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Sample records for regional geologic framework

  1. Regional geologic framework off northeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlee, J.; Behrendt, J.C.; Grow, J.A.; Robb, J.M.; Mattick, R.E.; Taylor, P.T.; Lawson, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    Six multichannel seismic-reflection profiles taken across the Atlantic continental margin off the northeastern United States show an excess of 14 km of presumed Mesozoic and younger sedimentary rocks in the Baltimore Canyon trough and 8 km in the Georges Bank basin. Beneath the continental rise, the sedimentary prism thickness exceeds 7 km south of New Jersey and Maryland, and it is 4.5 km thick south of Georges Bank Stratigraphically, the continental slope--outer edge of the continental shelf is a transition zone of high-velocity sedimentary rock, probably carbonate, that covers deeply subsidized basement. The spatial separation of magnetic and gravity anomalies on line 2 (New Jersey) suggests that in the Baltimore Canyon region the magnetic-slope anomaly is due to edge effects and that the previously reported free-air and isostatic gravity anomalies over the outer shelf may be due in part to a lateral increase in sediment density (velocity) near the shelf edge. The East Coast magnetic anomaly and the free-air gravity high both coincide over the outer shelf edge on line 1 (Georges Bank) but are offset by 20 km from the ridge on the reflection profile

  2. Regional geologic framework off northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlee, J.; Behrendt, John C.; Grow, J.A.; Robb, James M.; Mattick, R.; Taylor, P.T.; Lawson, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    Six multichannel seismic-reflection profiles taken across the Atlantic continental margin Previous HitoffTop the northeastern United States show an excess of 14 km of presumed Mesozoic and younger sedimentary rocks in the Baltimore Canyon trough and 8 km in the Georges Bank basin. Beneath the continental rise, the sedimentary prism thickness exceeds 7 km south of New Jersey and Maryland, and it is 4.5 km thick south of Georges Bank. Stratigraphically, the continental slope--outer edge of the continental shelf is a transition zone of high-velocity sedimentary rock, probably carbonate, that covers deeply subsided basement. Acoustically, the sedimentary sequence beneath the shelf is divided into three units which are correlated speculatively with the Cenozoic, the Cretaceous, and the Jurassic-Triassic sections. These units thicken offshore, and some have increased seismic velocities farther offshore. The uppermost unit thickens from a fraction of a kilometer to slightly more than a kilometer in a seaward direction, and velocity values range from 1.7 to 2.2 km/sec. The middle unit thickens from a fraction of a kilometer to as much as 5 km (northern Baltimore Canyon trough), and seismic velocity ranges from 2.2 to 5.4 km/sec. The lowest unit thickens to a maximum of 9 km (northern Baltimore Canyon), and velocities span the 3.9 to 5.9-km/sec interval. The spatial separation of magnetic and gravity anomalies on line 2 (New Jersey) suggests that in the Baltimore Canyon region the magnetic-slope anomaly is due to edge effects and that the previously reported free-air and isostatic gravity anomalies over the outer shelf may be due in part to a lateral increase in sediment density (velocity) near the shelf edge. The East Coast magnetic anomaly and the free-air gravity high both coincide over the outer shelf edge on line 1 (Georges Bank) but are offset by 20 km from the ridge on the reflection profile. Because the magnetic-slope-anomaly wavelength is nearly 50 km across, a

  3. Regional and site geological frameworks : proposed Deep Geologic Repository, Bruce County, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raven, K.; Sterling, S.; Gaines, S.; Wigston, A. [Intera Engineering Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Frizzell, R. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization is conducting geoscientific studies on behalf of Ontario Power Generation into the proposed development of a Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (L and ILW) at the Bruce site, near Tiverton, Ontario. This paper presented a regional geological framework for the site that was based on a review of regional drilling; structural geology; paleozoic stratigraphy and sedimentology; a 3D geological framework model; a DGR geological site characterization model; bedrock stratigraphy and marker beds; natural fracture frequency data; and formation predictability. The studies have shown that the depth, thickness, orientation and rock quality of the 34 rock formations, members or units that comprise the 840 m thick Paleozoic bedrock sequence at the Bruce site are very uniform and predictable over distances of several kilometres. The proposed DGR will be constructed as an engineered facility comprising a series of underground emplacement rooms at a depth of 680 metres below ground within argillaceous limestones. The geoscientific studies are meant to provide a basis for the development of descriptive geological, hydrogeological and geomechanical models of the DGR site that will facilitate environmental and safety assessments. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  4. Regional Jurassic geologic framework of Alabama coastal waters area and adjacent Federal waters area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.; Mancini, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    To date, numerous Jurassic hydrocarbon fields and pools have been discovered in the Cotton Valley Group, Haynesville Formation, Smackover Formation and Norphlet Formation in the tri-state area of Mississippi, Alabama and Florida, and in Alabama State coastal waters and adjacent Federal waters area. Petroleum traps are basement highs, salt anticlines, faulted salt anticlines and extensional faults associated with salt movement. Reservoirs include continental and marine sandstones, limestones and dolostones. Hydrocarbon types are oil, condensate and natural gas. The onshore stratigraphic and structural information can be used to establish a regional geologic framework for the Jurassic for the State coastal waters and adjacent Federal waters areas. Evaluation of the geologic information along with the hydrocarbon data from the tri-state area indicates that at least three Jurassic hydrocarbon trends (oil, oil and gas condensate, and deep natural gas) can be identified onshore. These onshore hydrocarbon trends can be projected into the Mobile area in the Central Gulf of Mexico and into the Pensacola, Destin Dome and Apalachicola areas in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico. Substantial reserves of natural gas are expected to be present in Alabama State waters and the northern portion of the Mobile area. Significant accumulations of oil and gas condensate may be encountered in the Pensacola, Destin Dome, and Apalachicola areas. ?? 1989.

  5. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Vogt

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M and O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in

  6. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Vogt

    2004-08-26

    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M&O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in the

  7. Geologic framework of the regional ground-water flow system in the Upper Deschutes Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lite, Kenneth E.; Gannett, Marshall W.

    2002-12-10

    Ground water is increasingly relied upon to satisfy the needs of a growing population in the upper Deschutes Basin, Oregon. Hydrogeologic studies are being undertaken to aid in management of the ground-water resource. An understanding of the geologic factors influencing ground-water flow is basic to those investigations. The geology of the area has a direct effect on the occurrence and movement of ground water. The permeability and storage properties of rock material are influenced by the proportion, size, and degree of interconnection of open spaces the rocks contain. These properties are the result of primary geologic processes such as volcanism and sedimentation, as well as subsequent processes such as faulting, weathering, or hydrothermal alteration. The geologic landscape in the study area evolved during about 30 million years of volcanic activity related to a north-south trending volcanic arc, the current manifestation of which are today’s Cascade Range volcanoes.

  8. Leveraging Regional Exploration to Develop Geologic Framework for CO2 Storage in Deep Formations in Midwestern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2009-09-30

    Obtaining subsurface data for developing a regional framework for geologic storage of CO{sub 2} can require drilling and characterization in a large number of deep wells, especially in areas with limited pre-existing data. One approach for achieving this objective, without the prohibitive costs of drilling costly standalone test wells, is to collaborate with the oil and gas drilling efforts in a piggyback approach that can provide substantial cost savings and help fill data gaps in areas that may not otherwise get characterized. This leveraging with oil/gas drilling also mitigates some of the risk involved in standalone wells. This collaborative approach has been used for characterizing in a number of locations in the midwestern USA between 2005 and 2009 with funding from U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE award: DE-FC26-05NT42434) and in-kind contributions from a number of oil and gas operators. The results are presented in this final technical report. In addition to data collected under current award, selected data from related projects such as the Midwestern Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP), the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} storage project at and near the Mountaineer Plant, and the drilling of the Ohio Stratigraphic well in Eastern Ohio are discussed and used in the report. Data from this effort are also being incorporated into the MRCSP geologic mapping. The project activities were organized into tracking and evaluation of characterization opportunities; participation in the incremental drilling, basic and advanced logging in selected wells; and data analysis and reporting. Although a large number of opportunities were identified and evaluated, only a small subset was carried into the field stage. Typical selection factors included reaching an acceptable agreement with the operator, drilling and logging risks, and extent of pre-existing data near the candidate wells. The region of study is primarily along

  9. SIMULATION FRAMEWORK FOR REGIONAL GEOLOGIC CO{sub 2} STORAGE ALONG ARCHES PROVINCE OF MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sminchak, Joel

    2012-09-30

    This report presents final technical results for the project Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Infrastructure along Arches Province of the Midwest United States. The Arches Simulation project was a three year effort designed to develop a simulation framework for regional geologic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage infrastructure along the Arches Province through development of a geologic model and advanced reservoir simulations of large-scale CO{sub 2} storage. The project included five major technical tasks: (1) compilation of geologic, hydraulic and injection data on Mount Simon, (2) development of model framework and parameters, (3) preliminary variable density flow simulations, (4) multi-phase model runs of regional storage scenarios, and (5) implications for regional storage feasibility. The Arches Province is an informal region in northeastern Indiana, northern Kentucky, western Ohio, and southern Michigan where sedimentary rock formations form broad arch and platform structures. In the province, the Mount Simon sandstone is an appealing deep saline formation for CO{sub 2} storage because of the intersection of reservoir thickness and permeability. Many CO{sub 2} sources are located in proximity to the Arches Province, and the area is adjacent to coal fired power plants along the Ohio River Valley corridor. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, and geotechnical tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km{sup 2} study area centered on the Arches Province. Hydraulic parameters and historical operational information was also compiled from Mount Simon wastewater injection wells in the region. This information was integrated into a geocellular model that depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO{sub 2} injection. Permeability data

  10. SIMULATION FRAMEWORK FOR REGIONAL GEOLOGIC CO{sub 2} STORAGE ALONG ARCHES PROVINCE OF MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sminchak, Joel

    2012-09-30

    This report presents final technical results for the project Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Infrastructure along Arches Province of the Midwest United States. The Arches Simulation project was a three year effort designed to develop a simulation framework for regional geologic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage infrastructure along the Arches Province through development of a geologic model and advanced reservoir simulations of large-scale CO{sub 2} storage. The project included five major technical tasks: (1) compilation of geologic, hydraulic and injection data on Mount Simon, (2) development of model framework and parameters, (3) preliminary variable density flow simulations, (4) multi-phase model runs of regional storage scenarios, and (5) implications for regional storage feasibility. The Arches Province is an informal region in northeastern Indiana, northern Kentucky, western Ohio, and southern Michigan where sedimentary rock formations form broad arch and platform structures. In the province, the Mount Simon sandstone is an appealing deep saline formation for CO{sub 2} storage because of the intersection of reservoir thickness and permeability. Many CO{sub 2} sources are located in proximity to the Arches Province, and the area is adjacent to coal fired power plants along the Ohio River Valley corridor. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, and geotechnical tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km{sup 2} study area centered on the Arches Province. Hydraulic parameters and historical operational information was also compiled from Mount Simon wastewater injection wells in the region. This information was integrated into a geocellular model that depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO{sub 2} injection. Permeability data

  11. A Geospatial Information Grid Framework for Geological Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liang; Xue, Lei; Li, Chaoling; Lv, Xia; Chen, Zhanlong; Guo, Mingqiang; Xie, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The use of digital information in geological fields is becoming very important. Thus, informatization in geological surveys should not stagnate as a result of the level of data accumulation. The integration and sharing of distributed, multi-source, heterogeneous geological information is an open problem in geological domains. Applications and services use geological spatial data with many features, including being cross-region and cross-domain and requiring real-time updating. As a result of these features, desktop and web-based geographic information systems (GISs) experience difficulties in meeting the demand for geological spatial information. To facilitate the real-time sharing of data and services in distributed environments, a GIS platform that is open, integrative, reconfigurable, reusable and elastic would represent an indispensable tool. The purpose of this paper is to develop a geological cloud-computing platform for integrating and sharing geological information based on a cloud architecture. Thus, the geological cloud-computing platform defines geological ontology semantics; designs a standard geological information framework and a standard resource integration model; builds a peer-to-peer node management mechanism; achieves the description, organization, discovery, computing and integration of the distributed resources; and provides the distributed spatial meta service, the spatial information catalog service, the multi-mode geological data service and the spatial data interoperation service. The geological survey information cloud-computing platform has been implemented, and based on the platform, some geological data services and geological processing services were developed. Furthermore, an iron mine resource forecast and an evaluation service is introduced in this paper.

  12. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Clayton

    2000-12-19

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M&O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and the

  13. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M and O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and

  14. A Geospatial Information Grid Framework for Geological Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Liang; Xue, Lei; Li, Chaoling; Lv, Xia; Chen, Zhanlong; Guo, Mingqiang; Xie, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The use of digital information in geological fields is becoming very important. Thus, informatization in geological surveys should not stagnate as a result of the level of data accumulation. The integration and sharing of distributed, multi-source, heterogeneous geological information is an open problem in geological domains. Applications and services use geological spatial data with many features, including being cross-region and cross-domain and requiring real-time updating. As a result of ...

  15. Geologic Map of the Thaumasia Region, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohm, Janes M.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Hare, Trent M.

    2001-01-01

    The geology of the Thaumasia region (fig. 1, sheet 3) includes a wide array of rock materials, depositional and erosional landforms, and tectonic structures. The region is dominated by the Thaumasia plateau, which includes central high lava plains ringed by highly deformed highlands; the plateau may comprise the ancestral center of Tharsis tectonism (Frey, 1979; Plescia and Saunders, 1982). The extensive structural deformation of the map region, which is without parallel on Mars in both complexity and diversity, occurred largely throughout the Noachian and Hesperian periods (Tanaka and Davis, 1988; Scott and Dohm, 1990a). The deformation produced small and large extensional and contractional structures (fig. 2, sheet 3) that resulted from stresses related to the formation of Tharsis (Frey, 1979; Wise and others, 1979; Plescia and Saunders, 1982; Banerdt and others, 1982, 1992; Watters and Maxwell, 1986; Tanaka and Davis, 1988; Francis, 1988; Watters, 1993; Schultz and Tanaka, 1994), from magmatic-driven uplifts, such as at Syria Planum (Tanaka and Davis, 1988; Dohm and others, 1998; Dohm and Tanaka, 1999) and central Valles Marineris (Dohm and others, 1998, Dohm and Tanaka, 1999), and from the Argyre impact (Wilhelms, 1973; Scott and Tanaka, 1986). In addition, volcanic, eolian, and fluvial processes have highly modified older surfaces in the map region. Local volcanic and tectonic activity often accompanied episodes of valley formation. Our mapping depicts and describes the diverse terrains and complex geologic history of this unique ancient tectonic region of Mars. The geologic (sheet 1), paleotectonic (sheet 2), and paleoerosional (sheet 3) maps of the Thaumasia region were compiled on a Viking 1:5,000,000-scale digital photomosaic base. The base is a combination of four quadrangles: the southeast part of Phoenicis Lacus (MC–17), most of the southern half of Coprates (MC–18), a large part of Thaumasia (MC–25), and the northwest margin of Argyre (MC–26

  16. Great Basin geologic framework and uranium favorability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, L.T.; Beal, L.H.

    1978-01-01

    Work on this report has been done by a team of seven investigators assisted over the project span by twenty-three undergraduate and graduate students from May 18, 1976 to August 19, 1977. The report is presented in one volume of text, one volume or Folio of Maps, and two volumes of bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 5300 references on geologic subjects pertinent to the search for uranium in the Great Basin. Volume I of the bibliography lists articles by author alphabetically and Volume II cross-indexes these articles by location and key word. Chapters I through IV of the Text volume and accompanying Folio Map Sets 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, discuss the relationship of uranium to rock and structural environments which dominate the Great Basin. Chapter 5 and Map Sets 6 and 7 provide a geochemical association/metallogenic grouping of mineral occurrences in the Great Basin along with information on rock types hosting uranium. Chapter VI summarizes the results of a court house claim record search for 'new' claiming areas for uranium, and Chapter VII along with Folio Map Set 8 gives all published geochronological data available through April 1, 1977 on rocks of the Great Basin. Chapter VIII provides an introduction to a computer analysis of characteristics of certain major uranium deposits in crystalline rocks (worldwide) and is offered as a suggestion of what might be done with uranium in all geologic environments. We believe such analysis will assist materially in constructing exploration models. Chapter IX summarizes criteria used and conclusions reached as to the favorability of uranium environments which we believe to exist in the Great Basin and concludes with recommendations for both exploration and future research. A general summary conclusion is that there are several geologic environments within the Great Basin which have considerable potential and that few, if any, have been sufficiently tested

  17. The integration of environmental geology methods and concepts within the framework of a regional administration; the case of the Comunidad Valenciana, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurenheimer, C.

    The process of transfer of jurisdictions on environmental matters from the central administration to an autonomous regional government is described. The main approaches taken by different autonomous regions in Spain, to deal with the problems of setting up an environmental administrative organization are also briefly commented here. Finally, the specific structure of the environmental administration in the Comunidad Valenciana and the main guidelines of its environmental policies are explained. It is concluded that earth science can provide a very useful basis for the drafting of these policies in the region, because of the specific nature of the problems to be dealt with, related mainly to water management, soil conservation, land occupation, natural hazards and preservation of natural areas.

  18. Relations between Vegetation and Geologic Framework in Barrier Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, N. H.; Ferguson, J. B.; Lehner, J. D.; Taylor, D.; Tuttle, L. F., II; Wernette, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    Barrier islands provide valuable ecosystems and protective services to coastal communities. The longevity of barrier islands is threatened by sea-level rise, human impacts, and extreme storms. The purpose of this research is to evaluate how vegetation dynamics interact with the subsurface and offshore framework geology to influence the beach and dune morphology. Beach and dune morphology can be viewed as free and/or forced behavior, where free systems are stochastic and the morphology is dependent on variations in the storm surge run-up, aeolian sediment supply and transport potential, and vegetation dynamics and persistence. Forced systems are those where patterns in the coastal morphology are determined by some other structural control, such as the underlying and offshore framework geology. Previous studies have documented the effects of geologic framework or vegetation dynamics on the beach and dunes, although none have examined possible control by vegetation dynamics in context of the geologic framework (i.e. combined free and forced behavior). Padre Island National Seashore (PAIS) was used to examine the interaction of free and forced morphology because the subsurface framework geology and surface beach and dune morphology are variable along the island. Vegetation dynamics were assessed by classifying geographically referenced historical aerial imagery into areas with vegetation and areas without vegetation, as well as LiDAR data to verify this imagery. The subsurface geologic structure was assessed using a combination of geophysical surveys (i.e. electromagnetic induction, ground-penetrating radar, and offshore seismic surveys). Comparison of the observed vegetation patterns and geologic framework leads to a series of questions surrounding how mechanistically these two drivers of coastal morphology are related. Upcoming coring and geophysical surveys will enable us to validate new and existing geophysical data. Results of this paper will help us better

  19. Geologic framework, regional aquifer properties (1940s-2009), and spring, creek, and seep properties (2009-10) of the upper San Mateo Creek Basin near Mount Taylor, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, Jeff B.; Sprague, Jesse E.; Durall, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, examined the geologic framework, regional aquifer properties, and spring, creek, and seep properties of the upper San Mateo Creek Basin near Mount Taylor, which contains areas proposed for exploratory drilling and possible uranium mining on U.S. Forest Service land. The geologic structure of the region was formed from uplift of the Zuni Mountains during the Laramide Orogeny and the Neogene volcanism associated with the Mount Taylor Volcanic Field. Within this structural context, numerous aquifers are present in various Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary formations and the Quaternary alluvium. The distribution of the aquifers is spatially variable because of the dip of the formations and erosion that produced the current landscape configuration where older formations have been exhumed closer to the Zuni Mountains. Many of the alluvial deposits and formations that contain groundwater likely are hydraulically connected because of the solid-matrix properties, such as substantive porosity, but shale layers such as those found in the Mancos Formation and Chinle Group likely restrict vertical flow. Existing water-level data indicate topologically downgradient flow in the Quaternary alluvium and indiscernible general flow patterns in the lower aquifers. According to previously published material and the geologic structure of the aquifers, the flow direction in the lower aquifers likely is in the opposite direction compared to the alluvium aquifer. Groundwater within the Chinle Group is known to be confined, which may allow upward migration of water into the Morrison Formation; however, confining layers within the Chinle Group likely retard upward leakage. Groundwater was sodium-bicarbonate/sulfate dominant or mixed cation-mixed anion with some calcium/bicarbonate water in the study area. The presence of the reduction/oxidation-sensitive elements iron and manganese in groundwater indicates reducing

  20. North Central Regional Geologic Characterization Report. Executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final North Central Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RGCR presents available regional geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  1. Northeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report: executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final Northeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RGCR presents available regional geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. 5 refs., 3 figs

  2. Southeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report. Executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final Southeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) is issued primarily for public information purposes, and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RGCR presents available regional geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  3. Engineering Geological Conditions of the Ignalina NPP Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buceviciute, S.

    1996-01-01

    During engineering geological mapping, the upper part (to 15-20 m depths) of the lithosphere was investigated at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) for physical rock characteristics and recent exogenic geological processes and phenomena. The final result of engineering geological mapping was the division of the area into engineering geological regions. In this case five engineering geological regions have been distinguished. The Fig. shows a scheme of engineering geological regionalization of the area and the typical sections of the engineering geological regions. The sections show genesis, age, soil type, thickness of stratigraphic genetical complex for the rocks occurring in the zone of active effect of engineering buildings, as well as the conical strength and density of the distinguished soils. 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Regional geology of the Pine Creek Geosyncline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needham, R.S.; Crick, I.H.; Stuart-Smith, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    The Pine Creek Geosyncline comprises about 14km of chronostratigraphic mainly pelitic and psammitic Lower Proterozoic sediments with interlayered tuff units, resting on granitic late Archaean complexes exposed as three small domes. Sedimentation took place in one basin, and most stratigraphic units are represented throughout the basin. The sediments were regionally deformed and metamorphosed at 1800Ma. Tightly folded greenschist facies strata in the centre grade into isoclinally deformed amphibolite facies metamorphics in the west and northeast. Pre and post-orogenic continental tholeiites, and post-orogenic granite diapirs intrude the Lower Proterozoic metasediments, and the granites are surrounded by hornfels zones up to 10km wide in the greenschist facies terrane. Cover rocks of Carpentarian (Middle Proterozoic) and younger ages rest on all these rocks unconformably and conceal the original basin margins. The Lower Proterozoic metasediments are mainly pelites (about 75 percent) which are commonly carbonaceous, lesser psammites and carbonates (about 10 percent each), and minor rudites (about 5 percent). Volcanic rocks make up about 10 percent of the total sequence. The environment of deposition ranges from shallow-marine to supratidal and fluviatile for most of the sequence, and to flysch in the topmost part. Poor exposure and deep weathering over much of the area hampers correlation of rock units; the correlation preferred by the authors is presented, and possible alternatives are discussed. Regional geological observations pertinent to uranium ore genesis are described. (author)

  5. Geologic framework for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in sandstone reservoirs of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group, U.S. Gulf of Mexico region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eoff, Jennifer D.; Dubiel, Russell F.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Whidden, Katherine J.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is assessing the undiscovered oil and gas resources in sandstone reservoirs of the Upper Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group in onshore areas and State waters of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico region. The assessment is based on geologic elements of a total petroleum system. Four assessment units (AUs) are defined based on characterization of hydrocarbon source and reservoir rocks, seals, traps, and the geohistory of the hydrocarbon products. Strata in each AU share similar stratigraphic, structural, and hydrocarbon-charge histories.

  6. Geologic evolution of Tucurui region - Para

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Matta, M.A. da.

    1982-01-01

    The northern part of the Araguaia Belt is exposed in the Tucurui region and their stratigraphic, structural, metamorphic and magmatic features had been studied aiming at contributing for the understanding of the geological evolution of the area. Dating with R-Sr and K-At are also presented, allowing some association for the lythotype of Xingu complex and Araguaia Belt. The oldest stratigraphic unit of the area is represented by the Xingu Complex, composed by gneisses and granites and subordinated schists and anphibolites. Over this unit, during the niddle Proterozoic, the Tucurui group was developed. The bottom of this unit is composed by a sequence of tholeiitic basaltic flows which were here enclosed in the Caripe Formation. The Morrote Formation, is made up of graywackes, and constitutes the upper part of the Tucurui Group. The geossinolinal evolution of the Araguaia Belt took place during the Uruacuano Cycle. This geoteotonic unit is represented in the studied area by the Couto Magalhaes Formation (Tocantins Group) which comprises pelitic and psamitic metasediments. After the metamorphism of the Araguaia Belt, the Couto Magalhaes Formation acted as the place of mafic and ultramafic intrusion and, lately, the Tucurui Fault thrusted the metamorphic rocks of the Tocantins Group over the Tucurui Group lithetypes. (author)

  7. D Geological Framework Models as a Teaching Aid for Geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, H.; Ward, E.; Geological ModelsTeaching Project Team

    2010-12-01

    3D geological models have great potential as a resource for universities when teaching foundation geological concepts as it allows the student to visualise and interrogate UK geology. They are especially useful when dealing with the conversion of 2D field, map and GIS outputs into three dimensional geological units, which is a common problem for all students of geology. Today’s earth science students use a variety of skills and processes during their learning experience including the application of schema’s, spatial thinking, image construction, detecting patterns, memorising figures, mental manipulation and interpretation, making predictions and deducing the orientation of themselves and the rocks. 3D geological models can reinforce spatial thinking strategies and encourage students to think about processes and properties, in turn helping the student to recognise pre-learnt geological principles in the field and to convert what they see at the surface into a picture of what is going on at depth. Learning issues faced by students may also be encountered by experts, policy managers, and stakeholders when dealing with environmental problems. Therefore educational research of student learning in earth science may also improve environmental decision making. 3D geological framework models enhance the learning of Geosciences because they: ● enable a student to observe, manipulate and interpret geology; in particular the models instantly convert two-dimensional geology (maps, boreholes and cross-sections) into three dimensions which is a notoriously difficult geospatial skill to acquire. ● can be orientated to whatever the user finds comfortable and most aids recognition and interpretation. ● can be used either to teach geosciences to complete beginners or add to experienced students body of knowledge (whatever point that may be at). Models could therefore be packaged as a complete educational journey or students and tutor can select certain areas of the model

  8. Mining and geologic site investigation of Minas de Corrales region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrighetti, R.; Pena, S.; Rossi, P.; Vaz Chavez, N.

    1981-01-01

    The present geologic article integrates the Mining inventory Program that was carried out in our country, with the participation of the 8.R.G.M. (France) and the Institute Geologic of the Uruguay. The main area which the work was developed it was object of gold exploration and exploitation from ends of the passed century. It was located in the region of Cunapiru-Vichadero (Rivera province), which it was still called from a geologic point of view, The Crystalline Island .

  9. Impact of Geological Changes on Regional and Global Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatiana, Skufina; Peter, Skuf'in; Vera, Samarina; Taisiya, Shatalova; Baranov, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    Periods of geological changes such as super continent cycle (300-500 million years), Wilson's cycles (300-900 million years), magmatic-tectonic cycle (150-200 million years), and cycles with smaller periods (22, 100, 1000 years) lead to a basic contradiction preventing forming methodology of the study of impact of geological changes on the global and regional economies. The reason of this contradiction is the differences of theoretical and methodological aspects of the Earth science and economics such as different time scales and accuracy of geological changes. At the present the geological models cannot provide accurate estimation of time and place where geological changes (strong earthquakes, volcanos) are expected. Places of feature (not next) catastrophic events are the only thing we have known. Thus, it is impossible to use the periodicity to estimate both geological changes and their consequences. Taking into accounts these factors we suggested a collection of concepts for estimating impact of possible geological changes on regional and global economies. We illustrated our approach by example of estimating impact of Tohoku earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 on regional and global economies. Based on this example we concluded that globalization processes increase an impact of geological changes on regional and global levels. The research is supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Projects No. 16-06-00056, 16-32-00019, 16-05-00263A).

  10. Geology and mineral technology of the grants uranium region 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    Forty six papers which were presented at the 1979 Symposium on the Geology of the Grants Uranium Region plus three more are included in this Proceedings. The papers cover the geology of the Grants region with discussions of exploration history and methods, individual deposits, petrographic investigations, field studies mining and experimental studies. Other topics such as ground water hydrology and severence taxes are also included. All papers have been abstracted and all but four have been indexed

  11. State and Regional Control of Geological Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitze, Arnold [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Durrant, Marie [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The United States has economically recoverable coal reserves of about 261 billion tons, which is in excess of a 250-­year supply based on 2009 consumption rates. However, in the near future the use of coal may be legally restricted because of concerns over the effects of its combustion on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Carbon capture and geologic sequestration offer one method to reduce carbon emissions from coal and other hydrocarbon energy production. While the federal government is providing increased funding for carbon capture and sequestration, recent congressional legislative efforts to create a framework for regulating carbon emissions have failed. However, regional and state bodies have taken significant actions both to regulate carbon and facilitate its capture and sequestration. This article explores how regional bodies and state government are addressing the technical and legal problems that must be resolved in order to have a viable carbon sequestration program. Several regional bodies have formed regulations and model laws that affect carbon capture and storage, and three bodies comprising twenty-three states—the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, the Midwest Regional Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord, and the Western Climate initiative—have cap-­and-trade programs in various stages of development. State property, land use and environmental laws affect the development and implementation of carbon capture and sequestration projects, and unless federal standards are imposed, state laws on torts and renewable portfolio requirements will directly affect the liability and viability of these projects. This paper examines current state laws and legislative efforts addressing carbon capture and sequestration.

  12. Northeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, postemplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major ground-water discharge zones, ground-water resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crusal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline bodies; ground-water resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented on the relationship between the US Department of Energy (DOE) Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  13. North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, groundwater resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process. 43 figs., 15 tabs

  14. Petroleum geology framework, southeast Bowser Basin, British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggart, J.W. [Geological Survey of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Mahoney, J.B. [Wisconsin Univ., Eau Claire, WS (United States). Dept. of Geology

    2003-07-01

    There are significant coal resources in the northern regions of the Bowser basin in north-central British Columbia. However, the resource potential of the southern part of the basin has not been assessed, therefore the hydrocarbon potential is not known. Geological maps indicate several Mesozoic clastic and volcanic units across the southern part of the basin. Two stratigraphic intervals of the southern Bowser basin are considered to be potential source rocks within the Jurassic-Cretaceous strata. The fine-grained clastic rocks of the Bowser Lake Group contain significant amounts of carbonaceous material or organic matter. Well developed cleavage indicates that the rocks may be thermally over mature. This paper described potential reservoir rocks within the basin, along with their thermal maturation and conceptual play. 4 figs.

  15. Geological disposal of radioactive wastes: national commitment, local and regional involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-07-01

    Long-term radioactive waste management, including geological disposal, involves the construction of a limited number of facilities and it is therefore a national challenge with a strong local/regional dimension. Public information, consultation and/or participation in environmental or technological decision-making are today's best practice and must take place at the different geographical and political scales. Large-scale technology projects are much more likely to be accepted when stakeholders have been involved in making them possible and have developed a sense of interest in or responsibility for them. In this way, national commitment, and local and regional involvement are two essential dimensions of the complex task of securing continued societal agreement for the deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. Long-term radioactive waste management, including geological disposal, is a national challenge with a strong local/regional dimension. The national policy frameworks increasingly support participatory, flexible and accountable processes. Radioactive waste management institutions are evolving away from a technocratic stance, demonstrating constructive interest in learning and adapting to societal requirements. Empowerment of the local and regional actors has been growing steadily in the last decade. Regional and local players tend to take an active role concerning the siting and implementation of geological repositories. National commitment and local/regional involvement go hand-in-hand in supporting sustainable decisions for the geological disposal of radioactive waste

  16. Evaluation of uncertainty in geological framework models at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagtzoglou, A.C.; Stirewalt, G.L.; Henderson, D.B.; Seida, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    The first step towards determining compliance with the performance objectives for both the repository system and the geologic setting at Yucca Mountain requires the development of detailed geostratigraphic models. This paper proposes an approach for the evaluation of the degree of uncertainty inherent in geologic maps and associated three-dimensional geological models. Following this approach, an assessment of accuracy and completeness of the data and evaluation of conceptual uncertainties in the geological framework models can be performed

  17. Rocks and geology in the San Francisco Bay region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2002-01-01

    The landscape of the San Francisco Bay region is host to a greater variety of rocks than most other regions in the United States. This introductory guide provides illustrated descriptions of 46 common and important varieties of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rock found in the region. Rock types are described in context of their identification qualities, how they form, and where they occur in the region. The guide also provides discussion about of regional geology, plate tectonics, the rock cycle, the significance of the selected rock types in relation to both earth history and the impact of mineral resources on the development in the region. Maps and text also provide information where rocks, fossils, and geologic features can be visited on public lands or in association with public displays in regional museums, park visitor centers, and other public facilities.

  18. Southeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on the geological disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geological factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, postemplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major ground-water discharge zones, ground-water resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on the age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline bodies; ground-water resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies

  19. Database for Regional Geology, Phase 1: A Tool for Informing Regional Evaluations of Alternative Geologic Media and Decision Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelley, Richard E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Birdsell, Suzanne M. [Clark Univ., Worcester, MA (United States); Lugo, Alexander Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dobson, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Houseworth, James [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-11-12

    Reported is progress in the following areas: Phase 1 and 2 websites for the regional geology GIS database; terrane maps of crystalline basement rocks; inventory of shale formations in the US; and rock properties and in-situ conditions for shale estimated from sonic velocity measurements.

  20. Recent activity of the regional geologic structures in western Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Bavec

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Several important geological structures in the western Slovenia were identifiedas active and their activity was quantified. Geologic interpretation is based on the analysis of repeated leveling line campaigns data along the Sečovlje–Bled polygon. Taking intoaccount the limitations of the method – only the vertical component of displacement is measured – the following structures were identified as active:a juvenile syncline between Strunjan and Koper, the Kras Imbricate Structure, the Diva~a fault, the Ra{a fault, the Southalpine Front and the Julian Alps thrust. Vertical movement rate is relative, calculated with respect to the benchmark in Sečovlje. The largest uplift rate difference between Sečovlje and Bled is 7 mm/a.Vertical Geodynamic Activity (VGA is introduced as a link between geologic interpretation of geodetic measurements on one side and possible applications on the other as well as a mean of comparison between tectonically active regions.

  1. Geological Structure and Radon Hazards in Lublin Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucjan Gazda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to show the relationship between the geological structure of the Lublin region (eastern Poland and radon concentrations in the ground air, and therefore, in the indoor environment of buildings located in that area. The study was based on the information pertaining to the geological structure of Lublin region available in the literature. The radon concentrations in buildings, caves, wells, as well as coal, phosphate and chalk mines were measured with both passive and active methods. Elemental analyses and uranium and lead isotope analyses of ground rocks were also performed. The conducted studies indicated that the sources of radon in Lublin region constitute Paleogene and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks rich in radionuclides. Application of radon remediation methods is recommended in the existing buildings located in the vicinity of these rocks, which are characterized by relatively high radon exhalations. On the other hand, the designed buildings should employ the measures protecting against harmful effects of radon presence.

  2. Siting regions for deep geological repositories. Why just here?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, A.

    2009-09-01

    This report helps to the popularization of the Nagra works accomplished for the management and disposal of the radioactive wastes in Switzerland. The programme for management and disposal of the radioactive wastes are extensively determined by regulations. Protection of mankind and environment is the primary objective. The basic storage process is considered as having been solved. The question addressed in the report is where the facility has to be built; the site selection procedure includes five steps: 1) according to their type the wastes have to be allocated to two different repositories: for low- and intermediate-level wastes (L/ILW), and for high-level and alpha-toxic wastes (HLW); 2) the safety concept for both repositories and the requirements on the geology have to be determined; 3) large suitable geological-tectonic zones must be found where repositories could be built; 4) in these geological zones a suitable host rock has to be identified; 5) the most important spatial geological conditions of the host rock (minimum depth with respect to surface erosion, maximum depth in terms of engineering requirements, lateral extent) have to be identified. Based on these criteria, three suitable siting regions for a HLW repository were found in the North of Switzerland. The preferred host rock is Opalinus clay because of its very low permeability; it is therefore an excellent barrier against nuclide transport. In the three proposed siting regions, Opalinus clay is present in sufficient volumes at a suitable depth. For a L/ILW repository six different possible siting regions were identified, five in Northern Switzerland and one in Central Switzerland. In the three siting regions found for a possible HLW repository, it would also be possible to built a combined repository for both HLW and L/ILW wastes

  3. A Bayesian Framework of Uncertainties Integration in 3D Geological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, D.; Liu, X.

    2017-12-01

    3D geological model can describe complicated geological phenomena in an intuitive way while its application may be limited by uncertain factors. Great progress has been made over the years, lots of studies decompose the uncertainties of geological model to analyze separately, while ignored the comprehensive impacts of multi-source uncertainties. Great progress has been made over the years, while lots of studies ignored the comprehensive impacts of multi-source uncertainties when analyzed them item by item from each source. To evaluate the synthetical uncertainty, we choose probability distribution to quantify uncertainty, and propose a bayesian framework of uncertainties integration. With this framework, we integrated data errors, spatial randomness, and cognitive information into posterior distribution to evaluate synthetical uncertainty of geological model. Uncertainties propagate and cumulate in modeling process, the gradual integration of multi-source uncertainty is a kind of simulation of the uncertainty propagation. Bayesian inference accomplishes uncertainty updating in modeling process. Maximum entropy principle makes a good effect on estimating prior probability distribution, which ensures the prior probability distribution subjecting to constraints supplied by the given information with minimum prejudice. In the end, we obtained a posterior distribution to evaluate synthetical uncertainty of geological model. This posterior distribution represents the synthetical impact of all the uncertain factors on the spatial structure of geological model. The framework provides a solution to evaluate synthetical impact on geological model of multi-source uncertainties and a thought to study uncertainty propagation mechanism in geological modeling.

  4. Geologic Map of the Hellas Region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Gregory J.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This geologic map of the Hellas region focuses on the stratigraphic, structural, and erosional histories associated with the largest well-preserved impact basin on Mars. Along with the uplifted rim and huge, partly infilled inner basin (Hellas Planitia) of the Hellas basin impact structure, the map region includes areas of ancient highland terrain, broad volcanic edifices and deposits, and extensive channels. Geologic activity recorded in the region spans all major epochs of martian chronology, from the early formation of the impact basin to ongoing resurfacing caused by eolian activity. The Hellas region, whose name refers to the classical term for Greece, has been known from telescopic observations as a prominent bright feature on the surface of Mars for more than a century (see Blunck, 1982). More recently, spacecraft imaging has greatly improved our visual perception of Mars and made possible its geologic interpretation. Here, our mapping at 1:5,000,000 scale is based on images obtained by the Viking Orbiters, which produced higher quality images than their predecessor, Mariner 9. Previous geologic maps of the region include those of the 1:5,000,000-scale global series based on Mariner 9 images (Potter, 1976; Peterson, 1977; King, 1978); the 1:15,000,000-scale global series based on Viking images (Greeley and Guest, 1987; Tanaka and Scott, 1987); and detailed 1:500,000-scale maps of Tyrrhena Patera (Gregg and others, 1998), Dao, Harmakhis, and Reull Valles (Price, 1998; Mest and Crown, in press), Hadriaca Patera (D.A. Crown and R. Greeley, map in preparation), and western Hellas Planitia (J.M. Moore and D.E. Wilhelms, map in preparation). We incorporated some of the previous work, but our map differs markedly in the identification and organization of map units. For example, we divide the Hellas assemblage of Greeley and Guest (1987) into the Hellas Planitia and Hellas rim assemblages and change the way units within these groupings are identified

  5. Geologic map of the Nepenthes Planum Region, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, James A.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    2018-03-26

    This map product contains a map sheet at 1:1,506,000 scale that shows the geology of the Nepenthes Planum region of Mars, which is located between the cratered highlands that dominate the southern hemisphere and the less-cratered sedimentary plains that dominate the northern hemisphere.  The map region contains cone- and mound-shaped landforms as well as lobate materials that are morphologically similar to terrestrial igneous or mud vents and flows. This map is part of an informal series of small-scale (large-area) maps aimed at refining current understanding of the geologic units and structures that make up the highland-to-lowland transition zone. The map base consists of a controlled Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) daytime infrared image mosaic (100 meters per pixel resolution) supplemented by a Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) digital elevation model (463 meters per pixel resolution). The map includes a Description of Map Units and a Correlation of Map Units that describes and correlates units identified across the entire map region. The geologic map was assembled using ArcGIS software by Environmental Systems Research Institute (http://www.esri.com). The ArcGIS project, geodatabase, base map, and all map components are included online as supplemental data.

  6. Statistical modeling of the long-range-dependent structure of barrier island framework geology and surface geomorphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Weymer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Shorelines exhibit long-range dependence (LRD and have been shown in some environments to be described in the wave number domain by a power-law characteristic of scale independence. Recent evidence suggests that the geomorphology of barrier islands can, however, exhibit scale dependence as a result of systematic variations in the underlying framework geology. The LRD of framework geology, which influences island geomorphology and its response to storms and sea level rise, has not been previously examined. Electromagnetic induction (EMI surveys conducted along Padre Island National Seashore (PAIS, Texas, United States, reveal that the EMI apparent conductivity (σa signal and, by inference, the framework geology exhibits LRD at scales of up to 101 to 102 km. Our study demonstrates the utility of describing EMI σa and lidar spatial series by a fractional autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA process that specifically models LRD. This method offers a robust and compact way of quantifying the geological variations along a barrier island shoreline using three statistical parameters (p, d, q. We discuss how ARIMA models that use a single parameter d provide a quantitative measure for determining free and forced barrier island evolutionary behavior across different scales. Statistical analyses at regional, intermediate, and local scales suggest that the geologic framework within an area of paleo-channels exhibits a first-order control on dune height. The exchange of sediment amongst nearshore, beach, and dune in areas outside this region are scale independent, implying that barrier islands like PAIS exhibit a combination of free and forced behaviors that affect the response of the island to sea level rise.

  7. Statistical modeling of the long-range-dependent structure of barrier island framework geology and surface geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymer, Bradley A.; Wernette, Phillipe; Everett, Mark E.; Houser, Chris

    2018-06-01

    Shorelines exhibit long-range dependence (LRD) and have been shown in some environments to be described in the wave number domain by a power-law characteristic of scale independence. Recent evidence suggests that the geomorphology of barrier islands can, however, exhibit scale dependence as a result of systematic variations in the underlying framework geology. The LRD of framework geology, which influences island geomorphology and its response to storms and sea level rise, has not been previously examined. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) surveys conducted along Padre Island National Seashore (PAIS), Texas, United States, reveal that the EMI apparent conductivity (σa) signal and, by inference, the framework geology exhibits LRD at scales of up to 101 to 102 km. Our study demonstrates the utility of describing EMI σa and lidar spatial series by a fractional autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) process that specifically models LRD. This method offers a robust and compact way of quantifying the geological variations along a barrier island shoreline using three statistical parameters (p, d, q). We discuss how ARIMA models that use a single parameter d provide a quantitative measure for determining free and forced barrier island evolutionary behavior across different scales. Statistical analyses at regional, intermediate, and local scales suggest that the geologic framework within an area of paleo-channels exhibits a first-order control on dune height. The exchange of sediment amongst nearshore, beach, and dune in areas outside this region are scale independent, implying that barrier islands like PAIS exhibit a combination of free and forced behaviors that affect the response of the island to sea level rise.

  8. Revised draft: Southeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia. For each of the states within the southeastern region, information is provided on the disqualifying factor and the screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These factors and variables include hydrologically significant natural resources, rock mass extent, postemplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major ground-water discharge zones, water resources, ground-water salinity, and state of stress. Information is presented on the age, areal extent, shape, thickness of overburden, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the subject rock bodies. A discussion of the relationship between the DOE Siting Guidelines and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process is also presented

  9. Revised draft: North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the disqualifying factor and the screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These factors and variables include hydrologically significant natural resources, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, water resources, groundwater salinity, and state of stress. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, thickness of overburden, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the subject rock bodies. A discussion of the relationship between the DOE Siting Guidelines and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process is also presented

  10. Geologic hazards in the region of the Hurricane fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    Complex geology and variable topography along the 250-kilometer-long Hurricane fault in northwestern Arizona and southwestern Utah combine to create natural conditions that can present a potential danger to life and property. Geologic hazards are of particular concern in southwestern Utah, where the St. George Basin and Interstate-15 corridor north to Cedar City are one of Utah's fastest growing areas. Lying directly west of the Hurricane fault and within the Basin and Range - Colorado Plateau transition zone, this region exhibits geologic characteristics of both physiographic provinces. Long, potentially active, normal-slip faults displace a generally continuous stratigraphic section of mostly east-dipping late Paleozoic to Cretaceous sedimentary rocks unconformably overlain by Tertiary to Holocene sedimentary and igneous rocks and unconsolidated basin-fill deposits. Geologic hazards (exclusive of earthquake hazards) of principal concern in the region include problem soil and rock, landslides, shallow ground water, and flooding. Geologic materials susceptible to volumetric change, collapse, and subsidence in southwestern Utah include; expansive soil and rock, collapse-prone soil, gypsum and gypsiferous soil, soluble carbonate rocks, and soil and rock subject to piping and other ground collapse. Expansive soil and rock are widespread throughout the region. The Petrified Forest Member of the Chinle Formation is especially prone to large volume changes with variations in moisture content. Collapse-prone soils are common in areas of Cedar City underlain by alluvial-fan material derived from the Moenkopi and Chinle Formations in the nearby Hurricane Cliffs. Gypsiferous soil and rock are subject to dissolution which can damage foundations and create sinkholes. The principal formations in the region affected by dissolution of carbonate are the Kaibab and Toroweap Formations; both formations have developed sinkholes where crossed by perennial streams. Soil piping is

  11. A study on the regional geological setting of uranium metallogenesis in Lu-Zong region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yifeng; Ma Changming; Fan Huanxin

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a new understanding of features of main ore-bearing horizons and magmatic rocks, evolution regularities, regional tectonic characteristics and the compositions and formation of the Yangtze tectonic belt in Lu-Zong region. Favourable horizons, magmatic series of Yangtze-type crust-mantle mixed melting magmatic rocks, activities of regional gigantic deep-seated faults and their subsidiary structures provided good regional geological setting for the formation of uranium and polymetallic mineral resources in this region

  12. Overview of the regional geology of the Paradox Basin Study Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    The Geologic Project Manager for the Paradox Basin Salt Region (PBSR), Woodward-Clyde Consultants, has conducted geologic studies to characterize the region and evaluate selected geologic formations as potential repositories for the storage and disposal of nuclear waste. Evaluations have been made from the standpoint of engineering feasibility, safety, public health, and resource conflicts. The Regulatory Project Manager for the PBSR, Bechtel National, Inc., has performed environmental characterizations to ensure that data on ecological, socioeconomic, and other environmental factors required by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 are considered. This report characterizes, at a regional overview level of detail, the Paradox Basin Study Region Geology. Information sources include the published literature, field trip guidebooks, open file data of the US Geological Survey (USGC) and Utah Geologic and Mineral Survey, university theses, Geo-Ref Computer Search, and various unpublished sources of subsurface data such as well logs. Existing information has been synthesized and characterized. No field work was conducted as part of this study. Where possible, attempts were made to evaluate the data. All results of this study are subject to change as more data become available

  13. A preliminary three-dimensional geological framework model for Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirewalt, G.L.; Henderson, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary three-dimensional geological framework model has been developed for the potential high-level radioactive waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain. The model is based on field data and was constructed using EarthVision (Version 2.0) software. It provides the basic geological framework in which variations in geological parameters and features in and adjacent to the repository block can be illustrated and analyzed. With further refinement and modification of the model through incorporation of additional data, it can be used by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff to determine whether representation of subsurface geological features in Department of Energy models is reasonable. Consequently, NRC staff will be able to use the model during pre-licensing and licensing phases to assess models for analyses of site suitability, design considerations, and repository performance

  14. Medical geology in the framework of the sustainable development goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Jochen; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Mushtaq, Shahbaz; Vithanage, Meththika; Seneweera, Saman; Schneider, Jerusa; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Khan, Nasreen Islam; Hamawand, Ihsan; Guilherme, Luiz R G; Reardon-Smith, Kathryn; Parvez, Faruque; Morales-Simfors, Nury; Ghaze, Sara; Pudmenzky, Christa; Kouadio, Louis; Chen, Chien-Yen

    2017-03-01

    Exposure to geogenic contaminants (GCs) such as metal(loid)s, radioactive metals and isotopes as well as transuraniums occurring naturally in geogenic sources (rocks, minerals) can negatively impact on environmental and human health. The GCs are released into the environment by natural biogeochemical processes within the near-surface environments and/or by anthropogenic activities such as mining and hydrocarbon exploitation as well as exploitation of geothermal resources. They can contaminate soil, water, air and biota and subsequently enter the food chain with often serious health impacts which are mostly underestimated and poorly recognized. Global population explosion and economic growth and the associated increase in demand for water, energy, food, and mineral resources result in accelerated release of GCs globally. The emerging science of "medical geology" assesses the complex relationships between geo-environmental factors and their impacts on humans and environments and is related to the majority of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals in the 2030 Agenda of the United Nations for Sustainable Development. In this paper, we identify multiple lines of evidence for the role of GCs in the incidence of diseases with as yet unknown etiology (causation). Integrated medical geology promises a more holistic understanding of the occurrence, mobility, bioavailability, bio-accessibility, exposure and transfer mechanisms of GCs to the food-chain and humans, and the related ecotoxicological impacts and health effects. Scientific evidence based on this approach will support adaptive solutions for prevention, preparedness and response regarding human and environmental health impacts originating from exposure to GCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Regional stratigraphy and geologic history of Mare Crisium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. W., III; Adams, J. B.; Mccord, T. B.; Pieters, C.; Zisk, S.

    1978-01-01

    Remote sensing and Luna 24 sample data are used to develop a summary of the regional stratigraphy and geologic history of Mare Crisium. Laboratory spectra of Luna 24 samples, telescopic reflectance spectra in the 0.3 to 1.1 micron range and orbital X-ray data have identified three major basalt groups in the region. Group I soil is derived from iron- and magnesium-rich titaniferous basalts and was apparently emplaced over the majority of the basin, however is presently exposed as a shelf in the southwest part. Group II soils, derived from very low titanium ferrobasalts, were emplaced in two stages subsequent to Group I emplacement and now appear as part of the outer shelf and topographic annulus. Subsidence of the basin interior preceded and continued after the emplacement of the third basalt group, a soil derived from a low titanium ferrobasalt. The Luna 24 site is found to be within a patch of Group II material.

