 year. The ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene fragments were amplified from DNA and RNA extracts of biofilm samples. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profile based on the amoA messenger RNA approach exhibited a more variable pattern of temporal dynamics of AOB communities than the DNA-derived approach during the study. Phylogenetic analysis of excised DGGE bands revealed three AOB groups affiliated with the Nitrosomonas oligotropha lineage, Nitrosomonas communis lineage, and an unknown Nitrosomonas group. The population size of betaproteobacterial AOB, quantified with 16S ribosomal RNA gene real-time polymerase chain reaction assay, ranged from 6.63 x 10(5) to 2.67 x 10(9) cells per gram of dry biofilm and corresponded to 0.23-1.8% of the total bacterial fraction. Quantitative results of amoA gene of the three specific AOB groups revealed changes in competitive dominance between AOB of the N. oligotropha lineage and N. communis lineage. Water temperature is shown to have major influence on AOB population size in the reactor by the statistic analysis, and a positive correlation between AOB cell numbers and ammonia removal efficiency is suggested (r = 0.628, P < 0.05).

  20. [Treating of algae-laden raw water with GAC-sand dual media deep bed dissolved air flotation/filtration]. (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Xiao-jian; Xie, Shu-guang


    GAC-sand dual media deep bed dissolved air flotation/filtration (GSDDB-DAFF) is a new integrated process, its characteristics include: integration of dissolved air flotation and filtration, GAC-sand dual media deep bed filtration, integration of general treatment and advanced treatment. When algae-laden raw water was treated with the new process. The result showed that removal percentage of algae was 95.1%, outlet algae-count was 4.30 x 10(5) cell/L. Removal percentage of chlorophyll-a was 92.2%, outlet chlorophyll-a was 0.88 microg/L. Outlet turbidity was 0.18 NTU, removal percentage of UV254 was 54.3%, outlet UV254 was 0.016 cm(-1), Removal percentage of OC was 63.6%, outlet OC was 0.78 mg/L; outlet had no odor; removal percentage of color was 86.4%, outlet color was 3; outlet Al-residual was 0.011 mg/L which accorded with the quality standard of drinking water. Run time of filter was 36 h, UFRV (Unit Filter Run Volume) was 504 m3/m2.

  1. Occurrence of cyanobacteria and microcystin toxins in raw and treated waters of the Nile River, Egypt: implication for water treatment and human health. (United States)

    Mohamed, Zakaria A; Deyab, Mohamed Ali; Abou-Dobara, Mohamed I; El-Sayed, Ahmad K; El-Raghi, Wesam M


    Monitoring of cyanobacteria and their associated toxins has intensified in raw water sources of drinking water treatment plants (WTPs) in most countries of the world. However, it is not explored yet for Egyptian WTPs. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of cyanobacteria and their microcystin (MC) toxins in the Nile River source water of Damietta WTP during warm months (April-September 2013) and to evaluate the removal efficiency of both cyanobacterial cells and MCs by conventional methods used in this plant as a representative of Egyptian drinking WTPs. The results showed that the source water at the intake of Damietta WTP contained dense cyanobacterial population (1.1-6.6 × 107 cells L(-1)) dominated by Microcystis aeruginosa. This bloom was found to produce MC-RR and MC-LR. Both cyanobacterial cell density and intracellular MCs in the intake source water increased with the increase in temperature and nutrients during the study period, with maximum values obtained in August. During treatment processes, cyanobacterial cells were incompletely removed by coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation (C/F/S; 91-96.8%) or sand filtration (93.3-98.9%). Coagulation/flocculation induced the release of MCs into the ambient water, and the toxins were not completely removed or degraded during further treatment stages (filtration and chlorination). MCs in outflow tank water were detected in high concentrations (1.1-3.6 μg L - 1), exceeding WHO provisional guideline value of 1 μg L - 1 for MC-LR in drinking water. Based on this study, regular monitoring of cyanobacteria and their cyanotoxins in the intake source water and at different stages at all WTPs is necessary to provide safe drinking water to consumers or to prevent exposure of consumers to hazardous cyanobacterial metabolites.





    Complex use of resources in the regional water supply systems. Regional water supply systems have expanded the range from county to regional level. These are complex works meant to serve the customers from several counties. Viable sources of underground water have become lower in number, quality and volume, due to pollution. Also, the quality indicators of surface water have downgraded because of the pollution. This paper will analyze a typical case of regional system, the water supply system...

  3. Adapting to Water Stress in the Comahue Region of Argentina ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , quality, and distribution -generate local and regional climate and hydrological models and scenarios for mid- and long-term water availability -assess current water availability, use, and distribution in sub-regions of the Comahue and provide ...

  4. Estimating raw material equivalents on a macro-level: comparison of multi-regional input-output analysis and hybrid LCI-IO. (United States)

    Schoer, Karl; Wood, Richard; Arto, Iñaki; Weinzettel, Jan


    The mass of material consumed by a population has become a useful proxy for measuring environmental pressure. The "raw material equivalents" (RME) metric of material consumption addresses the issue of including the full supply chain (including imports) when calculating national or product level material impacts. The RME calculation suffers from data availability, however, as quantitative data on production practices along the full supply chain (in different regions) is required. Hence, the RME is currently being estimated by three main approaches: (1) assuming domestic technology in foreign economies, (2) utilizing region-specific life-cycle inventories (in a hybrid framework), and (3) utilizing multi-regional input-output (MRIO) analysis to explicitly cover all regions of the supply chain. While the first approach has been shown to give inaccurate results, this paper focuses on the benefits and costs of the latter two approaches. We analyze results from two key (MRIO and hybrid) projects modeling raw material equivalents, adjusting the models in a stepwise manner in order to quantify the effects of individual conceptual elements. We attempt to isolate the MRIO gap, which denotes the quantitative impact of calculating the RME of imports by an MRIO approach instead of the hybrid model, focusing on the RME of EU external trade imports. While, the models give quantitatively similar results, differences become more pronounced when tracking more detailed material flows. We assess the advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches and look forward to ways to further harmonize data and approaches.

  5. Region 9 Tribal Clean Water Act Programs and Grants (United States)

    EPA's Tribal Water Office in Region 9 manages all grants related to the Clean Water Act for over 100 federally recognized tribes and provides programmatic and technical assistance for water quality standards and CWA grant programs.

  6. optimization of water resources allocation in semi-arid region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eng Obi Ibeje

    Semi-arid regions are characterized by long, dry seasons and short mild wet seasons. They face periods of water shortages due to high demand and inconsistent supply. Water allocation is often the primary tool of water managers in semi- arid regions (Haten–Moussallen et al, 1999). “Water allocation is a means of dividing ...

  7. Comparison of antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from humans, chickens, raw milk, and environmental water in Québec. (United States)

    Lévesque, Simon; Frost, Eric; Michaud, Sophie


    This study compares the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance to erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline among 384 Campylobacter jejuni isolates from humans (245), fresh whole retail chickens (56), raw milk (33), and environmental water (41) collected between 2000 and 2003 in Québec, Canada. Resistance to ciprofloxacin was significantly more frequent in human isolates acquired abroad than in those acquired locally (50 versus 5.9%; P milk isolates. In contrast, resistance to erythromycin was significantly more common in chicken than in locally acquired human isolates (16 versus 3.0%, respectively; P milk, and human isolates acquired abroad. Resistance to tetracycline was significantly more common in chicken and human isolates acquired locally (58.9 and 45.8%, respectively) than in raw milk and water isolates (9.1 and 7.3%, respectively, P studies are needed to monitor trends in antimicrobial resistance among food, environment, and human C. jejuni isolates as well as antibiotic use in animals.

  8. Prevalence of antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus from raw milk samples collected from the local vendors in the region of Tirupathi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhanthirakodi Sudhanthiramani


    Full Text Available Aim: The study was carried out with the aim to identify the suitability of the milk for consumer use with special reference to Staphylococcus aureus from milk samples collected from various local vendors and determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of those positive isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 110 milk samples were collected from the local milk vendors in and around Tirupathi region of India. All the samples were enriched with buffered peptone water in 9:1 ratio and the then inoculated on baird parker agar medium with added 2% egg yolk tellurite emulsion as selective medium for S.aureus and confirmed with mannitol salt agar, Gram’s staining and biochemical tests. The typical cultural characters with coagulase-positive samples were taken as positive samples the positive samples were tested for antibiotic susceptibility with 10 different antibiotics by employing disc diffusion method. Results: Prevalence of coagulase-positive S. aureus was 39.09% (43/110 from the milk samples. The antibiotic susceptibility test of positive isolates showed high resistant toward penicillin G 37/43 (86.04% and ampicillin 32/43 (74.42%, and also showed resistant to methicillin 6/43 (13.95%, cephalothin 6/43 (13.95%, tetracycline 6/43 (13.95%, ciprofloxacin 4/43 (9.30%, enrofloxacin 3/43 (6.97%, cefoxitin 2/43 (4.65%, gentamicin 2/43 (4.65%, and co-trimoxazole 2/43 (4.65%. Many individual isolates showed resistant against two or more antibiotics in our study. Conclusion: The above study results show that the milk samples collected from local vendor having S. aureus, which can induce disease condition as well as antibiotic resistant to the humans particularly young children and old age peoples by means of consumption of raw milk and its products. This is the public health issue, which needs to be solved by educating the local vendors regarding health problems related to unhygienic milk supply and make the awareness among the consumers about this

  9. Impact of diatomite on the slightly polluted algae-containing raw water treatment process using ozone oxidation coupled with polyaluminum chloride coagulation. (United States)

    Hu, Wenchao; Wu, Chunde; Jia, Aiyin; Zhang, Zhilin; Chen, Fang


    The impact of adding diatomite on the treatment performance of slightly polluted algae-containing raw water using ozone pre-oxidation and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) coagulation was investigated. Results demonstrated that the addition of diatomite is advantageous due to reduction of the PAC dose (58.33%) and improvement of the removal efficiency of algae, turbidity, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in raw water. When the ozone concentration was 1.0 mg L⁻¹ and the PAC dosage was 2.5 mg L⁻¹, the removal rates of algae, turbidity, UV254, and TOC were improved by 6.39%, 7.06%, 6.76%, and 4.03%, respectively, with the addition of 0.4 g L⁻¹ diatomite. It has been found that the DOM presented in the Pearl River raw water mainly consisted of small molecules ( 50 kDa). After adding diatomite (0.4 g L⁻¹), the additional removal of 5.77% TOC and 14.82% UV254 for small molecules (50 kDa) could be achieved, respectively, at an ozone concentration of 1.0 mg L⁻¹ and a PAC dose of 2.5 mg L⁻¹. The growth of anabaena flos-aquae (A.F.) was observed by an atomic force microscope (AFM) before and after adding diatomite. AFM images demonstrate that diatomite may have a certain adsorption on A.F.

  10. Adapting to Water Stress in the Comahue Region of Argentina ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Climate change is expected to lead to decreases in annual precipitation for the Comahue region in central-west Argentina. Combined with a projected increase in water demand and use, this will likely result in more frequent and severe water shortages over the coming decades. Water access and distribution in the region is ...

  11. [Formation and changes of regulated trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids in raw water of Yangtze River, Huangpu River and different treatment processes and pipelines network]. (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Zhang, Dong; Lu, Yin-hao; Zheng, Wei-wei; Wu, Yu-xin; Wei, Xiao; Tian, Da-jun; Wang, Xia; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Shuai; Jiang, Song-hui; Qu, Wei-dong


    To investigate the pollutant levels of regulated disinfection by-products trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) in raw water from the Huangpu River, the Yangtze River and different treatment processes and finished water, and to explore the changes tendency in transmission and distribution pipeline network. A total of 65 ml water samples with two replicates were collected from different raw water, corresponding treatment processes, finished water and six national surveillance points in main network of transmission and distribution, water source for A water plant and B, C water plant was the Huangpu River and the Yangtze River, respectively. Regulated THMs and HAAs above water samples were detected by gas chromatography. The total trihalomethanes (THM(4)) concentration in different treatment processes of A water plant was ND-9.64 µg/L, dichlorobromomethane was the highest (6.43 µg/L). The THM(4) concentration in B and C water plant was ND to 38.06 µg/L, dibromochloromethane (12.24 µg/L) and bromoform (14.07 µg/L) were the highest in the B and the C water plant respectively. In addition to trichloroacetic acid in A water plant from the raw water, the other HAAs came from different treatment processes. The total haloacetic acids (HAA(6)) concentration of different treated processes in A water plant was 3.21 - 22.97 µg/L, mobromoacetic acid (10.40 µg/L) was the highest. Dibromoacetic acid was the highest both in B (8.25 µg/L) and C (8.84 µg/L) water plant, HAA(6) concentration was ND to 27.18 µg/L. The highest and the lowest concentration of THM(4) were found from the main distribution network of C and A water plant respectively, but the concentration of HAA(6) in the main water pipes network of A water plant was the highest, and the lowest in C water plant. The THMs concentration was 21.11 - 31.18 µg/L in C water plant and 6.72 - 8.51 µg/L in A water plant. The concentration of HAA(6) was 25.02 - 37.31 µg/L in A water plant and 18.69 - 23

  12. Incorporating the water footprint and virtual water into policy: reflections from the Mancha Occidental Region, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Aldaya, Maite; Martínez-Santos, Pedro; Llamas, M. Ramón


    Water resource management is often a controversial issue in semiarid regions. Most water resources experts admit that water conflicts are not caused by the physical water scarcity but they are mainly due to inadequate water management. The virtual water concept (the volume of water used in the

  13. Ecohydrology of dry regions: storage versus pulse soil water dynamics (United States)

    Lauenroth, William K.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Bradford, John B.


    Although arid and semiarid regions are defined by low precipitation, the seasonal timing of temperature and precipitation can influence net primary production and plant functional type composition. The importance of precipitation seasonality is evident in semiarid areas of the western U.S., which comprise the Intermountain (IM) zone, a region that receives important winter precipitation and is dominated by woody plants and the Great Plains (GP), a region that receives primarily summer precipitation and is dominated by perennial grasses. Although these general relationships are well recognized, specific differences in water cycling between these regions have not been well characterized. We used a daily time step soil water simulation model and twenty sites from each region to analyze differences in soil water dynamics and ecosystem water balance. IM soil water patterns are characterized by storage of water during fall, winter, and spring resulting in relatively reliable available water during spring and early summer, particularly in deep soil layers. By contrast, GP soil water patterns are driven by pulse precipitation events during the warm season, resulting in fluctuating water availability in all soil layers. These contrasting patterns of soil water—storage versus pulse dynamics—explain important differences between the two regions. Notably, the storage dynamics of the IN sites increases water availability in deep soil layers, favoring the deeper rooted woody plants in that region, whereas the pulse dynamics of the Great Plains sites provide water primarily in surface layers, favoring the shallow-rooted grasses in that region. In addition, because water received when plants are either not active or only partially so is more vulnerable to evaporation and sublimation than water delivered during the growing season, IM ecosystems use a smaller fraction of precipitation for transpiration (47%) than GP ecosystems (49%). Recognizing the pulse-storage dichotomy in

  14. Integrated water resource assessment for the Adelaide region, South Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cox, James W; Akeroyd, Michele; P. Oliver, Danielle


    .... WaterResourcesAssessmentandSeasonalPrediction Integrated water resource assessment for the Adelaide region, South Australia James W. Cox1,3, Michele Akeroyd2, and Danielle P. Oliver2,4 1South Australian...

  15. Acid Rain in Niger Delta Region: Implication on Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research focused on the effect of acid rain on the water quality of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Three hundred water samples were collected: 100 water samples from rain, 100 from open wells and 100 from rivers. The water samples were analysed using the paired t-test and multiple correlation analysis to ascertain ...

  16. Regional water scarcity -- a widely neglected challenge. (United States)

    Falkenmark, M


    Most of the world's population growth is taking place in developing countries. Thus, it is important to address the problem of meeting the subsequent growing demand for food. Fresh water and food are required for sustaining human life. To produce food requires considerable amounts of water. Water-scarce countries have 5 obstacles: period wet and dry seasons, most of the year is dry, recurrent droughts, erodible or impenetrable soils resulting in desiccation, and low recharge of aquifers and rivers. These conditions hinder their ability to become self-reliant in food production. Developing countries need to adopt an approach to water supply problems of finding how much water moves in and out of the ground and of the atmosphere and then determine how to best benefit from it, specifically an integrated approach to land and water. Decision makers must consider that forestry and land use practices affect the runoff of water. For example, tree growth and crop production consume rainwater, including returning water to the atmosphere via photosynthesis, leaving less water to recharge aquifers and rivers. Water takes on soluble pollutants as it moves through the environment and the atmosphere. Water storage is needed in arid areas, but construction of dams and reservoirs stirs conflict between human rights of local people adversely affected by construction and those of the people in drought-prone areas who would benefit from this construction. Population growth in urban areas requires bringing more water from ever more distant sources, reducing the amount needed for irrigation. For example, Coimbatore district in India is diverting irrigation water from the Bhavani River system to support industrial growth, Further, the untreated waste of growing urban populations jeopardizes the groundwater and rivers. Inadequate rural development is fueling the population explosion in urban areas. Countries need to take actions to improve rural living conditions, such as job creation and

  17. Raw Water Quality and Pretreatment in Managed  Aquifer Recharge for Drinking Water Production in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Jokela


    Full Text Available The main objective of managed aquifer recharge (MAR in Finland is the removal of natural organic matter (NOM from surface waters. A typical MAR procedure consists of the infiltration of surface water into a Quaternary glaciofluvial esker with subsequent withdrawal of the MAR treated water from wells a few hundred meters downstream. The infiltrated water should have a residence time of at least approximately one month before withdrawal to provide sufficient time for the subsurface processes needed to break down or remove humic substances. Most of the Finnish MAR plants do not have pretreatment and raw water is infiltrated directly into the soil. The objectives of this paper are to present MAR experiences and to discuss the need for and choice of pretreatment. Data from basin, sprinkling, and well infiltration processes are presented. Total organic carbon (TOC concentrations of the raw waters presented here varied from 6.5 to 11 mg/L and after MAR the TOC concentrations of the abstracted waters were approximately 2 mg/L. The overall reduction of organic matter in the treatment (with or without pretreatment was 70%-85%. Mechanical pretreatment can be used for clogging prevention. Turbidity of the Finnish lakes used as raw water does not necessitate pretreatment in basin and sprinkling infiltration, however, pretreatment in well infiltration needs to be judged separately. River waters may have high turbidity requiring pretreatment. Biodegradation of NOM in the saturated groundwater zone consumes dissolved oxygen. Thus, a high NOM concentration may create conditions for dissolution of iron and manganese from the soil. These conditions may be avoided by the addition of chemical pretreatment. Raw waters with TOC content up to at least approximately 8 mg/L were infiltrated without any considerations of chemical pretreatment, which should be evaluated based on local conditions.

  18. Water Management in England: A Regional Model (United States)

    Okun, Daniel A.


    Reorganization of authorities resulting in sound direction, greater flexibility, and more attention to cost effectiveness has helped the British achieve a high quality of water service. The history and development of British water management are reviewed and more cooperation between federal and state agencies is encouraged. (BT)

  19. Impacts of climate change on regional water resources


    Rehana, S; Mujumdar, PP


    Water is the most important medium through which climate change influences human life. Rising temperatures together with regional changes in precipitation patterns are some of the impacts of climate change that have implications on water availability, frequency and intensity of floods and droughts, soil moisture, water quality, water supply and water demands for irrigation and hydropower generation. In this article we provide an introduction to the emerging field of hydrologic impacts of clim...

  20. Estimation of freak wave occurrence in shallow water regions (United States)

    Kashima, Hiroaki


    In the last two decades, freak waves have become an important topic in engineering and science and are sometimes featured by a single and steep crest causing severe damage to offshore structures and vessels. An accurate estimation of maximum wave height and prediction of freak wave occurrence frequency is important for marine safety and ocean developments. According to several studies on freak waves, the deep-water third-order nonlinearity (quasi-resonant four-wave interactions) can lead to a significant enhancement of freak wave occurrence from normality. However, it is not clear the behavior of offshore generated freak waves shoaling to shallow water regions. In general, a numerical simulation based on Boussinesq model has been frequently and widely used to estimate wave transformation in shallow water regions and has high-level performance in the design of coast and harbor structures in Japan. However, it is difficult to describe the freak wave occurrence from deep to shallow water regions by the Boussinesq model because it can express only up to the second-order nonlinear interactions. There is a gap of governing equation between deep and shallow water regions from the extreme wave modeling point of view. It is necessary to investigate the aftereffects of generated freak waves by the third-order nonlinear interactions in deep water regions and their propagation to shallow water regions using the Boussinesq model. In this study, the model experiments in a wave tank and numerical simulations based on the Boussinesq model were conducted to estimate the freak wave occurrence from deep to shallow water regions. In the model experiments, the maximum wave height increases with an increase in kurtosis by the third-order nonlinear interactions in deep water regions. The dependence of kurtosis on freak wave occurrence weakens by the second-order nonlinear interactions associated with wave shoaling if dimensionless water depth kph becomes shallower than 1.363, which kp

  1. Purification and Structural Characterization of a Novel Water-Soluble Neutral Polysaccharide from Cantharellus cibarius and Its Immunostimulating Activity in RAW264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen


    Full Text Available Polysaccharide is one of the important active ingredients of Cantharellus cibarius. The aims of this work were to analyze preliminary characterization and to investigate immunostimulating activity of a novel water-soluble neutral polysaccharide named JP1, which was purified from the fruiting body of Cantharellus cibarius using DEAE-FF chromatography and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. The characteristics of JP1 were determined by HPGPC, FT-IR spectra, gas chromatography, and Congo Red Method. Immunostimulating activity of JP1 was investigated in RAW264.7 cells. Results indicated that JP1 consisted of L-Arabinose, D-Mannose, D-Glucose, and D-Galactose in a molar ratio of 1 : 1.06 : 1.95 : 1.17 with a molecular weight of 336 kDa. JP1 is nontoxic to RAW264.7 cells at this concentration range (62.5–1000 μg/mL. Furthermore, JP1 can promote mouse peritoneal macrophages to secrete NO and enhance the secretion of macrophages’ cytokines IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells. These results suggested that JP1 could have potential immunostimulating activity applications as medicine or functional food.

  2. Regional water footprints of potential biofuel production in China. (United States)

    Xie, Xiaomin; Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Liming; Huang, Zhen


    Development of biofuels is considered as one of the important ways to replace conventional fossil energy and mitigate climate change. However, rapid increase of biofuel production could cause other environmental concerns in China such as water stress. This study is intended to evaluate the life-cycle water footprints (WF) of biofuels derived from several potential non-edible feedstocks including cassava, sweet sorghum, and Jatropha curcas in China. Different water footprint types including blue water, green water, and grey water are considered in this study. Based on the estimated WF, water deprivation impact and water stress degree on local water environment are further analyzed for different regions in China. On the basis of the feedstock resource availability, sweet sorghum, cassava, and Jatropha curcas seeds are considered as the likely feedstocks for biofuel production in China. The water footprint results show that the feedstock growth is the most water footprint intensive process, while the biofuel conversion and transportation contribute little to total water footprints. Water footprints vary significantly by region with climate and soil variations. The life-cycle water footprints of cassava ethanol, sweet sorghum ethanol, and Jatropha curcas seeds biodiesel were estimated to be 73.9-222.2, 115.9-210.4, and 64.7-182.3 L of water per MJ of biofuel, respectively. Grey water footprint dominates the life-cycle water footprint for each type of the biofuels. Development of biofuels without careful water resource management will exert significant impacts on local water resources. The water resource impacts vary significantly among regions. For example, based on blue and grey water consumption, Gansu province in China will suffer much higher water stress than other regions do due to limited available water resources and large amount of fertilizer use in that province. In term of blue water, Shandong province is shown with the most severe water stress issue

  3. Sustainability assessment of regional water resources under the DPSIR framework (United States)

    Sun, Shikun; Wang, Yubao; Liu, Jing; Cai, Huanjie; Wu, Pute; Geng, Qingling; Xu, Lijun


    Fresh water is a scarce and critical resource in both natural and socioeconomic systems. Increasing populations combined with an increasing demand for water resources have led to water shortages worldwide. Current water management strategies may not be sustainable, and comprehensive action should be taken to minimize the water budget deficit. Sustainable water resources management is essential because it ensures the integration of social, economic, and environmental issues into all stages of water resources management. This paper establishes the indicators to evaluate the sustainability of water utilization based on the Drive-Pressure-Status-Impact-Response (DPSIR) model. Based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method, a comprehensive assessment of changes to the sustainability of the water resource system in the city of Bayannur was conducted using these indicators. The results indicate that there is an increase in the driving force of local water consumption due to changes in society, economic development, and the consumption structure of residents. The pressure on the water system increased, whereas the status of the water resources continued to decrease over the study period due to the increasing drive indicators. The local government adopted a series of response measures to relieve the decreasing water resources and alleviate the negative effects of the increasing driver in demand. The response measures improved the efficiency of water usage to a large extent, but the large-scale expansion in demands brought a rebounding effect, known as ;Jevons paradox; At the same time, the increasing emissions of industrial and agriculture pollutants brought huge pressures to the regional water resources environment, which caused a decrease in the sustainability of regional water resources. Changing medium and short-term factors, such as regional economic pattern, technological levels, and water utilization practices, can contribute to the sustainable utilization of

  4. Regional Approach for Water Policies in Southern Africa


    Maupin, Agathe


    In Southern Africa, the recent elaboration of treaties, protocols, new legislation, as well as political and economic changes, have encouraged and contributed to reorganising water management. The region includes around fifteen transboundary river basins, requiring a fine articulation between the reorganisation of Water Resources Management national laws and strategies to regional Protocol and River Basins Commissions. Approaches and models diverged from one State to another in the region. Si...

  5. Variation of microbial communities and functional genes during the biofilm formation in raw water distribution systems and associated effects on the transformation of nitrogen pollutants. (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Gu, Yanmei; Xu, Hang; Liu, Zhigang; Lu, Chunhui; Lin, Chenshuo


    This study aimed to investigate the variation of microbial communities and functional genes during the biofilm formation in raw water distribution systems without prechlorination and associated effects on the transformation of nitrogen pollutants by using a designed model pipe system. The results showed the transformation of nitrogen pollutants was obvious during the biofilm formation. The richness and diversity of the microbial communities changed significantly. The higher abundance of Nitrospirae in biofilm samples significantly contributed to biological nitrification. In particular, the stable content of Bacteroidetes in the biofilm and soluble microbial products released by the biomass might have enhanced the increase in dissolved organic nitrogen. In addition, the variation tendency of nitrogen functional gene abundances and their strong effects on NH4+-N, NO2--N, and NO3--N transformation were clearly observed. These findings provide new insights into the evolution of microbial communities and functional genes during the initial operation period of real-world raw water distribution pipes and highlight management and possible safety issues in the subsequent water treatment process.

  6. Modelling total sewage water discharge to a regional treatment plant.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, J.V.; Stricker, H.


    In the Netherlands, sewage water is often treated on a regional basis. In case of combined systems that are spread within a large region of several hundreds of square kilometers, reduction of the hydraulic capacity of the regional treatment plant seems possible, because of space-time variations in

  7. Regional and State Level Water Scarcity Report: Northeast United States (United States)

    Nicoletti, C. K.; Lopez-Morales, C. A.; Hoover, J. H.; Voigt, B. G.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Mohammed, I. N.


    There are an abundance of large-scale, coarse resolution global water scarcity studies, but the existing literature fails to address regional and state specific scarcity measures. Moreover, while environmental water requirements are an integral factor in the development and implementation of sustainable water management practices, only recently has this notion been introduced to water scarcity research. In this paper, we argue that developing a preliminary measure of water scarcity, at the regional and state levels, will allow for more informed policy development. The goal of this study is to generate a more comprehensive understanding of water scarcity in the Northeast, by gathering fine scale data, applying a consistent methodology to the calculation of a scarcity index, and analyzing the results to see relative trends in spatio-temporal water scarcity. Public supply, irrigation, rural, industrial and thermo-power withdrawals have been compiled from USGS state water use publications from 1950 to 1985. Using the WBMplus water model runoff data, state specific in-stream environmental water requirements were calculated using the accepted hydro-ecological methodology. Water scarcity was then calculated as a ratio of water withdrawals to total available water minus environmental flow requirements for the system. In so doing, this study generates a spatially explicit and temporally varying water scarcity indicator (WSI) for the Northeastern United States between 1950 and 2000 at the regional and state levels at a five-year time interval. Calculation of a spatial and temporal water scarcity indicator enabled us to identify regions and specific states that were: slightly exploited (WSI 1.0). The minimum environmental water requirements to maintain in-stream aquatic and riparian ecosystems for the Northeastern states ranged between 27.5 to 36.3 percent of the mean annual runoff within Vermont and Maryland, respectively. The regional WSI values ranged between 0.199 in 1950

  8. Prevalence and molecular characterisation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in raw milk cheeses from Lazio region, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene Marozzi


    Full Text Available In recent years, the incidence of foodborne diseases caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC has increased globally. For this reason, within the specific regional control plan for the detection of STEC in food products in Italy, the presence of STEC in unpasteurised milk cheeses was investigated. In total, 203 samples obtained from March 2011 to December 2013 were analysed, with two standard methods (ISO 16654:2001 and ISO 13136:2012. Two strains of E. coli O157 were isolated (2/161, 1.2% but did not carry any virulence-associated genes and 22 stx-positive samples (22/146, 15.1% were detected in enrichment cultures, mostly from ovine cheeses. Only two strains isolated from different ovine cheeses carried stx gene and none of these was eae-positive. This study confirms the presence of stx-positive E. coli and suggests that this type of food cannot be excluded as a potential vehicle of STEC.

  9. Promoting Effect of Sodium Chloride on the Solubilization and Depolymerization of Cellulose from Raw Biomass Materials in Water. (United States)

    Jiang, Zhicheng; Yi, Jian; Li, Jianmei; He, Ting; Hu, Changwei


    The development of a green system to solubilize cellulose from raw biomass is important, yet it is challenging because of the insolubility of cellulose in most solvents. Herein, a green NaCl-H2 O system is developed in which NaCl significantly enhances the dissolution and depolymerisation of cellulose from raw biomass. Nearly all the cellulose in the selected biomass types was dissolved and degraded into oligomers with molecular weights of 200-400 Da under relatively mild conditions. Cl(-) could interact strongly with the end OH group of the glucose unit in a 1:1 ratio, which resulted in the enhanced breaking of both inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds. In particular, the intermolecular hydrogen bond with an FTIR band at approximately v=3200 cm(-1) was disrupted significantly by Cl(-) . The FTIR band for a hydrogen bond between hemicellulose and lignin might appear at v=1636 cm(-1) , whereas this bond could be almost totally broken under hydrothermal conditions at 220 °C. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Estimation of radioactivity level and associated radiological hazards of limestone and gypsum used as raw building materials in Rawalpindi/Islamabad region of Pakistan. (United States)

    Gul, Rahmat; Ali, Safdar; Hussain, Manzur


    This study was undertaken to asses the radioactivity level of limestone and gypsum and its associated radiological hazard due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials. Representative samples of limestone and gypsum were collected from cement factories located in the Rawalpindi/Islamabad region of Pakistan and were analysed by using an N-type high-purity germanium detector of 80 % relative efficiency. The average activity concentration of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th were 60.22±3.47, 29.25±5.23 and 4.07±3.31 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in limestone and 70.86±4.1, 5.01±2.10 and 4.49±3.1 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in gypsum. The radiological hazard parameters radium equivalent activities, absorbed dose rate in air, external hazard index, internal hazard index, annual effective dose equivalent, gamma index and alpha index were computed. The results of the average activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th and radiological hazard parameters were within the range of the reported average worldwide/United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation values. It is concluded that limestone and gypsum used in the Rawalpindi/Islamabad region does not pose any excessive radiological health hazard as a building raw materials and in industrial uses.

  11. Geography and Dynamics of the Industries Processing Raw Materials of Animal Origin in the Villages of Kharkiv Region during the NEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lapchenko


    Full Text Available Background research related to the lack of researches in the given topic historiography. Territorial boundaries cover a large region — Kharkiv region, which until 1925 largely coincide with the boundaries of Kharkov province. And in 1925, it was divided into several provinces — Kharkov, Sumy, Kupiansk, Izyumskogo, Romney. The chronological boundaries article dated from 1921–1929’s, during which was implemented new economic polityka.Osnovnu attention paid to the article features geographically-sectoral design small-scale production of animal products in the region in 20 years of the twentieth century. On the basis of the detected and studied complex of sources the author analyzes the source base peasant industries in Kharkiv in this period. Found total number of farmers who were engaged in crafts processing animal products. Also revealed the specific industry Kharkov peasantry during nepu. Isnuvav number of factors that pushed the peasant engage in crafts: surplus agricultural products and raw materials; meet a wide range of numerous industrial, domestic and cultural needs; urgent need to replenish the family budget; surplus labor; free time from agricultural work (especially in winter and others. The development of rural industries processing animal products in the years 1921–1929 in the Kharkiv region characterized by strength and diversity. Village artisans representing an original way of small private commodity production. Basically crafts processing animal products involved in two socio-professional groups: lone artisan and peasant host of crafts. The social basis of industrial employment accounted malozemelni without sowing without Traction economy, which crafts were an important source of household income. The attention is focused on characteristic features of the state policy on «small business » peasants. Attention is paid to co-operation and effects of these industries on the further development rozvytok. Kooperatyvna form

  12. Microbiological impact of treatment lagoons on the economics of water for reuse in agriculture a case study in Morocco (Settat and Soualem regions). (United States)

    Oubrim, N; Ennaji, M M; Hajjami, K; Bennani, M; Hassar, M; Cohen, N


    This study was undertaken to enumerate pathogens: fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, fecal enterococci and Salmonella in the areas irrigated with treated wastewater. The samples were isolated from Settat (33°00'N, 7°37'W) and Soualem regions (34°26'N, 5°53'W). A total of (n= 48) raw water, (n=48) treated water, (n=71) of vegetables samples irrigated by treated water taken from Waste Water Treatment Plant Settat; A total of (n=24) raw water, (n=24) treated water, (n=97) of vegetables samples irrigated by treated water taken from Waste Water Treatment Plant Soualem. The results show the total average in the two stations of raw water 7.9, 6.1 log MPN 100 ml⁻¹ for respectively fecal coliforms and E. coli, 5.4 log CFU 100 ml⁻¹ for fecal enterococci and 5.2 log MPN L⁻¹ for Salmonella; for treated water 4.6, 3.1 log MPN 100 ml⁻¹ for respectively fecal coliforms and E.coli and 3.5 log CFU 100 ml⁻¹ for fecal enterococci. Regarding plants, four types of crops were harvested and analyzed (forage, herbs, cereals and vegetables), the germs charges were found with fecal coliforms, E.coli and fecal enterococci respectively 3.2, 2.8 and 4.1 log CFUg⁻¹. Salmonella was never detected in both treated water and crops samples.

  13. Sustainable water resources management of Prokletije region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana M Stevovic


    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is the upgrading of classic economic analyses of optimal concept selection of small hydro development. Techno-economic small hydro system needs to be environmentally friendly and socially acceptable solution. Environmental and social parameters are quantified by Delphi method. They are results of Environmental and Social impact assessment study of the project. Environmental and social parameters are incorporated in the techno-economic analyses for the optimal sustainable concept of small hydro development, by Elektra method, as possible multi attributive operational research model. System of small hydro power plants optimization for Prokletije streams catchments area is case study where the developed model is tested and proofed. Economic cost and total investment of fifteen possible small hydro power plants has been upgraded with quantified environmental and social parameters and analyzed in the function of sustainable economic development of Prokletije region.

  14. Estimation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis load in raw bulk tank milk in Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy) by qPCR. (United States)

    Ricchi, Matteo; Savi, Roberto; Bolzoni, Luca; Pongolini, Stefano; Grant, Irene R; De Cicco, Caterina; Cerutti, Giulia; Cammi, Giuliana; Garbarino, Chiara A; Arrigoni, Norma


    Consumption of milk and dairy products is considered one of the main routes of human exposure to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Quantitative data on MAP load in raw cows' milk are essential starting point for exposure assessment. Our study provides this information on a regional scale, estimating the load of MAP in bulk tank milk (BTM) produced in Emilia-Romagna region (Italy). The survey was carried out on 2934 BTM samples (88.6% of the farms herein present) using two different target sequences for qPCR (f57 and IS900). Data about the performances of both qPCRs are also reported, highlighting the superior sensitivity of IS900-qPCR. Seven hundred and eighty-nine samples tested MAP-positive (apparent prevalence 26.9%) by IS900 qPCR. However, only 90 of these samples were quantifiable by qPCR. The quantifiable samples contained a median load of 32.4 MAP cells mL(-1) (and maximum load of 1424 MAP cells mL(-1) ). This study has shown that a small proportion (3.1%) of BTM samples from Emilia-Romagna region contained MAP in excess of the limit of detection (1.5 × 10(1) MAP cells mL(-1) ), indicating low potential exposure for consumers if the milk subsequently undergoes pasteurization or if it is destined to typical hard cheese production. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Enhancing water security in a rapidly developing shale gas region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Holding


    New hydrological insights for the region: Initiatives and tools enhancing water security in the region include strategic partnerships and stakeholder collaborations, policy and regulation development, and data collection and distribution efforts. The contributions and limitations of each of these are discussed. A vulnerability mapping framework is presented which addresses data gaps and provides a tool for decision-making surrounding risk to water quality from various hazards. An example vulnerability assessment was conducted for wastewater transport along pipeline and trucking corridors.

  16. Water Mapping Technology Rebuilds Lives in Arid Regions (United States)


    Using NASA Landsat satellite and other remote sensing topographical data, Radar Technologies International developed an algorithm-based software program that can locate underground water sources. Working with international organizations and governments, the firm, which maintains an office in New Braunfels, Texas, is helping to provide water for refugees and other people in drought-stricken regions such as Kenya, Sudan, and Afghanistan.

  17. Water and Regional Stability: The Nile a Case Study (United States)


    Basin-Wide Study Final Report ( Dar es Salaam , Tanzania, May 2008), 2-1, 2-2. 30 Global Water Partnership Toolbox IWRM page, http...St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t WATER AND REGIONAL STABILITY: THE NILE A CASE STUDY BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL JOHN C. CURWEN her remarks to Congress , eloquently described many of the reasons why the United States views water as strategically important1. The 2010 report

  18. Water resources of the Lake Erie shore region in Pennsylvania (United States)

    Mangan, John William; Van Tuyl, Donald W.; White, Walter F.


    An abundant supply of water is available to the Lake Erie Shore region in Pennsylvania. Lake i£rie furnishes an almost inexhaustible supply of water of satisfactory chemical quality. Small quantities of water are available from small streams in the area and from the ground. A satisfactory water supply is one of the factors that affect the economic growth of a region. Cities and towns must have adequate amounts of pure water for human consumption. Industries must have suitable water ih sufficient quantities for all purposes. In order to assure. success and economy, the development of water resources should be based on adequate knowledge of the quantity and quality of the water. As a nation, we can not afford to run the risk of dissipating our resources, especially in times of national emergency, by building projects that are not founded on sound engineering and adequate water-resources information. The purpose of this report is to summarize and interpret all available water-resources information for the Lake Erie Shore region in Pennsylvania. The report will be useful for initial guidance in the location or expansion of water facilities for defense and nondefense industries and the municipalities upon which they are dependent. It will also be useful in evaluating the adequacy of the Geological Survey's part of the basic research necessary to plan the orderly development of the water resources of the Lake Erie Shore region. Most of the data contained inthis report have been obtained'by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Forests and Waters, the Pennsylvania Department of Internal Affairs, and the Pennsylvania State Planning Board, Department of Commerce. The Pennsylv~nia Department of Health furnished information on water pollution. The report was prepared in the Water Resources Division of the U. S. Geological Survey b:y John W. Mangan (Surface Water). Donald W. VanTuyl (Ground Water). and Walter F. White, Jr. (Quality of

  19. Escherichia coli O157:H7/NM prevalence in raw beef, camel, sheep, goat, and water buffalo meat in Fars and Khuzestan provinces, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Rahimi


    Full Text Available Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC of the O157:H7 serotype is a worldwide zoonotic pathogen responsible for the majority of severe cases of human EHEC disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of E. coli O157: H7/NM in raw meat samples from two provinces of Iran. During a period from March 2010 to March 2011. Two hundred and ninety five raw meat samples were collected from beef (n= 85, camel, (n= 50, sheep (n= 62, goat (n= 60, and water buffalo (n=38. Fourteen (4.7% of the 295 samples were positive for E. coli O157. The highest prevalence of E. coli O157 was found in beef samples (8.2%, followed by water buffalo (5.3%, sheep (4.8%, camel (2.0%, and goat (1.7%. Of fourteen E. coli O157 isolates, only one was determined to be serotype O157: H7 while 13 were determined as serotype O157: NM. Of the 14 E. coli O157:H7/NM isolates, one, four, two, and one strains were positive for stx1, stx2, eaeA and ehlyA genes, respectively. The prevalence of this organism varied between seasons with the highest prevalence of E. coli O157 occurring in summer (9.3%. The results of this study showed that beef and water buffalo meat are a significant source for human EHEC E. coli O157:H7/NM infection in Iran. The data reported in this study provides some useful baseline in formation for future research such as molecular or epidemiologic works.

  20. Escherichia coli O157:H7/NM prevalence in raw beef, camel, sheep, goat, and water buffalo meat in Fars and Khuzestan provinces, Iran. (United States)

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Kazemeini, Hamid Reza; Salajegheh, Mohammad


    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) of the O157:H7 serotype is a worldwide zoonotic pathogen responsible for the majority of severe cases of human EHEC disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of E. coli O157: H7/NM in raw meat samples from two provinces of Iran. During a period from March 2010 to March 2011. Two hundred and ninety five raw meat samples were collected from beef (n= 85), camel, (n= 50), sheep (n= 62), goat (n= 60), and water buffalo (n=38). Fourteen (4.7%) of the 295 samples were positive for E. coli O157. The highest prevalence of E. coli O157 was found in beef samples (8.2%), followed by water buffalo (5.3%), sheep (4.8%), camel (2.0%), and goat (1.7%). Of fourteen E. coli O157 isolates, only one was determined to be serotype O157: H7 while 13 were determined as serotype O157: NM. Of the 14 E. coli O157:H7/NM isolates, one, four, two, and one strains were positive for stx1, stx2, eaeA and ehlyA genes, respectively. The prevalence of this organism varied between seasons with the highest prevalence of E. coli O157 occurring in summer (9.3%). The results of this study showed that beef and water buffalo meat are a significant source for human EHEC E. coli O157:H7/NM infection in Iran. The data reported in this study provides some useful baseline in formation for future research such as molecular or epidemiologic works.

  1. Hampton roads regional Water-Quality Monitoring Program (United States)

    Porter, Aaron J.; Jastram, John D.


    IntroductionHow much nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended solids are contributed by the highly urbanized areas of the Hampton Roads region in Virginia to Chesapeake Bay? The answer to this complex question has major implications for policy decisions, resource allocations, and efforts aimed at restoring clean waters to Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. To quantify the amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended solids delivered to the bay from this region, the U.S. Geological Survey has partnered with the Hampton Roads Sanitation District (HRSD), in cooperation with the Hampton Roads Planning District Commission (HRPDC), to conduct a water-quality monitoring program throughout the Hampton Roads region.

  2. Synthesized attributes of water use by regional vegetation: a key to cognition of "water pump" viewpoint. (United States)

    Huang, Xin-hui; Yu, Fu-ke; Li, Xiao-ying; Zheng, Yuan; Yuan, Hua; Ma, Jian-gang; Wang, Yan-xia; Qi, Dan-hui; Shao, Hong-bo


    Recently, the frequent seasonal drought in Southwest China has brought considerable concerns and continuous heated arguments on the "water pump" viewpoint (i.e., the water demand from Hevea spp. and Eucalyptus spp. can be treated as a water pump) once again. However, such viewpoint just focused on water consumption from vegetation transpiration and its ecoenvironment impacts, which had not considered other attributes of vegetation, namely, water saving and drought resistance, and hydrological regulation (water conservation) into consideration. Thus, in this paper, the synthesized attributes of regional vegetation water use had been mainly discussed. The results showed that the study on such aspects as the characters of water consumption from vegetation transpiration, the potential of water saving and drought resistance, and the effects of hydrological regulation in Southwest China lagged far behind, let alone the report on synthesized attributes of water utilization with the organic combination of the three aspects above or the paralleled analysis. Accordingly, in this paper, the study on the synthesized attributes of water use by regional vegetation in Southwest China was suggested, and the objectives of such a special study were clarified, targeting the following aspects: (i) characters of water consumption from transpiration of regional typical artificial vegetation; (ii) potential of water saving and drought resistance of regional typical artificial vegetation; (iii) effects of hydrological regulation of regional typical artificial vegetation; (iv) synthesized attributes of water use by regional typical artificial vegetation. It is expected to provide a new idea for the scientific assessment on the regional vegetation ecoenvironment effects and theoretical guidance for the regional vegetation reconstruction and ecological restoration.

  3. Water, energy, and food security in the Asia Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Taniguchi


    Full Text Available Security measures of three resources; water, energy and food are analyzed for thirty two countries in the Asia Pacific region which are faced to Pacific Ocean, in terms of amounts of the resource, self-production, and diversity of sources of each resource. Diversity for all the three resources is also analyzed using surface water and groundwater for water sources; hydro power, geothermal power, solar, and biomass for energy; and cereals, vegetable, fruit, meat, and fish for food. We see high diversity of sources of water in the US and the Philippines, and a low diversity of sources of food in the US, Canada, and Indonesia. These security measures including water security show new hydrological insight for Asia-Pacific region.

  4. Quality of raw milk produced in agreste region of Pernambuco, Brazil / Qualidade do leite cru produzido na região do agreste de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia de Aguiar Ferreira Barros


    Full Text Available The poor quality of raw milk is the main problem in dairy industries, once it can directly interfere in the productivity and quality of dairy products. The Pernambuco is not different. located between the Zona da Mata and the Sertão regions, is responsible for a daily milk production of 980,000 liters, and presented an increase of 23% in the last two years. This study aimed the evaluation of the microbiological and physical-chemical quality of raw milk produced in the Agreste region of Pernambuco. Raw milk samples were collected from 53 dairy farms located at the following cities: Saloá, Águas Belas, São Bento do Una and Bom Conselho. For microbiological analysis, all samples were plated for mesophilic aerobes, total coliforms, Escherichia coli and DNase positive staphylococci in specific Petrifilm™ (3M Microbiology, St. Paul, USA. Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were detected using VIDAS system (bioMérieux SA, Marcy l'Etoile, France. Organophosphorade and carbamates were detected by thin layer chromatography. Fat, protein, and lactose contents, total and non-fat solids, and density were obtained by ultrasound method using am automatic milk analyzer (Boecolac-60, Boeco, Hamburg, Germany. In addition, the raw milk samples were evaluated to cryoscopic, California Mastitis Test (CMT, peroxidase, Dornic acidity and Ring-test to brucellosis status of herds. In microbiological analysis, all samples presented high counts of the researched indicators microorganisms. The average of mesophilic aerobes was 1.68 X 107 with 83% of samples over 106. Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp were not found, 47% of the samples were positive for organophosphates and/or carbamates, 67.9% of the samples were positive for CMT and 26.4% for ring test. Thus, only 2 (3.77% samples were accordance with the established parameters of Instrução Normativa 51.,P.A qualidade do leite é um dos maiores problemas da cadeia do leite no Brasil, interferindo

  5. [Metallic content of water sources and drinkable water in industrial cities of Murmansk region]. (United States)

    Doushkina, E V; Dudarev, A A; Sladkova, Yu N; Zachinskaya, I Yu; Chupakhin, V S; Goushchin, I V; Talykova, L V; Nikanov, A N


    Performed in 2013, sampling of centralized and noncentralized water-supply and analysis of engineering technology materials on household water use in 6 cities of Murmansk region (Nikel, Zapolyarny, Olenegorsk, Montchegorsk, Apatity, Kirovsk), subjected to industrial emissions, enabled to evaluate and compare levels of 15 metals in water sources (lakes and springs) and the cities' drinkable waters. Findings are that some cities lack sanitary protection zones for water sources, most cities require preliminary water processing, water desinfection involves only chlorination. Concentrations of most metals in water samples from all the cities at the points of water intake, water preparation and water supply are within the hygienic norms. But values significantly (2-5 times) exceeding MACs (both in water sources and in drinkable waters of the cities) were seen for aluminium in Kirovsk city and for nickel in Zapolarny and Nikel cities. To decrease effects of aluminium, nickel and their compounds in the three cities' residents (and preserve health of the population and offsprings), the authors necessitate specification and adaptation of measures to purify the drinkable waters from the pollutants. In all the cities studied, significantly increased concentrations of iron and other metals were seen during water transportation from the source to the city supply--that necessitates replacement of depreciated water supply systems by modern ones. Water taken from Petchenga region springs demonstrated relatively low levels of metals, except from strontium and barium.