  16. Geologic Setting and Hydrogeologic Units of the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Sue C.; Olsen, Theresa D.; Morgan, David S.

    2009-01-01

    The Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System (CPRAS) covers approximately 44,000 square miles of northeastern Oregon, southeastern Washington, and western Idaho. The area supports a $6 billion per year agricultural industry, leading the Nation in production of apples and nine other commodities (State of Washington Office of Financial Management, 2007; U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2007). Groundwater availability in the aquifers of the area is a critical water-resource management issue because the water demand for agriculture, economic development, and ecological needs is high. The primary aquifers of the CPRAS are basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) and overlying basin-fill sediments. Water-resources issues that have implications for future groundwater availability in the region include (1) widespread water-level declines associated with development of groundwater resources for irrigation and other uses, (2) reduction in base flow to rivers and associated effects on temperature and water quality, and (3) current and anticipated effects of global climate change on recharge, base flow, and ultimately, groundwater availability. As part of a National Groundwater Resources Program, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study of the CPRAS in 2007 with the broad goals of (1) characterizing the hydrologic status of the system, (2) identifying trends in groundwater storage and use, and (3) quantifying groundwater availability. The study approach includes documenting changes in the status of the system, quantifying the hydrologic budget for the system, updating the regional hydrogeologic framework, and developing a groundwater-flow simulation model for the system. The simulation model will be used to evaluate and test the conceptual model of the system and later to evaluate groundwater availability under alternative development and climate scenarios. The objectives of this study were to update the hydrogeologic framework for the CPRAS using the available

  17. Geologic Map of the Shenandoah National Park Region, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, Scott; Aleinikoff, John N.; Bailey, Christopher M.; Burton, William C.; Crider, E.A.; Hackley, Paul C.; Smoot, Joseph P.; Tollo, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    The geology of the Shenandoah National Park region of Virginia was studied from 1995 to 2008. The focus of the study was the park and surrounding areas to provide the National Park Service with modern geologic data for resource management. Additional geologic data of the adjacent areas are included to provide regional context. The geologic map can be used to support activities such as ecosystem delineation, land-use planning, soil mapping, groundwater availability and quality studies, aggregate resources assessment, and engineering and environmental studies. The study area is centered on the Shenandoah National Park, which is mostly situated in the western part of the Blue Ridge province. The map covers the central section and western limb of the Blue Ridge-South Mountain anticlinorium. The Skyline Drive and Appalachian National Scenic Trail straddle the drainage divide of the Blue Ridge highlands. Water drains northwestward to the South Fork of the Shenandoah River and southeastward to the James and Rappahannock Rivers. East of the park, the Blue Ridge is an area of low relief similar to the physiography of the Piedmont province. The Great Valley section of the Valley and Ridge province is west of Blue Ridge and consists of Page Valley and Massanutten Mountain. The distribution and types of surficial deposits and landforms closely correspond to the different physiographic provinces and their respective bedrock. The Shenandoah National Park is underlain by three general groups of rock units: (1) Mesoproterozoic granitic gneisses and granitoids, (2) Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Swift Run Formation and metabasalt of the Catoctin Formation, and (3) siliciclastic rocks of the Lower Cambrian Chilhowee Group. The gneisses and granitoids mostly underlie the lowlands east of Blue Ridge but also rugged peaks like Old Rag Mountain (996 meter). Metabasalt underlies much of the highlands, like Stony Man (1,200 meters). The siliciclastic rocks underlie linear

  18. Regional frameworks applied to hydrology: can landscape-based frameworks capture the hydrologic variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. McManamay; D. Orth; C. Dolloff; E. Frimpong

    2011-01-01

    Regional frameworks have been used extensively in recent years to aid in broad-scale management. Widely used landscape-based regional frameworks, such as hydrologic landscape regions (HLRs) and physiographic provinces, may provide predictive tools of hydrologic variability. However, hydrologic-based regional frameworks, created using only streamflow data, are also...

  19. Revised draft: Northeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on the disqualifying factor and the screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These factors and variables include: hydrologically significant natural resources, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major ground-water discharge zones, water resources, ground-water salinity, and state of stress. Information is presented on its age, areal extent, shape, thickness of overburden, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, rock mass thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline bodies; ground-water resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the subject rock bodies

  20. Data to Support Development of Geologic Framework Models for the Deep Borehole Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelley, Richard E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-14

    This report summarizes work conducted in FY2017 to identify and document publically available data for developing a Geologic Framework Model (GFM) for the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT). Data was collected for all four of the sites being considered in 2017 for a DBFT site.

  1. Preserving Geological Samples and Metadata from Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunow, A.; Sjunneskog, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Office of Polar Programs at the National Science Foundation (NSF-OPP) has long recognized the value of preserving earth science collections due to the inherent logistical challenges and financial costs of collecting geological samples from Polar Regions. NSF-OPP established two national facilities to make Antarctic geological samples and drill cores openly and freely available for research. The Antarctic Marine Geology Research Facility (AMGRF) at Florida State University was established in 1963 and archives Antarctic marine sediment cores, dredge samples and smear slides along with ship logs. The United States Polar Rock Repository (USPRR) at Ohio State University was established in 2003 and archives polar rock samples, marine dredges, unconsolidated materials and terrestrial cores, along with associated materials such as field notes, maps, raw analytical data, paleomagnetic cores, thin sections, microfossil mounts, microslides and residues. The existence of the AMGRF and USPRR helps to minimize redundant sample collecting, lessen the environmental impact of doing polar field work, facilitates field logistics planning and complies with the data sharing requirement of the Antarctic Treaty. USPRR acquires collections through donations from institutions and scientists and then makes these samples available as no-cost loans for research, education and museum exhibits. The AMGRF acquires sediment cores from US based and international collaboration drilling projects in Antarctica. Destructive research techniques are allowed on the loaned samples and loan requests are accepted from any accredited scientific institution in the world. Currently, the USPRR has more than 22,000 cataloged rock samples available to scientists from around the world. All cataloged samples are relabeled with a USPRR number, weighed, photographed and measured for magnetic susceptibility. Many aspects of the sample metadata are included in the database, e.g. geographical location, sample

  2. Research of mining and geological conditions for geological exploration in Pre-Caucasian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р. А. Гасумов

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration natural depletion of reserves of hydrocarbons in Mesozoic deposits of the majority of operated deposits of North Caucasus and for the purpose of further development of oil and gas producing industry in the region it is necessary to involve a carbonaceous complex of Jura of West Pre-Caucasus with the burial depth of more than 5300 m in the development. When drafting engineering design for a construction of exploratory wells in complex mining and geological conditions driven by anomalously high overburden pressure and temperature, use of thoroughly studied field geological information and taking into consideration the experience of boring similar wells is important. The paper provides analysis of geophysical data, the results of complex studies of reservoir porosity and permeability features of rocks picked out of core-samples of the first exploratory well on Krupskaya zone (porosity, permeability, electrical, acoustic, lithological characteristics, pressure-and-temperature conditions. The information obtained allowed to specify technological parameters of boring and tailing-in and to give recommendations regarding the way of exploratory wells boring and use of borehole equipment. In order to avoid the development of significant hydrodynamic pressure in the borehole which provokes gas showings it is necessary to keep on a certain level of minimal values of mud rheology parameters (dynamic shear stress τ = 70¸135 dPa; plastic viscosity η = 25¸35 mPa·s. For the purpose of real-time keeping of overbalance with anomalously high overburden pressure, control and regulation of calculated head pressure a stripper head should be included into the equipment configuration. Furthermore well head equipment and blowout preventer equipment must be designed for expected gradient of overburden pressure.

  3. Geology, tectonism and composition of the northwest Imbrium region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunzhao; Li, Lin; Luo, Xiaoxing; Lu, Yu; Chen, Yuan; Pieters, Carle M.; Basilevsky, Alexander T.; Head, James W.

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the regional geology of the northwest Imbrium region in which the Chang'E-3 (CE-3) landing site is located. CE-3 successfully landed on December 14, 2013 on the unsampled Eratosthenian basalts whose study is important for understanding the evolution of the Moon. New geologic and structural maps of the research area were produced through the integrated analysis of diverse datasets. The highlands surrounding Imbrium differ from typical Farside Highlands Terrain (FHT). The Iridum highland region (as well as the surrounding Imbrium region) exhibits elevated concentrations of Fe, and abundant local exposures of low-Ca pyroxene and olivine bearing lithologies. In this study these highlands are named as mafic highlands (MH). Our dating results using crater size-frequency distributions (CSFDs) show that the Iridum basin (hosting Sinus Iridum) was formed ∼3.8 Ga, shortly following the Imbrium basin formation and before the last large multiringed basin, Orientale. The Eratosthenian period of lunar basalt eruptions, which lasted longer than other stratigraphic units, is suggested to divide into the Lower Eratosthenian mare (LEm) and Upper Eratosthenian mare (UEm) units. This subdivision is based on whether lava fronts can be clearly seen or not and the age separating the units is 2.35 Ga. The mafic mineralogy of the mare basalts in Imbrium is characterized by abundant olivine in the Eratosthenian-aged basalts and average pyroxene compositions near pigeonite to sub-calcic augite in the Imbrian and Em1 units. The thickness of individual lava for UEm units is 8-11 m, indicative of high effusion rates. The thickness of the Em3 unit ranges from ∼17 m to ∼45 m with lesser thickness to the west and greater thickness in the interior and to the east. The estimated volume and average flux of the Eratosthenian-aged basalts are greater than previously thought. The presence of these youngest basalts in the Procellarum-KREEP terrain (PKT) is

  4. Ultrapotassic rocks geology from Salgueiro region, Pernambuco state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Filho, A.F. da; Guimaraes, I.P.

    1990-01-01

    The Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro belt has Proterozoic age and is located in the Borborema Province, NE Brazil. The ultrapotassic rocks from Salgueiro region intrudes the Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro belt rocks. The ultrapotassics from Salgueiro region constitutes of three units; Serra do Livramento pluton, and two dyke swarms called respectively beige alkali feldspar granites and green alkali feldspar syenite/quartz-syenite. The Serra do Livramento pluton shows E-W direction, boudin shape, width between 0,15 and 2,10 km, and it is intruded into metamorphic rocks and into the Terra Nova complex. Detailed geological mapping at the Serra das Duas Irmas allowed us to establish the dyke swarm chronology. The mapping reveals seven intrusion episodes, into the Terra Nova pluton, of green alkali feldspar syenite/quartz-syenite and five episodes of bege alkali feldspar granite. They alternate between them in space and time, and there are evidence that they were intruded under the tectonic control of the Pernambuco lineament. A systematic whole-rock Rb-Sr geochronology was done in the green alkali feldspar syenite/quartz-syenite, and an age of 514,8 ± 20,3 Ma was obtained. The initial ratio is 0,710615 + 0,000441. The age obtained shows small error and an initial ratio compatible with a strong crustal contamination. (author)

  5. GIS Data Modeling of a Regional Geological Structure by Integrating Geometric and Semantic Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Handong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using GIS, data models of geology via geometric descriptions and expressions are being developed. However, the role played by these data models in terms of the description and expression of geological structure phenomenon is limited. To improve the semantic information in geological GIS data models, this study adopts an object-oriented method that describes and expresses the geometric and semantic features of the geological structure phenomenon using geological objects and designs a data model of regional geological structures by integrating geometry and semantics. Moreover, the study designs a semantic "vocabulary-explanation-graph" method for describing the geological phenomenon of structures. Based on the semantic features of regional geological structures and a linear classification method, it divides the regional geological structure phenomenon into 3 divisions, 10 groups, 33 classes and defines the element set and element class. Moreover, it builds the basic geometric network for geological elements based on the geometric and semantic relations among geological objects. Using the ArcGIS Diagrammer Geodatabase, it considers the regional geological structure of the Ning-Zhen Mountains to verify the data model, and the results indicate a high practicability.

  6. Geology of the Yucca Mountain Region, Chapter in Stuckless, J.S., ED., Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.S. Stuckless; D. O' Leary

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain has been proposed as the site for the Nation's first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This chapter provides the geologic framework for the Yucca Mountain region. The regional geologic units range in age from late Precambrian through Holocene, and these are described briefly. Yucca Mountain is composed dominantly of pyroclastic units that range in age from 11.4 to 15.2 Ma. The proposed repository would be constructed within the Topopah Spring Tuff, which is the lower of two major zoned and welded ash-flow tuffs within the Paintbrush Group. The two welded tuffs are separated by the partly to nonwelded Pah Canyon Tuff and Yucca Mountain Tuff, which together figure prominently in the hydrology of the unsaturated zone. The Quaternary deposits are primarily alluvial sediments with minor basaltic cinder cones and flows. Both have been studied extensively because of their importance in predicting the long-term performance of the proposed repository. Basaltic volcanism began about 10 Ma and continued as recently as about 80 ka with the eruption of cones and flows at Lathrop Wells, approximately 10 km south-southwest of Yucca Mountain. Geologic structure in the Yucca Mountain region is complex. During the latest Paleozoic and Mesozoic, strong compressional forces caused tight folding and thrust faulting. The present regional setting is one of extension, and normal faulting has been active from the Miocene through to the present. There are three major local tectonic domains: (1) Basin and Range, (2) Walker Lane, and (3) Inyo-Mono. Each domain has an effect on the stability of Yucca Mountain.

  7. Geology of the Yucca Mountain Region, Chapter in Stuckless, J.S., ED., Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.S. Stuckless; D. O'Leary

    2006-01-01

    Yucca Mountain has been proposed as the site for the Nation's first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This chapter provides the geologic framework for the Yucca Mountain region. The regional geologic units range in age from late Precambrian through Holocene, and these are described briefly. Yucca Mountain is composed dominantly of pyroclastic units that range in age from 11.4 to 15.2 Ma. The proposed repository would be constructed within the Topopah Spring Tuff, which is the lower of two major zoned and welded ash-flow tuffs within the Paintbrush Group. The two welded tuffs are separated by the partly to nonwelded Pah Canyon Tuff and Yucca Mountain Tuff, which together figure prominently in the hydrology of the unsaturated zone. The Quaternary deposits are primarily alluvial sediments with minor basaltic cinder cones and flows. Both have been studied extensively because of their importance in predicting the long-term performance of the proposed repository. Basaltic volcanism began about 10 Ma and continued as recently as about 80 ka with the eruption of cones and flows at Lathrop Wells, approximately 10 km south-southwest of Yucca Mountain. Geologic structure in the Yucca Mountain region is complex. During the latest Paleozoic and Mesozoic, strong compressional forces caused tight folding and thrust faulting. The present regional setting is one of extension, and normal faulting has been active from the Miocene through to the present. There are three major local tectonic domains: (1) Basin and Range, (2) Walker Lane, and (3) Inyo-Mono. Each domain has an effect on the stability of Yucca Mountain

  8. Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database is an Arc/Info implementation of the 1:500,000 scale Geology Map of Kansas, M­23, 1991. This work wasperformed by the Automated Cartography section of...

  9. Complex pegmatite - apelitic of Cabecinha - strategies appreciation of geological heritage and economic development of the region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, José; Cabral, Tiago; Cabral, João; Gomes, Ana

    2014-05-01

    The Complex pegmatite - apelitic of Cabecinha corresponds to an isolated ridge that reaches 933 meters, located in the middle zone of transition between the Hesperian massif and the Cova da Beira being located in the NE central part of Portugal, more specifically in the Mountainous region of the province of Beira Alta, council of Sabugal. This complex lies embedded in porphyritic granites with terms of switching to a medium-grained granite rich in sodium feldspars in which they are muscovite granite intrusions. The lodes have pegmatites with NE-SW orientation, presenting phases of predominantly quartz crystallization with multiple parageneses. The inclusions observed are veins filonianian secondary. Some veins have structural discontinuity due to further their training tectonics. The apelitico material is basic in nature engaging in descontinuiddes of pegmatite material, showing no preferred orientation. The petrological characteristics of the area in question provide the appearance of motivating exotic landforms of scientific interest. These landforms, over time, have motivated the popular level the emergence of various myths, thus contributing to the enrichment of the local cultural heritage. This study proceeded to the geological and geomorphological mapping an area of about 6945,350 m2 with a maximum length of 182 m. The huge patent mineralogical, petrological and geomorphological level geodiversity, allied to the structural complexity and associated cultural heritage, allow geoconservation strategies and recovery, using new multimedia technologies including use of QR codes and 3D. All this geological framework and environment becomes an asset for the scientific, educational and economic development of the region. On the other hand, it has the vital Importance in the context of the strategy of forming a geological park, in the point of view of tourism, research and interpretation.

  10. Geologic Mapping in the Hesperia Planum Region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Tracy K. P.; Crown, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Hesperia Planum, characterized by a high concentration of mare-type wrinkle ridges and ridge rings, encompasses > 2 million square km in the southern highlands of Mars. The most common interpretation is that the plains were emplaced as "flood" lavas with total thicknesses of geologic mapping reveal that the whole of Hesperia Planum is unlikely to be composed of the same materials, emplaced at the same geologic time. To unravel these complexities, we are generating a 1:1.5M-scale geologic map of Hesperia Planum and its surroundings. To date, we have identified 4 distinct plains units within Hesperia Planum and are attempting to determine the nature and relative ages of these materials.

  11. Map showing geology, oil and gas fields, and geologic provinces of the Gulf of Mexico region

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Christopher D.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    This map was created as part of a worldwide series of geologic maps for the U.S. Geological Survey's World Energy Project. These products are available on CD-ROM and the Internet. The goal of the project is to assess the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the world. Two previously published digital geologic data sets (U.S. and Caribbean) were clipped to the map extent, while the dataset for Mexico was digitized for this project. Original attributes for all data layers were maintained, and in some cases, graphically merged with common symbology for presentation purposes. The world has been divided into geologic provinces that are used for allocation and prioritization of oil and gas assessments. For the World Energy Project, a subset of those provinces is shown on this map. Each province has a set of geologic characteristics that distinguish it from surrounding provinces. These characteristics may include dominant lithologies, the age of the strata, and/or structural type. The World Geographic Coordinate System of 1984 is used for data storage, and the data are presented in a Lambert Conformal Conic Projection on the OFR 97-470-L map product. Other details about the map compilation and data sources are provided in metadata documents in the data section on this CD-ROM. Several software packages were used to create this map including: Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI) ArcGIS 8.3, ArcInfo software, Adobe Photoshop CS, Illustrator CS, and Acrobat 6.0.

  12. Ontology-driven data integration and visualization for exploring regional geologic time and paleontological information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengbin; Ma, Xiaogang; Chen, Jianguo

    2018-06-01

    Initiatives of open data promote the online publication and sharing of large amounts of geologic data. How to retrieve information and discover knowledge from the big data is an ongoing challenge. In this paper, we developed an ontology-driven data integration and visualization pilot system for exploring information of regional geologic time, paleontology, and fundamental geology. The pilot system (http://www2.cs.uidaho.edu/%7Emax/gts/)

  13. A framework for elaborating a geological disposal safety case: Main issues to be addressed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besnus, F.; Gay, D.

    2002-01-01

    International guidance on safety standards for the geological disposal of radioactive waste is being elaborated by IAEA. A comparison of experiences acquired in developing deep repository projects shows that many important issues related to the progressive building of confidence in the safety demonstration of such facilities are commonly addressed by the various organisations involved in radioactive waste management. However, there is still some discrepancies in defining the steps that form the staged elaboration of a safety case. This paper intends to propose a framework for defining the safety case in describing the main issues to be addressed and highlighting questions of consistency between former steps. (author)

  14. Geologic mapping of the Amirani-Gish Bar region of Io: Implications for the global geologic mapping of Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D.A.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Crown, D.A.; Jaeger, W.L.; Schenk, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    We produced the first geologic map of the Amirani-Gish Bar region of Io, the last of four regional maps generated from Galileo mission data. The Amirani-Gish Bar region has five primary types of geologic materials: plains, mountains, patera floors, flows, and diffuse deposits. The flows and patera floors are thought to be compositionally similar, but are subdivided based on interpretations regarding their emplacement environments and mechanisms. Our mapping shows that volcanic activity in the Amirani-Gish Bar region is dominated by the Amirani Eruptive Center (AEC), now recognized to be part of an extensive, combined Amirani-Maui flow field. A mappable flow connects Amirani and Maui, suggesting that Maui is fed from Amirani, such that the post-Voyager designation "Maui Eruptive Center" should be revised. Amirani contains at least four hot spots detected by Galileo, and is the source of widespread bright (sulfur?) flows and active dark (silicate?) flows being emplaced in the Promethean style (slowly emplaced, compound flow fields). The floor of Gish Bar Patera has been partially resurfaced by dark lava flows, although other parts of its floor are bright and appeared unchanged during the Galileo mission. This suggests that the floor did not undergo complete resurfacing as a lava lake as proposed for other ionian paterae. There are several other hot spots in the region that are the sources of both active dark flows (confined within paterae), and SO2- and S2-rich diffuse deposits. Mapped diffuse deposits around fractures on mountains and in the plains appear to serve as the source for gas venting without the release of magma, an association previously unrecognized in this region. The six mountains mapped in this region exhibit various states of degradation. In addition to gaining insight into this region of Io, all four maps are studied to assess the best methodology to use to produce a new global geologic map of Io based on the newly released, combined Galileo

  15. Regional geology, tectonic, geomorphology and seismology studies to interest to nuclear power plants at Itaorna beach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasui, Y.; Almeida, F.F.M. de; Mioto, J.A.; Melo, M.S. de.

    1982-01-01

    The study prepared for the nuclear power plants to be located at Itaorna comprised, the analysis and integration of Geologic, tectonic, geomorphologic and seismologic information and satisfactory results of regional stability were obtained. (L.H.L.L.) [pt

  16. Revised draft: North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 2. Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    Volume 8(2) comprises the following maps pertaining to the North-Central Region: Index Map; Overburden Thickness; Faults and Ground Acceleration; Rock and Mineral Resources; Groundwater Basins and Potential Major Zones; Groundwater Resource Potential; and a Geologic Map

  17. Study on remote sensing geologic information of uranium metallogeny in western Liaoning-northern Hebei region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Baoshan

    1998-01-01

    Based on the study on geologic metallogenic environment, temporal and spatial distribution and deposit features of uranium deposits in western Liaoning-northern Hebei region, summarizing mainly remote sensing information and synthesizing geologic, geophysical and geochemical as well as hydrological data, the author has implemented all-region joint-quadrangle analysis, composite mapping and applications, set up interpretation criteria for circular and arcuate structures of different lithological areas, and then expounded their geologic meaning. Volcanic apparatuses, small close sedimentary basins and magmatic rockbodies closely associated with uranium mineralizations, especially the altitude and types of ore-controlling structures and mineralized alteration zones have been interpreted. 'Heat halo spot' has also been interpreted on the satellite image and its geologic meaning and relation to uranium metallization have been discussed. Finally, remote sensing geologic prospecting model and comprehensive prediction model have been established

  18. Geological data acquisition for site characterisation at Olkiluoto: a framework for the phase of underground investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milnes, A.G.; Aaltonen, I.; Kemppainen, K.; Mattila, J.; Wikstroem, L.; Front, K.; Kaerki, A.; Gehoer, S.; Paulamaeki, S.; Paananen, M.; Ahokas, T.

    2007-05-01

    'Geological data acquisition' is a general term for the collection of observations and measurements by direct observation of exposed bedrock in the field (i.e. in natural outcrops and trenches, in drillholes, and in tunnels and other underground excavations). Only field-based data acquisition is included in this report: laboratory-based investigations will be continued, based on the field data and sampling, and all the data will be subject to discipline-specific processing, as the project proceeds. The ultimate aim of geological data acquisition is to provide the necessary data base for geological models of the bedrock of the Olkiluoto site, in connection with the construction of an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, and a repository for spent nuclear fuel, at about 500m depth. Geological data acquisition plays a central role in site characterisation and modelling, and is intended to provide a solid platform on which the other disciplines (rock mechanics, hydrogeology, seismic risk assessment, etc.) can base their investigations. Based on consideration of a series of guidelines (e.g. modelling scale, source of data, level of investigation, national and international experience, special conditions at Olkiluoto, need for process understanding), a project-oriented 'framework' has been developed as a background to the different projects within the geological data acquisition programme. Each project will require its own system of data acquisition (methodology, spreadsheets, protocols, etc.), as described in the corresponding reports; the present report concentrates on the general principles which lie behind the different methodologies and data sheets. These principles are treated under three main headings: characterization of intact rock, characterization of deformation zone intersections, and characterization of individual fractures. Geological mapping of natural outcrops and trenches at Olkiluoto, and lithological logging of more than 40 rock cores

  19. Geologic Map of the Summit Region of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Christina A.; Lockwood, John P.

    2003-01-01

    This report consists of a large map sheet and a pamphlet. The map shows the geology, some photographs, description of map units, and correlation of map units. The pamphlet gives the full text about the geologic map. The area covered by this map includes parts of four U.S. Geological Survey 7.5' topographic quadrangles (Kilauea Crater, Volcano, Ka`u Desert, and Makaopuhi). It encompasses the summit, upper rift zones, and Koa`e Fault System of Kilauea Volcano and a part of the adjacent, southeast flank of Mauna Loa Volcano. The map is dominated by products of eruptions from Kilauea Volcano, the southernmost of the five volcanoes on the Island of Hawai`i and one of the world's most active volcanoes. At its summit (1,243 m) is Kilauea Crater, a 3 km-by-5 km collapse caldera that formed, possibly over several centuries, between about 200 and 500 years ago. Radiating away from the summit caldera are two linear zones of intrusion and eruption, the east and the southwest rift zones. Repeated subaerial eruptions from the summit and rift zones have built a gently sloping, elongate shield volcano covering approximately 1,500 km2. Much of the volcano lies under water; the east rift zone extends 110 km from the summit to a depth of more than 5,000 m below sea level; whereas the southwest rift zone has a more limited submarine continuation. South of the summit caldera, mostly north-facing normal faults and open fractures of the Koa`e Fault System extend between the two rift zones. The Koa`e Fault System is interpreted as a tear-away structure that accommodates southward movement of Kilauea's flank in response to distension of the volcano perpendicular to the rift zones.

  20. Geological evaluation of Gulf Coast salt domes: overall assessment of the Gulf Interior Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The three major phases in site characterization and selection are regional studies, area studies, and location studies. This report characterizes regional geologic aspects of the Gulf Coast salt dome basins. It includes general information from published sources on the regional geology; the tectonic, domal, and hydrologic stability; and a brief description the salt domes to be investigated. After a screening exercise, eight domes were chosen for further characterization: Keechi, Oakwood, and Palestine Domes in Texas; Vacherie and Rayburn's domes in North Louisiana; and Cypress Creek and Richton domes in Mississippi. A general description of each, maps of the location, property ownership, and surface geology, and a geologic cross section were presented for each dome

  1. Geological evaluation of Gulf Coast salt domes: overall assessment of the Gulf Interior Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    The three major phases in site characterization and selection are regional studies, area studies, and location studies. This report characterizes regional geologic aspects of the Gulf Coast salt dome basins. It includes general information from published sources on the regional geology; the tectonic, domal, and hydrologic stability; and a brief description the salt domes to be investigated. After a screening exercise, eight domes were chosen for further characterization: Keechi, Oakwood, and Palestine Domes in Texas; Vacherie and Rayburn's domes in North Louisiana; and Cypress Creek and Richton domes in Mississippi. A general description of each, maps of the location, property ownership, and surface geology, and a geologic cross section were presented for each dome.

  2. Assessment of Convolution Neural Networks for Surficial Geology Mapping in the South Rae Geological Region, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasim Latifovic

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mapping of surficial geology is an important requirement for broadening the geoscience database of northern Canada. Surficial geology maps are an integral data source for mineral and energy exploration. Moreover, they provide information such as the location of gravels and sands, which are important for infrastructure development. Currently, surficial geology maps are produced through expert interpretation of aerial photography and field data. However, interpretation is known to be subjective, labour-intensive and difficult to repeat. The expert knowledge required for interpretation can be challenging to maintain and transfer. In this research, we seek to assess the potential of deep neural networks to aid surficial geology mapping by providing an objective surficial materials initial layer that experts can modify to speed map development and improve consistency between mapped areas. Such an approach may also harness expert knowledge in a way that is transferable to unmapped areas. For this purpose, we assess the ability of convolution neural networks (CNN to predict surficial geology classes under two sampling scenarios. In the first scenario, a CNN uses samples collected over the area to be mapped. In the second, a CNN trained over one area is then applied to locations where the available samples were not used in training the network. The latter case is important, as a collection of in situ training data can be costly. The evaluation of the CNN was carried out using aerial photos, Landsat reflectance, and high-resolution digital elevation data over five areas within the South Rae geological region of Northwest Territories, Canada. The results are encouraging, with the CNN generating average accuracy of 76% when locally trained. For independent test areas (i.e., trained over one area and applied over other, accuracy dropped to 59–70% depending on the classes selected for mapping. In the South Rae region, significant confusion was found

  3. Geologic framework and hydrogeologic characteristics of the Glen Rose limestone, Camp Stanley Storage Activity, Bexar County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Allan K.

    2004-01-01

    The Trinity aquifer is a regional water source in the Hill Country of south-central Texas that supplies water for agriculture, commercial, domestic, and stock purposes. Rocks of the Glen Rose Limestone, which compose the upper zone and upper part of the middle zone of the Trinity aquifer, crop out at the Camp Stanley Storage Activity (CSSA), a U.S. Army weapons and munitions supply, maintenance, and storage facility in northern Bexar County (San Antonio area) (fig. 1). On its northeastern, eastern, and southern boundaries, the CSSA abuts the Camp Bullis Training Site, a U.S. Army field training site for military and Federal government agencies. During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Army, studied the outcropping Glen Rose Limestone at the CSSA and immediately adjacent area (Camp Stanley study area, fig. 1) to identify and map the hydrogeologic subdivisions and faults of the Glen Rose Limestone at the facility. The results of the study are intended to help resource managers improve their understanding of the distribution of porosity and permeability of the outcropping rocks, and thus the conditions for recharge and the potential for contaminants to enter the Glen Rose Limestone. This study followed a similar study done by the USGS at Camp Bullis (Clark, 2003). The purpose of this report is to present the geologic framework and hydrogeologic characteristics of the Glen Rose Limestone in the study area. The hydrogeologic nomenclature follows that introduced by Clark (2003) for the outcropping Glen Rose Limestone at Camp Bullis in which the upper member of the Glen Rose Limestone (hereinafter, upper Glen Rose Limestone), which is coincident with the upper zone of the Trinity aquifer, is divided into five intervals on the basis of observed lithologic and hydrogeologic properties. An outcrop map, two generalized sections, related illustrations, and a table summarize the description of the framework and distribution of characteristics.

  4. Integration of 3D geological modeling and gravity surveys for geothermal prospection in an Alpine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmetti, L.; Comina, C.; Abdelfettah, Y.; Schill, E.; Mandrone, G.

    2013-11-01

    Thermal sources are common manifestations of geothermal energy resources in Alpine regions. The up-flow of the fluid is well-known to be often linked to cross-cutting fault zones providing a significant volume of fractures. Since conventional exploration methods are challenging in such areas of high topography and complicated logistics, 3D geological modeling based on structural investigation becomes a useful tool for assessing the overall geology of the investigated sites. Geological modeling alone is, however, less effective if not integrated with deep subsurface investigations that could provide a first order information on geological boundaries and an imaging of geological structures. With this aim, in the present paper the combined use of 3D geological modeling and gravity surveys for geothermal prospection of a hydrothermal area in the western Alps was carried out on two sites located in the Argentera Massif (NW Italy). The geothermal activity of the area is revealed by thermal anomalies with surface evidences, such as hot springs, at temperatures up to 70 °C. Integration of gravity measurements and 3D modeling investigates the potential of this approach in the context of geothermal exploration in Alpine regions where a very complex geological and structural setting is expected. The approach used in the present work is based on the comparison between the observed gravity and the gravity effect of the 3D geological models, in order to enhance local effects related to the geothermal system. It is shown that a correct integration of 3D modeling and detailed geophysical survey could allow a better characterization of geological structures involved in geothermal fluids circulation. Particularly, gravity inversions have successfully delineated the continuity in depth of low density structures, such as faults and fractured bands observed at the surface, and have been of great help in improving the overall geological model.

  5. Description of the U.S. Geological Survey Geo Data Portal data integration framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, David L.; Booth, Nathaniel L.; Kunicki, Thomas C.; Walker, Jordan I.; Lucido, Jessica M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed an open-standard data integration framework for working efficiently and effectively with large collections of climate and other geoscience data. A web interface accesses catalog datasets to find data services. Data resources can then be rendered for mapping and dataset metadata are derived directly from these web services. Algorithm configuration and information needed to retrieve data for processing are passed to a server where all large-volume data access and manipulation takes place. The data integration strategy described here was implemented by leveraging existing free and open source software. Details of the software used are omitted; rather, emphasis is placed on how open-standard web services and data encodings can be used in an architecture that integrates common geographic and atmospheric data.

  6. An Opportunity on Exploiting of Geology and Mineral Resource Data for Regional Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus-Hendratno

    2004-01-01

    Indonesia archipelago have the very complex geo diversity. The complexity of geo diversity gives a lot of opportunity on exploiting of earth resources for society prosperity. In other side, the complexity of geology also gives a lot of resistance and various limitation at one particular region to expand. Hence, various data of geology as well as data of result of mapping of minerals resources (mapping at macro scale and also have detail scale) require to be managed and exploited maximally. Effort the exploiting also require various infrastructure which is concerning regulatory, technological, human resources being, market-drive of an economic geo material, social environment and culture which grow around geology data, and also availability and readiness of geology and mineral resources data. This study is expected can give a few description of how the geology and minerals resources data can be as reference in regional development planning. This paper was writed by assessment of description qualitative and comparative inter-region case study in various regency area, where writer have been involved to conduct the activity of geological mapping and mineral resources data and also involved by a discussion with a few officers of local government in so many opportunity. Some of the case study region for example : in Kampar Regency (Riau), Tanjung Jabung Timur Regency (Jambi), Biak Numfor Regency (Papua), Gunung Kidul Regency (Yogyakarta), Pacitan Regency (East Java), and also Klaten Regency (Central Java). (author)

  7. Experience from the ECORS program in regions of complex geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damotte, B.

    1993-04-01

    The French ECORS program was launched in 1983 by a cooperation agreement between universities and petroleum companies. Crustal surveys have tried to find explanations for the formation of geological features, such as rifts, mountains ranges or subsidence in sedimentary basins. Several seismic surveys were carried out, some across areas with complex geological structures. The seismic techniques and equipment used were those developed by petroleum geophysicists, adapted to the depth aimed at (30-50 km) and to various physical constraints encountered in the field. In France, ECORS has recorded 850 km of deep seismic lines onshore across plains and mountains, on various kinds of geological formations. Different variations of the seismic method (reflection, refraction, long-offset seismic) were used, often simultaneously. Multiple coverage profiling constitutes the essential part of this data acquisition. Vibrators and dynamite shots were employed with a spread generally 15 km long, but sometimes 100 km long. Some typical seismic examples show that obtaining crustal reflections essentialy depends on two factors: (1) the type and structure of shallow formations, and (2) the sources used. Thus, when seismic energy is strongly absorbed across the first kilometers in shallow formations, or when these formations are highly structured, standard multiple-coverage profiling is not able to provide results beyond a few seconds. In this case, it is recommended to simultaneously carry out long-offset seismic in low multiple coverage. Other more methodological examples show: how the impact on the crust of a surface fault may be evaluated according to the seismic method implemented ( VIBROSEIS 96-fold coverage or single dynamite shot); that vibrators make it possible to implement wide-angle seismic surveying with an offset 80 km long; how to implement the seismic reflection method on complex formations in high mountains. All data were processed using industrial seismic software

  8. Regional Geology Web Map Application Development: Javascript v2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    This is a milestone report for the FY2017 continuation of the Spent Fuel, Storage, and Waste, Technology (SFSWT) program (formerly Used Fuel Disposal (UFD) program) development of the Regional Geology Web Mapping Application by the Idaho National Laboratory Geospatial Science and Engineering group. This application was developed for general public use and is an interactive web-based application built in Javascript to visualize, reference, and analyze US pertinent geological features of the SFSWT program. This tool is a version upgrade from Adobe FLEX technology. It is designed to facilitate informed decision making of the geology of continental US relevant to the SFSWT program.

  9. Regional Geology Web Map Application Development: Javascript v2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Glenn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-19

    This is a milestone report for the FY2017 continuation of the Spent Fuel, Storage, and Waste, Technology (SFSWT) program (formerly Used Fuel Disposal (UFD) program) development of the Regional Geology Web Mapping Application by the Idaho National Laboratory Geospatial Science and Engineering group. This application was developed for general public use and is an interactive web-based application built in Javascript to visualize, reference, and analyze US pertinent geological features of the SFSWT program. This tool is a version upgrade from Adobe FLEX technology. It is designed to facilitate informed decision making of the geology of continental US relevant to the SFSWT program.

  10. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources—Southern Rocky Mountain Basins: Chapter M in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Matthew D.; Drake, Ronald M.; Buursink, Marc L.; Craddock, William H.; East, Joseph A.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Warwick, Peter D.; Brennan, Sean T.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, Philip A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2016-06-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey has completed an assessment of the potential geologic carbon dioxide storage resources in the onshore areas of the United States. To provide geological context and input data sources for the resources numbers, framework documents are being prepared for all areas that were investigated as part of the national assessment. This report, chapter M, is the geologic framework document for the Uinta and Piceance, San Juan, Paradox, Raton, Eastern Great, and Black Mesa Basins, and subbasins therein of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. In addition to a summary of the geology and petroleum resources of studied basins, the individual storage assessment units (SAUs) within the basins are described and explanations for their selection are presented. Although appendixes in the national assessment publications include the input values used to calculate the available storage resource, this framework document provides only the context and source of the input values selected by the assessment geologists. Spatial-data files of the boundaries for the SAUs, and the well-penetration density of known well bores that penetrate the SAU seal, are available for download with the release of this report.

  11. Geology of the border region between Coahuila and Zacatecas, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vloten, van Roger

    1954-01-01

    The border region between Coahuila and Zacatecas is part of the mountainous country south of Parras in northeastern Mexico. It includes a thickness of about 2,600 meters of Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks that were deposited along the northern border of the Mexican geosyncline along the southern

  12. A Lithology Based Map Unit Schema For Onegeology Regional Geologic Map Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosdorf, N.; Richard, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    A system of lithogenetic categories for a global lithological map (GLiM, http://www.ifbm.zmaw.de/index.php?id=6460&L=3) has been compiled based on analysis of lithology/genesis categories for regional geologic maps for the entire globe. The scheme is presented for discussion and comment. Analysis of units on a variety of regional geologic maps indicates that units are defined based on assemblages of rock types, as well as their genetic type. In this compilation of continental geology, outcropping surface materials are dominantly sediment/sedimentary rock; major subdivisions of the sedimentary category include clastic sediment, carbonate sedimentary rocks, clastic sedimentary rocks, mixed carbonate and clastic sedimentary rock, colluvium and residuum. Significant areas of mixed igneous and metamorphic rock are also present. A system of global categories to characterize the lithology of regional geologic units is important for Earth System models of matter fluxes to soils, ecosystems, rivers and oceans, and for regional analysis of Earth surface processes at global scale. Because different applications of the classification scheme will focus on different lithologic constituents in mixed units, an ontology-type representation of the scheme that assigns properties to the units in an analyzable manner will be pursued. The OneGeology project is promoting deployment of geologic map services at million scale for all nations. Although initial efforts are commonly simple scanned map WMS services, the intention is to move towards data-based map services that categorize map units with standard vocabularies to allow use of a common map legend for better visual integration of the maps (e.g. see OneGeology Europe, http://onegeology-europe.brgm.fr/ geoportal/ viewer.jsp). Current categorization of regional units with a single lithology from the CGI SimpleLithology (http://resource.geosciml.org/201202/ Vocab2012html/ SimpleLithology201012.html) vocabulary poorly captures the

  13. A unified framework for modelling sediment fate from source to sink and its interactions with reef systems over geological times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Tristan; Ding, Xuesong; Webster, Jody M; Vila-Concejo, Ana; Brocard, Gilles; Pall, Jodie

    2018-03-27

    Understanding the effects of climatic variability on sediment dynamics is hindered by limited ability of current models to simulate long-term evolution of sediment transfer from source to sink and associated morphological changes. We present a new approach based on a reduced-complexity model which computes over geological time: sediment transport from landmasses to coasts, reworking of marine sediments by longshore currents, and development of coral reef systems. Our framework links together the main sedimentary processes driving mixed siliciclastic-carbonate system dynamics. It offers a methodology for objective and quantitative sediment fate estimations over regional and millennial time-scales. A simulation of the Holocene evolution of the Great Barrier Reef shows: (1) how high sediment loads from catchments erosion prevented coral growth during the early transgression phase and favoured sediment gravity-flows in the deepest parts of the northern region basin floor (prior to 8 ka before present (BP)); (2) how the fine balance between climate, sea-level, and margin physiography enabled coral reefs to thrive under limited shelf sedimentation rates after ~6 ka BP; and, (3) how since 3 ka BP, with the decrease of accommodation space, reduced of vertical growth led to the lateral extension of reefs consistent with available observational data.

  14. Homogenity of geological units with respect to the radon risk in the Walloon region of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondeur, François; Cinelli, Giorgia; Dehandschutter, Boris

    2014-10-01

    In the process of mapping indoor radon risk, an important step is to define geological units well-correlated with indoor radon. The present paper examines this question for the Walloon region of Belgium, using a database of more than 18,000 indoor radon measurements. With a few exceptions like the Carboniferous (to be divided into Tournaisian, Visean and Namurian-Westphalian) and the Tertiary (in which all Series may be treated together), the Series/Epoch stratigraphic level is found to be the most appropriate geological unit to classify the radon risk. A further division according to the geological massif or region is necessary to define units with a reasonable uniformity of the radon risk. In particular, Paleozoic series from Cambrian to Devonian show strong differences between different massifs. Local hot-spots are also observed in the Brabant massif. Finally, 35 geological units are defined according to their radon risk, 6 of which still present a clear weak homogeneity. In the case of 4 of these units (Jurassic, Middle Devonian of Condroz and of Fagne-Famenne, Ordovician of the Stavelot massif) homogeneity is moderate, but the data are strongly inhomogeneous for Visean in Condroz and in the Brabant massif. The 35 geological units are used in an ANOVA analysis, to evaluate the part of indoor radon variability which can be attributed to geology. The result (15.4-17.7%) agrees with the values observed in the UK. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. MORPHOLOGICAL AND GEOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF THE POSSIBLE BAUXITE DEPOSITS IN THE KARST REGION OF WESTERN HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Blašković

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation results of morphological and geological potential bauxite deposit indicators in the Mesihovina-Rakitno bauxitebearing sedimentary basin in Western Herzegovina are presented. Region with carbonate and clastic hangingwalls as well as those without overlying sediments have been studied. It was established that the expression and number of the indicators depend size as well as on character and thickness of hangingwall sediments. The morphological indicators are expressed as a particular relief forms situated right above the deposits or nearby and are a consequence of geological relations and exodynamic processes. Ihe numerous geological indicators resulted from complex geological events. The most important are: preore structural relations, the formation of paleorelief, peculiar way of hangingwall rocks sedimentation, lithification processes and the formation of the recent structural pattern. It has been observed that particular indicators should be recognized within a relatively thick succession of the overlying sediments which is of the great importance in the exploration of bauxite deposits.

  16. Geologic framework and hydrostratigraphy of the Edwards and Trinity aquifers within northern Bexar and Comal Counties, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Allan K.; Golab, James A.; Morris, Robert R.

    2016-11-28

    During 2014–16, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Edwards Aquifer Authority, documented the geologic framework and hydrostratigraphy of the Edwards and Trinity aquifers within northern Bexar and Comal Counties, Texas. The Edwards and Trinity aquifers are major sources of water for agriculture, industry, and urban and rural communities in south-central Texas. Both the Edwards and Trinity are classified as major aquifers by the State of Texas.The purpose of this report is to present the geologic framework and hydrostratigraphy of the Edwards and Trinity aquifers within northern Bexar and Comal Counties, Tex. The report includes a detailed 1:24,000-scale hydrostratigraphic map, names, and descriptions of the geology and hydrostratigraphic units (HSUs) in the study area.The scope of the report is focused on geologic framework and hydrostratigraphy of the outcrops and hydrostratigraphy of the Edwards and Trinity aquifers within northern Bexar and Comal Counties, Tex. In addition, parts of the adjacent upper confining unit to the Edwards aquifer are included.The study area, approximately 866 square miles, is within the outcrops of the Edwards and Trinity aquifers and overlying confining units (Washita, Eagle Ford, Austin, and Taylor Groups) in northern Bexar and Comal Counties, Tex. The rocks within the study area are sedimentary and range in age from Early to Late Cretaceous. The Miocene-age Balcones fault zone is the primary structural feature within the study area. The fault zone is an extensional system of faults that generally trends southwest to northeast in south-central Texas. The faults have normal throw, are en echelon, and are mostly downthrown to the southeast.The Early Cretaceous Edwards Group rocks were deposited in an open marine to supratidal flats environment during two marine transgressions. The Edwards Group is composed of the Kainer and Person Formations. Following tectonic uplift, subaerial exposure, and erosion near the end of

  17. A Framework to Estimate CO2 Leakage associated with Geological Storage in Mature Sedimentary Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celia, M. A.; Bachu, S.; Gasda, S.

    2002-12-01

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide requires careful risk analysis to avoid unintended consequences associated with the subsurface injection. Most negative consequences of subsurface injection are associated with leakage of the injected CO2 out of the geological formation into which it is injected. Such leakage may occur through natural geological features, including fractures and faults, or it may occur through human-created pathways such as existing wells. Possible leakage of CO2 through existing wells appears to be especially important in mature sedimentary basins that have been explored intensively and exploited for hydrocarbon production. In the Alberta Basin of western Canada, more than 300,000 oil and gas wells have been drilled, while in the state of Texas in the United States, more than 1,500,000 wells have been drilled. Many of these wells have been abandoned, and the information available to describe their current state is highly variable and sometimes nonexistent. Because these wells represent possible direct conduits from the injection zone to the land surface, a comprehensive assessment of leakage potential associated with these wells needs to be pursued. Analysis of leakage potential associated with existing wells must combine a data mining component with a multi-level modeling effort to assess leakage potential in a probabilistic framework. Information available for existing wells must be categorized and analyzed, and general leakage characteristics associated with wells of varying properties must be quantified. One example of a realistic target formation is the Viking Formation in Alberta, which is overlain by a thick shale layer and contains hydrocarbon in some locations. The existence of hydrocarbon in the formation indicates that the overlying shale layer is an effective barrier to flow, and therefore this is a good candidate formation for CO2 storage. However, the formation and its cap rock are punctured by approximately 180,000 wells, with

  18. Central San Juan caldera cluster: Regional volcanic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Peter W.

    2000-01-01

    symmetrically resurgent Creede caldera, the volcanic framework for Lake Creede, has been exceptionally preserved because of rapid infilling by moat sediments of the Creede Formation, which were preferentially eroded during the past few million years. The ash-flow tuffs and caldera of the central San Juan region have been widely recognized as exceptional sites for study of explosive volcanic processes, and the results reported here provide new insights into processes of pyroclastic eruption and emplacement, geometric interrelations between caldera subsidence and resurgence, the petrologic diversity of sequential ash-flow eruptions, recurrent eruption of intermediate-composition lavas after each caldera-forming event, associated regional fault development, volume relations between ash-flow eruptions and associated calderas, the emplacement of subvolcanic batholiths, and involvement of mantle-derived mafic phases in magma-generation processes.

  19. Geological Study and Regional Development of Mamberamo Raya Disctrict of Papua Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonggiroh, Adi; Asri Jaya, HS; Ria Irfan, Ulva

    2018-02-01

    The goverment of Mamberamo Raya district was established through Act No. 19 of 2007 dated 15 March 2007 as part of the administrative area of Papua Province. The administrative age of this district is relatively young requires hard work of all components in facing development challenges so that necessary strategic steps of vision and mission of regional development to achieve ideal conditions of spatial which as direction of the desired embodiment in the future. Regional development covers all technical aspects including the geological aspect that the area is located on the morphology of the mountains and Mamberamo watershed. Strategic steps require policy as an action to achieve the goal with the elaboration of operational steps to realize the welfare of peoples equally and sustainably according to the potential physiogeography of Mamberamo watershed. The geological aspect as the consideration of technical that this region belongs to the regional tectonic which is divided into the difference of fault in the north there is Yapen fault and in the south is Mamberamo-Gauttier Fault and also a consideration on the stratigraphic structure of various rock types including the dominance of sedimentary rocks. This study examines geological aspects as an element of earth science in spatial planning in Mamberamo district, especially Kasonaweja and Burmeso. The analysis is presented based on field data, in the form of geographical map data of geological structure, geological map, and earthquake data described by cluster pattern indicating regional motion relationship and rock characteristics that make up Mamberamo watershed. It finds land characteristics controlled by geological structures, rock arrangements and landforms in response to landslide, flood and seismic changes.

  20. A Knowledge-Driven Geospatially Enabled Framework for Geological Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Wu; Lei Xue; Chaoling Li; Xia Lv; Zhanlong Chen; Baode Jiang; Mingqiang Guo; Zhong Xie

    2017-01-01

    Geologic survey procedures accumulate large volumes of structured and unstructured data. Fully exploiting the knowledge and information that are included in geological big data and improving the accessibility of large volumes of data are important endeavors. In this paper, which is based on the architecture of the geological survey information cloud-computing platform (GSICCP) and big-data-related technologies, we split geologic unstructured data into fragments and extract multi-dimensional f...

  1. Geology and recognition criteria for uraniferous humate deposits, Grants Uranium Region, New Mexico. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.S.; Saucier, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    The geology of the uraniferous humate uranium deposits of the Grants Uranium Region, northwestern New Mexico, is summarized. The most important conclusions of this study are enumerated. Although the geologic characteristics of the uraniferous humate deposits of the Grants Uranium Region are obviously not common in the world, neither are they bizarre or coincidental. The source of the uranium in the deposits of the Grants Uranium Region is not known with certainty. The depositional environment of the host sediments was apparently the mid and distal portions of a wet alluvial fan system. The influence of structural control on the location and accumulation of the host sediments is now supported by considerable data. The host sediments possess numerous important characteristics which influenced the formation of uraniferous humate deposits. Ilmenite-magnetite distribution within potential host sandstones is believed to be the simplest and most useful regional alteration pattern related to this type of uranium deposit. A method is presented for organizing geologic observations into what is referred to as recognition criteria. The potential of the United States for new districts similar to the Grants Uranium Region is judged to be low based upon presently available geologic information. Continuing studies on uraniferous humate deposits are desirable in three particular areas

  2. A framework of region-based dynamic image fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong-hua; QIN Zheng; LIU Yu

    2007-01-01

    A new framework of region-based dynamic image fusion is proposed. First, the technique of target detection is applied to dynamic images (image sequences) to segment images into different targets and background regions. Then different fusion rules are employed in different regions so that the target information is preserved as much as possible. In addition, steerable non-separable wavelet frame transform is used in the process of multi-resolution analysis, so the system achieves favorable characters of orientation and invariant shift. Compared with other image fusion methods, experimental results showed that the proposed method has better capabilities of target recognition and preserves clear background information.

  3. Risk Assessment of Geologic Formation Sequestration in The Rocky Mountain Region, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Si-Yong; McPherson, Brian

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the outcome of a targeted risk assessment of a candidate geologic sequestration site in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA. Specifically, a major goal of the probabilistic risk assessment was to quantify the possible spatiotemporal responses for Area of Review (AoR) and injection-induced pressure buildup associated with carbon dioxide (CO₂) injection into the subsurface. Because of the computational expense of a conventional Monte Carlo approach, especially given the likely uncertainties in model parameters, we applied a response surface method for probabilistic risk assessment of geologic CO₂ storage in the Permo-Penn Weber formation at a potential CCS site in Craig, Colorado. A site-specific aquifer model was built for the numerical simulation based on a regional geologic model.

  4. A Machine-Learning and Filtering Based Data Assimilation Framework for Geologic Carbon Sequestration Monitoring Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B.; Harp, D. R.; Lin, Y.; Keating, E. H.; Pawar, R.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring is a crucial aspect of geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) risk management. It has gained importance as a means to ensure CO2 is safely and permanently stored underground throughout the lifecycle of a GCS project. Three issues are often involved in a monitoring project: (i) where is the optimal location to place the monitoring well(s), (ii) what type of data (pressure, rate and/or CO2 concentration) should be measured, and (iii) What is the optimal frequency to collect the data. In order to address these important issues, a filtering-based data assimilation procedure is developed to perform the monitoring optimization. The optimal monitoring strategy is selected based on the uncertainty reduction of the objective of interest (e.g., cumulative CO2 leak) for all potential monitoring strategies. To reduce the computational cost of the filtering-based data assimilation process, two machine-learning algorithms: Support Vector Regression (SVR) and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) are used to develop the computationally efficient reduced-order-models (ROMs) from full numerical simulations of CO2 and brine flow. The proposed framework for GCS monitoring optimization is demonstrated with two examples: a simple 3D synthetic case and a real field case named Rock Spring Uplift carbon storage site in Southwestern Wyoming.

  5. A preliminary assessment of geologic framework and sediment thickness studies relevant to prospective US submission on extended continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Childs, Jonathan R.; Hammar-Klose, Erika; Dadisman, Shawn; Edgar, N. Terrence; Barth, Ginger A.

    2004-01-01

    Under the provisions of Articles 76 and 77 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), coastal States have sovereign rights over the continental shelf territory beyond 200-nautical mile (nm) from the baseline from which the territorial sea is measured if certain conditions are met regarding the geologic and physiographic character of the legal continental shelf as defined in those articles. These claims to an extended continental shelf must be supported by relevant bathymetric, geophysical and geological data according to guidelines established by the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS, 1999). In anticipation of the United States becoming party to UNCLOS, Congress in 2001 directed the Joint Hydrographic Center/Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping at the University of New Hampshire to conduct a study to evaluate data relevant to establishing the outer limit of the juridical continental shelf beyond 200 nm and to recommend what additional data might be needed to substantiate such an outer limit (Mayer and others, 2002). The resulting report produced an impressive and sophisticated GIS database of data sources. Because of the short time allowed to complete the report, all seismic reflection data were classified together; the authors therefore recommended that USGS perform additional analysis on seismic and related data holdings. The results of this additional analysis are the substance of this report, including the status of geologic framework, sediment isopach research, and resource potential in the eight regions1 identified by Mayer and others (2002) where analysis of seismic data might be crucial for establishing an outer limit . Seismic reflection and refraction data are essential in determining sediment thickness, one of the criteria used in establishing the outer limits of the juridical continental shelf. Accordingly, the initial task has been to inventory public-domain seismic data sources, primarily those regionally

  6. North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 2. Plates. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    Volume 8(2) contains the following maps: Geologic map of the Lake Superior Region (Minnesota, Wisconsin, and northern Michigan); Index Map; Overburden Thickness; Faults and Ground Acceleration; Rock and Mineral Resources; Ground Water Basins and Potential Major Discharge Zones; and Ground Water Resource Potential

  7. Preliminary geologic framework developed for a proposed environmental monitoring study of a deep, unconventional Marcellus Shale drill site, Washington County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Robert G.

    2018-06-08

    completed. This was done for three principal reasons. First, there was an immediate need to know the distribution of the relatively undisturbed surface to near-surface bedrock geology and unconsolidated materials for the collection of baseline surface data prior to drill site development (drill pad access road, drill pad leveling) and later during monitoring associated with well drilling, well development, and well production. Second, it was necessary to know the bedrock geology to support the siting of: (1) multiple shallow groundwater monitoring wells (possibly as many as four) surrounding and located immediately adjacent to the drill pad, and (2) deep groundwater monitoring wells (possibly two) located at distance from the drill pad with one possibly being sited along one of the deviated production drill legs. Lastly, the framework geology would provide the lateral extent, thickness, lithology, and expected discontinuities of geologic units (to be parsed or grouped as hydrostratigraphic units) and regional structure trends as inputs into the groundwater model.This report provides the methodology of geologic data accumulation and aggregation, and its integration into a geographic information system (GIS) based program. The GIS program will allow multiple data to be exported in various formats (shapefiles [.shp], database files [.dbf], and Keyhole Markup Language files [.KML]) for use in surface and subsurface geologic site characterization, for sampling strategies, and for inputs for groundwater modeling.

  8. Geologic and hydrogeologic frameworks of the Biscayne aquifer in central Miami-Dade County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Michael A.; Cunningham, Kevin J.; Williams, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluations of the lithostratigraphy, lithofacies, paleontology, ichnology, depositional environments, and cyclostratigraphy from 11 test coreholes were linked to geophysical interpretations, and to results of hydraulic slug tests of six test coreholes at the Snapper Creek Well Field (SCWF), to construct geologic and hydrogeologic frameworks for the study area in central Miami-Dade County, Florida. The resulting geologic and hydrogeologic frameworks are consistent with those recently described for the Biscayne aquifer in the nearby Lake Belt area in Miami-Dade County and link the Lake Belt area frameworks with those developed for the SCWF study area. The hydrogeologic framework is characterized by a triple-porosity pore system of (1) matrix porosity (mainly mesoporous interparticle porosity, moldic porosity, and mesoporous to megaporous separate vugs), which under dynamic conditions, produces limited flow; (2) megaporous, touching-vug porosity that commonly forms stratiform groundwater passageways; and (3) conduit porosity, including bedding-plane vugs, decimeter-scale diameter vertical solution pipes, and meter-scale cavernous vugs. The various pore types and associated permeabilities generally have a predictable vertical spatial distribution related to the cyclostratigraphy. The Biscayne aquifer within the study area can be described as two major flow units separated by a single middle semiconfining unit. The upper Biscayne aquifer flow unit is present mainly within the Miami Limestone at the top of the aquifer and has the greatest hydraulic conductivity values, with a mean of 8,200 feet per day. The middle semiconfining unit, mainly within the upper Fort Thompson Formation, comprises continuous to discontinuous zones with (1) matrix porosity; (2) leaky, low permeability layers that may have up to centimeter-scale vuggy porosity with higher vertical permeability than horizontal permeability; and (3) stratiform flow zones composed of fossil moldic porosity, burrow

  9. An analytical quality framework for learning cities and regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisinger-Kleine, Randolph

    2013-09-01

    There is broad agreement that innovation, knowledge and learning have become the main source of wealth, employment and economic development of cities, regions and nations. Over the past two decades, the number of European cities and regions which label themselves as "learning city" or "learning region" has constantly grown. However, there are also pitfalls and constraints which not only hinder them in unlocking their full potential, but also significantly narrow their effects and their wider impact on society. Most prominently, learning cities and regions manifest serious difficulties in rendering transparent the surplus value they generate, which is vital for attracting investment into lifelong learning. While evaluation and quality management are still perceived as being a bureaucratic necessity rather than a lesson one could learn from or an investment in the future, it is also true that without evaluation and quality assurance local networks do not have the means to examine their strengths and weaknesses. In order to design strategies to maximise the strengths and effectively address the weaknesses it is necessary to understand the factors that contribute to success and those that pose challenges. This article proposes an analytical quality framework which is generic and can be used to promote a culture of quality in learning cities and regions. The proposed framework builds on the findings and results of the R3L+ project, part-funded by the European Commission under the Grundtvig (adult education) strand of the Lifelong Learning programme 2007-2013.

  10. Radioactive waste disposal programme and siting regions for geological deep repositories. Executive summary. November 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    There are radioactive wastes in Switzerland. Since many decades they are produced by the operation of the five nuclear power plants, by medicine, industry and research. Important steps towards the disposal of these wastes are already realized; the corresponding activities are practised. This particularly concerns handling and packaging of the radioactive wastes, their characterization and inventory, as well as the interim storage and the inferred transportations. Preparatory works in the field of scientific research on deep geological repositories have allowed to acquire high level of technical and scientific expertise in that domain. The feasibility of building long-term safe geological repositories in Switzerland was demonstrated for all types of radioactive wastes; the demonstration was accepted by the Federal Council. There is enough knowledge to propose geological siting regions for further works. The financial funds already accumulated guaranty the financing of the dismantling of the power plants as well as building deep geological repositories for the radioactive wastes. The regulations already exist and the organisational arrangements necessary for the fruitful continuation of the works already done have been taken. The programme of the disposal of radioactive wastes also describes the next stages towards the timely realization of the deep repositories as well as the level of the financial needs. The programme is updated every five years, checked by the regulatory bodies and accepted by the Federal Council who reports to the parliament. The process of choosing a site, which will be completed in the next years, is detailed in the conceptual part of the programme for deep geological repositories. The NAGRA proposals are based exclusively on technical and scientific considerations; the global evaluation taking into account also political considerations has to be performed by the authorities and the Federal Council. The programme states that at the beginning of

  11. Appalachian basin oil and natural gas: stratigraphic framework, total petroleum systems, and estimated ultimate recovery: Chapter C.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Milici, Robert C.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The most recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Appalachian basin was completed in 2002 (Milici and others, 2003). This assessment was based on the total petroleum system (TPS), a concept introduced by Magoon and Dow (1994) and developed during subsequent studies such as those by the U.S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team (2000) and by Biteau and others (2003a,b). Each TPS is based on specific geologic elements that include source rocks, traps and seals, reservoir rocks, and the generation and migration of hydrocarbons. This chapter identifies the TPSs defined in the 2002 Appalachian basin oil and gas assessment and places them in the context of the stratigraphic framework associated with regional geologic cross sections D–D′ (Ryder and others, 2009, which was re-released in this volume, chap. E.4.1) and E–E′ (Ryder and others, 2008, which was re-released in this volume, chap. E.4.2). Furthermore, the chapter presents a recent estimate of the ultimate recoverable oil and natural gas in the basin.

  12. Geologic map of the west-central Buffalo National River region, northern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark R.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2014-01-01

    This map summarizes the geology of the west-central Buffalo National River region in the Ozark Plateaus region of northern Arkansas. Geologically, the region lies on the southern flank of the Ozark dome, an uplift that exposes oldest rocks at its center in Missouri. Physiographically, the map area spans the Springfield Plateau, a topographic surface generally held up by Mississippian cherty limestone and the higher Boston Mountains to the south, held up by Pennsylvanian rocks. The Buffalo River flows eastward through the map area, enhancing bedrock erosion of an approximately 1,600-ft- (490-m-) thick sequence of Ordovician, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks that have been mildly deformed by a series of faults and folds. Quaternary surficial units are present as alluvial deposits along major streams, including a series of terrace deposits from the Buffalo River, as well as colluvium and landslide deposits mantling bedrock on hillslopes.

  13. The geological framework of the Wairakei-Tauhara Geothermal System, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael D.; Bignall, Greg; Rae, Andrew J. [GNS Science, Wairakei Research Centre, Private Bag 2000, Taupo (New Zealand)

    2009-03-15

    The geology of the Wairakei-Tauhara geothermal system has been revealed in increments over more than 50 years of field development. Only two major reviews of geo-scientific information have been completed; the first was made more than 40 years ago, the second (unpublished) was completed more than 25 years ago. This paper is an overview and update of the stratigraphic and structural framework of the system and its controls on fluid flow and hydrothermal alteration. We provide information on new areas of drilling exploration in the west of the Wairakei Geothermal Field and on the first production-focused drilling in 40 years at the Tauhara Geothermal Field. The lithology, thickness and extent of several units have been refined, while new units have been discovered by recent deep wells; five new members of the Waiora Formation are proposed. Nomenclature of formations and members is also updated. We review controls on fluid flow in the system and find that fault zones are likely up-flow channels, but their correlation with well feed points is equivocal, whereas intra- and inter-formational permeable zones are directly located by drilling and well completion data. New mineralogy data confirms an earlier known prograde trend of increasing hydrothermal alteration rank and intensity with depth. In the west of the Wairakei-Tauhara system thermal and chemical evolution has created a lower temperature and/or pH overprint on the older propylitic assemblage. Conditions at the eastern boundary of the system appear to have long-term stability. (author)

  14. The Certification Framework: Risk Assessment for Safety and Effectiveness of Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, C. M.; Nicot, J.; Bryant, S. L.

    2008-12-01

    Motivated by the dual objectives of (1) encouraging geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) as one of several strategies urgently needed to reduce CO2 emissions, and (2) protecting the environment from unintended CO2 injection-related impacts, we have developed a simple and transparent framework for certifying GCS safety and effectiveness at individual sites. The approach we developed, called the Certification Framework (CF), is proposed as a standard way for project proponents, regulators, and the public to analyze and understand risks and uncertainties of GCS. In the CF, we relate effective trapping to CO2 leakage risk, where we use the standard definition of risk involving the two factors (1) probability of a particular leakage scenario, and (2) impact of that leakage scenario. In short, if the CO2 leakage risk as calculated by the CF is below threshold values for the life of the project, then effective trapping is predicted and the site can be certified. The concept of effective trapping is more general than traditional "no migration" approaches to underground injection regulation. We achieve simplicity in the CF by using (1) wells and faults as the potential leakage pathways, (2) five compartments to represent where impacts can occur (underground sources of drinking water, hydrocarbon and mineral resources, near-surface environment, health and safety, and emission credits and atmosphere), (3) modeled CO2 fluxes and concentrations as proxies for impact to compartments, (4) broad ranges of storage formation properties to generate a catalog of simulated CO2 plumes, and (5) probabilities of intersection of the CO2 plume with the conduits and compartments. In a case study application of the CF for a saline formation GCS site in the Texas Gulf Coast, analysis with the CF suggested the overall leakage risk to be very small, with the largest contribution coming from risk to the near-surface environment due to potential leakage up abandoned wells, depending on the

  15. A Knowledge-Driven Geospatially Enabled Framework for Geological Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Geologic survey procedures accumulate large volumes of structured and unstructured data. Fully exploiting the knowledge and information that are included in geological big data and improving the accessibility of large volumes of data are important endeavors. In this paper, which is based on the architecture of the geological survey information cloud-computing platform (GSICCP and big-data-related technologies, we split geologic unstructured data into fragments and extract multi-dimensional features via geological domain ontology. These fragments are reorganized into a NoSQL (Not Only SQL database, and then associations between the fragments are added. A specific class of geological questions was analyzed and transformed into workflow tasks according to the predefined rules and associations between fragments to identify spatial information and unstructured content. We establish a knowledge-driven geologic survey information smart-service platform (GSISSP based on previous work, and we detail a study case for our research. The study case shows that all the content that has known relationships or semantic associations can be mined with the assistance of multiple ontologies, thereby improving the accuracy and comprehensiveness of geological information discovery.

  16. Geologic framework and evidence for neotectonism in the epicentral area of the 2011 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, William C.; Harrison, Richard W.; Spears, David B.; Evans, Nicholas H.; Mahan, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    The epicenters of the main shock and associated aftershocks of the 2011 moment magnitude, Mw 5.8 Mineral, Virginia (USA), earthquake, and the updip projection of the possible fault plane that triggered the quakes, are contained in the areas of 2 adjoining 7.5′ quadrangles in the central Virginia Piedmont. These quadrangles have therefore been the focus of concentrated geologic study in the form of bedrock and surficial mapping and near-surface trenching in order to identify potential seismogenic structures. Bedrock mapping has outlined a series of northeast-southwest–trending lithologic belts that include the Ordovician Chopawamsic and Quantico Formations, the narrow neck of the Late Ordovician Ellisville pluton, and mélange zone III of the Mine Run Complex. The region was affected by at least two ductile deformational events, one in the early Paleozoic that was broadly synchronous with the intrusion of the pluton, and one later in the Paleozoic. The earlier deformation produced the Quantico synclinorium and other regional folds, and the later deformation produced faults with associated high-strain zones. Two of these faults have been trenched at their intersection along the east-dipping eastern contact of the Ellisville neck, near where the causative fault for the earthquake projects to the surface. The trenches have exposed abundant evidence of post-Paleozoic fracturing and faulting, including brecciated quartz-tourmaline veins, slickensided thrust and strike-slip faults, and clay-filled fractures. Fluvial and colluvial gravels that overlie these brittle structures have yielded optically stimulated luminescence ages ranging from ca. 27 to 10 ka. These structures are likely representative of surface features associated with Quaternary earthquakes in the Central Virginia seismic zone.

  17. Regional evolution of geological structure in south China and U mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guoda; Kang Zili; Shen Jinrui; Jin Yushu

    1992-01-01

    This paper states the development laws of regional geological structure of South China and its controlling effect on uranium deposit evolution, and the characteristics of rich uranium formation in different periods of geo-history are analysed. It also discusses the relationship between the distribution of time and space and tectonic structure and environmental vicissitudes. The rock-magma activities-the strong formation of the Diwa Era is of great significance to the formation of uranium deposits within the region, especially to the formation of a series of multi-genesis polygene uranium deposits which are a potential direction in which to look for minerals within the region

  18. Exploring the "what if?" in geology through a RESTful open-source framework for cloud-based simulation and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Jens; Robertson, Jess

    2016-04-01

    The spatial and temporal extent of geological phenomena makes experiments in geology difficult to conduct, if not entirely impossible and collection of data is laborious and expensive - so expensive that most of the time we cannot test a hypothesis. The aim, in many cases, is to gather enough data to build a predictive geological model. Even in a mine, where data are abundant, a model remains incomplete because the information at the level of a blasting block is two orders of magnitude larger than the sample from a drill core, and we have to take measurement errors into account. So, what confidence can we have in a model based on sparse data, uncertainties and measurement error? Our framework consist of two layers: (a) a ground-truth layer that contains geological models, which can be statistically based on historical operations data, and (b) a network of RESTful synthetic sensor microservices which can query the ground-truth for underlying properties and produce a simulated measurement to a control layer, which could be a database or LIMS, a machine learner or a companies' existing data infrastructure. Ground truth data are generated by an implicit geological model which serves as a host for nested models of geological processes as smaller scales. Our two layers are implemented using Flask and Gunicorn, which are open source Python web application framework and server, the PyData stack (numpy, scipy etc) and Rabbit MQ (an open-source queuing library). Sensor data is encoded using a JSON-LD version of the SensorML and Observations and Measurements standards. Containerisation of the synthetic sensors using Docker and CoreOS allows rapid and scalable deployment of large numbers of sensors, as well as sensor discovery to form a self-organized dynamic network of sensors. Real-time simulation of data sources can be used to investigate crucial questions such as the potential information gain from future sensing capabilities, or from new sampling strategies, or the

  19. Regional geology mapping using satellite-based remote sensing approach in Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, Amin Beiranvand; Park, Yongcheol; Park, Tae-Yoon S.; Hong, Jong Kuk; Hashim, Mazlan; Woo, Jusun; Ayoobi, Iman

    2018-06-01

    Satellite remote sensing imagery is especially useful for geological investigations in Antarctica because of its remoteness and extreme environmental conditions that constrain direct geological survey. The highest percentage of exposed rocks and soils in Antarctica occurs in Northern Victoria Land (NVL). Exposed Rocks in NVL were part of the paleo-Pacific margin of East Gondwana during the Paleozoic time. This investigation provides a satellite-based remote sensing approach for regional geological mapping in the NVL, Antarctica. Landsat-8 and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) datasets were used to extract lithological-structural and mineralogical information. Several spectral-band ratio indices were developed using Landsat-8 and ASTER bands and proposed for Antarctic environments to map spectral signatures of snow/ice, iron oxide/hydroxide minerals, Al-OH-bearing and Fe, Mg-OH and CO3 mineral zones, and quartz-rich felsic and mafic-to-ultramafic lithological units. The spectral-band ratio indices were tested and implemented to Level 1 terrain-corrected (L1T) products of Landsat-8 and ASTER datasets covering the NVL. The surface distribution of the mineral assemblages was mapped using the spectral-band ratio indices and verified by geological expeditions and laboratory analysis. Resultant image maps derived from spectral-band ratio indices that developed in this study are fairly accurate and correspond well with existing geological maps of the NVL. The spectral-band ratio indices developed in this study are especially useful for geological investigations in inaccessible locations and poorly exposed lithological units in Antarctica environments.

  20. Energy autarky: A conceptual framework for sustainable regional development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Matthias Otto; Staempfli, Adrian; Dold, Ursula; Hammer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Energy autarky is presented as a conceptual framework for implementing sustainable regional development based on the transformation of the energy subsystem. It is conceptualized as a situation in which the energy services used for sustaining local consumption, local production and the export of goods and services are derived from locally renewable energy resources. Technically, the implementation of higher degrees of energy autarky rests on increasing energy efficiency, realizing the potential of renewable energy resources and relying on a decentralized energy system. Practically, a transition towards regional energy autarky requires administrations and civil society actors to initialize and develop projects at the local level, ensure their acceptance and support by the regional population and implement the project in collaboration with relevant actors. Besides the description of the concept and the benefits its implementation brings, this article provides a process for implementation, and some examples from Austria, Germany and Switzerland. - Highlights: → We introduce energy autarky as a conceptual framework for sustainable development. → Transforming the energy subsystem creates various benefits for communities. → Local participation should lead to social acceptance of renewables. → We review and discuss projects implementing energy autarky. → Further research needs to compare successful implementations with failures.

  1. Petroleum geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Black and Caspian region. Extended abstracts book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    Full text : The scientists from following countries took part at the international conference : Azerbaijan, Turkey, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine, Austria, USA, Great Britain, Czech Republic. The activity was conducted in eight sections. Section 1 was devoted to the exploration operations in the Caspian and Black sea region. Section 2 was devoted to regional geology and tectonics. Section 3 was devoted to hydrocarbon systems of the south Caspian basin. Section 4 was devoted to exploration operations results and their prospects in the south Caspian Sea and contiguous on-shore areas. Section 5 was devoted to neotectonics and its effect on the process of hydrocarbon resources development. Section 6 was devoted to paleogeography of sedimentation basin. Section 7 was devoted to geological aspects of the exploration geophysics data interpretation. Section 8 was devoted to ecology problems in oil and gas exploration and production

  2. Siting regions for deep geological repositories. Why just here?; Standortgebiete fuer geologische Tiefenlager. Warum gerade hier?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieser, A

    2009-09-15

    This report helps to the popularization of the Nagra works accomplished for the management and disposal of the radioactive wastes in Switzerland. The programme for management and disposal of the radioactive wastes are extensively determined by regulations. Protection of mankind and environment is the primary objective. The basic storage process is considered as having been solved. The question addressed in the report is where the facility has to be built; the site selection procedure includes five steps: 1) according to their type the wastes have to be allocated to two different repositories: for low- and intermediate-level wastes (L/ILW), and for high-level and alpha-toxic wastes (HLW); 2) the safety concept for both repositories and the requirements on the geology have to be determined; 3) large suitable geological-tectonic zones must be found where repositories could be built; 4) in these geological zones a suitable host rock has to be identified; 5) the most important spatial geological conditions of the host rock (minimum depth with respect to surface erosion, maximum depth in terms of engineering requirements, lateral extent) have to be identified. Based on these criteria, three suitable siting regions for a HLW repository were found in the North of Switzerland. The preferred host rock is Opalinus clay because of its very low permeability; it is therefore an excellent barrier against nuclide transport. In the three proposed siting regions, Opalinus clay is present in sufficient volumes at a suitable depth. For a L/ILW repository six different possible siting regions were identified, five in Northern Switzerland and one in Central Switzerland. In the three siting regions found for a possible HLW repository, it would also be possible to built a combined repository for both HLW and L/ILW wastes.

  3. Geologic Characterization Report for the Paradox Basin Study Region Utah Study Areas, Volume V, Appendices

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of Energy

    1982-01-01

    This study is a part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Waste Terminal Storage Program (NWTS). The scope of DOE's NWTS responsibilities include providing the technology and facilities to isolate high-level radio-active wastes for as long as the wastes represent a hazard. Emplacement of waste packages in mined geologic repositories deep underground in various types of rock formations is one method being evaluated. Using a basic site selection process (Figure 1-1), regions bei...

  4. Regional Geological Mapping in the Graham Land of Antarctic Peninsula Using LANDSAT-8 Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, A. B.; Hashim, M.; Park, Y.

    2017-10-01

    Geological investigations in Antarctica confront many difficulties due to its remoteness and extreme environmental conditions. In this study, the applications of Landsat-8 data were investigated to extract geological information for lithological and alteration mineral mapping in poorly exposed lithologies in inaccessible domains such in Antarctica. The north-eastern Graham Land, Antarctic Peninsula (AP) was selected in this study to conduct a satellite-based remote sensing mapping technique. Continuum Removal (CR) spectral mapping tool and Independent Components Analysis (ICA) were applied to Landsat-8 spectral bands to map poorly exposed lithologies at regional scale. Pixels composed of distinctive absorption features of alteration mineral assemblages associated with poorly exposed lithological units were detected by applying CR mapping tool to VNIR and SWIR bands of Landsat-8.Pixels related to Si-O bond emission minima features were identified using CR mapping tool to TIR bands in poorly mapped andunmapped zones in north-eastern Graham Land at regional scale. Anomaly pixels in the ICA image maps related to spectral featuresof Al-O-H, Fe, Mg-O-H and CO3 groups and well-constrained lithological attributions from felsic to mafic rocks were detectedusing VNIR, SWIR and TIR datasets of Landsat-8. The approach used in this study performed very well for lithological andalteration mineral mapping with little available geological data or without prior information of the study region.

  5. Geology and Geochemistry of the Poco de Fora region-Curaca river valley-Bahia-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, M.C.H. de.

    1976-01-01

    In the Poco de Fora region level rocks of light metamorphism, from Caraiba group, corresponding to: - a meta-sedimentar sequence from Lower Pre-cambrian (Archean) - maphic-ultramaphic bodies with Fe and Cu sulphides of volcanogenic origin, and - sienitic ortho-gneiss. Geological, petrographic, geochemistry and geochronological studies were done. The sienitic-intrusion, from the upper crust, occur during the Archean-beginning of the Proterozoic. All the region was re-mobilized, and the sienitic was metamorphosed during Transamazonic Orogeny (2.200 to 1.800 m.y.). (C.D.G.) [pt

  6. Geologic framework studies of South Carolina's Long Bay from Little River Inlet to Winyah Bay, 1999-2003: geospatial data release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, W.E.; Denny, J.F.; Schwab, W.C.; Gayes, P.T.; Morton, R.; Driscoll, N.W.

    2007-01-01

    The northern South Carolina coast is a heavily developed region that supports a thriving tourism industry, large local populations and extensive infrastructure (Figure 1). The economic stability of the region is closely tied to the health of its beaches: primarily in providing support for local tourism and protection from storm events. Despite relatively low long-term shoreline erosion rates, and the implied stability of the beaches, the economic impact of storm events to coastal communities has been costly. For example, Hurricane Hugo made landfall on the central South Carolina coast in 1989. High winds and storm surge inflicted roughly $6 billion in property loss and damages, and Hugo remains the costliest storm event in South Carolina history. Localized erosion, commonly occurring around tidal inlets and erosion "hot spots", has also proved costly. Construction and maintenance of hard structures and beach nourishment, designed to mitigate the effects of erosion, have become annual or multi-annual expenditures. Providing a better understanding of the physical processes controlling coastal erosion and shoreline change will allow for more effective management of coastal resources. In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium (SCSGC), began a study to investigate inner continental shelf and shoreface processes. The objectives of the USGS/SCSGC cooperative program are: 1) to provide a regional synthesis of the shallow geologic framework underlying the shoreface and inner continental shelf, and to define its role in coastal evolution and modern beach behavior; 2) to identify and model the physical processes affecting coastal ocean circulation and sediment transport, and to define their role in shaping the modern shoreline; and 3) to identify sediment sources and transport pathways in order to develop a regional sediment budget. This report contains the geospatial data used to define the geologic framework

  7. Regional Geologic Evaluations for Disposal of HLW and SNF: The Pierre Shale of the Northern Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelley, Richard E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-14

    The DOE Spent Fuel and Waste Technology (SWFT) R&D Campaign is supporting research on crystalline rock, shale (argillite) and salt as potential host rocks for disposal of HLW and SNF in a mined geologic repository. The distribution of these three potential repository host rocks is limited to specific regions of the US and to different geologic and hydrologic environments (Perry et al., 2014), many of which may be technically suitable as a site for mined geologic disposal. This report documents a regional geologic evaluation of the Pierre Shale, as an example of evaluating a potentially suitable shale for siting a geologic HLW repository. This report follows a similar report competed in 2016 on a regional evaluation of crystalline rock that focused on the Superior Province of the north-central US (Perry et al., 2016).

  8. Urban water sustainability: an integrative framework for regional water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, P.; Ajami, N. K.

    2015-11-01

    Traditional urban water supply portfolios have proven to be unsustainable under the uncertainties associated with growth and long-term climate variability. Introducing alternative water supplies such as recycled water, captured runoff, desalination, as well as demand management strategies such as conservation and efficiency measures, has been widely proposed to address the long-term sustainability of urban water resources. Collaborative efforts have the potential to achieve this goal through more efficient use of common pool resources and access to funding opportunities for supply diversification projects. However, this requires a paradigm shift towards holistic solutions that address the complexity of hydrologic, socio-economic and governance dynamics surrounding water management issues. The objective of this work is to develop a regional integrative framework for the assessment of water resource sustainability under current management practices, as well as to identify opportunities for sustainability improvement in coupled socio-hydrologic systems. We define the sustainability of a water utility as the ability to access reliable supplies to consistently satisfy current needs, make responsible use of supplies, and have the capacity to adapt to future scenarios. To compute a quantitative measure of sustainability, we develop a numerical index comprised of supply, demand, and adaptive capacity indicators, including an innovative way to account for the importance of having diverse supply sources. We demonstrate the application of this framework to the Hetch Hetchy Regional Water System in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. Our analyses demonstrate that water agencies that share common water supplies are in a good position to establish integrative regional management partnerships in order to achieve individual and collective short-term and long-term benefits.

  9. Screening and ranking framework (SRF) for geologic CO2 storagesite selection on the basis of HSE risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2006-11-27

    A screening and ranking framework (SRF) has been developedto evaluate potential geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) storage sites on thebasis of health, safety, and environmental (HSE) risk arising from CO2leakage. The approach is based on the assumption that CO2 leakage risk isdependent on three basic characteristics of a geologic CO2 storage site:(1) the potential for primary containment by the target formation; (2)the potential for secondary containment if the primary formation leaks;and (3) the potential for attenuation and dispersion of leaking CO2 ifthe primary formation leaks and secondary containment fails. Theframework is implemented in a spreadsheet in which users enter numericalscores representing expert opinions or published information along withestimates of uncertainty. Applications to three sites in Californiademonstrate the approach. Refinements and extensions are possible throughthe use of more detailed data or model results in place of propertyproxies.

  10. Current status of regional hydrogeological studies and numerical simulations on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Shinsuke; Kikuchi, Tsuneo; Ishido, Tsuneo

    2004-01-01

    Current status of regional hydrogeological studies on geological disposal including hydrogeological modeling using numerical simulators is reviewed in this report. A regional scale and boundary conditions of numerical models are summarized mainly from the results of the RHS (regional hydrogeological study) project conducted by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) in the Tono area. We also refer to the current conceptual modes of hydrology and numerical models of unsaturated zone flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which is the arid site proposed for consideration as the United States' first underground high-level radioactive waste repository. Understanding behavior of a freshwater-saltwater transition zone seems to play a key role in the hydrogeological modeling in a coastal region. Technical features of a numerical simulator as a tool for geothermal reservoir modeling is also briefly described. (author)

  11. Pilot Studies of Geologic and Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration in the Big Sky Region, USA, and Opportunities for Commercial Scale Deployment of New Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, L. A.; Capalbo, S. M.; Talbott, J.

    2007-05-01

    Within the Big Sky region, including Montana, Idaho, South Dakota, Wyoming and the Pacific Northwest, industry is developing new coal-fired power plants using the abundant coal and other fossil-based resources. Of crucial importance to future development programs are robust carbon mitigation plans that include a technical and economic assessment of regional carbon sequestration opportunities. The objective of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP) is to promote the development of a regional framework and infrastructure required to validate and deploy carbon sequestration technologies. Initial work compiled sources and potential sinks for carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Big Sky Region and developed the online Carbon Atlas. Current efforts couple geologic and terrestrial field validation tests with market assessments, economic analysis and regulatory and public outreach. The primary geological efforts are in the demonstration of carbon storage in mafic/basalt formations, a geology not yet well characterized but with significant long-term storage potential in the region and other parts of the world; and in the Madison Formation, a large carbonate aquifer in Wyoming and Montana. Terrestrial sequestration relies on management practices and technologies to remove atmospheric CO2 to storage in trees, plants, and soil. This indirect sequestration method can be implemented today and is on the front-line of voluntary, market-based approaches to reduce CO2 emissions. Details of pilot projects are presented including: new technologies, challenges and successes of projects and potential for commercial-scale deployment.

  12. Geologic Map of MTM 35337, 40337, and 45337 Quadrangles, Deuteronilus Mensae Region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Frank C.; Crown, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Deuteronilus Mensae, first defined as an albedo feature at lat 35.0 deg N., long 5.0 deg E., by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and International Astronomical Union (IAU) nomenclature, is a gradational zone along the dichotomy boundary in the northern mid-latitudes of Mars. The boundary in this location includes the transition from the rugged cratered highlands of Arabia Terra to the northern lowland plains of Acidalia Planitia. Within Deuteronilus Mensae, polygonal mesas are prominent along with features diagnostic of Martian fretted terrain, including lobate debris aprons, lineated valley fill, and concentric crater fill. Lobate debris aprons, as well as the valley and crater fill deposits, are geomorphic indicators of ground ice, and their concentration in Deuteronilus Mensae is of great interest because of their potential association with Martian climate change. The paucity of impact craters on the surfaces of debris aprons and the presence of ice-cemented mantle material imply young (for example, Amazonian) surface ages that are consistent with recent climate change in this region of Mars. North of Deuteronilus Mensae are the northern lowlands, a potential depositional sink that may have had large standing bodies of water or an ocean in the past. The northern lowlands have elevations that are several kilometers below the ancient cratered highlands with significantly younger surface ages. The morphologic and topographic characteristics of the Deuteronilus Mensae region record a diverse geologic history, including significant modification of the ancient highland plateau and resurfacing of low-lying regions. Previous studies of this region have interpreted a complex array of geologic processes, including eolian, fluvial and glacial activity, coastal erosion, marine deposition, mass wasting, tectonic faulting, effusive volcanism, and hydrovolcanism. The origin and age of the Martian crustal dichotomy boundary are fundamental questions that remain unresolved at the

  13. Use of comparative assessment framework for comparison of geological nuclear waste and CO2 disposal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streimikiene, Dalia

    2010-09-15

    Comparative assessment of few future energy and climate change mitigation options for Lithuania in 2020 performed indicated that nuclear and combined cycle gas turbine technologies are very similar energy options in terms of costs taking into account GHG emission reduction costs. Comparative assessment of these energy options requires evaluation of the potentials and costs for geological CO2 and nuclear waste storage as the main uncertainties in comparative assessment of electricity generation technologies are related with these back-end technologies. The paper analyses the main characteristics of possible geological storage of CO2 and NW options in Lithuania.

  14. The 2012 Emilia earthquake in northern Italy: coseismic geological effects within a compressive tectonic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montone, P.; Alessio, G.; Alfonsi, L.; Brunori, C.; Burrato, P.; Casula, G.; Cinti, F. R.; Civico, R.; Colini, L.; Cucci, L.; De Martini, P. M.; Falcucci, E.; Galadini, F.; Gaudiosi, G.; Gori, S.; Mariucci, M.; Moro, M.; Nappi, R.; Nardi, A.; Nave, R.; Pantosti, D.; Patera, A.; Pesci, A.; Pignone, M.; Pinzi, S.; Pucci, S.; Vannoli, P.; Venuti, A.; Villani, F.

    2012-12-01

    On May 20 2012 a Ml 5.9 seismic event hit the Emilia Po Plain area (northern Italy) triggering an intense earthquake activity along a broad area of the Plain. Nine days later, on May 29 a Ml 5.8 event occurred roughly 10 km to the SW of the first main shock; these events caused 26 victims and several injured and damages. The aftershock area extended for more than 50 km, in WNW-ESE direction, including five major aftershocks with 5.1≤Ml≤5.3 and more than two thousands of minor events. In general, the seismic sequence was confined in the upper 10 km of depth (ISIDe, http://iside.rm.ingv.it/). The focal mechanisms calculated for the main events and also for several M>4.5 aftershocks are almost all consistent with a compression (P-axes) N-S oriented due to thrust fault mechanisms. The two nodal planes, both E-W oriented, show a 40° southward and 60-70° northward dipping plane (QRCMT, Quick Regional Moment Tensors, http://autorcmt.bo.ingv.it/quicks.html), connected with the compressional regime of the area. From a tectonic point of view, the active Apennine thrust fronts, buried under the Po Plain Plio-Quaternary sediments, locally consist of three N-verging arcs. The most external structures, the active Ferrara and Mirandola thrusts and folds are responsible for the Emilia Romagna 2012 earthquake sequence. Just after the 20th May seismic event, the EMERGEO Working Group was active in surveying the epicentral area searching for coseismic geological effects. The survey lasted one month, involving about thirty researchers and technicians of the INGV in field and aerial investigations. Simultaneously, a laboratory-working group gathered, organized and interpreted the observations, processing them in the EMERGEO Information System (siE), on a GIS environment. The most common coseismic effects are: 1) liquefactions related to overpressure of aquifers hosted in buried and confined sand layers, occurring both as single cones or through several aligned vents forming

  15. Nitrate reduction in geologically heterogeneous catchments — A framework for assessing the scale of predictive capability of hydrological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Auken, Esben; Bamberg, Charlotte A.; Christensen, Britt S.B.; Clausen, Thomas; Dalgaard, Esben; Effersø, Flemming; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Gertz, Flemming; Hansen, Anne Lausten; He, Xin; Jacobsen, Brian H.; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Jørgensen, Flemming; Jørgensen, Lisbeth Flindt; Koch, Julian; Nilsson, Bertel; Petersen, Christian; De Schepper, Guillaume; Schamper, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    In order to fulfil the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive nitrate load from agricultural areas to surface water in Denmark needs to be reduced by about 40%. The regulations imposed until now have been uniform, i.e. the same restrictions for all areas independent of the subsurface conditions. Studies have shown that on a national basis about 2/3 of the nitrate leaching from the root zone is reduced naturally, through denitrification, in the subsurface before reaching the streams. Therefore, it is more cost-effective to identify robust areas, where nitrate leaching through the root zone is reduced in the saturated zone before reaching the streams, and vulnerable areas, where no subsurface reduction takes place, and then only impose regulations/restrictions on the vulnerable areas. Distributed hydrological models can make predictions at grid scale, i.e. at much smaller scale than the entire catchment. However, as distributed models often do not include local scale hydrogeological heterogeneities, they are typically not able to make accurate predictions at scales smaller than they are calibrated. We present a framework for assessing nitrate reduction in the subsurface and for assessing at which spatial scales modelling tools have predictive capabilities. A new instrument has been developed for airborne geophysical measurements, Mini-SkyTEM, dedicated to identifying geological structures and heterogeneities with horizontal and lateral resolutions of 30–50 m and 2 m, respectively, in the upper 30 m. The geological heterogeneity and uncertainty are further analysed by use of the geostatistical software TProGS by generating stochastic geological realisations that are soft conditioned against the geophysical data. Finally, the flow paths within the catchment are simulated by use of the MIKE SHE hydrological modelling system for each of the geological models generated by TProGS and the prediction uncertainty is characterised by the variance between the

  16. Nitrate reduction in geologically heterogeneous catchments — A framework for assessing the scale of predictive capability of hydrological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Refsgaard, Jens Christian, E-mail: jcr@geus.dk [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Auken, Esben [Department of Earth Sciences, Aarhus University (Denmark); Bamberg, Charlotte A. [City of Aarhus (Denmark); Christensen, Britt S.B. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Clausen, Thomas [DHI, Hørsholm (Denmark); Dalgaard, Esben [Department of Earth Sciences, Aarhus University (Denmark); Effersø, Flemming [SkyTEM Aps, Beder (Denmark); Ernstsen, Vibeke [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Gertz, Flemming [Knowledge Center for Agriculture, Skejby (Denmark); Hansen, Anne Lausten [Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); He, Xin [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Jacobsen, Brian H. [Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Jensen, Karsten Høgh [Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Jørgensen, Flemming; Jørgensen, Lisbeth Flindt [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Koch, Julian [Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Nilsson, Bertel [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Petersen, Christian [City of Odder (Denmark); De Schepper, Guillaume [Université Laval, Québec (Canada); Schamper, Cyril [Department of Earth Sciences, Aarhus University (Denmark); and others

    2014-01-01

    In order to fulfil the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive nitrate load from agricultural areas to surface water in Denmark needs to be reduced by about 40%. The regulations imposed until now have been uniform, i.e. the same restrictions for all areas independent of the subsurface conditions. Studies have shown that on a national basis about 2/3 of the nitrate leaching from the root zone is reduced naturally, through denitrification, in the subsurface before reaching the streams. Therefore, it is more cost-effective to identify robust areas, where nitrate leaching through the root zone is reduced in the saturated zone before reaching the streams, and vulnerable areas, where no subsurface reduction takes place, and then only impose regulations/restrictions on the vulnerable areas. Distributed hydrological models can make predictions at grid scale, i.e. at much smaller scale than the entire catchment. However, as distributed models often do not include local scale hydrogeological heterogeneities, they are typically not able to make accurate predictions at scales smaller than they are calibrated. We present a framework for assessing nitrate reduction in the subsurface and for assessing at which spatial scales modelling tools have predictive capabilities. A new instrument has been developed for airborne geophysical measurements, Mini-SkyTEM, dedicated to identifying geological structures and heterogeneities with horizontal and lateral resolutions of 30–50 m and 2 m, respectively, in the upper 30 m. The geological heterogeneity and uncertainty are further analysed by use of the geostatistical software TProGS by generating stochastic geological realisations that are soft conditioned against the geophysical data. Finally, the flow paths within the catchment are simulated by use of the MIKE SHE hydrological modelling system for each of the geological models generated by TProGS and the prediction uncertainty is characterised by the variance between the

  17. Aspects of sismo-tectonic stability in the South-Eastern region of Brazil of interest to geology of engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioto, J.A.; Hasui, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The occurence of earthquakes in Brazil, mainly in the South-eastern region, and its relationship with the geologic features has been discussed by many Authors since the beginning of this Century. It is difficult to define intraplate seismicity and to understand the actual epirogenic displacent, but the definition of the regional stability is important for enginnering purposes and have been considered through seismologic, morphotectonic and geologic criteria. (Author) [pt

  18. Geologic mapping of the Hi’iaka and Shamshu regions of Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunte, Melissa K.; Williams, David A.; Greeley, Ronald; Jaeger, Windy L.

    2010-06-01

    We produced regional geologic maps of the Hi'iaka and Shamshu regions of Io's antijovian hemisphere using Galileo mission data to assess the geologic processes that are involved in the formation of Io's mountains and volcanic centers. Observations reveal that these regions are characterized by several types of volcanic activity and features whose orientation and texture indicate tectonic activity. Among the volcanic features are multiple hotspots and volcanic vents detected by Galileo, one at each of the major paterae: Hi'iaka, Shamshu, and Tawhaki. We mapped four primary types of geologic units: flows, paterae floors, plains, and mountains. The flows and patera floors are similar, but are subdivided based upon emplacement environments and mechanisms. The floors of Hi'iaka and Shamshu Paterae have been partially resurfaced by dark lava flows, although portions of the paterae floors appear bright and unchanged during the Galileo mission; this suggests that the floors did not undergo complete resurfacing as flooding lava lakes. However, the paterae do contain compound lava flow fields and show the greatest activity near the paterae walls, a characteristic of Pele type lava lakes. Mountain materials are tilted crustal blocks that exhibit varied degrees of degradation. Lineated mountains have characteristic en echelon grooves that likely formed as a result of gravitational sliding. Undivided mountains are partially grooved but exhibit evidence of slumping and are generally lower elevation than the lineated units. Debris lobes and aprons are representative of mottled mountain materials. We have explored the possibility that north and south Hi'iaka Mons were originally one structure. We propose that strike-slip faulting and subsequent rifting separated the mountain units and created a depression which, by further extension during the rifting event, became Hi'iaka Patera. This type of rifting and depression formation is similar to the mechanism of formation of terrestrial

  19. Regional groundwater characteristics and hydraulic conductivity based on geological units in Korean peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Suk, H.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, about 2,000 deep observation wells, stream and/or river distribution, and river's density were analyzed to identify regional groundwater flow trend, based on the regional groundwater survey of four major river watersheds including Geum river, Han river, Youngsan-Seomjin river, and Nakdong river in Korea. Hydrogeologial data were collected to analyze regional groundwater flow characteristics according to geological units. Additionally, hydrological soil type data were collected to estimate direct runoff through SCS-CN method. Temperature and precipitation data were used to quantify infiltration rate. The temperature and precipitation data were also used to quantify evaporation by Thornthwaite method and to evaluate groundwater recharge, respectively. Understanding the regional groundwater characteristics requires the database of groundwater flow parameters, but most hydrogeological data include limited information such as groundwater level and well configuration. In this study, therefore, groundwater flow parameters such as hydraulic conductivities or transmissivities were estimated using observed groundwater level by inverse model, namely PEST (Non-linear Parameter ESTimation). Since groundwater modeling studies have some uncertainties in data collection, conceptualization, and model results, model calibration should be performed. The calibration may be manually performed by changing parameters step by step, or various parameters are simultaneously changed by automatic procedure using PEST program. In this study, both manual and automatic procedures were employed to calibrate and estimate hydraulic parameter distributions. In summary, regional groundwater survey data obtained from four major river watersheds and various data of hydrology, meteorology, geology, soil, and topography in Korea were used to estimate hydraulic conductivities using PEST program. Especially, in order to estimate hydraulic conductivity effectively, it is important to perform

  20. A method of identifying social structures in siting regions for deep geological repositories in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brander, Simone

    2010-09-01

    Acceptance is a key element in the site selection process for deep geological repositories for high-level and low and intermediate-level radioactive waste in Switzerland. Participation requirements such as comprehensive negotiation issues and adequate resources have thus been defined by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). In 2008, on the basis of technical criteria Nagra (National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste) proposed several potential areas for deep geological repositories. The number of potential areas will be narrowed down within the next few years. All municipalities within the planning perimeter (the area in which surface facilities can be realised) are affected and form the siting region. In order to ensure that the local population have their say in the forthcoming discussions, regional participation bodies including all municipalities within a siting region are being set up by the SFOE. Regional participation ensures that local interests, needs and values are taken into account in the site selection process. Assembling the regional participation bodies is therefore of great importance. Before such bodies can be formed, however, the various interests, needs and values have to be identified, and special attention has to be paid to long-term interests of future generations, as well as to non-organised and under-represented interests. According to the concept of proportional representation, the interests, needs and values that are identified and weighted by the local population are to be represented in the regional participation procedure. The aim of this study is to share a method of mapping existing social structures in a defined geographical area. This involves a combination of an analysis of socio-economic statistical data and qualitative and quantitative social research methods

  1. Technical framework to facilitate foreign spent fuel storage and geologic disposal in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.J.; Halsey, W.G.; Cmith, C.F.