  6. Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in raw and drinking water - current situation in Sweden, Denmark and Germany (United States)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Bester, Kai; Filipovic, Marko; Lewis, Jeffrey; Licha, Tobias; Sparrenbom, Charlotte; Barthel, Roland


    Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of anthropogenic environmental pollutants which have been used and produced for more than 60 years. PFASs are used for multiple industrial purposes, e.g. as water repellent on clothing, leather, and paper and as firefighting foam. The most well studied PFASs subgroup are perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA). Two PFAAs of particular interest are perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). These are the most studied homologues which are ubiquitously detected in the aquatic environment, wildlife and humans. Some PFASs are recognized as being potentially toxic for both animals and humans (e.g. PFOS), whereas the majority has not been thoroughly studied yet regarding their toxicity. PFAAs are highly mobile once present in the aquatic environment. Currently, they are not eliminated during conventional wastewater or drinking water treatment and therefore pose a severe threat for drinking water supply. We reviewed the current occurrence of PFAAs in the surface and groundwater and legal situation of PFAAs in Sweden, Denmark and Germany. Although first detections of PFAAs were reported in the early 2000s, PFASs only recently attracted huge media attention raising public concern. In Sweden, for instance, several public waterworks needed to cease operation due to high PFASs concentrations in drinking water. Moreover, threshold values for drinking water are under discussion and a first preliminary guiding value for PFOS was recently presented as a first step (Pettersson et al., 2015). Germany only defined a guiding value for the sum of PFOS and PFOA in drinking water so far (Dieter, 2011). Limits of 0.3 μg/L PFOA and 0.1 μg/L PFOS and PFOSA each have been suggested in Denmark (MST, 2015). In summary, none of the three countries has defined a clear threshold value for any PFAS compound in drinking water so far. This is of huge concern as PFASs are detected at increasing rates while it remains unclear when

  7. Relationship of regional water quality to aquifer thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.


    Ground-water quality and associated geologic characteristics may affect the feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system development in any hydrologic region. This study sought to determine the relationship between ground-water quality parameters and the regional potential for ATES system development. Information was collected from available literature to identify chemical and physical mechanisms that could adversely affect an ATES system. Appropriate beneficiation techniques to counter these potential geochemical and lithologic problems were also identified through the literature search. Regional hydrology summaries and other sources were used in reviewing aquifers of 19 drainage regions in the US to determine generic geochemical characteristics for analysis. Numerical modeling techniques were used to perform geochemical analyses of water quality from 67 selected aquifers. Candidate water resources regions were then identified for exploration and development of ATES. This study identified six principal mechanisms by which ATES reservoir permeability may be impaired: (1) particulate plugging, (2) chemical precipitation, (3) liquid-solid reactions, (4) formation disaggregation, (5) oxidation reactions, and (6) biological activity. Specific proven countermeasures to reduce or eliminate these effects were found. Of the hydrologic regions reviewed, 10 were identified as having the characteristics necessary for ATES development: (1) Mid-Atlantic, (2) South-Atlantic Gulf, (3) Ohio, (4) Upper Mississippi, (5) Lower Mississippi, (6) Souris-Red-Rainy, (7) Missouri Basin, (8) Arkansas-White-Red, (9) Texas-Gulf, and (10) California.

  8. Impact of using raw or fermented manure as fish feed on microbial quality of water and fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagham Elsaidy


    Full Text Available The microbial water and fish quality was assessed due to feeding of chicken manure (CM and fermented chicken manure (FCM to fish in ponds, using Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus which were classified into 7 groups (G. Each group received different mixtures of CM or FCM with fish ration (FR, 0:100, 25:75, 50:50 and 100:0 (%CM or FCM:% FR. The obtained results revealed that total bacterial count (TBC and total coliform count (TCC were significantly high at P ⩽ 0.05 in CM than both FCM and fish ration (FR. Escherichia coli and Salmonella were isolated from CM but not from FCM or FR. Additionally, TBC and TCC were significantly high at P ⩽ 0.05 at water and fish samples raised at CM ponds followed by FCM ponds in comparison with FR. Both E. coli and Salmonella were isolated from water and fish raised in ponds receiving either CM or FCM with higher incidence in those with CM. However all water and fish samples examined were free from E-coli O157: H7. The obtained results, proved the influence of CM on water and fish quality and recommend the use of FCM as a bacteriologically safe fish pond fertilizer.

  9. Environmental and human impacts on Bangalore's regional water scarcity (United States)

    Penny, G.; Srinivasan, V.; Thompson, S. E.


    The Arkavathy River Basin adjacent to Bangalore, India, faces a multitude of challenges driven by water demands from urbanization and intensification of agriculture. In the Arkavathy Basin, the two major reservoirs that historically supplied water to Bangalore now receive little to no inflow. Recent research has resulted in multiple plausible hypotheses attributing streamflow reductions in the Arkavathy to (1) increased evapotranspiration due to a boom in eucalyptus plantations and irrigated agriculture, and (2) increased deep drainage from surface soils due to long-term, excessive groundwater extraction. Current knowledge of Bangalore's water scarcity is largely based on anecdotal evidence and the sparse environmental data for this region is insufficient to definitively test these hypotheses. To bridge the gap between provincial and academic knowledge and better understand the nature of regional water resource depletion, we utilize a range of methods to integrate information across spatial and temporal scales. We use the full history of Landsat satellite imagery to approximate post-monsoon water storage in tanks and construct a spatially-explicit, historical record of surface water. We combine stable isotope mixing models, traditional field methods, and kite photography to build a deeper understanding of rainfall-runoff processes. Remote-sensing results confirm reductions of surface water in many of the tanks in the upper reaches of the watershed. We also observe an increase in surface water availability downstream of Bangalore, where imported water results in large waste flows. Field methods reveal considerable contributions of Hortonian overland flow due to soils with low hydraulic conductivity, mitigating changes in the subsurface water balance. We conclude that surface water availability is strongly related to spatial patterns of urban and agricultural water demand overlaid on a template defined by topography, soil, and climate.

  10. Characteristics of DOM and Removal of DBPs Precursors across O3-BAC Integrated Treatment for the Micro-Polluted Raw Water of the Huangpu River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwu Lu


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the impact upon dissolved organic matter (DOM and removal of disinfection by-product (DBP precursors of adding an ozone-biological activated carbon (O3-BAC process after the conventional treatment process (CTP using water from the Huangpu River in Shanghai, east China. Several metrics, including size fractionation, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP, were employed to accomplish this goal. In the raw water collected from the Huangpu River, the low molecular weight (MW molecules (MW 10 kDa by 61% and the low MW molecules (MW <3 kDa by only 8%. The O3-BAC presented an accumulated DOC removal efficiency of approximately 50%, in particular, showing a high degree of the removal effectiveness of low MW molecules. Samplings from the CTP, ozone and BAC were subjected to excessive chlorination to determine the THMFP, and the measured concentrations were 211.89 ± 4.58 µg/L, 169.52 ± 4.55 µg/L, and 124.42 ± 4.27 µg/L, respectively. Therefore, coupled with the THMFP removal rate of 74%, the addition of the O3-BAC process after an existing CTP improved the water quality of the effluent, particularly, in terms of the improved reduction in the precursors of DBPs.

  11. Pollutants impact bioassay from waters and soils in Banat region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crina Laura Mosneang


    Full Text Available Analyses of water and soil samples by chemical methods identified the quantities of chlorides, nitrates and phosphates by comparison with the maximum limits of law. Acute toxicity tests on zebra fish embryos is an alternative test of water samples around swine farms in Banat region, because embryos are not subject to animal protection legislation during experiments. The use of Eisenia fetida earthworms as pollution indicators allowed assessment of avoidance behavior of potentially polluting soils collected from different distances from farms.

  12. Impacts of Groundwater Pumping on Regional and Global Water Resources (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide


    Except frozen water in ice and glaciers (68%), groundwater is the world's largest distributed store of freshwater (30%), and has strategic importance to global food and water security. In this chapter, the most recent advances assessing human impact on regional and global groundwater resources are reviewed. This chapter critically evaluates the recently advanced modeling approaches quantifying the effect of groundwater pumping in regional and global groundwater resources and the evidence of feedback to the Earth system including sea-level rise associated with groundwater use. At last, critical challenges and opportunities are identified in the use of groundwater to adapt to growing food demand and uncertain climate.

  13. Regional Water System Vulnerabilities and Strengths for Unavoidable Climate Adaptation (United States)

    Gleick, P. H.; Palaniappan, M.; Christian-Smith, J.; Cooley, H.


    A wide range of options are available to help water systems prepare and adapt for unavoidable climate impacts, but these options vary depending on region, climatic conditions, economic status, and technical infrastructure in place. Drawing on case studies from the United States, India, and elsewhere, and from both urban and agricultural water systems, risks to water supply and quality are evaluated and summarized and categories of responses to help improve the effectiveness of adaptation policies are reviewed. Among the issues to be discussed are characteristics unique to developing country cities, such as the predominance of informal actors in the water sector. The formal, or government sector, which often exclusively manages water access and distribution in developed country cities, is only one among many players in the water sector in developing country cities. Informal access to water includes direct access by individuals through private groundwater systems, private water markets using vendors or sales of bottled water, and rainwater harvesting systems on individual homes. In this environment, with already existing pressures on water availability and use, the impacts of climate change on water will be strongly felt. This complicates planning for water supply and demand and risks increasing already prevalent water insecurity, especially for urban poor. In wealthier countries, any planning for water-related climate impacts tends to take the form of "business as usual" responses, such as efforts to expand supply with new infrastructure, manage demand through conservation programs, or simply put off addressing the problem to the next generation of managers and users. These approaches can be effective, but also risk missing unusual, non-linear, or threshold impacts. Examples of more informed and innovative efforts to substantively address climate change risks will be presented.

  14. Mapping Climate Change Vulnerability Distribution of Water Resources in a Regional Water Supply System (United States)

    Liu, T.; Tung, C.; Li, M.


    In recent years, the threat of increasing frequency of extreme weather rise up human attention on climate change. It is important to know how climate change might effect regional water resources, however, there is not much information to help government understanding how climate change will effect the water resources locally. To a regional water supply system, there might be some hotspots more vulnerable to climate. For example, the water supply of some area is from the water of river. When the storm occurred, the water can't be treated due to high density of suspended sediment in the river. Then the water supply in this area is more vulnerable to climate. This study used an integrated tool - TaiWAP (Taiwan Water Resources Assessment Program) for climate change vulnerability assessment on water resources, which includes 10 GCMs output of SRES A2, A1B, B2 scenarios, weather generator, GWLF model, and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) tool. A water supply system is very complex which needs dynamic modeling to determine the vulnerability distribution. This study used a system dynamics model- VENSIM connected with TaiWAP to simulate a water supply system and evaluate vulnerability of each unit in a water supply system. The vulnerable hotspots will be indicated in the system and the adaptive strategies will be applied to strengthen the local vulnerable area. The adaptive capacity will be enhanced to mitigate climate change impacts on water supply system locally to achieve sustainable water uses.

  15. Proposing water balance method for water availability estimation in Indonesian regional spatial planning (United States)

    Juniati, A. T.; Sutjiningsih, D.; Soeryantono, H.; Kusratmoko, E.


    The water availability (WA) of a region is one of important consideration in both the formulation of spatial plans and the evaluation of the effectiveness of actual land use in providing sustainable water resources. Information on land-water needs vis-a-vis their availability in a region determines the state of the surplus or deficit to inform effective land use utilization. How to calculate water availability have been described in the Guideline in Determining the Carrying Capacity of the Environment in Regional Spatial Planning. However, the method of determining the supply and demand of water on these guidelines is debatable since the determination of WA in this guideline used a rational method. The rational method is developed the basis for storm drain design practice and it is essentially a peak discharge method peak discharge calculation method. This paper review the literature in methods of water availability estimation which is described descriptively, and present arguments to claim that water balance method is a more fundamental and appropriate tool in water availability estimation. A better water availability estimation method would serve to improve the practice in preparing formulations of Regional Spatial Plan (RSP) as well as evaluating land use capacity in providing sustainable water resources.

  16. The Study of Impacts of Water Transferring From Wet Regions To Dry Regions In Iran (United States)

    Motiee-Homayoun, Dr.; Ghomashchi, Dr.

    Iran, with a very diverse ecology and different climate has been classified as a dry- semidry region. Iran's annual average of rain-fall is about 250 mm, while this figure is more than 1000 mm in north and less than 100 mm in the south of the country. Overall, Iran's water resources are low. Rapid population growth, economic growth together with significant urban development, in recent decades, has led to underestimate high demands for water. Therefore, water shortage has been considered more obviously. Such an important scare is rather serious in central and eastern regions of the country. This problem has been determined as a serious challenge for Iran's government and national water authorities, in particular. Although, drinking water supply is only 6 percent of total water resources, due to direct socio-political impacts, drinking water supply, in both quality and quantity, is more serious and important than agricultural water demands. Accordingly, for the following reasons: 1) Desperation and diversity of geographical conditions of urban areas 2) Low access to underground water 3) Inadequate quality surface water supply Difficulties and the costs of supplying urban water in Iran have been sharply increased. Presently, due to unconstrained consuming underground water and negative balance in most under ground resources of the country, more specifically in central and eastern regions, water supply from groundwater resources is very risky and misleading. Furthermore, other reason such as rapid urban population growth and changes in people's every day life and their consumption patterns increase both water consumption and waste water in the circumstances of inadequate sewage systems, make a vast source of pollution for water resources. Due to the influence of extended See (Salty) water, in southern provinces, near to Persian Gulf, accessibility to fresh water is rather difficult and in many cases only after tens of kilometers far from the see, fresh water could be

  17. Virtual Water Trade: Revisiting the Assessments to Incorporate Regional Water Stress (United States)

    Perveen, S.; Puma, M. J.; Troy, T. J.; Browne, M.; Ghosh, M.


    Virtual water (VW) refers to the volume of freshwater embedded in the production and shipment of a commodity, which can include agricultural or industrial products, and the trade of commodities can then be viewed as the trade of one region's water resources to another. The premise behind this trade is that countries with a comparative water advantage may choose to export crops, and countries with scarce water resources may focus economic activity on non-water intensive sectors. However, this assumption is not always true given food self-sufficiency policies; water scarce regions often choose to unsustainably mine aquifers for irrigation. Recent studies have shown no correlation between dependency on VW imports and water scarcity for nations, suggesting that politico-economic considerations rather than resource scarcity considerations may dominate the current VW dynamics. Existing VW computations do not take into account water-scarcity value or the full-cost pricing of commodities. This study aims to fill in this gap by focusing on three countries - the United States, India, and Japan - and their production, imports and exports of crop, livestock and industrial commodities. These countries offer three different perspectives on virtual water, with Japan as a net importer of agriculture virtual water and a major industrial nation. The United States, on the other hand, exports significant quantities of grain. India is a developing country with a strong focus on food self-sufficiency. We first quantify the amount of water used in the production of each commodity and then examine the virtual water trade balance for each country, examining the tradeoffs each country has made between agriculture and industrial water use; given that water resources are finite. To examine the interplay between virtual water trade and water scarcity, we focus on two sub-regions, the Ogallala Aquifer in the US and the Punjab region in India, both of which have significant agricultural

  18. Establishing Vulnerability Map of Water Resources in Regional Water Supply System (United States)

    Liu, T. M.; Tung, C. P.; Li, M. H.


    In recent years, the threat of increasing frequency of extreme weather rise up human attention on climate change. To reduce the threat of water scarcity, it is important to know how climate change might affect regional water resources and where the hotspots, the vulnerability points, are. However, there is not much information to help government understanding how climate change will affect the water resources locally. To a regional water supply system, there might be some hotspots more vulnerable to climate due to the lack of water treatment plants or tape water pipe system. And also, there might be some hotspots more vulnerable due to high population and high industrial product value when they expose to the same threat of water scarcity. This study aims to evaluate the spatial vulnerability distribution of water resources and propose the adaptive plan for southern region of Taiwan. An integrated tool - TaiWAP (Taiwan Water Resources Assessment Program) for climate change vulnerability assessment on water resources, which includes 10 GCMs output of SRES A2, A1B, B2 scenarios, weather generator, GWLF model, and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) tool is used for climate impact assessment. For the simulation of the complex water supply system, the system dynamics model- VENSIM which is connected with TaiWAP is adopted to simulate a water supply system and evaluate vulnerability of each unit in a water supply system. The vulnerable hotspots will be indicated in the system and the adaptive strategies will be applied to strengthen the local vulnerable area. The adaptive capacity will be enhanced to mitigate climate change impacts on water supply system locally to achieve sustainable water uses.

  19. Comparison of water-energy trajectories of two major regions experiencing water shortage. (United States)

    Lam, Ka Leung; Lant, Paul A; O'Brien, Katherine R; Kenway, Steven J


    Water shortage, increased demand and rising energy costs are major challenges for the water sector worldwide. Here we use a comparative case study to explore the long-term changes in the system-wide water and associated energy use in two different regions that encountered water shortage. In Australia, South East Queensland (SEQ) encountered a drought from 2001 to 2009, while Perth has experienced a decline in rainfall since the 1970s. This novel longitudinal study quantifies and compares the urban water consumption and the energy use of the water supply systems in SEQ and Perth during the period 2002 to 2014. Unlike hypothetical and long-term scenario studies, this comparative study quantifies actual changes in regional water consumption and associated energy, and explores the lessons learned from the two regions. In 2002, Perth had a similar per capita water consumption rate to SEQ and 48% higher per capita energy use in the water supply system. From 2002 to 2014, a strong effort of water conservation can be seen in SEQ during the drought, while Perth has been increasingly relying on seawater desalination. By 2014, even though the drought in SEQ had ended and the drying climate in Perth was continuing, the per capita water consumption in SEQ (266 L/p/d) was still 28% lower than that of Perth (368 L/p/d), while the per capita energy use in Perth (247 kWh/p/yr) had increased to almost five times that of SEQ (53 kWh/p/yr). This comparative study shows that within one decade, major changes in water and associated energy use occurred in regions that were similar historically. The very different "water-energy" trajectories in the two regions arose partly due to the type of water management options implemented, particularly the different emphasis on supply versus demand side management. This study also highlights the significant energy saving benefit of water conservation strategies (i.e. in SEQ, the energy saving was sufficient to offset the total energy use for

  20. Adsorption properties of kaolinite-based nanocomposites for Fe and Mn pollutants from aqueous solutions and raw ground water: kinetics and equilibrium studies. (United States)

    Shaban, Mohamed; Hassouna, Mohamed E M; Nasief, Fadya M; AbuKhadra, Mostafa R


    Raw kaolinite was used in the synthesis of metakaolinite/carbon nanotubes (K/CNTs) and kaolinite/starch (K/starch) nanocomposites. Raw kaolinite and the synthetic composites were characterized using XRD, SEM, and TEM techniques. The synthetic composites were used as adsorbents for Fe and Mn ions from aqueous solutions and natural underground water. The adsorption by the both composites is highly pH dependent and achieves high efficiency within the neutral pH range. The experimental adsorption data for the uptake of Fe and Mn ions by K/CNTs were found to be well represented by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model rather than the intra-particle diffusion model or Elovich model. For the adsorption using K/starch, the uptake results of Fe ions was well fitted by the second-order model, whereas the uptake of Mn ions fitted well to the Elovich model rather than pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion models The equilibrium studies revealed the excellent fitting of the removal of Fe and Mn ions by K/CNTs and Fe using K/starch with the Langmuir isotherm model rather than with Freundlich and Temkin models. But the adsorption of Mn ions by K/starch is well fitted with Freundlich rather than Temkin and Langmuir isotherm models. The thermodynamic studies reflected the endothermic nature and the exothermic nature for the adsorption by K/CNTs and K/starch nanocomposites, respectively. Natural ground water contaminated by 0.4 mg/L Fe and 0.5 mg/L Mn was treated at the optimum conditions of pH 6 and 120 min contact time. Under these conditions, 92.5 and 72.5% Fe removal efficiencies were achieved using 20 mg of K/CNTs and K/starch nanocomposites, respectively. Also, K/CNTs nanocomposite shows higher efficiency in the removal of Mn ions as compared to K/starch nanocomposite.

  1. City, region, and in between: New York City's water supply and the insights of regional history. (United States)

    Soll, David


    Urban historians have greatly expanded their geographical purview in recent years, incorporating suburbs and hinterlands into their analysis of social and environmental change. Urban environmental historians and suburban historians have played a critical role in the regionalization of urban history over the last decade. This case study of the development of New York City’s water supply reveals the benefits of taking a regional approach to urban history. From the New York Public Library to Central Park’s Great Lawn to neighborhood parks, the New York City landscape bears the traces of the continuous development of the city’s water network. Expansion of the water system in rural hinterlands enabled municipal officials to put urban reservoirs to new uses, creating some of the city’s most beloved public spaces. The rehabilitation of urban infrastructure underscores the intimate linkages between rural development and the urban built environment.

  2. Evaluation of tunnel seismic prediction (TSP) result using the Japanese highway rock mass classification system for Pahang-Selangor Raw Water Transfer Tunnel (United States)

    Von, W. C.; Ismail, M. A. M.


    The knowing of geological profile ahead of tunnel face is significant to minimize the risk in tunnel excavation work and cost control in preventative measure. Due to mountainous area, site investigation with vertical boring is not recommended to obtain the geological profile for Pahang-Selangor Raw Water Transfer project. Hence, tunnel seismic prediction (TSP) method is adopted to predict the geological profile ahead of tunnel face. In order to evaluate the TSP results, IBM SPSS Statistic 22 is used to run artificial neural network (ANN) analysis to back calculate the predicted Rock Grade Points (JH) from actual Rock Grade Points (JH) using Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs from TSP. The results show good correlation between predicted Rock Grade points and actual Rock Grade Points (JH). In other words, TSP can provide geological profile prediction ahead of tunnel face significantly while allowing continuously TBM excavation works. Identifying weak zones or faults ahead of tunnel face is crucial for preventative measures to be carried out in advance for a safer tunnel excavation works.

  3. Assessing changes in water flow regulation in Chongqing region, China. (United States)

    Xiao, Yang; Xiao, Qiang; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Maomao, Qin


    Water flow regulation is an important ecosystem service that significantly impacts on ecological quality and social benefits. With the aim of improving our understanding of ecosystems and proposing strategies for optimizing ecosystem services, a geographic information system (GIS)-based approach was designed to estimate and map regulated water flow in the Chongqing region of China. In this study, we applied the integrated valuation of environmental services and tradeoffs (InVEST) model and mathematical simulations to estimate the provision of the regulated water flow across space and time in 2000, 2005, and 2010. The results indicated that this ecosystem service had improved by 2.07 % from 2000 to 2010 as a result of human activities (such as vegetation restoration) and climatic interaction. Places with positive changes mainly occurred in high mountain areas, whereas places with negative changes were mainly distributed in resettlement areas along the Yangtze River. The type of ecosystem in areas with high mountains and steep slopes was a relatively minor contributor to the total service, but this ecosystem had the higher water flow regulation capacity. Moreover, with the increase in altitude and slope, the percentage contribution of forest increased significantly from 2000 to 2010; by contrast, the percentage contribution of cropland decreased rapidly. As for the impacts, the spatial variation of water flow regulation in the Chongqing region had a significant relation with climate and human activities at the regional scale. These results provided specific information that could be used to strengthen necessary public awareness about the protection and restoration of ecosystems.

  4. Deliberation and scale in Mekong region water governance. (United States)

    Dore, John; Lebel, Louis


    Understanding the politics of deliberation, scales, and levels is crucial to understanding the social complexity of water-related governance. Deliberative processes might complement and inform more conventional representational and bureaucratic approaches to planning and decision-making. However, they are also subject to scale and level politics, which can confound institutionalized decision-making. Scale and level contests arise in dialogues and related arenas because different actors privilege particular temporal or spatial scales and levels in their analysis, arguments, and responses. Scale contests might include whether to privilege administrative, hydrological, ecosystem, or economic boundaries. Level contests might include whether to privilege the subdistrict or the province, the tributary watershed or the international river basin, a river or a biogeographic region, and the local or the regional economy. In the Mekong Region there is a recurrent demand for water resources development projects and major policies proposed by governments and investors to be scrutinized in public. Deliberative forms of engagement are potentially very helpful because they encourage supporters and critics to articulate assumptions and reasoning about the different opportunities and risks associated with alternative options, and in doing so, they often traverse and enable higher-quality conversations within and across scales and within and between levels. Six case studies from the Mekong Region are examined. We find evidence that scale and level politics affects the context, process, content, and outcomes of deliberative engagement in a region where public deliberation is still far from being a norm, particularly where there are sensitive and far-reaching choices to be made about water use and energy production.

  5. Seasonal occurrence and distribution of a group of ECs in the water resources of Granada city metropolitan areas (South of Spain): Pollution of raw drinking water (United States)

    Luque-Espinar, Juan Antonio; Navas, Natalia; Chica-Olmo, Mario; Cantarero-Malagón, Samuel; Chica-Rivas, Lucía


    This piece of research deals with the monitoring of a group of emerging contaminants (ECs) in the metropolitan area of Granada, a city representative of the South of Spain, in order to evaluate the environmental management of the wastewater system. With that aim, the spatial and seasonal occurrence and distribution of a group of ECs in groundwater, surface and irrigation water resources from the aquifer "Vega de Granada" (VG) have been investigated for the first time. A set of the most prescribed drugs in Spain (ibuprofen, loratadine, pantoprazole and paracetamol), a pesticide widely used in agriculture (atrazine) and a typical anthropogenic contaminant (caffeine) were included in the study. Water samples were taken from the metropolitan area of the city of Granada inside of the zone of the aquifer, from the downstream of two waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and from the two main irrigation channels where surface and wastewater are mixed before distribution for irrigation purposes in the crops of the study area. A total of 153 water samples were analyzed through liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) throughout the study that took place over a period of two years, from July 2011 to July 2013. Results demonstrated the occurrence of four of the six target pollutants. Ibuprofen was detected several times, always in both channels with concentration ranges from 5.3 to 20.8 μg/L. The occurrence of paracetamol was detected in rivers and channels up to 34.3 μg/L. Caffeine was detected in all the water resources up to 39.3 μg/L. Pantoprazole was detected twice in the surface water source near to a WWPT ranging from 0.02 to 0.05 μg/L. The pesticide atrazine and the drug loratadine were not detected in any of the water samples analyzed. These results show evidence of poor environmental management of the wastewater concerning the water quality of the aquifer studied. The groundwater sources seem to receive a very continuous input of wastewater

  6. Uncertainty Categorization, Modeling, and Management for Regional Water Supply Planning (United States)

    Fletcher, S.; Strzepek, K. M.; AlSaati, A.; Alhassan, A.


    Many water planners face increased pressure on water supply systems from growing demands, variability in supply and a changing climate. Short-term variation in water availability and demand; long-term uncertainty in climate, groundwater storage, and sectoral competition for water; and varying stakeholder perspectives on the impacts of water shortages make it difficult to assess the necessity of expensive infrastructure investments. We categorize these uncertainties on two dimensions: whether they are the result of stochastic variation or epistemic uncertainty, and whether the uncertainties can be described probabilistically or are deep uncertainties whose likelihood is unknown. We develop a decision framework that combines simulation for probabilistic uncertainty, sensitivity analysis for deep uncertainty and Bayesian decision analysis for uncertainties that are reduced over time with additional information. We apply this framework to two contrasting case studies - drought preparedness in Melbourne, Australia and fossil groundwater depletion in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia - to assess the impacts of different types of uncertainty on infrastructure decisions. Melbourne's water supply system relies on surface water, which is impacted by natural variation in rainfall, and a market-based system for managing water rights. Our results show that small, flexible investment increases can mitigate shortage risk considerably at reduced cost. Riyadh, by contrast, relies primarily on desalination for municipal use and fossil groundwater for agriculture, and a centralized planner makes allocation decisions. Poor regional groundwater measurement makes it difficult to know when groundwater pumping will become uneconomical, resulting in epistemic uncertainty. However, collecting more data can reduce the uncertainty, suggesting the need for different uncertainty modeling and management strategies in Riyadh than in Melbourne. We will categorize the two systems and propose appropriate

  7. Effects of Water Management Strategies on Water Balance in a Water Scarce Region: A Case Study in Beijing by a Holistic Model


    Zhigong Peng; Baozhong Zhang; Xueliang Cai; Lei Wang


    Irrigation is facing increasing pressure from other competitive water users to reduce water consumption in a water scarce region. Based on the Basin-wide Holistic Integrated Water Assessment (BHIWA) model, the effects of water management strategies on water balance in the dry regions of North China were analyzed. The results show that, with the decrease of irrigation water supply reliability (IWSR) and the increase of irrigation water use efficiency (WUE), irrigation water use decreased signi...

  8. Raw materials scoreboard


    Vidal-Legaz, Beatriz; Mancini, Lucia; Blengini, Giovanni Andrea; Pavel, Claudiu; Marmier, Alain; Blagoeva, Darina; Latunussa, Cynthia; Nuss, Philip; Dewulf, Jo; Nita, Viorel; Kayam, Yildirim; Manfredi, Simone; Magyar, Armin; Dias, Patrícia; Baranzelli, Claudia


    The raw materials scoreboard is an initiative of the European Innovation Partnership (EIP) on Raw Materials. Its purpose is to provide quantitative data on the EIP's general objectives and on the raw materials policy context. It presents relevant and reliable information that can be used in policymaking in a variety of areas. The scoreboard will, for example, contribute to monitoring progress towards a circular economy, a crucial issue on which the European Commission recently adopted an ambi...

  9. A novel water poverty index model for evaluation of Chinese regional water security (United States)

    Gong, L.; Jin, C. L.; Li, Y. X.; Zhou, Z. L.


    This study proposed an improved Water Poverty Index (WPI) model employed in evaluating Chinese regional water security. Firstly, the Chinese WPI index system was constructed, in which the indicators were obtained according to China River reality. A new mathematical model was then established for WPI values calculation on the basis of Center for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) model. Furthermore, this new model was applied in Shiyanghe River (located in western China). It turned out that the Chinese index system could clearly reflect the indicators threatening security of river water and the Chinese WPI model is feasible. This work has also developed a Water Security Degree (WSD) standard which is able to be regarded as a scientific basis for further water resources utilization and water security warning mechanism formulation.

  10. Evaluation method for regional water cycle health based on nature-society water cycle theory (United States)

    Zhang, Shanghong; Fan, Weiwei; Yi, Yujun; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Jiahong


    Regional water cycles increasingly reflect the dual influences of natural and social processes, and are affected by global climate change and expanding human activities. Understanding how to maintain a healthy state of the water cycle has become an important proposition for sustainable development of human society. In this paper, natural-social attributes of the water cycle are synthesized and 19 evaluation indices are selected from four dimensions, i.e., water-based ecosystem integrity, water quality, water resource abundance and water resource use. A hierarchical water-cycle health evaluation system is established. An analytic hierarchy process is used to set the weight of the criteria layer and index layer, and the health threshold for each index is defined. Finally, a water-cycle health composite-index assessment model and fuzzy recognition model are constructed based on the comprehensive index method and fuzzy mathematics theory. The model is used to evaluate the state of health of the water cycle in Beijing during 2010-2014 and in the planning year (late 2014), considering the transfer of 1 billion m3 of water by the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP). The results show health scores for Beijing of 2.87, 3.10, 3.38, 3.11 and 3.02 during 2010-2014. The results of fuzzy recognition show that the sub-healthy grade accounted for 54%, 49%, 61% and 49% of the total score, and all years had a sub-healthy state. Results of the criteria layer analysis show that water ecosystem function, water quality and water use were all at the sub-healthy level and that water abundance was at the lowest, or sick, level. With the water transfer from the SNWDP, the health score of the water cycle in Beijing reached 4.04. The healthy grade accounted for 60% of the total score, and the water cycle system was generally in a healthy state. Beijing's water cycle health level is expected to further improve with increasing water diversion from the SNWDP and industrial

  11. 76 FR 23708 - Safety Zone; Pierce County Department of Emergency Management Regional Water Exercise, East... (United States)


    ... Management Regional Water Exercise, East Passage, Tacoma, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... of Emergency Management is sponsoring a Regional Water Rescue Exercise in the waters of East Passage..., Washington for a Regional Water Rescue Exercise near Browns Point. A safety zone is necessary to ensure the...

  12. Regional assessment of lake water clarity using satellite remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. SKOLE


    Full Text Available Lake water clarity as measured by Secchi disk transparency (SDT is a cost-effective measure of water quality. However, in regions where there are thousands of lakes, sampling even a small proportion of those lakes for SDT year after year is cost prohibitive. Remote sensing has the potential to be a powerful tool for assessing lake clarity over large spatial scales. The overall objective of our study was to examine whether Landsat-7 ETM+ could be used to measure water clarity across a large range of lakes. Our specific objectives were to: 1 develop a regression model to estimate SDT from Landsat data calibrated using 93 lakes in Michigan, U.S.A., and to 2 examine how the distribution of SDT across the 93 calibration lakes influenced the model. Our calibration dataset included a large number of lakes with a wide range of SDT values that captured the summer statewide distribution of SDT values in Michigan. Our regression model had a much lower r2 value than previously published studies conducted on smaller datasets. To examine the importance of the distribution of calibration data, we simulated a calibration dataset with a different SDT distribution by sub-sampling the original dataset to match the distribution of previous studies. The sub-sampled dataset had a much higher percentage of lakes with shallow water clarity, and the resulting regression model had a much higher r2 value than our original model. Our study shows that the use of Landsat to measure water clarity is sensitive to the distribution of water clarity used in the calibration set.

  13. Water Management Strategy in Assessing the Water Scarcity in Northern Western Region of Nile Delta, Egypt (United States)

    Mabrouk, Badr; Arafa, Salah; Gemajl, Khaled


    Sustainable development in the Nile Delta of Egypt is retarded by serious environmental problems, where land-use and land-cover of the region are subjected to continuous changes; including shoreline changes either by erosion or accretion, subsidence of the delta, as well as by sea level rise due to climate change. The current research attempts to; (1) study the vulnerability of the northern western region of the Nile Delta coastal zone to climate change/sea level rise while setting basic challenges, review adaptation strategies based on adaptation policy framework, and highlight recommended programs for preparedness to climate change, (2) study the scarcity of water resources in the area of study with review of the socioeconomic impacts and the critical need of establishing desalination plants with new standards assessing the environmental situation and population clusters, and (3) monitor of the brine water extracted from the desalination plants and injected to subsurface strata. This monitoring process is divided into 3 main directions: 1) studying the chemical characteristics of water extracted from the water desalinations plants qualitatively and quantitatively. 2) mapping the subsurface of which that brine water will be injected to it and the flow directions and effects using resistivity data, and 3) using GIS and suitable numerical models in order to study the effect, volume, flow of the brine water and its long term environmental impacts on the area. The results indicate that the area is particularly vulnerable to the impact of SLR, salt water intrusion, the deterioration of coastal tourism and the impact of extreme dust storms. This in turn will directly affect the agricultural productivity and human settlements in coastal zones. The paper presents different scenarios for water management and recommends the most suitable scenarios in order to establish a core for water management strategy in the region according to existing socio-economic and environmental

  14. Water Continuum Absorption in the Infrared and Millimeter Spectral Regions. (United States)

    Ma, Qiancheng


    The absorption coefficient due to the water continuum is calculated both in the high-frequency (infrared) wing and in the low-frequency (millimeter) wing of the pure rotational band. The statistical theory proposed by Rosenkranz to calculate the continuum absorption in the high-frequency wing is reviewed and extended. In this review, we discuss specifically the validity and the limitation of the approximations made by Rosenkranz. We then discuss several extensions to his theory, including increasing the number of rotational states used to calculate the band-average relaxation parameter, correcting the normalization factor, and eliminating the "boxcar approximation." These improvements allow us to eliminate some inconsistencies in the original formulation of Rosenkranz while obtaining substantially the same final results. As a consequence, we confirm his conclusions about the origin, magnitude, and temperature-dependence of the water continuum absorption in the high-frequency wing of the pure rotational band. A new theory is developed to calculate the continuum in the low-frequency wing, i.e., in the millimeter spectral region. This theory is based on a generalization of Fano's theory in which the spectral density is calculated for a system consisting of a pair of water molecules. The internal states are written in terms of the line space of the system, and the resolvent operator is obtained using the Lanczos algorithm. For the interaction between two water molecules, we include only the leading dipole-dipole anisotropic potential and model the isotropic interaction by a Lennard-Jones potential. Using reasonable values for the two Lennard-Jones potential parameters, and the known rotational constants and permanent dipole moment of a water molecule, we calculate the absorption coefficient for frequencies up to 450 GHz for temperatures between 282 and 315 K. Without any free parameters, the present results are in good agreement with an empirical model for the water

  15. Water beetles in mountainous regions in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MO. Segura

    Full Text Available Inventories provide information on the state of biodiversity at a site or for a geographic region. Species inventories are the basis for systematic study and critical to ecology, biogeography and identification of biological indicators and key species. They also provide key information for assessments of environmental change, for natural resource conservation or recovery of degraded ecosystems. Thus, inventories play a key role in planning strategies for conservation and sustainable use. This study aimed to inventory the fauna of water beetles, larvae and adults, in two mountainous regions in the state of São Paulo, in Serra da Mantiqueira (Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão and Pindamonhangaba region and in Serra do Mar (Santa Virgínia and Picinguaba Divisions as well as to generate information about the habitats used by the different genera recorded. Specimens were collected in lotic and lentic systems, between the years 2005 to 2010. In total 14,492 specimens were collected and 16 families and 50 genera of Coleoptera were identified. This study in mountainous regions showed a significant portion of the faunal composition of South America and the state of São Paulo. The composition of the fauna, in terms of richness and abundance by family, indicated the predominance of Elmidae, followed by Hydrophilidae and Dytiscidae. Despite the diversity found, the results of estimated richness indicated the need for additional sampling effort for both regions, since the curves of estimated richness did not reach an asymptote, suggesting that new species can be found in future surveys.

  16. Water in Star-Forming Regions with Herschel (WISH): overview (United States)

    Kristensen, Lars; van Dishoeck, Ewine

    Water is a key molecule for determining the physical and chemical structure of star-forming regions because of its large abundance variations, both in the gas and in the ice, between warm and cold regions. In this HIFI-led 429 hr Key Program, we are obtaining a comprehensive set of water observations toward a large sample of well-characterized protostars, covering a wide range of masses and luminosities -from the lowest to the highest mass protostars-, as well as evolutionary stages -from the first stages represented by pre-stellar cores to the later stages represented by the pre-main sequence stars surrounded only by their protoplanetary disks. Lines of H2O and its isotopologues, as well as chemically related hydrides, are observed. In addition, selected high-frequency lines of CO isotopes, [O I] and [C II] are obtained with HIFI and PACS, and are complemented by ground-based HDO, CO and dust continuum maps to ensure a self-consistent data set for analysis. Limited mapping information on a few arcmin scale provides information on local variations due to outflows and clustered star formation. Together, the data elucidate the physical processes responsible for the warm gas (passive heating, UV or X-ray-heating, shocks, disks), probe dynamical processes associated with forming stars and planets (outflow, infall, turbulence), reveal the chemical evolution of water and the oxygen-reservoir, and test basic gas-grain chemical interactions. By the time of the COSPAR meeting, about half of our program should have been observed. This talk will present an overview of the main highlights.

  17. [The environmental conditions of the Kavkazskie Mineralnye Vody (Caucasian Mineral Waters) health resort region, methods for their monitoring and improvement]. (United States)

    Evseeva, M M; Rud', N Iu; Pershin, I M


    This paper describes the unique environmental conditions of the Kavkazskie Mineralnye Vody (Caucasian Mineral Waters) health resort region with special reference to its paramount importance for the national interests of Russia. It is emphasized, however, that the environmental conditions in the region under consideration are far from being satisfactory. In connection with this, the authors point out to the necessity of expanding areas of protective forest stands and prohibition of the implementation of new building projects in the frontal mountain sanitary zones; they draw special attention to the potential danger of degradation of mineral water springs under the influence of changes in the distribution of vertical hydraulic gradients in the upper part of the lithosphere leading to the deterioration of their composition and the contamination of ground and surface waters with municipal and domestic effluents. Special attention is given to the harm and impermissibility of illegal extraction of mineral waters from producing wells. An original method for water quality control and estimation of the optimal production rate is proposed. The authors hypothesize the possible causes behind the discontinuation of mud formation at the Tambukan deposits and substantiate the necessity of using the resource-saving technologies for processing raw materials and urgent measures to eliminate the factors responsible for desalination and pollution of this mineral mud lake. It is concluded that strict state control should be exercised in the region by means of the introduction of the multilevel automated information system for round-the-clock environmental monitoring. The authors believe that only joint efforts of scientists, legislative and executive authorities can preserve Kavkazskie Mineralnye Vody health resort region for the future generations.

  18. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Texas-Gulf region (United States)

    Baker, E.T.; Wall, J.R.


    Ground water in the Texas-Gulf Region is a large and important resource that can provide a more significant percentage of the total water supply of the region. Total water requirements within the region are projected to rise sharply from 14 million acre-feet (17 cubic kilometres) in 1970 to nearly 26 million acre-feet (32 cubic kilometres) in 2020. About half of the water used in 1970 was ground water.

  19. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Texas Gulf region (United States)

    Baker, E.T.; Wall, James Ray


    Ground water in the Texas-Gulf Region is a large and important resource that can provide a more significant percentage of the total water supply of the region. Total water requirements within the region are projected to rise sharply from 14 million acre-feet (17 cubic kilometres) in 1970 to nearly 26 million acre-feet (32.cubic kilometres) in 2020. About half of the water used in 1970 was ground water.

  20. Technologies for water resources management: an integrated approach to manage global and regional water resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, W. C., LLNL


    Recent droughts in California have highlighted and refocused attention on the problem of providing reliable sources of water to sustain the State`s future economic development. Specific elements of concern include not only the stability and availability of future water supplies in the State, but also how current surface and groundwater storage and distribution systems may be more effectively managed and upgraded, how treated wastewater may be more widely recycled, and how legislative and regulatory processes may be used or modified to address conflicts between advocates of urban growth, industrial, agricultural, and environmental concerns. California is not alone with respect to these issues. They are clearly relevant throughout the West, and are becoming more so in other parts of the US. They have become increasingly important in developing and highly populated nations such as China, India, and Mexico. They are critically important in the Middle East and Southeast Asia, especially as they relate to regional stability and security issues. Indeed, in almost all cases, there are underlying themes of `reliability` and `sustainability` that pertain to the assurance of current and future water supplies, as well as a broader set of `stability` and `security` issues that relate to these assurances--or lack thereof--to the political and economic future of various countries and regions. In this latter sense, and with respect to regions such as China, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia, water resource issues may take on a very serious strategic nature, one that is most illustrative and central to the emerging notion of `environmental security.` In this report, we have identified a suite of technical tools that, when developed and integrated together, may prove effective in providing regional governments the ability to manage their water resources. Our goal is to formulate a framework for an Integrated Systems Analysis (ISA): As a strategic planning tool for managing

  1. 75 FR 32855 - Safety Zone; Pierce County, WA, Department of Emergency Management, Regional Water Exercise (United States)


    ... Management, Regional Water Exercise AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Pierce County, Washington, Department of Emergency Management is sponsoring a Regional Water Rescue... County, Washington, Department of Emergency Management is sponsoring a Regional Water Rescue Exercise in...

  2. 78 FR 15973 - Notice of Public Scoping Meetings for the Pojoaque Basin Regional Water System Environmental... (United States)


    ... potable water to the Pueblo and non-Pueblo residents of the Pojoaque Basin. The Regional Water System... storage and recovery well fields that would supply up to 4,000 acre-feet of water annually to customers... Bureau of Reclamation Notice of Public Scoping Meetings for the Pojoaque Basin Regional Water System...

  3. Plastic raw materials in Neolithic pottery production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Bobrinsky


    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to the investigation of various natural silts as the most ancient type of raw material used in pottery production. The authors describe the specific features of the composition of plain and mountain silts, and discover the same features in ancient ceramics from different regions in Russia. It can be concluded that silts were the earliest raw material used, a tradition that faded away during the evolution of pottery production.

  4. Climate change: evaluating your local and regional water resources (United States)

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.; Thorne, James H.


    The BCM is a fine-scale hydrologic model that uses detailed maps of soils, geology, topography, and transient monthly or daily maps of potential evapotranspiration, air temperature, and precipitation to generate maps of recharge, runoff, snow pack, actual evapotranspiration, and climatic water deficit. With these comprehensive environmental inputs and experienced scientific analysis, the BCM provides resource managers with important hydrologic and ecologic understanding of a landscape or basin at hillslope to regional scales. The model is calibrated using historical climate and streamflow data over the range of geologic materials specific to an area. Once calibrated, the model is used to translate climate-change data into hydrologic responses for a defined landscape, to provide managers an understanding of potential ecological risks and threats to water supplies and managed hydrologic systems. Although limited to estimates of unimpaired hydrologic conditions, estimates of impaired conditions, such as agricultural demand, diversions, or reservoir outflows can be incorporated into the calibration of the model to expand its utility. Additionally, the model can be linked to other models, such as groundwater-flow models (that is, MODFLOW) or the integrated hydrologic model (MF-FMP), to provide information about subsurface hydrologic processes. The model can be applied at a relatively small scale, but also can be applied to large-scale national and international river basins.

  5. Evaluating regional water scarcity: Irrigated crop water budgets for groundwater management in the Wisconsin Central Sands (United States)

    Nocco, M. A.; Kucharik, C. J.; Kraft, G.


    Regional water scarcity dilemmas between agricultural and aquatic land users pervade the humid northern lake states of Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan, where agricultural irrigation relies on groundwater drawn from shallow aquifers. As these aquifers have strong connectivity to surface waters, irrigation lowers water levels in lakes and wetlands and reduces stream discharges. Irrigation expansion has cultivated a 60-year water scarcity dilemma in The Wisconsin Central Sands, the largest irrigated region in the humid northern lake states, dedicated to potato, maize, and processing vegetable production. Irrigation has depleted Wisconsin Central Sands surface waters, lowering levels in some lakes by over 2 m and drying some coldwater trout streams. Aquatic ecosystems, property values, and recreational uses in some surface waters have been devastated. While the causal link between pumping and surface water stress is established, understanding crop-mediated processes, such as the timing and magnitude of groundwater consumption by evapotranspiration (ET) and groundwater recharge, will be useful in management of groundwater, irrigated cropping systems, and surface water health. Previous modeling and field efforts have compared irrigated crop water use to a natural reference condition on a net annual basis. As a result, we presently understand that for irrigated potatoes and maize, the average annual ET is greater and therefore, the average annual recharge is less than rainfed row crops, grasslands, and both coniferous and deciduous forests. However, we have a limited understanding of the magnitude and timing of ET and recharge from irrigated cropping systems on shorter time scales that proceed with the annual cropping cycle (i.e. planting, full canopy, harvest, residue cover). We seek to understand the spatiotemporal variability of crop water budgets and associated water scarcity in the Wisconsin Central Sands through detailed measurements of drainage (potential

  6. Pumpage for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents ground-water discharged from the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) through pumped wells. Pumping from wells in...

  7. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Great Lakes region (United States)

    Weist, William G.


    The Great Lakes Regions, as a whole, has abundant supplies of water. Nearly 805,000 billion cubic feet of water is contained in the Great Lakes. An additional 35,000 billion cubic feet of potable ground water is available from storage in the region. Estimated ground-water discharge to the streams and lakes of the region is 26 billion gallons per day.