    2000-01-01

    The option of storage and eventual geologic disposal in Russia of spent fuel of US origin used in Taiwan provides a unique opportunity that can benefit many parties. Taiwan has a near term need for a spent fuel storage and geologic disposal solution, available financial resources, but limited prospect for a timely domestic solution. Russia has significant spent fuel storage and transportation management experience, candidate storage and repository sites, but limited financial resources available for their development. The US has interest in Taiwan energy security, national security and nonproliferation interests in Russian spent fuel storage and disposal and interest in the US origin fuel. While it is understood that such a project includes complex policy and international political issues as well as technical issues, the goal of this paper is to begin the discussion by presenting a technical path forward to establish the feasibility of this concept for Russia

  2. The growth of geological structures by repeated earthquakes, 1, conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, G.C.P.; Stein, R.S.; Rundle, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    In many places, earthquakes with similar characteristics have been shown to recur. If this is common, then relatively small deformations associated with individual earthquake cycles should accumulate over time to create geological structures. It is shown that existing models developed to describe leveling line changes associated with the seismic cycle can be adapted to explain geological features associated with a fault. In these models an elastic layer containing the fault overlies a viscous half-space with a different density. Fault motion associated with an earthquake results in immediate deformation followed by a long period of readjustment as stresses relax in the viscous layer and isostatic equilibrium is restored. The flexural rigidity of the crust (or the apparent elastic thickness) provides the main control of the width of a structure. The loading due to erosion and deposition of sediment determines the ratio of uplift to subsidence between the two sides of the fault. -Authors

  3. Developing a geoscience knowledge framework for a national geological survey organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Andrew S.; Hatton, Bill; Reitsma, Femke; Lawrie, Ken I. G.

    2009-04-01

    Geological survey organisations (GSOs) are established by most nations to provide a geoscience knowledge base for effective decision-making on mitigating the impacts of natural hazards and global change, and on sustainable management of natural resources. The value of the knowledge base as a national asset is continually enhanced by the exchange of knowledge between GSOs as data and information providers and the stakeholder community as knowledge 'users and exploiters'. Geological maps and associated narrative texts typically form the core of national geoscience knowledge bases, but have some inherent limitations as methods of capturing and articulating knowledge. Much knowledge about the three-dimensional (3D) spatial interpretation and its derivation and uncertainty, and the wider contextual value of the knowledge, remains intangible in the minds of the mapping geologist in implicit and tacit form. To realise the value of these knowledge assets, the British Geological Survey (BGS) has established a workflow-based cyber-infrastructure to enhance its knowledge management and exchange capability. Future geoscience surveys in the BGS will contribute to a national, 3D digital knowledge base on UK geology, with the associated implicit and tacit information captured as metadata, qualitative assessments of uncertainty, and documented workflows and best practice. Knowledge-based decision-making at all levels of society requires both the accessibility and reliability of knowledge to be enhanced in the grid-based world. Establishment of collaborative cyber-infrastructures and ontologies for geoscience knowledge management and exchange will ensure that GSOs, as knowledge-based organisations, can make their contribution to this wider goal.

  4. World Regional Studies as a Research Framework and Academic Discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina V. Koldunova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic development of international processes at the regional level, various trajectories of regionalization in Europe, Asia, Latin America and other parts of the world created a complex and multidimensional picture of the contemporary international relations. However Social Sciences and IR retained a distinct eurocentrism. This eurocentrism only partly meant that students of IR did not take into account non-European or non-Western realities. Thus, a German Scholar J. Vullers from German Institute of Global and Area Studies analyzing in 2014 three leading International Relations journals (International Organization, World Politics, European Journal of International Relations diagnosed a serious geographic imbalance in the international studies, which meant a very limited number of articles based on the nonWestern empirical data.Even with such geographic imbalance in IR studies more important for preserving eurocentrism there was the absence of non-Western IR theories or IR theories originating from non-Western political context. The collective monograph edited by Barry Buzan and Amitav Acharya focused exactly on this problem. The title of the book was provocatively asking why there is no non-Western IR theory. Thus, the book in question provoked a lively academic debate on the topic. Russia was not covered in this book. Therefore, this very fact gives one some reasons to reflect on how Russian research in the field may face a double challenge of a changing international environment and an inappropriate level of its intellectual assessment. Against this background this article analyzes World Regional Studies, a research framework and discipline, which is rapidly developing in Russia and may to some extent contribute to a more correct understanding of the international processes.

  5. A life cycle cost analysis framework for geologic storage of hydrogen : a user's tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobos, Peter Holmes; Lord, Anna Snider; Borns, David James; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2011-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an interest in large scale hydrogen geostorage, which could offer substantial buffer capacity to meet possible disruptions in supply or changing seasonal demands. The geostorage site options being considered are salt caverns, depleted oil/gas reservoirs, aquifers and hard rock caverns. The DOE has an interest in assessing the geological, geomechanical and economic viability for these types of geologic hydrogen storage options. This study has developed an economic analysis methodology and subsequent spreadsheet analysis to address costs entailed in developing and operating an underground geologic storage facility. This year the tool was updated specifically to (1) incorporate more site-specific model input assumptions for the wells and storage site modules, (2) develop a version that matches the general format of the HDSAM model developed and maintained by Argonne National Laboratory, and (3) incorporate specific demand scenarios illustrating the model's capability. Four general types of underground storage were analyzed: salt caverns, depleted oil/gas reservoirs, aquifers, and hard rock caverns/other custom sites. Due to the substantial lessons learned from the geological storage of natural gas already employed, these options present a potentially sizable storage option. Understanding and including these various geologic storage types in the analysis physical and economic framework will help identify what geologic option would be best suited for the storage of hydrogen. It is important to note, however, that existing natural gas options may not translate to a hydrogen system where substantial engineering obstacles may be encountered. There are only three locations worldwide that currently store hydrogen underground and they are all in salt caverns. Two locations are in the U.S. (Texas), and are managed by ConocoPhillips and Praxair (Leighty, 2007). The third is in Teeside, U.K., managed by Sabic Petrochemicals (Crotogino

  6. Designing and Implementing a Retrospective Earthquake Detection Framework at the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, J.; Yeck, W.; Benz, H.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center (USGS NEIC) is implementing and integrating new signal detection methods such as subspace correlation, continuous beamforming, multi-band picking and automatic phase identification into near-real-time monitoring operations. Leveraging the additional information from these techniques help the NEIC utilize a large and varied network on local to global scales. The NEIC is developing an ordered, rapid, robust, and decentralized framework for distributing seismic detection data as well as a set of formalized formatting standards. These frameworks and standards enable the NEIC to implement a seismic event detection framework that supports basic tasks, including automatic arrival time picking, social media based event detections, and automatic association of different seismic detection data into seismic earthquake events. In addition, this framework enables retrospective detection processing such as automated S-wave arrival time picking given a detected event, discrimination and classification of detected events by type, back-azimuth and slowness calculations, and ensuring aftershock and induced sequence detection completeness. These processes and infrastructure improve the NEIC's capabilities, accuracy, and speed of response. In addition, this same infrastructure provides an improved and convenient structure to support access to automatic detection data for both research and algorithmic development.

  7. Landslides Zonation Hazard: relation between geological structures and landslides occurrence in hilly tropical regions of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Rodrigo I; Reis, Fábio A G V; Gramani, Marcelo F; Giordano, Lucilia C; Zaine, José Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach of landslides zonation hazard studies, based on an integrated study of structural data along with geomorphological and external factors, in a hilly regions of Brazil, covered by a tropical humid rain-forest, called Serra do Mar. The Serra do Mar consists of a hilly region along the east coast of Brazil, with high slopes and many geological structures in a gneiss - migmatitic terrain. In contrast to traditional approaches, this method proposes that structural data (foliation, fractures and bedding planes) and its relation with the slope geometry, is important to be consider in the landslide zonation hazard, along with declivity, relative relief, soil and rock properties, land use and vegetation cover and hydrogeological and climate factors. Results show that slopes with high hazard have the same dip direction of geological structures. Landslide zonation hazard using structural data contributes to a better understanding of how these structures, preserved in tropical residual soils, influence on slope stability and generates landslides.

  8. Landslides Zonation Hazard: relation between geological structures and landslides occurrence in hilly tropical regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO I. CERRI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper presents a new approach of landslides zonation hazard studies, based on an integrated study of structural data along with geomorphological and external factors, in a hilly regions of Brazil, covered by a tropical humid rain-forest, called Serra do Mar. The Serra do Mar consists of a hilly region along the east coast of Brazil, with high slopes and many geological structures in a gneiss - migmatitic terrain. In contrast to traditional approaches, this method proposes that structural data (foliation, fractures and bedding planes and its relation with the slope geometry, is important to be consider in the landslide zonation hazard, along with declivity, relative relief, soil and rock properties, land use and vegetation cover and hydrogeological and climate factors. Results show that slopes with high hazard have the same dip direction of geological structures. Landslide zonation hazard using structural data contributes to a better understanding of how these structures, preserved in tropical residual soils, influence on slope stability and generates landslides.

  9. Role of Geologic Framework, Paleotopography, Sediment Supply, and Human Modification in the Evolutionary Development of the Northeastern North Carolina Barrier Island System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, S. R.; Thieler, E. R.; Mallinson, D. A.; Culver, S. J.; Corbett, D. R.; Hoffman, C. W.

    2002-12-01

    The NE North Carolina coastal system contains an exceptionally thick and well preserved Quaternary stratigraphic record that is the focus of a five-year Cooperative Coastal Geology Program between the USGS, several academic institutions, and state agencies. The major goal is to map this Quaternary section on the inner continental shelf, Outer Banks barrier islands, Albemarle-Pamlico estuarine system, and adjacent land areas. The program objectives are to define the geologic framework, develop the detailed evolutionary history, and understand the ongoing process dynamics driving this large, complex, and rapidly changing, high-energy coastal system. Preliminary data synthesis demonstrates that the major controls dictating the present health and future evolution of this coastal system include the following. 1) The regional late Pleistocene morphology constitutes the underlying geologic framework that the Holocene system has inherited. 2) The controlling paleotopography is a series of lowstand drainage basins consisting of trunk and tributary streams and associated interstream divides that are being drowned. 3) Three major sediment sources dictate the highly variable sand resources available to specific barrier segments and include riverine channel and deltaic deposits associated with lowstand trunk streams, the large cross-shelf cape shoal sand deposits, and sand-rich units occurring within the adjacent shoreface and inner-self strata. 4) Wherever large sand supplies have historically been available, the barrier segments occur as complex islands with large sand volumes producing high and wide barriers, whereas barrier segments without adequate sand supplies are sediment starved and occur as simple overwash barriers. 5) Human modification of the barrier islands over the past seven decades represents a major force that has significantly changed the barrier island dynamics and evolution. 6) The Albemarle Embayment appears to have a slightly higher rate of sea-level rise

  10. A conceptual framework for regional feedbacks in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlle Bayer, L.; van den Hurk, B. J. J. M.; Strengers, B.

    2012-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems and climate influence each other through biogeochemical (e.g. carbon cycle) and biogeophysical (e.g. albedo, water fluxes) processes. These interactions might be disturbed when a climate human-induced forcing takes place (e.g. deforestation); and the ecosystem responses to the climate system might amplify (positive feedback) or dampen (negative feedback) the initial forcing. Research on feedbacks has been mainly based on the carbon cycle at the global scale. However, biogeophysical feedbacks might have a great impact at the local or regional scale, which is the main focus of this article. A conceptual framework, with the major interactions and processes between terrestrial ecosystems and climate, is presented to further explore feedbacks at the regional level. Four hot spots with potential changes in land use/management and climate are selected: sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), Europe, the Amazon Basin and South and Southeast Asia. For each region, diverse climate human-induced forcings and feedbacks were identified based on relevant published literature. For Europe, the positive soil moisture-evapotranspiration (ET) is important for natural vegetation during a heat wave event, while the positive soil moisture-precipitation feedback plays a more important role for droughts in the Amazon region. Agricultural expansion in SSA will depend on the impacts of the changing climate on crop yields and the adopted agro-technologies. The adoption of irrigation in the commonly rainfed systems might turn the positive soil moisture- ET feedback into a negative one. In contrast, South and Southeast Asia might face water shortage in the future, and thus turning the soil moisture-ET feedback into a positive one. Further research is needed for the major processes that affect the ultimate sign of the feedbacks, as well as for the interactions, which effect remains uncertain, such as ET-precipitation interaction. In addition, socio-economic feedbacks need to be added

  11. Geophysical investigations of the geologic and hydrothermal framework of the Pilgrim Springs Geothermal Area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, Jonathan; McPhee, Darcy K.; Bedrosian, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Pilgrim Hot Springs, located on the Seward Peninsula in west-central Alaska, is characterized by hot springs, surrounding thawed regions, and elevated lake temperatures. The area is of interest because of its potential for providing renewable energy for Nome and nearby rural communities. We performed ground and airborne geophysical investigations of the Pilgrim Springs geothermal area to identify areas indicative of high heat flow and saline geothermal fluids, and to map key structures controlling hydrothermal fluid flow. Studies included ground gravity and magnetic measurements, as well as an airborne magnetic and frequency-domain electromagnetic (EM) survey. The structural and conceptual framework developed from this study provides critical information for future development of this resource and is relevant more generally to our understanding of geothermal systems in active extensional basins. Potential field data reveal the Pilgrim area displays a complex geophysical fabric reflecting a network of intersecting fault and fracture sets ranging from inherited basement structures to Tertiary faults. Resistivity models derived from the airborne EM data reveal resistivity anomalies in the upper 100 m of the subsurface that suggest elevated temperatures and the presence of saline fluids. A northwest trending fabric across the northeastern portion of the survey area parallels structures to the east that may be related to accommodation between the two major mountain ranges south (Kigluaik) and east (Bendeleben) of Pilgrim Springs. The area from the springs southward to the range front, however, is characterized by east-west trending, range-front-parallel anomalies likely caused by late Cenozoic structures associated with north-south extension that formed the basin. The area around the springs (~10 km2 ) is coincident with a circular magnetic high punctuated by several east-west trending magnetic lows, the most prominent occurring directly over the springs. These features

  12. Framework for probabilistic flood risk assessment in an Alpine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, Klaus; Huttenlau, Matthias; Steinberger, Thomas; Achleitner, Stefan; Stötter, Johann

    2014-05-01

    historic and synthetic flood events have to be spatially interpolated from point scale (i.e. river gauges) to the river network. Therefore, topological kriging (Top-kriging) proposed by Skøien et al. (2006) is applied. Top-kriging considers the nested structure of river networks and is therefore suitable to regionalise flood characteristics. Thus, the characteristics of a large number of possible flood events can be transferred to arbitrary locations (e.g. community level) at the river network within a study region. This framework has been used to generate a set of spatial correlated river flood events in the Austrian Federal Province of Vorarlberg. In addition, loss-probability-curves for each community has been calculated based on official inundation maps of public authorities, elements at risks and their vulnerability. One location along the river network within each community refers as interface between the set of flood events and the individual loss-probability relationships for the individual communities. Consequently, every flood event from the historic and synthetic generated dataset can be monetary evaluated. Thus, a time series comprising a large number of flood events and their corresponding monetary losses serves as basis for a probabilistic flood risk assessment. This includes expected annual losses and estimates of extreme event losses, which occur over the course of a certain time period. The gained results are essential decision-support for primary insurers, reinsurance companies and public authorities in order to setup a scale adequate risk management.

  13. Geologic Map of the MTM -30262 and -30267 Quadrangles, Hadriaca Patera Region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, David A.; Greeley, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Mars Transverse Mercator (MTM) -30262 and -30267 quadrangles cover the summit region and east margin of Hadriaca Patera, one of the Martian volcanoes designated highland paterae. MTM -30262 quadrangle includes volcanic deposits from Hadriaca Patera and Tyrrhena Patera (summit northeast of map area) and floor deposits associated with the Dao and Niger Valles canyon systems (south of map area). MTM -30267 quadrangle is centered on the caldera of Hadriaca Patera. The highland paterae are among the oldest, central-vent volcanoes on Mars and exhibit evidence for explosive eruptions, which make a detailed study of their geology an important component in understanding the evolution of Martian volcanism. Photogeologic mapping at 1:500,000-scale from analysis of Viking Orbiter images complements volcanological studies of Hadriaca Patera, geologic investigations of the other highland paterae, and an analysis of the styles and evolution of volcanic activity east of Hellas Planitia in the ancient, cratered highlands of Mars. This photogeologic study is an extension of regional geologic mapping east of Hellas Planitia. The Martian highland paterae are low-relief, areally extensive volcanoes exhibiting central calderas and radial channels and ridges. Four of these volcanoes, Hadriaca, Tyrrhena, Amphitrites, and Peneus Paterae, are located in the ancient cratered terrains surrounding Hellas Planitia and are thought to be located on inferred impact basin rings or related fractures. Based on analyses of Mariner 9 images, Potter (1976), Peterson (1977), and King (1978) suggested that the highland paterae were shield volcanoes formed by eruptions of fluid lavas. Later studies noted morphologic similarities between the paterae and terrestrial ash shields and the lack of primary lava flow features on the flanks of the volcanoes. The degraded appearances of Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae and the apparently easily eroded materials composing their low, broad shields further

  14. A review of the geologic sections and the faunal assemblages of Aurelian Mammal Age of Latium (Italy) in the light of a new chronostratigraphic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, F.; Nomade, S.; Pereira, A.; Petronio, C.; Salari, L.; Sottili, G.; Bahain, J.-J.; Boschian, G.; Di Stefano, G.; Falguères, C.; Florindo, F.; Gaeta, M.; Giaccio, B.; Masotta, M.

    2018-02-01

    The Aurelian Mammal Age for peninsular Italy was introduced on the basis of faunal assemblages mainly recovered at sites along the Via Aurelia west of Rome. These sites exposed a set of sedimentary deposits currently attributed to the Aurelia and to the Vitinia Formations correlated with MIS 9 and MIS 7, respectively. In the present paper we reconstruct the geologic-stratigraphic setting in the western sector of Rome within the wider context of glacio-eustatically controlled, geochronologically constrained aggradational successions defined for this region. We present a chronostratigraphic study based on dedicated field surveys, that, combined with five new 40Ar/39Ar ages and eighteen trace-element and EMP glass analyses of volcanic products, allow us to revise age and correlation with the Marine Isotopic Stages for 10 sites out of 12 previously attributed to the Aurelia Formation and the Torre in Pietra Faunal Unit. In particular, we demonstrate a MIS 13/MIS 11 age for several sections along the Via Aurelia between Malagrotta and Castel di Guido. Based on this new geochronological framework, the first occurrences of Canis lupus and Vulpes vulpes in Italy are antedated to MIS 11, within the Fontana Ranuccio Faunal Unit of the Galerian Mammal Age, consistent with the wider European context. This contribution is intended as the groundwork for a revision of the Middle Pleistocene Mammal Ages of the Italian peninsula, according to the improved chronostratigraphy of the geologic sections hosting the faunal assemblages.

  15. Analyzing regional geological setting of DS uranium deposit based on the extensional research of remote sensing information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dechang; Ye Fawang; Zhao Yingjun

    2006-01-01

    Through analyzing remote sensing image, a special geological environment for uranium ore-formation in Dongsheng-Hangjinqi area consisting of fault-uplift, southern margin fault and annular structure is discovered in this paper. Then the extensional researches on fault-uplift, southern margin fault as well as annular structure are made by using the information-integrated technologies to overlap the remote sensing information with other geoscientific information such as geophysics, geology and so on. Finally, the unusual regional geological setting is analyzed in the view of uranium ore formation, and its influences on the occurrence of DS uranium deposit are also discussed. (authors)

  16. Regional topographic rises on Venus - Geology of Western Eistla Regio and comparison to Beta Regio and Atla Regio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senske, D. A.; Schaber, G. G.; Stofan, E. R.

    1992-01-01

    Magellan images are used to assess regional stratigraphic relationships in an attempt to establish the evolutionary history and characterize the styles of volcanism at Western Eistla Regio. The regional geologic characteristics of Beta Regio and Atla Regio, imaged by Magellan during the latter part of its first mapping cycle, are also assessed and compared to those of Western Eistla Regio so as to determine if all three of these areas evolved in a similar manner. The detailed characteristics of each region show them to be quite variable in the presence and distribution of coronae and tessera, suggesting that the detailed characteristics of the individual highlands are linked to the local geologic environment.

  17. Geological study for identifying potential aquifer zone in Pakes and Bandung Villages, Konang District, Bangkalan Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I Gde Sukadana

    2010-01-01

    Konang District has a problem on fresh water supply particularly in dry season. Two villages in the district, namely Pakes and Konang, are densely populated areas having agriculture activities, so available of sufficient fresh water is necessary. A fresh water source that can be developed in this area is deep groundwater source from potential aquifers. A geological study has been conducted to identify potential aquifer based on lithological aspect and geological structure. According to the regional stratigraphy. the study area consists of Tawun Formation and Ngrayong Formation. They compose of carbonaceous clay stone (the oldest rock unit), carbonaceous clay stone with sandy limestone intercalations, sandy limestone interbed with carbonaceous clay stone, tuff sandstone with clay stone intercalations, and reef limestone (the youngest) respectively. Strike and dip positions of the rocks layers are N110°E/22° - N150°E/26°, located on the south anticline axis with wavy plan to gentle slope of hilly morphology. Among the rock unit, only sandy limestone has fine sand with sub angular in shape and open pack. Qualitatively. this rock has good porosity and permeability and is enables to save and to flow subsurface water. Thus. the sandy limestone is considered as a potential zone for fresh water resources. Whereas, carbonaceous clay stone with clay grain size has low porosity and permeability, so it is potential as a cap rock. (author)

  18. Geology and potential of the formation of sandstone type uranium mineralization at Hatapang region, North Sumatera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngadenin

    2013-01-01

    The Study based on geological setting of Hatapang region, North Sumatera, identified as a favourable area to the formation of sandstone type uranium mineralization. This characterized by the occurred of anomalous radioactivity, uranium contents of the upper cretaceous granite intrusions and radioactivity anomalous of tertiary sedimentary rocks deposited in terrestrial environments. The study is objective to find out the potential formation of sandstone type-uranium mineralization within tertiary sedimentary rocks based on data’s studies of geological, geochemical, mineralogy, radioactivity of rocks. Stratigraphy of Hatapang area of the oldest to youngest are quartz units (permian-carboniferous), sandstone units (upper Triassic), granite (upper cretaceous), conglomerate units (Lower –middle Miocene) and tuff units (Pleistocene). Hatapang’s granite is S type granite which is not only potential as source of radioactive minerals, particularly placer type monazite, but also potential as source rocks of sandstone type-uranium mineralization on lighter sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary rock of conglomerate units has potential as host rock, even though uranium did not accumulated in its rocks since the lack number of carbon as precipitant material and dissolved U"+"6 in water did not reduced into U"+"4 caused the uranium mineralization did not deposited. (author)

  19. Geological documentation of the Norrkoeping-Oskarshamn region in south-eastern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherman, S.

    1994-04-01

    This study comprises a compilation of data from two tectonic regions in southeastern Sweden and a presentation of geological factors judged to be of importance for the regional-scale siting of a high level nuclear waste repository. The study areas were selected to complement earlier investigations in that part of Sweden and to allow for an analysis of the transition zone between the Svecofennian subprovince and the Transcandinavian Igneous Belt (TIB). It should be noted that the studied regions have been investigated only to a limited extent (general surveying). More detailed information is needed if these regions are to be included in a siting program. It is recommended as a working strategy that the following characteristics and properties of relevance for repository siting are considered in a regional siting program. *Bedrock; historical evolution, rock-type distribution, dikes and grade of metamorphism. *Deformation history; plastic and brittle structures. The bedrock and its structural characteristics are of importance for the stability of the rock, the groundwater flow and the long term safety of the underground facility. *Quaternary deposits; characteristics and thickness. The quaternary characteristics may have an obscuring impact on some of the geophysical methods and is therefore important when selecting investigation methods. *Natural resources such as ore and mineral deposits, industrial minerals and ornamental stones. Of importance in order to minimize land use conflicts and as far as possible avoid future human intrusions. *Experiences from underground constructions in the actual region. This will give three-dimensional information on the bedrock and structures as well as the technical outcome from underground construction work. *Regional groundwater properties. Important for the understanding of large-scale gradient (topography) and of the variations of the groundwater chemistry. 24 refs

  20. Geologic framework and Cenozoic evolution of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, K.F. Jr.; Spengler, R.W.; Myers, W.B.

    1990-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been proposed as the site of a high-level nuclear waste repository. The purpose of this paper is to outline aspects of the geology and tectonics of the area which bear on its suitability as a waste repository. The repository is to be excavated from a non-lithophysal zone within the lower part of the Paintbrush Tuff. Revised estimates of the thickness of this zone indicate that the lower, down-dip extremity of the planned repository could be raised by as much as 130 m, thus reducing the grade within the repository and increasing the distance to the water table below. We note that because of the closely spaced fracturing and low in-situ stresses within the repository block, lateral support of fractured rock is likely to be poor. 30 refs., 5 figs

  1. Geologic map of the upper Arkansas River valley region, north-central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Karl S.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Ruleman, Chester A.; Bohannon, Robert G.; McIntosh, William C.; Premo, Wayne R.; Cosca, Michael A.; Moscati, Richard J.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2017-11-17

    This 1:50,000-scale U.S. Geological Survey geologic map represents a compilation of the most recent geologic studies of the upper Arkansas River valley between Leadville and Salida, Colorado. The valley is structurally controlled by an extensional fault system that forms part of the prominent northern Rio Grande rift, an intra-continental region of crustal extension. This report also incorporates new detailed geologic mapping of previously poorly understood areas within the map area and reinterprets previously studied areas. The mapped region extends into the Proterozoic metamorphic and intrusive rocks in the Sawatch Range west of the valley and the Mosquito Range to the east. Paleozoic rocks are preserved along the crest of the Mosquito Range, but most of them have been eroded from the Sawatch Range. Numerous new isotopic ages better constrain the timing of both Proterozoic intrusive events, Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary intrusive events, and Eocene and Miocene volcanic episodes, including widespread ignimbrite eruptions. The uranium-lead ages document extensive about 1,440-million years (Ma) granitic plutonism mostly north of Buena Vista that produced batholiths that intruded an older suite of about 1,760-Ma metamorphic rocks and about 1,700-Ma plutonic rocks. As a result of extension during the Neogene and possibly latest Paleogene, the graben underlying the valley is filled with thick basin-fill deposits (Dry Union Formation and older sediments), which occupy two sub-basins separated by a bedrock high near the town of Granite. The Dry Union Formation has undergone deep erosion since the late Miocene or early Pliocene. During the Pleistocene, ongoing steam incision by the Arkansas River and its major tributaries has been interrupted by periodic aggradation. From Leadville south to Salida as many as seven mapped alluvial depositional units, which range in age from early to late Pleistocene, record periodic aggradational events along these streams that are

  2. U, Th and K distributions inferred from regional geology and the terrestrial radiation profiles in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaran, A.V.; Jayaswal, B.; Nambi, K.S.V.; Sunta, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    The natural background radiation or natural radioactivity in environment in any region is mainly due to gamma radiation emanating from uranium, thorium and potassium contents of the ground matter of that region. Instead of carrying out accurate but tedious radiometric surveys at site, a fair estimate of the radiation value of any place can be calculated by knowing different types of rocks exposed at that place and the geochemical distribution of radioelements in those exposed rocks. The geochemical distribution in the exposed rocks can be computed by using worldwide average values of U, Th and K for various kinds of crystal rocks. These average values are obtained from the published geochemical data for different rock types from all over the world. Using this method, the geochemical distributions of U, Th and K are inferred for different states of India and the terrestrial radiation profiles in India are prepared. For this work, the geologic information data contained in the maps and publications of the Geological Survey of India were used. Annual radiation levels are expressed in microgray per year (μGy/y) using conversion factors recommended by UNSCEAR (1982). These represent the absorbed dose levels in air at 1 meter above the earth's surface and take into account the skyshine effect from the earth as an infinite radioactive source. Contributions from cosmic rays are not included in these estimates. Multicolour and monotone (black) maps depicting the fluctuating profile of radiation across the individual States of India and the country as a whole ar e given. Also the details of the radiation contribution of different stratigraphic horizon of each State in the country have been tabulated. It is observed that 1 per cent of the sub-continent shows radiation levels greater than 2000 μGy/y. (M.G.B.). 91 refs., 25 tabs., 35 fi gs

  3. Geomorphological and geological property of short active fault in fore-arc region of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toshinori; Inoue, Daiei; Ueta, Keiichi; Miyakoshi, Katsuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    The important issue in the earthquake magnitude evaluation method is the classification of short active faults or lineaments. It is necessary to determine the type of active fault to be included in the earthquake magnitude evaluation. The particular group of fault is the surface earthquake faults that are presumed to be branched faults of large interplate earthquakes in subduction zones. We have classified short lineaments in two fore-arc regions of Japan through geological and geomorphological methods based on field survey and aerial photograph interpretation. The first survey is conducted at Enmeiji Fault in Boso Peninsula. The fault is known to have been displaced by 1923 Taisho Kanto earthquake. The altitude distributions of marine terrace surfaces are different on both sides of the fault. In other words, this fault has been displaced repeatedly by the large interplate earthquakes in the past. However, the recurrent interval of this fault is far longer than the large interplate earthquake calculated by the slip rate and the displacement per event. The second survey is conducted in the western side of Muroto Peninsula, where several short lineaments are distributed. We have found several fault outcrops along the few, particular lineaments. The faults in the region have similar properties to Enmeiji Fault. On the other hand, short lineaments are found to be structural landforms. The comparison of the two groups enables us to classify the short lineaments based on the geomorphological property and geological cause of these faults. Displacement per event is far larger than displacement deduced from length of the active fault. Recurrence interval of the short active fault is far longer than that of large interplate earthquake. Displacement of the short active fault has cumulative. The earthquake magnitude of the faults have these characters need to be evaluated by the plate boundary fault or the long branched seismogenic fault. (author)

  4. The regional geological hazard forecast based on rainfall and WebGIS in Hubei, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guizhou; Chao, Yi; Xu, Hongwen

    2008-10-01

    Various disasters have been a serious threat to human and are increasing over time. The reduction and prevention of hazard is the largest problem faced by local governments. The study of disasters has drawn more and more attention mainly due to increasing awareness of the socio-economic impact of disasters. Hubei province, one of the highest economic developing provinces in China, suffered big economic losses from geo-hazards in recent years due to frequent geo-hazard events with the estimated damage of approximately 3000 million RMB. It is therefore important to establish an efficient way to mitigate potential damage and reduce losses of property and life derived from disasters. This paper presents the procedure of setting up a regional geological hazard forecast and information releasing system of Hubei province with the combination of advanced techniques such as World Wide Web (WWW), database online and ASP based on WEBGIS platform (MAPGIS-IMS) and rainfall information. A Web-based interface was developed using a three-tiered architecture based on client-server technology in this system. The study focused on the upload of the rainfall data, the definition of rainfall threshold values, the creation of geological disaster warning map and the forecast of geohazard relating to the rainfall. Its purposes are to contribute to the management of mass individual and regional geological disaster spatial data, help to forecast the conditional probabilities of occurrence of various disasters that might be posed by the rainfall, and release forecasting information of Hubei province timely via the internet throughout all levels of government, the private and nonprofit sectors, and the academic community. This system has worked efficiently and stably in the internet environment which is strongly connected with meteorological observatory. Environment Station of Hubei Province are making increased use of our Web-tool to assist in the decision-making process to analyze geo

  5. A geological reconnaissance study of the Dyfi Valley region, Gwynedd/Powys, Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.A.; Howells, M.F.; Reedman, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    A collation of existing maps and data backed up by localised checking, reinterpretation and modification, employing sampling, structural measurements and aerial photograph interpretation, have updated the geological information available on the Dyfi Valley region. The region comprises an argillaceous-dominated Ordovician and Silurian sedimentary pile of approximately 4 km thickness. Thick formations of mudstones and silty mudstones with thin intercalations of silty sandstone and fine-grained sandstone predominate and exhibit fewer variations in thickness and extent than the subordinate formations with a higher proportion of sand-grade material. Three periods of deformation (D 1 -D 3 ) are distinguished, with the D 1 phase dominating the structure of the region by forming upright, asymmetrical, large (km) scale folds (F 1 ) of a NNE-SSW to NE-SW trend and producing an almost ubiquitous slaty cleavage (S 1 ). The succeeding deformations produced localised crenulation cleavages, kink bands and box folds. Data on the faulting and jointing associated with this deformation history are also presented. (author)

  6. Paleozoic and mesozoic GIS data from the Geologic Atlas of the Rocky Mountain Region: Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeber, Aimee; Gunther, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists (RMAG) is, once again, publishing portions of the 1972 Geologic Atlas of the Rocky Mountain Region (Mallory, ed., 1972) as a geospatial map and data package. Georeferenced tiff (Geo TIFF) images of map figures from this atlas has served as the basis for these data products. Shapefiles and file geodatabase features have been generated and cartographically represented for select pages from the following chapters:• Phanerozoic Rocks (page 56)• Cambrian System (page 63)• Ordovician System (pages 78 and 79)• Silurian System (pages 87 - 89)• Devonian System (pages 93, 94, and 96 - 98)• Mississippian System (pages 102 and 103)• Pennsylvanian System (pages 114 and 115)• Permian System (pages 146 and 149 - 154)• Triassic System (pages 168 and 169)• Jurassic System (pages 179 and 180)• Cretaceous System (pages 197 - 201, 207 - 210, 215, - 218, 221, 222, 224, 225, and 227).The primary purpose of this publication is to provide regional-scale, as well as local-scale, geospatial data of the Rocky Mountain Region for use in geoscience studies. An important aspect of this interactive map product is that it does not require extensive GIS experience or highly specialized software.

  7. Geologic framework and petroleum systems of Cook Inlet basin, south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePain, D.L.; Stanley, R.G.; Helmold, K.P.; Shellenbaum, D.P.; Stone, D.M.; Hite, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    This report provides a comprehensive overview of the stratigraphy, structure, tectonics, and petroleum systems of the Cook Inlet basin, an important oil- and gas-producing region in south-central Alaska.

  8. Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuels from the Appalachian basin region have been major contributors to the Nation’s energy supplies over much of the last three centuries. Appalachian coal and petroleum resources are still available in sufficient quantities to contribute significantly to fulfilling the Nation’s energy needs. Although both conventional oil and gas continue to be produced in the Appalachian basin, most new wells in the region are drilled in shale reservoirs to produce natural gas.

  9. INTERBLOCK ZONES IN THE CRUST OF THE SOUTHERN REGIONS OF EAST SIBERIA: TECTONOPHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zh. Seminsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The zone-block structure of the lithosphere is represented by a hierarchically organized pattern of stable blocks and mobile zones which border such blocks and contain highly dislocated geological medium (Fig. 1. Today, different specialists adhere to different concepts of blocks and zones, which are two main elements of the lithosphere structure. Differences are most significant in determinations of ‘interblock zones’ that are named as deformation / destructive / contact / mobile / fracture zones etc. due to their diversity in different conditions of deformation. One of the most effective approaches to studying the zone-block structure of the lithosphere is a combination of geological and geophysical studies of interblock zones tectonic features on various scales, which can make it possible to reveal the most common patterns of the interblock zones, general regularities of their development and relationships between the interblock zones.The main objectives of our study were (1 to identify the zone-block structure of the crust in the southern regions of East Siberia from tectonophysical analysis of geological and geophysical surveys conducted on four different scales along the 500 km long Shertoy-Krasny Chikoy transect crossing the marginal segment of the Siberian block, the Baikal rift and the Transbaikalian block (Fig. 2; (2 to clarify structural features of the central part of the Baikal rift (representing the tectonic type of interblock extension zone by applying new research methods, such as radon emanation survey, to the Shertoy-Krasny Chikoy transect and using the previously applied methods, such as magnetotelluric sounding, on a smaller scale; and (3 to study manifestation of interblock zones of various ranks in different geological and geophysical fields, to reveal common specific features of their structural patterns for the upper crust, and to establish regularities of hierarchic and spatial relationships between the interblock

  10. Study on Regional Geology and Uranium Mineralization of Schwaner Mountains West and Central Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soepradto-Tjokrokardono; Djoko-Soetarno; MS; Liliek-Subiantoro; Retno-Witjahyati

    2004-01-01

    Uranium occurrences indication in Kalimantan has been discovered at metamorphic and granites rocks of Schwaner Mountains as the radioactivity and geochemical anomalies. A regional geology of Schwaner Mountains show a watershed of West and East Kalimantan consist of Pinoh metamorphic rocks that was intruded by tonalitic and granitic batholite. The goal of this study is to observe the mechanism of the Uranium occurrences related to the regional tectonic, metamorphic rocks, tonalite and granitic batholite. Permokarbonaferrous metamorphic rocks as the big masses of roof pendant within tonalite mass. The metamorphic rocks originally as the big masses of roof pendant within tonalite mass. The metamorphic rocks originally derived from sedimentary process that produce a high content of uranium as well as a fine grained volcanic material. This uranium is deposited within neritic facies. Those sediments have been metamorphosed by low grade Abukuma regional metamorphism at the condition about 540 o C and 2000 bar. In early Cretaceous Tonalite of Sep auk intruded the rock and both metamorphics and tonalites. Those rocks were intruded by Late Cretaceous alkalin granite of Sukadana. Those crystalline rocks overlaid by an unconformity-related Kampari and Tebidah Formations that including within Melawi Group of Tertiary age. Uranium mineralization as the centimetric-metric veins related to tectonic N 100 o -110 o E and N 50 o E lineaments. Uranium was interpreted as a volcanic sedimentary origin, than it re mobilized by low grade regional metamorphism process. This enuchment process was carried out by fluor, boron and other metalliferous mineral within hydrothermal solutions of Sukadana granite. (author)

  11. An Analytical Quality Framework for Learning Cities and Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisinger-Kleine, Randolph

    2013-01-01

    There is broad agreement that innovation, knowledge and learning have become the main source of wealth, employment and economic development of cities, regions and nations. Over the past two decades, the number of European cities and regions which label themselves as "learning city" or "learning region" has constantly grown.…

  12. The geological heritage of Piedmont Region: Turin a "Stone-Town"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Alessandro; Castelli, Daniele; Costa, Emanuele; d'Atri, Anna; Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Favero, Sergio; Ferrando, Simona; Groppo, Chiara; Martire, Luca; Piervittori, Rosanna; Rolfo, Franco; Rossetti, Piergiorgio; Vaggelli, Gloria

    2013-04-01

    The stone resources have always been a major source of material in the building and, in particular, as raw material to create the masterpieces of sculpture and architecture that are now part of the cultural heritage of the humanity. Therefore, knowledge of stone resources, their mineral-petrographic features, their use and quarrying and working techniques from antiquity to the present, can provide a broad overview of the historical and cultural significance of these materials, stressing the importance of a relevant economic activity in the history and traditions of different cultures that have developed over the centuries in the Mediterranean area. In particular, in Piedmont, stone has always been the most widely used building material, characterizing the strong architectural identity of the city of Turin. Here the stone have been widely used in the historical and contemporary buildings, monuments and urban art. From Roman times to the '700, marbles were the rocks used in construction of more value. Starting from '800, granites and other silicate rocks were progressively used thanks to the development of technologies for their exploitation and processing. The study of stone resources is also of particular importance for the proper preservation of architectural and artistic heritage. Often, the task of restoration of works of art was carried out with stones aesthetically similar to the originals for color. Only recently, chances to find the same original material, identifying the place of origin, has become object of study and interest. The great variety of ornamental and building stones found in Turin is certainly due to the highly composite geological nature of our region. In Piedmont, in fact, there are geological features very different from each other as the western portion of the metamorphic Alpine chain, the sedimentary Tertiary Piedmont basin (Langhe and Monferrato) and a small sector of the Northern Apennine. Turin Urban Geosite represents the symbol place

  13. Geology and uranium favorability of the Sonora Pass region, Alpine and Tuolumne Counties, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, J.S.; Short, W.O.

    1981-06-01

    Uranium mineralization at the Juniper Mine is restricted to host rocks of the Relief Peak Formation and is most common in coarse-grained lithic sandstone, conglomerate, and lithic wacke. The richest beds contain as much as 0.5% U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. Uranium is present as coffinite, uraninite, and unidentified minerals. Thorium/uranium ratios are generally low and erratic. Equivalent uranium determinations are low in comparison with chemical uranium values, indicating that uranium mineralization of the Juniper Mine is geologically young. Core drilling at 16 localities shows that widely separated exposures of the Relief Peak Formation have very similar lithology, geochemistry, and stratigraphy. Some sections are similar to the Juniper Mine section. Core from the bottom of drill hole SP-1 contains 83 ppM uranium, the greatest known concentration outside the mine area. Significant uranium deposits may be concealed beneath the thick Tertiary volcanic cover of the region. The quartz latitic Eureka Valley Tuff is fairly widespread in east-central California and western Nevada. It contains 12 to 14 ppM uranium and stratigraphically overlies the Relief Peak Formation. It is permeable and contains abundant alkali metals and volcanic glass. Because of its petrology, geochemistry, and position, this formation is the most likely source for uranium mineralization of the Sonora Pass region. It should be examined as a potential source rock in other areas with special regard to its relationship to carbonaceous sedimentary formations. The uraniferous granite pegmatitite dike that crops out in the Niagara Creek area appears too small to be a significant source rock. The most favorable rocks in the Sonora Pass region occur near the Juniper Mine and west of it, in the Dardanelles, the Whittakers Dardanelles, and the area of the Big Meadow Quadrangle. Potential uranium host rocks crop out in areas along the crest of the Sierra Nevada from Lake Tahoe to Yosemite.

  14. Geology and uranium favorability of the Sonora Pass region, Alpine and Tuolumne Counties, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, J.S.; Short, W.O.

    1981-06-01

    Uranium mineralization at the Juniper Mine is restricted to host rocks of the Relief Peak Formation and is most common in coarse-grained lithic sandstone, conglomerate, and lithic wacke. The richest beds contain as much as 0.5% U 3 O 8 . Uranium is present as coffinite, uraninite, and unidentified minerals. Thorium/uranium ratios are generally low and erratic. Equivalent uranium determinations are low in comparison with chemical uranium values, indicating that uranium mineralization of the Juniper Mine is geologically young. Core drilling at 16 localities shows that widely separated exposures of the Relief Peak Formation have very similar lithology, geochemistry, and stratigraphy. Some sections are similar to the Juniper Mine section. Core from the bottom of drill hole SP-1 contains 83 ppM uranium, the greatest known concentration outside the mine area. Significant uranium deposits may be concealed beneath the thick Tertiary volcanic cover of the region. The quartz latitic Eureka Valley Tuff is fairly widespread in east-central California and western Nevada. It contains 12 to 14 ppM uranium and stratigraphically overlies the Relief Peak Formation. It is permeable and contains abundant alkali metals and volcanic glass. Because of its petrology, geochemistry, and position, this formation is the most likely source for uranium mineralization of the Sonora Pass region. It should be examined as a potential source rock in other areas with special regard to its relationship to carbonaceous sedimentary formations. The uraniferous granite pegmatitite dike that crops out in the Niagara Creek area appears too small to be a significant source rock. The most favorable rocks in the Sonora Pass region occur near the Juniper Mine and west of it, in the Dardanelles, the Whittakers Dardanelles, and the area of the Big Meadow Quadrangle. Potential uranium host rocks crop out in areas along the crest of the Sierra Nevada from Lake Tahoe to Yosemite

  15. A geological-acoustical framework for an integrated environmental evaluation in Mediterranean marine protected areas. Marettimo Island, a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agate, M.; Catalano, R.; Chemello, R.; Lo Iacono, C.; Riggio, S.

    2003-04-01

    A GEOLOGICAL-ACOUSTICAL FRAMEWORK FOR AN INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION IN MEDITERRANEAN MARINE PROTECTED AREAS. MARETTIMO ISLAND, A CASE STUDY. M. Agate (1), R. Catalano (1), R. Chemello (2), C. Lo Iacono (1) &S. Riggio (2) (1)Dipartimento di Geologia e Geodesia dell'Università di Palermo, via Archirafi 26, 90123 Palermo, clageo@katamail.com, rcatal@unipa.it (2)Dipartimento di Biologia animale dell'Università di Palermo, via Archirafi 18, 90123 Palermo,rchemello@unipa.it New analytical methods have been designed to support an objective quantitative evaluation of geological components whose results dictate the lines for a sustainable use of the natural resources. We tried to adopt the fundaments of the seascape concept, based on the thematic elements of landscape ecology and translated into terms fitting with the principles of coastal ecology. The seascape concept is central to our view of the environment and is referred to as an integrated unit (Environmental Unit) resulting from a long multidisciplinary approach, carried out in both the field and the laboratory by an interdisciplinary team of experts. Side Scan Sonar and Multi Beam acoustical data collected in the Marettimo and Ustica Islands (south-western Tyrrhenian Sea))inner shelves, make possible to sketch geomorphological and sedimentological maps, whose details have been tested as deep as 45 m in diving surveys. On the basis of the collected data sets, the inner shelf (0-60 m) has been subdivided into different portions, following the concept of the Environmental Unit (E.U). Every E.U. presents constant morphological and sedimentological features that, probably, can be associated to specified biological communities. In order to find the relationships between physical settings and communities, geological thematic maps are eventually overlaid and fitted to macrobenthic and fishery spatial distribution maps. The result, based on the rule of the Environmental Impact Assessment, puts into evidence the

  16. MODEL OF REGIONAL KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER: MAIN ACTORS, FRAMEWORK AND THEORY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla LEVITSKAIA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses potential mechanism of regional knowledge transfer in region with poorly developed innovation infrastructure (the Autonomous Territorial Unit Gagauzia, Republic of Moldova through interactions between regional major players of the Regional Innovation System - the educational and research institutions, small and medium enterprises (SMEs and local authorities. Solution of this problem can be found in modern studies of territories innovation development through the clustering processes. Through the empirical study - innovation potential analysis of local SMEs - we proposed advantage mechanism which focused on the one type of knowledge cluster – Innovation and Educational Cluster. The symbiosis of entrepreneurs, government agencies, educational institutions and business service providers with the regional core - University, allows to increasing exchange flows of innovative knowledge between all members of the cluster and distributing them to the entire region and beyond. The results and proposals of this study formed the basis of the “Program of increasing the innovation potential of Gagauz SMEs”.

  17. K-Ar geology, geochemistry and geochronology from the Maria River region dikes, Parana State southeastern part, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Junior, Renato Oliveira da; Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Oliveira, Elson Paiva de

    1996-01-01

    The paper synthesizes the geological, petrographical, geochemical and geochronological data from the Maria River region dikes, situated at the southeastern part of the Para State, Brazil. It identifies five groups of dikes and determines the age of these dikes, through the Potassium-Argon (K-Ar) methodology

  18. Geological and geomechanical properties of the carbonate rocks at the eastern Black Sea Region (NE Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Hakan; Yalçinalp, Bülent; Arslan, Mehmet; Babacan, Ali Erden; Çetiner, Gözde

    2016-11-01

    Turkey located in the Alpine-Himalayan Mountain Belt has 35% of the natural stone reserves of the world and has good quality marble, limestone, travertine and onyx reserves especially in the western regions of the country. The eastern Black Sea Region with a 1.4 million meters cubes reserve has a little role on the natural stone production in the country. For this reason, this paper deals with investigation on the potential of carbonate stone in the region and determination of the geological and geo-mechanical properties of these rocks in order to provide economic contribution to the national economy. While the study sites are selected among the all carbonate rock sites, the importance as well as the representative of the sites were carefully considered for the region. After representative samples were analyzed for major oxide and trace element compositions to find out petrochemical variations, the experimental program conducted on rock samples for determination of both physical and strength properties of the carbonate rocks. The results of the tests showed that there are significant variations in the geo-mechanical properties of the studied rock groups. The density values vary from 2.48 to 2.70 gr/cm3, water absorption by weight values range from 0.07 to 1.15% and the apparent porosity of the carbonate rocks are between 0.19 and 3.29%. However, the values of the UCS shows variation from 36 to 80 MPa. Tensile and bending strength values range from 3.2 to 7.5 MPa and 6.0-9.2 MPa respectively. Although the onyx samples have the lowest values of apparent porosity and water absorption by weight, these samples do not have the highest values of UCS values owing to occurrence of the micro-cracks. The UCS values of the rock samples were also found after cycling tests However, the limestone samples have less than 5% deterioration after freezing-thawing and wetting-drying tests, but travertine and onyx samples have more than 15% deterioration. Exception of the apparent

  19. Geology of the Prince William Sound and Kenai Peninsula region, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.

    2012-01-01

    The Prince William Sound and Kenai Peninsula region includes a significant part of one of the world’s largest accretionary complexes and a small part of the classic magmatic arc geology of the Alaska Peninsula. Physiographically, the map area ranges from the high glaciated mountains of the Alaska and Aleutian Ranges and the Chugach Mountains to the coastal lowlands of Cook Inlet and the Copper River delta. Structurally, the map area is cut by a number of major faults and postulated faults, the most important of which are the Border Ranges, Contact, and Bruin Bay Fault systems. The rocks of the map area belong to the Southern Margin composite terrane, a Tertiary and Cretaceous or older subduction-related accretionary complex, and the Alaska Peninsula terrane. Mesozoic rocks between these two terranes have been variously assigned to the Peninsular or the Hidden terranes. The oldest rocks in the map area are blocks of Paleozoic age within the mélange of the McHugh Complex; however, the protolith age of the greenschist and blueschist within the Border Ranges Fault zone is not known. Extensive glacial deposits mantle the Kenai Peninsula and the lowlands on the west side of Cook Inlet and are locally found elsewhere in the map area. This map was compiled from existing mapping, without generalization, and new or revised data was added where available.

  20. Geology of Glacier National Park and the Flathead Region, Northwestern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Clyde P.

    1959-01-01

    This report summarizes available data on two adjacent and partly overlapping regions in northwestern Montana. The first of these is Glacier National Park plus small areas east and west of the park. The second is here called, for convenience, the Flathead region; it embraces the mountains from the southern tip of Glacier Park to latitude 48 deg north and between the Great Plains on the east and Flathead Valley on the west. The fieldwork under the direction of the writer was done in 1948, 1949, 1950, and 1951, with some work in 1952 and 1953. The two regions together include parts of the Swan, Flathead, Livingstone, and Lewis Ranges. They are drained largely by branches of the Flathead River. On the east and north, however, they are penetrated by tributaries of the Missouri River and in addition by streams that flow into Canada. Roads and highways reach the borders of the regions; but there are few roads in the regions and only two highways cross them. The principal economic value of the assemblage of mountains described in the present report is as a collecting ground for snow to furnish the water used in the surrounding lowlands and as a scenic and wildlife recreation area. A few metallic deposits and lignitic coal beds are known, but these have not proved to be important and cannot, as far as can now be judged, be expected to become so. No oil except minor seeps has yet been found, and most parts of the two regions covered do not appear geologically favorable to the presence of oil in commercial quantities. The high, Hungry Horse Dam on which construction was in progress during the fieldwork now floods part of the Flathead region and will greatly influence the future of that region. The rocks range in age from Precambrian to Recent. The thickest units belong to the Belt series of Precambrian age, and special attention was paid to them. As a result, it is clear that at least the upper part of the series shows marked lateral changes within short distances. This fact

  1. Framework for regional environmental management. [Problem-solving techniques; public relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievering, H.; Sinopoli, J.