  8. The River Ruhr - an urban river under particular interest for recreational use and as a raw water source for drinking water: The collaborative research project "Safe Ruhr" - microbiological aspects. (United States)

    Strathmann, Martin; Horstkott, Marina; Koch, Christoph; Gayer, Uta; Wingender, Jost


    Along the intense industrialization of the Ruhr valley (Germany), the River Ruhr became increasingly polluted. Over time, using it for recreational purposes became a serious health hazard and bathing was banned due to chemical and microbiological risks. The purpose of the collaborative project "Safe Ruhr" was to verify the current status and to provide a scientific basis for lifting the bathing ban. As the river also provides a raw water source for drinking water production, it was investigated how well the treatment procedures control possible hygienic risks. As study area, the barrier Lake Baldeney was chosen as it embraces earlier bathing sites and tributes to river bank filtration water for drinking water treatment plants. The hygienic condition of the river water was determined over 18 months by measuring general physical, chemical and microbiological water quality parameters including fecal indicators, bacterial obligate and facultative pathogens, parasitic protozoa, enteric viruses and schistosome parasites (Trichobilharzia). Samples were taken at eight locations including sites before and after receiving the discharge of stormwater and treated wastewater, potential future bathing sites and a raw water abstraction point for potable water production. In summary, for all investigated physico-chemical parameters no significant difference between the eight investigated sampling locations on a distinct sampling date were observed. This study focused on hygienically relevant bacteria and parasitic protozoa. Fecal indicators, Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci and Clostridium perfringens as well as coliform bacteria were detected in 94-100% of the water samples. Enteric pathogens, including Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella enterica, were isolated from 33% and 28% of the samples, respectively, in relatively low concentrations. Among the environmental facultative pathogens, P. aeruginosa was detected at a high frequency of 82% of all samples, but in low

  9. Large Scale Evapotranspiration Estimates: An Important Component in Regional Water Balances to Assess Water Availability (United States)

    Garatuza-Payan, J.; Yepez, E. A.; Watts, C.; Rodriguez, J. C.; Valdez-Torres, L. C.; Robles-Morua, A.


    Water security, can be defined as the reliable supply in quantity and quality of water to help sustain future populations and maintaining ecosystem health and productivity. Water security is rapidly declining in many parts of the world due to population growth, drought, climate change, salinity, pollution, land use change, over-allocation and over-utilization, among other issues. Governmental offices (such as the Comision Nacional del Agua in Mexico, CONAGUA) require and conduct studies to estimate reliable water balances at regional or continental scales in order to provide reasonable assessments of the amount of water that can be provided (from surface or ground water sources) to supply all the human needs while maintaining natural vegetation, on an operational basis and, more important, under disturbances, such as droughts. Large scale estimates of evapotranspiration (ET), a critical component of the water cycle, are needed for a better comprehension of the hydrological cycle at large scales, which, in most water balances is left as the residual. For operational purposes, such water balance estimates can not rely on ET measurements since they do not exist, should be simple and require the least ground information possible, information that is often scarce or does not exist at all. Given this limitation, the use of remotely sensed data to estimate ET could supplement the lack of ground information, particularly in remote regions In this study, a simple method, based on the Makkink equation is used to estimate ET for large areas at high spatial resolutions (1 km). The Makkink model used here is forced using three remotely sensed datasets. First, the model uses solar radiation estimates obtained from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES); Second, the model uses an Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) obtained from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) normalized to get an estimate for vegetation amount and land use which was

  10. Application of the Regional Water Mass Variations from GRACE Satellite Gravimetry to Large-Scale Water Management in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Ramillien


    Full Text Available Time series of regional 2° × 2° Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE solutions of surface water mass change have been computed over Africa from 2003 to 2012 with a 10-day resolution by using a new regional approach. These regional maps are used to describe and quantify water mass change. The contribution of African hydrology to actual sea level rise is negative and small in magnitude (i.e., −0.1 mm/y of equivalent sea level (ESL mainly explained by the water retained in the Zambezi River basin. Analysis of the regional water mass maps is used to distinguish different zones of important water mass variations, with the exception of the dominant seasonal cycle of the African monsoon in the Sahel and Central Africa. The analysis of the regional solutions reveals the accumulation in the Okavango swamp and South Niger. It confirms the continuous depletion of water in the North Sahara aquifer at the rate of −2.3 km3/y, with a decrease in early 2008. Synergistic use of altimetry-based lake water volume with total water storage (TWS from GRACE permits a continuous monitoring of sub-surface water storage for large lake drainage areas. These different applications demonstrate the potential of the GRACE mission for the management of water resources at the regional scale.

  11. Why a regional approach to postgraduate water education makes sense - the WaterNet experience in Southern Africa (United States)

    Jonker, L.; van der Zaag, P.; Gumbo, B.; Rockström, J.; Love, D.; Savenije, H. H. G.


    This paper reports the experience of a regional network of academic departments involved in water education that started as a project and evolved, over a period of 12 yr, into an independent network organisation. The paper pursues three objectives. First, it argues that it makes good sense to organise postgraduate education and research on water resources on a regional scale. This is because water has a transboundary dimension that poses delicate sharing questions, an approach that promotes a common understanding of what the real water-related issues are, results in future water specialists speaking a common (water) language, enhances mutual respect, and can thus be considered an investment in future peace. Second, it presents the WaterNet experience as an example that a regional approach can work and has an impact. Third, it draws three generalised lessons from the WaterNet experience. Lesson 1: For a regional capacity building network to be effective, it must have a legitimate ownership structure and a clear mandate. Lesson 2: Organising water-related training opportunities at a regional and transboundary scale makes sense - not only because knowledge resources are scattered, but also because the topic - water - has a regional and transboundary scope. Lesson 3: Jointly developing educational programmes by sharing expertise and resources requires intense intellectual management and sufficient financial means.

  12. Joint optimization of regional water-power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardenal, Silvio Javier Pereira; Mo, Birger; Gjelsvik, Anders


    for joint optimization of water and electric power systems was developed in order to identify methodologies to assess the broader interactions between water and energy systems. The proposed method is to include water users and power producers into an economic optimization problem that minimizes the cost......Energy and water resources systems are tightly coupled; energy is needed to deliver water and water is needed to extract or produce energy. Growing pressure on these resources has raised concerns about their long-term management and highlights the need to develop integrated solutions. A method...

  13. A regional and multi-faceted approach to postgraduate water education - the WaterNet experience in Southern Africa (United States)

    Jonker, L.; van der Zaag, P.; Gumbo, B.; Rockström, J.; Love, D.; Savenije, H. H. G.


    This paper reports the experience of a regional network of academic departments involved in water education that started as a project and evolved, over a period of 12 yr, into an independent network organisation. The paper pursues three objectives. First, it argues that it makes good sense to organise postgraduate education and research on water resources on a regional scale and presents the WaterNet experience as an example that a regional approach can work. Second, it presents preliminary findings and conclusions that the regional approach presented by WaterNet did make a contribution to the capacity needs of the region both in terms of management and research capacity. Third, it draws two generalised lessons from the WaterNet experience. Lesson one pertains to the importance of legitimate ownership and an accountability structure for network effectiveness. Lesson two is related to the financial and intellectual resources required to jointly developing educational programmes through shared experience.

  14. Water Storage, US EPA Region 9, 2013, SDWIS (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPAâ??s Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) databases store information about drinking water. The federal version (SDWIS/FED) stores the information EPA...

  15. Surface Water Intakes, US EPA Region 9, 2013, SDWIS (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPAâ??s Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) databases store information about drinking water. The federal version (SDWIS/FED) stores the information EPA...

  16. Dangerous Raw Oysters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch at the California Department of Public Health, discusses the dangers of eating raw oysters.  Created: 8/5/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/7/2013.

  17. Region 9 NPDES Facilities - Waste Water Treatment Plants (United States)

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from facilities that discharge treated waste water into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more outfalls (dischargers). The location represents the facility or operating plant.

  18. Region 9 NPDES Facilities 2012- Waste Water Treatment Plants (United States)

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from facilities that discharge treated waste water into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more outfalls (dischargers). The location represents the facility or operating plant.

  19. Assessment of the regional water balance of the limestone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Therefore, all the water dependent activities depend on groundwater resources. Kyrenia Range subaquifers are the only natural domestic water supplying sources, fulfilling the required worldwide drinking water quality standards. In the present study, various hydrogeological factors that could influence the aquifer recharge ...

  20. Assessment of the regional water balance of the limestone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The northern part of Cyprus is usually characterized by its small watersheds and the lack of ephemeral surface water resources. Therefore, all the water dependent activities depend on groundwater resources. Kyrenia Range subaquifers are the only natural domestic water supplying sources, fulfilling the required worldwide ...

  1. Frontiers of land and water governance in urban regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Thomas; Spit, Tejo


    A society that intensifies and expands the use of land and water in urban areas needs to rethink the relation between spatial planning and water management. The traditional strategy to manage land and water under different governance regimes no longer suits the rapidly changing environmental

  2. The Role of China in the UK Relative Imports from Three Selected Trading Regions: The Case of Textile Raw Material Industry. (United States)

    Xu, Junqian


    The UK textile industry was very prosperous in the past but in the 1970s Britain started to import textile materials from abroad. Since 1990, half of its textile materials have been imported from the EEA (European Economic Area), ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) and North America countries. Meanwhile, UK imports from China have increased dramatically. Through comparisons, this paper calculates the trade competitiveness index and relative competitive advantages of regions and investigates the impact of Chinese textiles on UK imports from three key free trade regions across the textile sectors in the period 1990-2016 on the basis of United Nation Comtrade Rev. 3. We find that China's textile prices, product techniques, political trade barriers and even tax system have made a varied impact on the UK's imports across related sectors in the context of green trade and the strengthening of barriers, which helps us recognize China's competitiveness in international trading and also provides advice on China's sustainable development of textile exports.

  3. Method for selecting raw materials to preparing ceramic masses: application to raw material for red ceramic; Proposta metodologica de selecao de materias primas para compor massas ceramicas: aplicacao a ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Maria Margarita Torres; Rocha, Rogers Raphael da; Zanard, Antenor, E-mail: [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (DPM/IGCE/UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)


    We studied the raw materials used in a factory building blocks, located in Cesario Lange city (SP). It extracts raw materials from various sources in the region to make the dough. The mixtures were prepared from dry milled powders based on data related to the plasticity of the raw materials. It was obtained with the apparatus Vicat-cone in order to obtain similar levels of water absorption of the samples burned at 900 deg C for all compositions. To quantify the proportion of each clay was used the Lever Rule. In this firing temperature, where sintering is mainly by diffusion from a solid state, different compositions of the same set of four raw materials resulted in similar values. (author)

  4. Subregions of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the subregions of the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS). Subregions are...

  5. Reference springs in California for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set is a compilation of reference points representing springs in California that were used for the regional ground-water potential map...

  6. Reference springs in Nevada for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set is a compilation of reference points representing springs in Nevada that were used for the regional ground-water potential map by...

  7. Mapping regional soil water erosion risk in the Brittany-Loire basin for water management agency (United States)

    Degan, Francesca; Cerdan, Olivier; Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien; Gautier, Jean-Noël


    Soil water erosion is one of the main degradation processes that affect soils through the removal of soil particles from the surface. The impacts for environment and agricultural areas are diverse, such as water pollution, crop yield depression, organic matter loss and reduction in water storage capacity. There is therefore a strong need to produce maps at the regional scale to help environmental policy makers and soil and water management bodies to mitigate the effect of water and soil pollution. Our approach aims to model and map soil erosion risk at regional scale (155 000 km²) and high spatial resolution (50 m) in the Brittany - Loire basin. The factors responsible for soil erosion are different according to the spatial and time scales considered. The regional scale entails challenges about homogeneous data sets availability, spatial resolution of results, various erosion processes and agricultural practices. We chose to improve the MESALES model (Le Bissonnais et al., 2002) to map soil erosion risk, because it was developed specifically for water erosion in agricultural fields in temperate areas. The MESALES model consists in a decision tree which gives for each combination of factors the corresponding class of soil erosion risk. Four factors that determine soil erosion risk are considered: soils, land cover, climate and topography. The first main improvement of the model consists in using newly available datasets that are more accurate than the initial ones. The datasets used cover all the study area homogeneously. Soil dataset has a 1/1 000 000 scale and attributes such as texture, soil type, rock fragment and parent material are used. The climate dataset has a spatial resolution of 8 km and a temporal resolution of mm/day for 12 years. Elevation dataset has a spatial resolution of 50 m. Three different land cover datasets are used where the finest spatial resolution is 50 m over three years. Using these datasets, four erosion factors are characterized and

  8. Prioritization of Water Resources Inventory Assessments (WRIA) and 6 Year Plan for Region 8 Refuges (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Regional management have requested that a prioritization process be developed for Region 8 for development and completion of Water Resources Inventory and...

  9. Water footprint, extended water footprint and virtual water trade of the Cantabria region, Spain. A critical appraisal of results, uncertainties and methods. (United States)

    Diaz-Alcaide, Silvia; Martinez-Santos, Pedro; Willaarts, Barbara; Hernández-Moreno, Enrique; Llamas, M. Ramon


    Water footprint assessments have gradually gained recognition as valuable tools for water management, to the point that they have been officially incorporated to water planning in countries such as Spain. Adequate combinations of the virtual water and water footprint concepts present the potential to link a broad range of sectors and issues, thus providing appropriate frameworks to support optimal water allocation and to inform production and trade decisions from the water perspective. We present the results of a regional study carried out in Cantabria, a 5300 km2 autonomous region located in northern Spain. Our approach deals with the municipal, shire and regional scales, combining different methods to assess each of the main components of Cantabria's water footprint (agriculture, livestock, forestry, industry, mining, tourism, domestic use and reservoirs), as well as exploring the significance of different approaches, assumptions and databases in the overall outcomes. The classic water footprint method is coupled with extended water footprint analyses in order to provide an estimate of the social and economic value of each sector. Finally, virtual water imports and exports are computed between Cantabria and the rest of Spain and between Cantabria and the world. The outcome of our work (a) highlights the paramount importance of green water (mostly embedded in pastures) in the region's water footprint and virtual water exports; (b) establishes the role of the region as a net virtual water exporter; (c) shows the productivity of water (euro/m3 and jobs/m3) to be highest in tourism and lowest in agriculture and livestock; and (d) demonstrates that statistical databases are seldom compiled with water footprint studies in mind, which is likely to introduce uncertainties in the results. Although our work shows that there is still plenty of room for improvement in regional-scale water footprint assessments, we contend that the available information is sufficient to

  10. Regional climate scenarios for use in Nordic water resources studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rummukainen, Markku; Räisänen, J.; Bjørge, D.


    are typically geographically too coarse to well represent many regional or local features. In the Nordic region, climate studies are conducted in each of the Nordic countries to prepare regional climate projections with more detail than in global ones. Results so far indicate larger temperature changes...... in the Nordic region than in the global mean, regional increases and decreases in net precipitation, longer growing season, shorter snow season etc. These in turn affect runoff, snowpack, groundwater, soil frost and moisture, and thus hydropower production potential, flooding risks etc. Regional climate models......According to global climate projections, a substantial global climate change will occur during the next decades, under the assumption of continuous anthropogenic climate forcing. Global models, although fundamental in simulating the response of the climate system to anthropogenic forcing...

  11. Water management and food security in vulnerable regions of China ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Jun 23, 2014 ... Securing food and water in Pakistan's vulnerable Indus River basin. The Indus River flows through the heart of Pakistan, weaving past mountains, forest, and desert to arrive at an impressive delta. View moreSecuring food and water in Pakistan's vulnerable Indus River basin ...

  12. Water resource co-management and sustainable regional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, C.L.; Bressers, Johannes T.A.


    Purpose – Given the importance of multi-stakeholder processes in managing water resources, this paper aims to shed light on various project management strategies being used in The Netherlands to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of implementing multifunctional water projects.

  13. optimization of water resources allocation in semi-arid region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eng Obi Ibeje

    basically due to allocation of water for various industrial purposes like product processing, cooling of machines, washing of plants and other diverse industrial applications are classified as industrial returns. The allocations from the dam are jointly pumped as town water supply; no separate meters were available to measure.

  14. Stream water quality in the western regions of Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 18, 2007 ... Jenkins et al., 1995; Tamasebi and Jafarian, 2006). This study presents the water quality of the some rivers and streams in the west part of Iran. The objective was to characterize the chemical and physical properties of surface water of the geological environments and to determine the anthropogenic im-.

  15. Chemistry of snow and lake water in Antarctic region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Surface snow and lake water samples were collected at different locations around Indian station at Antarctica, Maitri, during December 2004-March 2005 and December 2006-March 2007.Samples were analyzed for major chemical ions. It is found that average pH value of snow is 6.1. Average pH value of lake water with ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    30 juin 2011 ... ABSTRACT. Controlling the quality of water distributed together with sound resource management is a factor of economic and social development. Also, the chemistry and knowledge of geological and hydrogeological aquifer, the object of this work, we identify the water quality examined through ...

  17. Water scarcity and economic damage in Europe: regionally relevant simulations from 2000 to 2050 (United States)

    Bernhard, Jeroen; de Roo, Ad; Bisselink, Bernard; Gelati, Emiliano; Karssenberg, Derek; de Jong, Steven


    Water availability is unequally distributed across Europe. Where certain regions experience a surplus of water, other areas have limited water availability which causes economic damage to the water using sectors such as households, industries or agriculture. Future changes in climatic and socio-economic conditions are expected to further increase the competition for available water that is already present in Europe. This means there is an increasing need for models that are able to simulate this multi-sectorial system of water availability and demand and incorporate the socio-economic component required for robust decisions and policy support. We present our modelling study which is focused at providing regionally relevant pan-European water scarcity and economic damage simulations. First we developed regionally relevant pan-European water demand simulations for the household and industry sector from 2000 up to 2050. For the household sector we developed a model to simulate water use based on water price, income and several other relevant variables at NUTS-3 level (over 1200 regions in Europe). Alternatively, we modelled industrial water use based on regionally downscaled water productivity values at the national level for ten sub-sections of the NACE (Nomenclature of Economic Activities) classification for economic activities. Subsequently we used scenario projections of our explanatory variables to make scenario simulations of water demand from 2000 up to 2050 at pan-European scale with unprecedented spatial and sub-sectorial detail. In order to analyze the European water use system we integrated these water demand scenarios into the hydrological rainfall-runoff model called LISFLOOD (Distributed Water Balance and Flood Simulation Model), which incorporates a vegetation module for the simulation of crop yield and irrigation water demand of the agriculture sector. We simulated river discharge and groundwater availability for abstractions of water using sectors

  18. Costs of water treatment due to diminished water quality: A case study in Texas (United States)

    Dearmont, David; McCarl, Bruce A.; Tolman, Deborah A.


    The cost of municipal water treatment due to diminished water quality represents an important component of the societal costs of water pollution. Here the chemical costs of municipal water treatment are expressed as a function of raw surface water quality. Data are used for a 3-year period for 12 water treatment plants in Texas. Results show that when regional raw water contamination is present, the chemical cost of water treatment is increased by 95 per million gallons (per 3785 m3) from a base of 75. A 1% increase in turbidity is shown to increase chemical costs by 0.25%.

  19. Agricultural water use, crop water footprints and irrigation strategies in the seasonally dry Guanacaste region in Costa Rica (United States)

    Morillas, Laura; Johnson, Mark S.; Hund, Silja V.; Steyn, Douw G.


    Agriculture is the main productive sector and a major water-consuming sector in the seasonally-dry Guanacaste region of north-western Costa Rica. Agriculture in the region is intensifying at the same time that seasonal water scarcity is increasing. The climate of this region is characterized by a prolonged dry season from December to March, followed by a bimodal wet season from April to November. The wet season has historically experienced periodic oscillations in rainfall timing and amounts resulting from variations of several large-scale climatic features (El Niño Southern Oscillation, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation). However, global circulation models now project more recurrent variations in total annual rainfall, changes in rainfall temporal distribution, and increased temperatures in this region. This may result in a lengthening of the dry season and an increase in water scarcity and water-related conflicts as water resources are already limited and disputed in this area. In fact, this region has just undergone a four-year drought over the 2012-2015 period, which has intensified water related conflicts and put agricultural production at risk. In turn, the recent drought has also increased awareness of the local communities regarding the regional threat of water scarcity and the need of a regional water planning. The overall goal of this research is to generate data to characterize water use by the agricultural sector in this region and asses its sustainability in the regional context. Towards this goal, eddy-covariance flux towers were deployed on two extensive farms growing regionally-representative crops (melon/rice rotation and sugarcane) to evaluate, monitor and quantify water use in large-scale farms. The two identically instrumented stations provide continuous measurements of evapotranspiration and CO2 fluxes, and are equipped with additional instrumentation to monitor

  20. Potential structural barriers to ground-water flow, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional geologic structures designated as potential ground-water flow barriers in an approximately 45,000...

  1. Metropolitan Spokane Region Water Resources Study. Appendix G. Planning Criteria (United States)


    polymer with both. For further criteria on chemical application see below relative to nitrification and phosphorus removal. Bovay (1973) also made...pilot plant studies of lime addition and found that approximately 480 mg/l were required with 0.5 mg/i polymer but that recarbonation was required to...Nostrand Reinhold Co. Diaper , E. W. J., 1972. Practical Aspects of Water and Wastewater Treatment by Ozone in "Ozone in Water and Wastewater Treatment

  2. Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity of High Strength Lightweight Raw Perlite Aggregate Concrete (United States)

    Tandiroglu, Ahmet


    Twenty-four types of high strength lightweight concrete have been designed with raw perlite aggregate (PA) from the Erzincan Mollaköy region as new low-temperature insulation material. The effects of the water/cement ratio, the amount of raw PA, and the temperature on high strength lightweight raw perlite aggregate concrete (HSLWPAC) have been investigated. Three empirical equations were derived to correlate the thermal conductivity of HSLWPAC as a function of PA percentage and temperature depending on the water/cement ratio. Experimentally observed thermal conductivities of concrete samples were predicted 92 % of the time for each set of concrete matrices within 97 % accuracy and over the range from 1.457 W · m-1 · K-1 to 1.777 W · m-1 · K-1. The experimental investigation revealed that the usage of raw PA from the Erzincan Mollaköy region in concrete production reduces the concrete unit mass, increases the concrete strength, and furthermore, the thermal conductivity of the concrete has been improved. The proposed empirical correlations of thermal conductivity were considered to be applicable within the range of temperatures 203.15 K ≤ T ≤ 303.15 K in the form of λ = a( PAP b ) + c( T d ).

  3. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; South Atlantic Gulf region (United States)

    Cederstrom, D.J.; Boswell, E.H.; Tarver, G.R.


    Precipitation in the 270,000-square-mile South Atlantic-Gulf Region ranges from 44 to 80 inches, and the average runoff is about 15 inches. The ground-water discharge that forms the base flow of streams is conservatively estimated to be about 78,000 million gallons per day the equivalent of about 6 inches of precipitation. On this basis, the regional sustained ground-water supply is about 286,000 gallons per day per square mile. Projected water use through 2020 indicates that about 10 percent of the supply will meet the region's requirement for ground water.

  4. Raw materials from the region of Rio Claro - SP for the manufacture of ceramic coatings: technological characteristics and geological-technological modeling; Materias-primas da regiao de Rio Claro - SP para fabricacao de revestimentos ceramicos: caracteristicas tecnologicas e modelamento geologico-tecnologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, R.A.; Roveri, C.D.; Maestrelli, S.C., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)


    The Santa Gertrudes Ceramic Polo (PCSG) is the largest national producer of ceramic tiles, located in east-central region of Sao Paulo, encompassing different cities. PCSG uses various clays as the main raw material from the Corumbatai Formation, which is inserted in the Sedimentary Basin of Parana, with more than 1.5 square kilometers. In this context, X-ray diffractograms of samples from different areas of PCSG were used for application of the cluster analysis. Aiming to group the samples in families and subsequently to seek the most representative for the complete analysis. Also, ceramic tests were made by the following methods: the green bulk density after pressing, flexural strength modulus for green. , tests were conducted after firing at 1070 °C and 1120 °C: apparent density after drying, flexural modulus; after firing: apparent density after firing, water absorption linear shrinkage sintering, apparent porosity, modulus of resistance to bending after burning. Further, from the georeferenced sample were created tables for industry in the area, to facilitate the identification of new sample by XRD. Furthermore, the 3D model of the region was developed from the interesting characteristics for ceramic use, using Micromine Mining Software, Enterprise Micromine. (author)

  5. An integrated assessment of global and regional water demands for electricity generation to 2095 (United States)

    Davies, Evan G. R.; Kyle, Page; Edmonds, James A.


    Electric power plants account for approximately half the global industrial water withdrawal. Although continued electric-sector expansion is probable, significant variations in water intensity by electricity technology and cooling system type make its effects on water demands uncertain. Using GCAM, an integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, and climate change, we establish lower-, median-, and upper-bound estimates for current electric-sector water withdrawals and consumption in 14 geopolitical regions, and compare them with available estimates. We then explore water use for electricity to 2095, focusing on uncertainties in water withdrawal and consumption intensities, power plant cooling system changes, and adoption rates of water-saving technologies. Results reveal a probable decrease in the water withdrawal intensity with capital stock turnover, but a corresponding increase in consumptive use, for which technologies under development may compensate. At a regional scale, water use varies significantly based on the existing capital stock and its evolution over the century.

  6. Simulation of the Regional Ground-Water-Flow System and Ground-Water/Surface-Water Interaction in the Rock River Basin, Wisconsin (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.


    A regional, two-dimensional, areal ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system and ground-water/surface-water interaction in the Rock River Basin. The model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Rock River Coalition. The objectives of the regional model were to improve understanding of the ground-water-flow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential regional water-management programs. The computer code GFLOW was used because of the ease with which the model can simulate ground-water/surface-water interactions, provide a framework for simulating regional ground-water-flow systems, and be refined in a stepwise fashion to incorporate new data and simulate ground-water-flow patterns at multiple scales. The ground-water-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, ground-water/surface-water interactions, and ground-water withdrawals from high-capacity wells. The steady-state model treats the ground-water-flow system as a single layer with hydraulic conductivity and base elevation zones that reflect the distribution of lithologic groups above the Precambrian bedrock and a regionally significant confining unit, the Maquoketa Formation. In the eastern part of the Basin where the shale-rich Maquoketa Formation is present, deep ground-water flow in the sandstone aquifer below the Maquoketa Formation was not simulated directly, but flow into this aquifer was incorporated into the GFLOW model from previous work in southeastern Wisconsin. Recharge was constrained primarily by stream base-flow estimates and was applied uniformly within zones guided by regional infiltration estimates for soils. The model includes average ground-water withdrawals from 1997 to 2006 for municipal wells and from 1997 to 2005 for high-capacity irrigation, industrial, and commercial wells. In addition

  7. Is Gippsland environmentally iodine deficient? Water iodine concentrations in the Gippsland region of Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Rahman, Ashequr; Deacon, Nicholas; Panther, Barbara; Chesters, Janice; Savige, Gayle


      This paper provides evidence of environmental iodine deficiency in the Gippsland region.   Quantitative study; water samples were collected from 18 water treatment plants and four rain water tanks across Gippsland and water iodine concentrations were measured.   Gippsland region of Victoria, Australia.   This paper reports on the iodine concentration of drinking water from sources across Gippsland and examines the contribution of iodine from water to the Gippsland diet. This study also briefly examines the relationship between the concentration of iodine in water and distance from the sea. The cut-off value for water iodine concentrations considered to be indicative of environmental iodine deficiency is water from 18 Gippsland water treatment plants was 0.38 µg L(-1) and would therefore make negligible difference to the dietary intake of iodine. This finding also falls well below the suggested dietary intake of iodine from water estimated by the 22nd Australian Total Diet Study. Our study found no linear relationship between the water iodine concentration and distance from the sea.   As Gippsland has environmental iodine deficiency there is a greater probability that people living in this region are at higher risk of dietary iodine deficiency than those living in environmentally iodine sufficient regions. Populations living in areas known to have environmental iodine deficiency should be monitored regularly to ensure that problems of iodine deficiency, especially amongst the most vulnerable, are addressed promptly. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  8. Factors influencing women's access to water in Oke-Ogun Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines community Water Access Index (WAI), investigates the determinants of women's access to water, and identifies windows of opportunities for improved water access in Oke-Ogun region in Nigeria. The study adopted triangulation methodology via household survey, focus group discussions and ...

  9. [Assessment of risk of contamination of drinking water for the health of children in Tula region]. (United States)

    Grigor'ev, Iu I; Liapina, N V


    The hygienic analysis of centralized drinking water supply in Tula region has been performed Thepriority contaminants of drinking water have been detected On the basis of risk assessment methodology non-carcinogenic health risks to the child population was calculated. A direct relationship between the incidence of some diseases in childhood population and pollution by chemical contaminants of drinking water has been established.

  10. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Souris-Red-Rainy region (United States)

    Reeder, Harold O.


    A broad-perspective analysis of the ground-water resources and present and possible future water development and management in the Souris-Red-Rainy Region is presented. The region includes the basins of the Souris River within Montana and North Dakota; the Red River of the North in South Dakota, North Dakota, and Minnesota; and the Rainy River within Minnesota. The region includes 59,645 square miles, mostly in North Dakota and Minnesota.

  11. OFFGEL electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry approach compared with DNA-based PCR method for authentication of meat species from raw and cooked ground meat mixtures containing cattle meat, water buffalo meat and sheep meat. (United States)

    Naveena, Basappa M; Jagadeesh, Deepak S; Jagadeesh Babu, A; Madhava Rao, T; Kamuni, Veeranna; Vaithiyanathan, S; Kulkarni, Vinayak V; Rapole, Srikanth


    The present study compared the accuracy of an OFFGEL electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach with a DNA-based method for meat species identification from raw and cooked ground meat mixes containing cattle, water buffalo and sheep meat. The proteomic approach involved the separation of myofibrillar proteins using OFFGEL electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE and protein identification by MALDI-TOF MS. Species-specific peptides derived from myosin light chain-1 and 2 were identified for authenticating buffalo meat spiked at a minimum 0.5% level in sheep meat with high confidence. Relative quantification of buffalo meat mixed with sheep meat was done by quantitative label-free mass spectrometry using UPLC-QTOF and PLGS search engine to substantiate the confidence level of the data. In the DNA-based method, PCR amplification of mitochondrial D loop gene using species specific primers found 226bp and 126bp product amplicons for buffalo and cattle meat, respectively. The method was efficient in detecting a minimum of 0.5% and 1.0% when buffalo meat was spiked with cattle meat in raw and cooked meat mixes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Regional hydrological impacts of climate change: implications for water management in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mondal


    Full Text Available Climate change is most likely to introduce an additional stress to already stressed water systems in developing countries. Climate change is inherently linked with the hydrological cycle and is expected to cause significant alterations in regional water resources systems necessitating measures for adaptation and mitigation. Increasing temperatures, for example, are likely to change precipitation patterns resulting in alterations of regional water availability, evapotranspirative water demand of crops and vegetation, extremes of floods and droughts, and water quality. A comprehensive assessment of regional hydrological impacts of climate change is thus necessary. Global climate model simulations provide future projections of the climate system taking into consideration changes in external forcings, such as atmospheric carbon-dioxide and aerosols, especially those resulting from anthropogenic emissions. However, such simulations are typically run at a coarse scale, and are not equipped to reproduce regional hydrological processes. This paper summarizes recent research on the assessment of climate change impacts on regional hydrology, addressing the scale and physical processes mismatch issues. Particular attention is given to changes in water availability, irrigation demands and water quality. This paper also includes description of the methodologies developed to address uncertainties in the projections resulting from incomplete knowledge about future evolution of the human-induced emissions and from using multiple climate models. Approaches for investigating possible causes of historically observed changes in regional hydrological variables are also discussed. Illustrations of all the above-mentioned methods are provided for Indian regions with a view to specifically aiding water management in India.

  13. Regional hydrological impacts of climate change: implications for water management in India (United States)

    Mondal, A.; Mujumdar, P. P.


    Climate change is most likely to introduce an additional stress to already stressed water systems in developing countries. Climate change is inherently linked with the hydrological cycle and is expected to cause significant alterations in regional water resources systems necessitating measures for adaptation and mitigation. Increasing temperatures, for example, are likely to change precipitation patterns resulting in alterations of regional water availability, evapotranspirative water demand of crops and vegetation, extremes of floods and droughts, and water quality. A comprehensive assessment of regional hydrological impacts of climate change is thus necessary. Global climate model simulations provide future projections of the climate system taking into consideration changes in external forcings, such as atmospheric carbon-dioxide and aerosols, especially those resulting from anthropogenic emissions. However, such simulations are typically run at a coarse scale, and are not equipped to reproduce regional hydrological processes. This paper summarizes recent research on the assessment of climate change impacts on regional hydrology, addressing the scale and physical processes mismatch issues. Particular attention is given to changes in water availability, irrigation demands and water quality. This paper also includes description of the methodologies developed to address uncertainties in the projections resulting from incomplete knowledge about future evolution of the human-induced emissions and from using multiple climate models. Approaches for investigating possible causes of historically observed changes in regional hydrological variables are also discussed. Illustrations of all the above-mentioned methods are provided for Indian regions with a view to specifically aiding water management in India.

  14. Water Information System Platforms Addressing Critical Societal Needs in the Mena Region (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Kfouri, Claire; Peters, Mark


    The MENA region includes 18 countries, the occupied Palestinian territories and Western Sahara. However, the region of interest for this study has a strategic interest in countries adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, which includes, Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Lebanon and Jordan. The 90% of the water in the MENA region is used for the agriculture use. By the end of this century. this region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation (lPCC, 2007). Due to lower precipitation, water run-off is projected to drop by 20% to 30% in most of MENA by 2050 Reduced stream flow and groundwater recharge might lead to a reduction in water supply of 10% or greater by 2050. Therefore, per IPCC projections in temperature rise and precipitation decline in the region, the scarcity of water will become more acute with population growth, and rising demand of food in the region. Additionally, the trans boundary water issues will continue to plague the region in terms of sharing data for better management of water resources. Such pressing issues have brought The World Bank, USAID and NASA to jointly collaborate for establishing integrated, modern, up to date NASA developed capabilities for countries in the MENA region for addressing water resource issues and adapting to climate change impacts for improved decision making and societal benefit. This initiative was launched in October 2011 and is schedule to be completed by the end of2015.

  15. Water productivity analysis from field to regional scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, R.


    Keywords: distributed modelling, inverse modelling, data assimilation, irrigation water management, salinization, Bhakra Irrigation

  16. Eucalypt plantation management in regions with water stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To be truly sustainable, forest management practices must be environmentally friendly, prevent or reduce land degradation, improve biodiversity and increase resilience to climate variation and change. The main efforts should address the problems of water scarcity, low soil fertility and reduced biodiversity. Forest growers ...

  17. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karska, A.; J. Herczeg, G.; F. van Dishoeck, E.


    . We also determine the spatial extent of the emission and investigate the underlying excitation conditions. Most of the protostars in our sample show strong atomic and molecular far-infrared emission. Water is detected in 17 objects, including 5 Class I sources. The high-excitation H2O line at 63...

  18. The Shallow-water Octocorallia of the West Indian Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayer, Frederick M.


    The alcyonarian fauna of the West Indies is prolific and conspicuous and has been known for many years, with the natural result that a great many more species have been described than actually exist. The deep-water fauna, which received little attention prior to the work of VERRILL, was thoroughly


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Still significant flux remains to be recovered. The cause for the fouling may be dissolved minerals, such as CaC03, and humic material found in ground water. Thus, the cause of the fouling of the membrane and cleaning procedures need further study. Time. F - concentration (porn). Retention. (hour). Concentrate. Permeate.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H. Benfetta


    Sep 1, 2017 ... This dam is located in an arid zone where water resources are becoming increasingly scarce. It is situated 5 km from the ... /year), while dead storage accounts for 4.6 million m. 3 .... These data highlight a clear evaporation gradient: in the coastal zone (up to 50 km from the sea) annual evaporation is <0.5 ...

  1. Water productivity analysis from field to regional scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, R.


    Keywords: distributed modelling, inverse modelling, data assimilation, irrigation water management, salinization, Bhakra Irrigation

  2. Flow characteristics of the raw sewage for the design of sewage-source heat pump systems. (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang


    The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems.

  3. Security of water, energy, and food nexus in the Asia-Pacific region (United States)

    Taniguchi, M.; Endo, A.; Fujii, M.; Shoji, J.; Baba, K.; Gurdak, J. J.; Allen, D. M.; Siringan, F. P.; Delinom, R.


    Water, energy, and food are the most important and fundamental resources for human beings and society. Demands for these resources are escalating rapidly because of increases in populations and changes in lifestyles. Therefore intensive demand for those resources makes conflicts between resources. Securities of water, energy, and food are treated separately, however they should be considered as one integrated matter, because water-energy-food are connected and it makes nexus and tradeoff. Security in terms of self-production, diversity of alternatives, and variability are evaluated for water, energy and food for thirty two countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The water and energy nexus includes water consumption for the cooling of power plant systems, water use for hydro power generation, and energy consumption for water allocation and pumping. The water and food nexus consists of water consumption for agriculture and aquaculture. The energy and food nexus includes energy consumption for food production and biomass for energy. Analyses of 11 countries within the Asia- Pacific region show that energy consumption for fish is the largest among foods in Japan, Philippines, and Peru, while energy consumption for cereals is the largest among foods in Canada, US, Indonesia, and others. Water consumption for different types of food and energy are also analyzed, including nexus ratio to total water consumption. The water-energy-food nexus at a local level in the Asia Pacific region are examined by the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature project "Human environmental security in Asia Pacific Ring of Fire". Themes including geothermal power plants for energy development and hot springs as water, shale gas for energy development and water consumption/contamination, aquaculture for food and water contamination are used to evaluate the water-energy-food nexus in the Asia-Pacific region.

  4. Virtual water trade and time scales for loss of water sustainability: a comparative regional analysis. (United States)

    Goswami, Prashant; Nishad, Shiv Narayan


    Assessment and policy design for sustainability in primary resources like arable land and water need to adopt long-term perspective; even small but persistent effects like net export of water may influence sustainability through irreversible losses. With growing consumption, this virtual water trade has become an important element in the water sustainability of a nation. We estimate and contrast the virtual (embedded) water trades of two populous nations, India and China, to present certain quantitative measures and time scales. Estimates show that export of embedded water alone can lead to loss of water sustainability. With the current rate of net export of water (embedded) in the end products, India is poised to lose its entire available water in less than 1000 years; much shorter time scales are implied in terms of water for production. The two cases contrast and exemplify sustainable and non-sustainable virtual water trade in long term perspective.

  5. Simulation of water use and herbage growth in arid regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van H.


    The and and semi-arid regions of the world, totalling about 30% of the land surface of the earth, are predominantly used for extensive grazing, as low and erratic rainfall presents too high a risk for arable farming. The population that can be sustained by the animal products -meat, milk or

  6. Modeling Regional Soil Water Balance in Farmland of the Middle Reaches of Heihe River Basin


    Jiang Li; Xiaomin Mao; Songhao Shang; Steenhuis, Tammo S.


    Quantifying components of soil water balance in farmland of the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin is essential for efficiently scheduling and allocating limited water resources for irrigation in this arid region. A soil water balance model based on empirical assumptions in the vadose zone of farmland was developed and simulation results were compared/validated with results by the numerical model HYDRUS-1D. Results showed a good coherence between the simulated results of the water balance mo...

  7. Hydro-crisis in the Middle East: water schemes for a thirsty region


    Flemming, Matthew S.


    In the Middle East, water is ecoming a far more valuable natural resource than oil. Access to water has domestic and regional economic, political, and security implications for the Middle East. Water is likely to be the issue that sparks the next conflict in the Middle East. This thesis describes the impact of rapid population growth and urbanization, industrialization and pollution, and 'self-sufficiency' agricultural policies on the water resources of the Middle East. Current capacities of ...

  8. North Atlantic Regional Water Resources Study. Main Report (United States)


    inventories generally tween 1960 and 1967) 670 60- 1] Calculated waste load before treatment generated by entire 2 digit SIC activity.’ - 2] Discharged waste...the six major water-using twoI- digit SIC groups. 3/ This is considered to be a result of actual treatment Drac- tice in 1960 and the secondary...changes the visual, Quality objective. Achievement of the Na- cultura ; and above all ecological character of tional Income objective would emphasize the

  9. [Significance of underground waters for population water supply of oil- producing regions in the Republic of Tatarstan]. (United States)

    Ivanov, A V; Tafeeva, E A


    The paper provides the hygienic characteristics of the underground waters used for water supply of the population of oil-producing regions in the Republic of Tatarstan (RT). The most common indicators of poor-quality drinking water of centralized water-supply systems from underground sources are shown to be its high mineralization, hardness, and higher than normal hygiene levels of chlorides, sulfates, and iron. The primary reason for drinking water quality deterioration is a high (as high as 70%) wear of water mains. It is noted that industrially based sanitary-and-hygienic and nature-conservative measures to improve water supply conditions for the population are being implemented under the financial backing of OAO "Tatneft" in the oil-producing regions. Considerable development-and-survey work is under way to detect and approve underground water reserves; underground reserves of fresh water have been today industrially introduced for the water supply of the towns of Zainsk, Bugulma, Nurlat, and the industrial community of Urussu. More than 400 springs and sources have been constructed, by meeting all the sanitary-and-hygienic requirements.

  10. [Ecological effect of hygroscopic and condensate water on biological soil crusts in Shapotou region of China]. (United States)

    Pan, Yan-Xia; Wang, Xin-Ping; Zhang, Ya-Feng; Hu, Rui


    By the method of field experiment combined with laboratory analysis, this paper studied the ecological significance of hygroscopic and condensate water on the biological soil crusts in the vegetation sand-fixing area in Shapotou region of China. In the study area, 90% of hygroscopic and condensate water was within the 3 cm soil depth, which didn' t affect the surface soil water content. The hygroscopic and condensate water generated at night involved in the exchange process of soil surface water and atmosphere water vapor, made up the loss of soil water due to the evaporation during the day, and made the surface soil water not reduced rapidly. The amount of the generated hygroscopic and condensate water had a positive correlation with the chlorophyll content of biological soil crusts, indicating that the hygroscopic and condensate water could improve the growth activity of the biological soil crusts, and thus, benefit the biomass accumulation of the crusts.

  11. Forest cover correlates with good biological water quality. Insights from a regional study (Wallonia, Belgium). (United States)

    Brogna, D; Dufrêne, M; Michez, A; Latli, A; Jacobs, S; Vincke, C; Dendoncker, N


    Forested catchments are generally assumed to provide higher quality water in opposition to agricultural and urban catchments. However, this should be tested in various ecological contexts and through the study of multiple variables describing water quality. Indeed, interactions between ecological variables, multiple land use and land cover (LULC) types, and water quality variables render the relationship between forest cover and water quality highly complex. Furthermore, the question of the scale at which land use within stream catchments most influences stream water quality and ecosystem health remains only partially answered. This paper quantifies, at the regional scale and across five natural ecoregions of Wallonia (Belgium), the forest cover effect on biological water quality indices (based on diatoms and macroinvertebrates) at the riparian and catchment scales. Main results show that forest cover - considered alone - explains around one third of the biological water quality at the regional scale and from 15 to 70% depending on the ecoregion studied. Forest cover is systematically positively correlated with higher biological water quality. When removing spatial, local morphological variations, or population density effect, forest cover still accounts for over 10% of the total biological water quality variation. Partitioning variance shows that physico-chemical water quality is one of the main drivers of biological water quality and that anthropogenic pressures often explain an important part of it (shared or not with forest cover). The proportion of forest cover in each catchment at the regional scale and across all ecoregions but the Loam region is more positively correlated with high water quality than when considering the proportion of forest cover in the riparian zones only. This suggests that catchment-wide impacts and a fortiori catchment-wide protection measures are the main drivers of river ecological water quality. However, distinctive results from the

  12. Consumption and loss of potable water in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Silva Carvalho


    Full Text Available Before the water problem that has taken place in Brazil and the need to reduce energy consumption in the country, it was thought the objective of this study was to evaluate the conditions of use and loss of potable water in the Baixada Fluminense, part of the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro (RMRJ, since it is the emergency waste reduction and the efficient and sustainable use of water. This exploratory study aims through a documentary approach, identify the number of water loss in the region. It proves that the loss in the region is more serious than in other states and that awareness campaigns should be implemented as local public policies. Also suggests that cleantech water use can be incorporated into the daily lives of homes and businesses enabling the reduction of water consumption.

  13. Peru Water Resources: Integrating NASA Earth Observations into Water Resource Planning and Management in Perus La Libertad Region (United States)

    Padgett-Vasquez, Steve; Steentofte, Catherine; Holbrook, Abigail


    Developing countries often struggle with providing water security and sanitation services to their populations. An important aspect of improving security and sanitation is developing a comprehensive understanding of the country's water budget. Water For People, a non-profit organization dedicated to providing clean drinking water, is working with the Peruvian government to develop a water budget for the La Libertad region of Peru which includes the creation of an extensive watershed management plan. Currently, the data archive of the necessary variables to create the water management plan is extremely limited. Implementing NASA Earth observations has bolstered the dataset being used by Water For People, and the METRIC (Mapping EvapoTranspiration at High Resolution and Internalized Calibration) model has allowed for the estimation of the evapotranspiration values for the region. Landsat 8 imagery and the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor onboard Terra were used to derive the land cover information, and were used in conjunction with local weather data of Cascas from Peru's National Meteorological and Hydrological Service (SENAMHI). Python was used to combine input variables and METRIC model calculations to approximate the evapotranspiration values for the Ochape sub-basin of the Chicama River watershed. Once calculated, the evapotranspiration values and methodology were shared Water For People to help supplement their decision support tools in the La Libertad region of Peru and potentially apply the methodology in other areas of need.

  14. Occurrence and risk assessment of four typical fluoroquinolone antibiotics in raw and treated sewage and in receiving waters in Hangzhou, China. (United States)

    Tong, Changlun; Zhuo, Xiajun; Guo, Yun


    A sensitive liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method, combined with one-step solid-phase extraction, was established for detecting the residual levels of the four typical fluoroquinolone antibiotics (ofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin) in influent, effluent, and surface waters from Hangzhou, China. For the various environmental water matrices, the overall recoveries were from 76.8 to 122%, and no obvious interferences of matrix effect were observed. The limit of quantitation of this method was estimated to be 17 ng/L for ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, 20 ng/L for ofloxacin, and 27 ng/L for enrofloxacin. All of the four typical fluoroquinolone antibiotics were found in the wastewaters and surface waters. The residual contents of the four typical fluoroquinolone antibiotics in influent, effluent, and surface water samples are 108-1405, 54-429, and 7.0-51.6 ng/L, respectively. The removal rates of the selected fluoroquinolone antibiotics were 69.5 (ofloxacin), 61.3 (norfloxacin), and 50% (enrofloxacin), indicating that activated sludge treatment is effective except for ciprofloxacin and necessary to remove these fluoroquinolone antibiotics in municipal sewage. The risk to the aquatic environment was estimated by a ratio of measured environmental concentration and predicted no-effect concentration. At the concentrations, these fluoroquinolone antibiotics were found in influent, effluent, and surface waters, and they should not pose a risk for the aquatic environment.

  15. Technical Note: Seasonality in alpine water resources management – a regional assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Rauch


    Full Text Available Alpine regions are particularly affected by seasonal variations in water demand and water availability. Especially the winter period is critical from an operational point of view, as being characterised by high water demands due to tourism and low water availability due to the temporal storage of precipitation as snow and ice. The clear definition of summer and winter periods is thus an essential prerequisite for water resource management in alpine regions. This paper presents a GIS-based multi criteria method to determine the winter season. A snow cover duration dataset serves as basis for this analysis. Different water demand stakeholders, the alpine hydrology and the present day water supply infrastructure are taken into account. Technical snow-making and (winter tourism were identified as the two major seasonal water demand stakeholders in the study area, which is the Kitzbueheler region in the Austrian Alps. Based upon different geographical datasets winter was defined as the period from December to March, and summer as the period from April to November. By determining potential regional water balance deficits or surpluses in the present day situation and in future, important management decisions such as water storage and allocation can be made and transposed to the local level.

  16. Technical Note: Seasonality in alpine water resources management - a regional assessment (United States)

    Vanham, D.; Fleischhacker, E.; Rauch, W.


    Alpine regions are particularly affected by seasonal variations in water demand and water availability. Especially the winter period is critical from an operational point of view, as being characterised by high water demands due to tourism and low water availability due to the temporal storage of precipitation as snow and ice. The clear definition of summer and winter periods is thus an essential prerequisite for water resource management in alpine regions. This paper presents a GIS-based multi criteria method to determine the winter season. A snow cover duration dataset serves as basis for this analysis. Different water demand stakeholders, the alpine hydrology and the present day water supply infrastructure are taken into account. Technical snow-making and (winter) tourism were identified as the two major seasonal water demand stakeholders in the study area, which is the Kitzbueheler region in the Austrian Alps. Based upon different geographical datasets winter was defined as the period from December to March, and summer as the period from April to November. By determining potential regional water balance deficits or surpluses in the present day situation and in future, important management decisions such as water storage and allocation can be made and transposed to the local level.