    1976-04-01

    A framework for environmental decision-making is described in which both qualitative and quantitative aspects of regional problems can be integrated into a problem-solving context. The techniques employed in this framework are computer simulation, games, and vote-trading. The paper concludes that through this framework: (a) environmental analysts can assess public value structure goal sets which can be used in the development of regional simulations, and (b) in turn, the quantitative aspects of the problems will be more easily communicated to the affected public. A brief description of the application of the framework is also presented.

  2. Seafloor geomorphology and geology of the Kingman Reef-Palmyra Atoll region, Central Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakins, Barry; Barth, Ginger; Scheirer, Dan; Mosher, Dave; Armstrong, Andy

    2017-04-01

    Kingman Reef and Palmyra Atoll are the exposed summits of two seamounts within the Line Islands Volcanic Chain in the Central Pacific Ocean. Both are U.S. Territories, and the Exclusive Economic Zone around the islands was partially surveyed in 1991 with GLORIA sidescan sonar and seismic reflection profiling. New multibeam swath sonar surveys were conducted in 2010, 2015, and 2016 around the islands, in support of U.S. Extended Continental Shelf investigations. Numerous transits through the region by research vessels have collected additional multibeam swath sonar data. We present new, detailed maps of bathymetry, sidescan sonar imagery, geology, and sediment isopachs of the seafloor surrounding the islands, and how these have informed our understanding of the islands' margins. The islands are the last subaerial remnants of a complex, horse-shoe-shaped volcanic platform spanning roughly 200 km in diameter. The elevated platform from which the seamounts arise comprises at least 10 individual volcanic centers that have heights exceeding 3000m above the nearby abyssal plains. Gravity modeling suggests that the elevated platform is compensated by thickened crust. Strong carbonate caps and voluminous sediment accumulations flanking the platform indicate that the volcanoes were once shallow-water or emergent systems. These systems produced vast quantities of carbonate sediment that were shed to a deep interior basin to the east of Palmyra Atoll, and to nearby abyssal plains. The identification of mass failures, sediment reworking and bedforms, and channel networks provide evidence for extensive sedimentary processes around these volcanic centers. Analysis of the seamounts atop the elevated platform and in the seamount province to the northwest shows that flat-topped seamounts ("guyots") are principally found at depths shallower than 1300 meters, while peaked seamounts are almost exclusively found at greater depths. This constrains the amount of regional subsidence that

  3. Geological-structural interpretation using products of remote sensing in the region of Carrancas, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Dossantos, A. R.; Dosanjos, C. E.; Barbosa, M. P.; Veneziani, P.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency of some criteria developed for the utilization of small scale and low resolution remote sensing products to map geological and structural features was demonstrated. Those criteria were adapted from the Logical Method of Photointerpretation which consists of textural qualitative analysis of landforms and drainage net patterns. LANDSAT images of channel 5 and 7, 4 LANDSAT-RBV scenes, and 1 radar mosiac were utilized. The region of study is characterized by supracrustal metassediments (quartzites and micaschist) folded according to a "zig-zag" pattern and gnaissic basement. Lithological-structural definition was considered outstanding when compared to data acquired during field work, bibliographic data and geologic maps acquired in larger scales.

  4. Geological interpretation of Landsat TM imagery and aeromagnetic survey data, northern Precordillera region, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernicoff, C. J.; Nash, C. R.

    2002-03-01

    This case study demonstrates a methodology for obtaining maximum geoscientific value from reconnaissance (1000 m line spacing) aeromagnetic data through integration with high-resolution satellite imagery. In this study, lithostratigraphic interpretation of optimally processed Landsat TM data at reconnaissance mapping scale (1:100,000) has been carried out as a precursor to geophysical interpretation, providing the basic 'framework' in which to view the imaged geophysical data. The Landsat-derived framework shows the correct positions and vergences of major structures, which characterize this part of the Andean foreland thrust-and-fold belt. Within the structural framework derived from satellite imagery, the locations of major shallow-source aeromagnetic anomalies related to intermediate/mafic extrusive and subvolcanic rocks and the controlling structures of these economically important magmatic events can be correctly interpreted. Results of the study indicate a significant, coherent, and previously unrecognized post-Permian, pre-Miocene volcanic/subvolcanic center, which is probably associated with regional sinistral strike-slip along a reactivated N-S accretionary suture and a pre-existing Precambrian/Paleozoic basement structure. Subsequent west-vergent thick-skinned thrusting associated with uplift of Sierra Valle Fertil Precambrian block has developed a set of distinctive NW-oriented strike-slip faults at the site of the volcanic center. The NW structures cut and rotate late Miocene thin-skinned structures associated with the Precordillera fold-and-thrust belt. Intrusive rocks associated with the inferred Oligocene volcanic center form easily recognizable, partially remanent dipole anomalies, are associated with alteration and Au mineralization (Cerro Guachi, El Pescado, Gnrl. Belgrano mines), and are located along NW-oriented sinistral splay faults. The strike-slip related tectonic/magmatic event is currently regarded as Oligocene in age and may correlate

  5. Death Valley regional groundwater flow system, Nevada and California-Hydrogeologic framework and transient groundwater flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Wayne R.; Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2010-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient groundwater flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the groundwater flow system and previous less extensive groundwater flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect groundwater flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the groundwater flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural groundwater discharge occurring through evapotranspiration (ET) and spring flow; the history of groundwater pumping from 1913 through 1998; groundwater recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were provided

  6. Characteristics of PM10 Chemical Source Profiles for Geological Dust from the South-West Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayong Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ninety-six particulate matter (PM10 chemical source profiles for geological sources in typical cities of southwest China were acquired from Source Profile Shared Service in China. Twenty-six elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Be, Tl and Pb, nine ions (F−, Cl−, SO42−, NO3−, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+, and carbon-containing species (organic carbon and elemental carbon were determined to construct these profiles. Individual source profiles were averaged and compared to quantify similarities and differences in chemical abundances using the profile-compositing method. Overall, the major components of PM10 in geological sources were crustal minerals and undefined fraction. Different chemical species could be used as tracers for various types of geological dust in the region that resulted from different anthropogenic influence. For example, elemental carbon, V and Zn could be used as tracers for urban paved road dust; Al, Si, K+ and NH4+ for agricultural soil; Al and Si for natural soil; and SO42− for urban resuspended dust. The enrichment factor analysis showed that Cu, Se, Sr and Ba were highly enriched by human activities in geological dust samples from south-west China. Elemental ratios were taken to highlight the features of geological dust from south-west China by comparing with northern urban fugitive dust, loess and desert samples. Low Si/Al and Fe/Al ratios can be used as markers to trace geological sources from southwestern China. High Pb/Al and Zn/Al ratios observed in urban areas demonstrated that urban geological dust was influenced seriously by non-crustal sources.

  7. Khadum Formation of Pre-Caucasus region as potential source of oil shales: geology and geochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Sh. Yandarbiev1

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the main modern aim for oil industry is the development of hydrocarbon extraction technologies from «oil shale». In Russia there are kerogen-saturated carbonate-clayey-siliceous deposits of the Bazhenov Formation, carbonate rocks of the Volga-Ural and Timan-Pechora oil and gas bearing basins and clayey Maikop series of Pre-Caucasus region. The Khadum Formation is lower part of the Maikop series represented by carbonate-clay and clayey deposits. On the basis of long-term field and laboratory investigation conducted by specialists of the Oil and Gas Department from Geological Faculty of the Lomonosov Moscow State University. a comprehensive study of the lithological composition, structure, geochemical, hydrogeological and hydrodynamic characteristics of the Paleogene section and monitoring of the drilled wells, the prospects of the oil and gas potential of the Khadum deposits of the Oligocene in the Eastern Pre-Caucasus oil and gas bearing basin were estimated. 11 gas and 19 oil deposits are discovered within the Khadum deposits, and they are confined to the sand layers and lenses, but most of the Khadum section belongs to «unconventional» sources of hydrocarbons. Based on the integrated approach, a map of oil and gas potential prospects for the Khadum deposits was constructed. Highly prospective territories for drilling for oil, areas with small and medium perspectives, and gas prospecting areas have been singled out. Recommendations are given for drilling and technology for the development of the Pre-Caucasus oil shales, based on the world experience in the development of such formations.

  8. Sustainability assessment of regional water resources under the DPSIR framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shikun; Wang, Yubao; Liu, Jing; Cai, Huanjie; Wu, Pute; Geng, Qingling; Xu, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Fresh water is a scarce and critical resource in both natural and socioeconomic systems. Increasing populations combined with an increasing demand for water resources have led to water shortages worldwide. Current water management strategies may not be sustainable, and comprehensive action should be taken to minimize the water budget deficit. Sustainable water resources management is essential because it ensures the integration of social, economic, and environmental issues into all stages of water resources management. This paper establishes the indicators to evaluate the sustainability of water utilization based on the Drive-Pressure-Status-Impact-Response (DPSIR) model. Based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method, a comprehensive assessment of changes to the sustainability of the water resource system in the city of Bayannur was conducted using these indicators. The results indicate that there is an increase in the driving force of local water consumption due to changes in society, economic development, and the consumption structure of residents. The pressure on the water system increased, whereas the status of the water resources continued to decrease over the study period due to the increasing drive indicators. The local government adopted a series of response measures to relieve the decreasing water resources and alleviate the negative effects of the increasing driver in demand. The response measures improved the efficiency of water usage to a large extent, but the large-scale expansion in demands brought a rebounding effect, known as ;Jevons paradox; At the same time, the increasing emissions of industrial and agriculture pollutants brought huge pressures to the regional water resources environment, which caused a decrease in the sustainability of regional water resources. Changing medium and short-term factors, such as regional economic pattern, technological levels, and water utilization practices, can contribute to the sustainable utilization of

  9. Heating & cooling: Policy frameworks in six European cities, their regions and countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büchele, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Report on current regulations, support policies, and other related framework conditions on EU level, national, regional and local level for the target countries, and assessment of specific characteristics of successful regulations and policies from a local perspective....

  10. Public health and health promotion capacity at national and regional level: a review of conceptual frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Aluttis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of capacity building for public health has gained much attention during the last decade. National as well as international organizations increasingly focus their efforts on capacity building to improve performance in the health sector. During the past two decades, a variety of conceptual frameworks have been developed which describe relevant dimensions for public health capacity. Notably, these frameworks differ in design and conceptualization. This paper therefore reviews the existing conceptual frameworks and integrates them into one framework, which contains the most relevant dimensions for public health capacity at the country or regional level. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify frameworks addressing public health capacity building at the national or regional level. We content-analysed these frameworks to identify the core dimensions of public health capacity. The dimensions were subsequently synthesized into a set of thematic areas to construct a conceptual framework which describes the most relevant dimensions for capacities at the national or regional level. The systematic review resulted in the identification of seven core domains for public health capacity: resources, organizational structures, workforce, partnerships, leadership and governance, knowledge development and country specific context. Accordingly, these dimensions were used to construct a framework, which describes these core domains more in detail. Our research shows that although there is no generally agreed upon model of public health capacity, a number of key domains for public health and health promotion capacity are consistently recurring in existing frameworks, regardless of their geographical location or thematic area. As only little work on the core concepts of public health capacities has yet taken place, this study adds value to the discourse by identifying these consistencies across existing frameworks and by synthesising

  11. Geologic studies on the Rio Una region (Iguape - Sao Paulo County), Brazil, for the construction of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassano, S.; Mueller, M.; Stein, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The main objective of the project was the geological and seismological characterization of 230 Km 2 along the coastal region between the Barro Branco and Jureia massifs in order to pinpoint one or more local areas showing adequate geological, morphological and geotechnical conditions suitable for construction of nuclear power plants. Results of the investigations, as well as the methodology used for determination of main interesting areas are presented. The best areas for construction are believed to be situated along the coast where Precambrian basement rocks crop out close to the shoreline. The Tertiary-Quaternary sedimentary cover reaches a thickness of 50 or more meters and the character of the sediments does not allow direct emplacement of foundations for heavy-weight constructions. Historical analysis of seismic activity of the region, as well as the study of faults and fracture zones identified in the area demonstrate the absence of active faults such as defined by internationally accepted safety criteria. (Author) [pt

  12. A Reusable Framework for Regional Climate Model Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, A. F.; Goodale, C. E.; Mattmann, C. A.; Lean, P.; Kim, J.; Zimdars, P.; Waliser, D. E.; Crichton, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Climate observations are currently obtained through a diverse network of sensors and platforms that include space-based observatories, airborne and seaborne platforms, and distributed, networked, ground-based instruments. These global observational measurements are critical inputs to the efforts of the climate modeling community and can provide a corpus of data for use in analysis and validation of climate models. The Regional Climate Model Evaluation System (RCMES) is an effort currently being undertaken to address the challenges of integrating this vast array of observational climate data into a coherent resource suitable for performing model analysis at the regional level. Developed through a collaboration between the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the UCLA Joint Institute for Regional Earth System Science and Engineering (JIFRESSE), the RCMES uses existing open source technologies (MySQL, Apache Hadoop, and Apache OODT), to construct a scalable, parametric, geospatial data store that incorporates decades of observational data from a variety of NASA Earth science missions, as well as other sources into a consistently annotated, highly available scientific resource. By eliminating arbitrary partitions in the data (individual file boundaries, differing file formats, etc), and instead treating each individual observational measurement as a unique, geospatially referenced data point, the RCMES is capable of transforming large, heterogeneous collections of disparate observational data into a unified resource suitable for comparison to climate model output. This facility is further enhanced by the availability of a model evaluation toolkit which consists of a set of Python libraries, a RESTful web service layer, and a browser-based graphical user interface that allows for orchestration of model-to-data comparisons by composing them visually through web forms. This combination of tools and interfaces dramatically simplifies the process of interacting with and

  13. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Wayne R.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the ground-water flow system and previous less extensive ground-water flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect ground-water flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the ground-water flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural ground-water discharge occurring through evapotranspiration and spring flow; the history of ground-water pumping from 1913 through 1998; ground-water recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were

  14. Local geological sections and regional stratigraphy based on physical geology and chemical stratigraphy of the Serra Geral Group from Araraquara to Avaré, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélia João Fernandes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: From Araraquara to Avaré, in the Serra Geral Group outcropping area, 22 detailed geological sections were elaborated. The stratigraphic relationships and the chemical analysis allowed the identification of seven [P2O5] basalt classes, all of them pertaining to the Pitanga type, showing a consistent stacking order across the studied region. Thus, each class is considered to correspond to a specific lava flow, allowing a general stratigraphic column to be proposed. Besides the stacking order, the validation of P2O5 as a tool for lava correlation at great distances was also based on the values obtained from samples collected at different positions in a single flow, and on the remarkable [P2O5] contrast between adjacent flows. Minimum lateral extensions range from 75 to 185 km, and thickness from 20 to 80 m. Vertical tectonic displacements, which took place in different periods, were inferred from the altitude of specific flows, and also from the Botucatu and Piramboia formations. They are noticeable in a region bounded by EW drainage lineaments, which contains a large area where Piramboia and Botucatu formations crop out, probably due to the tectonic activity causing this region to be a generalized structural high.

  15. Application of Remote Sensing in Geological Mapping, Case Study al Maghrabah Area - Hajjah Region, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nahmi, F.; Saddiqi, O.; Hilali, A.; Rhinane, H.; Baidder, L.; El arabi, H.; Khanbari, K.

    2017-11-01

    Remote sensing technology plays an important role today in the geological survey, mapping, analysis and interpretation, which provides a unique opportunity to investigate the geological characteristics of the remote areas of the earth's surface without the need to gain access to an area on the ground. The aim of this study is achievement a geological map of the study area. The data utilizes is Sentinel-2 imagery, the processes used in this study, the OIF Optimum Index Factor is a statistic value that can be used to select the optimum combination of three bands in a satellite image. It's based on the total variance within bands and correlation coefficient between bands, ICA Independent component analysis (3, 4, 6) is a statistical and computational technique for revealing hidden factors that underlie sets of random variables, measurements, or signals, MNF Minimum Noise Fraction (1, 2, 3) is used to determine the inherent dimensionality of image data to segregate noise in the data and to reduce the computational requirements for subsequent processing, Optimum Index Factor is a good method for choosing the best band for lithological mapping. ICA, MNF, also a practical way to extract the structural geology maps. The results in this paper indicate that, the studied area can be divided into four main geological units: Basement rocks (Meta volcanic, Meta sediments), Sedimentary rocks, Intrusive rocks, volcanic rocks. The method used in this study offers great potential for lithological mapping, by using Sentinel-2 imagery, the results were compared with existing geologic maps and were superior and could be used to update the existing maps.

  16. Siting regions for deep geological repositories. Nagra’s proposals for stage 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) discusses the selection of sites for deep geological repositories for nuclear wastes in Switzerland. The procedure proposed for the selection process is explained. The four sites for possible repositories of high-level radioactive waste as well as for low and intermediate-level wastes are described and rated with respect to the various safety factors involved. The reasons for the long-term safety measures proposed and the geological barriers involved are discussed. The four proposals for depository sites are looked at in more detail. The paper is well illustrated with several diagrams and tables

  17. Advances in constructing regional geological voxel models, illustrated by their application in aggregate resource assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljers, D.; Stafleu, J.; Meulen, M.J. van der; Dambrink, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aggregate resource assessments, derived from three subsequent generations of voxel models, were compared in a qualitative way to illustrate and discuss modelling progress. We compared the models in terms of both methodology and usability. All three models were produced by the Geological Survey of

  18. Maps of Clash of Opinions – Classification of Geological Conditions in Karviná Region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lednická, Markéta; Kaláb, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 283, č. 1781 (2008), s. 139-147 ISSN 0372-9508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : maps sof clash of opinions * geological conditions Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure www.wydawnictvopolitechniki.pl

  19. National, Regional and Global Certification Bodies for Polio Eradication: A Framework for Verifying Measles Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblina Datta, S; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Reef, Susan; William Schluter, W; Adams, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    The Global Certification Commission (GCC), Regional Certification Commissions (RCCs), and National Certification Committees (NCCs) provide a framework of independent bodies to assist the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in certifying and maintaining polio eradication in a standardized, ongoing, and credible manner. Their members meet regularly to comprehensively review population immunity, surveillance, laboratory, and other data to assess polio status in the country (NCC), World Health Organization (WHO) region (RCC), or globally (GCC). These highly visible bodies provide a framework to be replicated to independently verify measles and rubella elimination in the regions and globally. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  20. Database for the Geologic Map of the Summit Region of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Dillon R.; Ramsey, David W.; Bruggman, Peggy E.; Felger, Tracey J.; Lougee, Ellen; Margriter, Sandy; Showalter, Patrick; Neal, Christina A.; Lockwood, John P.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The area covered by this map includes parts of four U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 7.5' topographic quadrangles (Kilauea Crater, Volcano, Ka`u Desert, and Makaopuhi). It encompasses the summit, upper rift zones, and Koa`e Fault System of Kilauea Volcano and a part of the adjacent, southeast flank of Mauna Loa Volcano. The map is dominated by products of eruptions from Kilauea Volcano, the southernmost of the five volcanoes on the Island of Hawai`i and one of the world's most active volcanoes. At its summit (1,243 m) is Kilauea Crater, a 3 km-by-5 km collapse caldera that formed, possibly over several centuries, between about 200 and 500 years ago. Radiating away from the summit caldera are two linear zones of intrusion and eruption, the east and the southwest rift zones. Repeated subaerial eruptions from the summit and rift zones have built a gently sloping, elongate shield volcano covering approximately 1,500 km2. Much of the volcano lies under water: the east rift zone extends 110 km from the summit to a depth of more than 5,000 m below sea level; whereas, the southwest rift zone has a more limited submarine continuation. South of the summit caldera, mostly north-facing normal faults and open fractures of the Koa`e Fault System extend between the two rift zones. The Koa`e Fault System is interpreted as a tear-away structure that accommodates southward movement of Kilauea's flank in response to distension of the volcano perpendicular to the rift zones. This digital release contains all the information used to produce the geologic map published as USGS Geologic Investigations Series I-2759 (Neal and Lockwood, 2003). The main component of this digital release is a geologic map database prepared using ArcInfo GIS. This release also contains printable files for the geologic map and accompanying descriptive pamphlet from I-2759.

  1. Geological and Structural Inferences from Satellite Images in Parts of Deccan basalt covered regions of Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harinarayana, Tirumalachetty; Borra, Veeraiah; Basava, Sharana; Suryabali, Singh

    In search of new areas for hydrocarbon exploration, integrated ground geophysical studies have been taken up in Central India with seismic, magnetotellurics, deep resistivity and gravity surveys. Since the region is covered with basalt and well known for its intensive tectonic activity, remote sensing method seems to have value addition to the subsurface information derived from geophysical, geological and tectonic studies. The Narmada and Tapti rift zone and Deccan basalt covered regions of Central India, stems from its complexity. A Resourcesat-1 (IRS- P6) LISS-III satellite images covering an area of approximately 250,000 sq. km corresponding to the region in and around Baroda(Vadodara), Indore, Nandurbar, Khandwa, Akot, Nasik, Aurangabad, Pune and Latur in Central India was digitally processed and interpreted to present a schematic map of the geology and elucidate the structural fabric of the region. From our study, the disposition of the intensive dyke system, various faults and other lineaments in the region are delineated. Ground truth studies have shown good correlation with lineaments/dykes indicated in remote sensing studies and have revealed distinct ENE-WSW trending lineaments, dykes which are more prominent near the Narmada and Tapti river course. Evolution of these features with Deccan volcanism is discussed with available geochronological data set. These findings are significant in relation to structural data and form a part of the geo-structural database for ground surveys.

  2. A regional multi-scale 3-D geological model of the Eastern Sub-Athabasca Basement, Canada: Implications for vectoring towards unconformity-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annesley, I.; Reilkoff, B.; Takacs, E.; Hajnal, Z.; Pandit, B.

    2014-01-01

    The Proterozoic Athabasca Basin of northern Saskatchewan is one of the most important mining districts in Canada; hosting the world’s highest grade uranium deposits and prospects. In the basin, many of the near-surface deposits have been discovered; hence new ore deposits at greater depths need to be discovered. To help make new discoveries, 3D geological modelling is being carried out. Here, we present our multidisciplinary approach, whereby a 3D geological model of the eastern sub- Athabasca basement of northern Saskatchewan (i.e. the eastern and western Wollaston domains, the Wollaston-Mudjatik Transition Zone (WMTZ), and the Mudjatik Domain) was developed in the common earth environment. The project was directed towards building a robust 3D model(s) of the upper 3-5 km of the Earth’s crust in three different scales: deposit-, district-, and regional-scale, using the GOCAD software platform (Paradigm). Our eastern sub-Athabasca basement model is constrained by both geological studies and geophysical techniques, such as topographic, outcrop, drill hole, petrophysical, and petrological data, along with geophysical potential field, electrical, and highresolution regional seismic data, in order to better understand the regional- to district-scale tectonics and controls on the uranium mineral system(s) operating pre-, syn-, and post-Athabasca deposition. The resulting data were interpreted and visualized as 3D-surfaces and bodies in GOCAD. This model reveals a framework of key lithological contacts, major high-strain zones, and the setting of unconformity-type uranium deposits. As a result, this new knowledge is being used to identify key exploration vectoring criteria for unconformity-type, magmatic, and metamorphic/ metasomatic uranium deposits and to delineate new exploration targets in the basin. Hence, this regional-scale 3D GOCAD model can be utilized as a guide for exploration activities within the region (e.g. picking new drill targets). As well, this 3D

  3. A preliminary study on the regional fracture systems for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Young Kown; Park, Byoung Yoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    For the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, it is essential to characterize the fracture system in rock mass which has a potential pathways of nuclide. Currently, none of research results are in classification and detailed properties for the fracture system in Korea. This study aims to classify and describe the regional fracture system in lithological and geotectonical point of view using literature review, shaded relief map, and aeromagnetic survey data. This report contains the following: - Theoretical review of the fracture development mechanism. - Overall fault and fracture map. - Geological description on the distributional characteristics of faults and fractures(zone) in terms of lithological domain and tectonical province. 122 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  4. Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas, Cotton Valley group and Travis Peak-Hosston formations, East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces of the northern Gulf Coast region. Chapters 1-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations in the East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces in the Gulf Coast Region (USGS Provinces 5048 and 5049). The Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are important because of their potential for natural gas resources. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and eight assessment units. Seven assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  5. Project plan-Surficial geologic mapping and hydrogeologic framework studies in the Greater Platte River Basins (Central Great Plains) in support of ecosystem and climate change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Margaret E.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Slate, Janet L.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Sawyer, David A.; VanSistine, D. Paco

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Platte River Basin area spans a central part of the Midcontinent and Great Plains from the Rocky Mountains on the west to the Missouri River on the east, and is defined to include drainage areas of the Platte, Niobrara, and Republican Rivers, the Rainwater Basin, and other adjoining areas overlying the northern High Plains aquifer. The Greater Platte River Basin contains abundant surficial deposits that were sensitive to, or are reflective of, the climate under which they formed: deposits from multiple glaciations in the mountain headwaters of the North and South Platte Rivers and from continental ice sheets in eastern Nebraska; fluvial terraces (ranging from Tertiary to Holocene in age) along the rivers and streams; vast areas of eolian sand in the Nebraska Sand Hills and other dune fields (recording multiple episodes of dune activity); thick sequences of windblown silt (loess); and sediment deposited in numerous lakes and wetlands. In addition, the Greater Platte River Basin overlies and contributes surface water to the High Plains aquifer, a nationally important groundwater system that underlies parts of eight states and sustains one of the major agricultural areas of the United States. The area also provides critical nesting habitat for birds such as plovers and terns, and roosting habitat for cranes and other migratory birds that travel through the Central Flyway of North America. This broad area, containing fragile ecosystems that could be further threatened by changes in climate and land use, has been identified by the USGS and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln as a region where intensive collaborative research could lead to a better understanding of climate change and what might be done to adapt to or mitigate its adverse effects to ecosystems and to humans. The need for robust data on the geologic framework of ecosystems in the Greater Platte River Basin has been acknowledged in proceedings from the 2008 Climate Change Workshop and in draft

  6. The Aristarchus-Harbinger region of the moon: Surface geology and history from recent remote-sensing observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisk, S.H.; Hodges, C.A.; Moore, H.J.; Shorthill, R.W.; Thompson, T.W.; Whitaker, E.A.; Wilhelms, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    The region including the Aristarchus Plateau and Montes Harbinger is probably the most diverse, geologically, of any area of comparble size on the Moon. This part of the northwest quadrant of the lunar near side includes unique dark mantling material; both the densest concentration and the largest of the sinuous rilles; apparent volcanic vents, sinks, and domes; mare materials of various ages and colors; one of the freshest large craters (Aristarchus) with ejecta having unique colors and albedos; and three other large craters in different states of flooding and degradation (krieger, Herodotus, and Prinz). The three best-authenticated lunar transient phenomena were also observed here. This study is based principally on photographic and remote sensing observations made from Earth and Apollo orbiting space craft. Results include (1) delineation of geologic map units and their stratigraphic relationships; (2) discussion of the complex interrelationships between materials of volcanic and impact origin, including the effects of excavation, redistribution and mixing of previously deposited materials by younger impact craters; (3) deduction of physical and chemical properties of certain of the geologic units, based on both the remote-sensing information and on extrapolation of Apollo data to this area; and (4) development of a detailed geologic history of the region, outlining the probable sequence of events that resulted in its present appearance. A primary concern of the investigation has been anomalous red dark mantle on the Plateau. Based on an integration of Earth- and lunar orbit-based data, this layer seems to consist of fine-grained, block-free material containing a relatively large fraction of orange glass. It is probably of pyroclastic origin, laid down at some time during the Imbrian period of mare flooding. ?? 1977 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  7. Three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model of the Rio Grande transboundary region of New Mexico and Texas, USA, and northern Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2017-09-08

    As part of a U.S. Geological Survey study in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, a digital three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model was constructed for the Rio Grande transboundary region of New Mexico and Texas, USA, and northern Chihuahua, Mexico. This model was constructed to define the aquifer system geometry and subsurface lithologic characteristics and distribution for use in a regional numerical hydrologic model. The model includes five hydrostratigraphic units: river channel alluvium, three informal subdivisions of Santa Fe Group basin fill, and an undivided pre-Santa Fe Group bedrock unit. Model input data were compiled from published cross sections, well data, structure contour maps, selected geophysical data, and contiguous compilations of surficial geology and structural features in the study area. These data were used to construct faulted surfaces that represent the upper and lower subsurface hydrostratigraphic unit boundaries. The digital three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model is constructed through combining faults, the elevation of the tops of each hydrostratigraphic unit, and boundary lines depicting the subsurface extent of each hydrostratigraphic unit. The framework also compiles a digital representation of the distribution of sedimentary facies within each hydrostratigraphic unit. The digital three-dimensional hydrogeologic model reproduces with reasonable accuracy the previously published subsurface hydrogeologic conceptualization of the aquifer system and represents the large-scale geometry of the subsurface aquifers. The model is at a scale and resolution appropriate for use as the foundation for a numerical hydrologic model of the study area.

  8. California Geological Survey Geologic Map Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — All the individual maps from the Geologic Atlas of California and the Regional Geologic map series have been georeferenced for display in a GIS (and viewable online...

  9. REGIONAL BLACK SEA ARCHITECTURE AND CONSEQUENCES FOR THE REGIONAL COOPERATION FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Homorozean

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes considered an asset, other times a liability, the Black Sea started recently to be regarded as a region. However, the Black Sea Region lacks a common vision, often due to the complicated and often inefficient nexus of regional cooperation initiatives. Following the logic of finding regional solutions for regional problems, this paper aims to assess existing institutional and regional initiatives, reflecting on the implications for the success of Black Sea regionalism in creating patterns of sustained and sustainable development and a high degree of actors' involvement.This paper concentrates on two complementary research questions: What is the regional order in the BSR and what does it imply for its future? What is the current contribution of the most significant cooperation initiatives and what are the consequences for regional institutionalism? For the purpose of this paper, I draw on best-practices from other two regions: the Northern Dimension and South- East Asia. Through a comparative perspective, I suggest an analysis of the most important initiatives: BSEC, CDC, Black Sea Synergy, Eastern Partnership, Baku Initiative and the BSF. This paper argues that a possible strategic solution for successful policy development lies in the creation of an integrated regional cooperation package, functioning on the principles of multi-speed and multi-dimensional cooperation in several policy fields, in a context in which the BSR seems to be caught between two paradigms: a European and a Russian-oriented one.

  10. Fish-assemblage variation between geologically defined regions and across a longitudinal gradient in the Monkey River Basin, Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselman, P.C.; Freeman, Mary C.; Pringle, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Linkages between geology and fish assemblages have been inferred in many regions throughout the world, but no studies have yet investigated whether fish assemblages differ across geologies in Mesoamerica. The goals of our study were to: 1) compare physicochemical conditions and fish-assemblage structure across 2 geologic types in headwaters of the Monkey River Basin, Belize, and 2) describe basin-scale patterns in fish community composition and structure for the benefit of conservation efforts. We censused headwater-pool fishes by direct observation, and assessed habitat size, structure, and water chemistry to compare habitat and fish richness, diversity, evenness, and density between streams in the variably metamorphosed sedimentary geologic type typical of 80% of Belize's Maya Mountains (the Santa Rosa Group), and an anomalous extrusive geologic formation in the same area (the Bladen Volcanic Member). We also collected species-presence data from 20 sites throughout the basin for analyses of compositional patterns from the headwaters to the top of the estuary. Thirty-nine fish species in 21 families were observed. Poeciliids were numerically dominant, making up 39% of individuals captured, followed by characins (25%), and cichlids (20%). Cichlidae was the most species-rich family (7 spp.), followed by Poeciliidae (6 spp.). Habitat size and water chemistry differed strongly between geologic types, but habitat diversity did not. Major fish-assemblage differences also were not obvious between geologies, despite a marked difference in the presence of the aquatic macrophyte, Marathrum oxycarpum (Podostemaceae), which covered 37% of the stream bottom in high-nutrient streams draining the Santa Rosa Group, and did not occur in the low-P streams draining the Bladen Volcanic Member. Correlation analyses suggested that distance from the sea and amount of cover within pools are important to fish-assemblage structure, but that differing abiotic factors may influence

  11. Monitoring Geologic Hazards and Vegetation Recovery in the Wenchuan Earthquake Region Using Aerial Photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwang Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available On 12 May 2008, the 8.0-magnitude Wenchuan earthquake occurred in Sichuan Province, China, triggering thousands of landslides, debris flows, and barrier lakes, leading to a substantial loss of life and damage to the local environment and infrastructure. This study aimed to monitor the status of geologic hazards and vegetation recovery in a post-earthquake disaster area using high-resolution aerial photography from 2008 to 2011, acquired from the Center for Earth Observation and Digital Earth (CEODE, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The distribution and range of hazards were identified in 15 large, representative geologic hazard areas triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake. After conducting an overlay analysis, the variations of these hazards between successive years were analyzed to reflect the geologic hazard development and vegetation recovery. The results showed that in the first year after the Wenchuan earthquake, debris flows occurred frequently with high intensity. Resultantly, with the source material becoming less available and the slope structure stabilizing, the intensity and frequency of debris flows gradually decreased with time. The development rate of debris flows between 2008 and 2011 was 3% per year. The lithology played a dominant role in the formation of debris flows, and the topography and hazard size in the earthquake affected area also had an influence on the debris flow development process. Meanwhile, the overall geologic hazard area decreased at 12% per year, and the vegetation recovery on the landslide mass was 15% to 20% per year between 2008 and 2011. The outcomes of this study provide supporting data for ecological recovery as well as debris flow control and prevention projects in hazard-prone areas.

  12. A general framework of TOPSIS method for integration of airborne geophysics, satellite imagery, geochemical and geological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Maysam; Norouzi, Gholam-Hossain

    2016-04-01

    This work presents the promising application of three variants of TOPSIS method (namely the conventional, adjusted and modified versions) as a straightforward knowledge-driven technique in multi criteria decision making processes for data fusion of a broad exploratory geo-dataset in mineral potential/prospectivity mapping. The method is implemented to airborne geophysical data (e.g. potassium radiometry, aeromagnetic and frequency domain electromagnetic data), surface geological layers (fault and host rock zones), extracted alteration layers from remote sensing satellite imagery data, and five evidential attributes from stream sediment geochemical data. The central Iranian volcanic-sedimentary belt in Kerman province at the SE of Iran that is embedded in the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Assemblage arc (UDMA) is chosen to integrate broad evidential layers in the region of prospect. The studied area has high potential of ore mineral occurrences especially porphyry copper/molybdenum and the generated mineral potential maps aim to outline new prospect zones for further investigation in future. Two evidential layers of the downward continued aeromagnetic data and its analytic signal filter are prepared to be incorporated in fusion process as geophysical plausible footprints of the porphyry type mineralization. The low values of the apparent resistivity layer calculated from the airborne frequency domain electromagnetic data are also used as an electrical criterion in this investigation. Four remote sensing evidential layers of argillic, phyllic, propylitic and hydroxyl alterations were extracted from ASTER images in order to map the altered areas associated with porphyry type deposits, whilst the ETM+ satellite imagery data were used as well to map iron oxide layer. Since potassium alteration is generally the mainstay of porphyry ore mineralization, the airborne potassium radiometry data was used. The geochemical layers of Cu/B/Pb/Zn elements and the first component of PCA

  13. Southeast Regional Assessment Project for the National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Melinda S.; Jones, Sonya A.

    2010-01-01

    Project "Climate Change in the Southeastern U.S. and its Impacts on Bird Distributions and Habitats," (4) a sea-level rise impacts study envisioned jointly with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and (5) two USGS sea-level rise impact assessment projects that address inundation hazards and provide probabilistic forecasts of coastal geomorphic change. The SERAP will expand on these existing projects and include the following tasks, which were initiated in summer 2009: * Regionally downscaled probabilistic climate-change projections * Integrated coastal assessment * Integrated terrestrial assessment * Multi-resolution assessment of potential climate change effects on biological resources: aquatic and hydrologic dynamics * Optimal conservation strategies to cope with climate change The SERAP seeks to formally integrate these tasks to aid conservation planning and design so that ecosystem management decisions can be optimized for providing desirable outcomes across a range of species and environments. The following chapters detail SERAP's efforts in providing a suite of regional climate, watershed, and landscape-change analyses and develop the interdisciplinary framework required for the biological planning phases of adaptive management and strategic conservation. The planning phase will include the identification of conservation alternatives, development of predictive models and decision support tools, and development of a template to address similar challenges and goals in other regions. The project teams will explore and develop ways to link the various ecological models arising from each component. The SERAP project team also will work closely with members of the LCCs and other partnerships throughout the life of the project to ensure that the objectives of the project meet resources mangers needs in the Southeast.

  14. Effects of local geology on ground motion in the San Francisco Bay region, California—A continued study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, James F.; Borcherdt, Roger D.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements of ground motion generated by nuclear explosions in Nevada have been completed for 99 locations in the San Francisco Bay region, California. The seismograms, Fourier amplitude spectra, spectral amplification curves for the signal, and the Fourier amplitude spectra of the seismic noise are presented for 60 locations. Analog amplifications, based on the maximum signal amplitude, are computed for an additional 39 locations. The recordings of the nuclear explosions show marked amplitude variations which are consistently related to the local geologic conditions of the recording site. The average spectral amplifications observed for vertical and horizontal ground motions are, respectively: (1, 1) for granite, (1.5, 1.6) for the Franciscan Formation, (2.3, 2.3), for other pre-Tertiary and Tertiary rocks, (3.0, 2.7) for the Santa Clara Formation, (3.3, 4.4) for older bay sediments, and (3.7, 11.3) for younger bay mud. Spectral amplification curves define predominant ground frequencies for younger bay mud sites and for some older bay sediment sites. The predominant frequencies for most sites were not clearly defined by the amplitude spectra computed from the seismic background noise. The intensities ascribed to various sites in the San Francisco Bay region for the California earthquake of April 18, 1906, are strongly dependent on distance from the zone of surface faulting and the geological character of the ground. Considering only those sites (approximately one square city block in size) for which there is good evidence for the degree of ascribed intensity, the intensities for 917 sites on Franciscan rocks generally decrease with the logarithm of distance as Intensity = 2.69 - 1.90 log (Distance Km). For sites on other geologic units, intensity increments, derived from this empirical rela.tion, correlate strongly with the Average Horizontal Spectral Amplifications (MISA) according to the empirical relation Intensity Increment= 0.27 + 2.70 log(AHSA). Average

  15. Chapter 4: Regional magnetic domains of the Circum-Arctic: A framework for geodynamic interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, R.W.; Miller, E.L.; Gaina, C.; Brown, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    We identify and discuss 57 magnetic anomaly pattern domains spanning the Circum-Arctic. The domains are based on analysis of a new Circum-Arctic data compilation. The magnetic anomaly patterns can be broadly related to general geodynamic classification of the crust into stable, deformed (magnetic and nonmagnetic), deep magnetic high, oceanic and large igneous province domains. We compare the magnetic domains with topography/bathymetry, regional geology, regional free air gravity anomalies and estimates of the relative magnetic 'thickness' of the crust. Most of the domains and their geodynamic classification assignments are consistent with their topographic/bathymetric and geological expression. A few of the domains are potentially controversial. For example, the extent of the Iceland Faroe large igneous province as identified by magnetic anomalies may disagree with other definitions for this feature. Also the lack of definitive magnetic expression of oceanic crust in Baffin Bay, the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and the Amerasian Basin is at odds with some previous interpretations. The magnetic domains and their boundaries provide clues for tectonic models and boundaries within this poorly understood portion of the globe. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  16. Subsurface geology of the Lusi region: preliminary results from a comprehensive seismic-stratigraphic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscariello, Andrea; Do Couto, Damien; Lupi, Matteo; Mazzini, Adriano

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the subsurface data of a large sector in the Sidoarjo district (East Java, Indonesia) where the sudden catastrophic Lusi eruption started the 26th May 2006. Our goal is to understand the stratigraphic and structural features which can be genetically related to the surface manifestations of deep hydrothermal fluids and thus allow us to predict possible future similar phenomena in the region. In the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126) we examined a series of densely spaced 2D reflection commercial seismic lines This allowed the reconstruction of the lateral variability of key stratigraphic horizons as well as the main tectonic features. In particular, we shed light on the deep structure of the Watukosek fault system and the associated fracture corridors crossing the entire stratigraphic successions. To the South-West, when approaching the volcanic complex, we could identify a clear contrast in seismic facies between chaotic volcanoclastic wedges and clastic-prone sedimentary successions as well as between the deeper stratigraphic units consisting of carbonates and lateral shales units. The latter show possible ductile deformation associated to fault-controlled diapirism which control in turns deformation of overlying stratigraphic units and deep geo-fluids circulation. Large collapse structures recognized in the study area (e.g. well PRG-1) are interpreted as the results of shale movement at depth. Similarly to Lusi, vertical deformation zones ("pipes"), likely associated with deeply rooted strike-slip systems seem to be often located at the interface between harder carbonate rocks forming isolated build ups and the laterally nearby clastic (shale-prone)-units. The mechanisms of deformation of structural features (strike vs dip slip systems) which may affect either the basement rock or the overlying deeper stratigraphic rocks is also being investigated to understand the relationship between deep and shallower (i.e. meteoric) fluid

  17. [A process of aquatic ecological function regionalization: The dual tree framework and conceptual model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shu Hai; Wu, Bo

    2017-12-01

    Aquatic ecological regionalization and aquatic ecological function regionalization are the basis of water environmental management of a river basin and rational utilization of an aquatic ecosystem, and have been studied in China for more than ten years. Regarding the common problems in this field, the relationship between aquatic ecological regionalization and aquatic ecological function regionalization was discussed in this study by systematic analysis of the aquatic ecological zoning and the types of aquatic ecological function. Based on the dual tree structure, we put forward the RFCH process and the diamond conceptual model. Taking Liaohe River basin as an example and referring to the results of existing regionalization studies, we classified the aquatic ecological function regions based on three-class aquatic ecological regionalization. This study provided a process framework for aquatic ecological function regionalization of a river basin.

  18. Geomorphology and Geology of the Southwestern Margaritifer Sinus and Argyre Regions of Mars. Part 3: Valley Types and Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, T. J.; Pieri, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Three major valley tapes were identified in the SW Margaritefer Sinus and Argyre regions. Two are restricted to specific geologic units while the third is independent of the geology. The first type (the small valley networks) are found within the channeled and subdued plains unit in the eastern half of the map, in the grooved and channeled plains unit north of Nirgal Vallis, and in scattered instances in the cratered plateau unit north of Argyre. The even smaller valleys just inside Argyre's rim and on the inner slopes of many large craters are not directly related to the processes which formed the small valleys but are a result, instead, of post-impact modification of the crater walls. The second type of valley network is represented by Nirgal Vallis and the similar, shorter continuation of it to the west. This type is found only in the smooth plains material west of Uzboi Vallis in the map area. The third type of valley network is that of the Uzbol-Holden-Ladon valles system. This system is related to catastrophic outflow from Argyre Basin and is topographically rather than geologically controlled.

  19. Bedrock geology of snyderville basin: Structural geology techniques applied to understanding the hydrogeology of a rapidly developing region, Summit County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keighley, K.E.; Yonkee, W.A.; Ashland, F.X.; Evans, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The availability of ground water is a problem for many communities throughout the west. As these communities continue to experience growth, the initial allocation of ground water supplies proves inadequate and may force restrictions on existing, and future, development plans. Much of this new growth relies on ground water supplies extracted from fractured bedrock aquifers. An example of a community faced with this problem is western Summit County, near Park City, Utah, This area has experienced significant water shortages coupled with a 50% growth rate in the past 10-15 years. Recent housing development rests directly on complexly deformed Triassic to Jurassic sedimentary rocks in the hanging wall of the Mount Raymond-Absaroka thrust system. The primary fractured bedrock aquifers are the Nugget Sandstone, and limestones in the Thaynes and Twin Creek Formations. Ground water production and management strategies can be improved if the geometry of the structures and the flow properties of the fractured and folded bedrock can be established. We characterize the structures that may influence ground water flow at two sites: the Pinebrook and Summit Park subdivisions, which demonstrate abrupt changes (less than 1 mi/1.6 km) within the hydrogeologic systems. Geologic mapping at scales of 1:4500 (Pinebrook) and 1:9600 (Summit Park), scanline fracture mapping at the outcrop scale, geologic cross sections, water well data, and structural analysis, provides a clearer picture of the hydrogeologic setting of the aquifers in this region, and has been used to successfully site wells. In the Pinebrook area, the dominate map-scale structures of the area is the Twomile Canyon anticline, a faulted box-like to conical anticline. Widely variable bedding orientations suggest that the fold is segmented and is non-cylindrical and conical on the western limb with a fold axis that plunges to the northwest and also to the southeast, and forms a box-type fold between the middle and eastern

  20. Use of the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based Martian geology and exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radziemski, Leon; Cremers, David A.; Benelli, Katharine; Khoo, Cynthia; Harris, Ronny D.

    2005-01-01

    Several elements important to planetary geology (e.g. Br, C, Cl, P, S) and the human exploration of Mars (e.g. toxic elements such as As) have strong emission lines in the purge and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral region (100-200 nm). This spectral region has not been extensively studied for space applications using geological samples. We studied emissions from the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) plasma in this region using a sample chamber filled with 7 torr (930 Pa) of CO 2 to simulate the Martian atmosphere. Pressures down to 0.02 torr were also used to evaluate the effect of the residual CO 2 on the spectra and to begin investigating the use of VUV-LIBS for airless bodies such as asteroids and the Moon. Spectra were recorded using a 0.3-m vacuum spectrometer with an intensified CCD (ICCD) camera. The effects of time delay and laser energy on LIBS detection at reduced pressure were examined. The effect of ambient CO 2 on the detection of C in soil was also evaluated. Lines useful for the spectrochemical analysis of As, Br, C, Cl, P, and S were determined and calibration curves were prepared for these elements. Although LIBS is being developed for stand-off analysis at many meters distance, the experiments reported here were aimed at in-situ (close-up) analysis

  1. Vision and framework for technical and management support to facilitate foreign spent fuel storage and geologic disposal in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.; Jardine, L.J.; Smith, C.F.

    1999-01-01

    This 'Technical and Management Support' program would facilitate the transfer of spent fuel from commercial power plants in Taiwan to a storage and geologic repository site near Krasnoyarsk, Russia. This program resolves issues of disposition of Taiwan spent fuel (including US origin fuel) and provides revenue for Russia to develop an integrated spent fuel storage and radioactive waste management system including a geologic repository. LLNL has ongoing contracts and collaborations with all the principal parties and is uniquely positioned to facilitate the development of such a program. A three-phase approach over 20 years is proposed: namely, an initial feasibility investigation followed by an engineering development phase, and then implementation

  2. A new geological framework for south-central Madagascar, and its relevance to the "out-of-Africa" hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, R.D.; Roig, J.Y.; Macey, P.H.; Delor, C.; Amelin, Y.; Armstrong, R.A.; Rabarimanana, M.H.; Ralison, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    The Precambrian shield of south-central Madagascar, excluding the Vohibory region, consists of three geologic domains, from north to south: Antananarivo, Ikalamavony-Itremo, and Anosyen-Androyen. The northern Antananarivo domain represents the Neoarchean sector of the Greater Dharwar Craton amalgamated at 2.52-2.48. Ga. The Greater Dharwar Craton is overlain by several groups of Meso- to Neoproterozoic supracrustal rocks (Ambatolampy, Manampotsy, Ampasary, Sahantaha, and Maha Groups) each with a common and diagnostic signature of Paleoproterozoic detrital zircons (2.2-1.8. Ga). The central domain (Ikalamavony-Itremo) consists of two distinct parts. The Itremo Sub-domain, in the east, is a structurally intercalated sequence of Neoarchean gneiss and shallow marine metasedimentary rocks of Paleo-Mesoproterozoic age (Itremo Group), the latter with Paleoproterozoic detrital zircons ranging in age between 2.2 and 1.8. Ga. The Ikalamavony Sub-domain, to the west, contains abundant volcano-clastic metasediments and lesser quartzite (Ikalamavony Group), formed between 1.03. Ga and 0.98. Ga, and intruded by igneous rocks (Dabolava Suite) of Stenian-Tonian age. Structurally intercalated with these are sheets of Neoarchean gneiss (~2.5. Ga) and Neoproterozoic metaclastic rocks (Molo Group). Like the Itremo Group, quartzite of the Ikalamavony Group has detrital zircons of Paleoproterozoic age (2.1-1.8. Ga). The southern domain of Anosyen-Androyen consists of a newly recognized suite of Paleoproterozoic igneous rocks (2.0-1.8. Ga), and stratified supracrustal rocks also having Paleoproterozoic detrital zircons (2.3-1.8. Ga). The contact between the Anosyen-Androyen and Ikalamavony-Itremo domains, formerly known as the Ranotsara-Bongolava shear zone, is a tightly folded and highly flattened boundary that was ductilely deformed in Ediacaran time. It is roughly equivalent to the Palghat-Cauvery shear zone in south India, and it defines approximately the boundary between the Archean

  3. Geologic framework and hydrogeologic characteristics in the southern part of the Rancho Diana Natural Area, northern Bexar County, Texas, 2008-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Allan K.; Morris, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    The area designated by the city of San Antonio as the Rancho Diana Natural Area is in northern Bexar County, near San Antonio, Texas. During 2008-10, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of San Antonio, documented the geologic framework and mapped the hydrogeologic characteristics for the southern part of the Rancho Diana Natural Area. The geologic framework of the study area and its hydrogeologic characteristics were documented using field observations and information from previously published reports. Many of the geologic and hydrogeologic features were found by making field observations through the dense vegetation along gridlines spaced approximately 25 feet apart and documenting the features as they were located. Surface geologic features were identified and hydrogeologic features such as caves, sinkholes, and areas of solutionally enlarged porosity were located using hand-held Global Positioning System units. The location data were used to create a map of the hydrogeologic subdivisions and the location of karst features. The outcrops of the Edwards and Trinity aquifer recharge zones were mapped by using hydrogeologic subdivisions modified from previous reports. All rocks exposed within the study area are of sedimentary origin and Lower Cretaceous in age. The valley floor is formed in the cavernous member of the upper Glen Rose Limestone of the Trinity Group. The hills are composed of the basal nodular member, dolomitic member, Kirschberg evaporite member, and grainstone member of the Kainer Formation of the Edwards Group. Field observations made during this study of the exposed formations and members indicate that the formations and members typically are composed of mudstones, wackestones, packstones, grainstones, and argillaceous limestones, along with marls. The upper Glen Rose Limestone is approximately 410 to 450 feet thick but only the upper 70 feet is exposed in the study area. The Kainer Formation is approximately 255 feet thick in

  4. State and forecast of radioactive contamination of geological environment in the region of 'Shelter' object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shestopalov, V.M.; Boguslavskij, A.S.; Kukharenko, D.E.; Onishchenko, I.P.; Panasyuk, N.I.