  17. Irrigation water demand of common bean on field and regional scale under varying climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wagner


    Full Text Available Crop irrigation plays an important role in the world's food production and its role is expected to increase still further. For policy makers, the quantification of the irrigation water demand and the water availability on a regional scale is crucial. In the project ‘SAPHIR’, a new stochastic framework was developed to upscale crop yield and crop water demand from irrigation experiments with common bean to the regional scale using the one-dimensional mechanistic crop model Daisy. The crop model parameters – derived based on a comprehensive experimental data collection and a sound calibration of the crop model – were used to simulate potential bean yield, yield reduction due to drought stress, and crop water demand in mid and northern Saxony, Eastern Germany, using the dominant soil characteristics. The stochastic relationship between irrigated water and crop yield (stochastic crop water production function enabled the prediction of the crop productivity on a regional scale. Furthermore, the available water resources for irrigation on the catchment scale were compared to the predicted irrigation water requirements to estimate the degree of local water self sufficiency. The simulation results show that an irrigation of common bean has high yield effects especially in locations with low precipitation during the growing season or for soils with a low water storage capacity. Especially in the drier northern parts of Saxony with its lower soil water storage capability, a decrease in non-irrigated fresh matter bean yield up to 40 % is predicted for the future. Irrigation and the projected increasing temperature can enhance the bean yield in southern Saxony. However, the required amount of irrigation water in northern Saxony can only be delivered by down to 20 % and less from the local precipitation. The presented framework enables policy makers to compare water demand and available water which allows a precise estimation of relevant

  18. Microbiology of raw milk in New Zealand. (United States)

    Hill, Bruce; Smythe, Betty; Lindsay, Denise; Shepherd, Joanna


    The results of this study demonstrate the occurrence of the non-spore-forming pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (total count and O157:H7), Listeria, Campylobacter and Salmonella, in New Zealand's raw milk supply. Samples of raw milk were collected monthly within five major dairying regions over one year. Each month, samples from five randomly selected farm vats in each region were collected for analysis (297 samples in total). Methods based on plate count techniques were used to enumerate S. aureus and E. coli. Enrichment methods in combination with a modified most probable number detection method were used to monitor samples for the presence of E. coli O157:H7, Listeria, Campylobacter and Salmonella. Salmonella was not detected in this study, and Campylobacter was isolated once (0.34%). E. coli was present at pathogenic E. coli O157 strains (i.e. lacking genes for stx1, stx2, eae and Hly A) were detected in 1% of samples. S. aureus was not detected (1 but innocua was present in 4% of samples. The results demonstrate that raw milk sampled from farm vats in New Zealand, as in other countries, inevitably contains recognised pathogens and, hence, control by pasteurisation or an equivalent treatment of raw milk remains paramount. Even so, the prevalence of most of these pathogens was lower than those reported in many of the studies performed in other countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential climate change impacts on water availability and cooling water demand in the Lusatian Lignite Mining Region, Central Europe (United States)

    Pohle, Ina; Koch, Hagen; Gädeke, Anne; Grünewald, Uwe; Kaltofen, Michael; Redetzky, Michael


    In the catchments of the rivers Schwarze Elster, Spree and Lusatian Neisse, hydrologic and socioeconomic systems are coupled via a complex water management system in which water users, reservoirs and water transfers are included. Lignite mining and electricity production are major water users in the region: To allow for open pit lignite mining, ground water is depleted and released into the river system while cooling water is used in the thermal power plants. In order to assess potential climate change impacts on water availability in the catchments as well as on the water demand of the thermal power plants, a climate change impact assessment was performed using the hydrological model SWIM and the long term water management model WBalMo. The potential impacts of climate change were considered by using three regional climate change scenarios of the statistical regional climate model STAR assuming a further temperature increase of 0, 2 or 3 K by the year 2050 in the region respectively. Furthermore, scenarios assuming decreasing mining activities in terms of a decreasing groundwater depression cone, lower mining water discharges, and reduced cooling water demand of the thermal power plants are considered. In the standard version of the WBalMo model cooling water demand is considered as static with regard to climate variables. However, changes in the future cooling water demand over time according to the plans of the local mining and power plant operator are considered. In order to account for climate change impacts on the cooling water demand of the thermal power plants, a dynamical approach for calculating water demand was implemented in WBalMo. As this approach is based on air temperature and air humidity, the projected air temperature and air humidity of the climate scenarios at the locations of the power plants are included in the calculation. Due to increasing temperature and decreasing precipitation declining natural and managed discharges, and hence a lower

  20. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E. Kristensen, L.; F. van Dishoeck, E.; A. Bergin, E.


    to inferred envelope and outflow properties and CO 3-2 emission. H2O emission is detected in all objects except one. The line profiles are complex and consist of several kinematic components. The profiles are typically dominated by a broad Gaussian emission feature, indicating that the bulk of the water...... emission arises in outflows, not the quiescent envelope. Several sources show multiple shock components in either emission or absorption, thus constraining the internal geometry of the system. Furthermore, the components include inverse P-Cygni profiles in 7 sources (6 Class 0, 1 Class I) indicative...

  1. Water table fluctuations in the West Bohemian Earthquake region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brož, Milan; Bělař, František

    20(124) (2002), s. 132-139 ISSN 1211-1910. [Česko-polské pracovní setkání o recentní geodynamice východosudetského pohoří a přilehlých oblastí /3./. Ramzová, 08.11.2001-10.11.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/0907; GA ČR GA205/02/0381 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : ground water Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  2. Pragmatics of Raw Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Alexander


    In the last several decades, art has seen the dissolution of the old avant-garde critical grid. Gone are the days of absolutes and manifestos. The most varied styles have been absorbed into the postmodern pastiche, outsider artworks have been traded for large sums on the fine-art market......, and a contemporary zeitgeist marked by a general relativisation of aesthetic values has emerged, exploding into a plethora of parallel discourses on art. Perhaps there is no longer such a thing (if there ever was) as Culture with a capital C, which Dubuffet so vehemently opposed in his championing of art brut....... The concepts of raw art and outsider art were typical of a time when oppositional politics still infused artistic and academic discourses. But modernity seems to have ‘grown out’ of its adolescence, so to speak: out of politics of opposition and absolutes. Of course, it is neither desirable nor possible...

  3. Pan-European household and industrial water demand: regional relevant estimations (United States)

    Bernhard, Jeroen; Reynaud, Arnaud; de Roo, Ad


    Sustainable water management is of high importance to provide adequate quality and quantity of water to European households, industries and agriculture. Especially since demographic, economic and climate changes are expected to increase competition for water between these sectors in the future. A shortage of water implies a reduction in welfare of households or damage to economic sectors. This socio-economic component should be incorporated into the decision-making process when developing water allocation schemes, requiring detailed water use information and cost/benefit functions. We now present the results of our study which is focused at providing regionally relevant pan-European water demand and cost-benefit estimations for the household and industry sector. We gathered consistent data on water consumption, water prices and other relevant variables at the highest spatial detail available from national statistical offices and other organizational bodies. This database provides the most detailed up to date picture of present water use and water prices across Europe. The use of homogeneous data allowed us to compare regions and analyze spatial patterns. We applied econometric methods to determine the main determinants of water demand and make a monetary valuation of water for both the domestic and industry sector. This monetary valuation is important to allow water allocation based on economic damage estimates. We also attempted to estimate how population growth, as well as socio-economic and climatic changes impact future water demand up to 2050 using a homogeneous method for all countries. European projections for the identified major drivers of water demand were used to simulate future conditions. Subsequently, water demand functions were applied to estimate future water use and potential economic damage caused by water shortages. We present our results while also providing some estimation of the uncertainty of our predictions.

  4. Seasonality in the alpine water logistic system on a regional basis (United States)

    Vanham, D.; Fleischhacker, E.; Rauch, W.


    In this study the water logistic system is defined as the interaction of the subsystems water resources, water supply and water demand in terms of water flow. The analysis of a water balance in alpine regions is strongly influenced by both temporal and spatial seasonal fluctuations within these elements, the latter due to the vertical dimension of mountainous areas. Therefore the determination of different seasons plays a key role within the assessment of alpine water logistic systems. In most studies a water balance for a certain region is generated on an annual, monthly or classic 4-seasonal basis. This paper presents a GIS-based multi criteria method to determine an optimal winter and summer period, taking into account different water demand stakeholders, alpine hydrology and the characteristic present day water supply infrastructure of the Alps. Technical snow-making and (winter) tourism were identified as the two major seasonal water demand stakeholders in the study area, which is the Kitzbueheler region in the Austrian Alps. Based upon the geographical datasets mean snow cover start and end date, winter was defined as the period from December to March, and summer as the period from April to November.

  5. Water resources vulnerability assessment in the Adriatic Sea region: the case of Corfu Island. (United States)

    Kanakoudis, Vasilis; Tsitsifli, Stavroula; Papadopoulou, Anastasia; Cencur Curk, Barbara; Karleusa, Barbara


    Cross-border water resources management and protection is a complicated task to achieve, lacking a common methodological framework. Especially in the Adriatic region, water used for drinking water supply purposes pass from many different countries, turning its management into a hard task to achieve. During the DRINKADRIA project, a common methodological framework has been developed, for efficient and effective cross-border water supply and resources management, taking into consideration different resources types (surface and groundwater) emphasizing in drinking water supply intake. The common methodology for water resources management is based on four pillars: climate characteristics and climate change, water resources availability, quality, and security. The present paper assesses both present and future vulnerability of water resources in the Adriatic region, with special focus on Corfu Island, Greece. The results showed that climate change is expected to impact negatively on water resources availability while at the same time, water demand is expected to increase. Water quality problems will be intensified especially due to land use changes and salt water intrusion. The analysis identified areas where water resources are more vulnerable, allowing decision makers develop management strategies.

  6. Regional Assessment of Recharge Elevation of Tap Water Sources Using the Isoscape Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Yamanaka


    Full Text Available The importance of mountains as “natural water towers” has been quantified by comparing water budgets in upstream (mountain and downstream (lowland areas, but their importance for tap water supplies has not been assessed. Here, we propose an isoscape approach to estimate the mean recharge elevation of tap water sources (rivers, reservoirs, springs, and wells and apply it to a region in central Japan as a case study. Errors in the estimation of mean recharge elevation were estimated at 90–140 m. Results show that mean recharge elevations for about 90% of sources in the region are at 1000 m above sea level or higher. A little over half of the land area is above that elevation, while 98% of the population lives below it. These findings indicate that tap water disproportionally depends on recharge in mountains and is disproportionately supplied to lowland residents. Higher locations of spring water sources and longer (vertical distances of groundwater flow for well water sources make the recharge-to-population disproportionality more remarkable. Furthermore, our results suggest that larger cities require higher natural water towers to meet greater water demand, complemented by intermunicipal water suppliers. Some low-elevation municipalities depend heavily on water recharged in mountains well outside their territories. The method proposed here helps clarify how people depend on water supplies from mountains, providing essential knowledge for integrated management of mountains and water resources.

  7. Reducing Agricultural Water Footprints at the Farm Scale: A Case Study in the Beijing Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Huang


    Full Text Available Beijing is one of the most water-stressed regions in the world. Reducing agricultural water use has long been the basis of local policy for sustainable water use. In this article, the potential to reduce the life cycle (cradle to gate water footprints of wheat and maize that contribute to 94% of the local cereal production was assessed. Following ISO 14046, consumptive and degradative water use for the wheat-maize rotation system was modeled under different irrigation and nitrogen (N application options. Reducing irrigation water volume by 33.3% compared to current practice did not cause a significant yield decline, but the water scarcity footprint and water eutrophication footprint were decreased by 27.5% and 23.9%, respectively. Similarly, reducing the N application rate by 33.3% from current practice did not cause a significant yield decline, but led to a 52.3% reduction in water eutrophication footprint while maintaining a similar water scarcity footprint. These results demonstrate that improving water and fertilizer management has great potential for reducing the crop water footprints at the farm scale. This situation in Beijing is likely to be representative of the challenge facing many of the water-stressed regions in China, where a sustainable means of agricultural production must be found.

  8. Measurement of water-holding capacity in raw and freeze-dried broiler breast meat with visible and near-infrared spectroscopy (United States)

    The feasibility of using visible/near-infrared spectroscopy (vis/NIR) to segregate broiler breast fillets by water-holding capacity (WHC) was determined. Broiler breast fillets (n = 72) were selected from a commercial deboning line based on visual color assessment. Meat color (L*a*b*), pH (2 and 2...

  9. Regional Distribution of Longevity Population and Elements in Drinking Water in Jiangjin District, Chongqing City, China. (United States)

    Liu, Yonglin; Yuan, Yuyang; Luo, Kunli


    In order to determine the spatial variation of longevity population and elements contained in the drinking water of longevity region in Jiangjin and investigate the relationship between the elements in drinking water and longevity, population censuses on township level and 98 drinking water samples from Jiangjin District, Chongqing City in West China were collected and analyzed. Population statistics on township level showed that the number of centenarians per 100,000 inhabitants (OC), centenarity index (CI), and number of centenarians per 10,000 over 65-year-old subjects (UC) present obvious geographic distribution properties, generally Central region > Northern region > Southern region (Kruskal-Wallis test, p hard water (150 mg/L hardness (TH) = 156.17 mg/L water from longevity township (OC > 7.5) in Jiangjin District, whereas soft water (75 mg/L water from the longevity township was apparently higher than that of non-longevity township (0.44 mg/L) (Mann-Whitney U test, p = 0.019 water from longevity township were also higher than those of non-longevity township (Mann-Whitney U test, p water might be good for the health and prolong people's life.

  10. IRIS Reactor a Suitable Option to Provide Energy and Water Desalination for the Mexican Northwest Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, G.; Ramirez, R.; Gomez, C.; Viais, J.


    The Northwest region of Mexico has a deficit of potable water, along this necessity is the region growth, which requires of additional energy capacity. The IRIS reactor offers a very suitable source of energy given its modular size of 300 MWe and it can be coupled with a desalination plant to provide the potable water for human consumption, agriculture and industry. The present paper assess the water and energy requirements for the Northwest region of Mexico and how the deployment of the IRIS reactor can satisfy those necessities. The possible sites for deployment of Nuclear Reactors are considered given the seismic constraints and the closeness of the sea for external cooling. And in the other hand, the size of the desalination plant and the type of desalination process are assessed accordingly with the water deficit of the region.

  11. Location and Permanency of Water Bodies in the African Sahel Region from 2003-2011 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides an estimate of the spatial and temporal extent of surface water at 250-m resolution over nine years (2003-2011) for the African Sahel region...

  12. Hydrogeologic map of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset represents the surface hydrogeology of an approximately 45,000 square-kilometer area of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  13. Groundwater Quantity and Quality Issues in a Water-Rich Region: Examples from Wisconsin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Luczaj


    Full Text Available The State of Wisconsin is located in an unusually water-rich portion of the world in the western part of the Great Lakes region of North America. This article presents an overview of the major groundwater quantity and quality concerns for this region in a geologic context. The water quantity concerns are most prominent in the central sand plain region and portions of a Paleozoic confined sandstone aquifer in eastern Wisconsin. Water quality concerns are more varied, with significant impacts from both naturally occurring inorganic contaminants and anthropogenic sources. Naturally occurring contaminants include radium, arsenic and associated heavy metals, fluoride, strontium, and others. Anthropogenic contaminants include nitrate, bacteria, viruses, as well as endocrine disrupting compounds. Groundwater quality in the region is highly dependent upon local geology and land use, but water bearing geologic units of all ages, Precambrian through Quaternary, are impacted by at least one kind of contaminant.

  14. Study area boundary for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) study area which encompasses approximately 100,000-square kilometers in...

  15. Net infiltration of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Recharge in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) was estimated from net infiltration simulated by Hevesi and others (2003) using a...

  16. [FY 2014 progress report]: Water Resource Inventory and Assessments in Region 5 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This progress report for Water Resource Inventory and Assessment documents activities occurring on Region 5 Refuges during FY2014. The goal of the WRIAs is to help...

  17. WaterNet: The NASA water cycle solutions network - Danubian regional applications (United States)

    Matthews, Dave; Brilly, Mitja; Kobold, Mira; Zagar, Mark; Houser, Paul


    WaterNet is a new international network of researchers, stakeholders, and end-users of remote sensing tools that will benefit the water resources management community. This paper provides an overview and it discusses the concept of solutions networks focusing on the WaterNet. It invites Danubian research and applications teams to join our WaterNet network. The NASA Water cycle Solutions Network's goal is to improve and optimize the sustained ability of water cycle researchers, stakeholders, organizations and networks to interact, identify, harness, and extend NASA research results to augment decision support tools and meet national needs. Our team will develop WaterNet by engaging relevant NASA water cycle research resources and community-of-practice organizations, to develop what we term an "actionable database" that can be used to communicate and connect NASA Water cycle research Results (NWRs) towards the improvement of water-related Decision Support Tools (DSTs). Recognizing that the European Commission and European Space Agency have also developed many related Water Research products (EWRs), we seek to learn about these and network with the EU teams to include their information in the WaterNet actionable data base and Community of Practice. WaterNet will then develop strategies to connect researchers and decision-makers via innovative communication strategies, improved user access to NASA and EU - Danubian resources, improved water cycle research community appreciation for user requirements, improved policymaker, management and stakeholder knowledge of research and application products, and improved identification of pathways for progress. Finally, WaterNet will develop relevant benchmarking and metrics, to understand the network's characteristics, to optimize its performance, and to establish sustainability. This paper provides examples of several NASA products based on remote sensing and land data assimilation systems that integrate remotely sensed and in

  18. WaterNet: The NASA water cycle solutions network - Danubian regional applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Dave [Hydromet DSS, LLC, Silverthorne, CO 80498-1848 (United States); Brilly, Mitja [FGG University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kobold, Mira; Zagar, Mark [Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Houser, Paul [Center for Research on Environment and Water and George Mason University, Calverton, MD 20705 (United States)], E-mail:


    WaterNet is a new international network of researchers, stakeholders, and end-users of remote sensing tools that will benefit the water resources management community. This paper provides an overview and it discusses the concept of solutions networks focusing on the WaterNet. It invites Danubian research and applications teams to join our WaterNet network. The NASA Water cycle Solutions Network's goal is to improve and optimize the sustained ability of water cycle researchers, stakeholders, organizations and networks to interact, identify, harness, and extend NASA research results to augment decision support tools and meet national needs. Our team will develop WaterNet by engaging relevant NASA water cycle research resources and community-of-practice organizations, to develop what we term an 'actionable database' that can be used to communicate and connect NASA Water cycle research Results (NWRs) towards the improvement of water-related Decision Support Tools (DSTs). Recognizing that the European Commission and European Space Agency have also developed many related Water Research products (EWRs), we seek to learn about these and network with the EU teams to include their information in the WaterNet actionable data base and Community of Practice. WaterNet will then develop strategies to connect researchers and decision-makers via innovative communication strategies, improved user access to NASA and EU - Danubian resources, improved water cycle research community appreciation for user requirements, improved policymaker, management and stakeholder knowledge of research and application products, and improved identification of pathways for progress. Finally, WaterNet will develop relevant benchmarking and metrics, to understand the network's characteristics, to optimize its performance, and to establish sustainability. This paper provides examples of several NASA products based on remote sensing and land data assimilation systems that integrate

  19. Climate change, water, and agriculture: a study of two contrasting regions (United States)

    Kirilenko, A.; Dronin, N.; Zhang, X.


    We present a study of potential impacts of climate change on water resources and agriculture in two contrasting regions, the Aral Sea basin in Central Asia and the Northern Great Plains in the United States. The Aral Sea basin is one of the most anthropogenically modified areas of the world; it is also a zone of a water-related ecological crisis. We concentrate on studying water security of five countries in the region, which inherit their water regulation from the planned economy of USSR. Water management was targeted at maximizing agricultural output through diverting the river flow into an extensive and largely ineffective network of irrigation canals. The current water crisis is largely due to human activity; however the region is also strongly impacted by the climate. Climate change will contribute to water problems, escalating irrigation demand during the drought period, and increasing water loss with evaporation. The future of the countries of the Aral Sea basin then depends on both the regional scenario of water management policy and a global scenario of climate change, and is integrated with global socioeconomic scenarios. We formulate a set of regional policy scenarios (“Business as Usual”, “Falling Behind” and “Closing the Gap”) and demonstrate how each of them corresponds to IPCC SRES scenarios, the latter used as an input to the General Circulation Models (GCMs). Then we discuss the relative effectiveness of the introduced scenarios for mitigating water problems in the region, taking into account the adaptation through changing water demand for agriculture. Finally, we introduce the results of multimodel analysis of GCM climate projections, especially in relation to the change in precipitation and frequency of droughts, and discuss the impact of climate change on future development of the region. In the same way as the Aral Sea basin, the Northern Great Plains is expected to be a region heavily impacted by climate change. We concentrate on

  20. Triple bottom line assessment of raw water treatment: methodology and application to a case study in the municipality of Oppegård in south-eastern Norway. (United States)

    Venkatesh, G; Azrague, Kamal; Bell, Stig; Eikebrokk, Bjørnar


    There could be several options a water treatment plant (WTP) can select from, if an improvement in treated water quality (WQ) is desired. This paper outlines a methodology to test a variety of approaches to accomplish pre-set goals as regards WQ, while adopting a triple bottom line approach. This approach, in a nutshell, takes into consideration economic, environmental and social aspects in decision-making. The methodology has been applied to the Stangasen WTP in the town of Oppegård in south-eastern Norway. Among the seven alternative approaches compared were the use, as coagulant, of five different dosages of granulated aluminium sulphate, liquid aluminium sulphate (48%) and liquid ferric chloride (40%). Using the set of weighting factors obtained from experts, it was determined that increasing the dosage of granulated aluminium sulphate by 20% over the current one would be the most sustainable option from a triple bottom line point of view.

  1. Enquadramento dos corpos d’água e cobrança pelo uso da água na bacia do rio Pirapama - PE Water body classification and raw water charges in the Pirapama River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Cristina da Silva


    Full Text Available Neste artigo são apresentados os cenários de melhoria da qualidade da água para a bacia do rio Pirapama, localizada na Região Metropolitana do Recife, vinculados ao que dispõe o enquadramento dos corpos d’água segundo as Classes 1, 2 e 3 estipuladas pela Resolução CONAMA nº 357/05. Com base nesses cenários foram definidos os custos marginais de medida de redução da poluição que subsidiaram a concepção de um sistema de cobrança pelo lançamento de efluentes, o qual encontra respaldo legal na Lei nº 9.433/97 da Política Nacional de Recursos Hídricos. Os cenários foram simulados com o Sistema de Apoio à Decisão para o Controle Integrado de Poluição (SAD-CIP desenvolvido pelo Banco Mundial. Os resultados indicaram que para atender aos objetivos de qualidade (Classe 2, as fontes potencialmente poluidoras devem realizar o Tratamento Secundário e Terciário nas águas residuárias. O valor mais adequado a ser cobrado dos poluidores seria de US$ 320,00/ton de DBO lançada no rio.This paper establishes water quality improvement scenarios for an area of Pirapama River Basin in Recife Metropolitan Region, Brazil. This scenarios are related to Brazilian water body quality goals (defined by CONAMA Directive number 357/05. Based on those scenarios, pollution control marginal costs are calculated in order to simulate a water effluent system charge according to Brazilian Water Resources Policy (Law nº 9.433/97. The Decision Support System for Integrated Pollution Control (DSS-IPC, developed by the World Bank, was chosen for performing the simulations. The outcomes showed that in the studied area, the river does not comply with CONAMA Directive number 357/05, which establishes Class 2 for the main stream. Secondary and Tertiary treatments are needed to reach such Class and the water effluent system charge presents US$ 320.00/ton as a viable value to be charged.

  2. How to Obtain a 100% Reliable Grid with Clean, Renewable Wind, Water, and Solar Providing 100% of all Raw Energy for All Purposes (United States)

    Jacobson, M. Z.; Delucchi, M. A.; Cameron, M. A.; Frew, B. A.


    The greatest concern facing the large-scale integration of wind, water, and solar (WWS) into a power grid is the high cost of avoiding load loss caused by WWS variability and uncertainty. This talk discusses the recent development of a new grid integration model to address this issue. The model finds low-cost, no-load-loss, non-unique solutions to this problem upon electrification of all U.S. energy sectors (electricity, transportation, heating/cooling, and industry) while accounting for wind and solar time-series data from a 3-D global weather model that simulates extreme events and competition among wind turbines for available kinetic energy. Solutions are obtained by prioritizing storage for heat (in soil and water); cold (in ice and water); and electricity (in phase-change materials, pumped hydro, hydropower, and hydrogen); and using demand response. No natural gas, biofuels, or stationary batteries are needed. The resulting 2050-2055 U.S. electricity social cost for a full system is much less than for fossil fuels. These results hold for many conditions, suggesting that low-cost, stable 100% WWS systems should work many places worldwide. The paper this talk is based on was published in PNAS, 112, 15,060-15,065, 2015, doi:10.1073/pnas.1510028112.

  3. Water and energy footprint of irrigated agriculture in the Mediterranean region (United States)

    Daccache, A.; Ciurana, J. S.; Rodriguez Diaz, J. A.; Knox, J. W.


    Irrigated agriculture constitutes the largest consumer of freshwater in the Mediterranean region and provides a major source of income and employment for rural livelihoods. However, increasing droughts and water scarcity have highlighted concerns regarding the environmental sustainability of agriculture in the region. An integrated assessment combining a gridded water balance model with a geodatabase and GIS has been developed and used to assess the water demand and energy footprint of irrigated production in the region. Modelled outputs were linked with crop yield and water resources data to estimate water (m3 kg-1) and energy (CO2 kg-1) productivity and identify vulnerable areas or ‘hotspots’. For a selected key crops in the region, irrigation accounts for 61 km3 yr-1 of water abstraction and 1.78 Gt CO2 emissions yr-1, with most emissions from sunflower (73 kg CO2/t) and cotton (60 kg CO2/t) production. Wheat is a major strategic crop in the region and was estimated to have a water productivity of 1000 t Mm-3 and emissions of 31 kg CO2/t. Irrigation modernization would save around 8 km3 of water but would correspondingly increase CO2 emissions by around +135%. Shifting from rain-fed to irrigated production would increase irrigation demand to 166 km3 yr-1 (+137%) whilst CO2 emissions would rise by +270%. The study has major policy implications for understanding the water-energy-food nexus in the region and the trade-offs between strategies to save water, reduce CO2 emissions and/or intensify food production.

  4. Water use demand in the Crans-Montana-Sierre region (Switzerland) (United States)

    Bonriposi, M.; Reynard, E.


    Crans-Montana-Sierre is an Alpine touristic region located in the driest area of Switzerland (Rhone River Valley, Canton of Valais), with both winter (ski) and summer (e.g. golf) tourist activities. Climate change as well as societal and economic development will in future significantly modify the supply and consumption of water and, consequently, may fuel conflicts of interest. Within the framework of the MontanAqua project (, we are researching more sustainable water management options based on the co-ordination and adaptation of water demand to water availability under changing biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. This work intends to quantify current water uses in the area and consider future scenarios (around 2050). We have focused upon the temporal and spatial characteristics of resource demand, in order to estimate the spatial footprint of water use (drinking water, hydropower production, irrigation and artificial snowmaking), in terms of system, infrastructure, and organisation of supply. We have then quantified these as precisely as possible (at the monthly temporal scale and at the municipality spatial scale). When the quantity of water was not measurable for practical reasons or for lack of data, as for the case for irrigation or snowmaking, an alternative approach was applied. Instead of quantifying how much water was used, the stress was put on the water needs for irrigating agricultural land or on the optimal meteorological conditions necessary to produce artificial snow. A huge summer peak and a smaller winter peak characterize the current regional water consumption estimation. The summer peak is mainly caused by irrigation and secondly by drinking water demand. The winter peak is essentially due to drinking water and snowmaking. Other consumption peaks exist at the municipality scale but they cannot be observed at the regional scale. The results show a major variation in water demand between the 11 concerned municipalities and

  5. Combined desalination, water reuse, and aquifer storage and recovery to meet water supply demands in the GCC/MENA region

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine


    Desalination is no longer considered as a nonconventional resource to supply potable water in several countries, especially in the Gulf Corporation Countries (GCC) and Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region as most of the big cities rely almost 100% on desalinated water for their supply. Due to the continuous increase in water demand, more large-scale plants are expected to be constructed in the region. However, most of the large cities in these countries have very limited water storage capacity, ranging from hours to a few days only and their groundwater capacity is very limited. The growing need for fresh water has led to significant cost reduction, because of technological improvements of desalination technologies which makes it an attractive option for water supply even in countries where desalination was unthinkable in the past. In the GCC/MENA region, operating records show that water demand is relatively constant during the year, while power demand varies considerably with a high peak in the summer season. However, desalination and power plants are economically and technically efficient only if they are fully operated at close to full capacity. In addition, desalination plants are exposed to external constraints leading to unexpected shutdowns (e.g. red tides). Hybridization of different technologies, including reverse osmosis and thermal-based plants, is used to balance the power to water mismatch in the demand by using the idle power from co-generation systems during low power demand periods. This has led to consideration of storage of additional desalinated water to allow for maximum production and stability in operation. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) would then be a good option to store the surplus of desalinated water which could be used when water demand is high or during unexpected shutdowns of desalination plants. In addition, increased reuse of treated wastewater could bring an integrated approach to water resources management. In this

  6. Tuberculosis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis in the Baixo Araguari Region, Amapá, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Minharro


    Full Text Available Water buffalo are of great economic importance in Brazilian Amazonia, which has the largest herd in Brazil. Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a zoonotic disease that results in severe losses to water buffalo production. Although the disease has already been described in the country, data on the occurrence and distribution of bovine tuberculosis in water buffalo in Brazil is very scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bovine tuberculosis in water buffalo in the Baixo Araguari River region of Amapá, Brazil. Thirty herds, randomly selected from the 41 herds of water buffalo in the region, were sampled. From those herds, 212 randomly selected water buffalo were subjected to the comparative tuberculin skin test. The proportion of Baixo Araguari River region herds that were positive for bovine tuberculosis was 50.0% (95% CI 31.3% to 68.7% and the proportion of animals that were positive was estimated to be 14.8% (95% CI 7.8% to 21.9%. Our results show that bovine tuberculosis is spread widely among water buffalo in the Baixo Araguari River region, which suggests that measures to control the disease should be undertaken in the region.

  7. Soil water migration in the unsaturated zone of semiarid region in China from isotope evidence (United States)

    Yang, Yonggang; Fu, Bojie


    Soil water is an important driving force of the ecosystems, especially in the semiarid hill and gully region of the northwestern Loess Plateau in China. The mechanism of soil water migration in the reconstruction and restoration of Loess Plateau is a key scientific problem that must be solved. Isotopic tracers can provide valuable information associated with complex hydrological problems, difficult to obtain using other methods. In this study, the oxygen and hydrogen isotopes are used as tracers to investigate the migration processes of soil water in the unsaturated zone in an arid region of China's Loess Plateau. Samples of precipitation, soil water, plant xylems and plant roots are collected and analysed. The conservative elements deuterium (D) and oxygen (18O) are used as tracers to identify variable source and mixing processes. The mixing model is used to quantify the contribution of each end member and calculate mixing amounts. The results show that the isotopic composition of precipitation in the Anjiagou River basin is affected by isotopic fractionation due to evaporation. The isotopic compositions of soil waters are plotted between or near the local meteoric water lines, indicating that soil waters are recharged by precipitation. The soil water migration is dominated by piston-type flow in the study area and rarely preferential flow. Water migration exhibited a transformation pathway from precipitation to soil water to plant water. δ18O and δD are enriched in the shallow (< 20 cm depth) soil water in most soil profiles due to evaporation. The isotopic composition of xylem water is close to that of soil water at the depth of 40-60 cm. These values reflect soil water signatures associated with Caragana korshinskii Kom. uptake at the depth of 40-60 cm. Soil water from the surface soil layer (20-40 cm) comprised 6-12 % of plant xylem water, while soil water at the depth of 40-60 cm is the largest component of plant xylem water (ranging from 60 to 66

  8. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; California region (United States)

    Thomas, H.E.; Phoenix, D.A.


    Most people in the California Region live in a semiarid or arid climate, with precipitation less than the potential evapotranspiration- environments of perennial water deficiency. The deficiency becomes most onerous during the characteristically rainless summers and during recurrent droughts that may continue for 10--20 years. However, water from winter rain and snow can be stored for use during the dry summer months, and water stored during a wet climatic period can be used in a succeeding dry period; moreover, perennial deficiency can be overcome by bringing water from areas of perennial surplus. Ground-water reservoirs have especial significance in arid and semiarid regions as repositories where water is stored or can be stored with minimum loss by evaporation.

  9. The Influence of Collaboration: Ralph Waters' Friendship With John Lundy and the Spread of Regional Anesthesia. (United States)

    Borden, Shelly B; Parks, Colby L


    Ralph Waters, the founder of the anesthesiology department and residency program at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and John Lundy, the chair at the Mayo Clinic beginning in 1924, collaborated to expand regional anesthetic techniques and knowledge not only at their institutions, but also at institutions around the country through correspondence, meetings, and hosting of other anesthesiologists. The Ralph Waters Collection at the University of Wisconsin Archives was searched for information on Waters' and Lundy's involvement in regional anesthesia. This included publications by Waters and other anesthesiology department faculty, as well as personal correspondence with other leaders in anesthesia at that time. Correspondence between Waters and Lundy from this collection was reviewed in detail. This article underscores the importance of exchange of ideas by physicians through didactics, organizations, and research through the story of Ralph Waters and John Lundy's mutual exchange of ideas and even friendship beginning in the 1920s.

  10. The evolution of regional cross-border water regimes, the case of Deltarhine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renner, T.; Meijerink, S; van der Zaag, P.


    In this study, we look at the evolution of a cooperative water regime in the delta of the Rhine catchment. In a Dutch–German case study, we focus on cross-border cooperation on the local and regional scale, describing and analyzing how a remarkably resilient and robust transboundary water regime

  11. 77 FR 70425 - Tarrant Regional Water District; Notice of Application for Amendment of Exemption and Soliciting... (United States)


    ... characters, without prior registration, using the eComment system (, a flow control facility in Tarrant Regional Water District's water distribution system located in Tarrant County, Texas. The project does not affect federal lands. g. Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power Act...

  12. Arsenic in water, plankton and sediments off Goa coast and adjacent regions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Joseph, T.

    Arsenic content was estimated in water, plankton and sediments in the region between 14 degrees 40'N and 15 degrees 50'N surrounding Goa coast. Of the total arsenic content in water (1.65 - 4.78 mu g/litre; av. 3.09 mu g/litre) 61% was found...

  13. Uncertainties in climate change projections and regional downscaling: implications for water resources management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buytaert, W.; Vuille, M.; Dewulf, A.; Urrutia, R.; Karmalkar, A.; Célleri, R.


    Climate change is expected to have a large impact on water resources worldwide. A major problem in assessing the potential impact of a changing climate on these resources is the difference in spatial scale between available climate change projections and water resources management. Regional climate

  14. Water, Weeds and Autumn Leaves: Learning to Be Drier in the Alpine Region (United States)

    Foley, Annette; Grace, Lauri


    Our paper explores how and what adults living and working in the Alpine region of Victoria understand and are learning about the changes to water availability, in a time when the response to water availability is subject to extensive debate and policy attention. Interviews for this study were conducted in the towns of Bright and Mount Beauty, with…

  15. [The regional characteristics of the hygienic evaluation of biological contamination of superficial waters]. (United States)

    Vorob'eva, L V; Lutaĭ, G F; Kuznetsova, I A; Miasnikov, I O; Chernova, G I; Rad'kova, E A; Oparin, A E


    The paper gives the data characterizing the specific features of formation of an anthropogenic load on water bodies in north regions; sanitary and hygienic criteria for estimating the biological contamination; and the factors that increase the biological productivity of the algal flora; a classification of eutrophic waters is also proposed.

  16. Water emission from the high-mass star-forming region IRAS 17233-3606

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurini, S.; Gusdorf, A.; Wyrowski, F.; Codella, C.; Csengeri, T.; van der Tak, F.; Beuther, H.; Flower, D. R.; Comito, C.; Schilke, P.

    We investigate the physical and chemical processes at work during the formation of a massive protostar based on the observation of water in an outflow from a very young object previously detected in H2 and SiO in the IRAS 17233-3606 region. We estimated the abundance of water to understand its

  17. Machine learning and hurdle models for improving regional predictions of stream water acid neutralizing capacity (United States)

    Nicholas A. Povak; Paul F. Hessburg; Keith M. Reynolds; Timothy J. Sullivan; Todd C. McDonnell; R. Brion Salter


    In many industrialized regions of the world, atmospherically deposited sulfur derived from industrial, nonpoint air pollution sources reduces stream water quality and results in acidic conditions that threaten aquatic resources. Accurate maps of predicted stream water acidity are an essential aid to managers who must identify acid-sensitive streams, potentially...

  18. Regional effects of vegetation restoration on water yield across the Loess Plateau, China (United States)

    X. M. Feng; G. Sun; B. J. Fu; C. H. Su; Y. Liu; H. Lamparski


    The general relationships between vegetation and water yield under different climatic regimes are well established at a small watershed scale in the past century. However, applications of these basic theories to evaluate the regional effects of land cover change on water resources remain challenging due to the complex interactions of vegetation and climatic variability...

  19. Effect of land use on water discharge in humid regions: An example ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of land use on water discharge is one of the most important environmental problems of our times, particularly in the humid regions. However, there exists controversy over the hydrological effects of land use in the humid tropics. This paper therefore examines the effect of land use on water discharge in southern ...

  20. Water in low-mass star-forming regions with Herschel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L. E.; Visser, R.; Van Dishoeck, E. F.


    "Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel" (WISH) is a key programme dedicated to studying the role of water and related species during the star-formation process and constraining the physical and chemical properties of young stellar objects. The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIF...

  1. Determining Regional Sensitivity to Energy-Related Water Withdrawals in Minnesota (United States)

    McCulloch, A.; Brauman, K. A.


    Minnesota has abundant freshwater resources, yet concerns about water-impacts of energy and mining development are increasing. Statewide, total annual water withdrawals have increased, and, in some watersheds, withdrawals make up a large fraction of available water. The energy and mining sectors play a critical role in determining water availability, as water is used to irrigate biofuel feedstock crops, cool thermoelectric plants, and process and transport fuels and iron ore. We evaluated the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Water and Reporting System (MPARS) dataset (1988-2014) to identify regions where energy and mining-related water withdrawals are high or where they are increasing. The energy and mining sectors account for over 65 percent of total water extractions in Minnesota, but this percentage is greater in some regions. In certain southern and northeastern Minnesota watersheds, these extractions account for 90 percent of total water demand. Sensitivity to these demands is not dependent on total water demand alone, and is also not uniform among watersheds. We identified and evaluated factors influencing sensitivity, including population, extraction type (surface water or groundwater), percentage of increased demand, and whether withdrawals are consumptive or not. We determined that southern Minnesota is particularly sensitive to increased water demands, because of growing biofuel and sand extraction industries (the products of which are used in hydraulic fracturing). In the last ten years, ethanol production in Minnesota has increased by 440 percent, and over fifteen refineries (each with a capacity over 1.1 billion gallons), have been built. These users primarily extract from surface water bodies within a few watersheds, compromising local supplies. As these energy-related industries continue to grow, so will the demand for freshwater resources. Determining regional sensitivity to increased demands will allow policy-makers to manage the

  2. Water harvesting for improved water productivity in dry environments of the Mediterranean region case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazar, A.; Kuzucu, M.; Çelik, I.


    Low rainfall, water scarcity and land degradation severely intimidate the production capacities of the rangelands in the arid environments. Water harvesting focuses on improving the productive use of rainwater on the local scale (field to subcatchment scale) before the runoff water leaves...... (negarim) under a typical arid environment in Turkey as a case study. In the negarim case study, we analysed rainfall, runoff, catchment area, soil water storage and crop evapotranspiration. The microcatchment area (36 m2) included five surface treatment methods (natural, plastic cover, stone cover, hay...

  3. EPA Region 7 and Four States Water Quality Standards Review Process Kaizen Event Case Study (United States)

    In June, 2007, participants from EPA headquarters, EPA Region 7, and the four States in EPA Region 7 (IA, KS, MO, and NE) conducted a Lean business kaizen event on the EPA–State process for developing and revising water quality standards (WQS).

  4. An integrated modeling framework for investigating water management practices in the ogallala aquifer region (United States)

    The Ogallala aquifer region (OAR) currently accounts for 30% of total crop and animal production in the U.S. More than 90% of the water pumped from the Ogallala aquifer is used for irrigated agriculture in this region. Consequently, groundwater levels in the Ogallala aquifer are rapidly declining. H...

  5. Water Supply Deficiency and Implications for Rural Development in the Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria (United States)

    Nkwocha, E. E.


    There is a growing concern about the marginalization of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria in terms of infrastructural and social services provision. This study examined the water supply deficiency and its general implications for rural development within the region. Data and other study characteristics were extracted from 501 subjects drawn from…

  6. A Multiple-player-game Approach to Agricultural Water Use in Regions of Seasonal Drought (United States)

    Lu, Z.


    In the wide distributed regions of seasonal drought, conflicts of water allocation between multiple stakeholders (which means water consumers and policy makers) are frequent and severe problems. These conflicts become extremely serious in the dry seasons, and are ultimately caused by an intensive disparity between the lack of natural resource and the great demand of social development. Meanwhile, these stakeholders are often both competitors and cooperators in water saving problems, because water is a type of public resource. Conflicts often occur due to lack of appropriate water allocation scheme. Among the many uses of water, the need of agricultural irrigation water is highly elastic, but this factor has not yet been made full use to free up water from agriculture use. The primary goal of this work is to design an optimal distribution scheme of water resource for dry seasons to maximize benefits from precious water resources, considering the high elasticity of agriculture water demand due to the dynamic of soil moisture affected by the uncertainty of precipitation and other factors like canopy interception. A dynamic programming model will be used to figure out an appropriate allocation of water resources among agricultural irrigation and other purposes like drinking water, industry, and hydropower, etc. In this dynamic programming model, we analytically quantify the dynamic of soil moisture in the agricultural fields by describing the interception with marked Poisson process and describing the rainfall depth with exponential distribution. Then, we figure out a water-saving irrigation scheme, which regulates the timetable and volumes of water in irrigation, in order to minimize irrigation water requirement under the premise of necessary crop yield (as a constraint condition). And then, in turn, we provide a scheme of water resource distribution/allocation among agriculture and other purposes, taking aim at maximizing benefits from precious water resources, or in

  7. Modeling low-carbon US electricity futures to explore impacts on national and regional water use (United States)

    Clemmer, S.; Rogers, J.; Sattler, S.; Macknick, J.; Mai, T.


    The US electricity sector is currently responsible for more than 40% of both energy-related carbon dioxide emissions and total freshwater withdrawals for power plant cooling (EIA 2012a Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (Washington, DC: US Department of Energy), Kenny et al 2009 Estimated Use of Water in the United States 2005 (US Geological Survey Circular vol 1344) (Reston, VA: US Geological Survey)). Changes in the future electricity generation mix in the United States will have important implications for water use, particularly given the changing water availability arising from competing demands and climate change and variability. However, most models that are used to make long-term projections of the electricity sector do not have sufficient regional detail for analyzing water-related impacts and informing important electricity- and water-related decisions. This paper uses the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) to model a range of low-carbon electricity futures nationally that are used to calculate changes in national water use (a sample result, on water consumption, is included here). The model also produces detailed sub-regional electricity results through 2050 that can be linked with basin-level water modeling. The results will allow for sufficient geographic resolution and detail to be relevant from a water management perspective.

  8. Mathematical Modeling for Evaluation of Field Water Supply Alternatives (Arid and Semi-Arid Regions). (United States)


    EVALUATION OF FIELD WATER SUPPLY ALTERNATIVES ( Arid and Semi - Arid Regions) FINAL REPORT eJ. M. Morgan, Jr. J. R. Sculley LV. J. Ciccone* aD. K. Jamison J. W...Final Report Water Supply Alternatives 1 August 79-31 January 81 ( Arid and Semi - Arid Regions) 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER AUTHOR(S) S. CONTRACT...CLAUIFICATION OF THIS PAGE(Whan Data Entesed) 20. (Cont’d.) ~issues pertinent to the production of water in an arid or semi - arid environment, and, finally

  9. Regional effects of vegetation restoration on water yield across the Loess Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. M. Feng


    Full Text Available The general relationships between vegetation and water yield under different climatic regimes are well established at a small watershed scale in the past century. However, applications of these basic theories to evaluate the regional effects of land cover change on water resources remain challenging due to the complex interactions of vegetation and climatic variability and hydrologic processes at the large scale. The objective of this study was to explore ways to examine the spatial and temporal effects of a large ecological restoration project on water yield across the Loess Plateau region in northern China. We estimated annual water yield as the difference between precipitation input and modelled actual evapotranspiration (ET output. We constructed a monthly ET model using published ET data derived from eddy flux measurements and watershed streamflow data. We validated the ET models at a watershed and regional levels. The model was then applied to examine regional water yield under land cover change and climatic variability during the implementation of the Grain-for-Green (GFG project during 1999–2007. We found that water yield in 38% of the Loess Plateau area might have decreased (1–48 mm per year as a result of land cover change alone. However, combined with climatic variability, 37% of the study area might have seen a decrease in water yield with a range of 1–54 mm per year, and 35% of the study area might have seen an increase with a range of 1–10 mm per year. Across the study region, climate variability masked or strengthened the water yield response to vegetation restoration. The absolute annual water yield change due to vegetation restoration varied with precipitation regimes with the highest in wet years, but the relative water yield changes were most pronounced in dry years. We concluded that the effects of land cover change associated with ecological restoration varied greatly over time and space and were strongly influenced

  10. Will water scarcity in semiarid regions limit hydraulic fracturing of shale plays? (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Reedy, Robert C.; Nicot, Jean Philippe


    There is increasing concern about water constraints limiting oil and gas production using hydraulic fracturing (HF) in shale plays, particularly in semiarid regions and during droughts. Here we evaluate HF vulnerability by comparing HF water demand with supply in the semiarid Texas Eagle Ford play, the largest shale oil producer globally. Current HF water demand (18 billion gallons, bgal; 68 billion liters, bL in 2013) equates to ˜16% of total water consumption in the play area. Projected HF water demand of ˜330 bgal with ˜62 000 additional wells over the next 20 years equates to ˜10% of historic groundwater depletion from regional irrigation. Estimated potential freshwater supplies include ˜1000 bgal over 20 yr from recharge and ˜10 000 bgal from aquifer storage, with land-owner lease agreements often stipulating purchase of freshwater. However, pumpage has resulted in excessive drawdown locally with estimated declines of ˜100-200 ft in ˜6% of the western play area since HF began in 2009-2013. Non-freshwater sources include initial flowback water, which is ≤5% of HF water demand, limiting reuse/recycling. Operators report shifting to brackish groundwater with estimated groundwater storage of 80 000 bgal. Comparison with other semiarid plays indicates increasing brackish groundwater and produced water use in the Permian Basin and large surface water inputs from the Missouri River in the Bakken play. The variety of water sources in semiarid regions, with projected HF water demand representing ˜3% of fresh and ˜1% of brackish water storage in the Eagle Ford footprint indicates that, with appropriate management, water availability should not physically limit future shale energy production.

  11. Biopolymer Production Kinetics of Mixed Culture Using Wastewater Sludge as a Raw Material and the Effect of Different Cations on Biopolymer Applications in Water and Wastewater Treatment. (United States)

    More, T T; Yan, S; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y


    Thirteen extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) producing bacterial strains were cultivated (as mixed culture) in the sterilized sludge (suspended solids of 25 g/L) and the batch fermentation was carried out. Mixed culture revealed a high specific growth rate of 0.35/hr. The EPS production rate was higher up to 24 hours, which gradually decreased with further incubation. The kinetic estimates demonstrated growth-associated EPS production. Broth EPS revealed higher flocculation activity when combined with different cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(3+), and Al(3+)) in river water (≥90%), municipal wastewater (≥90%), and brewery wastewater (≥80%), respectively. A low dose (5 to 40 mg/L) of trivalent cations was required to achieve higher flocculation compared to the divalent cations (50 to 250 mg/L). Flocculation performance of EPS was comparable to Magnafloc-155 (chemical polymer) and, hence, it could be used as a flocculant.

  12. Irrigation impacts on the water cycle and regional climate simulated by the ACME Model (United States)

    Leng, G.; Leung, L. R.; Huang, M.


    Irrigation constitutes 70% and 90% of total human freshwater withdraws and consumptions, respectively. In this study, we use the newly developed Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) Earth system model to address the overarching science question as to how irrigation water use interact with terrestrial water resources and feedback to the climate. The location, timing, amount, and sources of irrigation water and irrigate methods are all key processes in modeling irrigation water use and represented in the ACME land model (ALM). Specifically, irrigation starts when soil water content induces soil moisture stress for crops in the prescribed irrigated areas. The soil water deficit is withdrawn from surface water and groundwater. The parameters determining the irrigation amount and surface water/groundwater pumping rate were calibrated to match observations. Irrigation techniques such as sprinkler, flood and drip irrigation as well as irrigation water use efficiency (i.e., the losses during water transport and irrigation application) were also incorporated. The modeling framework was validated against global observations. Generally, including irrigation water use improves the correlation of simulated water components with observations. Several numerical experiments were conducted to examine the irrigation effects on global land surface water and energy flux and its feedback to climate by the coupled land-atmosphere components of ACME. Initial results show that irrigation has greatly interrupted the regional water balance, with alteration of seasonal variability of TWS, increase of evapotranspiration and decrease of streamflow. This alteration is particularly large over heavily irrigated basins such as the Columbia, the Mississippi, the Indus and the Ganges. The shift of water vapor balance and changes in regional climate induced by irrigation will also be briefly discussed.

  13. Physicochemical fingerprinting of thermal waters of Beira Interior region of Portugal. (United States)

    Araujo, A R T S; Sarraguça, M C; Ribeiro, M P; Coutinho, P


    Mineral natural waters and spas have been used for therapeutic purposes for centuries, with Portugal being a very rich country in thermal waters and spas that are mainly distributed by northern and central regions where Beira Interior region is located. The use of thermal waters for therapeutic purposes has always been aroused a continuous interest, being dependent on physicochemical fingerprinting of this type of waters the indication for a treatment in a specific pathological condition. In the present work, besides a literature review about the physicochemical composition of the thermal waters of the Beira Interior region and its therapeutic indications, it was carried out an exhaustive multivariate analysis-principal component analysis and cluster analysis-to assess the correlation between different physicochemical parameters and the therapeutic indications claims described for these spas and thermal waters. These statistical methods used for data analysis enables classification of thermal waters compositions into different groups, regarding to the different variable selected, making possible an interpretation of variables affecting water compositions. Actually, Monfortinho and Longroiva are clearly quite different of the others, and Cró and Fonte Santa de Almeida appear together in all analysis, suggesting a strong resemblance between these waters. Thereafter, the results obtained allow us to demonstrate the role of major components of the studied thermal waters on a particular therapeutic purpose/indication and hence based on compositional and physicochemical properties partially explain their therapeutic qualities and beneficial effects on human health. This classification agreed with the results obtained for the therapeutic indications approved by the Portuguese National Health Authority and proved to be a valuable tool for the regional typology of mineral medicinal waters, constituting an important guide of the therapeutic armamentarium for well and

  14. [Safe drinking water supply to the Vologda Region's population using risk assessment methodology]. (United States)

    Kuznetsova, I A; Figurina, T Ia; Shadrina, S Iu


    To supply the population with qualitative potable water is a priority problem in the provision of sanitary-and-epidemiologic well-being and in the prevention of disease in the Vologda Region. The monitoring of the results of laboratory control over the quality of drinking-water and the assessment of health risk enabled a package of measures to be proposed to optimize the conditions of drinking water supply in the Vologda Region. The risk assessment technology used by a state agency for sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance makes it possible to substantiate a system of actions to organize household water use and to include scientifically grounded proposals into the developed regional and local programs.

  15. Raw and renewable polymers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joseph, S


    Full Text Available ., and engineering products in dynamic applications such as springs, antivibration moldings, brushings and so forth. High fatigue resistance, good strength, and durability are other points in favor of NR. NR is now accepted as suitable for use in bridge bearings... segments and groups. Most polypeptides and proteins are water-soluble or water swellable. Enzymes are proteins that catalyze all chemical reactions of biological origin. Enzyme functions include oxygen transport, muscle movement, nerve response, nutrient...

  16. The Climaware project: Impacts of climate change on water resources management - regional strategies and European view (United States)

    Thirel, Guillaume; D'Agostino, Daniela; Démerliac, Stéphane; Dorchies, David; Flörke, Martina; Jay-Allemand, Maxime; Jost, Claudine; Kehr, Katrin; Perrin, Charles; Scardigno, Alessandra; Schneider, Christof; Theobald, Stephan; Träbing, Klaus


    Climate projections produced with CMIP5 and applied by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its fifth assessment report indicate that changes in precipitation and temperature are expected to occur throughout Europe in the 21th century, with a likely decrease of water availability in many regions. Besides, water demand is also expected to increase, in link with these expected climate modifications, but also due to socio-economic and demographic changes. In this respect, the use of future freshwater resources may not be sustainable from the current water management perspective. Therefore adaptation strategies will most likely be needed to cope with these evolutions. In this context, the main objective of the ClimAware project (2010-2013 -, a project implemented within the IWRM-NET Funding Initiative) was to analyse the impacts of climate change (CC) on freshwater resources at the continental and regional scales and to identify efficient adaptation strategies to improve water management for various socio-economic sectors. This should contribute to a more effective implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its instruments (river basin management plans, programmes of measures). The project developed integrated measures for improved freshwater management under CC constraints. More specifically, the objectives of the ClimAware project were to: • elaborate quantitative projections of changes in river flows and consequences such as flood frequency, drought occurrence and sectorial water uses. • analyse the effect of CC on the hydromorphological reference conditions of rivers and therefore the definition of "good status". • define management rules/strategies concerning dam management and irrigation practices on different time perspectives. • investigate uncertainties in climate model - scenario combinations. The research approach considered both European and regional perspectives, to get

  17. Water requirement of four cutting grasses water efficiency in the Colombian dry Caribbean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Murillo Solano


    Full Text Available In the Colombia Caribbean region’s low rainfall (600 to 1500 mm and irregular distribution leads to a drastic reduction in availability of fodder. The project objectives were to determine the water requirements of 4 grasses, evaluate water - production equations and the effect of water deficit on yield. Spray gradient methodolog y was used on a split plot design with 4 repetitions and 6 treatments for 100, 80, 60, 40, 20 y 0% of the water deficit. In summer season from January to April, the average daily water consumption of grasses purple King grass, green King grass, Elephant and Maralfalfa was 4,7; 4,6; 4,6 y 4,9 mm/day with average K factors 0,68; 0,66; 0,67 y 0,73 respectively. Dry matter productions with indicated water consumptions were higher in 301, 317, 140 and 415% respectively than productions in treatments without irrigation. At maximum rainfall (April - June the average water requirements of these grasses in the same old order was 4,25; 4,23; 4,22; 4,54 mm/day with average K factors of 0,75; 0,75; 0,74 and 0,81. Yields in dry matter with previous consumptions exceeded 146, 178, 141 y 204% respectively to no irrigation treatments. Under irrigated conditions Maralfalfa is recommended while under rainfed conditions Elephant grass is recommended.

  18. «Cross-border Environmental Peace» as the Interaction of Regional Norms and Local Power: Lessons from Cross-Regional Analysis of Water Security Debates


    Koff, Harlan


    This article contends that notions of «peace» and «justice» in cross-border water management vary in different world regions. Moreover, it argues that «peace» and «justice» can be explained by analyzing the interaction between «regional» interpretations and implementation of water security norms and local cross-border power structures. «Regional water security» is defined as the normative commitment to provide necessary water resources to communities within world regions. «Power,» which is de...

  19. WISHes coming true: water in low-mass star-forming regions with Herschel (United States)

    Kristensen, L. E.; Visser, R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Yıldız, U. A.; Herczeg, G. J.; Doty, S.; Jørgensen, J. K.; van Kempen, T. A.; Brinch, C.; Wampfler, S.; Bruderer, S.; Benz, A. O.


    Water is a key molecule for tracing physical and chemical processes in star-forming regions. The key program "Water in star-forming regions with Herschel" is observing several water transitions towards low-mass protostars with HIFI. Results regarding the 557 GHz transition of water are reported here showing that the line is surprisingly broad, and consists of several different velocity components. The bulk of the emission comes from shocks, where the abundance is increased by several orders of magnitude to ~10-4. The abundance of water in the outer envelope is determined to ~10-8, whereas only an upper limit of 10-5 is derived for the inner, warm envelope.

  20. Managing Water Supply through Joint Regional Municipal Authorities in Finland: Two Comparative Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Stenroos


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze two Finnish Joint Regional Authorities for Water Supply—namely the Raisio-Naantali Joint Municipal Authority for Water Supply (established in 1957 and the Tuusula Region Joint Municipal Authority for Water Supply (established in 1967—for assessing the development of supra-municipal water governance. The above two cases make it possible to analyze and assess water policies in settings where the owners are groups of municipalities. The analysis is based on two separately conducted case studies. The study data consist of several types of materials: Annual reports, local government documents, etc. The conducted interviews were semi-structured with some themes defined beforehand. The studies describe two authorities in the context of historical development and as a part of local development.

  1. On the Role of Hyper-arid Regions within the Virtual Water Trade Network (United States)

    Aggrey, James; Alshamsi, Aamena; Molini, Annalisa


    Climate change, economic development, and population growth are bound to increasingly impact global water resources, posing a significant threat to the sustainable development of arid regions, where water consumption highly exceeds the natural carrying capacity, population growth rate is high, and climate variability is going to impact both water consumption and availability. Virtual Water Trade (VWT) - i.e. the international trade network of water-intensive products - has been proposed as a possible solution to optimize the allocation of water resources on the global scale. By increasing food availability and lowering food prices it may in fact help the rapid development of water-scarce regions. The structure of the VWT network has been analyzed by a number of authors both in connection with trade policies, socioeconomic constrains and agricultural efficiency. However a systematic analysis of the structure and the dynamics of the VWT network conditional to aridity, climatic forcing and energy availability, is still missing. Our goal is hence to analyze the role of arid and hyper-arid regions within the VWN under diverse climatic, demographic, and energy constraints with an aim to contribute to the ongoing Energy-Water-Food nexus discussion. In particular, we focus on the hyper-arid lands of the Arabian Peninsula, the role they play in the global network and the assessment of their specific criticalities, as reflected in the VWN resilience.

  2. Water Footprint of pigs slaughtered in the northeast region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Elisabete Schneider


    Full Text Available This study estimated the water footprint of pigs slaughtered in the municipalities that participate in the Regional Council for the Development of Serra (Corede Serra, in Portuguese, located in the northeast region of Rio Grande do Sul State, in 2014. In order to determine the water footprint, we estimated the water consumed in the production of grains (corn and soybeans used for animal feed, the water used for livestock watering, the water used for cleaning creation areas and the water consumed by animals during the growing and finishing phases. The total water footprint of slaughtered pigs was 0.19825 km3, the largest component of which was water used for the cultivation of grains (99.6%. The municipality of Nova Prata had the largest water footprint of Corede Serra (0.02343 km3 year1, followed by the municipalities of Paraí (0.02187 km3 year-1 and Serafina Corrêa (0.01658 km3 year-1. The municipalities of São Marcos (0.000006 km3 year-1, Bento Gonçalves (0,00002 km3 year-1 and Boa Vista do Sul (0.0004 km3 year-1 had the lowest water footprints, due to low corn productivity associated with the low number of hogs slaughtered. From this assessment, it was found that the management of water resources associated with pig chain production should include water used in the production of feed grain as well as the water used directly in animal husbandry.

  3. Influence of pH, sucrose concentration and agitation speed on exopolysaccharide production by Lactobacillus confusus TISTR 1498 using coconut water as a raw material substitute

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    Phisit Seesuriyachan


    Full Text Available Coconut water (CW was used as a complex nitrogen source for exopolysaccharide (EPS production by Lactobacillus confusus TISTR 1498 to reduce the cost of fermentation medium. EPS production was carried out in a bioreactor using (0.5× modified MRS-sucrose-CW medium, in which three relatively expensive complex nitrogen sources (peptone, yeast extract and beef extract were halved relative to those present in (1× modified MRS-sucrose medium. Fermentation parameters (pH, sucrose concentration and agitation speed were varied in the process of optimisation. Under an optimised condition (pH 5.5, sucrose concentration of 100 g/L and agitation rate of 50 rpm, the maximum EPS level of 38.2 g/L was produced at 35C after 30 h of cultivation. This EPS concentration (38.2 g/L from the (0.5× medium was higher than those produced in the (1× modified MRS-sucrose and (1× modified MRS-sucrose-CW media (21.3 and 31.5 g/L respectively, both having the original concentration of all three complex nitrogen sources. Thus, in a bioreactor where the pH level was properly controlled, the EPS production was greatly enhanced. Sugar concentration also played an important role in the production of EPS.

  4. The Need for Regular Monitoring and Prediction of Ephemeral Water Bodies in SERVIR Regions (United States)

    Anderson, Eric


    With remote sensing and modeling techniques available today it is possible to regularly identify and monitor the presence of surface water globally, for a wide range of applications. Many of the available datasets and tools, however, do not adequately resolve small or ephemeral water bodies in a timely enough fashion to make local and subnational decisions about water resources management in developing regions. This presentation introduces a specific need focused on a basin in Senegal to develop a capability to identify and disseminate timely information on small and ephemeral water bodies, and we seek feedback on methods proposed to address this need.

  5. Parasitic Contamination of Raw Vegetables in Zanjan Markets, Iran

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    Negin Torabi


    Full Text Available Background: Complex surface of vegetables facilitate attachment and transmission of several pathogens. No previous study has been conducted in survey of parasitic contamination of vegetables in Zanjan. This study aimed to detect the parasitic contamination in common raw vegetables in Zanjan markets. Methods: A total of 352 raw vegetable samples, including leek, parsley, basil, mint, radish, cress and dill were collected from grocery stores using cluster sampling in different regions of the city during 2014. The edible parts of vegetables were separated and immersed in normal saline solution. Floating vegetables were removed and the solution was allowed to sediment at room temperature for 24 hours. The pellet was examined following sedimentation and floatation methods. Results:Various Organisms were detected in 54% (190 of the 352 samples, but only 2.8% of samples had pathogenic parasites including; Trichostrongylus eggs (3, Hookworm eggs (2, Eimeria oocysts (2, Sarcocystis oocyst (1, Strongyloides larvae (1, and Fasciola eggs (1. The contamination rate of vegetables was highest (90.4% in the fall (p˂0.05. Conclusion: Vegetable contamination with parasitic organisms in this area was low, maybe due to irrigation of vegetables with sources other than sewage water, but it is still necessary to improve sanitary conditions of vegetables.

  6. Estimating ecological water stress caused by anthropogenic uses in the US Great Lakes region (United States)

    Alian, S.; Mayer, A. S.; Maclean, A.; Watkins, D. W., Jr.; Gyawali, R.; Mirchi, A.


    Anthropocentric water resources management that prioritizes socio-economic growth can cause harmful ecological water stress by depriving aquatic ecosystems of the water needed to sustain habitats. It is important to better understand the impacts of water withdrawal by different economic sectors (e.g., agriculture, power utilities, manufacturing, etc.), withdrawal sources, and extent of return flow (i.e., return of water to river system) at different spatial and temporal scales in order to characterize potentially harmful streamflow disturbances, and to inform water management. Herein, GIS technology is used to characterize and map ecological water stress in the Great Lakes region by compiling and analyzing water withdrawal data for different use categories. An integrative geospatial method is developed to quantify catchment scale streamflow disturbance as the sum of flow depletion and return flow, and propagate it along the stream network in order to calculate water stress index as function of consumptive use and impacted streamflow. Results for the Kalamazoo River Watershed, Michigan, illustrate that although average annual and July water stress is generally relatively low, protective management actions may be necessary in a significant number of catchments, especially in urban catchments with very high water stress. Water stress is significantly higher under low flow conditions, indicating the need to adjust withdrawals to reduce adverse resource impacts on sensitive streams.

  7. Metropolitan Spokane Region Water Resources Study. Appendix J. Water Quality Simulation Model (United States)


    Vero composi- ted atd the composite was used for chlorophyll determinations and phycop!..’kton volume-counts by species. A 250 al sample of the...euphotic zone composite was preserved with Lugol’s solution. Cell volumes and counts per unit volume of water were determined for each taxon in the...solution is used to solve the differential equations describing the dynamics of water qual ity behavior. The time Interval used is one hour. The iHydrocomp

  8. Toward Closing the Water Cycle over the ARM/CART Region: Implementation of Stable Water Isotope Physics in MM5 (United States)

    Kemball-Cook, S. R.; Miller, N. L.; DePaolo, D. J.


    To date, atmospheric water isotope modeling has been performed on a global scale. The development of a stable water isotope scheme in a mesoscale model will lead to a simulated spatial distribution that will improve our understanding of present day climate variability, as well as historical climate patterns. The purpose of this study was to add water isotope tracers to the regional atmospheric model MM5 (NCAR's Mesoscale Model 5) in order to link existing global and basin-scale isotope models, and to work toward an improved knowledge of the water budget over the ARM site. In order to include isotopic processes in MM5, eight new prognostic variables were added to the model's dynamical core. These are the isotopic mixing ratios for water vapor, cloud liquid water, cloud ice, and rain for the stable isotopes O18 and deuterium. The isotopes are treated in a manner similar to the natural water vapor, cloud liquid water, etc. in terms of diffusion, advection, nudging, and filtering. Isotope fractionation and diffusion are handled using the approach of Gedzelman and Arnold (1994). Processes treated in this model are fractionation during deposition of water vapor onto cloud ice and condensation of water vapor onto cloud water, and also diffusive exchange of isotopes between vapor and falling rain drops. The bulk flux model of Hoffman et al. (1998) is used here as a first order approximation for isotopic evaporative processes. For the runs to be discussed here, lateral boundary conditions were generated by the Melbourne University General Circulation Model. This GCM runs at a resolution of R21, and predicts values of the O18 and deuterium mixing ratios at each grid point. Results of preliminary model runs will be discussed.

  9. Assessing climate change impacts on water resources in remote mountain regions (United States)

    Buytaert, Wouter; De Bièvre, Bert


    From a water resources perspective, remote mountain regions are often considered as a basket case. They are often regions where poverty is often interlocked with multiple threats to water supply, data scarcity, and high uncertainties. In these environments, it is paramount to generate locally relevant knowledge about water resources and how they impact local livelihoods. This is often problematic. Existing environmental data collection tends to be geographically biased towards more densely populated regions, and prioritized towards strategic economic activities. Data may also be locked behind institutional and technological barriers. These issues create a "knowledge trap" for data-poor regions, which is especially acute in remote and hard-to-reach mountain regions. We present lessons learned from a decade of water resources research in remote mountain regions of the Andes, Africa and South Asia. We review the entire tool chain of assessing climate change impacts on water resources, including the interrogation and downscaling of global circulation models, translating climate variables in water availability and access, and assessing local vulnerability. In global circulation models, mountain regions often stand out as regions of high uncertainties and lack of agreement of future trends. This is partly a technical artifact because of the different resolution and representation of mountain topography, but it also highlights fundamental uncertainties in climate impacts on mountain climate. This problem also affects downscaling efforts, because regional climate models should be run in very high spatial resolution to resolve local gradients, which is computationally very expensive. At the same time statistical downscaling methods may fail to find significant relations between local climate properties and synoptic processes. Further uncertainties are introduced when downscaled climate variables such as precipitation and temperature are to be translated in hydrologically

  10. An upper limit for water dimer absorption in the 750 nm spectral region and a revised water line list

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. L. Shillings


    Full Text Available Absorption of solar radiation by water dimer molecules in the Earth's atmosphere has the potential to act as a positive feedback effect for climate change. There seems little doubt from the results of previous laboratory and theoretical studies that significant concentrations of the water dimer should be present in the atmosphere, yet attempts to detect water dimer absorption signatures in atmospheric field studies have so far yielded inconclusive results. Here we report spectral measurements in the near-infrared around 750 nm in the expected region of the | 0〈f | 4〉b|0 〉 overtone of the water dimer's hydrogen-bonded OH stretching vibration. The results were obtained using broadband cavity ringdown spectroscopy (BBCRDS, a methodology that allows absorption measurements to be made under controlled laboratory conditions but over absorption path lengths representative of atmospheric conditions. In order to account correctly and completely for the overlapping absorption of monomer molecules in the same spectral region, we have also constructed a new list of spectral data (UCL08 for the water monomer in the 750–20 000 cm−1 (13 μm–500 nm range.

    Our results show that the additional lines included in the UCL08 spectral database provide an improved representation of the measured water monomer absorption in the 750 nm region. No absorption features other than those attributable to the water monomer were detected in BBCRDS experiments performed on water vapour samples containing dimer concentrations up to an order of magnitude greater than expected in the ambient atmosphere. The absence of detectable water dimer features leads us to conclude that, in the absence of significant errors in calculated dimer oscillator strengths or monomer/dimer equilibrium constants, the widths of any water dimer absorption features present around 750 nm are of the order of 100 cm−1 HWHM, and certainly greater

  11. Investigation on pyrolysis of some organic raw materials

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    Purevsuren B


    Full Text Available We have been working on pyrolysis of some organic raw materials including different rank coals, oil shale, wood waste, animal bone, cedar shell, polypropylene waste, milk casein and characterization of obtained hard residue, tar and pyrolytic water and gas after pyrolysis. The technical characteristics of these organic raw materials have been determined and the thermal stability characteristics such as thermal stability indices (T5% and T25% determined by using thermogravimetric analysis. The pyrolysis experiments were performed at different heating temperatures and the yields of hard residue, tar, pyrolysis water and gaseous products were determined and discussed. The main technical characteristics of hard residue of organic raw materials after pyrolysis have been determined and the adsorption ability of pyrolysis hard residue and its activated carbon of organic raw materials also determined. The pyrolysis tars of organic raw materials were distilled in air condition and determined the yields of obtained light, middle and heavy fractions and bitumen like residue with different boiling temperature. This is the first time to investigate the curing ability of pyrolysis tars of organic raw materials for epoxy resin and the results of these experiments showed that only tar of milk casein has the highest (95.0%, tar of animal bone has certain (18.70% and tars of all other organic raw materials have no curing ability for epoxy resin.

  12. Dynamics of soil water content during depletion cycles in peach orchards in a semiarid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Paltineanu


    Full Text Available Due to the competition for water resources, increasing efforts are done in order to use more efficiently irrigation water in agriculture. The purpose of this paper is to find out daily soil water content (SWC dynamics during depletion cycles in order to emphasize its pattern and compare daylight vs. night (dark and morning vs. afternoon SWC dynamics in an irrigated peach (Prunus persica [L.] Batsch orchard under various soil water regimes. To do this, four depletion cycles were studied after irrigation application in two treatments: fully irrigated (T1 and water stressed (T2, in a semiarid region of Romania. Soil water potential was continuously measured with Watermark resistance blocks. Daylight soil water discharge (SWD is higher than night SWD (1.87 ratio in T1 and 1.50 in T2 mainly due to solar radiation (Rs, higher vapor pressure deficit (VPD, and wind speed (U, with crop transpiration and crop water uptake being higher during daylight vs. nighttime. SWD during 14:00-20:00 h is greater than 08:00-14:00 h due to higher afternoon values of air temperature (T, VPD, and U. The results help understand better the relations between the daily dynamics of SWC and Rs, T, VPD, and U, and could be utilized by fruit growers to improve water management and conservation in semiarid regions with similar environmental conditions.

  13. OLA-RAW: Scalable Exploration over Raw Data


    Cheng, Yu; Zhao, Weijie; Rusu, Florin


    In-situ processing has been proposed as a novel data exploration solution in many domains generating massive amounts of raw data, e.g., astronomy, since it provides immediate SQL querying over raw files. The performance of in-situ processing across a query workload is, however, limited by the speed of full scan, tokenizing, and parsing of the entire data. Online aggregation (OLA) has been introduced as an efficient method for data exploration that identifies uninteresting patterns faster by c...

  14. Salt composition of potable water from centralized sources of water supply in the rural tacsons of Dnepropetrovsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hryhorenko L.V.


    Full Text Available In the all rural tacsons of Dnepro­petrovsk region a common tendency – high salt composition of potable water from centralized water sources is observed: general rigidity, dry residue, chlorides, sulfates, calcium, magnesium, iron. The highest content of general rigidity was shown in the water of 1st tacson: from 143 to 21.2 of MAC for 2008 – 2014 years’ period (p<0.001. Thus, in water samples the of 1st tacson high dry residue content (from 1.38 to 1.04 of MAC, chlorides (from 1.64 to 1.14 of MAC, sulfates (1.06 of MAC (p<0.001 were determined.

  15. Environmental situation and development of mineral raw material base in Russia (United States)

    Larikova, O. I.


    The necessity of the further development of mineral raw material base and exploration for new deposits in Russia, connected with the loss of traditional sources of mineral and raw material resources in the former USSR republics, let us to study several ecological problems of top priority: 1. To determine all natural factors that affect the development of mineral raw material base; to determine the availability of the Russian territory ranged according to the favorable conditions for the development of its mineral raw material base. 2. To determine all natural factors in order to find regions where natural environment is not capable of self-restoration and where additional burden resulted from deposits' development could cause irreversible environmental changes and ecological catastrophes. 3. To evaluate the main negative results arisen from deposits' development and to set up the complex of nature protection measures in order to reduce negative influence on the environment. To solve the first task, scientists from VIEMS and VNIIgeosystem have compiled the Atlas of electronic geo-ecological maps of Russia consisting of more than 20 digital geoecological maps grouped into 4 blocks: - natural factors, including continuous and discontinuous permafrost, seismological danger, avalanche and mudflow hazards, manifestation of exogenous geological processes; - unique natural resources and objects, including current and designed reservation parks, unique lake systems, areas used mainly by small-in-numbers peoples of the North; - hydro geological factors - rate of underground water resources in operation and provision of population with fresh underground water; - social and economic factors, including density and natural increase of population disease and mortality rates, the number of unemployed, etc. On the final map, the whole territory of Russia has been divided into 4 categories: - territories, where the law prohibits the exploration, - territories, those are adverse for

  16. Environmental and socioeconomic benefits and limitations of water harvesting techniques in semiarid regions (United States)

    Díaz-Pereira, Elvira; Asunción Romero-Díaz, María; de Vente, Joris


    Under climate change, sustainable management of soil and water resources is increasingly important, especially in rainfed agroecosystems of semiarid environments. Water harvesting refers to a range of techniques for the collection and management of flood or rainwater for domestic and agricultural use and for water retention in natural ecosystems. Water harvesting represents a good example of sustainable management of water resources that contribute to water and food security. However, there are often environmental and socioeconomic constraints for implementation of water harvesting techniques, so each condition asks for a specific solution. Here we aim to highlight the environmental and socioeconomic benefits, requirements and limitations of different water harvesting techniques and to characterize their implications for provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural ecosystem services. We reviewed 62 water harvesting techniques for semiarid regions extracted from the WOCAT (World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies) database. We discuss aspects related to: i) human and environmental characteristics, ii) cost-benefit ratio during implementation and maintenance phases, iii) socioeconomic and environmental impacts at local and regional scales, and, iv) impacts on ecosystem services. Our review reveals that water harvesting represents very diverse methods of collecting and managing floodwaters and surface runoff. We grouped techniques as 'floodwater harvesting', 'macro-catchment water harvesting', 'micro-catchment water harvesting', and 'rooftop and courtyard' water harvesting. Almost half of all technologies originates from traditional knowledge. The implementation of water harvesting is generally positive on the short-term, to very positive on the long-term, while its maintenance is very positive at short and long-term. However, perception depends on the type of water harvesting and local conditions. Most relevant socioeconomic benefits from

  17. Beyond optimality: Multistakeholder robustness tradeoffs for regional water portfolio planning under deep uncertainty (United States)

    Herman, Jonathan D.; Zeff, Harrison B.; Reed, Patrick M.; Characklis, Gregory W.


    While optimality is a foundational mathematical concept in water resources planning and management, "optimal" solutions may be vulnerable to failure if deeply uncertain future conditions deviate from those assumed during optimization. These vulnerabilities may produce severely asymmetric impacts across a region, making it vital to evaluate the robustness of management strategies as well as their impacts for regional stakeholders. In this study, we contribute a multistakeholder many-objective robust decision making (MORDM) framework that blends many-objective search and uncertainty analysis tools to discover key tradeoffs between water supply alternatives and their robustness to deep uncertainties (e.g., population pressures, climate change, and financial risks). The proposed framework is demonstrated for four interconnected water utilities representing major stakeholders in the "Research Triangle" region of North Carolina, U.S. The utilities supply well over one million customers and have the ability to collectively manage drought via transfer agreements and shared infrastructure. We show that water portfolios for this region that compose optimal tradeoffs (i.e., Pareto-approximate solutions) under expected future conditions may suffer significantly degraded performance with only modest changes in deeply uncertain hydrologic and economic factors. We then use the Patient Rule Induction Method (PRIM) to identify which uncertain factors drive the individual and collective vulnerabilities for the four cooperating utilities. Our framework identifies key stakeholder dependencies and robustness tradeoffs associated with cooperative regional planning, which are critical to understanding the tensions between individual versus regional water supply goals. Cooperative demand management was found to be the key factor controlling the robustness of regional water supply planning, dominating other hydroclimatic and economic uncertainties through the 2025 planning horizon. Results

  18. Transcriptome changes in the cambial region of poplar (Populus alba L.) in response to water deficit. (United States)

    Berta, M; Giovannelli, A; Sebastiani, F; Camussi, A; Racchi, M L


    A transcriptome analysis of the Populus alba cambial region was performed with the aim of elucidating the gene network underlying the response to water deficit within the cambium and differentiating derivative cambial cells. Water stress was induced in 1-year-old P. alba plants by withholding water for 9 days. At that time, leaf predawn water potential fell to -0.8 MPa, resulting in a significant reduction in stomatal conductance, CO(2) assimilation and a consistent increment of stem shrinkage. These effects were almost fully reversed by re-hydration. The water deficit resulted in changes in gene expression that affected several functional categories, such as protein metabolism, cell wall metabolism, stress response, transporters and transcriptional regulation. The function of up- and down-regulated genes is discussed considering the physiological response of the plants to water deficit.

  19. Radon ((222)Rn) in underground drinking water supplies of the Southern Greater Poland Region. (United States)

    Bem, Henryk; Plota, Urszula; Staniszewska, Marta; Bem, Ewa Maria; Mazurek, Daria

    Activity concentration of the (222)Rn radionuclide was determined in drinking water samples from the Sothern Greater Poland region by liquid scintillation technique. The measured values ranged from 0.42 to 10.52 Bq/dm(3) with the geometric mean value of 1.92 Bq/dm(3). The calculated average annual effective doses from ingestion with water and inhalation of this radionuclide escaping from water were 1.15 and 11.8 μSv, respectively. Therefore, it should be underlined that, generally, it's not the ingestion of natural radionuclides with water but inhalation of the radon escaping from water which is a substantial part of the radiological hazard due to the presence of the natural radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series in the drinking water.

  20. Study on radon and radium concentrations in drinking water in west region of Iran

    CERN Document Server

    Forozani, Ghasem


    One of the most important characterizations of social health is existence the availability of safe drinking water. Since one of the sources of water contamination is nuclear contamination from radon gas, so in this research radon 222 concentration levels in water supplies in the Toyserkan (a region located in the west of Iran) is investigated. For measuring radon gas in water wells and springs Lucas chamber method is used. Review the results of these measurements that taken from 15th place show that, only five sites have radon concentrations above the limit dose. To reduce radon concentration, it is better to keep water in open pools in contact with air before the water is delivered to users.

  1. Practitioners' viewpoints on citizen science in water management: a case study in Dutch regional water resource management (United States)

    Minkman, Ellen; van der Sanden, Maarten; Rutten, Martine


    In recent years, governmental institutes have started to use citizen science as a form of public participation. The Dutch water authorities are among them. They face pressure on the water governance system and a water awareness gap among the general public, and consider citizen science a possible solution. The reasons for practitioners to engage in citizen science, and in particular those of government practitioners, have seldom been studied. This article aims to pinpoint the various viewpoints of practitioners at Dutch regional water authorities on citizen science. A Q-methodological approach was used because it allows for exploration of viewpoints and statistical analysis using a small sample size. Practitioners (33) at eight different water authorities ranked 46 statements from agree to disagree. Three viewpoints were identified with a total explained variance of 67 %. Viewpoint A considers citizen science a potential solution that can serve several purposes, thereby encouraging citizen participation in data collection and analysis. Viewpoint B considers citizen science a method for additional, illustrative data. Viewpoint C views citizen science primarily as a means of education. These viewpoints show water practitioners in the Netherlands are willing to embrace citizen science at water authorities, although there is no support for higher levels of citizen engagement.

  2. Modelling the regional variability of the probability of high trihalomethane occurrence in municipal drinking water. (United States)

    Cool, Geneviève; Lebel, Alexandre; Sadiq, Rehan; Rodriguez, Manuel J


    The regional variability of the probability of occurrence of high total trihalomethane (TTHM) levels was assessed using multilevel logistic regression models that incorporate environmental and infrastructure characteristics. The models were structured in a three-level hierarchical configuration: samples (first level), drinking water utilities (DWUs, second level) and natural regions, an ecological hierarchical division from the Quebec ecological framework of reference (third level). They considered six independent variables: precipitation, temperature, source type, seasons, treatment type and pH. The average probability of TTHM concentrations exceeding the targeted threshold was 18.1%. The probability was influenced by seasons, treatment type, precipitations and temperature. The variance at all levels was significant, showing that the probability of TTHM concentrations exceeding the threshold is most likely to be similar if located within the same DWU and within the same natural region. However, most of the variance initially attributed to natural regions was explained by treatment types and clarified by spatial aggregation on treatment types. Nevertheless, even after controlling for treatment type, there was still significant regional variability of the probability of TTHM concentrations exceeding the threshold. Regional variability was particularly important for DWUs using chlorination alone since they lack the appropriate treatment required to reduce the amount of natural organic matter (NOM) in source water prior to disinfection. Results presented herein could be of interest to authorities in identifying regions with specific needs regarding drinking water quality and for epidemiological studies identifying geographical variations in population exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs).

  3. [Algorithm for complex control and radiation-hygienic evaluation of the quality of underground drinking water in the Moscow region]. (United States)

    Klochkova, N V; Korenkov, I P; Lashchenova, T N


    On the basis of assessing the quality of underground drinking water in the Moscow region, selected and justified in the process of radiation-ecological monitoring of water quality control criteria of the underground water sources in the region are encouraged to develop an algorithm for complete monitoring and assessing the quality of underground drinking water in the Moscow region on indicators of radiation and chemical safety, presented in a scheme.

  4. Investigation and Quantification of Water Track Networks in Boreal Regions Using Remote Sensing and Geophysical Data (United States)

    Mendbayar, U.; Misra, D.; Gupta, T.; Ghosh, T.


    Water tracks are the most prominent drainage pathways that route water through the soil over permafrost in the polar environment and thus play a major role in hydrology, geomorphology, and geochemistry of the polar ecosystem. Existing literature on water tracks is limited and is largely confined to tundra areas devoid of vegetation. The objective of this study is to initiate the investigation of water tracks in thickly vegetated boreal regions, many of which contain predominant engineered infrastructures. The ancillary objectives include the development of methods for mapping the distribution of water tracks in boreal regions and a preliminary analysis of the geotechnical impacts of water track interception on infrastructures. The study area is Goldstream Road in Fairbanks, Alaska. This road experiences high amounts of damage, possibly due to interception of prominent water tracks. To investigate the road damage, the Alaska Department of Transportation has collected geophysical data in 2012. We plan to create a water track distribution map around the Goldstream Road using high-spatial-and-spectral-resolution remote sensing imagery and correlate it with the geophysical data from 2012. We have collected ground data from two water tracks: one in a residence in Fairbanks and the other besides the Goldstream Road. The two tracks vary greatly in size and features. Both water tracks revealed different yet quite promising characteristics. These findings will be used to extract other water tracks from remotely sensed images of the Goldstream Road area. So far, a 2010 SPOT 5 image (2.5m x 2.5 m), an aerial orthophoto (14 cm x 14 cm) and a DEM (57 cm x 57 cm) from September 2014 have been acquired. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) processing was performed on the 2010 SPOT 5 image. A detailed water track database was created and water tracks are being manually digitized from the available imagery and Web Mapping Services (WMS). As a test, using FLIR, handheld

  5. Impact of Water Availability on Regional Power System Operations - A Case Study of ERCOT (United States)

    Levin, T.; Zhou, Z.


    Impact of water availability on regional power system operations - A case study of ERCOT Thermal power plants are the largest single source of water withdrawals in the United States, mainly for cooling purposes. The amount of water that is required for cooling is highly dependent on a number of factors including the generation technologies being used, the temperature of the input water, and the total electricity load in the system. During summer months, many of these factors coincide to greatly increase the demand for water in a power system. Electricity demand typically reaches its annual peak when temperatures are high due to increased air conditioning loads. Ambient water temperatures also increase, meaning that greater quantities of water are required to provide the same amount of cooling at thermal generation plants. Finally, water availability is generally constrained due to seasonal effects and potential droughts. This raises concerns that water scarcity may lead to forced de-rating at some power plants during periods of peak demand, resulting in a more vulnerable and less reliable energy system. While increasing attention has recently been given to the inexorable link between water and energy, most commercial power models do not explicitly account for water use when optimizing system operation. We apply the AURORAxmp power modeling software to a case study analysis of the ERCOT power system to determine the water requirements of the system during periods of peak power demand. We then analyze water availability by location and time to identify potential supply shortages, which may reduce actual power generation availability. These data are fed back into the power systems model and specific generation units are de-rated as necessitated by water constraints. We then analyze these results to determine how the optimal generation mix, system reliability, and wholesale electricity prices may be affected by when the ERCOT power system is operated under water

  6. Two-Region Model for Soil Water Repellency as a Function of Matric Potential and Water Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karunarathna, Anurudda Kumara; Møldrup, Per; Kawamoto, Ken


    [-ψ], where ψ is the soil water matric potential in centimeters of H2O) plot, with linear increase in WR from the moisture content where WR first occurs during drying to the maximum WR at pFWR-max, and a linear decrease from pFWR-max until ambient air-dried conditions. The van Genuchten soil water retention......Soil water repellency (WR) occurs worldwide and affects hydrologic processes such as infiltration, preferential flow, and surface erosion. The degree of WR varies with soil organic C (SOC) and water contents. In this study, we measured WR (by ethanol molarity) as a function of moisture conditions...... for two soil profiles (17 layers, of which 13 exhibited WR), representing different vegetation and SOC between 0.6 and 14%. Generally, WR was found at SOC ≥2%. Based on measured data, a two-region water repellency (TRWR) model was developed. The model assumes two linear regions in a WR vs. pF (=log...

  7. Water masers and ammonia (1, 1) and (2, 2) towards six regions in the Carina Nebula (United States)

    Breen, S. L.; Green, C.-E.; Cunningham, M. R.; Voronkov, M. A.; Horiuchi, S.; Green, J. A.


    We present water maser and ammonia (1, 1) and (2, 2) observations, towards six regions in the Carina Nebula, conducted with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. In total five water masers were detected within two of the target fields, and we provide their accurate positions and characteristics. These five water masers constitute all of the known masers detected towards star formation regions in the Carina Nebula and we argue, that given the evidence for active star formation, and the presence of many high-mass stars, the Carina Nebula is uncharacteristically devoid of masers. Our results are consistent with the Carina Nebula having a lack of young high-mass stars, despite the presence of older high-mass stars. Ammonia (1, 1) and (2, 2) emission was detected towards all but one of the target fields and we find that their linewidths and derived temperatures are consistent with the presence of young star formation regions.

  8. Development of adaptation strategies of marshland water management to regional climate change (United States)

    Bormann, Helge; Frank, Ahlhorn; Luise, Giani; Kirsten, Klaassen; Thomas, Klenke


    Since many centuries, low lying areas at the German North Sea coast are intensively managed by water boards and dike boards. Sophisticated water management systems have been developed in order to keep the water out of the low lying areas in wet periods, while in some regions additional water is needed in dry periods for agricultural and ecological purposes. For example in the Wesermarsch region, a water management system has been developed in historical times, draining the landscape in winter time by means of channels, ditches, gates, sluices and pumping stations. In contrast, in summer time water is conducted from Weser River into the Wesermarsch region to serve watering of animals, fencing grazing areas and ensuring a continuous flow in the marsh watercourses. Doing so, maintaining soil fertility is guaranteed for agriculture as well as protection against floods, sustaining river ecology and traditional livestock farming. Due to climate variability and river engineering, the water management of the Wesermarsch already runs into problems because watering in summer cannot be assured any longer in sufficient water quality. During high tides, salt water from the North Sea is flowing upstream into the Weser estuary, generating brackish conditions in the lower Weser River. In addition, soil subsidence and soil mineralization of marsh and peat soils as well as the sea level rise increase the necessary pumping frequency and the emerging energy costs. The expected future climate change will further aggravate those problems and require an adaptation of the current management system. This presentation introduces the concept behind and preliminary results of an integrative and participatory project, aiming at the development of a new water management strategy adapted to the regional climate change likely to occur until year 2050. In close cooperation with a number of regional stakeholders and based on the priorities with respect to the future development of the region

  9. An outbreak of Cryptosporidium at a recreational water park in Niagara Region, Canada. (United States)

    Hopkins, Jessica; Hague, Heather; Hudgin, Glen; Ross, Lorrie; Moore, Deborah


    Cryptosporidium is a parasitic protozoan found in water sources and spread through the fecal-oral route. Cryptosporidiosis is characterized by gastroenteritis and is increasingly associated with recreational water sources. On December 3, 2010, Niagara Region Public Health was informed of a laboratory-confirmed case of Cryptosporidium. Over the subsequent two weeks, a total of three additional laboratory-confirmed cases were reported. All cases had visited the same water park in Niagara Region, Canada, over November 14-16, 2010. A total of 12 cases associated with the outbreak ranged in age from 1 to 66 years. This article describes the outbreak, environmental investigation, and control measures. The environmental investigation revealed that the ultraviolet disinfection system was offline on November 14, 2010, which may have allowed for the transmission of Cryptosporidium to bathers. Further research into the detection of Cryptosporidium outbreaks and regulations and guidelines for water park operators may help to decrease future outbreaks.

  10. An Integrated Model for Simulating Regional Water Resources Based on Total Evapotranspiration Control Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang


    Full Text Available Total evapotranspiration and water consumption (ET control is considered an efficient method for water management. In this study, we developed a water allocation and simulation (WAS model, which can simulate the water cycle and output different ET values for natural and artificial water use, such as crop evapotranspiration, grass evapotranspiration, forest evapotranspiration, living water consumption, and industry water consumption. In the calibration and validation periods, a “piece-by-piece” approach was used to evaluate the model from runoff to ET data, including the remote sensing ET data and regional measured ET data, which differ from the data from the traditional hydrology method. We applied the model to Tianjin City, China. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (Ens of the runoff simulation was 0.82, and its regression coefficient R2 was 0.92. The Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (Ens of regional total ET simulation was 0.93, and its regression coefficient R2 was 0.98. These results demonstrate that ET of irrigation lands is the dominant part, which accounts for 53% of the total ET. The latter is also a priority in ET control for water management.

  11. Federating Regional and National Water Data, Maps and Services through GEOSS (United States)

    Arctur, D. K.; Maidment, D. R.


    Since 2012, a growing team of academic and government research centers, regional and national water resource reporting agencies, and commercial software companies, have been coordinating development of web applications for regional and national water data reporting. This work has benefited from the adoption in 2012 of international standards developed by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) for water data time series (WaterML 2.0), as well as OGC web services for publishing, mapping, and cataloguing water monitor locations and time series of water data variables. By leveraging GEOSS as a hub for registering the many community portals for water data services, as well as for brokering discovery and access across all these web resources, we can see the beginnings of a global interoperable network of water data that will help many types of users from local farmers and emergency responders, to scientists across multiple domains, and national policy makers. This presentation provides a progress update on development efforts in 2014, which focus on integration of global flood monitoring and prediction systems being developed in the United States and Europe.

  12. Changing patterns in water toxicity associated with current use pesticides in three California agriculture regions. (United States)

    Anderson, Brian S; Phillips, Bryn M; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Deng, Xin; Geraci, Jeff; Worcester, Karen; Tjeerdema, Ron S


    Regulation of agriculture irrigation water discharges in California, USA, is assessed and controlled by its 9 Regional Water Quality Control Boards under the jurisdiction of the California State Water Resources Control Board. Each Regional Water Board has developed programs to control pesticides in runoff as part of the waste discharge requirements implemented through each region's Irrigated Lands Regulatory Program. The present study assessed how pesticide use patterns differ in the Imperial (Imperial County) and the Salinas and Santa Maria (Monterey County) valleys, which host 3 of California's prime agriculture areas. Surface-water toxicity associated with current use pesticides was monitored at several sites in these areas in 2014 and 2015, and results were linked to changes in pesticide use patterns in these areas. Pesticide use patterns appeared to coincide with differences in the way agriculture programs were implemented by the 2 respective Regional Water Quality Control Boards, and these programs differed in the 2 Water Board Regions. Different pesticide use patterns affected the occurrence of pesticides in agriculture runoff, and this influenced toxicity test results. Greater detection frequency and higher concentrations of the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos were detected in agriculture runoff in Imperial County compared to Monterey County, likely due to more rigorous monitoring requirements for growers using this pesticide in Monterey County. Monterey County agriculture runoff contained toxic concentrations of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid pesticides, which impacted amphipods (Hyalella azteca) and midge larvae (Chironomus dilutus) in toxicity tests. Study results illustrate how monitoring strategies need to evolve as regulatory actions affect change in pesticide use and demonstrate the importance of using toxicity test indicator species appropriate for the suite of contaminants in runoff in order to accurately assess environmental risk. Integr

  13. Air- and stream-water-temperature trends in the Chesapeake Bay region, 1960-2014 (United States)

    Jastram, John D.; Rice, Karen C.


    in-stream sediments, so understanding changes in stream-water temperature throughout the bay watershed is critical to resource managers seeking to restore the bay ecosystem.The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) uses indicators that “represent the state or trend of certain environmental or societal conditions … to track and better understand the effects of changes in the Earth’s climate” (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2014). Updates to these indicators are published biennially by the EPA. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the EPA, has completed analyses of air- and stream-water-temperature trends in the Chesapeake Bay region to be included as an indicator in a future release of the EPA report.

  14. Soil Erosion by Water in Perennial Plantations of the Ilok Region


    Kustura, Antonija; Kisić, Ivica; Bašić, Ferdo; Jurišić, Aleksandra


    Soil erosion by water is a natural process, in which soil particles get detached from soil mass, transported and deposited at a distance. Erosion depends on a number of natural factors, such as terrain slope, amount and intensity of precipitation, soil (structure, mechanical composition, permeability, infiltration, etc.), wind, crop rotation, and plant cover. Soil erosion by water is one of the most dangerous soil damaging processes. In the hilly part of the studied region, erosion causes gre...

  15. Water in low-mass star-forming regions with Herschel: HIFI spectroscopy of NGC 1333


    Kristensen, L. E.; Dominik, C.; Whyborn, N.


    Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel” (WISH) is a key programme dedicated to studying the role of water and related species during the star-formation process and constraining the physical and chemical properties of young stellar objects. The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on the Herschel Space Observatory observed three deeply embedded protostars in the low-mass star-forming region NGC 1333 in several H_(2)^(16)O, H_(2)^(18)O, and CO transitions. Line profiles are r...

  16. [Correlative analysis of the diversity patterns of regional surface water, NDVI and thermal environment]. (United States)

    Duan, Jin-Long; Zhang, Xue-Lei


    Taking Zhengzhou City, the capital of Henan Province in Central China, as the study area, and by using the theories and methodologies of diversity, a discreteness evaluation on the regional surface water, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and land surface temperature (LST) distribution was conducted in a 2 km x 2 km grid scale. Both the NDVI and the LST were divided into 4 levels, their spatial distribution diversity indices were calculated, and their connections were explored. The results showed that it was of operability and practical significance to use the theories and methodologies of diversity in the discreteness evaluation of the spatial distribution of regional thermal environment. There was a higher overlap of location between the distributions of surface water and the lowest temperature region, and the high vegetation coverage was often accompanied by low land surface temperature. In 1988-2009, the discreteness of the surface water distribution in the City had an obvious decreasing trend. The discreteness of the surface water distribution had a close correlation with the discreteness of the temperature region distribution, while the discreteness of the NDVI classification distribution had a more complicated correlation with the discreteness of the temperature region distribution. Therefore, more environmental factors were needed to be included for a better evaluation.