    2001-01-01

    Chornobyl NPP and especially the surroundings of the 'Shelter' object are the epicenter of radioactive impact of Chornobyl accident on geological environment, including groundwater. The two data sets- north from the 'Shelter' where groundwater from under the 'Shelter' moves, and south from the 'Shelter' characterizing the groundwater flow in the up-stream direction from the 'Shelter'. After data processing the generalized models of present distribution of 3 H, 90 Sr, and 137 Cs in groundwater around the 'Shelter' were obtained. They reflect the major role of the 'Shelter' in access of tritium and Strontium-90 into groundwater and main influence of the buned active layer on groundwater contamination with Cesium-137. The result obtained corresponds to high migrational activity of these isotopes. Along with this, the significantly higher migrational activity of Tritium, as compared to Strontium-90, has been proved. Obtained model schematic maps were used for onented assessment of accumulated amounts of radionuclides sorbed by rocks of geological environment around the 'Shelter' object. In watered zone of Quaternary deposits they reach more than 4000 Ci of 137 Cs, and about 6000 Ci of 90 Sr

  5. Geological Assessment of the Khor Kharfot Sediments, Western Dhofar Region, Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar A. Abbasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Khor Kharfot is part of a coastal estuarine wetland system located in the western part of the Dhofar Governorate preserving a pristine ecosystem supporting a distinct vegetation and animal habitat. A sand barrier along the khor (local term for wetlands mouth controls the mixing of fresh and marine water in the enclosed lagoon. In order to understand the geological controls on the khor formation, a geological map of the khor barrier and inlet area is prepared. The khor is bounded by Cretaceous and Tertiary carbonate rock sequences which are cut by a number of faults. The khor mouth and barrier are comprised of late Holocene deposits divided into seven units including i beach sand, ii beach sand mixed with wadi gravels, iii scree and coastal dunes, iv lagoon, v soil and boulders, vi wadi gravels, and vii talus. The khor developed as an open estuary which changed to a barrier dominated lagoon due to falling fresh water supplies as a consequence of dwindling Khareef rains. The lagoon water is brackish due to the mixing of fresh and marine water and supports a distinct flora and fauna.

  6. SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES, REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND NETWORKING: THE EMERGING FRAMEWORK IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Luminita Constantin

    2002-01-01

    Networking is a key word in the recent debates on SMEs and regional policies, pointing out the need and advantages of integrating these businesses in a coherent framework, which creates links, relations, exchanges between them and other actors within the region (banks, universities, research institutes, training centres, consulting firms, chambers of commerce, associations of producers, local public administration). This paper aims to explore the main features and significance of the SME sect...

  7. Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: index maps of included studies: Chapter B.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Kinney, Scott A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter B.1 of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Professional Paper 1708 provides index maps for many of the studies described in other chapters of the report. Scientists of the USGS and State geological surveys studied coal and petroleum resources in the central and southern Appalachian structural basins. In the southern Appalachian basin, studies focused on the coal-bearing parts of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama. The scientists used new and existing geologic data sets to create a common spatial geologic framework for the fossil-fuel-bearing strata of the central Appalachian basin and the Black Warrior basin in Alabama.

  8. A regional classification of unregulated stream flows: spatial resolution and hierarchical frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan A. McManamay; Donald J. Orth; Charles A. Dolloff; Emmaneul A. Firmpong

    2012-01-01

    River regulation has resulted in substantial losses in habitat connectivity, biodiversity and ecosystem services. River managers are faced with a growing need to protect the key aspects of the natural flow regime. A practical approach to providing environmental flow standards is to create a regional framework by classifying unregulated streams into groups of similar...

  9. Geologic Mapping of the Beta-Atla-Themis (BAT) Region of Venus: A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III

    2009-01-01

    The BAT province is of particular interest with respect to evaluating Venus geologic, tectonic, and volcanic history and provides tests of global paradigms regarding her thermal evolution. The BAT is "ringed" by volcano-tectonic troughs (Parga, Hecate, and Devana Chasmata), has an anomalously high-density of volcanic features with concentrations 2-4 times the global average [1], and is spatially coincident with "young terrain" as illustrated by Average Surface Model Ages [2, 3]. The BAT province is key to understanding Venus current volcanic and tectonic modes, which may provide insight for evaluating Venus historical record. Several quadrangles, two 1:5,000,000 scale - Isabella (V-50) Quadrangle and Devana Chasma (V-29) Quadrangle and two 1:10,000,000 scale - Helen Planitia (I-2477) and Guinevere Planitia (I-2457), are in various stages of production (Figure 1). This abstract will report on their levels of completion as well as highlight some current results and outstanding issues.

  10. Characterization of Groundwater Quality Based on Regional Geologic Setting in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Stephen L.; Chapman, Melinda J.; Harned, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    A compilation of groundwater-quality data collected as part of two U.S. Geological Survey studies provides a basis for understanding the ambient geochemistry related to geologic setting in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces (hereafter referred to as Piedmont and Mountains Provinces) of North Carolina. Although the geology is complex, a grouping of the sampled wells into assemblages of geologic units described as 'geozones' provides a basis for comparison across the region. Analyses of these two data sets provide a description of water-quality conditions in bedrock aquifers of the Piedmont and Mountains Provinces of North Carolina. Analyzed data were collected between 1997 and 2008 from a network of 79 wells representing 8 regional geozones distributed throughout the Piedmont and Mountains Provinces. This area has experienced high rates of population growth and an increased demand for water resources. Groundwater was used by about 34 percent of the population in the 65 counties of this region in 2005. An improved understanding of the quality and quantity of available groundwater resources is needed to plan effectively for future growth and development. The use of regional geologic setting to characterize groundwater-quality conditions in the Piedmont and Mountains Provinces is the focus of this investigation. Data evaluation included an examination of selected properties and the ionic composition of groundwater in the geozones. No major differences in overall ionic chemistry of groundwater among the geozones were evident with the data examined. Variability in the cationic and anionic composition of groundwater within a particular geozone appeared to reflect local differences in lithologic setting, hydrologic and geochemical conditions, and(or) land-use effects. The most common exceedances of the drinking-water criteria (in accordance with Federal and State water-quality standards) occurred for radon, pH, manganese, iron, and zinc. Radon had the most

  11. Quantifying high resolution transitional breaks in plant and mammal distributions at regional extent and their association with climate, topography and geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Virgilio, Giovanni; Laffan, Shawn W; Ebach, Malte C

    2013-01-01

    We quantify spatial turnover in communities of 1939 plant and 59 mammal species at 2.5 km resolution across a topographically heterogeneous region in south-eastern Australia to identify distributional breaks and low turnover zones where multiple species distributions overlap. Environmental turnover is measured to determine how climate, topography and geology influence biotic turnover differently across a variety of biogeographic breaks and overlaps. We identify the genera driving turnover and confirm the versatility of this approach across spatial scales and locations. Directional moving window analyses, rotated through 360°, were used to measure spatial turnover variation in different directions between gridded cells containing georeferenced plant and mammal occurrences and environmental variables. Generalised linear models were used to compare taxic turnover results with equivalent analyses for geology, regolith weathering, elevation, slope, solar radiation, annual precipitation and annual mean temperature, both uniformly across the entire study area and by stratifying it into zones of high and low turnover. Identified breaks and transitions were compared to a conservation bioregionalisation framework widely used in Australia. Detailed delineations of plant and mammal turnover zones with gradational boundaries denoted subtle variation in species assemblages. Turnover patterns often diverged from bioregion boundaries, though plant turnover adhered most closely. A prominent break zone contained either comparable or greater numbers of unique genera than adjacent overlaps, but these were concentrated in a small subsection relatively under-protected by conservation reserves. The environmental correlates of biotic turnover varied for different turnover zones in different subsections of the study area. Topography and temperature showed much stronger relationships with plant turnover in a topographically complex overlap, relative to a lowland overlap where weathering

  12. Geologic framework influences on the geomorphology of an anthropogenically modified barrier island: Assessment of dune/beach changes at Fire Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, E.E.; Hapke, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Antecedent geology plays a crucial role in determining the inner-shelf, nearshore, and onshore geomorphology observed in coastal systems. However, the influence of the geologic framework on a system is difficult to extract when evaluating responses to changes due to storms and anthropogenic modifications, and few studies have quantified the potential for these influences in dune/beach environments. This study evaluates topographic change to the dune/beach system at Fire Island, New York over a ten year period (1998-2008) at two sites representing eastern and western reaches of the island where morphology has been shown to vary. The sites are situated along swaths of coast eroding differentially and where the inner shelf geologic framework differs substantially. Fewer large storms occurred in the first half of the study period, compared with the later part of the study period which includes several severe and prolonged extratropical storms. Additionally, a major beach replenishment project was conducted at one of the study sites. Topographic data from LiDAR and RTK GPS surveys are used to construct high-resolution 3D surfaces, which are used to determine volumetric change and to extract 2D alongshore features and profiles for analysis. The study sites help to further characterize morphologic differences between eastern and western reaches of the island. The western site displays higher sand volumes, lower dunes, and a lower gradient profile slope when compared with the eastern site. In addition to these fundamental morphologic differences, the two sites also differ significantly in their response to coastal storms and in the fact that their replenishment histories are different. The replenished areas show reduced vulnerability to storms through minimal volume loss and shoreline accretion that should be considered when evaluating the response of replenished areas to episodic events. We propose that site-specific differences evident throughout the study period can be

  13. The Beaverhead impact structure, SW Montana and Idaho: Implications for the regional geology of the western U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiske, P.S.; Hargaves, R.B.

    1994-03-17

    The Beaverhead impact structure in SW Montana and Idaho is an allochthonous fragment of a large impact structure ({approximately} 100 km diameter) that was transported some distance eastward during the Cretaceous Sevier orogeny. It is the first tectonic fragment of a large impact structure identified in the geologic record. The present evidence for impact consists of shatter cones, pseudotachylites, and planar deformation features in quartz. The age of the impact is not well constrained but is estimated to be Neoproterozoic to Cambrian (1000-500 Ma). The Beaverhead impact event must have created other features that may be preserved, elsewhere in western Montana and Idaho. These include proximal and distal ejecta (which may be misinterpreted as diamictites and/or tuff horizons) and other fragments of the crater floor containing shatter cones and pseudotachylite. A large circular gravity, magnetic and topographic anomaly, which could be the root of the impact structure, has been identified near Challis, Idaho. An enigmatic lithic tuff, identified in drill cores from the Challis area and an intraformational quartzite breccia in the Leaton Gulch area may be impact-related deposits, but no definitive evidence of shock metamorphism has been observed in these materials. The discovery of more pieces of the Beaverhead puzzle, as well as the recognition of other large impacts in the geologic record, are likely once the regional geologic community grows to accept the incidence of such events and becomes more familiar with the features of shock metamorphism in the field. To that end, the community of geologists in this area should integrate the Beaverhead structure into their research and teaching curriculum.

  14. Bouguer gravity regional and residual separation application to geology and environment

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, K; Sharma, KK

    2012-01-01

    Resolving regional and residual components arising out of deeper and shallower sources in observed Bouguer gravity anomalies is an old problem. The technique covered here is an attempt to sort out the difficulties that performs better than existing methods.

  15. 2011 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: Louisiana Region 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Louisiana Region 1 LiDAR ARRA Task Order LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task- Vermillion, Iberia, St. Mary, Terrebonne, and Lafourche...

  16. 2011 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: Louisiana Region 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Louisiana Region 2 LiDAR ARRA Task Order LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task- Orleans, Plaquemines, St. Bernard, St. Tammany Parishes,...

  17. West Siberian basin hydrogeology - regional framework for contaminant migration from injected wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.

    1994-05-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in massive contamination of the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. Our long-term goal at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is to help determine future environmental and human impacts given the releases that have occurred to date and the current waste management practices. In FY 1993, our objectives were to (1) refine and implement the hydrogeologic conceptual models of the regional hydrogeology of western Siberia developed in FY 1992 and develop the detailed, spatially registered digital geologic and hydrologic databases to test them, (2) calibrate the computer implementation of the conceptual models developed in FY 1992, and (3) develop general geologic and hydrologic information and preliminary hydrogeologic conceptual models relevant to the more detailed models of contaminated site hydrogeology. Calibration studies of the regional hydrogeologic computer model suggest that most precipitation entering the ground-water system moves in the near-surface part of the system and discharges to surface waters relatively near its point of infiltration. This means that wastes discharged to the surface and near-surface may not be isolated as well as previously thought, since the wastes may be carried to the surface by gradually rising ground waters

  18. U.S. Geological Survey 2011 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cook Inlet region, south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Richard G.; Pierce, Brenda S.; Houseknecht, David W.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has completed an assessment of the volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in conventional and continuous accumulations in Cook Inlet. The assessment used a geology-based methodology and results from new scientific research by the USGS and the State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys and Division of Oil and Gas (DOG). In the Cook Inlet region, the USGS estimates mean undiscovered volumes of nearly 600 million barrels of oil, about 19 trillion cubic feet of gas, and about 46 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  19. Strengthening ASEAN+3 Regional Financial Arrangements: A New Framework Beyond CMIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joon Park

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the operational limitations of the Chiang Mai Initiative Multilateralization (CMIM as a regional financial safety net in East Asia and presents a new regional financial arrangement. To overcome the drawbacks of the Chiang Mai Initiative Multilateralization which has never been activated so far, this study proposes that ASEAN+3 establish a new lending facility, so-called a Reserve Fund Facility, and create a regional common reserves asset. The proposed Reserve Fund Facility framework guarantees lending automaticity of the liquidity facility, based on upfront funding instead of pledge funding. Establishing the Reserve Fund Facility could find a way of making up for weakness of the Chiang Mai Initiative Multilateralization and responding to the regional needs for effective regional financial arrangement. The full-fledged Reserve Fund Facility will ultimately contribute to the future development of East Asia's monetary and financial cooperation beyond the Chiang Mai Initiative Multilateralization.

  20. Does Geology Matter? Post-Hurricane Maria Landslide Distribution Across the Mountainous Regions of Puerto Rico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerovski-Darriau, C.; Bessette-Kirton, E.; Schulz, W. H.; Kean, J. W.; Godt, J.; Coe, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Heavy rainfall from Hurricane Maria—category 4 hurricane that made landfall Sept 20, 2017 on Puerto Rico and produced >500 mm of rain—caused widespread landsliding in mountainous regions throughout the territory. Landslides impacted roads, bridges, and reservoirs—cutting off communities, hindering recovery efforts, and affecting water quality and storage capacity. FEMA tasked the USGS with determining the level of imminent threat posed by landslides to life and property, and helping inform recovery efforts. The USGS landslide response team remotely quantified the spatial density of landslides, then deployed to Puerto Rico to assess damage in the field. These are our initial findings from work currently underway. We used post-hurricane satellite (WorldView 0.5 m resolution) and aerial (Sanborn and QuantumSpatial at 0.15 m resolution) imagery collected Sept 26-Oct 8, 2017 to visually estimate landslide concentration and determine the heaviest hit regions. We divided the territory into 2 x 2 km grids and classified each cell as no visible landslides, 25 LS/km2. Hurricane-induced defoliation made landslides readily visible in the imagery as areas of exposed soil or rock with morphology typical of landslides. This method proved to be a rapid way to visualize the spatial distribution of landslides to direct our field efforts. In the field, we found it was a conservative estimate. Landslides occurred in steep areas along the storm track, but high-density pockets occurred in the municipalities of Barranquitos, Jayuya, Lares, Naranjito, Utuado. Assuming Maria produced sufficient rainfall to trigger landslides in all mountainous regions, what controls the density and failure style? We found the highest slide densities disproportionately occurred in the Utuado granodiorite (60% of the unit was >25 LS/km2). Most of the landslides failed as shallow, translational slides. Bedrock slope failures were scarce. Some geologic units, with sufficient topographic relief, generated

  1. Geological setting of silica in Dehnow-Abid region (Eshghabad northeast using fluid inclusions studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Yazdanpanah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dehnow-Abid area is a part of the geological map of Eshghabad with scale 1:100000 (Aghanabati, 1994 that is located about 20 kilometers northeast of Eshghabad and in the coordinates of 57° 6´ 0" to 57° 10´ 0" eastern longitude and 34° 28´ 0" to 34 21´ 0" northern latitude. The Dehnow-Abid area is located in Tabas block and east of central Iran structural zone. The small continent east central Iran (Takin, 1972 includes blocks: Loot, Tabas and Yazd that constitute Iran's eastern part (Davoudzadeh and Schmidt, 1982. In geology, we can acquire more information about temperature forming minerals and rocks, pressure, density of the fluid and the chemical composition of the ore bearing fluids by fluid inclusions studies. Properties as well as their role in our understanding of the sources and evolution of ore bearing hydrothermal fluids and genesis of mineral deposits are very important (Rodder, 1979. In this study, we tried to use both field and laboratory studies, including petrography and thermometry studies of fluid inclusions, environment formation of quartz in the specified Dehno-Abid. Materials and methods At first, in order to identify the area, the 1:100000 map of Eshghabad was used. Then, for a complete cognition of mentioned area, after a few field visits and sampling of outcrops of quartz, we prepared 16 double polishing sections from some crystalline and milky quartz. Then, 10 thin sections of sandstones of that area were prepared for identification the host rock. Microscopic examinations on fluid inclusions were done by a LEICA DMLSP polarizing light microscope. Fluid inclusion micro-thermometry studies were done by using a Linkam THM S600 heating and freezing stage and with a TMS94 controller. Also, a cooling LNP which is mounted on an Olympus BX-41 microscope in Laboratory Fluid inclusion of Earth Sciences, Damghan University was used. Discussion and results Lithology of the Dehnow-Abid area included dark shale

  2. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Region: Coastal and Ocean Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsinger, Anne E.

    2009-01-01

    USGS Western Region Coastal and Ocean Science is interdisciplinary, collaborative, and integrates expertise from all USGS Disciplines, and ten of its major Science Centers, in Alaska, Hawai'i, California, Washington, and Oregon. The scientific talent, laboratories, and research vessels in the Western Region and across the Nation, strategically position the USGS to address broad geographic and oceanographic research topics. USGS information products inform resource managers and policy makers who must balance conservation mandates with increasing demands for resources that sustain the Nation's economy. This fact sheet describes but a few examples of the breadth of USGS science conducted in coastal, nearshore, and ocean environments along our Nation's West Coast and Pacific Islands.

  3. Development of a landscape integrity model framework to support regional conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, Leroy J; Hartmann, Heidi M

    2018-01-01

    Land managers increasingly rely upon landscape assessments to understand the status of natural resources and identify conservation priorities. Many of these landscape planning efforts rely on geospatial models that characterize the ecological integrity of the landscape. These general models utilize measures of habitat disturbance and human activity to map indices of ecological integrity. We built upon these modeling frameworks by developing a Landscape Integrity Index (LII) model using geospatial datasets of the human footprint, as well as incorporation of other indicators of ecological integrity such as biodiversity and vegetation departure. Our LII model serves as a general indicator of ecological integrity in a regional context of human activity, biodiversity, and change in habitat composition. We also discuss the application of the LII framework in two related coarse-filter landscape conservation approaches to expand the size and connectedness of protected areas as regional mitigation for anticipated land-use changes.

  4. General geology, alteration, and iron deposits in the Palaeoproterozoic Misi region, northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Niiranen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Paleoproterozoic Misi region forms the northeastern part of the Peräpohja Schist Belt in northern Finland. The area comprises mafic volcanic and sedimentary rocks, differentiated gabbros, and late-orogenic granitoids. Three geochemically different mafic volcanic units were recognised: LREE-depleted amygdaloidal lavas, slightly LREE-enriched lavas, and mafic tuffs that have a flat REE pattern. Sedimentary rocks include arkosites, mica gneisses, dolomitic marbles, quartzites, tuffites, mica schists, calc-silicate rocks and graphite-bearing schists. Two types of gabbros wereidentified: one with a LREE-enriched pattern and another with flat REE pattern. The age of the former is according to Perttunen and Vaasjoki (2001 2117±4 Ma, whereas there is no age determination for the latter. The granitoid intrusions belong to the ca. 1800 Malate-orogenic group of the Central Lapland Granitoid Complex. The geochemistry and the stable isotope data on mafic lavas and dolomitic marbles show similarities with the mafic volcanic rocks and marbles of the lower part of the Kivalo group in the western part of Peräpohja Schist Belt. Peak metamorphic conditions in the region vary from upper-greenschist to upper-amphibolite facies. Three major stages of deformation were distinguished: N-S compressional D1 with ductile deformation, NE-SW compressional D2 with ductile to brittle-ductile deformation, and E-W compressional D3 with brittle deformation. Several magnetite occurrences are known in the region and four of those have been mined for iron. The ores are mainly composed of magnetite with minor haematite, pyrite, chalcopyrite and bornite. Besides iron, the ores contain small amounts of P, S and V aswell as trace amounts of Cu, Co, Te and Au. The magnetite bodies are hosted by skarnoids within the ca. 2220–2120 Ma dolomitic marble-quartzite sequence, and highly differentiated, intensely albitised, LREE-enriched gabbro. Multistage and -type alteration is

  5. Geology of the Venus equatorial region from Pioneer Venus radar imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senske, D.A.; Head, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The surface characteristics and morphology of the equatorial region of Venus were first described by Masursky et al. who showed this part of the planet to be characterized by two topographic provinces, rolling plains and highlands, and more recently by Schaber who described and interpreted tectonic zones in the highlands. Using Pioneer Venus (PV) radar image data (15 deg S to 45 deg N), Senske and Head examined the distribution, characteristics, and deposits of individual volcanic features in the equatorial region, and in addition classified major equatorial physiographic and tectonic units on the basis of morphology, topographic signature, and radar properties derived from the PV data. Included in this classification are: plains (undivided), inter-highland tectonic zones, tectonically segmented linear highlands, upland rises, tectonic junctions, dark halo plains, and upland plateaus. In addition to the physiographic units, features interpreted as coronae and volcanic mountains have also been mapped. The latter four of the physiographic units along with features interpreted to be coronae

  6. Contribution to the geology of the Niari basin: sedimentology and metallogeny of the mining region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigotte, G.

    1956-01-01

    This thesis is divided in two parts: a detailed petrographical and stratigraphical study of the upper layers of calcareous schist in Congo which lead to some sedimentological considerations, and a metallogenic study of the ores of Niari basin which lead to a theoretical description of the metallogeny in Congo. In the first part, after a brief description of the methods used, a petrographical survey of the rocks of the upper layers of calcareous schist of the Boko-Congo area is given as well as sedimentological conclusions and stratigraphical data. The studies and conclusions related to this limited area are extended to a region scale. A structural study and precised descriptions of this region lead to an attempt of tectonic explanation. In the second part, an inventory and description of known mineralisation points in the Niari basin are given and in particular the detailed descriptions of four deposits: La Grande-Mine, M'Passa, Diangala and Djenguile. The interpretations and conclusions are based on the study of the general characters of the mineralisation in Niari basin and its comparison with the mineralisation in Katanga (now Shaba region) and North Rhodesia (now Zambia). (M.P.)

  7. A climate robust integrated modelling framework for regional impact assessment of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Gijs; Bakker, Alexander; van Ek, Remco; Groot, Annemarie; Kroes, Joop; Kuiper, Marijn; Schipper, Peter; van Walsum, Paul; Wamelink, Wieger; Mol, Janet

    2013-04-01

    Decision making towards climate proofing the water management of regional catchments can benefit greatly from the availability of a climate robust integrated modelling framework, capable of a consistent assessment of climate change impacts on the various interests present in the catchments. In the Netherlands, much effort has been devoted to developing state-of-the-art regional dynamic groundwater models with a very high spatial resolution (25x25 m2). Still, these models are not completely satisfactory to decision makers because the modelling concepts do not take into account feedbacks between meteorology, vegetation/crop growth, and hydrology. This introduces uncertainties in forecasting the effects of climate change on groundwater, surface water, agricultural yields, and development of groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystems. These uncertainties add to the uncertainties about the predictions on climate change itself. In order to create an integrated, climate robust modelling framework, we coupled existing model codes on hydrology, agriculture and nature that are currently in use at the different research institutes in the Netherlands. The modelling framework consists of the model codes MODFLOW (groundwater flow), MetaSWAP (vadose zone), WOFOST (crop growth), SMART2-SUMO2 (soil-vegetation) and NTM3 (nature valuation). MODFLOW, MetaSWAP and WOFOST are coupled online (i.e. exchange information on time step basis). Thus, changes in meteorology and CO2-concentrations affect crop growth and feedbacks between crop growth, vadose zone water movement and groundwater recharge are accounted for. The model chain WOFOST-MetaSWAP-MODFLOW generates hydrological input for the ecological prediction model combination SMART2-SUMO2-NTM3. The modelling framework was used to support the regional water management decision making process in the 267 km2 Baakse Beek-Veengoot catchment in the east of the Netherlands. Computations were performed for regionalized 30-year climate change

  8. Deep Time Framework: A Preliminary Study of U.K. Primary Teachers' Conceptions of Geological Time and Perceptions of Geoscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trend, Roger David

    2001-01-01

    Studies (n=51) inservice school teachers with regard to their orientations toward geoscience phenomena in general and deep time in particular. Aims to identify the nature of idiosyncratic conceptions of deep time and propose a curricular Deep Time Framework for teacher education. (Contains 29 references.) (Author/YDS)

  9. Seismotectonics of the Armutlu peninsula (Marmara Sea, NW Turkey) from geological field observation and regional moment tensor inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinscher, J.; Krüger, F.; Woith, H.; Lühr, B. G.; Hintersberger, E.; Irmak, T. S.; Baris, S.

    2013-11-01

    The Armutlu peninsula, located in the eastern Marmara Sea, coincides with the western end of the rupture of the 17 August 1999, İzmit MW 7.6 earthquake which is the penultimate event of an apparently westward migrating series of strong and disastrous earthquakes along the NAFZ during the past century. We present new seismotectonic data of this key region in order to evaluate previous seismotectonic models and their implications for seismic hazard assessment in the eastern Marmara Sea. Long term kinematics were investigated by performing paleo strain reconstruction from geological field investigations by morphotectonic and kinematic analysis of exposed brittle faults. Short term kinematics were investigated by inverting for the moment tensor of 13 small to moderate recent earthquakes using surface wave amplitude spectra. Our results confirm previous models interpreting the eastern Marmara Sea Region as an active transtensional pull-apart environment associated with significant NNE-SSW extension and vertical displacement. At the northern peninsula, long term deformation pattern did not change significantly since Pliocene times contradicting regional tectonic models which postulate a newly formed single dextral strike slip fault in the Marmara Sea Region. This area is interpreted as a horsetail splay fault structure associated with a major normal fault segment that we call the Waterfall Fault. Apart from the Waterfall Fault, the stress strain relation appears complex associated with a complicated internal fault geometry, strain partitioning, and reactivation of pre-existing plane structures. At the southern peninsula, recent deformation indicates active pull-apart tectonics constituted by NE-SW trending dextral strike slip faults. Earthquakes generated by stress release along large rupture zones seem to be less probable at the northern, but more probable at the southern peninsula. Additionally, regional seismicity appears predominantly driven by plate boundary

  10. Geologic history of the polar regions of Mars based on Mars Global survey data. I. Noachian and Hesperian Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.L.; Kolb, E.J.

    2001-01-01

    During the Noachian Period, the south polar region of Mars underwent intense cratering, construction of three groups of volcanoes, widespread contractional deformation, resurfacing of low areas, and local dissection of valley networks; no evidence for polar deposits, ice sheets, or glaciation is recognized. South polar Hesperian geology is broadly characterized by waning impacts, volcanism, and tectonism. Emplacement of the polar Dorsa Argentea Formation (DAF) occurred during the Hesperian Period. Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter topographic data and Mars Orbiter Camera images elucidate stratigraphic, morphologic, and topographic relations, permitting the dividing of the DAF into eight members, which surround and underlie about half of the Amazonian south polar layered deposits. The lobate fronts and lack of typical volcanic-flow morphology of the six plains units indicate that they may be made up of debris flows. We think that these flows, tens of meters to 200 m thick, may have originated by the discharge of huge volumes of slurry fluidized by ground water or liquid CO2, perhaps triggered by local impacts, igneous activity, or basal melting beneath polar deposits. The cavi and rugged members include irregular depressions that penetrate the subsurface; some of the pits have raised rims. The depressions may have formed by collapse due to expulsion of subsurface material in which local explosive activity built up the raised rims. Further, smaller eruptions of volatile-rich material may have resulted in narrow, sinuous channel deposits within aggrading fine-grained unconsolidated material perhaps produced by gaseous discharge of subsurface volatiles; preferential erosion of the latter material could have produced the Dorsa Argentea-type ginuous ridges associated mainly with the DAF. Alternatively, the ridges may be eskers, but the lack of associated glacial and fluvial morphologies casts doubt on this interpretation. The knobby, degraded materials forming Scandia Colles

  11. Hydrogeologic framework and geologic structure of the Floridan aquifer system and intermediate confining unit in the Lake Okeechobee area, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Ronald S.

    2014-01-01

    The successful implementation of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) as a water-management tool requires detailed information on the hydrologic and hydraulic properties of the potential water storage zones. This report presents stratigraphic and hydrogeologic sections of the upper part of the Floridan aquifer system and the overlying confining unit or aquifer system in the Lake Okeechobee area, and contour maps of the upper contacts of the Ocala Limestone and the Arcadia Formation, which are represented in the sections. The sections and maps illustrate hydrogeologic factors such as confinement of potential storage zones, the distribution of permeability within the zones, and geologic features that may control the efficiency of injection, storage, and recovery of water, and thus may influence decisions on ASR activities in areas of interest to the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan.

  12. Discovery of jarosite within the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars: Implications for the geologic history of the region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrand, W. H.; Glotch, T.D.; Rice, J. W.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Swayze, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of visible to near infrared reflectance data from the MRO CRISM hyperspectral imager has revealed the presence of an ovoid-shaped landform, approximately 3 by 5 km in size, within the layered terrains surrounding the Mawrth Vallis outflow channel. This feature has spectral absorption features consistent with the presence of the ferric sulfate mineral jarosite, specifically a K-bearing jarosite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6). Terrestrial jarosite is formed through the oxidation of iron sulfides in acidic environments or from basaltic precursor minerals with the addition of sulfur. Previously identified phyllosilicates in the Mawrth Vallis layered terrains include a basal sequence of layers containing Fe-Mg smectites and an upper set of layers of hydrated silica and aluminous phyllosilicates. In terms of its fine scale morphology revealed by MRO HiRISE imagery, the jarosite-bearing unit has fracture patterns very similar to that observed in Fe-Mg smectite-bearing layers, but unlike that observed in the Al-bearing phyllosilicate unit. The ovoid-shaped landform is situated in an east-west bowl-shaped depression superposed on a north sloping surface. Spectra of the ovoid-shaped jarosite-bearing landform also display an anomalously high 600 nm shoulder, which may be consistent with the presence of goethite and a 1.92 ??m absorption which could indicate the presence of ferrihydrite. Goethite, jarosite, and ferrihydrite can be co-precipitated and/or form through transformation of schwertmannite, both processes generally occurring under low pH conditions (pH 2-4). To date, this location appears to be unique in the Mawrth Vallis region and could represent precipitation of jarosite in acidic, sulfur-rich ponded water during the waning stages of drying. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Discovery of jarosite within the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars: Implications for the geologic history of the region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrand, William H.; Glotch, Timothy D.; Rice, James W.; Hurowitz, Joel A.; Swayze, Gregg A.

    2009-12-01

    Analysis of visible to near infrared reflectance data from the MRO CRISM hyperspectral imager has revealed the presence of an ovoid-shaped landform, approximately 3 by 5 km in size, within the layered terrains surrounding the Mawrth Vallis outflow channel. This feature has spectral absorption features consistent with the presence of the ferric sulfate mineral jarosite, specifically a K-bearing jarosite (KFe 3(SO 4) 2(OH) 6). Terrestrial jarosite is formed through the oxidation of iron sulfides in acidic environments or from basaltic precursor minerals with the addition of sulfur. Previously identified phyllosilicates in the Mawrth Vallis layered terrains include a basal sequence of layers containing Fe-Mg smectites and an upper set of layers of hydrated silica and aluminous phyllosilicates. In terms of its fine scale morphology revealed by MRO HiRISE imagery, the jarosite-bearing unit has fracture patterns very similar to that observed in Fe-Mg smectite-bearing layers, but unlike that observed in the Al-bearing phyllosilicate unit. The ovoid-shaped landform is situated in an east-west bowl-shaped depression superposed on a north sloping surface. Spectra of the ovoid-shaped jarosite-bearing landform also display an anomalously high 600 nm shoulder, which may be consistent with the presence of goethite and a 1.92 μm absorption which could indicate the presence of ferrihydrite. Goethite, jarosite, and ferrihydrite can be co-precipitated and/or form through transformation of schwertmannite, both processes generally occurring under low pH conditions (pH 2-4). To date, this location appears to be unique in the Mawrth Vallis region and could represent precipitation of jarosite in acidic, sulfur-rich ponded water during the waning stages of drying.

  14. Atom and pre-history: the geological framework of fossil man in the light of dating and isotopic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskovsky, J.C.; Gibert, E.

    1994-01-01

    The discovery of natural radioactivity and the applications of nuclear physics to the study of sediments and sediment content, allow for the delimitation of the chrono-stratigraphic and paleoclimatic framework of fossil Man. This chronology is based on the development of continental glacial phenomena and is specified through comparison with various methods: paleomagnetic inversion, the variation of oxygen isotopic composition of marine biogenic carbonates and the dating methods. Pleistocene and Holocene era are reviewed. (authors). 9 figs., 90 refs

  15. U.S. Geological Survey core science systems strategy: characterizing, synthesizing, and understanding the critical zone through a modular science framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristol, R. Sky; Euliss, Ned H.; Booth, Nathaniel L.; Burkardt, Nina; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Gesch, Dean B.; McCallum, Brian E.; Miller, David M.; Morman, Suzette A.; Poore, Barbara S.; Signell, Richard P.; Viger, Roland J.

    2013-01-01

    Core Science Systems is a new mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that resulted from the 2007 Science Strategy, "Facing Tomorrow's Challenges: U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007-2017." This report describes the Core Science Systems vision and outlines a strategy to facilitate integrated characterization and understanding of the complex Earth system. The vision and suggested actions are bold and far-reaching, describing a conceptual model and framework to enhance the ability of the USGS to bring its core strengths to bear on pressing societal problems through data integration and scientific synthesis across the breadth of science. The context of this report is inspired by a direction set forth in the 2007 Science Strategy. Specifically, ecosystem-based approaches provide the underpinnings for essentially all science themes that define the USGS. Every point on Earth falls within a specific ecosystem where data, other information assets, and the expertise of USGS and its many partners can be employed to quantitatively understand how that ecosystem functions and how it responds to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Every benefit society obtains from the planet-food, water, raw materials to build infrastructure, homes and automobiles, fuel to heat homes and cities, and many others, are derived from or affect ecosystems. The vision for Core Science Systems builds on core strengths of the USGS in characterizing and understanding complex Earth and biological systems through research, modeling, mapping, and the production of high quality data on the Nation's natural resource infrastructure. Together, these research activities provide a foundation for ecosystem-based approaches through geologic mapping, topographic mapping, and biodiversity mapping. The vision describes a framework founded on these core mapping strengths that makes it easier for USGS scientists to discover critical information, share and publish results, and identify potential

  16. A Framework for Assessing the Impacts of Mining Development on Regional Water Resources in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil McIntyre

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing its large-scale mining industry is an economic priority for Colombia. However, national capacity to assess and manage the water resource impacts of mining is currently limited. This includes lack of baseline data, lack of suitable hydrological models and lack of frameworks for evaluating risks. Furthermore, public opposition to large scale mining is high and is a barrier to many proposed new mining projects mainly because of concerns about impacts on water resources. There are also concerns about impacts on the uplands that are important water sources, particularly the páramo ecosystem. This paper argues the case for a new framework for Strategic Assessment of Regional Water Impacts of Mining, aiming to support land use planning decisions by government for selected mining and prospective mining regions. The proposed framework is modelled on the Australian Government’s Bioregional Assessments program, converted into seven stages plus supporting activities that meet the Colombian development context. The seven stages are: (1 Contextual information; (2 Scenario definition; (3 Risk scoping; (4 Model development; (5 Risk analysis; (6 Database development; and (7 Dissemination by government to stakeholders including the general public. It is emphasised that the process and results should be transparent, the data and models publicly accessible, and dissemination aimed at all levels of expertise.

  17. Regional geologic characteristics of uranium ores and assessment of metallogenetic potentials in the central part of Eastern Liaoning Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenguang; Tao Quan; Zhang Shouben

    1997-10-01

    Regional geologic characteristics, metallogenetic conditions and prospects of uranium ores in the central part of the Eastern Liaoning Province of North China is studied systematically. It demonstrates that the Archaean basement of the study area consists of a special type of granite-greenstone belts in China. It is called the granite-greenstone belts of the Liaoning-model, in which the granitic rocks are mainly migmatitic granite and granite-gneiss of migmatitic genesis. The greenstone belts in this area have undergone strong metamorphism. Large amounts of Precambrian geochronological studies have been made with U-Pb isotopic method on zircon; and a new Precambrian geologic time scale has been established. It is also proved that multistage activation of the Early Precambrian basement and the proto-platform took place in Early Proterozoic. Emphases are laid on uranium and thorium abundances and their variations as well as primary uranium contents of rocks in the granite-greenstone terrain and those of the Lower Proterozoic. At the same time, uraninite as accessory mineral in granitic rocks is found to exist more or less. Early Precambrian strata and many kinds of mineral deposits occurring in the strata are in origin chiefly of syngenetic hot brine sedimentation and of submarine extrusive gas-hydrothermal sedimentation superimposed by metamorphism. Metallogenetic features and models of various types of uranium deposits are studied emphatically and compared with similar large deposits abroad. In addition, overall synthetical appraisals are made for this area; and on this basis, prospecting directions and favourable sections of uranium metallization are suggested. (4 refs., 4 tabs.)

  18. The Regional Entrepreneurial Transformation Process—A Mid-Level Framework for Describing and Fostering Socioeconomic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Rüdiger Lange

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a conceptual framework for the socioeconomic transition of regions. It was developed in and for the region of Lusatia, which faces the challenge of becoming more entrepreneurial in order to maintain and regain economic strength. Based on theories of entrepreneurial ecosystems and structuration as well as on extensive practical experience, a mid-level framework for describing and fostering regional change is derived.

  19. Three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model for use with a steady-state numerical ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional flow system, Nevada and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belcher, W.R.; Faunt, C.C.; D'Agnese, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Department of Energy and other Federal, State, and local agencies, is evaluating the hydrogeologic characteristics of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. The ground-water flow system covers and area of about 100,000 square kilometers from latitude 35 degrees to 38 degrees 15 minutes North to longitude 115 degrees to 118 degrees West, with the flow system proper comprising about 45,000 square kilometers. The Death Valley regional ground-water flow system is one of the larger flow systems within the Southwestern United States and includes in its boundaries the Nevada Test Site, Yucca Mountain, and much of Death Valley. Part of this study includes the construction of a three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model to serve as the foundation for the development of a steady-state regional ground-water flow model. The digital framework model provides a computer-based description of the geometry and composition of the hydro geologic units that control regional flow. The framework model of the region was constructed by merging two previous framework models constructed for the Yucca Mountain Project and the Environmental Restoration Program Underground Test Area studies at the Nevada Test Site. The hydrologic characteristics of the region result from a currently arid climate and complex geology. Interbasinal regional ground-water flow occurs through a thick carbonate-rock sequence of Paleozoic age, a locally thick volcanic-rock sequence of Tertiary age, and basin-fill alluvium of Tertiary and Quaternary age. Throughout the system, deep and shallow ground-water flow may be controlled by extensive and pervasive regional and local faults and fractures. The framework model was constructed using data from several sources to define the geometry of the regional hydrogeologic units. These data sources include (1) a 1:250,000-scale hydrogeologic-map compilation of the region; (2) regional-scale geologic cross

  20. A comparison of regional flood frequency analysis approaches in a simulation framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganora, D.; Laio, F.

    2016-07-01

    Regional frequency analysis (RFA) is a well-established methodology to provide an estimate of the flood frequency curve at ungauged (or scarcely gauged) sites. Different RFA approaches exist, depending on the way the information is transferred to the site of interest, but it is not clear in the literature if a specific method systematically outperforms the others. The aim of this study is to provide a framework wherein carrying out the intercomparison by building up a virtual environment based on synthetically generated data. The considered regional approaches include: (i) a unique regional curve for the whole region; (ii) a multiple-region model where homogeneous subregions are determined through cluster analysis; (iii) a Region-of-Influence model which defines a homogeneous subregion for each site; (iv) a spatially smooth estimation procedure where the parameters of the regional model vary continuously along the space. Virtual environments are generated considering different patterns of heterogeneity, including step change and smooth variations. If the region is heterogeneous, with the parent distribution changing continuously within the region, the spatially smooth regional approach outperforms the others, with overall errors 10-50% lower than the other methods. In the case of a step-change, the spatially smooth and clustering procedures perform similarly if the heterogeneity is moderate, while clustering procedures work better when the step-change is severe. To extend our findings, an extensive sensitivity analysis has been performed to investigate the effect of sample length, number of virtual stations, return period of the predicted quantile, variability of the scale parameter of the parent distribution, number of predictor variables and different parent distribution. Overall, the spatially smooth approach appears as the most robust approach as its performances are more stable across different patterns of heterogeneity, especially when short records are

  1. Geochemistry of the hydrothermal systems in the Jujuy Province, Argentina, and relationship with the regional geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta Arnold, Yesica; Cabassi, Jacopo; Tassi, Franco; Caffe, Pablo; Vaselli, Orlando

    2016-04-01

    The western sector of the Jujuy province (22°-24° S), Argentina, basically consisting of the Puna region (from 3,500 to 4,700 m a.s.l.) that borders the Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ), is characterized by sub-meridional ridges that alternate with elongated basins and by extremely voluminous intermediate and silicic ignimbrite deposits, the latter being related to late miocenic and pliocenic calderas and central volcanic edifices. In this region, several hydrothermal discharges with outlet temperatures up to 62°C occur. Among them, the Coranzulí and Pairique thermal emissions show a spatial relationship with miocenic volcanic complexes, whereas other thermal manifestations (Queñual, Orosmayo, Pirquitas, Arizutar, Cono Panizo and Rachaite) are clearly controlled by the local structural setting. Most of these thermal waters have relatively high total dissolved solids (TDS up to 46,500 mg/L), an alkaline-chloride composition and significant concentrations of B, NH4 and SiO2, i.e. they show the typical geochemical features of geothermal brine. Exceptions are the Coranzulí, Orosmayo and Rachaite springs, mainly fed by a shallow Na(Ca)-bicarbonate aquifer. The eastern sector of the province consists of the Eastern Cordillera, composed of a proterozoic basement constituted by the sedimentary sequences of the Puncoviscana Fm, and the Subandean Range, which shows wide east-vergence anticlines whose detachment levels are Silurian-Devonian shales. Both regions are separated by a major thrust that rises the Proterozoic and Eopaleozoic sequences over the Subandean System. The thermal waters in the Eastern Cordillera, namely Termas de Reyes, are characterized by alkaline-sulfate composition, temperature of ≈50°C and neutral pH. In contrast, in the Subandean Ranges, which is separated from the Eastern Cordillera by a thrust rising Proterozoic and Eopaleozoic sequences over the Subandean System, the Aguas Calientes springs are characterized by low temperature (from 21°C to

  2. The ecological limits of hydrologic alteration (ELOHA): A new framework for developing regional environmental flow standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poff, N.L.; Richter, B.D.; Arthington, A.H.; Bunn, S.E.; Naiman, R.J.; Kendy, E.; Acreman, M.; Apse, C.; Bledsoe, B.P.; Freeman, Mary C.; Henriksen, J.; Jacobson, R.B.; Kennen, J.G.; Merritt, D.M.; O'Keeffe, J. H.; Olden, J.D.; Rogers, K.; Tharme, R.E.; Warner, A.

    2010-01-01

    The flow regime is a primary determinant of the structure and function of aquatic and riparian ecosystems for streams and rivers. Hydrologic alteration has impaired riverine ecosystems on a global scale, and the pace and intensity of human development greatly exceeds the ability of scientists to assess the effects on a river-by-river basis. Current scientific understanding of hydrologic controls on riverine ecosystems and experience gained from individual river studies support development of environmental flow standards at the regional scale. 2. This paper presents a consensus view from a group of international scientists on a new framework for assessing environmental flow needs for many streams and rivers simultaneously to foster development and implementation of environmental flow standards at the regional scale. This framework, the ecological limits of hydrologic alteration (ELOHA), is a synthesis of a number of existing hydrologic techniques and environmental flow methods that are currently being used to various degrees and that can support comprehensive regional flow management. The flexible approach allows scientists, water-resource managers and stakeholders to analyse and synthesise available scientific information into ecologically based and socially acceptable goals and standards for management of environmental flows. 3. The ELOHA framework includes the synthesis of existing hydrologic and ecological databases from many rivers within a user-defined region to develop scientifically defensible and empirically testable relationships between flow alteration and ecological responses. These relationships serve as the basis for the societally driven process of developing regional flow standards. This is to be achieved by first using hydrologic modelling to build a 'hydrologic foundation' of baseline and current hydrographs for stream and river segments throughout the region. Second, using a set of ecologically relevant flow variables, river segments within the

  3. Geology and associated mineral occurrences of the Araxa Group, Mossamedes Region, Goias, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, L.S.A.

    1984-01-01

    In the region of Mossamedes, State of Goias, Brazil, the Precambrian metamorphic rocks of the Araxa group were mapped at the scale of 1:25,000, with emphasis on stratigraphic, structural, petrographic and economic aspects. These metamorphites represent a continous stratigraphic sequence which, from bottom to top can be subdivided into five informal lithostratigraphic units: 1) psamitic unit (quartzite, metaconglomerate); 2) psamitic-pelitic unit (quartzite, quartz schist, muscovite schist); 3) lower pelitic - volcanic unit (chlorite - biotite schist, fine grained blastoporphyritic gneiss, amphibolite and calc-schist); 4) upper pelitic - volcanic unit (garnet muscovite schist, biotite schist and gneiss, amphibolite, magnetite muscovite schist); 5) gneissic unit (epidote biotite gneiss, amphibolite). Three types of meta-intrusive rocks were found, besides basic dykes related to Mesozoic magmatism. Four phases of deformation affected the volcano-sedimentary sequence;D 1 , D 2 , D 3 and D 4 , each of them developing distinct deformational features. Barrowian type metamorphism increases progressively from North to South from the biotite zone to the garnet zone (greenschist facies), reaching the staurolite-kyanite zone (amphibolite facies). The magmatism throughout the Group's evolution consists of mafic to felsic volcanic activity, mustly intermediary, as well as three intrusive events. Gold, copper and zinc minerals of economic interest occur within the studied area. The gold mineralizations are related to the pelitic-volcanic sequences. Copper occurs in several rocks from the pelitic-volcanic and gneissic sequences. (Author) [pt

  4. The regional geological and structural setting of the uraniferous granitic provinces of Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, R.E.; Corner, B.; Brynard, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Uranium-bearing granites, comprising both potentially economic deposits and source rocks for uranium deposits is duricrustal and sedimentary sequences, are confined chiefly to the mobile belts of Southern Africa and to the Cape granites emplaced during late Precambrian times. The direct uranium potential of the mobile belts, i.e. the Damara, Namaqua-Natal and Limpopo belts, decreases with an increase in the age of associated ensialic diastrophism. This review paper is thus mainly confined to the Damara Belt, although a brief discussion of the potential of the Namaqua Belt is presented. Aspects of the Damara Belt that are discussed in detail, with particular reference to the occurrence of uraniferous granite, include regional tectonic setting, stratigraphy, structure, metamorphism and the patterns and origin of the uranium mineralization. Initial concentrations of uranium in basement and Nosib rocks have led, through ultrametamorphism and fractionation, to uraniferous granites of both economic and sub-economic grade. These granites, in turn, have acted as source of secondary mineralization in overlying superficial calcareous and gypsiferous deposits. The Damara Belt thus provides a good example of multicyclic processes of ore formation. With regard to the uraniferous granites of Namaqualand it is concluded that the porphyroblastic gneisses and late-intrusive Concordia granites, although not of direct economic interest, represent major sources of uranium for secondary superficial deposits. Smaller bodies of late-phase differentiates associated with the Concordia granitic gneiss may themselves, however, represent potentially economically viable deposits

  5. A framework for predicting global silicate weathering and CO2 drawdown rates over geologic time-scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilley, George E; Porder, Stephen

    2008-11-04

    Global silicate weathering drives long-time-scale fluctuations in atmospheric CO(2). While tectonics, climate, and rock-type influence silicate weathering, it is unclear how these factors combine to drive global rates. Here, we explore whether local erosion rates, GCM-derived dust fluxes, temperature, and water balance can capture global variation in silicate weathering. Our spatially explicit approach predicts 1.9-4.6 x 10(13) mols of Si weathered globally per year, within a factor of 4-10 of estimates of global silicate fluxes derived from riverine measurements. Similarly, our watershed-based estimates are within a factor of 4-18 (mean of 5.3) of the silica fluxes measured in the world's ten largest rivers. Eighty percent of total global silicate weathering product traveling as dissolved load occurs within a narrow range (0.01-0.5 mm/year) of erosion rates. Assuming each mol of Mg or Ca reacts with 1 mol of CO(2), 1.5-3.3 x 10(8) tons/year of CO(2) is consumed by silicate weathering, consistent with previously published estimates. Approximately 50% of this drawdown occurs in the world's active mountain belts, emphasizing the importance of tectonic regulation of global climate over geologic timescales.