  17. Composite geochemical database for coalbed methane produced water quality in the Rocky Mountain region. (United States)

    Dahm, Katharine G; Guerra, Katie L; Xu, Pei; Drewes, Jörg E


    Coalbed methane (CBM) or coalbed natural gas (CBNG) is an unconventional natural gas resource with large reserves in the United States (US) and worldwide. Production is limited by challenges in the management of large volumes of produced water. Due to salinity of CBM produced water, it is commonly reinjected into the subsurface for disposal. Utilization of this nontraditional water source is hindered by limited knowledge of water quality. A composite geochemical database was created with 3255 CBM wellhead entries, covering four basins in the Rocky Mountain region, and resulting in information on 64 parameters and constituents. Database water composition is dominated by sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride type waters with total dissolved solids concentrations of 150 to 39,260 mg/L. Constituents commonly exceeding standards for drinking, livestock, and irrigation water applications were total dissolved solids (TDS), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), temperature, iron, and fluoride. Chemical trends in the basins are linked to the type of coal deposits, the rank of the coal deposits, and the proximity of the well to fresh water recharge. These water composition trends based on basin geology, hydrogeology, and methane generation pathway are relevant to predicting water quality compositions for beneficial use applications in CBM-producing basins worldwide.

  18. Drought-waterlog encounter probability research between the diversion region and benefited region in the Middle Route of South-to-North Water Transfer Project (United States)

    Yuan, Z.; Xu, J. J.; Huo, J. J.; Yao, L. Q.; Lin, Y. R.; Hong, X. F.


    One of the major risk factors in managing water resources in the South to North Water Transfer Project will be due to spatial and temporal variations in precipitation. This is because the synchronous encounter probability of drought and waterlog can be different at the diversion region and benefited region. This study analyzed the statistical characteristic of drought and waterlog in the diversion region and benefited region and the wetness-dryness encountering probability among the diversion region and benefited region. Besides, the wetness-dryness encountering probability and the surface water resource in the diversion region were also projected based on the outputs of GCMs. The results showed that: (1) The concurrence of drought or waterlog in diversion region and benefited region is uncommon and it benefits the water transfer. (2) In the future, the synchrony of drought/waterlog will increase in wet season while it will decrease in dry season. But the synchrony of drought/waterlog between the north of Haihe River Basin and diversion region will decrease in the late spring, early summer and autumn. (3) The surface water resource is projected to be increased by 8.1∼11.5% compared to the period from 1961 to 2011. The climate change in the future would benefit the water transfer.

  19. Is climate change a threat for water uses in the Mediterranean region? Results from a survey at local scale. (United States)

    La Jeunesse, I; Cirelli, C; Aubin, D; Larrue, C; Sellami, H; Afifi, S; Bellin, A; Benabdallah, S; Bird, D N; Deidda, R; Dettori, M; Engin, G; Herrmann, F; Ludwig, R; Mabrouk, B; Majone, B; Paniconi, C; Soddu, A


    Water scarcity and water security are linked, not only through the direct effects of water shortages on each water users' access to water, but also because of water conflicts generated. Climate change is predicted to raise temperatures in the Mediterranean region and reduce rainfall, leading to a reduction in water yield and possibly worsening the situation of water resource shortages that Mediterranean regions are already experiencing. In its dissemination strategy, the EU FP7 CLIMB project addressed water security threats through an analysis of water uses and water use rivalries within a few target catchments distributed over the Mediterranean region. The present work explores whether climate change is locally perceived by stakeholders (water users and managers) as a key issue for their water uses and water security. Individual interviews, meetings, and compilation of questionnaires were conducted at five sites located in the Mediterranean region. The methodology permitted an analysis of water use and its evolution in the water management context, an identification of the state of awareness of local stakeholders and of the pressures on water use and water use rivalries, and a prioritization of water uses. Currently, the main response to increasing water demand in the Mediterranean region, while not yet considering climate change as a driving force, is a progressive externalization of water resources, with limits represented by national borders and technological possibilities. Overall, 'climate change' was not mentioned by stakeholders during both interviews and in answers to the questionnaires. Even the prospect of decreasing precipitation was not considered a relevant or threatening issue in the coming 20years. This confirms the need to continue all efforts to disseminate the state of knowledge on climate change impacts in the Mediterranean region, such as water scarcity, especially to local water managers, as initiated by various research programs of the

  20. Dynamical Models of Interactions between Herds Forage and Water Resources in Sahelian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Jules Tewa


    Full Text Available Optimal foraging is one of the capital topics nowadays in Sahelian region. The vast majority of feed consumed by ruminants in Sahelian region is still formed by natural pastures. Pastoral constraints are the high variability of available forage and drinking water in space and especially in time (highly seasonal, interannual variability and the scarcity of water resources. The mobility is the main functional and opportunistic adaptation to these constraints. Our goal in this paper is to formalize two dynamical models for interactions between a herd of domesticate animals, forage resources, and water resources inside a given Sahelian area, in order to confirm, explain, and predict by mathematical models some observations about pastoralism in Sahelian region. These models in some contexts can be similar to predator-prey models as forage and water resources can be considered as preys and herd’s animals as predators. These models exhibit very rich dynamics, since it predicts abrupt changes in consumer behaviour and disponibility of forage or water resources. The dynamics exhibits a possible coexistence between herd, resources, and water with alternative peaks in their trajectories.

  1. Screening of sustainable groundwater sources for integration into a regional drought-prone water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lucas


    Full Text Available This paper reports on the qualitative and quantitative screening of groundwater sources for integration into the public water supply system of the Algarve, Portugal. The results are employed in a decision support system currently under development for an integrated water resources management scheme in the region. Such a scheme is crucial for several reasons, including the extreme seasonal and annual variations in rainfall, the effect of climate change on more frequent and long-lasting droughts, the continuously increasing water demand and the high risk of a single-source water supply policy. The latter was revealed during the severe drought of 2004 and 2005, when surface reservoirs were depleted and the regional water demand could not be met, despite the drilling of emergency wells.

    For screening and selection, quantitative criteria are based on aquifer properties and well yields, whereas qualitative criteria are defined by water quality indices. These reflect the well's degree of violation of drinking water standards for different sets of variables, including toxicity parameters, nitrate and chloride, iron and manganese and microbiological parameters. Results indicate the current availability of at least 1100 l s−1 of high quality groundwater (55% of the regional demand, requiring only disinfection (900 l s−1 or basic treatment, prior to human consumption. These groundwater withdrawals are sustainable when compared to mean annual recharge, considering that at least 40% is preserved for ecological demands. A more accurate and comprehensive analysis of sustainability is performed with the help of steady-state and transient groundwater flow simulations, which account for aquifer geometry, boundary conditions, recharge and discharge rates, pumping activity and seasonality. They permit an advanced analysis of present and future scenarios and show that increasing water demands and decreasing rainfall will make

  2. Integrated System Dynamics Modelling for water scarcity assessment: case study of the Kairouan region. (United States)

    Sušnik, Janez; Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, Lydia S; Savić, Dragan A; Kapelan, Zoran


    A System Dynamics Model (SDM) assessing water scarcity and potential impacts of socio-economic policies in a complex hydrological system is developed. The model, simulating water resources deriving from numerous catchment sources and demand from four sectors (domestic, industrial, agricultural, external pumping), contains multiple feedback loops and sub-models. The SDM is applied to the Merguellil catchment, Tunisia; the first time such an integrated model has been developed for the water scarce Kairouan region. The application represents an early step in filling a critical research gap. The focus of this paper is to a) assess the applicability of SDM for assessment of the evolution of a water-scarce catchment and b) to analyse the current and future behaviour of the catchment to evaluate water scarcity, focusing on understanding trends to inform policy. Baseline results indicate aquifer over-exploitation, agreeing with observed trends. If current policy and social behaviour continue, serious aquifer depletion is possible in the not too distant future, with implications for the economy and environment. This is unlikely to occur because policies preventing depletion will be implemented. Sensitivity tests were carried out to show which parameters most impacted aquifer behaviour. Results show non-linear model behaviour. Some tests showed negligible change in behaviour. Others showed unrealistic exponential changes in demand, revenue and aquifer water volume. Policy-realistic parameters giving the greatest positive impact on model behaviour were those controlling per-capita domestic water demand and the pumped volume to coastal cities. All potentially beneficial policy options should be considered, giving the best opportunity for preservation of Kairouan aquifer water quantity/quality, ecologically important habitats and the agricultural socio-economic driver of regional development. SDM is a useful tool for assessing the potential impacts of possible policy measures

  3. Modelling surface-water depression storage in a Prairie Pothole Region (United States)

    Hay, Lauren E.; Norton, Parker A.; Viger, Roland; Markstrom, Steven; Regan, R. Steven; Vanderhoof, Melanie


    In this study, the Precipitation-Runoff Modelling System (PRMS) was used to simulate changes in surface-water depression storage in the 1,126-km2 Upper Pipestem Creek basin located within the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, USA. The Prairie Pothole Region is characterized by millions of small water bodies (or surface-water depressions) that provide numerous ecosystem services and are considered an important contribution to the hydrologic cycle. The Upper Pipestem PRMS model was extracted from the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Hydrologic Model (NHM), developed to support consistent hydrologic modelling across the conterminous United States. The Geospatial Fabric database, created for the USGS NHM, contains hydrologic model parameter values derived from datasets that characterize the physical features of the entire conterminous United States for 109,951 hydrologic response units. Each hydrologic response unit in the Geospatial Fabric was parameterized using aggregated surface-water depression area derived from the National Hydrography Dataset Plus, an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets. This paper presents a calibration strategy for the Upper Pipestem PRMS model that uses normalized lake elevation measurements to calibrate the parameters influencing simulated fractional surface-water depression storage. Results indicate that inclusion of measurements that give an indication of the change in surface-water depression storage in the calibration procedure resulted in accurate changes in surface-water depression storage in the water balance. Regionalized parameterization of the USGS NHM will require a proxy for change in surface-storage to accurately parameterize surface-water depression storage within the USGS NHM.

  4. Policy Transfer Among Regional-Level Organizations: Insights from Source Water Protection in Ontario. (United States)

    de Loë, R C; Murray, D; Michaels, S; Plummer, R


    Organizations at the local and regional scales often face the challenge of developing policy mechanisms rapidly and concurrently, whether in response to expanding mandates, newly identified threats, or changes in the political environment. In the Canadian Province of Ontario, rapid, concurrent policy development was considered desirable by 19 regional organizations tasked with developing policies for protection of drinking water sources under very tight and highly prescribed mandates. An explicit policy transfer approach was used by these organizations. Policy transfer refers to using knowledge of policies, programs, and institutions in one context in the development of policies, programs, and institutions in another. This paper assesses three online mechanisms developed to facilitate policy transfer for source water protection in Ontario. Insights are based on a survey of policy planners from the 19 regional organizations who used the three policy transfer tools, supplemented by an analysis of three policies created and transferred among the 19 regional source water protection organizations. Policy planners in the study indicated they had used policy transfer to develop source protection policies for their regions-a finding confirmed by analysis of the text of policies. While the online policy transfer tools clearly facilitated systematic policy transfer, participants still preferred informal, direct exchanges with their peers in other regions over the use of the internet-based policy transfer mechanisms created on their behalf.

  5. Is Gray Water the Key to Unlocking Water for Resource-Poor Areas of the Middle East, North Africa, and Other Arid Regions of the World?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leas, Eric C; Dare, Anne; Al-Delaimy, Wael K


    .... This paper aims to provide an overview of current gray water practices globally, with specific focus on household-level gray water practices in the Middle East and North Africa region, and highlight...

  6. Model grid and infiltration values for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the model grid and infiltration values simulated in the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water...

  7. Discharge areas for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents discharge areas in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) transient model. Natural ground-water discharge occurs...

  8. Material-property zones used in the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Zones in this data set represent spatially contiguous areas that influence ground-water flow in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS), an...

  9. Factors Influencing Water Resource Governance among Pastoral Community at Mkondoa Sub-Catchment Morogoro Region Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeremia Yohana Masifia


    Full Text Available The importance of proper Water Resource Management with greater emphasis on ensuring sustainability quality accountability and community participation has become imminent as water resources increasingly become scarce Harvey et al 2007. Water resources management in Tanzania is governed under the National Water Policy of 2002 and Water Resources Management Act No.11 of year 2009. Other related legislations include Environmental Management Act No. 20 of year 2004 Forest Policy and Forest Act No. 14 of year 2002 and Water Supply Act No.12 of year 2009 among others. However the mechanisms processes and institutions through which all stakeholders articulate their priorities exercise their legal rights meet their obligations and mediate their differences is still missing. This study employed descriptive exploratory research design. Data collection was done by the use of both structured and semi structured interview to respondents who were both purpose and simple randomly selected observation and focus group discussion. Review of reports from Districts and Basin offices and internet to access relevant secondary information was done. Results show that WUAs LGAs and WSSAs lack relevant understanding capacities management and law enforcement as result water management generally remains non participatory inefficient and expensive and increased water user conflicts in Kisangata and Ilonga WUAs of Mkondoa sub catchment Morogoro region. The study propose participatory approaches best practices on water resource management at local level for embracement of Community- Based Water Resource Management as the only option of managing sub catchment water resources and reduce water related conflicts among water users. Awareness creation on policy and establishment of alternative economic activities like horticulture bee keeping and poultry is significant to give relief to land.

  10. Modeling Regional Soil Water Balance in Farmland of the Middle Reaches of Heihe River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Li


    Full Text Available Quantifying components of soil water balance in farmland of the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin is essential for efficiently scheduling and allocating limited water resources for irrigation in this arid region. A soil water balance model based on empirical assumptions in the vadose zone of farmland was developed and simulation results were compared/validated with results by the numerical model HYDRUS-1D. Results showed a good coherence between the simulated results of the water balance models and the HYDRUS-1D model in soil water storage, evapotranspiration, deep percolation and groundwater recharge, which indicated that the water balance model was suitable for simulating soil water movement in the study area. Considering the spatial distribution of cropping patterns, groundwater depth and agricultural management, ArcGIS was applied for the pre-/post-processing of the water balance model to quantify the spatial distribution of components of soil water balance in the major cropland in middle reaches of Heihe River Basin. Then, distributions of components of soil water balance in the major cropland under different water-saving irrigation practices during the growing season were predicted and discussed. Simulation results demonstrated that evapotranspiration of the main crops would be more prominently influenced by irrigation quota under deep groundwater depth than that under shallow groundwater depth. Groundwater recharge would increase with the increase of irrigation quota and decrease with the increase of groundwater depth. In general, when groundwater depth reached 3 m, groundwater recharge from root zone was negligible for spring wheat. While when it reached 6 m, groundwater recharge was negligible for maize. Water-saving irrigation practices would help to reduce groundwater recharge with a slight decrease of crop water consumption.

  11. Private sector embedded water risk: Merging the corn supply chain network and regional watershed depletion (United States)

    Kim, T.; Brauman, K. A.; Schmitt, J.; Goodkind, A. L.; Smith, T. M.


    Water scarcity in US corn farming regions is a significant risk consideration for the ethanol and meat production sectors, which comprise 80% of all US corn demand. Water supply risk can lead to effects across the supply chain, affecting annual corn yields. The purpose of our study is to assess the water risk to the US's most corn-intensive sectors and companies by linking watershed depletion estimates with corn production, linked to downstream companies through a corn transport model. We use a water depletion index as an improved metric for seasonal water scarcity and a corn sourcing supply chain model based on economic cost minimization. Water depletion was calculated as the fraction of renewable (ground and surface) water consumption, with estimates of more than 75% depletion on an annual average basis indicating a significant water risk. We estimated company water risk as the amount of embedded corn coming from three categories of water stressed counties. The ethanol sector had 3.1% of sourced corn grown from counties that were more than 75% depleted while the beef sector had 14.0%. From a firm perspective, Tyson, JBS, Cargill, the top three US corn demanding companies, had 4.5%, 9.6%, 12.8% of their sourced corn respectively, coming from watersheds that are more than 75% depleted. These numbers are significantly higher than the global average of 2.2% of watersheds being classified as more than 75% depleted. Our model enables corn using industries to evaluate their supply chain risk of water scarcity through modeling corn sourcing and watershed depletion, providing the private sector a new method for risk estimation. Our results suggest corn dependent industries are already linked to water scarcity risk in disproportionate amounts due to the spatial heterogeneity of corn sourcing and water scarcity.

  12. Quantification and regional comparison of water use for power generation: A California ISO case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaron J. Peck


    Full Text Available Analysis of water use for power generation has, in the past, focused on large geographical regions and time scales. Attempting to refine this analysis on the time and spatial scales could help to further understand the complex relationships involved in the energy–water nexus, specifically, the water required to generate power. Water factors for different types of plants and cooling systems are used from literature in combination with power generation data for different balancing authorities to model water use as a function of time based on the fuel mix and power generated for that region. This model is designed to increase public awareness of the interrelation between the energy consumed and water use that can be taken into account when making decisions about electrical energy use. These results confirm that areas with higher renewable energy penetration use less water per unit of power generated than those with little or no renewable technologies in the area, but this effect is heavily dependent on the distribution of the types of renewable and conventional generation used.

  13. The origins of water sources in the region of Annaba: confirmation using isotopic tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ghrieb


    Full Text Available The studied area contains several superficial or deep water tables, which constitute the main sources of groundwater. The complexity of the exchange between groundwater and superficial water, as well as the casting of urban and industrial wastes remain unclear and require the application of isotopic techniques. Hence, a campaign involving 48 samples was conducted. We attempted to find the links between those groundwaters. We noticed that the water levels of oxygen 18 (18O range from –6.5 ‰ in Orelait to 0.12 ‰ in Oued Meboudja. The majority of oxygen-18 values are homogenous and less than –5 ‰. However, some values belong to the evaporated water area, indicating an enrichment of these waters. The isotopic study showed that evaporation is important in the studied region.

  14. The "shallow-waterness" of the wave climate in European coastal regions (United States)

    Håkon Christensen, Kai; Carrasco, Ana; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Breivik, Øyvind


    In contrast to deep water waves, shallow water waves are influenced by bottom topography, which has consequences for the propagation of wave energy as well as for the energy and momentum exchange between the waves and the mean flow. The ERA-Interim reanalysis is used to assess the fraction of wave energy associated with shallow water waves in coastal regions in Europe. We show maps of the distribution of this fraction as well as time series statistics from eight selected stations. There is a strong seasonal dependence and high values are typically associated with winter storms, indicating that shallow water wave effects can occasionally be important even in the deeper parts of the shelf seas otherwise dominated by deep water waves.

  15. [Regional spatial patterns of water circumstances in loess plateau area based GIS]. (United States)

    Hu, Liangjun; Shao, Ming'an


    Based on the integration of GIS and geo-synthesis analysis, the water circumstances for plant growth in the Shaanxi Loess Plateau area were studied and a map reflecting regional water circumstances at the scale of 1:500,000 was made. The results showed that the water circumstances for plant growth in the Loess Plateau area were affected by the integration of precipitation soil texture, loess deposition, geomorphology and coverage, and could be measured by sub-indicators from the mentioned aspects. The index from the view point of plant development was used for the water circumstance assessment. The water circumstances of the Loess Plateau including forest zone, shrub zone and grassland zone appeared a complex spatial mosaic structure, and the main of the plateau was suitable for forestry which meant the plateau had an expected potential for eco-restoration.

  16. Horizontal flow barriers for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the surface traces of regional features simulated as horizontal flow barriers in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system...

  17. Transformation Pathways through the Land-water Geosphere in Permafrost Regions (United States)

    Destouni, G.


    Arctic land-water undergoes and participates in multiple climate-driven and other (natural and direct human-driven) environmental exchanges and changes (Figure 1). A bits-and-pieces approach to these may miss essential aspects of change propagation and transformation by land-water across its multiple components (soil water, groundwater, hyporheic water, streams/rivers, wetlands and lakes) and from/to other geospheres (atmosphere and its climate change drivers, cryosphere and its permafrost segment, as well as the anthroposphere/technosphere, geosphere/pedosphere, marine hydrosphere and biosphere). This paper synthesizes results from recent modeling and observational studies of land-water flow and dissolved carbon transport in permafrost regions, departing from a new conceptualization of the land-water geosphere as a scale-free catchment-wise organized system (Figure 1), emphasizing several key new system aspects compared to traditional hydrosphere/water cycle view. Among these new aspects, we particularly investigate here the role of land-water flow and transport pathways as system coupling agents, with focus on their variability and change with varying permafrost conditions and permafrost thaw in a warming climate. Utilizing the conceptualization of land-water as a continuous yet structured geosphere, following the proposed flow-transport pathways of change propagation-transformation, we identify patterns of permafrost-related and other changes in Arctic hydrology.

  18. Climate change and water resources: Case study of Eastern Monsoon Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Xia


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the impact of climate change on the water cycle and resource changes in the Eastern Monsoon Region of China (EMRC. It also represents a summary of the achievements made by the National Key Basic Research and Development Program (2010CB428400, where the major research focuses are detection and attribution, extreme floods and droughts, and adaptation of water resources management. Preliminary conclusions can be summarized into four points: 1 Water cycling and water resource changes in the EMRC are rather complicated as the region is impacted by natural changes relating to the strong monsoon influence and also by climate change impacts caused by CO2 emissions due to anthropogenic forcing; 2 the rate of natural variability contributing to the influence on precipitation accounts for about 70%, and the rate from anthropogenic forcing accounts for 30% on average in the EMRC. However, with future scenarios of increasing CO2 emissions, the contribution rate from anthropogenic forcing will increase and water resources management will experience greater issues related to the climate change impact; 3 Extreme floods and droughts in the EMRC will be an increasing trend, based on IPCC-AR5 scenarios; 4 Along with rising temperatures of 1 °C in North China, the agricultural water consumption will increase to about 4% of total water consumption. Therefore, climate change is making a significant impact and will be a risk to the EMRC, which covers almost all of the eight major river basins, such as the Yangtze River, Yellow River, Huaihe River, Haihe River, and Pearl River, and to the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (middle line. To ensure water security, it is urgently necessary to take adaptive countermeasures and reduce the vulnerability of water resources and associated risks.

  19. Measurement of radium isotope activities in reservoir and spring water in the Cameroon Central Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Lydie Marie


    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the activities of 226Ra and 228Ra in the reservoir and spring water samples respectively during the dry and the rainy seasons; and to calculate the annual intake Ii (Bq/y for each type of water samples. Methods: Using both well calibrated Canberra NaI(Tl and HPGe detector systems, it was possible to determine the average specific activity of those radium’s isotopes in water samples which were collected in 2010, from Reservoirs and springs in Cameroon central region including Ngoaekelle, Minboman, Etoudi and Njoungolo. Results: The average specific activity values obtained for 226Ra and 228Ra in reservoir water samples were 8.76 ± 3.50 BqL-1 and 0.64 ± 0.28 BqL-1 during the dry season and, 8.24 ±3.48 BqL-1 and 0.58 ± 0.24 BqL-1 during the rainy season respectively. For spring water, the average values were 3.50 ± 0.63 BqL-1 and below 0.0002 BqL-1 (detection limit of 228Ra in water during the dry season; 3.20 ± 0.60 BqL-1 and below 0.0002 BqL-1 (detection limit of 228Ra in water during the rainy season respectively. Assuming that the volume of drinking water for adult is 2.5 litres per day, the average annual intakes of 226Ra and 228Ra through ingestion in these water samples were 7702 Bq/y and 575 Bq/y for reservoir water; 2993 Bq/y and < 0.25 for spring water respectively. Conclusion: The results have indicated that the annual intake by the population of sampling region as a result of 226Ra in these drinking waters is 7.7 × 103Bq/y more than the maximum limit fixed by ICRP which is 7 × 103 Bq/y. There is a need for regular monitoring the radiological water quality aspect in this region.

  20. Evaluation of the Analysis Influence on Transport in Reanalysis Regional Water Cycles (United States)

    Bosilovich, M. G.; Chen, J.; Robertson, F. R.


    Regional water cycles of reanalyses do not follow theoretical assumptions applicable to pure simulated budgets. The data analysis changes the wind, temperature and moisture, perturbing the theoretical balance. Of course, the analysis is correcting the model forecast error, so that the state fields should be more aligned with observations. Recently, it has been reported that the moisture convergence over continental regions, even those with significant quantities of radiosonde profiles present, can produce long term values not consistent with theoretical bounds. Specifically, long averages over continents produce some regions of moisture divergence. This implies that the observational analysis leads to a source of water in the region. One such region is the Unite States Great Plains, which many radiosonde and lidar wind observations are assimilated. We will utilize a new ancillary data set from the MERRA reanalysis called the Gridded Innovations and Observations (GIO) which provides the assimilated observations on MERRA's native grid allowing more thorough consideration of their impact on regional and global climatology. Included with the GIO data are the observation minus forecast (OmF) and observation minus analysis (OmA). Using OmF and OmA, we can identify the bias of the analysis against each observing system and gain a better understanding of the observations that are controlling the regional analysis. In this study we will focus on the wind and moisture assimilation.

  1. Ground water pollution due to aquaculture in east coast region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ground water quality parameters were studied for pollution due to aquaculture in the east coast region of district Andhrapradesh, India. Over a period of two years, 46 groundwater samples were collected for analyses. The results showed that the alkalinity ranged from 120 - 482 mg/L, and pH ranged from 7.1 to 8.6.

  2. A decision support system for optimization of regional drinking water supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, C.; Schot, P.P.


    Finding a strategy that allows economically efficient drinking water production in regional supply systems at minimal environmental cost is often a complex task. In order to determine the optimal spatial production configuration, a systematic trade off among costs and benefits of possible

  3. Water balances of two Piedmont headwater catchments: implications for regional hydrologic landscape classification (United States)

    C. Dreps; G. Sun; J. Boggs


    In the Piedmont of North Carolina, a traditionally water-rich region, reservoirs that serve over 1 million people are under increasing pressure due to naturally occurring droughts and increasing land development. Innovative development approaches aim to maintain hydrologic conditions of the undisturbed landscape, but are based on insufficient target information. This...

  4. Forest Influences on Climate and Water Resources at the Landscape to Regional Scale (United States)

    Ge Sun; Yongqiang Liu


    Although it is well known that climate controls the distribution, productivity and functioning of vegetation on earth, our knowledge about the role of forests in regulating regional climate and water resources is lacking. The studies on climate-forests feedbacks have received increasing attention from the climate change and ecohydrology research communities. The goal...

  5. Glacier and deep water Holocene dynamics, Adélie Land region, East Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denis, D.; Crosta, X.; Schmidt, S.; Carson, D.; Ganeshram, R.; Renssen, H.; Bout-Roumazeilles, V.; Zaragosi, S.; Martin, B.; Giraudeau, J.


    This study presents a high-resolution multi-proxy investigation of sediment core MD03-2601 and documents major glacier oscillations and deep water activity during the Holocene in the Adélie Land region, East Antarctica. A comparison with surface ocean conditions reveals synchronous changes of

  6. «Cross-border Environmental Peace» as the Interaction of Regional Norms and Local Power: Lessons from Cross-Regional Analysis of Water Security Debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlan Koff


    Full Text Available This article contends that notions of «peace» and «justice» in cross-border water management vary in different world regions. Moreover, it argues that «peace» and «justice» can be explained by analyzing the interaction between «regional» interpretations and implementation of water security norms and local cross-border power structures. «Regional water security» is defined as the normative commitment to provide necessary water resources to communities within world regions. «Power,» which is defined traditionally as «the ability of actors to obtain their objectives despite opposition» is viewed as a function of political entrepreneurialism and opportunity structures. This article derives from a review of the pertinent literatures on «water security» and «water justice,» the two elements of «water peace» as well as scholarship on cross-border water management in different world regions. It discusses water governance within the framework of cross-border politics and comparative regional integration. It also includes analysis of the policy documents and websites of seventeen regional organizations as well as interviews with key actors and local experts on water management in specific cross-border case studies. The article is divided into five sections. Following this introduction, part two examines «water security» and «water justice» in international affairs. Part III then discusses «power» in cross-border water governance debates and addresses the transnational face of water security discussions. Part IV presents a comparative examination of cross-border «water justice» in selected world regions which is followed by theoretical considerations that are addressed in part V, the conclusion. In general, the article emphasizes the need to promote comparative cross-regional research on cross-border water governance in order to examine how «peace,» «security» and «justice» are framed in debates over water resources. 

  7. [Influence factors of deposition induced by melt water erosion in Naqu region, China]. (United States)

    Feng, Jun-yuan; Cai, Qiang-guo; Li, Zhao-xia; Sun, Li-ying


    Melt water erosion is one of the important soil erosion forms caused by the melt water from glacier and snow in high altitude cold areas of China. This paper investigated the influencing factors of deposition caused by melt water erosion in Naqu region. Alluvial fan ratio was presented as an index to characterize the degree of the deposition induced by melt water erosion. Minimum polygon was determined based on spatial overlay technology of Geographic Information System (GIS). The regression equation between the deposition index and the influencing factors was established through the stepwise regression analysis based on minimum polygon. Key influencing factors were identified according to the stepwise regression equation. The results showed that large amounts of alluvial fan were observed in Naqu region; extensive alluvial fans were centered at gentle slope areas in the central part of Naqu region with great spatial differences; alluvial fans were mainly distributed at valley exits, most of which were at large scale with vast differences in area and thickness. Wind speed, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), K value of soil erodibility, annual temperature range and the steep slope area ratio were identified as the key influencing factors on the deposition induced by melt water erosion in the studied area. Index of deposition was positively correlated with the wind speed and NDVI, and showed negative relationships with the K value of soil erodibility, the annual temperature range and steep slope area ratio.

  8. Hydrogeochemical data for thermal and nonthermal waters and gases of the Valles Caldera- southern Jemez Mountains region, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevenell, L.; Goff, F.; Vuataz, F.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr.; Counce, D.; Janik, C.J.; Evans, W.


    This report presents field, chemical, gas, and isotopic data for thermal and nonthermal waters of the southern Jemez Mountains, New Mexico. This region includes all thermal and mineral waters associated with Valles Caldera and many of those located near the Nacimiento Uplift, north of San Ysidro. Waters of the region can be categorized into five general types: (1) surface and near-surface meteoric waters; (2) acid-sulfate waters at Sulphur Springs (Valles Caldera); (3) thermal meteoric waters in the ring fracture zone (Valles Caldera); (4) deep geothermal waters of the Baca geothermal field and derivative waters in the Soda Dam and Jemez Springs area (Valles Caldera); and (5) mineralized waters near San Ysidro. Some waters display chemical and isotopic characteristics intermediate between the types listed. Data in this report will help in interpreting the geothermal potential of the Jemez Mountains region and will provide background for investigating problems in hydrology, structural geology, hydrothermal alterations, and hydrothermal solution chemistry.

  9. Comparative analysis of the quality of drinking tap water in some areas of the Murmansk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bеkreneva O. I.


    Full Text Available The present work describes the microbiological research of drinkin g tap water quality of some settlements in the Murmansk region. The samples of drinking tap water have been selected and the microbiological indicators of thermotolerant coliform bacteria, common coliform bacteria, and total microbial number have been determined; the compliance of these indicators with the requirements of sanitary norms and rules has been also established. Determination of total microbial number has been carried out by the deep method, and levels of total and thermotolerant coliform bacteria – by the membrane filtration method. It has been shown that the content of microorganisms in drinking water sources depends on the season of the year. The greatest number of microorganisms in water is observed in spring and autumn p eriods of the year and is caused by floodwater and precipitation of water into the water intake system. The greates t number of microorganisms in water samples has been recorded in the town of Sputnik. The repeated inconsistency o f water quality with the requirements of normative and technical documentation has been identified. The prev alence of acute intestinal diseases among the population and the influence of water quality on this i ndicator have been estimated. The high incidence of intestinal infections in the town of Pechenga has been revealed, a few more prosperous for this indicator are the towns of Zaozersk and Sputnik. Recommendations for improvi ng the quality of drinking water treatment have been transferred to the services of central water supply and distributed among the population. After the implementation of the recommendations, the repeated tests have been performed, and some improvement of water quality has been stated.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Влидимирович Беляев


    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to describe the situation taken place with integration of marketing communications in the region. The author conducted research aimed at identifying the most popular and effective forms of communication with the consumer, allowing in detail to characterize the state of the advertising market of Caucasian Mineral Waters. Information concluded in article may be used by companies present in the Caucasian Mineral Waters region, to form notion about the effectiveness of the regional channels of communication with customers and building a more efficient model of advertising policy, also its could be useful for specialists, which are working in marketing communication and advertising sphere.DOI:

  11. Evaluating water storage variations in the MENA region using GRACE satellite data

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez, Oliver


    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations over large river basins can be derived from temporal gravity field variations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites. These signals are useful for determining accurate estimates of water storage and fluxes over areas covering a minimum of 150,000 km2 (length scales of a few hundred kilometers) and thus prove to be a valuable tool for regional water resources management, particularly for areas with a lack of in-situ data availability or inconsistent monitoring, such as the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. This already stressed arid region is particularly vulnerable to climate change and overdraft of its non-renewable freshwater sources, and thus direction in managing its resources is a valuable aid. An inter-comparison of different GRACE-derived TWS products was done in order to provide a quantitative assessment on their uncertainty and their utility for diagnosing spatio-temporal variability in water storage over the MENA region. Different processing approaches for the inter-satellite tracking data from the GRACE mission have resulted in the development of TWS products, with resolutions in time from 10 days to 1 month and in space from 0.5 to 1 degree global gridded data, while some of them use input from land surface models in order to restore the original signal amplitudes. These processing differences and the difficulties in recovering the mass change signals over arid regions will be addressed. Output from the different products will be evaluated and compared over basins inside the MENA region, and compared to output from land surface models.

  12. Boundary of the area contributing flow to the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the boundary of the area contributing ground-water flow to the Death Valley regional ground-water flow-system (DVRFS) model domain. The...

  13. Influence of extended drought on water quality in tropical reservoirs in a semiarid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Girão Braga


    Full Text Available AimDrought periods often occur in Brazilian semiarid region and are supposed to induce water quality degradation by changes in physical, chemical and biological properties of freshwater ecosystems. Reservoirs in this region are used as drinking-water supplies and are exposed to wide volume fluctuations during drought periods due to lack of precipitation and high evaporation rates. This study aimed to identify patterns on water quality of two reservoirs during a long drought period. It was expected that more arid and shallower conditions would favor algal growth by enhancing nutrient availability, causing a decrease on water quality.MethodsThe study was based on monthly sampling over 20 months (May 2011 to December 2012 at two tropical reservoirs on Brazilian semiarid region. Precipitation and volume data were obtained from environmental agencies. Transparency was measured on field using a Secchi disk and conductivity, nutrients, suspended solids and chlorophyll-a were analyzed on laboratory. Temporal changes in all environmental variables were analyzed in each reservoir using two-way cluster analysis and also principal component analysis (PCA.ResultsThe volume of both reservoirs decreased considerably over the study because of low or shortage of precipitation. It was possible to detect two opposite patterns of chlorophyll-a in each reservoir throughout the drought season: in the first one phytoplankton growth was favored, while in the second one chlorophyll-a decreased by high inorganic turbidity. Both reservoirs tended to increase their turbidity and conductivity during the drought period due to shallow conditions, which probably contributed to sediment resuspension.ConclusionsWater level reduction during the extended drought period, contributed for water quality degradation due to high algal biomass and also high turbidity found during drought period. Local factors, as the nature of suspended solids, play an important role on predicting water

  14. Domestic water uses: Characterization of daily cycles in the north region of Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Cristina, E-mail: [ECT, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD), Apartado 1013, 5001801 Vila Real (Portugal); Teixeira, Carlos A. [CITAB, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real Portugal (Portugal); Duarte, A.A.L.S. [Civil Engineering Department, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Bentes, I. [ECT, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD), Apartado 1013, 5001801 Vila Real (Portugal)


    Nowadays, there is an increasing discussion among specialists about water use efficiency and the best measures to improve it. In Portugal, there have been a few attempts to expand the implementation of in situ water reuse projects. However, there is a lack of information about indoor water uses and how they are influenced by sociodemographic characteristics. There are several studies that investigate per capita global water usage, but the partitioning of this volume per domestic device and daily cycles is yet unknown. Identified as one of the key questions in sustainable building design, the water end-use is of primary importance to the design of hydraulic networks in buildings. In order to overcome this lack, a quantitative characterization of daily water uses for each domestic device was performed, based on a weekly monitoring program in fifty-two different dwellings in the northern region of Portugal (Vila Real, Valpaços and Oporto). For forty of them, each water usage of different domestic devices of each dwelling was recorded. At the same time, the remaining twelve dwellings were also monitored in order to register the volume of water consumed in each utilization of each domestic device. This paper presents the results of this complete monitoring program, using collected data to establish indoor water use patterns for each domestic device, aiming to support a more realistic approach to residential water use. The daily cycles in the different cities, where the monitoring program was performed, are also presented, in order to evaluate possible influences of sociodemographic characteristics. - Highlights: • This paper presents a method to find out the pattern of water use in dwellings. • The number of uses per person a day, by domestic device, is presented. • The volume spent per type of use by domestic device is presented. • The daily cycles per domestic device are presented. • Sociodemographic characteristics seem to affect the daily cycles.

  15. Legal disputes as a proxy for regional conflicts over water rights in Chile (United States)

    Rivera, Diego; Godoy-Faúndez, Alex; Lillo, Mario; Alvez, Amaya; Delgado, Verónica; Gonzalo-Martín, Consuelo; Menasalvas, Ernestina; Costumero, Roberto; García-Pedrero, Ángel


    Water demand and climate variability increases competition and tension between water users -agricultural, industrial, mining, hydropower- and local communities. Since 1981, the Water Code has regulated water allocation through private individual property rights, fostering markets as the distribution mechanism among users. When legal conflicts occur between parties, it is the responsibility of the courts to settle the conflict. The aim of this research is twofold: first, to apply a geographical approach by mapping water conflicts using legal disputes reaching the higher courts as a proxy for conflict intensity and second, to explain the diversity of water disputes and how they vary regionally. We built a representative database with a sample of 1000 legal records corresponding to decisions issued by the Supreme Court and 17 courts of appeal throughout the country from 1981 to 2014. For geo-tagging, all records were transformed to plain text and analyzed to find words matching the entries of a geographical thesaurus, allowing records to be linked to geographical locations. The geo-tagging algorithm is capable of automatically populating a searchable database. Several maps were constructed using a color scale to visualize conflict intensity. Legal disputes represent different types of conflicts among water users, such as competition between agriculture and hydropower. Processed data allowed the identification of the regional variation of conflicts. The spatial pattern for the intensity of conflicts related to specific sections of the Water Code is explained in terms of the main geographical, climatic and productive characteristics of Chile. Geo-tagging legal records shows a strong potential to understand and define regional variation of water conflicts. However, data availability would become a barrier if measures to improve data management were not taken. Regarding the institutional framework, the same regulations for water management rules are applied throughout the

  16. Tropical organic soils ecosystems in relation to regional water resources in southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armentano, T. V.


    Tropical organic soils have functioned as natural sinks for carbon, nitrogen, slfur and other nutrients for the past 4000 years or more. Topographic evolution in peat swamp forests towards greater oligotrophy has concentrated storage of the limited nutrient stock in surface soils and biota. Tropical peat systems thus share common ecosystem characteristics with northern peat bogs and certain tropical oligotrophic forests. Organic matter accumulation and high cation-exchange-capacity limit nutrient exports from undisturbed organic soils, although nutrient retention declines with increasing eutrophy and wetland productivity. Peat swamps are subject to irreversible degradation if severely altered because disturbance of vegetation, surface peats and detritus can disrupt nuttrient cycles and reduce forest recovery capacity. Drainage also greatly increases exports of nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutrients and leads to downstream eutrophication and water quality degradation. Regional planning for clean water supplies must recognize the benefits provided by natural peatlands in balancing water supplies and regulating water chemistry.

  17. Water resources of the Southern Hills regional aquifer system, southeastern Louisiana (United States)

    White, Vincent E.


    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of groundwater in the 10 parishes overlying the Southern Hills regional aquifer system of Louisiana (fig. 1) is critical for water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater sources in these parishes is presented. Previously published reports (see References Cited section) and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (U.S. Geological Survey, 2017) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  18. Quaternary North Atlantic Surface Paleoceanography in Regions of Potential Deep-water Formation (United States)

    Ruddiman, W. F.


    At the time scale of the Quaternary climate cycles, the sites of formation of North Atlantic Deep Water are not known. The interglacial extreme is presumably exemplified by the modern regions; the Norwegian, Greenland and Labrador Seas. During the major glacial-age coolings in the North Atlantic, the sites may have shifted well to the south, perhaps as far as the limit of the polar front at 40 to 50 N. Still other sites may have been important during intermediate climatic conditions. Because of the close coupling of high-latitude surface waters to North Atlantic Deep Water in the modern ocean, the history of sea-surface temperature (SST) oscillations across the high-latitude North Atlantic is relevant to an understanding of deep-water formation on the longer time scales.

  19. An evaluation method of the sustainability of water resource in karst region: a case study of Zunyi, China (United States)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Ganlu; Ding, Hanghang; Chen, Yulong


    Water resource is of great significance to the survival and development of human. However, the water resource system in karst regions is sensitive to external interference owing to the special geological processes which cause soil impoverishment, severe rocky desertification and large topographic height difference. Therefore, evaluating the sustainability of the water resource in karst regions is beneficial to reasonably use and protect water resource. This paper puts forward to evaluate the water resource from four aspects, including water resources system, water requirement system, ecosystem and social economic system. Moreover, on this basis, 18 evaluation indexes were selected to construct the sustainability evaluation index system and method. This method was used to evaluate the sustainability of the water resource in the typical karst region—Zunyi, Guizhou province, China, and was verified according to the actual situation in the research area. All these provide reference for the evaluation of the sustainability of the water resource in similar regions.

  20. Energy-Water-Land-Climate Nexus: Modeling Impacts from the Asset to Regional Scale (United States)

    Tidwell, V. C.; Bennett, K. E.; Middleton, R. S.; Behery, S.; Macknick, J.; Corning-Padilla, A.; Brinkman, G.; Meng, M.


    A critical challenge for the energy-water-land nexus is understanding and modeling the connection between the natural system—including changes in climate, land use/cover, and streamflow—and the engineered system including water for energy, agriculture, and society. Equally important is understanding the linkage across scales; that is, how impacts at the asset level aggregate to influence behavior at the local to regional scale. Toward this need, a case study was conducted featuring multi-sector and multi-scale modeling centered on the San Juan River basin (a watershed that accounts for one-tenth of the Colorado River drainage area). Simulations were driven by statistically downscaled climate data from three global climate models (emission scenario RCP 8.5) and planned growth in regional water demand. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model was fitted with a custom vegetation mortality sub-model and used to estimate tributary inflows to the San Juan River and estimate reservoir evaporation. San Juan River operations, including releases from Navajo Reservoir, were subsequently modeled using RiverWare to estimate impacts on water deliveries out to the year 2100. Major water demands included two large coal-fired power plants, a local electric utility, river-side irrigation, the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project and instream flows managed for endangered aquatic species. Also tracked were basin exports, including water (downstream flows to the Colorado River and interbasin transfers to the Rio Grande) and interstate electric power transmission. Implications for the larger western electric grid were assessed using PLEXOS, a sub-hourly dispatch, electric production-cost model. Results highlight asset-level interactions at the energy-water-land nexus driven by climate and population dynamics; specifically, growing vulnerabilities to shorted water deliveries. Analyses also explored linkages across geographic scales from the San Juan to the larger

  1. Site-specific estimates of water yield applied in regional acid sensitivity surveys across western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. SHAW


    Full Text Available Runoff or water yield is an important input to the Steady-State Water Chemistry (SSWC model for estimating critical loads of acidity. Herein, we present site-specific water yield estimates for a large number of lakes (779 across three provinces of western Canada (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and British Columbia using an isotope mass balance (IMB approach. We explore the impact of applying site-specific hydrology as compared to use of regional runoff estimates derived from gridded datasets in assessing critical loads of acidity to these lakes. In general, the average water yield derived from IMB is similar to the long-term average runoff; however, IMB results suggest a much larger range in hydrological settings of the lakes, attributed to spatial heterogeneity in watershed characteristics and landcover. The comparison of critical loads estimates from the two methods suggests that use of average regional runoff data in the SSWC model may overestimate critical loads for the majority of lakes due to systematic skewness in the actual runoff distributions. Implications for use of site-specific hydrology in regional critical loads assessments across western Canada are discussed.

  2. Effect of faulting on ground-water movement in the Death Valley region, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faunt, C.C.


    This study characterizes the hydrogeologic system of the Death Valley region, an area covering approximately 100,000 square kilometers. The study also characterizes the effects of faults on ground-water movement in the Death Valley region by synthesizing crustal stress, fracture mechanics,a nd structural geologic data. The geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range Province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. Faulting and associated fracturing is pervasive and greatly affects ground-water flow patterns. Faults may become preferred conduits or barriers to flow depending on whether they are in relative tension, compression, or shear and other factors such as the degree of dislocations of geologic units caused by faulting, the rock types involved, the fault zone materials, and the depth below the surface. The current crustal stress field was combined with fault orientations to predict potential effects of faults on the regional ground-water flow regime. Numerous examples of fault-controlled ground-water flow exist within the study area. Hydrologic data provided an independent method for checking some of the assumptions concerning preferential flow paths. 97 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Residence times in shallow waters help explain regional differences in Wadden Sea eutrophication (United States)

    Schwichtenberg, Fabian; Callies, Ulrich; van Beusekom, Justus E. E.


    Regional variations in eutrophication levels of tidal basins in the Wadden Sea can be caused by external factors, like organic matter import, and internal factors like the morphology and hydrodynamics of the receiving tidal basin. For instance, benthic nutrients from remineralized organic matter may be more concentrated in shallow basins or diluted in basins with high exchange rates. In addition, the location of a monitoring station may determine which basin-specific water masses are actually observed. In the present paper a hydrodynamic intertidal imprint (IMP) is estimated for ten stations in various tidal basins of the Wadden Sea. The fraction of time water masses spent in intertidal areas prior to observation is calculated by linking the Lagrangian transport module PELETS to already existing hourly reconstructions of currents between 1959 and 2003. Irrespective of water depth, additional calculations of mean residence times (MRT) in the Wadden Sea indicate whether, in the case of low IMP values, water masses originate from coastal areas or tidal channels. Results show distinct regional differences, with highest values in the eastern part of the Dutch sector of the southern Wadden Sea (IMP=77%, MRT=99%) and lowest values in the German/Danish sector of the northern Wadden Sea (IMP=1.1%, MRT=21%). The IMP correlates positively with observed nutrient levels (R2=0.83). Evidently, this residence time-based intertidal signal is pivotal in explaining regional variations in eutrophication levels revealed by long-term comparative data from different monitoring stations.

  4. Trigonometric parallax measurement of a water maser source toward the Sgr D H II region (United States)

    Sakai, Daisuke; Oyama, Tomoaki; Nagayama, Takumi; Honma, Mareki; Kobayashi, Hideyuki


    We report on VLBI observations of a water maser source associated with the Sgr D H II region, which is a bright radio continuum source in the direction of the Galactic center region. The absolute proper motions and the distance measured by VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) were (μα cos δ, μδ) = (-1.32 ± 0.15 mas yr-1, -2.86 ± 0.34 mas yr-1) and d=2.36_{-0.39}^{+0.58} kpc, respectively. The line-of-sight velocity of the water maser emission is similar to that of the H91α recombination line emission detected at the Sgr D H II region. The spatial position and line-of-sight velocity of the water maser emission indicate that this source is physically associated with the extended H II source seen under radio continuum observations. Thus, our results suggest that the Sgr D H II region is located in the Scutum arm of the Galactic disk. We discuss this new view of the Sgr D complex, based on the parallax and proper motions.

  5. Glaciation and regional ground-water flow in the Fennoscandian Shield: Site 94 (United States)

    Provost, Alden M.; Voss, Clifford I.; Neuzil, C.E.