  6. Radon soil gas measurements in a geological versatile region as basis to improve the prediction of areas with a high radon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabrt, Franz; Rechberger, Fabian; Schuff, Michael; Seidel, Claudia; Baumgartner, Andreas; Friedmann, Harry; Maringer, Franz Josef

    2014-01-01

    With the aim to predict the radon potential by geological data, radon soil gas measurements were made in a selected region in Styria, Austria. This region is characterised by mean indoor radon potentials of 130-280 Bq m -3 and a high geological diversity. The distribution of the individual measuring sites was selected on the basis of geological aspects and the distribution of area settlements. In this work, the radon soil gas activity concentration and the soil permeability were measured at 100 sites, each with three single measurements. Furthermore, the local dose rate was determined and soil samples were taken at each site to determine the activity concentration of natural radionuclides. During two investigation periods, long-term soil gas radon measurements were made to study the time dependency of the radon activity concentration. All the results will be compared and investigated for correlation among each other to improve the prediction of areas with high radon potential. (authors)

  7. Field Investigation of Surface Deformation Induced by the 2016 Meinong Earthquake and its Implications to Regional Geological Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, De-Cheng; Chuang, Ray Y.; Lin, Ching-Weei

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate mapping results of a newly-identified active folding-associated fault in southwestern Taiwan, which was triggered by the distant ML 6.6 Meinong earthquake in 2016. The 14.6-km-deep main shock occurred in Meinong at 3:57 (GMT +08) on February 6th while a series of 21-27 km deep aftershocks were induced after 160 seconds in Guanmiao, where is 25km NW away from the epicenter of the main shock. The focal mechanism of the Meinong main shock shows a westward oblique thrust with the fault plane of 275°/42°/17° (strike/dip/rake) but Guanmiao aftershocks show the N-S striking eastward normal movement. The study area locates at an on-going fold-and-thrust belt close to the deformation front of Taiwan orogeny with high rates of convergence, uplift and erosion. The geology of SW Taiwan is characterized by the 3-km-thick mudstones with high fluid pressure underlying the loose sedimentary rocks forming mud diapirs or mud-core anticlines. The significance of the Meinong earthquake is (1) aftershocks are far away from the main shock, and (2) the surface cracks partially distributed systematically along lineaments observed from InSAR, which has never been recognized as geological structures before. This study aims to establish possible kinematic processes of shallow deformation induced by the Meinong earthquake. We mapped surface cracks around the lineaments by using hand-held GPS and measured surface cracks by the compass and vernier. Among 249 kinematic data measured from 244 observed surface cracks and ruptures, the type of deformation was mostly identified as dilation or lateral translation and only 4 data were compressional deformation. The overall surface displacement moved to the northwest and west, consistent with the regional coseismic movement. The opening of the surface cracks range from 0.5 to 105 mm and 85% of them are less than 10 mm. Preseismic deformed features such as failure of the retaining wall were also observed along the western and eastern

  8. A regional-scale ecological risk framework for environmental flow evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Gordon C.; Dickens, Chris; Hines, Eleanor; Wepener, Victor; Stassen, Retha; Quayle, Leo; Fouchy, Kelly; MacKenzie, James; Graham, P. Mark; Landis, Wayne G.

    2018-02-01

    Environmental flow (E-flow) frameworks advocate holistic, regional-scale, probabilistic E-flow assessments that consider flow and non-flow drivers of change in a socio-ecological context as best practice. Regional-scale ecological risk assessments of multiple stressors to social and ecological endpoints, which address ecosystem dynamism, have been undertaken internationally at different spatial scales using the relative-risk model since the mid-1990s. With the recent incorporation of Bayesian belief networks into the relative-risk model, a robust regional-scale ecological risk assessment approach is available that can contribute to achieving the best practice recommendations of E-flow frameworks. PROBFLO is a holistic E-flow assessment method that incorporates the relative-risk model and Bayesian belief networks (BN-RRM) into a transparent probabilistic modelling tool that addresses uncertainty explicitly. PROBFLO has been developed to evaluate the socio-ecological consequences of historical, current and future water resource use scenarios and generate E-flow requirements on regional spatial scales. The approach has been implemented in two regional-scale case studies in Africa where its flexibility and functionality has been demonstrated. In both case studies the evidence-based outcomes facilitated informed environmental management decision making, with trade-off considerations in the context of social and ecological aspirations. This paper presents the PROBFLO approach as applied to the Senqu River catchment in Lesotho and further developments and application in the Mara River catchment in Kenya and Tanzania. The 10 BN-RRM procedural steps incorporated in PROBFLO are demonstrated with examples from both case studies. PROBFLO can contribute to the adaptive management of water resources and contribute to the allocation of resources for sustainable use of resources and address protection requirements.

  9. Geology of the region of Guadalajara, Mexico, and its relationships with processes of subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Delgado-Argote, L. A.; Nuñez-Cornu, F. J.; Sanchez, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    site present deformation, the main shear being parallel to the Rio Verde. At the site of the San Gaspar river the faults have a strike of 285° and a dip of 83v and affect ignimbrites that overlie dacitic lavas. In the area of the Arcediano bridge the normal faulting has a strike 188v and dip of 75° in andesites, and in the pumice-rich ignimbrites a shear direction with strike of 92° and dip of 84° that is parallel to the Rio Verde. During the past two years we identified approximately 1100 cases of sinking with varying magnitude in the urban area of Guadalajara. Some of these can be grouped to form alignments that are oriented with the faults identified in the CRGS region. The process of subsidence can be controlled by structures that affect the pumice sequence laying under the city of Guadalajara, facilitating the movement of groundwater through areas of weakness, removing tuffs and pumice and creating voids that later collapse, affecting buildings and infrastructure in the city.

  10. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces (e.g., Varnes, 1974). Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962 (Hackman, 1962). Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete

  11. Evaluation of geological conditions for coalbed methane occurrence based on 3D seismic information: a case study in Fowa region, Xinjing coal mine, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juanjuan; Li, Fanjia; Hu, Mingshun; Zhang, Wei; Pan, Dongming

    2017-04-01

    The research on geological conditions of coalbed methane (CBM) occurrence is of great significance for predicting the high abundance CBM rich region and gas outburst risk area pre-warning. The No. 3 coal seam, in Yangquan coalfield of Qinshui basin, is the research target studied by 3D seismic exploration technique. The geological factors which affect CBM occurrence are interpreted based on the 3D seismic information. First, the geological structure (faults, folds, and collapse columns) is found out by the 3D seismic structural interpretation and the information of buried depth and thickness of the coal seam is calculated by the seismic horizons. Second, 3D elastic impedance (EI) and natural gamma attribute volumes are generated by prestack EI inversion and multi-attribute probabilistic neural network (PNN) inversion techniques which reflect the information of coal structure types and lithology of the roof and floor. Then, the information of metamorphic degree of seam and hydrogeology conditions can be obtained by the geological data. Consequently, geological conditions of CBM occurrence in No. 3 coal seam are evaluated which will provide scientific reference for high abundance CBM rich region prediction and gas outburst risk area pre-warning.

  12. SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES, REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND NETWORKING: THE EMERGING FRAMEWORK IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Luminita Constantin

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Networking is a key word in the recent debates on SMEs and regional policies, pointing out the need and advantages of integrating these businesses in a coherent framework, which creates links, relations, exchanges between them and other actors within the region (banks, universities, research institutes, training centres, consulting firms, chambers of commerce, associations of producers, local public administration. This paper aims to explore the main features and significance of the SME sector development for addressing the regional question in Romania during the transition period and to identify the emerging evidence and perspectives of SME territorial networking phenomenon in the specific context induced by the European integration processes. Up to present the idea of creating and supporting regional networks has not been offered the adequate importance in Romania – being only partially, indirectly envisaged, so that this paper proposes some reflections that could be considered by the Romanian regional policy in the forthcoming years, as resulted from the analysis of the international experience and literature devoted to this subject.

  13. Developing a methodological framework for estimating water productivity indicators in water scarce regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubako, S. T.; Fullerton, T. M.; Walke, A.; Collins, T.; Mubako, G.; Walker, W. S.

    2014-12-01

    Water productivity is an area of growing interest in assessing the impact of human economic activities on water resources, especially in arid regions. Indicators of water productivity can assist water users in evaluating sectoral water use efficiency, identifying sources of pressure on water resources, and in supporting water allocation rationale under scarcity conditions. This case study for the water-scarce Middle Rio Grande River Basin aims to develop an environmental-economic accounting approach for water use in arid river basins through a methodological framework that relates water use to human economic activities impacting regional water resources. Water uses are coupled to economic transactions, and the complex but mutual relations between various water using sectors estimated. A comparison is made between the calculated water productivity indicators and representative cost/price per unit volume of water for the main water use sectors. Although it contributes very little to regional economic output, preliminary results confirm that Irrigation is among the sectors with the largest direct water use intensities. High economic value and low water use intensity economic sectors in the study region include Manufacturing, Mining, and Steam Electric Power. Water accounting challenges revealed by the study include differences in water management regimes between jurisdictions, and little understanding of the impact of major economic activities on the interaction between surface and groundwater systems in this region. A more comprehensive assessment would require the incorporation of environmental and social sustainability indicators to the calculated water productivity indicators.

  14. Development of multiple source data processing for structural analysis at a regional scale. [digital remote sensing in geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrere, Veronique

    1990-01-01

    Various image processing techniques developed for enhancement and extraction of linear features, of interest to the structural geologist, from digital remote sensing, geologic, and gravity data, are presented. These techniques include: (1) automatic detection of linear features and construction of rose diagrams from Landsat MSS data; (2) enhancement of principal structural directions using selective filters on Landsat MSS, Spacelab panchromatic, and HCMM NIR data; (3) directional filtering of Spacelab panchromatic data using Fast Fourier Transform; (4) detection of linear/elongated zones of high thermal gradient from thermal infrared data; and (5) extraction of strong gravimetric gradients from digitized Bouguer anomaly maps. Processing results can be compared to each other through the use of a geocoded database to evaluate the structural importance of each lineament according to its depth: superficial structures in the sedimentary cover, or deeper ones affecting the basement. These image processing techniques were successfully applied to achieve a better understanding of the transition between Provence and the Pyrenees structural blocks, in southeastern France, for an improved structural interpretation of the Mediterranean region.

  15. South American regional ionospheric maps computed by GESA: A pilot service in the framework of SIRGAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunini, C.; Meza, A.; Gende, M.; Azpilicueta, F.

    2008-08-01

    SIRGAS (Geocentric Reference Frame for the Americas) is an international enterprise of the geodetic community that aims to realize the Terrestrial Reference Frame in the America's countries. In order to fulfill this commitment, SIRGAS manages a network of continuously operational GNSS receivers totalling around one hundred sites in the Caribbean, Central, and South American region. Although the network was not planed for ionospheric studies, its potential to be used for such a purpose was recently recognized and SIRGAS started a pilot experiment devoted to establish a regular service for computing and releasing regional vertical TEC (vTEC) maps based on GNSS data. Since July, 2005, the GESA (Geodesia Espacial y Aeronomía) laboratory belonging to the Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas of the Universidad Nacional de La Plata computes hourly maps of vertical Total Electron Content (vTEC) in the framework of the SIRGAS pilot experiment. These maps exploit all the GNSS data available in the South American region and are computed with the LPIM (La Plata Ionospheric Model). LPIM implements a de-biasing procedure that improves data calibration in relation to other procedures commonly used for such purposes. After calibration, slant TEC measurements are converted to vertical and mapped using local-time and modip latitude. The use of modip latitude smoothed the spatial variability of vTEC, especially in the South American low latitude region and hence allows for a better vTEC interpolation. This contribution summarizes the results obtained by GESA in the framework of the SIRGAS pilot experiment.

  16. A systematic intercomparison of regional flood frequency analysis models in a simulation framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganora, Daniele; Laio, Francesco; Claps, Pierluigi

    2015-04-01

    Regional frequency analysis (RFA) is a well-established methodology to provide an estimate of the flood frequency curve (or other discharge-related variables), based on the fundamental concept of substituting temporal information at a site (no data or short time series) by exploiting observations at other sites (spatial information). Different RFA paradigms exist, depending on the way the information is transferred to the site of interest. Despite the wide use of such methodology, a systematic comparison between these paradigms has not been performed. The aim of this study is to provide a framework wherein carrying out the intercomparison: we thus synthetically generate data through Monte Carlo simulations for a number of (virtual) stations, following a GEV parent distribution; different scenarios can be created to represent different spatial heterogeneity patterns by manipulating the parameters of the parent distribution at each station (e.g. with a linear variation in space of the shape parameter of the GEV). A special case is the homogeneous scenario where each station record is sampled from the same parent distribution. For each scenario and each simulation, different regional models are applied to evaluate the 200-year growth factor at each station. Results are than compared to the exact growth factor of each station, which is known in our virtual world. Considered regional approaches include: (i) a single growth curve for the whole region; (ii) a multiple-region model based on cluster analysis which search for an adequate number of homogeneous subregions; (iii) a Region-of-Influence model which defines a homogeneous subregion for each site; (iv) a spatially-smooth estimation procedure based on linear regressions.. A further benchmark model is the at-site estimate based on the analysis of the local record. A comprehensive analysis of the results of the simulations shows that, if the scenario is homogeneous (no spatial variability), all the regional approaches

  17. The Evoluation Impact of the Geological Environment in Expansion of Ancient Civilization at Butrint - Foenike Region, Southern Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaja, V. S.; Durmishi, S.; Vincani, F. N.

    2003-12-01

    The rise, creation and decline of the ancient civilization depended on paleo-geographic development changing at the geological environmental.This region is a worldknown archaeological site protected by UNESCO. The area under investigation occupies about 80 km2 and encompassing a large expanse of land at southern and northern side of the Butrinti lake, which is with oval shape and 21.5 depth. Throughout its long history, Butrint had an interactive relationship with its hinterland and the even-changing coastline. Preliminary research suggests that in the Holocene the Lake of Butrint was a sea inlet that stretched 20 km to north of Butrint, as far as the city of Foenike, later Epirot capital. Today the Butrint Lake is just 7.5 km long, being the result of gradual silting up this inlet with soils brought down by Bistrica River in the north side and Pavllo River in the South from surrounding mountain ranges. The goal of this study is investigation of the link between the evolution of Butrinti lake and hydrologicacal systems of the lake, its silting history and how this has impacted and interacted with land and human activity. Histories of terrestrial erosion, near-shore sediment redistribution, times, subsidence and compaction, land-sea interaction are obvious now. Geophysical observation consist of vertical electric soundings (V.E.S.) and magnetic measurements inside a layout of 80 km2. The soundings data, particularly resistivity variations are the base for sedimentologic studies due to the lack of boreholes. For a gravel deposition, in addition to the usual parameter maps as resistivity and thickness maps, combined multiparametric characterization maps have been plotted. Based on the sedimentologic and structural factors studied and geophysical maps and cross-sections, plenty of geomorphic problems are resolve. The evaluations of the regional water bearing are estimated, separating salty waters area.

  18. Geomorphology and Geology of the Southwestern Margaritifer Sinus and Argyre Regions of Mars. Part 4: Flow Ejecta Crater Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, T. J.; Pieri, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Flow ejecta craters - craters surrounded by lobate ejecta blankets - are found throughout the study area. The ratio of the crater's diameter to that of the flow ejecta in this region is approximately 40 to 45%. Flow ejecta craters are dominantly sharply defined craters, with slightly degraded craters being somewhat less common. This is probably indicative of the ejecta's relatively low resistence to weathering and susceptibility to burial. Flow ejecta craters here seem to occur within a narrow range of crater sizes - the smallest being about 4km in diameter and the largest being about 27km in diameter. Ejecta blankets of craters at 4km are easily seen and those of smaller craters are simply not seen even in images with better than average resolution for the region. This may be due to the depth of excavation of small impacting bodies being insufficient to reach volatile-rich material. Flow ejecta craters above 24km are rare, and those craters above 27km do not display flow ejecta blankets. This may be a result of an excavation depth so great that the volatile content of the ejecta is insufficient to form a fluid ejecta blanket. The geomorphic/geologic unit appears also to play an important role in the formation of flow ejecta craters. Given the typical size range for the occurrence of flow ejecta craters for most units, it can be seen that the percentage of flow ejecta craters to the total number of craters within this size range varies significantly from one unit to the next. The wide variance in flow ejecta crater density over this relatively small geographical area argues strongly for a lithologic control of their distribution.

  19. Contributions of geology for the development of tourism in the region of Morro Redondo and Alta and Patrocínio Amaro waterfalls, Ipoema district, Itabira - MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Maria Souza Brandão

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Tourism corresponds to an economic modality, which is related to the natural, geographic, cultural, historical and geological characteristics of a place, being this activity of great importance for the development and exploration of a certain region. In this context, the region of Ipoema, district of Itabira (MG, stands out for your natural attractions such as waterfalls and overlook, which attract tourists to the locality, as well as the Museum of Tropeiro, which displaying part of the history of Brazil. The objective of this work was to characterize the lithotypes and geological outcrops in the Morro Redondo region and the Alta and Patrocínio Amaro waterfalls, located in the district of Ipoema, Itabira/MG, identifying the potential of natural attractions for the development of different tourist modalities. Thus, quartzite rocks were observed in the region, with granulation ranging from thin to midsize, characterized by well developed, locally corrugated foliation planes, which can be correlated to the Sopa-Brumadinho Formation, basal sequence of the Espinhaço Supergroup. In general, the region has potential for the ecotourism development, adventure tourism and cultural tourism. Although the geology of the region does not favor the geotourism development, this should be considered for the tourist activity planning, since the weathering of quartzite rocks originates sandy soils that need adequate management and protection, thus avoiding the degradation of these areas.

  20. Geologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayland, T.E.; Rood, A.

    1983-01-01

    The modern Great Divide Basin is the end product of natural forces influenced by the Green River lake system, Laramide tectonism, and intermittent volcanic events. It ranks as one of the most complex structural and stratigtaphic features within the Tertiary basins of Wyoming. Portions of the Great Divide Basin and adjoining areas in Wyoming have been investigated by applying detailed and region exploration methods to known uranium deposits located within the Red Desert portions of the basin. Geologic field investigations conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporaton (Bendix) were restricted to reconnaissance observations made during infrequent visits to the project area by various Bendix personnel. Locations of the most comprehensive field activities are shown in Figure II-1. The principal source fo data for geologic studies of the Red Desert project area has been information and materials furnished by industry. Several hundred holes have been drilled by various groups to delineate the uranium deposits. Results from Bendix-drilled holes at selected locations within the project area are summarized in Table II-1. Additional details and gross subsurface characteristics are illustrated in cross sections; pertinent geologic features are illustrated in plan maps. Related details of continental sedimentation that pertain to the Wyoming Basins generally, and the project area specificially, are discussed in subsections of this Geologic Studies section

  1. Structural Framework and Architecture of the Paleoproterozoic Bryah and Padbury Basins from Integrated Potential Field and Geological Datasets: Towards an Understanding of the Basin Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro R A Ramos, L.; Aitken, A.; Occhipinti, S.; Lindsay, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Bryah and Padbury Basins were developed along the northern margin of the Yilgarn Craton, in the southern portion of the Capricorn Orogen, which represents a Proterozoic tectonic zone that bounds the Yilgarn and Pilbara Cratons in Western Australia. These basins have been previously interpreted as developing in a rift, back-arc, and retro-arc foreland basins. Recent studies suggest that the Bryah Basin was deposited in a rift setting, while the overlying Padbury Basin evolved in a pro-foreland basin during the collision of the Yilgarn Craton and the Pilboyne block (formed by the Pilbara Craton and the Glenburgh Terrane), occurring in the Glenburgh Orogeny (2005-1960 Ma). This study focuses on characterizing the architecture and structural framework of the Bryah and Padbury Basins through analysis of geophysical and geological datasets, in order to better understand the different stages of the basins evolution. Gravity and magnetic data were used to define the main tectonic units and lithological boundaries, and to delineate major discontinuities in the upper and lower crust, as well as anomalies through a combination of map view interpretation and forward modelling. Geological mapping and drill core observations were linked with the geophysical interpretations. Fourteen magnetic domains are distinguished within the basins, while four main domains based on the Bouguer Anomaly are recognized. The highest gravity amplitude is related with an anomaly trending EW/NE-SW, which is coincident with the voluminous mafic rocks of the Bryah Basin, and may indicate the presence of an approximately 5km thick package of higher density mafic rocks. Magnetic depth estimations also indicate deep magnetic sources up to approximately 4,45km. These results can help to elucidate processes that occurred during the precursor rift of the early stages of the Bryah Basin, add information in relation to the basement control on sedimentation, allow the characterization of the varying

  2. Regional geological setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamineni, D.C.; Stone, D.

    1990-01-01

    The Eye-Dashwa Lake pluton is a zoned pluton with a monzodioritic to gronodioritic rim and a granitic core. During late crystallization stages, the pluton was extensively fractured and altered, developing brittle faults and greenschist facies minerals dominated by epidote. Subsequent reactivation of these faults involved permeation of groundwater and formation of low-temperature minerals

  3. Chapter B: Regional Geologic Setting of Late Cenozoic Lacustrine Diatomite Deposits, Great Basin and Surrounding Region: Overview and Plans for Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Alan R.

    2003-01-01

    Freshwater diatomite deposits are present in all of the Western United States, including the Great Basin and surrounding regions. These deposits are important domestic sources of diatomite, and a better understanding of their formation and geologic settings may aid diatomite exploration and land-use management. Diatomite deposits in the Great Basin are the products of two stages: (1) formation in Late Cenozoic lacustrine basins and (2) preservation after formation. Processes that favored long-lived diatom activity and diatomite formation range in decreasing scale from global to local. The most important global process was climate, which became increasingly cool and dry from 15 Ma to the present. Regional processes included tectonic setting and volcanism, which varied considerably both spatially and temporally in the Great Basin region. Local processes included basin formation, sedimentation, hydrology, and rates of processes, including diatom growth and accumulation; basin morphology and nutrient and silica sources were important for robust activity of different diatom genera. Only optimum combinations of these processes led to the formation of large diatomite deposits, and less than optimum combinations resulted in lakebeds that contained little to no diatomite. Postdepositional processes can destroy, conceal, or preserve a diatomite deposit. These processes, which most commonly are local in scale, include uplift, with related erosion and changes in hydrology; burial beneath sedimentary deposits or volcanic flows and tuffs; and alteration during diagenesis and hydrothermal activity. Some sedimentary basins that may have contained diatomite deposits have largely been destroyed or significantly modified, whereas others, such as those in western Nevada, have been sufficiently preserved along with their contained diatomite deposits. Future research on freshwater diatomite deposits in the Western United States and Great Basin region should concentrate on the regional

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A FINANCIAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE NATIONAL PLAN FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT: THE EVIDENCE FROM SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Bozha Vukovic

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the development of a financial framework for assessing the effectiveness of interventions. The research is based on the evidence from Serbia. In terms of methods applied, we used econometric and scenario analysis. We presented — as individual separate items — the issues such as “who” — Government budget (Ministry, specific program, loan, donor, etc., “how much” — the amount spent, “where” (NUTS 2 region, and on “what” (type of initiative. In our model, each of the interventions applied to one of the regional development priorities is linked and evaluated by its effectiveness observing the performance of the group of indicators associated with each of the priorities. All data obtained from 8 sectors were categorized under 4 priorities, i.e. “People, Place, Productive Capacity, and Institutional Capacity”. Accordingly, we evaluate the effectiveness by observing the performance of a group of indicators related to each of the priorities. Our recommendations for optimizing the distribution structure of regional policies and regions are determined by the analysis of the performance of the group of indicators and their relative rankings per NUTS 2 region. The results are significant for further theoretical and applied research, as well as decision-making in the field of government financial policy. Our results confirmed that calculations of funds for regional development in strategic areas appear to be slightly problematic because, in the past, there was no strategic distribution based on established facts, which could be measured in terms of performance.

  5. Executive summary: Chapter A.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuels from the Appalachian basin region have been major contributors to the Nation’s energy needs over much of the last three centuries. Early records indicate that Appalachian coal was first mined in the middle 1700s (Virginia and Pennsylvania) and was used sparingly to fuel colonial settlements and, later, a fledgling industrial-based economy along the eastern seaboard of the United States (de Witt and Milici, 1989). In 2011, central Appalachian basin coal production accounted for approximately 77 percent of all U.S. metallurgical (or coking) coal and 29 percent of total U.S. production (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2013). Following initial discoveries and commercial use in western New York (1821) and Ohio and West Virginia (mid-1830s), the Appalachian petroleum (oil and gas) industry began in earnest in 1859 with the discovery of oil at the Drake well in northwestern Pennsylvania. Between 1860 and 1989, the Appalachian basin produced more than 2.5 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 30 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) from more than 500,000 wells (de Witt and Milici, 1989). Although both oil and gas continue to be produced in the Appalachian basin, most new wells in the region are drilled in shale reservoirs to produce natural gas.

  6. Radioactive waste disposal programme and siting regions for geological deep repositories. Executive summary. November 2008; Entsorgungsprogramm und Standortgebiete fuer geologische Tiefenlager. Zusammenfassung. November 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-11-15

    There are radioactive wastes in Switzerland. Since many decades they are produced by the operation of the five nuclear power plants, by medicine, industry and research. Important steps towards the disposal of these wastes are already realized; the corresponding activities are practised. This particularly concerns handling and packaging of the radioactive wastes, their characterization and inventory, as well as the interim storage and the inferred transportations. Preparatory works in the field of scientific research on deep geological repositories have allowed to acquire high level of technical and scientific expertise in that domain. The feasibility of building long-term safe geological repositories in Switzerland was demonstrated for all types of radioactive wastes; the demonstration was accepted by the Federal Council. There is enough knowledge to propose geological siting regions for further works. The financial funds already accumulated guaranty the financing of the dismantling of the power plants as well as building deep geological repositories for the radioactive wastes. The regulations already exist and the organisational arrangements necessary for the fruitful continuation of the works already done have been taken. The programme of the disposal of radioactive wastes also describes the next stages towards the timely realization of the deep repositories as well as the level of the financial needs. The programme is updated every five years, checked by the regulatory bodies and accepted by the Federal Council who reports to the parliament. The process of choosing a site, which will be completed in the next years, is detailed in the conceptual part of the programme for deep geological repositories. The NAGRA proposals are based exclusively on technical and scientific considerations; the global evaluation taking into account also political considerations has to be performed by the authorities and the Federal Council. The programme states that at the beginning of

  7. A regional modeling framework of phosphorus sources and transport in streams of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Maria.; Hoos, Anne B.; Terziotti, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    We applied the SPARROW model to estimate phosphorus transport from catchments to stream reaches and subsequent delivery to major receiving water bodies in the Southeastern United States (U.S.). We show that six source variables and five land-to-water transport variables are significant (p < 0.05) in explaining 67% of the variability in long-term log-transformed mean annual phosphorus yields. Three land-to-water variables are a subset of landscape characteristics that have been used as transport factors in phosphorus indices developed by state agencies and are identified through experimental research as influencing land-to-water phosphorus transport at field and plot scales. Two land-to-water variables – soil organic matter and soil pH – are associated with phosphorus sorption, a significant finding given that most state-developed phosphorus indices do not explicitly contain variables for sorption processes. Our findings for Southeastern U.S. streams emphasize the importance of accounting for phosphorus present in the soil profile to predict attainable instream water quality. Regional estimates of phosphorus associated with soil-parent rock were highly significant in explaining instream phosphorus yield variability. Model predictions associate 31% of phosphorus delivered to receiving water bodies to geology and the highest total phosphorus yields in the Southeast were catchments with already high background levels that have been impacted by human activity.

  8. Analysis of geological condition of uranium mineralization in the Xiangshan northern uranium orefield in central region of Jiangxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yulong; Liu Yunlang; Gao Yan

    2013-01-01

    According to the basic conditions of 'source, guide, transportation, storage' for uranium mineralization in strata and different types of geological structure, departure from the condition, the coupling effect of stratigraphy, lithology and structure are studied in the process of uranium mineralization in northern Xiangshan volcanic basin. Studies show that the northern ore field are of good metallogenic geological conditions and the uranium rich ancient land mass and uranium rich magma generated by the melting of deep metamorphic rocks. The main geologic events are volcanic eruptions, accompanied by repeated subvolcanic magma intrusion and strong faults and nappe tectonics which result in volcanic collapse and volcanic ring structures. These ore-forming geological condition control the structural frame for the formation of main uranium deposit type-subvolcanic rocks in northern Xiangshan ore field. (authors)

  9. A Nuclear Third Party Liability Regime of a Multilateral Nuclear Approaches Framework in the Asian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Tazaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two primary challenges for establishing nuclear third party liability (TPL regimes within multilateral nuclear approaches (MNA to nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the Asian region. The first challenge is to ensure secure and prompt compensation, especially for transboundary damages, which is also a challenge for a nation-based facility. One possible solution is that in order to share common nuclear TPL principles, all states in the region participate in the same international nuclear TPL convention, such as the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC, with a view to its entry into force in the future. One problem with this approach is that many states in the Asian region need to raise their amount of financial security in order to be able to participate in the CSC. The second challenge lies with the multiple MNA member states and encompasses the question of how decisions are to be made and responsabilities of an installation state are to be shared in case of a nuclear incident. Principally, a host state of the MNA facility takes on this responsibility. However, in certain situations and in agreement with all MNA member states, such responsibilities can be indirectly shared among all MNA member states. This can be done through internal arrangements within the MNA framework, such as reimbursement to a host state based on pre-agreed shares in accordance with investment and/or making deposits on such reimbursements in case of an incident.

  10. A Synthetic Fusion Rule for Salient Region Detection under the Framework of DS-Evidence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Ayoub

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Saliency detection is one of the most valuable research topics in computer vision. It focuses on the detection of the most significant objects/regions in images and reduces the computational time cost of getting the desired information from salient regions. Local saliency detection or common pattern discovery schemes were actively used by the researchers to overcome the saliency detection problems. In this paper, we propose a bottom-up saliency fusion method by taking into consideration the importance of the DS-Evidence (Dempster–Shafer (DS theory. Firstly, we calculate saliency maps from different algorithms based on the pixels-level, patches-level and region-level methods. Secondly, we fuse the pixels based on the foreground and background information under the framework of DS-Evidence theory (evidence theory allows one to combine evidence from different sources and arrive at a degree of belief that takes into account all the available evidence. The development inclination of image saliency detection through DS-Evidence theory gives us better results for saliency prediction. Experiments are conducted on the publicly available four different datasets (MSRA, ECSSD, DUT-OMRON and PASCAL-S. Our saliency detection method performs well and shows prominent results as compared to the state-of-the-art algorithms.

  11. Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal-energy storage. Volume 2: Regions 7 through 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    The geologic and hydrologic framework, major aquifers, aquifers which are suitable and unsuitable for annual thermal energy storage (ATES) and the ATES potential of the unglaciated central region, glaciated Appalachians, unglaciated Appalachians, coastal plain, Hawaii, and Alaska are discussed.

  12. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of the warm and cold waters of the Luigiane Spa near Guardia Piemontese (Calabria, Italy) in a complex faulted geological framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vespasiano, Giovanni; Apollaro, Carmine; Muto, Francesco; Dotsika, Elissavet; De Rosa, Rosanna; Marini, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Geo-structural and hydrogeological patterns: thermal waters discharge in a tectonic window. • Use of S isotopes to discriminate different evaporite sources, considering effects of BSR. • Use of the local approach instead of the regional approach to investigate the thermal site. • Use of geothermometric functions specifically calibrated for the thermal waters of interest. • Synthesis of geo-structural, hydrogeological and geochemical results in a conceptual model. - Abstract: Waters discharging at the Luigiane Spa come from two different hydrogeological circuits, which are chiefly hosted in the carbonate rocks and Upper Triassic evaporites of two distinct geological units, known as Verbicaro Unit and Cetraro Unit. The first unit contains a cold and relatively shallow aquifer behaving as a sort of piston-flow circuit with high flow rate, whereas the second unit encloses a warm and comparatively deep aquifer acting as a sort of well-mixed reservoir, where the circulation is slower and the rate is lower. Meteoric waters infiltrating along the Coastal Chain at similar elevations (615–670 m asl on average, in spite of considerable uncertainties) recharge both aquifers and, in the first case, acquire heat from rocks through conductive transfer as a consequence of deepening along a fault system and/or crossing between different systems, as suggested by local structural geology. In particular, the warm deeper reservoir has a temperature of ∼60 °C, as indicated by the chalcedony solubility and the Ca–Mg and SO 4 –F geothermometers, which were specifically calibrated for the peculiar water–rock-interaction (WRI) processes originating the Na–Cl–SO 4 high-salinity warm waters that discharge at the Luigiane Spa. The warm deeper reservoir is probably located at depths close to 1.4 km, assuming a geothermal gradient of 33 °C km −1 . The water leaving the deep reservoir discharges at the surface at 40.9 ± 3.3 °C after a relatively fast

  13. Thermal Maturity Data Used by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Gulf Coast Region Oil and Gas Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennen, Kristin O.; Warwick, Peter D.; McDade, Elizabeth Chinn

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is currently assessing the oil and natural gas resources of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico region using a total petroleum system approach. An essential part of this geologically based method is evaluating the effectiveness of potential source rocks in the petroleum system. The purpose of this report is to make available to the public RockEval and vitrinite reflectance data from more than 1,900 samples of Mesozoic and Tertiary rock core and coal samples in the Gulf of Mexico area in a format that facilitates inclusion into a geographic information system. These data provide parameters by which the thermal maturity, type, and richness of potential sources of oil and gas in this region can be evaluated.

  14. [Core competencies in public health: a regional framework for the Americas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejero, Juana Suárez; Godue, Charles; Gutiérrez, José Francisco García; Valladares, Laura Magaña; Rabionet, Silvia; Concha, José; Valdés, Manuel Vázquez; Gómez, Rubén Darío; Mujica, Oscar J; Cabezas, César; Lucano, Lindaura Liendo; Castellanos, Jorge

    2013-07-01

    The response is described to the 2010 call from the Pan American Health Organization to develop a Regional Framework on Core Competencies in Public Health, with a view to supporting the efforts of the countries in the Americas to build public health systems capacity as a strategy for optimal performance of the Essential Public Health Functions. The methodological process for the response was divided into four phases. In the first, a team of experts was convened who defined the methodology to be used during a workshop at the National Institute of Public Health of Mexico in 2010. The second phase involved formation of the working groups, using two criteria: experience and multidisciplinary membership, which resulted in a regional team with 225 members from 12 countries. This team prepared an initial proposal with 88 competencies. In the third phase, the competencies were cross-validated and their number reduced to 64. During the fourth phase, which included two workshops, in March 2011 (Medellín, Colombia) and June 2011 (Lima, Peru), discussions centered on analyzing the association between the results and the methodology.

  15. Biostratigraphic correlation of the western and eastern margins of the Labrador-Baffin Seaway and implications for the regional geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Nøhr-Hansen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available New analyses of the palynological assemblages in 13 offshore wells on the Canadian margin and six on the West Greenland Margin, in conjunction with onshore data, have led to a new biostratigraphic framework for the Cretaceous–Cenozoic strata of the Labrador Sea – Davis Strait – Baffin Bay (Labrador–Baffin Seaway region and the first broad biostratigraphic correlation of the Canadian and Greenland margins. This framework is based on 167 last occurrences and 18 local/regional peak/common-occurrence events for dinocysts, miospores, fungal spores and Azolla. Detailed biostratigraphic evidence has confirmed the following hiatuses: pre-Aptian in the Hopedale Basin; pre-Albian in the Saglek Basin; Albian–Turonian in some wells of the Hopedale Basin; Turonian–Santonian/Campanian in some areas; pre-Campanian and late Campanian – Thanetian on the Greenland Margin; late Maastrichtian and Danian in some wells of the Hopedale Basin and in the Saglek Basin; Selandian in part of the Hopedale Basin, in all the Saglek Basin wells and in two wells on the West Greenland Margin; late Ypresian and/or Lutetian on both sides; Oligocene to middle Miocene of considerable variability on both margins, with all of the Oligocene and the lower Miocene missing in all the West Greenland Margin wells; and middle to late Miocene on the western side. On the Canadian margin, the hiatuses can be partially matched with the five previously recognised regional unconformities; on the Greenland margin, however, the relationship to the five unconformities is more tenuous. Palynomorph assemblages show that most Aptian to Albian sediments were deposited in generally non-marine to marginal marine settings, interrupted by a short-lived shallow marine episode in the Aptian. A marine transgression started in the Cenomanian–Turonian and led to the most open-marine, oceanic conditions in the Campanian–Lutetian; shallowing probably started in the late Lutetian and continued into

  16. Geologic framework, hydrostratigraphy, and ichnology of the Blanco, Payton, and Rough Hollow 7.5-minute quadrangles, Blanco, Comal, Hays, and Kendall Counties, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Allan K.; Golab, James A.; Morris, Robert E.

    2016-09-13

    This report presents the geologic framework, hydro­stratigraphy, and ichnology of the Trinity and Edwards Groups in the Blanco, Payton, and Rough Hollow 7.5-minute quad­rangles in Blanco, Comal, Hays, and Kendall Counties, Texas. Rocks exposed in the study area are of the Lower Cretaceous Trinity Group and lower part of the Fort Terrett Formation of the Lower Cretaceous Edwards Group. The mapped units in the study area are the Hammett Shale, Cow Creek Limestone, Hensell Sand, and Glen Rose Limestone of the Trinity Group and the lower portion of the Fort Terrett Formation of the Edwards Group. The Glen Rose Limestone is composed of the Lower and Upper Members. These Trinity Group rocks con­tain the upper and middle Trinity aquifers. The only remaining outcrops of the Edwards Group are the basal nodular member of the Fort Terrett Formation, which caps several hills in the northern portion of the study area. These rocks were deposited in an open marine to supratidal flats environment. The faulting and fracturing in the study area are part of the Balcones fault zone, an extensional system of faults that generally trends southwest to northeast in south-central Texas.The hydrostratigraphic units of the Edwards and Trinity aquifers were mapped and described using a classification system based on fabric-selective or not-fabric-selective poros­ity types. The only hydrostratigraphic unit of the Edwards aquifer present in the study area is hydrostratigraphic unit VIII. The mapped hydrostratigraphic units of the upper Trinity aquifer are (from top to bottom) the Camp Bullis, upper evaporite, fossiliferous, and lower evaporite which are interval equivalent to the Upper Member of the Glen Rose Limestone. The middle Trinity aquifer encompasses (from top to bottom) the Lower Member of the Glen Rose Limestone, the Hensell Sand Member, and the Cow Creek Limestone Member of the Pearsall Formation. The Lower Member of the Glen Rose Limestone is subdivided into six informal hydro

  17. A conceptual hydrogeologic model for the hydrogeologic framework, geochemistry, and groundwater-flow system of the Edwards-Trinity and related aquifers in the Pecos County region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jonathan V.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Bumgarner, Johnathan R.; Pearson, Daniel K.; Teeple, Andrew; Houston, Natalie A.; Payne, Jason; Musgrove, MaryLynn

    2013-01-01

    The Edwards-Trinity aquifer is a vital groundwater resource for agricultural, industrial, and municipal uses in the Trans-Pecos region of west Texas. A conceptual model of the hydrogeologic framework, geochemistry, and groundwater-flow system in the 4,700 square-mile study area was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Middle Pecos Groundwater Conservation District, Pecos County, City of Fort Stockton, Brewster County, and Pecos County Water Control and Improvement District No. 1. The model was developed to gain a better understanding of the groundwater system and to establish a scientific foundation for resource-management decisions. Data and information were collected or obtained from various sources to develop the model. Lithologic information obtained from well reports and geophysical data were used to describe the hydrostratigraphy and structural features of the groundwater system, and aquifer-test data were used to estimate aquifer hydraulic properties. Groundwater-quality data were used to evaluate groundwater-flow paths, water and rock interaction, aquifer interaction, and the mixing of water from different sources. Groundwater-level data also were used to evaluate aquifer interaction as well as to develop a potentiometric-surface map, delineate regional groundwater divides, and describe regional groundwater-flow paths.

  18. Raised marine terraces in the Northern Calabrian Arc (Southern Italy: a ~ 600 kyr-long geological record of regional uplift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cucci

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Sibari Plain in the Northeastern Calabrian Arc displays a well-developed suite of marine terraces. This paper deals with i the identification and correlation of the terraces; ii their age assignment and a tentative reconstruction of the uplift history of the area; iii the relationships between terraces and major faults in the study area and between uplift in the Plain and pattern of Quaternary uplift throughout the Calabrian Arc. Identifying wavecut platforms and inner-edge fragments over a linear extent of ~ 100 km was achieved by photo interpretation, 1:25 000 scale map analyses and field survey. Morphological evidence led to the correlation of the identified fragments into five complete strandlines (numbered #1 to #5 lowest to highest, at elevations ranging from 60 m to ~ 650 m. Analysis of two parameters of the emerged platform-cliff systems, namely the platform-cliff ratio and the dissection percentage, further testifies that the two lowest terraces are strongly correlative. A 130 kyr AAR age of in situ fossil samples of Glycymeris collected at 114 m elevation within the deposit of Terrace #2 indicates a key correlation of T#2 with MIS 5.5 (the peak of the last interglacial, 124 kyr, i.e. an uplift rate of ~ 0.98 mm/yr for this strandline. The other four terraces have been tentatively associated with MIS 5.3, 7, 9 and 15. Geological observations independent of geochronological evidence provide consistent lower age boundaries for the terraces and supply further constraints to this interpretation. Investigating the relations between setting of the terraces and location of major tectonic structures in the region is suggestive of no recent activity of two previously recognized faults, the «Sangineto Line» and the «Corigliano-Rossano Line». Instead, some limited anomalies that affect the terraces are tentatively associated with the activity of the Castrovillari Fault. Therefore, sustained uplift has been the long-term dominant

  19. A new framework for estimating return levels using regional frequency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Hugo; Bernardara, Pietro; Clegg, Georgina

    2017-04-01

    We propose a new framework for incorporating more spatial and temporal information into the estimation of extreme return levels. Currently, most studies use extreme value models applied to data from a single site; an approach which is inefficient statistically and leads to return level estimates that are less physically realistic. We aim to highlight the benefits that could be obtained by using methodology based upon regional frequency analysis as opposed to classic single site extreme value analysis. This motivates a shift in thinking, which permits the evaluation of local and regional effects and makes use of the wide variety of data that are now available on high temporal and spatial resolutions. The recent winter storms over the UK during the winters of 2013-14 and 2015-16, which have caused wide-ranging disruption and damaged important infrastructure, provide the main motivation for the current work. One of the most impactful natural hazards is flooding, which is often initiated by extreme precipitation. In this presentation, we focus on extreme rainfall, but shall discuss other meteorological variables alongside potentially damaging hazard combinations. To understand the risks posed by extreme precipitation, we need reliable statistical models which can be used to estimate quantities such as the T-year return level, i.e. the level which is expected to be exceeded once every T-years. Extreme value theory provides the main collection of statistical models that can be used to estimate the risks posed by extreme precipitation events. Broadly, at a single site, a statistical model is fitted to exceedances of a high threshold and the model is used to extrapolate to levels beyond the range of the observed data. However, when we have data at many sites over a spatial domain, fitting a separate model for each separate site makes little sense and it would be better if we could incorporate all this information to improve the reliability of return level estimates. Here

  20. A Bayesian Belief Network framework to predict SOC stock change: the Veneto region (Italy) case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Ferro, Nicola; Quinn, Claire Helen; Morari, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    were only slightly involved in C regulation within the 0-30 cm layer. The proposed BBN framework was flexible to perform both field-scale validation and regional-scale predictions. Moreover, BBN provided guidelines for improved land management strategies in a perspective of climate change scenarios, although further validation, including a broader set of experimental data, is needed to strengthen the outcomes across Veneto region.

  1. A Hybrid Framework to Bias Correct and Empirically Downscale Daily Temperature and Precipitation from Regional Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P.; Abraham, Z.; Winkler, J. A.; Perdinan, P.; Zhong, S. S.; Liszewska, M.

    2013-12-01

    Bias correction and statistical downscaling are widely used approaches for postprocessing climate simulations generated by global and/or regional climate models. The skills of these approaches are typically assessed in terms of their ability to reproduce historical climate conditions as well as the plausibility and consistency of the derived statistical indicators needed by end users. Current bias correction and downscaling approaches often do not adequately satisfy the two criteria of accurate prediction and unbiased estimation. To overcome this limitation, a hybrid regression framework was developed to both minimize prediction errors and preserve the distributional characteristics of climate observations. Specifically, the framework couples the loss functions of standard (linear or nonlinear) regression methods with a regularization term that penalizes for discrepancies between the predicted and observed distributions. The proposed framework can also be extended to generate physically-consistent outputs across multiple response variables, and to incorporate both reanalysis-driven and GCM-driven RCM outputs into a unified learning framework. The effectiveness of the framework is demonstrated using daily temperature and precipitation simulations from the North American Regional Climate Change Program (NARCCAP) . The accuracy of the framework is comparable to standard regression methods, but, unlike the standard regression methods, the proposed framework is able to preserve many of the distribution properties of the response variables, akin to bias correction approaches such as quantile mapping and bivariate geometric quantile mapping.

  2. Introduction to selected references on fossil fuels of the central and southern Appalachian basin: Chapter H.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Lentz, Erika E.; Tewalt, Susan J.; Román Colón, Yomayra A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin contains abundant coal and petroleum resources that have been studied and extracted for at least 150 years. In this volume, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists describe the geologic framework and geochemical character of the fossil-fuel resources of the central and southern Appalachian basin. Separate subchapters (some previously published) contain geologic cross sections; seismic profiles; burial history models; assessments of Carboniferous coalbed methane and Devonian shale gas; distribution information for oil, gas, and coal fields; data on the geochemistry of natural gas and oil; and the fossil-fuel production history of the basin. Although each chapter and subchapter includes references cited, many historical or other important references on Appalachian basin and global fossil-fuel science were omitted because they were not directly applicable to the chapters.

  3. The Rb/Sr ages for granitoids of the Middle Chukotka: a new approach to the geological history of the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, S.V.; Kozlov, V.D.; Sandimirova, G.P.

    2000-01-01

    For studying the history of geological evolution of the Middle Chukotka in the Mesozoic by the method of Rb-Sr dating the age of granitoids in the region was determined. It was ascertained that the granitoids have different genetic nature, their formation involving the most intensive tectonic restructuring. Magmatism was manifested in two stages. Formation of the first stage granitoids (126-144 mln. years) relates to orogenesis, while that of the second stage granitoids (∼ 80 mln. years) - to the process of the Chukotka folded region activation [ru

  4. Cumulative effect assessment in Canada: a regional framework for aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dube, Monique G.

    2003-01-01

    Sustainable development of the aquatic environment depends upon routine and defensible cumulative effects assessment (CEA). CEA is the process of predicting the consequences of development relative to an assessment of existing environmental quality. Theoretically, it provides an on-going mechanism to evaluate if levels of development exceed the environment's assimilative capacity; i.e., its ability to sustain itself. In practice, the link between CEA and sustainable development has not been realized because CEA concepts and methods have developed along two dichotomous tracks. One track views CEA as an extension of the environmental assessment (EA) process for project developments. Under this track, stressor-based (S-B) methods have been developed where the emphasis is on local, project-related stressors, their link with aquatic indicators, and the potential for environmental effects through stressor-indicator interactions. S-B methods focus on the proposed development and prediction of project-related effects. They lack a mechanism to quantify existing aquatic quality especially at scales broader than an isolated development. This limitation results in the prediction of potential effects relative to a poorly defined baseline state. The other track views CEA as a broader, regional assessment tool where effects-based (E-B) methods specialize in quantification of existing aquatic effects over broad spatial scales. However, the predictive capabilities of E-B methods are limited because they are retrospective, i.e., the stressor causing the effect is identified after the effect has been measured. When used in isolation, S-B and E-B methods do not address CEA in the context necessary for sustainable development. However, if the strengths of these approaches were integrated into a holistic framework for CEA, an operational mechanism would exist to better monitor and assess sustainable development of our aquatic resources. This paper reviews the existing conceptual basis

  5. Use of space imagery for studying geologic structure of the North-Ustyurtskaya oil and gas-bearing region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lion, Yu A; Solovyova, L I

    1981-01-01

    Overview of issues concerning landscape and geomorphologic analysis of space imagery and the subsequent interpretation of structural and geologic values with use of geophysical data. Examples of clues of different value structural elements on images of differing generalization levels. Potential for studying overall patterns for local structures on the basis of structural and geomorphologic zonation is discussed.