    Results from a regional-scale ground-water flow model of the Fennoscandian shield suggest that ground-water flow is strongly affected by surface conditions associated with climatic change and glaciation. The model was used to run a series of numerical simulations of variable-density ground-water flow in a 1500-km-long and approximately 10-km-deep cross-section that passes through southern Sweden. Ground-water flow and shield brine transport in the cross-sectional model are controlled by an assumed time evolution of surface conditions over the next 140 ka. Simulations show that, under periglacial conditions, permafrost may locally or extensively impede the free recharge or discharge of ground water. Below cold-based glacial ice, no recharge or discharge of ground water occurs. Both of these conditions result in the settling of shield brine and consequent freshening of near-surface water in areas of natural discharge blocked by permafrost. The presence of warm-based ice with basal melting creates a potential for ground-water recharge rates much larger than under present, ice-free conditions. Recharging basal meltwater can reach depths of a few kilometers in a few thousand years. The vast majority of recharged water is accommodated through storage in the volume of bedrock below the local area of recharge; regional (lateral) redistribution of recharged water by subsurface flow is minor over the duration of a glacial advance (~10 ka). During glacial retreat, the weight of the ice overlying a given surface location decreases, and significant upward flow of ground water may occur below the ice sheet due to pressure release, despite the continued potential for recharge of basal meltwater. Excess meltwater must exit from below the glacier through subglacial cavities and channels. Subsurface penetration of meltwater during glacial advance and up-flow during glacial retreat are greatest if the loading efficiency of the shield rock is low. The maximum rate of ground-water

  6. Climate-Smart Landscapes for Managing Water Resources in the Tea Growing Regions of Northeast India (United States)

    Gupta, N.; Biggs, E. M.; Saikia, S. D.; Duncan, J.


    Tea is an important global agricultural commodity, both commercially and culturally. Assam, an agrarian state in northeast India is the largest single tea growing region in the world and the productivity (both in terms of quantity and quality) requires a specific range of enviro-climatic conditions. Precipitation and temperature are two climate factors which highly influence productivity. Thus water plays a critical role in sustaining future tea production in Assam. Recently the region has been affected by heterogeneous spatiotemporal distributions of precipitation and rising temperatures. This has led to temporally varying drought-like conditions during the tea production season, reducing crop resilience and degrading yield quality. Quantifying regional climate-yield characteristics enables more effective decision-making regarding climate change mitigation, water resources management and adaptation to sustain (and enhance) future tea crop production. This research used a panel based regression model to statistically quantify the extent to which precipitation and temperature variables are associated with changes in tea yield. Monthly time-series climate and yield data were regressed for the period 2004 to 2014. Yield data were obtained from 80 tea estates across the four main tea growing regions of Assam, and 120 climate variables were selected for analysis. Results indicate that periods of drought (e.g. more than 10 consecutive days of zero precipitation) are significantly associated with reductions in yield, whereas periods of intense precipitation (e.g. number of days where the 95th percentile was exceeded) are generally associated with increased yield. These results have provided an enhanced understanding of climate-yield characteristics, which will subsequently be used to deliver more climate-smart advisory decision-support services to tea producers in the region. Although water resources management practices, such as water harvesting structures, check dams

  7. Domestic water uses: characterization of daily cycles in the north region of Portugal. (United States)

    Matos, Cristina; Teixeira, Carlos A; Duarte, A A L S; Bentes, I


    Nowadays, there is an increasing discussion among specialists about water use efficiency and the best measures to improve it. In Portugal, there have been a few attempts to expand the implementation of in situ water reuse projects. However, there is a lack of information about indoor water uses and how they are influenced by sociodemographic characteristics. There are several studies that investigate per capita global water usage, but the partitioning of this volume per domestic device and daily cycles is yet unknown. Identified as one of the key questions in sustainable building design, the water end-use is of primary importance to the design of hydraulic networks in buildings. In order to overcome this lack, a quantitative characterization of daily water uses for each domestic device was performed, based on a weekly monitoring program in fifty-two different dwellings in the northern region of Portugal (Vila Real, Valpaços and Oporto). For forty of them, each water usage of different domestic devices of each dwelling was recorded. At the same time, the remaining twelve dwellings were also monitored in order to register the volume of water consumed in each utilization of each domestic device. This paper presents the results of this complete monitoring program, using collected data to establish indoor water use patterns for each domestic device, aiming to support a more realistic approach to residential water use. The daily cycles in the different cities, where the monitoring program was performed, are also presented, in order to evaluate possible influences of sociodemographic characteristics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutrient abatement potential and abatement costs of waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea region. (United States)

    Hautakangas, Sami; Ollikainen, Markku; Aarnos, Kari; Rantanen, Pirjo


    We assess the physical potential to reduce nutrient loads from waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea region and determine the costs of abating nutrients based on the estimated potential. We take a sample of waste water treatment plants of different size classes and generalize its properties to the whole population of waste water treatment plants. Based on a detailed investment and operational cost data on actual plants, we develop the total and marginal abatement cost functions for both nutrients. To our knowledge, our study is the first of its kind; there is no other study on this issue which would take advantage of detailed data on waste water treatment plants at this extent. We demonstrate that the reduction potential of nutrients is huge in waste water treatment plants. Increasing the abatement in waste water treatment plants can result in 70 % of the Baltic Sea Action Plan nitrogen reduction target and 80 % of the Baltic Sea Action Plan phosphorus reduction target. Another good finding is that the costs of reducing both nutrients are much lower than previously thought. The large reduction of nitrogen would cost 670 million euros and of phosphorus 150 million euros. We show that especially for phosphorus the abatement costs in agriculture would be much higher than in waste water treatment plants.

  9. High resolution stream water quality assessment in the Vancouver, British Columbia region: a citizen science study. (United States)

    Shupe, Scott M


    Changing land cover and climate regimes modify water quantity and quality in natural stream systems. In regions undergoing rapid change, it is difficult to effectively monitor and quantify these impacts at local to regional scales. In Vancouver, British Columbia, one of the most rapidly urbanizing areas in Canada, 750 measurements were taken from a total of 81 unique sampling sites representing 49 streams located in urban, forest, and agricultural-dominant watersheds at a frequency of up to 12 times per year between 2013 and 2016. Dissolved nitrate (NO 3 -N) and phosphate (PO 4 -P) concentrations, turbidity, water temperature, pH and conductivity were measured by citizen scientists in addition to observations of hydrology, vegetation, land use, and visible stream impacts. Land cover was mapped at a 15-m resolution using Landsat 8 OLI imagery and used to determine dominant land cover for each watershed in which a sample was recorded. Regional, seasonal, and catchment-type trends in measurements were determined using statistical analyses. The relationships of nutrients to land cover varied seasonally and on a catchment-type basis. Nitrate showed seasonal highs in winter and lows in summer, though phosphate had less seasonal variation. Overall, nitrate concentrations were positively associated to agriculture and deciduous forest and negatively associated with coniferous forest. In contrast, phosphate concentrations were positively associated with agricultural, deciduous forest, and disturbed land cover and negatively associated with urban land cover. Both urban and agricultural land cover were significantly associated with an increase in water conductivity. Increased forest land cover was associated with better water quality, including lower turbidity, conductivity, and water temperature. This study showed the importance of high resolution sampling in understanding seasonal and spatial dynamics of stream water quality, made possible with the large number of

  10. Scenario-based water resources planning for utilities in the Lake Victoria region (United States)

    Mehta, V. K.; Aslam, O.; Dale, L.; Miller, N.; Purkey, D.


    Cities in the Lake Victoria (LV) region are experiencing the highest growth rates in Africa, at the same time that their water resource is threatened by domestic waste and industrial pollution. Urban centers use local springs, wetlands and Lake Victoria as source waters. As efforts to meet increasing demand accelerate, integrated water resources management (IWRM) tools provide opportunities for utilities and other stakeholders to develop a planning framework comprehensive enough to include short term (e.g. landuse change), as well as longer term (e.g. climate change) scenarios. This paper presents IWRM models built using the Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) decision support system, for three pilot towns in the LV region - Bukoba (Tanzania), Masaka (Uganda), and Kisii (Kenya). Their current populations are 100,000, 70,000 and 200,000 respectively. Demand coverage is ~70% in Masaka and Bukoba, and less than 50% in Kisii. IWRM models for each town were calibrated under current system performance based on site visits, utility reporting and interviews. Projected water supply, demand, revenues and costs were then evaluated against a combination of climate, demographic and infrastructure scenarios upto 2050. In Masaka, flow and climate data were available to calibrate a runoff model to simulate streamflow at water intake. In Masaka, without considering climate change, the system is infrastructure-limited and not water availability (hydrology) limited until 2035, under projected population growth of 2.17%. Under a wet climate scenario as projected by GCM’s for the LV region, the current wetland source could supply all expected demands until 2050. Even under a drought scenario, the wetland could supply all demand until 2032, if the supply infrastructure is updated at an estimated cost of USD 10.8 million. However, demand targets can only be met at the expense of almost no water returning to the wetland downstream of the intake by 2035, unless substantial investments

  11. Chemical composition of black-watered rivers in the Amazons Region (Brazil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horbe, Adriana M.C.; Santos, Ana G. da Silva [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias], e-mail:


    Most investigations addressing Amazonian water chemistry are focused on the Solimoes, Amazonas and Negro rivers. Knowledge of the chemical composition of their smaller tributaries is restricted to some few, punctual data. The smaller rivers, that only present inputs from their catchments, are very important to understand the overall mechanisms controlling the chemistry of larger rivers of the region. With this objective the chemical composition of the principal Solimoes river black-watered tributaries in the western Brazilian Amazon during the low water period were determined. The data reveal the black water chemical composition to be highly variable and strongly influenced by the local geological environment: the Badajos basin being chemically more diluted; the Coari basin presenting higher SiO{sub 2} contents, as well as smaller lakes having higher pH, conductivity, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+} and Sr, yet not as much as those found in the Solimoes river. The chemical composition of these waters is compatible with the low physical erosion and the region's highly leached tropical environment from which most soluble elements were quickly removed. (author)

  12. Regional Disparities in the Beneficial Effects of Rising CO2 Emissions on Crop Water Productivity (United States)

    Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Folberth, Christian; Meuller, Christoph; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Boote, Kenneth J.; Conway, Declan; Ruane, Alex C.; Gerten, Dieter; Jones, James W.; hide


    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are expected to enhance photosynthesis and reduce crop water use. However, there is high uncertainty about the global implications of these effects for future crop production and agricultural water requirements under climate change. Here we combine results from networks of field experiments and global crop models to present a spatially explicit global perspective on crop water productivity (CWP, the ratio of crop yield to evapotranspiration) for wheat, maize, rice and soybean under elevated carbon dioxide and associated climate change projected for a high-end greenhouse gas emissions scenario. We find carbon dioxide effects increase global CWP by 10[0;47]%-27[7;37]% (median[interquartile range] across the model ensemble) by the 2080s depending on crop types, with particularly large increases in arid regions (by up to 48[25;56]% for rain fed wheat). If realized in the fields, the effects of elevated carbon dioxide could considerably mitigate global yield losses whilst reducing agricultural consumptive water use (4-17%). We identify regional disparities driven by differences in growing conditions across agro-ecosystems that could have implications for increasing food production without compromising water security. Finally, our results demonstrate the need to expand field experiments and encourage greater consistency in modeling the effects of rising carbon dioxide across crop and hydrological modeling communities.

  13. Robot-Assisted Socio-Hydrologic and Water Quality Understanding in Data Sparse Regions (United States)

    Peschel, J.; Young, S. N.


    This work presents a robot-assisted investigation in the data sparse Arkavathy region near Bangalore, India to understand socio-hydrologic and water quality impacts for agricultural water resources management. In the late 20th century, Arkavathy River flows began declining; consequently, a dependence on the Cauvery River has occurred. Understanding the unknown reasons for this shift is critical for managing local water quantity and quality, specifically for quantifying the socio-hydrologic effects of human intervention through the construction of tanks, or reservoirs that prevent continuous flows. Determining the potential volume of water, and its quality, capable of being stored in these tanks can aid decision-makers to better understand management aspects such as recharge, streamflow, and human health. A case study is presented where small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) were demonstrated as low-cost and reliable, high-resolution methodologies for surface data gathering at three locations in the Arkavathy basin during a Summer 2015 field campaign. The most significant finding for this work is that a single farmer in the region could lose one out of every five years worth of annual income if viable surface waters are not available for use.

  14. Raw water use charge reduction for the rural sector in the PCJ Watershed Redução da cobrança pelo uso da água para o setor rural nas Bacias PCJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério T. da Silva


    Full Text Available The deficient environmental preservation on agricultural properties has reflected in great soil losses for erosion and the high rate of sedimentation. Therefore, this work brings the application of software to demonstrate that planters can get benefits by the conservationist practices. The benefits will be obtained from the environment aspect (erosion and sedimentation control, as well as economical aspect (financial incentives. A proposal has been created by the Technical Chamber of Rural Water Use and Conservation (CT-Rural to estimate the reduction in raw water use charge for the rural water users of the PCJ Watershed - this reduction is being possible since January 2007, at the PCJ Committee. The software develops a simple relationship, so that if the rural conservationist action goes more efficient, such as if the conserved rural area goes larger, then the reduction value will bring better benefits for the rural water users. Within the purposes of this study, there is the idealization of mechanisms that may support specific management matters related to the water users of federal rivers from the rural sector of PCJ Watershed.Considerando as implicações da insuficiência de preservação ambiental em propriedades agrícolas refletidas em grandes perdas de solos erodidos e sedimentação de mananciais, buscou-se, neste trabalho, demonstrar que, com a utilização de práticas conservacionistas, agricultores poderão ser beneficiados tanto no aspecto ambiental, pelo abatimento da erosão em suas propriedades, quanto no aspecto econômico, ou seja, por meio de proposta inicialmente deliberada pela Câmara Técnica de Uso e Conservação da Água no Meio Rural (CT-Rural dos Comitês PCJ para o cálculo da redução da cobrança pelo uso da água que incide sobre o setor rural - o que será permitido pelos Comitês PCJ a partir de janeiro de 2007. Dessa forma, este trabalho traz como objetivo principal o desenvolvimento de programa

  15. Microbial contamination of drinking water from risky tubewells situated in different hydrological regions of Bangladesh. (United States)

    Dey, Nepal C; Parvez, Mahmood; Dey, Digbijoy; Saha, Ratnajit; Ghose, Lucky; Barua, Milan K; Islam, Akramul; Chowdhury, Mushtaque R


    This study, conducted in 40 selected upazilas covering four hydrological regions of Bangladesh, aimed at determining the risk of selected shallow tubewells (depthcontamination of shallow tubewells. The main objective of the study was to observe the seasonal and regional differences of microbial contamination and finally reaching a conclusion about safe distance between tubewells and latrines by comparing the contamination of two tubewell categories (category-1: distance ≤10m from nearest latrine; n=80 and category 2: distances 11-20m from nearest latrine; n=80) in different geographical contexts. About 62% of sampled tubewells were at medium to high risk according to WHO's sanitary inspection guidelines, while the situation was worst in south-west region. Microbiological contamination was significantly higher in sampled category-1 tubewells compared to category-2 tubewells, while the number of contaminated tubewells and level of contamination was higher during wet season. About 21% (CI95=12%-30%), 54% (CI95=43%-65%) and 58% (CI95=46%-69%) of water samples collected from category-1 tubewells were contaminated by E. coli, FC, and TC respectively during the wet season. The number of category-1 tubewells having E.coli was highest in the north-west (n=8) and north-central (n=4) region during wet season and dry season respectively, while the level of E.coli contamination in tubewell water (number of CFU/100ml of sample) was significantly higher in north-central region. However, the south-west region had the highest number of FC contaminated category-1 tubewells (n=16 & n=17; respectively during wet and dry season) and significantly a higher level of TC and FC in sampled Category-1 tubewells than north-west, north-central and south-east region, mainly during wet season. Multivariate regression analysis could identified some sanitary inspection indicators, such as tubewell within contaminants in tubewell water (pwater than a tubewell with a medium risk during wet season

  16. Surface Water and Flood Extent Mapping, Monitoring, and Modeling Products and Services for the SERVIR Regions (United States)

    Anderson, Eric


    SERVIR is a joint NASA - US Agency for International Development (USAID) project to improve environmental decision-making using Earth observations and geospatial technologies. A common need identified among SERVIR regions has been improved information for disaster risk reduction and in specific surface water and flood extent mapping, monitoring and forecasting. Of the 70 SERVIR products (active, complete, and in development), 4 are related to surface water and flood extent mapping, monitoring or forecasting. Visit for more product details.

  17. Ventimolina stellata gen. et sp. nov. (Haptophyta, Papposphaeraceae) from warm water regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Helge Abildhauge; Østergaard, Jette B.; Cros, Lluïsa


    It has been known for some time that the distinctive polar weakly calcified coccolithophores are also present in samples from lower latitudes. While polar species may actually have a geographic range that vastly extends beyond the polar realms, it is often the case that the warm water regions...... contribute species that can be allocated to genera previously described based on polar material. We are currently in the process of formally dealing with the warm water species diversity affiliated with the family Papposphaeraceae. In this paper we describe a new genus and species Ventimolina stellata based...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona FRONE


    Full Text Available This paper investigates some general issues related to the opportunity of regionalization, involving the aggregation of several towns for the provision of drinking water and wastewater services, as well as some particular features and challenges of the process in Romania. The main driver for the aggregation/regionalization of utilities is usually the potential to realize economies of scale by providing services to a larger customer base and at a lower cost, also increasing the size and efficiency of new investments by sharing infrastructure projects and accessing international funding.

  19. Raw milk consumption and health. (United States)

    Vranješ, Anka Popović; Popović, Milka; Jevtić, Marija


    Contrary to the safe practices of milk pasteurization or sterilization, which effectively reduce foodborne outbreaks incidence associated with raw milk and dairy products use, outbreaks caused by such products continue to occur. Despite this fact, a worldwide movement advocating for the rights of raw milk and cheese selling and consumption, due to their specific nutritive characteristics, has strengthened significantly in recent years. Traditional agricultural manufacturers from Serbia still sell products related to thermally unprocessed milk, such as cottage cheese and raw cream. In AP Vojvodina during the period of 1981-2010 a total of 179 foodborne outbreaks were reported, where the incriminated cause of the outbreak were milk or diary. In 126 (70.39%) outbreaks, totaling 2276 sick individuals and one casualty, it was confirmed that the incriminated food was from the group of dairy products. In 48 instances (26.82%), bacteriological tests confirmed that milk and dairy products were excluded as the outbreak causes, while in another 5 (2.79%) outbreaks, microbiological analysis of food failed to confirm any relation to the actual epidemiological instances. In some cases, bacteriological testing of incriminated foods was not possible. In the cases of outbreaks associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products, traditional raw milk products were cited as being used. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and cheese represents public health threat. National and international rules ensuring use of safe products for human consumption have to set rules of trade of thermally processed milk and products on the market.

  20. Assessment of sea water inundation along Daboo creek area in Indus Delta Region, Pakistan (United States)

    Zia, Ibrahim; Zafar, Hina; Shahzad, Muhammad I.; Meraj, Mohsin; Kazmi, Jamil H.


    Indus Deltaic Region (IDR) in Pakistan is an erosion vulnerable coast due to the high deep water wave energy. Livelihood of millions of people depends on the fisheries and mangrove forests in IDR. IDR consists of many creeks where Daboo is a major creek located at southeast of the largest city of Pakistan, Karachi. Unfortunately, there has been no detailed study to analyze the damages of sea water intrusion at a large temporal and spatial scale. Therefore, this study is designed to estimate the effects of sea water inundation based on changing sea water surface salinity and sea surface temperature (SST). Sea surface salinity and SST data from two different surveys in Daboo creek during 1986 and 2010 are analyzed to estimate the damages and extent of sea water intrusion. Mean salinity has increased 33.33% whereas mean SST decreased 13.79% from 1987 to 2010. Spatio-temporal analysis of creek area using LANDSAT 5 Thematic mapper (TM) data for the years 1987 and 2010 shows significant amount of erosion at macro scale. Creek area has increased approximately 9.93% (260.86 m2 per year) which is roughly equal to 60 extensive sized shrimp farms. Further Land Use Land Cover (LULC) analyses for years 2001 and 2014 using LANDSAT 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) has indicated 42.3% decrease in cultivated land. Wet mud flats have spread out at the inner mouth of creek with enormous increase of 123.3%. Significant sea water intrusion has increased the area of barren land by 37.9%. This also resulted in overall decrease of 6.7% in area covered by mangroves. Therefore, this study recorded a significant evidence of sea water intrusion in IDR that has caused serious damages to community living in the area, economical losses. Additionally, it has also changed the environment by reducing creek biological productivity as reported by earlier studies over other regions of the world.

  1. Regional nitrate and pesticide trends in ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California. (United States)

    Burow, Karen R; Shelton, Jennifer L; Dubrovsky, Neil M


    Protection of ground water for present and future use requires monitoring and understanding of the mechanisms controlling long-term quality of ground water. In this study, spatial and temporal trends in concentrations of nitrate and pesticides in ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California, were evaluated to determine the long-term effects of agricultural and urban development on regional ground-water quality. Trends in concentrations of nitrate, the nematocide 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, and the herbicide simazine during the last two decades are generally consistent with known nitrogen fertilizer and pesticide use and with the position of the well networks in the regional ground-water flow system. Concentrations of nitrate and pesticides are higher in the shallow part of the aquifer system where domestic wells are typically screened, whereas concentrations are lower in the deep part of the aquifer system where public-supply wells are typically screened. Attenuation processes do not seem to significantly affect concentrations. Historical data indicate that concentrations of nitrate have increased since the 1950s in the shallow and deep parts of the aquifer system. Concentrations of nitrate and detection of pesticides in the deep part of the aquifer system will likely increase as the proportion of highly affected water contributed to these wells increases with time. Because of the time of travel between the water table and the deep part of the aquifer system, current concentrations in public-supply wells likely reflect the effects of 40- to 50-yr-old management practices.

  2. A Guide for Using the Transient Ground-Water Flow Model of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan B. Blainey; Claudia C. Faunt, and Mary C. Hill


    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  3. Expert stakeholder attitudes and support for alternative water sources in a groundwater depleted region. (United States)

    Boyer, Treavor H; Overdevest, Christine; Christiansen, Lisa; Ishii, Stephanie K L


    The main objectives of this research were to quantify the risks/benefits and impacts of alternative water sources (AWSs) as perceived by expert stakeholders and to evaluate the overall support for multiple AWSs by expert stakeholders. The St. Johns River (SJR) basin, FL, USA was chosen as a case study for AWSs because it is a fresh groundwater depleted region and there are ongoing activities related to water supply planning. Expert stakeholders included federal, state, and local governments, public utilities, consulting engineering and industry, and environmental and social non-governmental organizations. AWSs under consideration in the SJR basin include surface water, desalination, water reclamation, and water conservation. A two-phase research approach was followed that focused on expert stakeholders. First, an elicitation study was used to identify salient beliefs about AWSs. Open-ended questions were asked about the risks/benefits of AWSs in terms of the three pillars of sustainability: ecological, economic, and human health impacts. Second, an online survey was constructed using beliefs identified during the elicitation study. The online survey was used to quantify attitudes toward and overall support for AWSs. The salient beliefs of expert stakeholders were dominated by the ecological pillar of sustainability. The support of expert stakeholders for AWSs, from least favorable to most favorable, was surface water withdrawalswater reclamation<water conservation, and was shaped by attitudes. The results of this research provide an improved understanding of the beliefs and attitudes that influence decision-makers involved in water supply planning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Is gray water the key to unlocking water for resource-poor areas of the Middle East, North Africa, and other arid regions of the world? (United States)

    Leas, Eric C; Dare, Anne; Al-Delaimy, Wael K


    Support for the use of treated gray water as an alternative water resource in the Middle East and North Africa is high, especially given the lack of religious restrictions against its use, but several obstacles have kept application of treated gray water near 1 % in some areas. The largest of obstacles include the cost of treatment and the ambiguity surrounding the health safety of gray water and treated gray water. This paper aims to provide an overview of current gray water practices globally, with specific focus on household-level gray water practices in the Middle East and North Africa region, and highlight the need for cost reduction strategies and epidemiological evidence on the use of household-level gray water and treated gray water. Such actions are likely to increase the application of treated gray water in water-deprived areas of the Middle East and North Africa.

  5. Soil and water pollution in a banana production region in tropical Mexico. (United States)

    Geissen, Violette; Ramos, Franzisco Que; de J Bastidas-Bastidas, Pedro; Díaz-González, Gilberto; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo; Huerta-Lwanga, Esperanza; Ruiz-Suárez, Luz E


    The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn-bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha⁻¹week⁻¹ for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the main metabolite ethylenethiourea was near the detection limit. Surface and subsurface water was highly polluted with ethylenethiourea, the main metabolite of Mancozeb (22.5 and 4.3 μg L⁻¹, respectively), but not with manganese. In deep ground water, no ethylenethiourea was detected. The level of pollution in the region presents a worrisome risk for aquatic life and for human health.

  6. Distribution of water in the G327.3-0.6 massive star-forming region (United States)

    Leurini, S.; Herpin, F.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Herczeg, G. J.; van Dishoeck, E. F.


    Aims: Following our past study of the distribution of warm gas in the G327.3-0.6 massive star-forming region, we aim here at characterizing the large-scale distribution of water in this active region of massive star formation made of individual objects in different evolutionary phases. We investigate possible variations of the water abundance as a function of evolution. Methods: We present Herschel/PACS (4'× 4') continuum maps at 89 and179 μm encompassing the whole region (Hii region and the infrared dark cloud, IRDC) and an APEX/SABOCA (2'× 2') map at 350 μm of the IRDC. New spectral Herschel/HIFI maps toward the IRDC region covering the low-energy water lines at 987 and 1113 GHz (and their H218O counterparts) are also presented and combined with HIFI pointed observations toward the G327 hot core region. We infer the physical properties of the gas through optical depth analysis and radiative transfer modeling of the HIFI lines. Results: The distribution of the continuum emission at 89 and 179 μm follows the thermal continuum emission observed at longer wavelengths, with a peak at the position of the hot core and a secondary peak in the Hii region, and an arch-like layer of hot gas west of this Hii region. The same morphology is observed in the p-H2O 111-000 line, in absorption toward all submillimeter dust condensations. Optical depths of approximately 80 and 15 are estimated and correspond to column densities of 1015 and 2 × 1014 cm-2, respectively, for the hot core and IRDC position. These values indicate an abundance of water relative to H2 of 3 × 10-8 toward the hot core, while the abundance of water does not change along the IRDC with values close to some 10-8. Infall (over at least 20″) is detected toward the hot core position with a rate of 1-1.3 × 10-2M⊙ /yr, high enough to overcome the radiation pressure that is due to the stellar luminosity. The source structure of the hot core region appears complex, with a cold outer gas envelope in

  7. Precipitable water vapor characterization in the coastal regions of China based on ground-based GPS (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoyang; Zhou, Xinghua; Liu, Yanxiong; Zhou, Dongxu; Zhang, Huayi; Sun, Weikang


    Water vapor plays an important role in climate change; thus, studying the spatial distribution and temporal variation of precipitable water vapor (PWV) in the coastal regions of China would help researchers to understand the climate characteristics of those regions. In this paper, 6-year 1-h interval PWV were derived from 27 Global Positioning System stations observations of Chinese coastal GPS observation network, surface meteorological data and European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ERA-Interim) reanalysis products. The present study provides the use of these data to investigate the spatial-temporal variability of water vapor throughout the coastal regions of China. Latitude is the main factor affecting the spatial distribution of GPS-derived PWV; that is, PWV decreased by about 1.5 mm for each 1° increase of latitude. For regions at the same latitude, a region that is relatively close to the ocean will have a higher content of PWV. The PWV in the southeastern and southwestern coastal regions of China is significantly higher in summer; this may be influenced by the southeastern and southwestern water vapor inflow corridors. The PWV obviously varies monthly, reaching a minimum in January; however, the timing of the maximum varied but usually appeared in June, July or August and was affected by the monsoons. The PWV varies largely between summer and winter with a larger gradient of change in PWV with latitude in winter than in summer. The positive correlation coefficient between PWV and the surface temperature varied in different seasons; this is related to the changes of temperature and the horizontal motion of water vapor. Use of the Fast Fourier Transform method showed that the PWV time series data have multi-scale characteristics. The amplitude and phase of the PWV time series in annual, semiannual, four month and seasonal cycles were extracted through harmonic wave analysis. The amplitude of four month and seasonal cycles did not pass

  8. Coupled modeling of land hydrology–regional climate including human carbon emission and water exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Hui Xie


    Full Text Available Carbon emissions and water use are two major kinds of human activities. To reveal whether these two activities can modify the hydrological cycle and climate system in China, we conducted two sets of numerical experiments using regional climate model RegCM4. In the first experiment used to study the climatic responses to human carbon emissions, the model were configured over entire China because the impacts of carbon emissions can be detected across the whole country. Results from the first experiment revealed that near-surface air temperature may significantly increase from 2007 to 2059 at a rate exceeding 0.1 °C per decade in most areas across the country; southwestern and southeastern China also showed increasing trends in summer precipitation, with rates exceeding 10 mm per decade over the same period. In summer, only northern China showed an increasing trend of evapotranspiration, with increase rates ranging from 1 to 5 mm per decade; in winter, increase rates ranging from 1 to 5 mm per decade were observed in most regions. These effects are believed to be caused by global warming from human carbon emissions. In the second experiment used to study the effects of human water use, the model were configured over a limited region—Haihe River Basin in the northern China, because compared with the human carbon emissions, the effects of human water use are much more local and regional, and the Haihe River Basin is the most typical region in China that suffers from both intensive human groundwater exploitation and surface water diversion. We incorporated a scheme of human water regulation into RegCM4 and conducted the second experiment. Model outputs showed that the groundwater table severely declined by ∼10 m in 1971–2000 through human groundwater over-exploitation in the basin; in fact, current conditions are so extreme that even reducing the pumping rate by half cannot eliminate the groundwater depletion cones observed in the area

  9. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged on the U.S. market, and they have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine the actual energy consumption of a HPWH in different U.S. regions, annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the United States. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  10. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.


    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged on the U.S. market. These units have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine what actual in use energy consumption of a HPWH may be in different regions of the U.S., annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the U.S. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  11. RCWIM - an improved global water isotope pattern prediction model using fuzzy climatic clustering regionalization (United States)

    Terzer, Stefan; Araguás-Araguás, Luis; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Aggarwal, Pradeep K.


    Prediction of geospatial H and O isotopic patterns in precipitation has become increasingly important to diverse disciplines beyond hydrology, such as climatology, ecology, food authenticity, and criminal forensics, because these two isotopes of rainwater often control the terrestrial isotopic spatial patterns that facilitate the linkage of products (food, wildlife, water) to origin or movement (food, criminalistics). Currently, spatial water isotopic pattern prediction relies on combined regression and interpolation techniques to create gridded datasets by using data obtained from the Global Network of Isotopes In Precipitation (GNIP). However, current models suffer from two shortcomings: (a) models may have limited covariates and/or parameterization fitted to a global domain, which results in poor predictive outcomes at regional scales, or (b) the spatial domain is intentionally restricted to regional settings, and thereby of little use in providing information at global geospatial scales. Here we present a new global climatically regionalized isotope prediction model which overcomes these limitations through the use of fuzzy clustering of climatic data subsets, allowing us to better identify and customize appropriate covariates and their multiple regression coefficients instead of aiming for a one-size-fits-all global fit (RCWIM - Regionalized Climate Cluster Water Isotope Model). The new model significantly reduces the point-based regression residuals and results in much lower overall isotopic prediction uncertainty, since residuals are interpolated onto the regression surface. The new precipitation δ2H and δ18O isoscape model is available on a global scale at 10 arc-minutes spatial and at monthly, seasonal and annual temporal resolution, and will provide improved predicted stable isotope values used for a growing number of applications. The model further provides a flexible framework for future improvements using regional climatic clustering.

  12. Water supply of the population as a problem of energy efficiency on the example of the Tyumen region of Russia (United States)

    Lezier, Victoria; Gusarova, Miroslava; Kopytova, Anna


    The purpose of this article is to draw public attention to the problems of water supply in the city of Tyumen, the capital of the oil region and one of the most important objects in Russia from the point of view of strategic water supply, located in the region with vast freshwater resources. The article outlines main water supply problems related to the quality of drinking water, its chemical composition, and risks of water contamination by industrial effluents, problems of water transport to the consumers, problems of energy efficiency. The issues raised are part of the energy efficiency not only of the Tyumen region, but also of the Sverdlovsk region, from which the waters of the drinking basin are transited, being a sewage channel for many industrial enterprises. The article touches the issues of water protection, conservation and quality of water coming from the Velizhansky water intake, as well as the possibilities of using alternative sources of drinking water. The article analyzes legal measures, and proposals for improving work with increasing the quality of drinking water, combating melt water and pollution with oil.

  13. Precipitation recycling in West Africa - regional modeling, evaporation tagging and atmospheric water budget analysis (United States)

    Arnault, Joel; Kunstmann, Harald; Knoche, Hans-Richard


    Many numerical studies have shown that the West African monsoon is highly sensitive to the state of the land surface. It is however questionable to which extend a local change of land surface properties would affect the local climate, especially with respect to precipitation. This issue is traditionally addressed with the concept of precipitation recycling, defined as the contribution of local surface evaporation to local precipitation. For this study the West African monsoon has been simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model using explicit convection, for the domain (1°S-21°N, 18°W-14°E) at a spatial resolution of 10 km, for the period January-October 2013, and using ERA-Interim reanalyses as driving data. This WRF configuration has been selected for its ability to simulate monthly precipitation amounts and daily histograms close to TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) data. In order to investigate precipitation recycling in this WRF simulation, surface evaporation tagging has been implemented in the WRF source code as well as the budget of total and tagged atmospheric water. Surface evaporation tagging consists in duplicating all water species and the respective prognostic equations in the source code. Then, tagged water species are set to zero at the lateral boundaries of the simulated domain (no inflow of tagged water vapor), and tagged surface evaporation is considered only in a specified region. All the source terms of the prognostic equations of total and tagged water species are finally saved in the outputs for the budget analysis. This allows quantifying the respective contribution of total and tagged atmospheric water to atmospheric precipitation processes. The WRF simulation with surface evaporation tagging and budgets has been conducted two times, first with a 100 km2 tagged region (11-12°N, 1-2°W), and second with a 1000 km2 tagged region (7-16°N, 6°W -3°E). In this presentation we will investigate hydro

  14. Reorganization of water utilities - regionalization, an opportunity to increase their efficiency A comparative literature - Albania Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Naqellari


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is the study and analysis of factors affecting the need for reorganization of entities engaged in water supply services. From this perspective, the research seeks to identify international practices made in this regard and how they can be adapted to water utilities in Albania. The objective of this paper is to show that regionalization of water utilities is a successful development direction not only of studied literature but also practice in Albania. The study is based on sources of information taken from primary and secondary sources. The selected method for collecting and processing information from primary sources is the empirical method through direct surveys and questionnaires, whereas from secondary sources is descriptive and analytical method. As secondary sources, we are consulted and referred to academic resources, such as articles, books, studies and reports carried out and published by national organizations, local and foreign companies in this field.

  15. Evidence of local and regional freshening of Northeast Greenland coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejr, Mikael K.; Stedmon, Colin A; Bendtsen, Jørgen


    The supply of freshwater to fjord systems in Greenland is increasing as a result of climate change-induced acceleration in ice sheet melt. However, insight into the marine implications of the melt water is impaired by lack of observations demonstrating the fate of freshwater along the Greenland...... observational evidence of a significant freshening on decadal scale of the waters surrounding the ice sheet and comes from a region where ice sheet melt has been less significant. It implies that ice sheet dynamics in Northeast Greenland could be of key importance as freshwater is retained in southward flowing...... coast and providing evaluation basis for ocean models. Here we present 13 years of summer measurements along a 120 km transect in Young Sound, Northeast Greenland and show that sub-surface coastal waters are decreasing in salinity with an average rate of 0.12 ± 0.05 per year. This is the first...

  16. Vulnerability to global environmental changes in Argentina: opportunities for upgrading regional water resources management strategies. (United States)

    Bereciartua, P J


    There is evidence of the increasing economic losses from extreme natural events during the last decades. These facts, thought to be triggered by environmental changes coupled with inefficient management and policies, highlight particularly exposed and vulnerable regions worldwide. Argentina faces several challenges associated with global environmental change and climate variability, especially related to water resources management including extreme floods and droughts. At the same time, the country's production capacity (i.e. natural resource-based commodities) and future development opportunities are closely tied to the sustainable development of its natural resource endowments. Given that vulnerability is registered not only by exposure to hazards (perturbations and stresses), but also resides in the sensitivity and resilience of the system experiencing such hazards, Argentina will need to improve its water management capacities to reduce its vulnerability to climate variability and change. This paper presents the basic components of the vulnerability analysis and suggests how it can be used to define efficient water management options.

  17. Study on rare-earth elements distribution in surface waters of Primorsky region (United States)

    Vakh, E. A.; Vakh, A. S.; Petukhov, V. I.; Pavlova, G. Ya; Tarasenko, I. A.; Zubtsova, A. S.


    Data obtained by the authors show that the background level of the rare-earth element (REE) content in the surface waters of southern Russian Far East is irregular and varies from 0.1 to 1.3 μg/l. The highest concentration of REE (0.48–1.3 μg/l) is characteristic for the rivers of Eastern Sikhote-Alin and Central Sikhote-Alin, catchment areas which are situated within the Sikhote-Alin volcanic belt. The lowest REE concentration was noted in the waters of Western Sikhote-Alin (0.09 μg/l). The profile of REE distribution in fresh waters of different areas of the region is uniform and is characterized with the deficit of Ce and enrichment of medium group REE.

  18. Evidence of local and regional freshening of Northeast Greenland coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejr, Mikael K.; Stedmon, Colin A; Bendtsen, Jørgen


    The supply of freshwater to fjord systems in Greenland is increasing as a result of climate change-induced acceleration in ice sheet melt. However, insight into the marine implications of the melt water is impaired by lack of observations demonstrating the fate of freshwater along the Greenland...... coast and providing evaluation basis for ocean models. Here we present 13 years of summer measurements along a 120 km transect in Young Sound, Northeast Greenland and show that sub-surface coastal waters are decreasing in salinity with an average rate of 0.12 ± 0.05 per year. This is the first...... observational evidence of a significant freshening on decadal scale of the waters surrounding the ice sheet and comes from a region where ice sheet melt has been less significant. It implies that ice sheet dynamics in Northeast Greenland could be of key importance as freshwater is retained in southward flowing...

  19. Institutional constraints on alternative water for energy: a guidebook for regional assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Basic information is presented about the legal, political, and social constraints faced by energy developers in the acquisition of water from underground, irrigation return flow, municipal waste, and saline sources. It is a guide to those institutional constraints which are general and pronounced enough to be important for regional assessments. First, attention was focused on the acquisition phase of the water use cycle. Second, constraints were analyzed primarily from a regional, rather than state-by-state, perspective. Emphasis was placed generally on the West - particularly the synfuel-rich Rocky Mountain states, the East, and Mid-West, in that order. Alaska and Hawaii were not surveyed. Third, the study focuses on the constraints associated with groundwater, municipal waste, irrigation return flow, and sea water, in that order. The phrase, institutional constraints, as used in the study, means legal, social, economic, and political restrictions, requirements, circumstances, or conditions that must be anticipated or responded to in order to acquire water for energy development. The study focuses primarily on legal constraints and secondarily on political constraints, because they tend to encompass or reflect other forms of institutional constraints.

  20. Forest decline caused by high soil water conditions in a permafrost region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Iwasaki


    Full Text Available In the permafrost region near Yakutsk, eastern Siberia, Russia, annual precipitation (June–May in 2005–2006 and 2006–2007 exceeded the 26-year (1982–2008 mean of 222±68 mm by 185 mm and 128 mm, respectively, whereas in 2007–2008 the excedent was only 48 mm, well within the range of variability. Yellowing and browning of larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr. trees occurred in an undisturbed forest near Yakutsk in the 2007 summer growing season. Soil water content at a depth of 0.20 m was measured along a roughly 400 m long line transect running through areas of yellowing and browning larch trees (YBL and of normal larch trees (NL. In the two years of supranormal precipitation, soil water content was very high compared to values recorded for the same area in previous studies. For both wet years, the mean degree of saturation (s was significantly greater in YBL than NL areas, whereas the converse was the case for the gas diffusivity in soil. This implies that rather than mitigating water stress suffered during normal precipitation years, elevated soil water conditions adversely affected the growth of larch trees. Eastern Siberia's taiga forest extends widely into the permafrost region. Was such supranormal annual precipitation to extend for more than two years, as might be expected under impending global climate changes, forest recovery may not be expected and emission of greenhouse gas might continue in future.

  1. Hydrochemical characterization of various surface water and groundwater resources available in Matahara areas, Fantalle Woreda of Oromiya region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megersa Olumana Dinka


    New hydrological insights for the region: Overall, the study result elucidates that the chemical composition of different water bodies are due to natural processes and/or anthropogenic activities within the region. The local anthropogenic processes could be discharges from factory, domestic sewage and farming activities. Some of the water types are found to have relatively higher concentration of dissolved constituents. Irrigation waters have almost equal chemical compositions, indicating their hydrochemical sources are almost the same. Most of the concentrations are relatively high in Lake Basaka, groundwater and hot springs. It is easy to imagine the potential damaging effects of such quality waters on crop production, soil properties and environment of the region.

  2. Water in massive star-forming regions: HIFI observations of W3 IRS5 (United States)

    Chavarría, L.; Herpin, F.; Jacq, T.; Braine, J.; Bontemps, S.; Baudry, A.; Marseille, M.; van der Tak, F.; Pietropaoli, B.; Wyrowski, F.; Shipman, R.; Frieswijk, W.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Cernicharo, J.; Bachiller, R.; Benedettini, M.; Benz, A. O.; Bergin, E.; Bjerkeli, P.; Blake, G. A.; Bruderer, S.; Caselli, P.; Codella, C.; Daniel, F.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Dominik, C.; Doty, S. D.; Encrenaz, P.; Fich, M.; Fuente, A.; Giannini, T.; Goicoechea, J. R.; de Graauw, Th.; Hartogh, P.; Helmich, F.; Herczeg, G. J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Kristensen, L. E.; Larsson, B.; Lis, D.; Liseau, R.; McCoey, C.; Melnick, G.; Nisini, B.; Olberg, M.; Parise, B.; Pearson, J. C.; Plume, R.; Risacher, C.; Santiago-García, J.; Saraceno, P.; Stutzki, J.; Szczerba, R.; Tafalla, M.; Tielens, A.; van Kempen, T. A.; Visser, R.; Wampfler, S. F.; Willem, J.; Yıldız, U. A.


    We present Herschel observations of the water molecule in the massive star-forming region W3 IRS5. The o-H_217O 110-101, p-H_218O 111-000, p-H2O 202-111, p-H2O 111-000, o-H2O 221-212, and o-H2O 212-101 lines, covering a frequency range from 552 up to 1669 GHz, have been detected at high spectral resolution with HIFI. The water lines in W3 IRS5 show well-defined high-velocity wings that indicate a clear contribution by outflows. Moreover, the systematically blue-shifted absorption in the H2O lines suggests expansion, presumably driven by the outflow. No infall signatures are detected. The p-H2O 111-000 and o-H2O 212-101 lines show absorption from the cold material (T ~ 10 K) in which the high-mass protostellar envelope is embedded. One-dimensional radiative transfer models are used to estimate water abundances and to further study the kinematics of the region. We show that the emission in the rare isotopologues comes directly from the inner parts of the envelope (T ≳ 100 K) where water ices in the dust mantles evaporate and the gas-phase abundance increases. The resulting jump in the water abundance (with a constant inner abundance of 10-4) is needed to reproduce the o-H_217O 110-101 and p-H_218O 111-000 spectra in our models. We estimate water abundances of 10-8 to 10-9 in the outer parts of the envelope (T ≲ 100 K). The possibility of two protostellar objects contributing to the emission is discussed. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  3. Water Stress & Biomass Monitoring and SWAP Modeling of Irrigated Crops in Saratov Region of Russia (United States)

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga


    results of analyzing water stress during growing season of 2012 and yielded biomass of crops three types of crops alfalfa, corn and soya irrigated by sprinkling machines at left bank of Volga River at Saratov Region of Russia are presented and analyzed. For that a combination of data received from satellite, local meteorological station and farmers as well as SWAP model was used. Analyze of data sets of monitored water deficit of each crop averaged for irrigation period was done by linear regression with yielded biomass values. Following analyze of effectiveness of irrigation water application was done by SWAP agrohydrological model.

  4. Characterization of the Deep Water Surface Wave Variability in the California Current Region (United States)

    Villas Bôas, Ana B.; Gille, Sarah T.; Mazloff, Matthew R.; Cornuelle, Bruce D.


    Surface waves are crucial for the dynamics of the upper ocean not only because they mediate exchanges of momentum, heat, energy, and gases between the ocean and the atmosphere, but also because they determine the sea state. The surface wave field in a given region is set by the combination of local and remote forcing. The present work characterizes the seasonal variability of the deep water surface wave field in the California Current region, as retrieved from over two decades of satellite altimetry data combined with wave buoys and wave model hindcast (WaveWatch III). In particular, the extent to which the local wind modulates the variability of the significant wave height, peak period, and peak direction is assessed. During spring/summer, regional-scale wind events of up to 10 m/s are the dominant forcing for waves off the California coast, leading to relatively short-period waves (8-10 s) that come predominantly from the north-northwest. The wave climatology throughout the California Current region shows average significant wave heights exceeding 2 m during most of the year, which may have implications for the planning and retrieval methods of the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission.

  5. Parameter regionalization of a monthly water balance model for the conterminous United States (United States)

    Bock, Andrew R.; Hay, Lauren E.; McCabe, Gregory J.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Atkinson, R. Dwight


    A parameter regionalization scheme to transfer parameter values from gaged to ungaged areas for a monthly water balance model (MWBM) was developed and tested for the conterminous United States (CONUS). The Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test, a global-sensitivity algorithm, was implemented on a MWBM to generate parameter sensitivities on a set of 109 951 hydrologic response units (HRUs) across the CONUS. The HRUs were grouped into 110 calibration regions based on similar parameter sensitivities. Subsequently, measured runoff from 1575 streamgages within the calibration regions were used to calibrate the MWBM parameters to produce parameter sets for each calibration region. Measured and simulated runoff at the 1575 streamgages showed good correspondence for the majority of the CONUS, with a median computed Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient of 0.76 over all streamgages. These methods maximize the use of available runoff information, resulting in a calibrated CONUS-wide application of the MWBM suitable for providing estimates of water availability at the HRU resolution for both gaged and ungaged areas of the CONUS.

  6. Variability in the Water Footprint of Arable Crop Production across European Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gobin


    Full Text Available Crop growth and yield are affected by water use during the season: the green water footprint (WF accounts for rain water, the blue WF for irrigation and the grey WF for diluting agri-chemicals. We calibrated crop yield for FAO’s water balance model “Aquacrop” at field level. We collected weather, soil and crop inputs for 45 locations for the period 1992–2012. Calibrated model runs were conducted for wheat, barley, grain maize, oilseed rape, potato and sugar beet. The WF of cereals could be up to 20 times larger than the WF of tuber and root crops; the largest share was attributed to the green WF. The green and blue WF compared favourably with global benchmark values (R2 = 0.64–0.80; d = 0.91–0.95. The variability in the WF of arable crops across different regions in Europe is mainly due to variability in crop yield ( c v ¯ = 45% and to a lesser extent to variability in crop water use ( c v ¯ = 21%. The WF variability between countries ( c v ¯ = 14% is lower than the variability between seasons ( c v ¯ = 22% and between crops ( c v ¯ = 46%. Though modelled yields increased up to 50% under sprinkler irrigation, the water footprint still increased between 1% and 25%. Confronted with drainage and runoff, the grey WF tended to overestimate the contribution of nitrogen to the surface and groundwater. The results showed that the water footprint provides a measurable indicator that may support European water governance.

  7. Arsenic in drinking water in the Los Altos de Jalisco region of Mexico. (United States)

    Hurtado-Jiménez, Roberto; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L


    To establish the degree of contamination by arsenic in drinking water in the Los Altos de Jalisco (LAJ) region of west-central Mexico, and to estimate the levels of exposure that residents of the area face. Total arsenic concentration (the sum of all arsenic forms, organic and inorganic) was determined for 129 public water wells in 17 municipal capitals (cabeceras municipales) of the LAJ region, using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. For most of the wells, water samples were taken in both November 2002 and October 2003. The levels of exposure to arsenic were estimated for babies (10 kg), children (20 kg), and adults (70 kg). Mean concentrations of arsenic higher than the Mexican national guideline value of 25 micro g/L were found in 44 (34%) of the 129 wells. The mean concentration of total arsenic for the 129 wells ranged from 14.7 micro g/L to 101.9 micro g/L. The highest concentrations were found in well water samples collected in the cities of Mexticacán (262.9 micro g/L), Teocaltiche (157.7 micro g/L), and San Juan de los Lagos (113.8 micro g/L). Considering the global mean concentration for all the wells in each of the 17 cities, the mean concentration of arsenic exceeded the Mexican guideline value in 7 of the cities. However, the global mean concentration in all 17 cities was higher than the World Health Organization guideline value of 10 micro g/L for arsenic. The range of the estimated exposure doses to arsenic in drinking water was 1.1-7.6 micro g/kg/d for babies, 0.7-5.1 micro g/kg/d for children, and 0.4-2.7 micro g/kg/d for adults. At the exposure doses estimated in the LAJ region, the potential health effects from chronic arsenic ingestion include skin diseases, gastrointestinal effects, neurological damage, cardiovascular problems, and hematological effects. While all the residents may not be affected, an important fraction of the total population of the LAJ region is under potential health risk due to the ingestion of high

  8. Designing Groundwater Monitoring Networks for Regional-Scale Water Quality Assessment: A Bayesian Approach (United States)

    Pinto, M. J.; Wagner, B. J.


    The design of groundwater monitoring networks is an important concern of regional-scale water-quality assessment programs because of the high cost of data collection. The work presented here addresses regional-scale design issues using ground-water simulation and optimization set within a Bayesian framework. The regional-scale design approach focuses on reducing the uncertainty associated with a fundamental quantity: the proportion of a subsurface water resource which exceeds a specified threshold concentration, such as a mandated maximum contaminant level. This proportion is hereafter referred to as the threshold proportion. The goal is to identify optimal or near-optimal sampling designs that reduce the threshold proportion uncertainty to an acceptable level. In the Bayesian approach, there is a probability density function (pdf) associated with the unknown threshold proportion before sampling. This function is known as the prior pdf. The form of the prior pdf, which is dependent on the information available regarding the distribution of water quality within the aquifer system, controls the amount of sampling needed. In the absence of information, the form of the prior pdf is uniform; however, if a ground-water flow and transport model is available, a Monte Carlo analysis of ground-water flow and transport simulations can be used to generate a prior pdf which is non-uniform and which contains the information available regarding solute sources, pathways and transport. After sampling, the prior pdf is conditioned on the sampling data. The conditional distribution is known as the posterior pdf. In most cases there is a reduction in uncertainty associated with conditioning. The reduction in uncertainty achieved after collecting samples can be explored for different combinations of prior pdf distribution and sampling method. Three scenarios are considered: (i) uniform prior pdf with random sampling; (ii) non-uniform prior pdf with random sampling; and (iii) non

  9. Climate change and adaptive water management measures in Chtouka Aït Baha region (Morocco). (United States)

    Seif-Ennasr, Marieme; Zaaboul, Rashyd; Hirich, Abdelaziz; Caroletti, Giulio Nils; Bouchaou, Lhoussaine; El Morjani, Zine El Abidine; Beraaouz, El Hassane; McDonnell, Rachael A; Choukr-Allah, Redouane


    This study evaluates the effect on the availability of water resources for agriculture of expected future changes in precipitation and temperature distributions in north-western Africa. It also puts forward some locally derived adaptation strategies to climate change that can have a positive impact on water resources in the Chtouka Aït Baha region. Historical baselines of precipitation and temperature were derived using satellite data respectively from CHIRPS and CRU, while future projections of temperature and precipitation were extracted from the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment database (CORDEX). Projections were also generated for two future periods (2030-2049 and 2080-2099) under two Representative Concentration Pathways: RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Regional climate models and satellite data outputs were evaluated by calculating their bias and RMSE against historical baseline and observed data. Under the RCP8.5 scenario, temperature in the region shows an increase by 2°C for the 2030-2049 time period, and by 4 to 5°C towards the end of the 21st century. According to the RCP4.5 scenario, precipitation shows a reduction of 10 to 30% for the period 2030-2049, up to 60% for 2080-2099. Outputs from the climate change projections were used to force the HEC-HMS hydrological model. Simulation results indicate that water deficit at basin level will likely triple towards 2050 due to increase in water demand and decrease in aquifer recharge and dam storage. This alarming situation, in a country that already suffers from water insecurity, emphasizes the need for more efforts to implement climate change adaptation measures. This paper presents an assessment of 38 climate change adaptation measures according to several criteria. The evaluation shows that measures affecting the management of water resources have the highest benefit-to-efforts ratio, which indicates that decision makers and stakeholders should increasingly focus their efforts on management

  10. [Assessment of risk of contamination of drinking water for the health of children in the Tula region]. (United States)

    Grigorev, Yu I; Lyapina, N V


    The hygienic analysis of centralized drinking water supply in Tula region was performed. Priority contaminants of drinking water were established. On the base of the application of risk assessment methodology there was calculated carcinogenic risk for children's health. A direct relationship between certain classes of diseases and pollution of drinking water with chemical contaminants has been determined.

  11. Water in Star-forming Regions with the Herschel Space Observatory (WISH) : I. Overview of Key Program and First Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dishoeck, E. F.; Kristensen, L. E.; Benz, A. O.; Bergin, E. A.; Caselli, P.; Cernicharo, J.; Herpin, F.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Liseau, R.; Nisini, B.; Shipman, R.; Tafalla, M.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Aikawa, Y.; Bachiller, R.; Baudry, A.; Benedettini, M.; Bjerkeli, P.; Blake, G. A.; Bontemps, S.; Braine, J.; Brinch, C.; Bruderer, S.; Chavarria, L.; Codella, C.; Daniel, F.; de Graauw, Th.; Deul, E.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Dominik, C.; Doty, S. D.; Dubernet, M. L.; Encrenaz, P.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Fich, M.; Frieswijk, W.; Fuente, A.; Giannini, T.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Helmich, F. P.; Herczeg, G. J.; Jacq, T.; Jorgensen, J. K.; Karska, A.; Kaufman, M. J.; Keto, E.; Larsson, B.; Lefloch, B.; Lis, D.; Marseille, M.; McCoey, C.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Olberg, M.; Pagani, L.; Panic, O.; Parise, B.; Pearson, J. C.; Plume, R.; Risacher, C.; Salter, D.; Santiago-Garcia, J.; Saraceno, P.; Staeuber, P.; van Kempen, T. A.; Visser, R.; Viti, S.; Walmsley, M.; Wampfler, S. F.; Yildiz, U. A.

    Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) is a key program on the Herschel Space Observatory designed to probe the physical and chemical structures of young stellar objects using water and related molecules and to follow the water abundance from collapsing clouds to planet-forming disks.

  12. Assessing of landscape potential for water management regarding its surface water (using the example of the micro-region Minčol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunáková Lucia


    Full Text Available The presence of water is one of the decisive factors of landscape’s natural potential. Water affects landscape’s predisposition for agricultural production, water supply available to the wide population and industry (the most important is the yield of water resources. Ponds, lakes and other water areas are zones of recreation and relaxation. Near sources mineral water, several world-famous spas were build. Waterways are also used to generate electricity. Geothermal underground water represents a very significant landscape potential. Determining hydrological potential of the area is important for the regional development. This paper assesses the landscape potential for water management regarding its surface waters in the micro-region Minčol. The micro-region was divided by a square grid, and for each square, we determined the appropriateness of this potential based on score points. The determining evaluation criteria were static reserves of surface water, waterway ranking and annual average discharge. First, we determined the significance (value of individual criteria (classification characteristics, and then we calculated the values of individual classifiers, which were then multiplied by the value of the individual classifier intervals. The summary of points in each square belongs to a particular degree of suitability for water management based on surface waters. The potential was divided into five degrees (intervals: very unfavourable potential, unfavourable potential, moderately favourable potential, favourable potential and very favourable potential.

  13. Spatial-temporal variation of ecosystem water use efficiency in Beijing’s suburban region (United States)

    Mi, F.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X. C.; Yuan, S. B.; Lu, N.; Yan, N. Na


    Suburban ecosystem has multiple functions such as soil conservation and water regulation, which are critical for the welfare of human beings in the city. Water use efficiency (WUE) is an important indicator of ecosystem function that represents the amount of productivity per unit mass of evapotranspiration (ET). Improving WUE of suburban ecosystem is significant to climate regulation by carbon sequestration and water consumption, especially for cities with severe water shortage like Beijing, the capital of China. Based on remote sensing data, this paper examined the spatial and temporal variations in WUE in Beijing’s suburban region from 2002 to 2010. The results showed that the average annual WUE was 0.868 g C mm-1 m-2. It has large spatial variation with the minimum of 0.500 g C mm-1 m-2 in the Miyun District. During the study periods, the area with significant increasing trend of WUE was 63.2% of the total suburban region. In terms of ecosystem type, the value of WUE was following the sequence, deciduous coniferous forest (0.921g C mm-1 m-2) > mixed forest (0.887g C mm-1 m-2) > deciduous broadleaf forest (0.884 g C mm-1 m-2) > shrubland (0.860 g C mm-1 m-2) > evergreen coniferous forest (0.836 g C mm-1 m-2) > grassland (0.830 g C mm-1 m-2). As ET was similar among the ecosystems, the difference in WUE was mainly due to the discrepancy of NPP. We found that NPP significantly correlated with the diversity of ecosystem type (represented by Shannon-Wiener index). Our results suggest that ecological engineering construction, scientific ecosystem type selection, ecosystem diversity improvement and drought-resistant species cultivation are conductive to improve ecosystem WUE in Beijing’s suburban region.

  14. A stochastic rainfall model for the assessment of regional water resource systems under changed climatic condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Fowler


    Full Text Available A stochastic model is developed for the synthesis of daily precipitation using conditioning by weather types. Daily precipitation statistics at multiple sites within the region of Yorkshire, UK, are linked to objective Lamb weather types (LWTs and used to split the region into three distinct precipitation sub-regions. Using a variance minimisation criterion, the 27 LWTs are clustered into three physically realistic groups or ‘states'. A semi-Markov chain model is used to synthesise long sequences of weather states, maintaining the observed persistence and transition probabilities. The Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulses (NSRP model is then fitted for each weather state, using a defined summer and winter period. The combined model reproduces key aspects of the historic precipitation regime at temporal resolutions down to the hourly level. Long synthetic precipitation series are useful in the sensitivity analysis of water resource systems under current and changed climatic conditions. This methodology enables investigation of the impact of variations in weather type persistence or frequency. In addition, rainfall model statistics can be altered to simulate instances of increased intensity or proportion of dry days for example, for individual weather groups. The input of such data into a water resource model, simulating potential atmospheric circulation changes, will provide a valuable tool for future planning of water resource systems. The ability of the model to operate at an hourly level also allows its use in a wider range of hydrological impact studies, e.g. variations in river flows, flood risk estimation etc. Keywords: water resources; climate change; impacts; stochastic rainfall model; Lamb weather types

  15. Minerals and heavy metals in raw and ultra heat treated commercial milks in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Akhtar


    Full Text Available The study was aimed at assessment of heavy metals in street vended raw and branded milk to identify possible gateways of milk toxicity. 15 samples of processed and 24 of raw milk were collected from Multan city. Atomic absorption spectrometry revealed milk offered for sale in the region to be potentially contaminated with higher levels of some most critical elements i.e. Pb (0.048 – 0.418mgL-1, Cd (0.0015 - 0.125 mgL-1, Ni (0.044 - 0.294 mgL-1, and Cu (0.0037 - 0.273 mgL-1. Exceptionally higher levels of Cd (0.102 mgL-1 were recovered in street vended raw milk as compared to processed branded milk (0.042 mgL-1. The study signified deleterious outcomes of industrial and agricultural revolution parallel to poor phyto-sanitory and sanitary measures during animal feeding and milking. The study suggest comprehensive and nationwide survey to identify the metal polluted red zones, their toxicity levels and milk intoxicating channels either from environment, animal feed or water.

  16. Water use pattern of Pinus tabulaeformis in the semiarid region of Loess Plateau, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian, S.; Zhang, X.; Wu, Z.; Hu, C.


    Aim of the study: We analyzed the water-use strategy of P. tabulaeformis and determine the relationships between environmental factors and transpiration rates in the P. tabulaeformis woodlands. Area of study: Loess Plateau region of Northwest China. Material and Methods: Sap flow density of the P. tabulaeformis trees was measured with Granier-type sensors. Stand transpiration was extrapolated from the sap flow measurements of individual trees using the following Granier equation. Main results: The mean sap flow rates of individual P. tabulaeformis trees ranged from 9 L day−1 to 54 L day−1. Photosynthetically active radiation and vapor pressure deficit were the dominant driving factors of transpiration when soil water content was sufficient (soil water content>16%), considering that soil water content is the primary factor of influencing transpiration at the driest month of the year. During the entire growing season, the maximum and minimum daily stand transpiration rates were 2.93 and 0.78 mm day−1, respectively. The mean stand transpiration rate was 1.9 mm day−1, and the total stand transpiration from May to September was 294.1 mm. Research highlights: This study can serve as a basis for detailed analyses of the water physiology and growth of P. tabulaeformis plantation trees for the later application of a climate-driven process model. (Author)

  17. Informing Regional Water-Energy-Food Nexus with System Analysis and Interactive Visualizations (United States)

    Yang, Y. C. E.; Wi, S.


    Communicating scientific results to non-technical practitioners is challenging due to their differing interests, concerns and agendas. It is further complicated by the growing number of relevant factors that need to be considered, such as climate change and demographic dynamic. Visualization is an effective method for the scientific community to disseminate results, and it represents an opportunity for the future of water resources systems analysis (WRSA). This study demonstrates an intuitive way to communicate WRSA results to practitioners using interactive web-based visualization tools developed by the JavaScript library: Data-Driven Documents (D3) with a case study in Great Ruaha River of Tanzania. The decreasing trend of streamflow during the last decades in the region highlights the need of assessing the water usage competition between agricultural production, energy generation, and ecosystem service. Our team conduct the advance water resources systems analysis to inform policy that will affect the water-energy-food nexus. Modeling results are presented in the web-based visualization tools and allow non-technical practitioners to brush the graph directly (e. g. Figure 1). The WRSA suggests that no single measure can completely resolve the water competition. A combination of measures, each of which is acceptable from a social and economic perspective, and accepting that zero flows cannot be totally eliminated during dry years in the wetland, are likely to be the best way forward.

  18. Use of alternative raw materials for yoghurt production | Farinde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soymilk and maize steep water were used as alternative raw materials to cow milk and commercial starter, respectively, for production of yoghurt. The cow milk used was both Fresh milk and dried powdered milk (DANO). The cost of production of the yoghurt samples as well as their chemical, microbial and organoleptic ...

  19. Effects of some growth regulating applications on leaf yield, raw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of repetitive applications of herbagreen (HG), humic acid (HA), combined foliar fertilizer (CFF) and HG+CFF performed in the Müsküle grape variety grafted on 5 BB rootstock on fresh or pickled leaf size and leaf raw cellulose content. HA application increased leaf area and leaf water ...

  20. Unsafe Practice of Extracting Potable Water From Aquifers in the Southwestern Coastal Region of Bangladesh (United States)

    Chowdhury, S. H.; Ahmed, A. U.; Iqbal, M. Z.


    The groundwater resource is of paramount importance to the lives and livelihoods of the millions of people in Bangladesh. Unfortunately, high levels of arsenic have been found in groundwater in many parts of Bangladesh. Besides, the salinity in water systems in the coastal areas has increased as a consequence of the flow diversion from the upper reaches of Ganges River by the neighboring country India. Since hand- pumped groundwater (tube) wells are the only viable sources of drinking water, maintaining drinking water security for over 6 million people in the south-west (SW) region has been a major challenge for the Bangladesh Government. Due to rapid exploitation of groundwater resources in excess of recharge capacity, non-saline water sources in the SW region have already been depleted and the hand tube wells have mostly been abandoned. Meanwhile, shrimp farming has resulted in saline water infiltration into the perched aquifer system in many areas. A recent survey covering123 wells out of 184, extending to a depth of 330 m, showed high salinity in water. Combined factors of rapid exploitation of shallow groundwater, depletion of the deep aquifers and the subsequent saline water intrusion into these aquifers have put long-term sustainability of the remaining fresh groundwater resource into jeopardy. Very high concentrations of nitrite are found in this study in many tube wells in the area where samples have been drawn from aquifer systems up to 244 m deep. Nitrite concentrations in 35 wells randomly sampled in this study range from 16.98 to 43.11 mg/L, averaging 27.55 mg/L. This is much higher than the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 1 mg/L set by the U.S. EPA for human consumption. Simultaneously, dissolved oxygen (DO) is found to be very low (0.1 to 2 mg/L). There are numerous reports and anecdotal evidences of "Blue Baby Syndrome" (methemoglobinemia) in the region, which is generally due to gradual suffocation caused by poor transport of oxygen from the

  1. Effects Of Urbanization On Interconnected Water Cycle, Microclimate And Energy Usage In Semi-Arid Regions (United States)

    Jeyachandran, I.; Burian, S. J.; Pardyjak, E.


    Landscape changes induced by urbanization have been found to influence urban water cycle components including evapotranspiration (ET), runoff and water use. For instance, residential areas in semi-arid regions with vegetation subjected to lawn watering have higher ET rates when compared to the other areas in an urban environment. This increase associated with lawn irrigation can contribute to water scarcity problems. Conversely, development of more built surfaces with reduced vegetation leads to increased temperatures and Urban Heat Islands. This increase in temperature, can lead to an increase in energy usage. In order, to quantify the relationship of interconnected landscape, water cycle, microclimate and energy usage there is a need for a modeling system to represent landscape and surface characteristics specific to location and time. A methodology capable of modeling the interconnected urban scenario via a three-step process is presented in this paper. To account for the variability of urban form, the roughness length variation should be represented. An approach to estimate roughness length from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data has been introduced and the results are included in this paper. The effect of varying urban form and lawn irrigation practices on latent and sensible heat fluxes is represented and modeled by the Urban Heat Flux Model introduced in this paper. The Urban Heat Flux (UHFL) model has the capability to model the sensible and latent heat fluxes spatially and temporally by being able to represent varying conditions of roughness length, surface resistance and lawn irrigation patterns (soil moisture). The UHFL model has an advantage over the existing models by being driven by easily acquirable meteorological data and remote sensing data (which are available for all regions). The overall modeling framework consists of three sub-models: UHFL, the urban climate model (to simulate urban microclimate) and the energy and water usage simulation

  2. IRAS Raw Data Processing Geisha (United States)

    Kester, D. J. M.; Arendez, P. C.; Bontekoe, T. R.; de Jonge, A. R. W.; van Oosterom, W.; van Weerden, J. E.; Wesselius, P. R.

    GEISHA, the Groningen Exportable Infrared Survey High-resolution Analysis system, has been funded from end 1983 on to improve the IRAS calibration and to develop high-resolution algorithms. The main aim is to make available (software) tools and IRAS raw data allowing an astronomical user to create infrared sky maps to his own specifications. The user can subsequently analyze such specially made sky maps using an image processing system.

  3. Raw material uranium; Rohstoff Uran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Uranium is an important raw material in human life. Mostly using nuclear fission uranium is used in nuclear medicine, industry and research. The most important application is the generation of electricity in nuclear power plants. Due to the global availability the worldwide uranium supply is guaranties for a long time. The contribution covers the issues medicine, neutron research, energy generation, occurrence, mining, processing, recycling and disposal.

  4. Water Bodies and Vegetation in the California-Baja California Border Region a Remote Sensors Perspective. (United States)

    Hinojosa, A.; Mexicano-Vargas, M. L.; Serrato, B. A.


    The California-Baja California border region although they share watersheds, similar climate and landscape, there is a big contrast in the vegetation cover and water bodies between the two countries as seen from remote sensors. There is a stronger signature of vegetation and larger number of water bodies in the California side. To do a quantitative estimate of these differences, a comparative analysis of vegetation and water bodies was perfomerd along a strip of 100 km from both sides of the border with remote sensing techniques using Landsat TM images from 1984 to 2006. The strong absorption of water to short wave infrared radiation captured by band 5 of TM Landsat sensor (1.55- 1.75 micrometers) is use to detect water bodies. The histogram segmentation technique was used with TM 5/1 band ratios reinforced with a shades prediction technique using the sun position and a digital elevation model. The aerial extent of detected water bodies is estimated. Also an analysis from 1972 trough 2002 of the Mexican portion of Colorado river delta will be presented, with emphasis on flood events induced by abnormal snowmelts and higher precipitations in the high basin; 250 Landsat image previews were collected , from which 157 were selected to integrate 63 scenes that provide a dynamic picture of the Colorado delta river over 30 years. A regression with the annual averages of inundated areas and annual water flow data from E.U. to Mexico was made with a correlation coefficient of 0.912. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was used to estimate the vegetation greenness in the agricultural valleys and in natural vegetated areas along the mountains on both sides of the border. The spatial distribution of the NDVI and the differences between zones with the same land use regime on both sides of the border is presented.

  5. Development of a regional model for integrated management of water resources at the basin scale (United States)

    Gaiser, T.; Printz, A.; von Raumer, H. G. Schwarz; Götzinger, J.; Dukhovny, V. A.; Barthel, R.; Sorokin, A.; Tuchin, A.; Kiourtsidis, C.; Ganoulis, I.; Stahr, K.

    Integrated modeling is a novel approach to couple knowledge and models from different disciplines and research fields and to use their potential in the strategic planning of water management at the river basin scale. The MOSDEW integrated regional model has been developed in the Neckar basin, a 14,000 km 2 river catchment in South-West Germany as a model cascade of nine submodels covering large scale hydrology, groundwater flow, water demand, agricultural production, point and non-point pollution and chemical as well as biological water quality. The models are being tested and validated in the Neckar basin as well as in additional river basins in West Africa (Ouémé basin) and Central Asia (Chirchik-Ahangaran-Keles basin, CHAB) with contrasting ecological, hydrological and socio-economic boundary conditions. The transfer to the CHAB basin required changes in the submodel selection and integration structure due to the strong anthropogenic modifications of the flow regime in the downstream area. There, water is conveyed from the Chirchik river to other catchments and distributed in a complex channel system to satisfy the demand of competing water users (irrigation, urban water supply, energy production). In the Ouémé basin, the ecohydraulic model was not integrated due to lack of input data for ecological requirements of fish species whereas the groundwater flow model was not applicable to the predominant presence of aquifers in fractured rock. The model results obtained so far are promising with respect to their accuracy to be used in scenario simulations for the strategic basin wide planning of water management.

  6. OpenDanubia - An integrated, modular simulation system to support regional water resource management (United States)

    Muerth, M.; Waldmann, D.; Heinzeller, C.; Hennicker, R.; Mauser, W.


    The already completed, multi-disciplinary research project GLOWA-Danube has developed a regional scale, integrated modeling system, which was successfully applied on the 77,000 km2 Upper Danube basin to investigate the impact of Global Change on both the natural and anthropogenic water cycle. At the end of the last project phase, the integrated modeling system was transferred into the open source project OpenDanubia, which now provides both the core system as well as all major model components to the general public. First, this will enable decision makers from government, business and management to use OpenDanubia as a tool for proactive management of water resources in the context of global change. Secondly, the model framework to support integrated simulations and all simulation models developed for OpenDanubia in the scope of GLOWA-Danube are further available for future developments and research questions. OpenDanubia allows for the investigation of water-related scenarios considering different ecological and economic aspects to support both scientists and policy makers to design policies for sustainable environmental management. OpenDanubia is designed as a framework-based, distributed system. The model system couples spatially distributed physical and socio-economic process during run-time, taking into account their mutual influence. To simulate the potential future impacts of Global Change on agriculture, industrial production, water supply, households and tourism businesses, so-called deep actor models are implemented in OpenDanubia. All important water-related fluxes and storages in the natural environment are implemented in OpenDanubia as spatially explicit, process-based modules. This includes the land surface water and energy balance, dynamic plant water uptake, ground water recharge and flow as well as river routing and reservoirs. Although the complete system is relatively demanding on data requirements and hardware requirements, the modular structure

  7. Water-resources information for the Withlacoochee River region, west-central Florida (United States)

    Miller, Robert A.; Anderson, Warren; Navoy, Anthony S.; Smoot, James L.; Belles, Roger G.


    Daily water use in the Withlacoochee River region in 1977 averaged about 2,005 million gallons per day, 94 percent being saline surface water used in thermoelectric power-generation cooling. The largest user of freshwater was Hernando County, using 43.02 million gallons per day. The Floridan aquifer in the region consists mostly of limestones and dolomites, and is as much as 1,500 feet thick. Transmissivities are known to be as high as 25 million feet squared per day. Yields of 2,000 gallons per minutes from 12-inch wells are possible. Although the range in fluctuations of the potentiometric surface is as great as 20 feet, no significant change has occurred since the 1930 's when data were first collected. The quality of water in the Floridan aquifer is generally excellent. Saltwater is present in the aquifer near the Gulf Coast and in extreme east Marion County, near the St. Johns River. The predominant chemical type for both streams and springs is calcium and magnesium bicarbonate due to the dissolution process of the carbonate rocks. The majority of the streams have average dissolved-solid concentrations between 100 and 200 milligrams per liter, maximum-observed specific conductance between 250 and 750 micromhos per centimeter, and average total nitrogen concentrations of less than 1.2 milligrams per liter. (USGS)

  8. Multidrug-Resistant Outbreak-Associated Salmonella Strains in Irrigation Water from the Metropolitan Region, Chile. (United States)

    Martínez, M C; Retamal, P; Rojas-Aedo, J F; Fernández, J; Fernández, A; Lapierre, L


    Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) is the main cause of foodborne diseases in the Chilean population. With the aim of characterizing the presence of S. enterica in bodies of water, samples from 40 sources were obtained, including rivers and irrigation canals used by agricultural farms in the most populated regions of Chile. As result, 35 S. enterica isolates belonging to several serotypes were detected, with the highest frequency represented by Typhimurium and Enteritidis. All strains showed phenotypic antimicrobial resistance, and most of them were multiresistant to critically important antimicrobials. In addition, the pulse-field gel electrophoresis analysis using XbaI and BlnI endonucleases showed that seven Salmonella isolates belonging to serotypes Typhimurium, Enteritidis and Infantis had identical pulsotypes to outbreak-associated clinical isolates detected in the Chilean population, suggesting a public health risk of water pollution in this region. Among sampling sites, the higher detection rates were observed in rural than urban and peri-urban areas, suggesting that the animal husbandry might contribute for environmental dispersion of this pathogen. Future efforts should address the characterization of cause-and-effect relationship between water contamination and foodborne disease, including the implementation of surveillance programmes to tackle potential risks for both human and animal populations. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Organic matter and water addition enhance soil respiration in an arid region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Lai

    Full Text Available Climate change is generally predicted to increase net primary production, which could lead to additional C input to soil. In arid central Asia, precipitation has increased and is predicted to increase further. To assess the combined effects of these changes on soil CO2 efflux in arid land, a two factorial manipulation experiment in the shrubland of an arid region in northwest China was conducted. The experiment used a nested design with fresh organic matter and water as the two controlled parameters. It was found that both fresh organic matter and water enhanced soil respiration, and there was a synergistic effect of these two treatments on soil respiration increase. Water addition not only enhanced soil C emission, but also regulated soil C sequestration by fresh organic matter addition. The results indicated that the soil CO2 flux of the shrubland is likely to increase with climate change, and precipitation played a dominant role in regulating soil C balance in the shrubland of an arid region.

  10. An ecological engineering approach for keeping water from reaching interred wastes in arid or semiarid regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.E. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)


    This paper describes application of a soil-plant cover system (SPCS) to preclude water from reaching interred wastes in arid and semiarid regions. Where potential evapotranspiration far exceeds precipitation, water can be kept from reaching buried wastes by (1) providing a sufficiently deep cap of soil to store precipitation that falls while plants are dormant and (2) maintaining plant cover to deplete soil moisture during the growing season, thereby emptying the storage reservoir. Research at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has shown that 2 m of soil is adequate to store moisture from snowmelt and spring rains. Healthy stands of perennial grasses and shrubs adapted to the INEL climate use all available soil moisture, even during a very wet growing season. However, burrowing by small mammals or ants may affect the performance of a SPCS by increasing infiltration of water. Intrusion barriers of gravel and cobble can be used to restrict burrowing, but emplacement of such barriers affects soil moisture storage and plant rooting depths. A replicated field experiment to investigate the implications of those effects is in progress. Incorporation of an SPCS should be considered in the design of isolation barriers for shallow land burial of hazardous wastes in and regions.

  11. Water vapour and hydrogen in the terrestrial-planet-forming region of a protoplanetary disk. (United States)

    Eisner, J A


    Planetary systems (ours included) formed in disks of dust and gas around young stars. Disks are an integral part of the star and planet formation process, and knowledge of the distribution and temperature of inner-disk material is crucial for understanding terrestrial planet formation, giant planet migration, and accretion onto the central star. Although the inner regions of protoplanetary disks in nearby star-forming regions subtend only a few nano-radians, near-infrared interferometry has recently enabled the spatial resolution of these terrestrial zones. Most observations have probed only dust, which typically dominates the near-infrared emission. Here I report spectrally dispersed near-infrared interferometric observations that probe the gas (which dominates the mass and dynamics of the inner disk), in addition to the dust, within one astronomical unit (1 au, the Sun-Earth distance) of the young star MWC 480. I resolve gas, including water vapour and atomic hydrogen, interior to the edge of the dust disk; this contrasts with results of previous spectrally dispersed interferometry observations. Interactions of this accreting gas with migrating planets may lead to short-period exoplanets like those detected around main-sequence stars. The observed water vapour is probably produced by the sublimation of migrating icy bodies, and provides a potential reservoir of water for terrestrial planets.

  12. Circulation and water mass transports on the East Antarctic shelf in the Mertz Glacier region (United States)

    Martin, Antoine; Houssais, Marie-Noëlle; Le Goff, Hervé; Marec, Claudie; Dausse, Denis


    The East Antarctic shelf off Adélie-George V Land is known to be an important region for Dense Shelf Water (DSW) formation as a result of intense sea ice production in the Mertz Glacier Polynya during the winter season. It is also a region where the warm modified Circumpolar Deep Water (mCDW) penetrates onto the shelf during the summer. Using hydrographic observations from a summer survey in 2008 we implement a box inverse model to propose a comprehensive view of the steady state circulation on this shelf in summer. Additional information from mooring observations collected on the depression slope is used to provide context to the retrieved circulation scheme. Over the depression slope, the summer baroclinic structure of the currents is found to contrast with the almost barotropic structure in winter. The summer circulation is strongly constrained by the DSW distribution and forms a clockwise circulation primarily transporting the fresh surface waters and the warm mCDW around the dome of DSW. Over the upper flank of the Mertz Bank, the inflow branch transports the mCDW towards the Mertz Glacier, while, over the lower part of the slope, the outflow branch returns to the sill a diluted mode of the same water mass. A total of 0.19 Sv of mCDW inflows at the sill and two-third reach the Mertz Glacier and recirculate in front of it, allowing the mCDW to penetrate into the deeper part of the depression. Possible scenarios of interaction between the mCDW and the DSW with the glacier are examined. It is shown that, despite the water mass pathways and transports suggest possible ice-ocean interaction, both lateral and basal melting were likely small in summer 2008. Finally, our results suggest that, in addition to bathymetric features, the distribution of the residual DSW which is left from the preceding winter sets up regional pressure gradients which provide a seasonal control on the shelf circulation. In particular, the spring collapse of the convective patch would


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Galileo Probe Energetic Particles Investigation (EPI) Raw Data Set contains two tables of the EPI raw data values sorted by sampling time. The counter table...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunsheng Tian, Bob; Stanley, Sabine, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Toronto (Canada)


    Recent discoveries of water-rich, sub-Neptunian- to Neptunian-massed exoplanets with short-period orbits present a new parameter space for the study of exoplanetary dynamos. We explore the geometry of the dynamo source region within this parameter space using 1D interior structure models. We model planets with four chemically distinct layers that consist of (1) an iron core, (2) a silicate layer, (3) an H{sub 2}O layer, and (4) an H/He envelope. By varying the total planetary mass in the range of 1-19 M{sub Circled-Plus }, the mass fraction of the H/He envelope between 0.1% and 5.1%, and the equilibrium temperature between 100 K and 1000 K, a survey of the parameter space for potential dynamo source region geometries is conducted. We find that due to the nature of the phase diagram of water at pressure and temperature conditions of planetary interiors, two different dynamo source region geometries are obtainable. Specifically, we find that smaller planets, and planets with thicker H/He envelopes, are likely to be in the regime of a thick-shelled dynamo. Massive planets, and planets with thin H/He envelopes, are likely to be in the regime of a thin-shelled dynamo. Also, small variations of these parameters can produce large interior structure differences. This implies the potential to constrain these parameters based on observations of a planet's magnetic field signature.

  15. A survey of raw processing methods for kolanuts | Asamoah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was carried out in the Eastern and Ashanti Regions of Ghana to identify indigenous methods for the raw processing and handling of kolanuts. Using purposive and accidental sampling techniques and interviews, thirty-two individuals and eleven focus group discussions were undertaken at fourteen and ten ...

  16. Characteristics of water erosion and conservation practice in arid regions of Central Asia: Xinjiang Province, China as an example


    Zhang, Wentai; Zhou, Jianqin; Feng, Guanglong; Weindorf, David C.; Hu, Guiqing; Sheng, Jiandong


    Located in the inland arid area of Central Asia and northwest China, Xinjiang has recently received heightened concerns over soil water erosion, which is highly related with the sustainable utilization of barren soil and limited water resources. Data from the national soil erosion survey of China (1985–2011) and Xinjiang statistical yearbook (2000–2010) was used to analyze the trend, intensity, and serious soil water erosion regions. Results showed that the water erosion area in Xinjiang was ...

  17. Simulated constant-head boundary for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set represents the constant head-boundary used to simulate ground-water inflow or outflow at the lateral boundary of the Death Valley regional...

  18. Altitudes of the top of model layers for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the altitudes of the tops of 16 model layers simulated in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) transient flow...

  19. Initial hydraulic heads for the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the hydraulic-head values in 16 model layers used to initiate the transient simulation of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow...

  20. Lateral boundary of the transient ground-water flow model, Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the lateral boundary and model domain of the area simulated by the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Ewa Szczykowska


    Full Text Available Dam retention reservoirs created on the rivers play a special role as an environmentally friendly forms of stopping and slowing of water runoff. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of water flowing into small retention reservoirs in terms of the concentration of total phosphorus and phosphates. The study involved three small retention reservoirs located in the municipalities of: Bransk, Dubicze Cerkiewne and Kleszczele in Podlasie region. Selection of the research facilities was made due to the similarity in the soil management type within catchment of the flowing watercourse, retained water utilization ways, and a small surface of reservoirs. Watercourse reaching the reservoir provides biogens along with water, which directly affect the water quality resulting in high concentrations in water, either indirectly by initiating or accelerating the process of degradation of the reservoir and the loss of its usability. Given the concentration of total phosphorus, it can be said that only in the case of 20.8% of water samples from Nurzec river feeding the Otapy-Kiersnówek reservoir, about 25% of water samples of Orlanka river feeding Bachmaty reservoir, and 17% of samples taken from the watercourse supplying Repczyce reservoir, corresponded to values specified for the second class in the current Regulation of the Minister of the Environment [Regulation 2014]. It can be assumed that this situation is caused by a long-term fertilization using manure, which in consequence led to the oversaturation of soils and phosphorus compounds penetration into the river waters in areas used for agricultural purposes. Especially in the early spring periods, rising temperature together with rainfall caused soil thawing resulting in increasing concentrations of contaminants carried along with the washed soil particles during the surface and subsurface runoff. Values of TSI(TP calculated for Otapy-Kiersnówek reservoir amounted to 112.4 in hydrological

  2. Water Security, Climate Forcings and Public Health Impacts in Emerging Regions (United States)

    Serman, E. A.; Akanda, A. S.; Craver, V.; Boving, T. B.


    Our world is rapidly urbanizing, with more than 80% of world's population is expected to be living in a city by the end of the century. A majority of these nations are rapidly urbanizing due to massive rural-to-urban migratory trends, with rapid development of unplanned urban settlements, or slums, with lack of adequate water or sanitation facilities and other municipal amenities. With global environmental change, natural disasters will expose millions more to drought, floods, and disease epidemics, and existing vulnerabilities will worsen. At the same time, rapid urbanization and fast changing land-use leads to widespread damage of infrastructure by stormwater, especially in lowlands and economically poor areas. The factor that consistently stands out among different cities from both the developed and the developing worlds is that the slums are typically the most vulnerable to water related natural hazards and climatic threats, such as water scarcity and quality issues in drought conditions, or water and sanitation breakdown and stormwater contamination problems. Onsite or decentralized water, wastewater and stormwater treatment as well as point-of-use water treatment options can be an economic, safe, and reliable alternative to conventional large-scale treatment especially, in urban fringes as well as rural areas. These systems can be designed to fit communities in terms of their economic, cultural, environmental, and demographic resources. As part of this study, we develop a database of urban water quality and quantity indices such as with urban land-use, water usage, climate, and socio-economic characteristics in various emerging regions in the world. We analyze past and current data to identify and quantify long-term trends and the impacts of large-scale climatic and anthropogenic changes on urban hydrology and health impacts. We specifically focus on five major cities from distinct groups of countries and geographies: Providence, RI, USA from the developed

  3. Evaluation of two hydrograph separation methods of potential use in regional water quality assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, D.D.; Begovich, C.L.


    Streamflow data are more useful for evaluating hydrologic model results and studying water quality once baseflow and storm runoff have been separated. However, it is important to select an appropriate hydrograph separation method. We examined two methods and evaluated their conceptual basis, ease of application, cost of data processing, and acceptability of results. We chose the quick flow hydrograph separation method, which is in use at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, because it gives acceptable results and is easy and inexpensive to use. For regional assessment, we anticipate that the Coweeta program will be useful as an aid in developing general quantitative relationships between changes in land use and the associated changes in surface runoff yield and water quality degradation.

  4. Decadal change of Antarctic Intermediate Water in the region of Brazil and Malvinas confluence (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Yi; He, Zhigang


    The Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) exhibits a decadal variability during recent years, i.e., salinification before 1997 and freshening thereafter, with the maximum anomalies locating at the region of Brazil and Malvinas currents confluence. Our study proposed that the local mesoscale eddies may play an important role in triggering this decadal oscillation. The eddy activity intensification (weakening) leads to the increase (decrease) of poleward cross-frontal eddy salinity flux and upward eddy buoyancy flux, which results in the weakening (strengthening) of the subsurface stratification and potential vorticity (PV). The PV anomalies facilitate (block) the poleward transport of warm saline subtropical water, while the stratification weakening favors the further downward transmission of salinity anomalies by processes of eddy flux as well as mean-flow advection (the stratification strengthening inhibits the vertical transport), then initiates the decadal change of the AAIW property. The whole process of the eddy-related propagation of salinity anomalies takes about 4 to 6 years.

  5. Risk-based prioritization of ground water threatening point sources at catchment and regional scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overheu, Niels Døssing; Tuxen, Nina; Flyvbjerg, John


    , and within the bounds of a specified ground water catchment. The handbook presents several approaches in order to prevent the prioritization from foundering because of a lack of data or an inappropriate level of complexity. The developed prioritization tools, possible graphical presentation and use......Contaminated sites threaten ground water resources all over the world. The available resources for investigation and remediation are limited compared to the scope of the problem, so prioritization is crucial to ensure that resources are allocated to the sites posing the greatest risk. A flexible...... framework has been developed to enable a systematic and transparent risk assessment and prioritization of contaminant point sources, considering the local, catchment, or regional scales (Danish EPA, 2011, 2012). The framework has been tested in several catchments in Denmark with different challenges...

  6. Detention basins as best management practices for water quality control in an arid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina R. Lodhi


    Full Text Available Flood control detention basins (DBs can act as water quality control structures or best management practices (BMPs. A key pollutant that DBs serve to settle out is particulate phosphorus, which adsorbs onto sediment. This study examines the sediment phosphorus concentration and its relationship with the particle size of sediment microcosms from pre- and post-rain event samples obtained from six DBs located in Clark County, Nevada. DBs were allotted a land use classification to determine if there was a correlation between the sediment phosphorus concentration and surrounding land use. The curve number method was used to calculate the runoff and subsequent phosphorus carried into the DB by the runoff. Our data show sediment phosphorus concentrations to be highest in soils from undeveloped areas. Runoff amount also plays a substantial role in determining the amount of phosphorus brought into the DB by sediment. This research has implications for improvement of water quality in arid regions.

  7. Water-Energy-Food Nexus in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Taniguchi


    Full Text Available Water, energy, and food are among the most important and fundamental resources for human beings and society. Despite the large potential for efficiency and reduction of losses, the demand for these resources is likely to increase due to population growth, changes in lifestyles, climate change, and other aspect of global change. The strong interconnectedness of these three vital resources has been termed the “Nexus” in the scientific literature in recent years. While many papers claim its fundamental importance, few provide specific ideas on how to deal with this Nexus in practice. This paper introduces twenty case-studies that are highlighted in this special issue that explore the practice of the Nexus and its scientific basis with particular focus on the Water-Energy-Food Nexus in the Asia-Pacific Region.

  8. An Evaluation of Two Hydrograph Separation Methods of Potential Use in Regional Water Quality Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, D.D.


    Streamflow data are more useful for evaluating hydrologic model results and studying water quality once baseflow and storm runoff have been separated. However, it is important to select an appropriate hydrograph separation method. They examined tow methods and evaluated their conceptual basis, ease of application, cost of data processing, and acceptability of results. they chose the quick flow hydrograph separation method, which is in use at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, because it gives acceptable results and is easy and inexpensive to use. For regional assessment, they anticipate that the Coweeta program will be useful as an aid in developing general quantitative relationships between changes in land use and the associated changes in surface runoff yield and water quality degradation.

  9. Evolution of wave and tide over vegetation region in nearshore waters (United States)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Zhang, Hongxing; Zhao, Kaibin; Tang, Jun; Qin, Huifa


    Coastal wetlands are an important ecosystem in nearshore regions, where complex flow characteristics occur because of the interactions among tides, waves, and plants, especially in the discontinuous flow of the intertidal zone. In order to simulate the wave and wave-induced current in coastal waters, in this study, an explicit depth-averaged hydrodynamic (HD) model has been dynamically coupled with a wave spectral model (CMS-Wave) by sharing the tide and wave data. The hydrodynamic model is based on the finite volume method; the intercell flux is computed using the Harten-Lax-van Leer (HLL) approximate Riemann solver for computing the dry-to-wet interface; the drag force of vegetation is modeled as the sink terms in the momentum equations. An empirical wave energy dissipation term with plant effect has been derived from the wave action balance equation to account for the resistance induced by aquatic vegetation in the CMS-Wave model. The results of the coupling model have been verified using the measured data for the case with wave-tide-vegetation interactions. The results show that the wave height decreases significantly along the wave propagation direction in the presence of vegetation. In the rip channel system, the oblique waves drive a meandering longshore current; it moves from left to right past the cusps with oscillations. In the vegetated region, the wave height is greatly attenuated due to the presence of vegetation, and the radiation stresses are noticeably changed as compared to the region without vegetation. Further, vegetation can affect the spatial distribution of mean velocity in a rip channel system. In the co-exiting environment of tides, waves, and vegetation, the locations of wave breaking and wave-induced radiation stress also vary with the water level of flooding or ebb tide in wetland water, which can also affect the development and evolution of wave-induced current.

  10. Groundwater Quality Assessment in Jakarta Capital Region for the Safe Drinking Water (United States)

    Fadly, M.; Prayogi, T. E.; Mohamad, F.; Zulfaris, D. Y.; Memed, M. W.; Daryanto, A.; Abdillah, F.; Nasution, E. M.; Sudianto, J. R.; Giarto, B.; Maliki, F.


    This study aims to determine the quality of Jakarta Capital Region’s groundwater and its recommendation based on the standards set by the Indonesian government especially The Health Minister Decree No. 907 / Menkes / SK / VII / 2002 about The Drinking Water Monitoring. The study activity uses the data that carried out by Geological Agency, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Indonesia from March to April 2015. The methods used in this study are direct observation and hydrogeological measurement to measure physics and chemistry parameters. The results show that most places in the study area have the low quality of groundwater which is below the drinking water quality standards according to the government. However, at the unconfined aquifer (depth of 0-40 meters), the certain areas such as in the Kramat Jati, Halim Perdana Kusuma, Tongkol-Pademangan, and Duren sawit are still relatively safe for consumption as drinking water. In addition, the confined aquifer (depth> 40 meters) such as in the area of Cibubur, Pasar Rebo, and Jagakarsa are considered safe for consumption as drinking water. This study is expected to be used as a benchmark for researchers, especially academics in the region in order to maintain the sustainable groundwater resources in the area.

  11. Potential for the identification of localized water-bearing regions on Mars (United States)

    Roush, Ted; Pollack, James B.


    Interpretations of airborne telescopic observations of Mars in the thermal infrared have identified absorption features due to several volatile-bearing minerals. The presence of some of these (e.g., carbonates) support previous suggestions that Mars once had a denser atmosphere early in its history. While these interpretations provide for ample scientific discussion, from the view of indigenous resource utilization the identification of hydrates is perhaps key to the exploration of Mars. Water is essential to a prolonged human presence in space and more specifically on Mars. Both life support and any agricultural endeavor require quantities of water which are cost prohibitive to transport over large distances. Additionally, water could provide a source of indigenous chemical fuel which could be used for transportation. Hydrates, from which water can be extracted may prove to be a valuable resource on the Martian surface. It is vital to assess the presence of special environments or localized regions on Mars in which hydrates are concentrated, and map the distribution of this potential resource.

  12. Trace metal contamination of mineral spring water in an historical mining area in regional Victoria, Australia (United States)

    Martin, Rachael; Dowling, Kim


    Significant global consumption of spring and mineral water is fuelled by perceived therapeutic and medicinal qualities, cultural habits and taste. The Central Victorian Mineral Springs Region, Australia comprises approximately 100 naturally effervescent, cold, high CO2 content springs with distinctive tastes linked to a specific spring or pump. The area has a rich settlement history. It was first settled by miners in the 1840s closely followed by the first commercial operations of a health resort 1895. The landscape is clearly affected by gold mining with geographically proximal mine waste, mullock heaps or tailings. Repeated mineral springs sampling since 1985 has revealed elevated arsenic concentrations. In 1985 an arsenic concentration five times the current Australian Drinking Water Guideline was recorded at a popular tourist spring site. Recent sampling and analyses have confirmed elevated levels of heavy metals/metalloids, with higher concentrations occurring during periods of low rainfall. Despite the elevated levels, mineral water source points remain accessible to the public with some springs actively promoting the therapeutic benefits of the waters. In light of our analysis, the risk to consumers (some of whom are likely to be negatively health-affected or health-compromised) needs to be considered with a view to appropriate and verified analyses made available to the public.

  13. Water in massive star-forming regions : HIFI observations of W3 IRS5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavarria, L.; Herpin, F.; Jacq, T.; Braine, J.; Bontemps, S.; Baudry, A.; Marseille, M.; van der Tak, F.; Pietropaoli, B.; Wyrowski, F.; Shipman, R.; Frieswijk, W.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Cernicharo, J.; Bachiller, R.; Benedettini, M.; Benz, A. O.; Bergin, E.; Bjerkeli, P.; Blake, G.A.; Bruderer, S.; Caselli, P.; Codella, C.; Daniel, F.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Dominik, C.; Doty, S. D.; Encrenaz, P.; Fich, M.; Fuente, A.; Giannini, T.; Goicoechea, J. R.; de Graauw, Th.; Hartogh, P.; Helmich, F.; Herczeg, G. J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Jorgensen, J. K.; Kristensen, L. E.; Larsson, B.; Lis, D.; Liseau, R.; McCoey, C.; Melnick, G.; Nisini, B.; Olberg, M.; Parise, B.; Pearson, J. C.; Plume, R.; Risacher, C.; Santiago-Garcia, J.; Saraceno, P.; Stutzki, J.; Szczerba, R.; Tafalla, M.; Tielens, A.; van Kempen, T. A.; Visser, R.; Wampfler, S. F.; Willem, J.; Yildiz,