  6. Regional hydrogen roadmap. Project development framework for the Sahara Wind Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhamou, Khalid [Sahara Wind Inc., Rabat (Morocco); Arbaoui, Abdelaziz [Ecole National Superieure des Arts et Metiers ENSAM Meknes (Morocco); Loudiyi, Khalid [Al Akhawayn Univ. (Morocco); Ould Mustapha, Sidi Mohamed [Nouakchott Univ. (Mauritania). Faculte des Sciences et Techniques

    2010-07-01

    The trade winds that blow along the Atlantic coast from Morocco to Senegal represent one of the the largest and most productive wind potentials available on earth. Because of the erratic nature of winds however, wind electricity cannot be integrated locally on any significant scale, unless mechanisms are developed for storing these intermittent renewable energies. Developing distributed wind energy solutions feeding into smaller electricity markets are essential for solving energy access issues and enabling the development of a local, viable renewable energy industry. These may be critical to address the region's economic challenges currently under pressure from Sub-Saharan migrant populations. Windelectrolysis for the production of hydrogen can be used in grid stabilization, as power storage, fuel or chemical feedstock in specific industries. The objective of the NATO SfP 'Sahara Trade Winds to Hydrogen' project is to support the region's universities through an applied research framework in partnership with industries where electrolysis applications are relevant. By powering two university campuses in Morocco and Mauritania with small grid connected wind turbines and 30 kW electrolyzers generating hydrogen for power back-up as part of ''green campus concepts'' we demonstrated that wind-electrolysis for the production of hydrogen could absorb larger quantities of cheap generated wind electricity in order to maximize renewable energy uptakes within the regions weaker grid infrastructures. Creating synergies with local industries to tap into a widely available renewable energy source opens new possibilities for end users such as utilities or mining industries when processing raw minerals, whose exports generates key incomes in regions most exposed to desertification and climate change issue. Initiated by Sahara Wind Inc. a company from the private sector, along with the Al Akhawayn University, the Ecole Nationale Superieure

  7. Integrating Recovery within a Resilience Framework: Empirical Insights and Policy Implications from Regional Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lex Drennan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Within Australia’s federal system, responsibility for preventing, preparing for, responding to and recovering from natural disasters is shared between the three tiers of government. Intergovernmental policy and funding arrangements are premised on shared responsibility and aim to foster individual, business and community resilience. These arrangements underpin Australia’s international reputation for effectiveness in its management of natural disasters. The capacity of the diverse networks that comprise the disaster management system to coordinate and deliver in the preparedness and response phases of a disaster, and to provide relief in the immediate aftermath, has been developed over time and tested and refined through the experience of frequent, severe disaster events over recent decades. Less well developed is the system’s ability to support economic recovery in disaster-affected communities over the longer term. This paper presents case studies of regional communities affected by two of Australia’s most expensive and deadly natural disasters—the 2009 Victorian bushfires and the cyclones and floods that struck the state of Queensland in 2010–2011. It highlights significant gaps in policy and funding arrangements to support recovery and offers lessons for aligning recovery within a resilience framework.

  8. A LOCAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT IN THE FRAMEWORK OF PUBLIC POLICIES FOCUSED ON REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Schin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at outlining a successful implementation of a project within LEADER framework, which is a local development method which allows local actors to develop an area by using its endogenous development potential. After a brief presentation of the characteristics of regional development strategies in Romania, there were emphasized the objectives and activities encompassed in a local development plan, managed by the leaders of the local action group called ‘Vrancea County’. In order to reinforce the strengths of Vrancea County and implicitly to assure a sustainable development of this area from the South-East part of Romania, a LAG constituted through a partnership between public and private actors settled a set of priorities to be exploited by means of specific actions. The goal of this paper is to highlight these priorities, by integrating them in a project management approach. The paper concludes with specifications about how Microsoft Project software could support project management initiatives that will be developed by the LAG Vrancea County in the next period.

  9. Geology of the Curimatau medium region (Paraiba State, Brazil) and the emplacement of the Dona Ines granite associated to the Brasiliano transcurrent shear zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Sergio Vieira Freire

    1996-01-01

    In an area of about 700 Km 2 located in the northeast of Paraiba State and having as main point the town of Dona Ines, a geologic/structural mapping, a gravimetric survey and radiometric dating using the Rb/Sr method in whole rock and Sm.Nd model ages were undertaken in order to study and to understand the geology of this portion of terrain, the emplacement of the Dona Ines granitoids and its relationship with the enclosing rocks and the deformation acting at the time of the intrusion. The age of the pluton of Dona Ines was determined by the Rb/Sr whole rock method as 560 ± 20 Ma (end of Brasiliano Cycle in the region). Sm.Nd model ages in granitoids of Araras, Belem and Dona Ines have revealed paleoproterozoic ages for their crustal sources, as indicated by the negative ε nd of this rock

  10. Report on the geological and geomorphological field operation in the Amundsen Bay region, western Enderby Land, 1998-99 (JARE-40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Motoyoshi

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The 40th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-40 conducted field operations on geology and geomorphology in the Amundsen Bay region, Enderby Land, for 34 days from December 21,1998 to January 23,1999. This was a part of the 5-year SEAL (Structure and Evolution of East Antarctic Lithosphere project, and two helicopters were installed for field support. Geological and geomorphological teams established base camps at Tonagh Island and Mt. Riiser-Larsen, respectively, and tried to conduct surveys in western Enderby Land. At the early stage of the operation, an unexpected gusty wind destroyed one of the helicopters at Tonagh Island, and planned surveys have not been completed. This report gives details of the logistics including planning, preparation and results.

  11. Effects of local geological conditions in the San Francisco Bay region on ground motions and the intensities of the 1906 earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borcherdt, R.D.; Gibbs, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of ground motion generated by nuclear explosions in Nevada have been completed for 99 locations in the San Francisco Bay region, California. The recordings show marked amplitude variations in the frequency band 0.25 to 3.0 Hz that are consistently related to the local geological conditions of the recording site. The average spectral amplifications observed for vertical and horizontal ground motions are, respectively: (1,1) for granite, (1.5, 1.6) for the Franciscan Formation, (3.0, 2.7) for the Santa Clara Formation, (3.3, 4.4) for alluvium, and (3.7, 11.3) for bay mud. Spectral amplification curves define predominant ground frequencies in the band 0.25 to 3.0 H for bay mud sites and for some alluvial sites. Amplitude spectra computed from recordings of seismic background noise at 50 sites do not generally define predominant ground frequencies. The intensities ascribed to various sites in the San Francisco Bay region for the California earthquake of April 18, 1906, are strongly dependent on distance from the zone of surface faulting and the geological character of the ground. Considering only those sites (approximately one square city block in size) for which there is good evidence for the degree of ascribed intensity, the intensities for 917 sites on Franciscan rocks generally decrease with the logarithm of distance as Intensity = 2.69 -- 1.90 log (Distance in kilometers). For sites on other geological units, intensity increments, derived from this empirical relation, correlate strongly with the Average Horizontal Spectral Amplifications (AHSA) according to the empirical relation Intensity Increment = 0.27 + 2.70 log (AHSA). Average intensity increments predicted for the various geological units are --0.3 for granite, 0.2 for the Franciscan Formation, 0.6 for the Great Valley sequence, 0.8 for the Santa Clara Formation, 1.3 for alluvium, and 2.4 for bay mud

  12. Effects of local geological conditions in the San Francisco Bay region on ground motions and the intensities of the 1906 earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borcherdt, R.D.; Gibbs, J.F.

    1976-04-01

    Measurements of ground motion generated by nuclear explosions in Nevada have been completed for 99 locations in the San Francisco Bay region, California. The recordings show marked amplitude variations in the frequency band 0.25 to 3.0 Hz that are consistently related to the local geological conditions of the recording site. The average spectral amplifications observed for vertical and horizontal ground motions are, respectively: (1,1) for granite, (1.5, 1.6) for the Franciscan Formation, (3.0, 2.7) for the Santa Clara Formation, (3.3, 4.4) for alluvium, and (3.7, 11.3) for bay mud. Spectral amplification curves define predominant ground frequencies in the band 0.25 to 3.0 H for bay mud sites and for some alluvial sites. Amplitude spectra computed from recordings of seismic background noise at 50 sites do not generally define predominant ground frequencies. The intensities ascribed to various sites in the San Francisco Bay region for the California earthquake of April 18, 1906, are strongly dependent on distance from the zone of surface faulting and the geological character of the ground. Considering only those sites (approximately one square city block in size) for which there is good evidence for the degree of ascribed intensity, the intensities for 917 sites on Franciscan rocks generally decrease with the logarithm of distance as Intensity = 2.69 -- 1.90 log (Distance in kilometers). For sites on other geological units, intensity increments, derived from this empirical relation, correlate strongly with the Average Horizontal Spectral Amplifications (AHSA) according to the empirical relation Intensity Increment = 0.27 + 2.70 log (AHSA). Average intensity increments predicted for the various geological units are --0.3 for granite, 0.2 for the Franciscan Formation, 0.6 for the Great Valley sequence, 0.8 for the Santa Clara Formation, 1.3 for alluvium, and 2.4 for bay mud.

  13. “Fear or Love Thy Neighbour”? The EU Framework for Promoting Regional Cooperation in the South Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelli Babayan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Building on the model of the enlargement policy, the European Union (EU designed the European Neighbourhood Policy and the Eastern Partnership to further promote its norms and principles. One of the goals of its new policies has been to foster regional cooperation among partner countries and their neighbours. This article specifies the EU’s framework for promoting regional cooperation through the aforementioned policies and discusses its potential impact on the example of the South Caucasus republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. The South Caucasus has not only been an arena of intraregional conflicts, but has also often been troubled by disputes between its neighbours. This article argues that, due to a lack of proactive and consistent engagement, the EU’s framework risks leaving regional conflicts in the current state of stagnation and without advancement in regional cooperation.

  14. SERA Scenarios of Early Market Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Introductions: Modeling Framework, Regional Markets, and Station Clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Daniel, W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the development and analysis of detailed temporal and spatial scenarios for early market hydrogen fueling infrastructure clustering and fuel cell electric vehicle rollout using the Scenario Evaluation, Regionalization and Analysis (SERA) model. The report provides an overview of the SERA scenario development framework and discusses the approach used to develop the nationwidescenario.

  15. Study on the remote sensing geological information of uranium mineralization in Western Liaoning and Northern Hebei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Baoshan; Wang Dianbai; Jin Shihua; Qiao Rui

    1996-01-01

    Based on the whole areal geological map joint application rd exploitation, composite forming map, generalization analysis and field examination in detail of key region that mainly depend on remote sensing information and generalize the data of geology, geophysical and geochemical prospecting, and geohydrology, this paper reveals the structure framework, regional geological background, uranium metallogenic condition and space time distribution rule of orustal evolution and its result, and set up the interpretation marks of arc-shaped structure in different of rock area and discusses its geological genesis. The author also interprets volcanic apparatus, small type closed sedimentary basin, magmatic rock body which relate closely to uranium deposit, ore control structure and occurrence and type of mineralization alteration envelope. The thermal halo point of satellite image is emphatically interpreted and its geological meaning and its relation to uranium deposit is discussed. Remote sensing geological prospecting ore model and synthetic provision model is determined lastly

  16. Paleocene orthophragminids from the Lakadong Limestone, Mawmluh Quarry section, Meghalaya (Shillong, NE India): implications for the regional geology and paleobiogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Ercan; Pignatti, Johannes; Pereira, Christer; Osman Yücel, Ali; Drobne, Katica; Barattolo, Filippo; Saraswati, Pratul Kumar

    2018-04-01

    The late Paleocene orthophragminids, hitherto poorly known from the Himalayan foreland basins, are studied from the Lakadong Limestone in Meghalaya, northeastern India, in order to establish a systematic, biostratigraphic, and paleobiogeographical framework for them in the eastern Tethys. In the Mawmluh Quarry section (MQS) on the Shillong Plateau, to the southeast of Tibet, orthophragminids are associated with typical Paleocene orbitoidiform taxa endemic to the Indian subcontinent, i.e., Lakadongia Matsumaru & Jauhri ( = Setia Ferràndez-Cañadell) and Orbitosiphon Rao, and various species of alveolinids, miscellaneids, and rotaliids, characterizing the Shallow Benthic Zones (SBZ) 3 and 4. The orthophragminids belong to two lineages of the genus Orbitoclypeus Silvestri: O. schopeni (Checchia-Rispoli) and O. multiplicatus (Gümbel), both well known from the peri-Mediterranean region and Europe (western Tethys). The latter species is identified here for the first time from the eastern Tethys. Previous records of the genus Discocyclina Gümbel from the Lakadong Limestone actually correspond to misidentified Orbitoclypeus; this implies that the late Paleocene orthophragminid assemblages from Meghalaya and eastern Tethys were less diverse than in the western Tethys. The lineage of Orbitoclypeus schopeni in the lower part of the Lakadong Limestone (SBZ 3) is identified as O. schopeni cf. ramaraoi based on the morphometry of a few specimens, whereas in the upper part (SBZ 4) it corresponds to a transitional development stage between O. schopeni ramaraoi and O. schopeni neumannae (with average Dmean values ranging between 192 and 199 µm). The embryon diameters of O. multiplicatus, recorded only in SBZ 4, range between 300 and 319 µm on average, corresponding to transitional development stages of O. multiplicatus haymanaensis and O. multiplicatus multiplicatus. Our data, along with a review of previous Paleocene and Eocene records from India and Pakistan, suggest that

  17. Bedrock and structural geologic maps of eastern Candor Sulci, western Ceti Mensa, and southeastern Ceti Mensa, Candor Chasma, Valles Marineris region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Chris H.; Gaither, Tenielle A.

    2017-05-12

    This map product contains a set of three 1:18,000-scale maps showing the geology and structure of study areas in the western Candor Chasma region of Valles Marineris, Mars. These maps are part of an informal series of large-scale maps and map-based topical studies aimed at refining current understanding of the geologic history of western Candor Chasma. The map bases consist of digital elevation models and orthorectified images derived from High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) data. These maps are accompanied by geologic cross sections, colorized elevation maps, and cutouts of HiRISE images showing key superposition relations. Also included in this product is a Correlation of Map Units that integrates units across all three map areas, as well as an integrated Description of Map Units and an integrated Explanation of Map Symbols. The maps were assembled using ArcGIS software produced by Environmental Systems Research Institute (http://www.esri.com). The ArcGIS projects and databases associated with each map are included online as supplemental data.

  18. U.S. Geological Survey program of offshore resource and geoenvironmental studies, Atlantic-Gulf of Mexico region, from September 1, 1976, to December 31, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folger, David W.; Needell, Sally W.

    1983-01-01

    Mineral and energy resources of the continental margins of the United States arc important to the Nation's commodity independence and to its balance of payments. These resources are being studied along the continental margins of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico in keeping with the mission of the U.S. Geological Survey to survey the geologic structures, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.'(Organic Act of 1879). An essential corollary to these resource studies is the study of potential geologic hazards that may be associated with offshore resource exploration and exploitation. In cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, the Geological Survey, through its Atlantic-Gulf of Mexico Marine Geology Program, carries out extensive research to evaluate hazards from sediment mobility, shallow gas, and slumping and to acquire information on the distribution and concentration of trace metals and biogenic and petroleum-derived hydrocarbons in sea-floor sediments. All these studies arc providing needed background information, including information on pollutant dispersal, on the nearshore, estuarine, and lacustrine areas that may be near pipeline and nuclear powerplant sites. Users of these data include the Congress, many Federal agencies, the coastal States, private industry, academia, and the concerned public. The results of the regional structural, stratigraphic, and resource studies carried out under the Atlantic-Gulf of Mexico Marine Geology Program have been used by the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Land Management to select areas for future leasing and to aid in the evaluation of tracts nominated for leasing. Resource studies have concentrated mostly on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf frontier areas. Geologic detailing of five major basins along the U.S. Atlantic margin, where sediments are as much as 14 km thick, have been revealed by 25,000 km of 24-and 48-channel common-depth-point seismic data, 187,000 km of

  19. 浙江省观赏石成因和分布规律%Distribution, Genesis and Regional Geological Background of View Stones in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美君; 王杜涛; 王加恩

    2012-01-01

    By the research and evaluation on the view stones in Zhejiang, it proves that there are plenty of various resources of view stones; 30 types and 63 localities of view stones have been found. Now the paper describes the main several stones' distribution and genesis in detail, especially researches from the regional geological background.%浙江省内观赏石资源丰富、类型齐全,目前已查明观赏石产地63处。本文初步探讨了浙江观赏石成因和分布规律。

  20. A Regional Multi-scale 3D Geological Model of the Eastern Sub-Athabasca Basement, Canada: Implications for Vectoring towards Unconformity-type Uranium Deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annesley, Irvine R.; Reilkoff, Brian; Takacs, Erno; Hajnal, Zoltan; Pandit, Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Summary and Conclusions • The GOCAD common earth environment allows integration of multiple geological, geophysical, geochemical, and petrophysical data sets from surface to depth. • We are able to manipulate and visualize the regional to district scale architecture of the Wollaston fold-and-thrust belt, especially with the aid of high-resolution seismic profiles. • High-resolution seismic and diamond drilling constrain the 3rd dimension. • The GOCAD model can be used in other modelling applications. • Our research is bringing new insight(s) to the role of the basement in the genesis of unconformity-type U deposits.

  1. Engineering geology and environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergeev, E M

    1979-01-01

    A classification is made of the anthropogenic processes in the environment into global, local, universally distributed, zonal, regional, and essentially local processes. Engineering geology is defined as the principal science concerned with the study of the geological medium which in turn involves the study of fossil fuel geology. 22 references.

  2. AEGIS geologic simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    The Geologic Simulation Model (GSM) is used by the AEGIS (Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems) program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to simulate the dynamic geology and hydrology of a geologic nuclear waste repository site over a million-year period following repository closure. The GSM helps to organize geologic/hydrologic data; to focus attention on active natural processes by requiring their simulation; and, through interactive simulation and calibration, to reduce subjective evaluations of the geologic system. During each computer run, the GSM produces a million-year geologic history that is possible for the region and the repository site. In addition, the GSM records in permanent history files everything that occurred during that time span. Statistical analyses of data in the history files of several hundred simulations are used to classify typical evolutionary paths, to establish the probabilities associated with deviations from the typical paths, and to determine which types of perturbations of the geologic/hydrologic system, if any, are most likely to occur. These simulations will be evaluated by geologists familiar with the repository region to determine validity of the results. Perturbed systems that are determined to be the most realistic, within whatever probability limits are established, will be used for the analyses that involve radionuclide transport and dose models. The GSM is designed to be continuously refined and updated. Simulation models are site specific, and, although the submodels may have limited general applicability, the input data equirements necessitate detailed characterization of each site before application

  3. Regional geological assessment of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence of the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins relative to potential storage/disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomenick, T.F.; Gonzales, S.; Johnson, K.S.; Byerly, D.

    1983-01-01

    The thick and regionally extensive sequence of shales and associated clastic sedimentary rocks of Late Devonian and Early Mississippian age has been considered among the nonsalt geologies for deep subsurface containment of high-level radioactive wastes. This report examines some of the regional and basin-specific characteristics of the black and associated nonblack shales of this sequence within the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins of the north-central and eastern United States. Principal areas where the thickness and depth of this shale sequence are sufficient to warrant further evaluation are identified, but no attempt is made to identify specific storage/disposal sites. Also identified are other areas with less promise for further study because of known potential conflicts such as geologic-hydrologic factors, competing subsurface priorities involving mineral resources and groundwater, or other parameters. Data have been compiled for each basin in an effort to indicate thickness, distribution, and depth relationships for the entire shale sequence as well as individual shale units in the sequence. Included as parts of this geologic assessment are isopach, depth information, structure contour, tectonic elements, and energy-resource maps covering the three basins. Summary evaluations are given for each basin as well as an overall general evaluation of the waste storage/disposal potential of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence,including recommendations for future studies to more fully characterize the shale sequence for that purpose. Based on data compiled in this cursory investigation, certain rock units have reasonable promise for radioactive waste storage/disposal and do warrant additional study.

  4. Regional geological assessment of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence of the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins relative to potential storage/disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomenick, T.F.; Gonzales, S.; Johnson, K.S.; Byerly, D.

    1983-01-01

    The thick and regionally extensive sequence of shales and associated clastic sedimentary rocks of Late Devonian and Early Mississippian age has been considered among the nonsalt geologies for deep subsurface containment of high-level radioactive wastes. This report examines some of the regional and basin-specific characteristics of the black and associated nonblack shales of this sequence within the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins of the north-central and eastern United States. Principal areas where the thickness and depth of this shale sequence are sufficient to warrant further evaluation are identified, but no attempt is made to identify specific storage/disposal sites. Also identified are other areas with less promise for further study because of known potential conflicts such as geologic-hydrologic factors, competing subsurface priorities involving mineral resources and groundwater, or other parameters. Data have been compiled for each basin in an effort to indicate thickness, distribution, and depth relationships for the entire shale sequence as well as individual shale units in the sequence. Included as parts of this geologic assessment are isopach, depth information, structure contour, tectonic elements, and energy-resource maps covering the three basins. Summary evaluations are given for each basin as well as an overall general evaluation of the waste storage/disposal potential of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence,including recommendations for future studies to more fully characterize the shale sequence for that purpose. Based on data compiled in this cursory investigation, certain rock units have reasonable promise for radioactive waste storage/disposal and do warrant additional study

  5. A framework for delineating the regional boundaries of PM2.5 pollution: A case study of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Weifeng; Wu, Jiansheng

    2018-04-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) pollution has been a major issue in many countries. Considerable studies have demonstrated that PM 2.5 pollution is a regional issue, but little research has been done to investigate the regional extent of PM 2.5 pollution or to define areas in which PM 2.5 pollutants interact. To allow for a better understanding of the regional nature and spatial patterns of PM 2.5 pollution, This study proposes a novel framework for delineating regional boundaries of PM 2.5 pollution. The framework consists of four steps, including cross-correlation analysis, time-series clustering, generation of Voronoi polygons, and polygon smoothing using polynomial approximation with exponential kernel method. Using the framework, the regional PM 2.5 boundaries for China are produced and the boundaries define areas where the monthly PM 2.5 time series of any two cities show, on average, more than 50% similarity with each other. These areas demonstrate straightforwardly that PM 2.5 pollution is not limited to a single city or a single province. We also found that the PM 2.5 areas in China tend to be larger in cold months, but more fragmented in warm months, suggesting that, in cold months, the interactions between PM 2.5 concentrations in adjacent cities are stronger than in warmer months. The proposed framework provides a tool to delineate PM 2.5 boundaries and identify areas where PM 2.5 pollutants interact. It can help define air pollution management zones and assess impacts related to PM 2.5 pollution. It can also be used in analyses of other air pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 3. Geological setting and tectonic framework in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Gravesen, P.

    2011-01-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The Minister for Health and Prevention presented the background and decision plan for the Danish Parliament in January 2009. All political parties agreed on the plan. The task for the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. These 20 areas are afterwards reduced to 2-3 most optimal locations. At these 2-3 locations, detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and technical conditions will be performed. This report provides an introduction to the geological setting of Denmark with the focus on providing an overview of the distribution of various tectonic and structural features. These are considered important in the context of choosing suitable areas for the location of a disposal for radioactive waste. The geological structures, deep and shallow are important for the selection of potential disposals basically because the structures describes the geometry of the areas. Additionally, the structures provides the information about the risk of unwanted movements of the geological layers around the disposal that have to be investigated and evaluated as a part of the selection process. (LN)

  7. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 3. Geological setting and tectonic framework in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Gravesen, P.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The Minister for Health and Prevention presented the background and decision plan for the Danish Parliament in January 2009. All political parties agreed on the plan. The task for the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. These 20 areas are afterwards reduced to 2-3 most optimal locations. At these 2-3 locations, detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and technical conditions will be performed. This report provides an introduction to the geological setting of Denmark with the focus on providing an overview of the distribution of various tectonic and structural features. These are considered important in the context of choosing suitable areas for the location of a disposal for radioactive waste. The geological structures, deep and shallow are important for the selection of potential disposals basically because the structures describes the geometry of the areas. Additionally, the structures provides the information about the risk of unwanted movements of the geological layers around the disposal that have to be investigated and evaluated as a part of the selection process. (LN)

  8. IMPACT ANALYSIS OF LEGISLATIVE AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK ON THE POLICY FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE LIGHT OF THE REGIONAL OPERATIONAL PROGRAMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu (Stîngaciu Ana-Maria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the administrative capacity of institutions in the regional development starts from the analysis of the existing framework for the implementation of regional politics in Romania and studies the extent to what the structures and competencies were regionally enlarged as to contribute in the regional development. The basic hypothesis considered for such analysis had in view the fact that the differences recorded with respect to the implementation capacity of the regional development policy are caused by the various levels of the administrative capacity of the national, regional and local institutions existent in Romania. Although the regional development activity is, both centrally and regionally, dominated by the Regional Operational Programmme 2007-2013 (ROP implementation, significant activity also exists outside the ROP, but only regionally. The regional strategies incorporate to a great extent the strategic objectives established nationally, being coordinated with the national financing instruments for economic, social and territorial development. The undertaking degree of responsibilities regarding the objectives fulfillment of the regional development policy is relatively low both regionally and locally, and the main indicator which contributes in sustaining this conclusion is the absence of an adequate level regarding the property holding on certain strategies and also the methodological lack of strategies. Nationally, the current activity of Ministry of Regional Development and Tourism in the field of regional development totally overlaps the management activity of ROP. The management of structural funds 2007-2013 granted through ROP deals with various situations in which, due to the fact that the Law of regional development remained behind the legislation for the structural instruments implementation in Romania, additional resources are necessary to be granted in order to be found solutions through other types of

  9. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2010. Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces. Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962. Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete. Terrestrial geologic maps published by

  10. The Gale Crater Mound in a Regional Geologic Setting: Comparison Study of Wind Erosion in Gale Crater and Within a 1000 KM Radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapremont. A.; Allen, C.; Runyon, C.

    2014-01-01

    Gale is a Late Noachian/Early Hesperian impact crater located on the dichotomy boundary separating the southern highlands and the northern lowlands of Mars. NASA's Curiosity Rover is currently exploring Gale, searching for evidence of habitability early in Mars history. With an approximate diameter of 155 km, and a approx. 5 km central mound informally titled Mt. Sharp, Gale represents a region of geologic interest due to the abundance of knowledge that can be derived, through its sedimentary deposits, pertaining to the environmental evolution of Mars. This study was undertaken to compare wind erosional features in Gale Crater and within sediments in a 1000 km radial area. The ultimate objective of this comparison was to determine if or how Gale relates to the surrounding region.

  11. Hydromechanical coupling in geologic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    Earth's porous crust and the fluids within it are intimately linked through their mechanical effects on each other. This paper presents an overview of such "hydromechanical" coupling and examines current understanding of its role in geologic processes. An outline of the theory of hydromechanics and rheological models for geologic deformation is included to place various analytical approaches in proper context and to provide an introduction to this broad topic for nonspecialists. Effects of hydromechanical coupling are ubiquitous in geology, and can be local and short-lived or regional and very long-lived. Phenomena such as deposition and erosion, tectonism, seismicity, earth tides, and barometric loading produce strains that tend to alter fluid pressure. Resulting pressure perturbations can be dramatic, and many so-called "anomalous" pressures appear to have been created in this manner. The effects of fluid pressure on crustal mechanics are also profound. Geologic media deform and fail largely in response to effective stress, or total stress minus fluid pressure. As a result, fluid pressures control compaction, decompaction, and other types of deformation, as well as jointing, shear failure, and shear slippage, including events that generate earthquakes. By controlling deformation and failure, fluid pressures also regulate states of stress in the upper crust. Advances in the last 80 years, including theories of consolidation, transient groundwater flow, and poroelasticity, have been synthesized into a reasonably complete conceptual framework for understanding and describing hydromechanical coupling. Full coupling in two or three dimensions is described using force balance equations for deformation coupled with a mass conservation equation for fluid flow. Fully coupled analyses allow hypothesis testing and conceptual model development. However, rigorous application of full coupling is often difficult because (1) the rheological behavior of geologic media is complex

  12. Status Report on the Geology of the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatcher, R.D., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This report provides an introduction to the present state of knowledge of the geology of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and a cursory introduction to the hydrogeology. A detailed reported on hydrogeology is being produced in parallel to this one. An important element of this work is the construction of a modern detailed geologic map of the ORR containing subdivisions of all mappable rock units and displaying mesoscopic structural data. Understanding the geologic framework of the ORR is essential to many current and proposed activities related to land-use planning, waste management, environmental restoration, and waste remediation. This interim report is the result of cooperation between geologists in two Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) divisions, Environmental Sciences and Energy, and is a major part of one doctoral dissertation in the Department of Geological Sciences at The University of Tennessee--Knoxville. Major long-term goals of geologic investigations in the ORR are to determine what interrelationships exist between fractures systems in individual rock or tectonic units and the fluid flow regimes, to understand how regional and local geology can be used to help predict groundwater movement, and to formulate a structural-hydrologic model that for the first time would enable prediction of the movement of groundwater and other subsurface fluids in the ORR. Understanding the stratigraphic and structural framework and how it controls fluid flow at depth should be the first step in developing a model for groundwater movement. Development of a state-of-the-art geologic and geophysical framework for the ORR is therefore essential for formulating an integrated structural-hydrologic model. This report is also intended to convey the present state of knowledge of the geologic and geohydrologic framework of the ORR and vicinity and to present some of the data that establish the need for additional geologic mapping and geohydrologic studies. An additional intended

  13. Fundamentals of Structural Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David D.; Fletcher, Raymond C.

    2005-09-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Geology provides a new framework for the investigation of geological structures by integrating field mapping and mechanical analysis. Assuming a basic knowledge of physical geology, introductory calculus and physics, it emphasizes the observational data, modern mapping technology, principles of continuum mechanics, and the mathematical and computational skills, necessary to quantitatively map, describe, model, and explain deformation in Earth's lithosphere. By starting from the fundamental conservation laws of mass and momentum, the constitutive laws of material behavior, and the kinematic relationships for strain and rate of deformation, the authors demonstrate the relevance of solid and fluid mechanics to structural geology. This book offers a modern quantitative approach to structural geology for advanced students and researchers in structural geology and tectonics. It is supported by a website hosting images from the book, additional colour images, student exercises and MATLAB scripts. Solutions to the exercises are available to instructors. The book integrates field mapping using modern technology with the analysis of structures based on a complete mechanics MATLAB is used to visualize physical fields and analytical results and MATLAB scripts can be downloaded from the website to recreate textbook graphics and enable students to explore their choice of parameters and boundary conditions The supplementary website hosts color images of outcrop photographs used in the text, supplementary color images, and images of textbook figures for classroom presentations The textbook website also includes student exercises designed to instill the fundamental relationships, and to encourage the visualization of the evolution of geological structures; solutions are available to instructors

  14. A conceptual model of the hydrogeologic framework, geochemistry, and groundwater-flow system of the Edwards-Trinity and related aquifers in the Pecos County region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumgarner, Johnathan R.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Teeple, Andrew; Thomas, Jonathan V.; Houston, Natalie A.; Payne, Jason; Musgrove, MaryLynn

    2012-01-01

    A conceptual model of the hydrogeologic framework, geochemistry, and groundwater-flow system of the Edwards-Trinity and related aquifers, which include the Pecos Valley, Igneous, Dockum, Rustler, and Capitan Reef aquifers, was developed as the second phase of a groundwater availability study in the Pecos County region in west Texas. The first phase of the study was to collect and compile groundwater, surface-water, water-quality, geophysical, and geologic data in the area. The third phase of the study involves a numerical groundwater-flow model of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer in order to simulate groundwater conditions based on various groundwater-withdrawal scenarios. Resource managers plan to use the results of the study to establish management strategies for the groundwater system. The hydrogeologic framework is composed of the hydrostratigraphy, structural features, and hydraulic properties of the groundwater system. Well and geophysical logs were interpreted to define the top and base surfaces of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer units. Elevations of the top and base of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer generally decrease from the southwestern part of the study area to the northeast. The thicknesses of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer units were calculated using the interpolated top and base surfaces of the hydrostratigraphic units. Some of the thinnest sections of the aquifer were in the eastern part of the study area and some of the thickest sections were in the Pecos, Monument Draw, and Belding-Coyanosa trough areas. Normal-fault zones, which formed as growth and collapse features as sediments were deposited along the margins of more resistant rocks and as overlying sediments collapsed into the voids created by the dissolution of Permian-age evaporite deposits, were delineated based on the interpretation of hydrostratigraphic cross sections. The lowest aquifer transmissivity values were measured in the eastern part of the study area; the highest transmissivity values were

  15. Large-scale radon hazard evaluation in the Oslofjord region of Norway utilizing indoor radon concentrations, airborne gamma ray spectrometry and geological mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smethurst, Mark Andrew; Strand, Terje; Sundal, Aud Venke; Rudjord, Anne Liv

    2008-01-01

    We test whether airborne gamma ray spectrometer measurements can be used to estimate levels of radon hazard in the Oslofjord region of Norway. We compile 43,000 line kilometres of gamma ray spectrometer data from 8 airborne surveys covering 10,000 km 2 and compare them with 6326 indoor radon measurements. We find a clear spatial correlation between areas with elevated concentrations of uranium daughters in the near surface of the ground and regions with high incidence of elevated radon concentrations in dwellings. This correlation permits cautious use of the airborne data in radon hazard evaluation where direct measurements of indoor radon concentrations are few or absent. In radon hazard evaluation there is a natural synergy between the mapping of radon in indoor air, bedrock and drift geology mapping and airborne gamma ray surveying. We produce radon hazard forecast maps for the Oslofjord region based on a spatial union of hazard indicators from all four of these data sources. Indication of elevated radon hazard in any one of the data sets leads to the classification of a region as having an elevated radon hazard potential. This approach is inclusive in nature and we find that the majority of actual radon hazards lie in the assumed elevated risk regions

  16. Groundwater in the Boreal Plains: How Climate and Geology Interact to Control Water Table Configurations in a Sub-Humid, Low-Relief Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokanson, K. J.; Devito, K.; Mendoza, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Boreal Plain (BP) region of Canada, a landscape characterized by low-relief, a sub-humid climate and heterogeneous glacial landforms, is experiencing unprecedented anthropogenic and natural disturbance, including climate change and oil & gas operations. Understanding the controls on and the natural variability of water table position, and subsequently predicting changes in water table position under varying physical and climatic scenarios will become important as water security becomes increasingly threatened. The BP is composed of a mosaic of forestland, wetland, and aquatic land covers that contrast in dominant vegetation cover, evapotranspiration, and soil storage that, in turn, influence water table configurations. Additionally, these land-covers overlie heterogeneous glacial landforms with large contrasts in storage and hydraulic properties which, when coupled with wet-dry climate cycles, result in complex water table distributions in time and space. Several forestland-wetland-pond complexes were selected at the Utikuma Research Study Area (URSA) over three distinct surficial geologic materials (glacial fluvial outwash, stagnant ice moraine, lacustrine clay plain) to explore the roles of climate (cumulative departure from the long term yearly mean precipitation), geology, topographic position, and land cover on water table configurations over 15 years (2002 - 2016). In the absence of large groundwater flow systems, local relief and shallow low conductivity substrates promote the formation of near-surface water tables that are less susceptible to climate variation, regardless of topography. Furthermore, in areas of increased storage, wet and dry climate conditions can result in appreciably different water table configurations over time, ranging from mounds to hydraulic depressions, depending on the arrangement of land-covers, dominant surficial geology, and substrate layering.

  17. Dazai super-large uranium-bearing germanium deposit in western Yunnan region metallogenic geological conditions and prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yanrong; Yuan Qingbang; Li Yonghua; Zhang Ling; Dai Jiemin

    1995-05-01

    The Dazai super-large uranium-bearing germanium deposit is located in Bangmai Fault Basin, Western Yunnan, China. The basin basement is migmatitic granite and the cover is miocene coal-bearing clastics, Bangmai Formation. The basin development had undergone faulted rhombus basin forming, synsedimentary structure-developing and up-lifted-denuded stages. Synsedimentary faults had controlled distribution of sedimentary formation and lithofacies, and uranium and germanium mineralization. Germanium ore-bodies occur mainly in master lignite-bed of lower rhythmite. Hosted germanium-lignite is taken as main ore-type. Germanium occurs in vitrinite of lignite in the form of metal-organic complex. The metallogenetic geological conditions of the deposit are that ground preparation is uplift zone-migmatitic granite-fault basin-geothermal anomaly area, rich and thick ore-body is controlled by synsedimentary fault, peat-bog phase is favorable to accumulation for ore-forming elements, and unconformity between overlying cover and underlying basement is a channel-way of mineralizing fluid. A multiperiodic composite, being regarded sedimentation and diagenesis as a major process, uranium and germanium ore deposit has been formed through two mineralization. Four prospecting areas have been forecasted and two deposits have been accordingly discovered again. Technical-economic provableness shows that the deposit is characterized by shallow-buried, rich grade, large scale, easy mining and smelting. (9 figs.)

  18. Geology of the hills in the region of the City of Santiago de Chile: New isotopic constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara, M; Lopez-Escobar, I; Palma, J.L; Hickey-Vargas, R

    2001-01-01

    Geological, geochronological and geochemical data demonstrate that the area where the city of Santiago de Chile is established used to be a huge volcanic field. At present, it is possible to distinguish in the area at least three volcanic cycles, which are geographically superimposed and deeply eroded. The first is Oligocene in age, the second Lower to Middle Miocene and the third is Middle to Upper Miocene. The Oligocene cycle is represented by volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks of the Provincia-San Ramon-Abanico and Conchali belts, and welded tuffs of the San Cristobal and Renca hills. The Lower to Middle Miocene cycle consists of subvolcanic rocks, mostly of basaltic to basaltic-andesite composition, characterized by the presence of clino- and orthopyroxene. The Middle to Upper Miocene cycle is composed predominantly of amphibole-bearing subvolcanic rocks of dacitic composition. The latter are found at the Manquehue hill, which limits the northern part of the city, and the hills at the Rinconada de Conchali. In this communication, we present new Sr-, Nd- and Pb- isotope data obtained from two subvolcanic samples of basaltic composition collected from the San Cristobal hill and at the Santa Lucia hill (Lower to Middle Miocene) and one amphibole-bearing subvolcanic sample of dacitic composition from the Manquehue hill (Middle to Upper Miocene) (au)

  19. Geological heritage of Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhadi, H.; Tahiri, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The soil and subsoil of Morocco are rich in geological phenomena that bear the imprint of a history that goes back in time more than 2000 million years. Very many sites geologically remarkable exposed in accessible outcrops, with good quality remain unknown to the general public and therefore deserve to be vulgarized. It is a memory to acquaint to the present generations but also to preserve for future generations. In total, a rich geological heritage in many ways: Varied landscapes, international stratotypes, various geological structures, varied rocks, mineral associations, a huge procession of fossiles, remnants of oceanic crust (ophiolites) among oldests ones in the world (800my), etc... For this geological heritage, an approach of an overall inventory is needed, both regionally and nationally, taking into account all the skills of the earth sciences. This will put the item on the natural (geological) potentialities as a lever for sustainable regional development. For this, it is necessary to implement a strategy of ''geoconservation'' for the preservation and assessment of the geological heritage.

  20. Business networking for SMEs as a means to promote regional competitiveness: A Theoretical Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Vitor Braga

    2004-01-01

    The competitiveness of regions, as a means of promoting the competitiveness of a country as a whole, has been one of the main topics on the agenda of policy makers over the last decades. Several attempts at promoting competitiveness have been made with different degrees of success. In most cases, public investment in the regions was perceived as the solution to promote regional competitiveness and top-down policies were implemented. However, competitiveness also has an important dimension tha...

  1. Proposed spatial framework to develop land use in an environmentally-sensitive area: Case study, El-Daba'a region, Egypt Part I: Ecological value assessment using GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jenaid, S.S.; Mohammed, W.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the ecological characteristics of El-Daba'a area in Egypt using GIS as a first step for the development of an environmental management plan for the area. The absence of environmental planning in the process of land use development may cause many significant negative impacts on biodiversity, ecological value and the general environmental conditions and the therefore reducing such negative impacts will improve land use development. The first part of sequel of two papers, which is a part of a sustainable land use development research program, aims at designing a spatial framework to improve land use planning and development in an environmental context. The research program deals with the problem of land use planning and development in an arid coastal area under environmentally sensitive conditions. The study area is El-Daba'a region, located in the northwestern coast of Egypt, which can be described as a wild area. The approach used in this paper consists of studying the spatial ecological characteristics of El-Daba'a region using different spatial data including maps and land sat remote sensing data. These data are used to create a series of superimposed informative layers managed by a geographic information system (GIS) to describe the spatial ecological characteristics of the study area. The developed GIS allow decision makers to handle large amounts of information simultaneously such as geology, geomorphology, land cover, wild life and many other different information layers. The system is designed to help decision makers to organize, relate, analyze and visualize the ecological data and information in the study area. The developed GIS system might be used to determine the probable effects of building a nuclear power station on the ecosystem. (author)

  2. Geological disposal of radioactive waste: national commitment, local and regional involvement - A Collective Statement of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Radioactive Waste Management Committee Adopted March 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Disposal in engineered facilities built in stable, deep geological formations is the reference solution for permanently isolating long-lived radioactive waste from the human biosphere. This management method is designed to be intrinsically safe and final, meaning that it is not dependent on human presence or intervention in order to fulfil its safety goal. Selecting the site of a waste repository brings up a range of issues involving scientific knowledge, technical capacity, ethical values, territorial planning, community well-being and more. Bringing to fruition the multi-decade task of siting and developing a repository demands a strong national commitment and significant regional and local involvement. This collective statement by the Radioactive Waste Management Committee of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency recognises the advances made towards greater transparency and dialogue among the diverse stakeholders concerned and identifies the fundamental elements needed to support national commitment and to foster territorial involvement. It concludes that technical and societal partners can develop shared confidence in the safety of geological repositories and jointly carry these projects forward [fr

  3. Phylogeographic Structure of a Tethyan Relict Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae) Traces Pleistocene Geologic and Climatic Changes in the Western Himalayas, Tianshan Mountains, and Adjacent Desert Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Ming-Li; Yin, Lin-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Complex geological movements more or less affected or changed floristic structures, while the alternation of glacials and interglacials is presumed to have further shaped the present discontinuous genetic pattern of temperate plants. Here we consider Capparis spinosa, a xeromorphic Tethyan relict, to discuss its divergence pattern and explore how it responded in a stepwise fashion to Pleistocene geologic and climatic changes. 267 individuals from 31 populations were sampled and 24 haplotypes were identified, based on three cpDNA fragments (trnL-trnF, rps12-rpl20, and ndhF). SAMOVA clustered the 31 populations into 5 major clades. AMOVA suggests that gene flow between them might be restricted by vicariance. Molecular clock dating indicates that intraspecific divergence began in early Pleistocene, consistent with a time of intense uplift of the Himalaya and Tianshan Mountains, and intensified in mid-Pleistocene. Species distribution modeling suggests range reduction in the high mountains during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) as a result of cold climates when glacier advanced, while gorges at midelevations in Tianshan appear to have served as refugia. Populations of low-altitude desert regions, on the other hand, probably experienced only marginal impacts from glaciation, according to the high levels of genetic diversity.

  4. Geological disposal of radioactive wastes: national commitment, local and regional involvement. A Collective Statement of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency 'Radioactive Waste Management Committee', adopted March 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Disposal in engineered facilities built in stable, deep geological formations is the reference solution for permanently isolating long-lived radioactive waste from the human biosphere. This management method is designed to be intrinsically safe and final, i.e. not dependent on human presence and intervention in order to fulfil its safety goal. Siting waste repositories brings up a range of issues that touch on scientific knowledge, technical capacity, ethical values, territorial planning, community well-being, and more. Bringing to fruition the multi-decades task of siting and developing a repository demands a strong national commitment and a significant regional and local involvement. This Collective Statement by the Radioactive Waste Management Committee of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency recognizes the advances made toward greater transparency and dialogue among the diverse relevant stakeholders and identifies the fundamental ingredients needed to support national commitment and foster territorial involvement. It concludes that technical and societal partners can develop shared confidence in the safety of geological repositories and jointly carry these projects forward

  5. Phylogeographic Structure of a Tethyan Relict Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae Traces Pleistocene Geologic and Climatic Changes in the Western Himalayas, Tianshan Mountains, and Adjacent Desert Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex geological movements more or less affected or changed floristic structures, while the alternation of glacials and interglacials is presumed to have further shaped the present discontinuous genetic pattern of temperate plants. Here we consider Capparis spinosa, a xeromorphic Tethyan relict, to discuss its divergence pattern and explore how it responded in a stepwise fashion to Pleistocene geologic and climatic changes. 267 individuals from 31 populations were sampled and 24 haplotypes were identified, based on three cpDNA fragments (trnL-trnF, rps12-rpl20, and ndhF. SAMOVA clustered the 31 populations into 5 major clades. AMOVA suggests that gene flow between them might be restricted by vicariance. Molecular clock dating indicates that intraspecific divergence began in early Pleistocene, consistent with a time of intense uplift of the Himalaya and Tianshan Mountains, and intensified in mid-Pleistocene. Species distribution modeling suggests range reduction in the high mountains during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM as a result of cold climates when glacier advanced, while gorges at midelevations in Tianshan appear to have served as refugia. Populations of low-altitude desert regions, on the other hand, probably experienced only marginal impacts from glaciation, according to the high levels of genetic diversity.

  6. CO{sub 2} Sequestration Capacity and Associated Aspects of the Most Promising Geologic Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region: Local-Scale Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laes, Denise; Eisinger, Chris; Morgan, Craig; Rauzi, Steve; Scholle, Dana; Scott, Phyllis; Lee, Si-Yong; Zaluski, Wade; Esser, Richard; Matthews, Vince; McPherson, Brian

    2013-07-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of individual local-­scale CCS site characterization studies conducted in Colorado, New Mexico and Utah. These site-­ specific characterization analyses were performed as part of the “Characterization of Most Promising Sequestration Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region” (RMCCS) project. The primary objective of these local-­scale analyses is to provide a basis for regional-­scale characterization efforts within each state. Specifically, limits on time and funding will typically inhibit CCS projects from conducting high-­ resolution characterization of a state-­sized region, but smaller (< 10,000 km{sup 2}) site analyses are usually possible, and such can provide insight regarding limiting factors for the regional-­scale geology. For the RMCCS project, the outcomes of these local-­scale studies provide a starting point for future local-­scale site characterization efforts in the Rocky Mountain region.

  7. Unaccompanied & Denied: Regional Legal Framework for Unaccompanied Minors Asylum Seekers (UMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohaida Nordin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Unaccompanied minor asylum seekers are vulnerable and thus, provided special international law protections. However, in reality, they are being mistreated as illegal immigrants and on thereceiving end of ethnic violence, discrimination, restrictions in enjoyment of their rights duly recognised by international human rights law. This article identifies legislative, policy and supportmechanisms which encompass the minimum UMAS guardianship standards at international law and which are evidence-based from best practice models for the provision of guardians for UMASinternationally. It presents situation of UMAS in relation to human rights violations with emphasis on the legal framework and practices in Australia and five ASEAN State Members. This article also highlights the various stands taken by various countries providing better legal framework and practices regarding the terms for protection and enforcement of human rights for UMAS. Finally, this article provides recommendations for Australia and ASEAN Member States to adopt in order to realise the international human rights of UMAS with respect to guardianship.

  8. A framework for diagnosing the regional impacts of energy price policies. An application to natural gas deregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, S.; Kalt, J.P.; Lee, H.

    1986-03-01

    Energy policy debates in the U.S. have frequently centered upon asserted regional effects. 'Consuming' regions are commonly pitted against 'producing' regions, with the latter purportedly gaining/losing at the expense of the former under higher/lower energy prices. Such simple views ignore regional trade linkages, the geographic distribution of ownership in energy using and producing firms, and the microeconomics of the incidence of energy price changes. This study presents a framework which incorporates these factors and allows assessment of the net regional income effects of changing energy prices. When applied to U.S. natural gas policy, the study's results indicate that the income effects of a rise in gas prices tend to be much more evenly spread than a naive assignment of increased costs and revenues to consuming and producing regions, respectively, would indicate. Under a number of plausible scenarios, in fact, it is likely that certain net gas consuming regions (e.g., the Pacific Northwest) have benefitted from the recent deregulation of U.S. gas prices. 14 refs. (A.V.)

  9. Mesozoic and Cenozoic structural geology of the CP Hills, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada; and regional implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, S. John [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1991-08-01

    Detailed mapping and structural analysis of upper Proterozoic and Paleozoic rocks in the CP Hills of the Nevada Test Site, together with analysis of published maps and cross sections and a reconnaissance of regional structural relations indicate that the CP thrust of Barnes and Poole (1968) actually comprises two separate, oppositely verging Mesozoic thrust systems: (1) the west-vergent CP thrust which is well exposed in the CP Hills and at Mine Mountain, and (2) the east-vergent Belted Range thrust located northwest of Yucca Flat. West-vergence of the CP thrust is indicated by large scale west-vergent recumbent folds in both its hangingwall and footwall and by the fact that the CP thrust ramps up section through hangingwall strata toward the northwest. Regional structural relations indicate that the CP thrust forms part of a narrow sigmoidal belt of west-vergent folding and thrusting traceable for over 180 km along strike. The Belted Range thrust represents earlier Mesozoic deformation that was probably related to the Last Chance thrust system in southeastern California, as suggested by earlier workers. A pre-Tertiary reconstruction of the Cordilleran fold and thrust belt in the region between the NTS and the Las Vegas Range bears a close resemblance to other regions of the Cordillera and has important implications for the development of hinterland-vergent deformation as well as for the probable magnitude of Tertiary extension north of Las Vegas Valley. Subsequent to Mesozoic deformation, the CP Hills were disrupted by at least two episodes of Tertiary extensional deformation: (1) an earlier episode represented by pre-middle Miocene low-angle normal faults, and (2) a later, post-11 Ma episode of high-angle normal faulting. Both episodes of extension were related to regional deformation, the latter of which has resulted in the present basin and range topography of the NTS region.

  10. Mesozoic and Cenozoic structural geology of the CP Hills, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada; and regional implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, S.J.

    1991-08-01

    Detailed mapping and structural analysis of upper Proterozoic and Paleozoic rocks in the CP Hills of the Nevada Test Site, together with analysis of published maps and cross sections and a reconnaissance of regional structural relations indicate that the CP thrust of Barnes and Poole (1968) actually comprises two separate, oppositely verging Mesozoic thrust systems: (1) the west-vergent CP thrust which is well exposed in the CP Hills and at Mine Mountain, and (2) the east-vergent Belted Range thrust located northwest of Yucca Flat. West-vergence of the CP thrust is indicated by large scale west-vergent recumbent folds in both its hangingwall and footwall and by the fact that the CP thrust ramps up section through hangingwall strata toward the northwest. Regional structural relations indicate that the CP thrust forms part of a narrow sigmoidal belt of west-vergent folding and thrusting traceable for over 180 km along strike. The Belted Range thrust represents earlier Mesozoic deformation that was probably related to the Last Chance thrust system in southeastern California, as suggested by earlier workers. A pre-Tertiary reconstruction of the Cordilleran fold and thrust belt in the region between the NTS and the Las Vegas Range bears a close resemblance to other regions of the Cordillera and has important implications for the development of hinterland-vergent deformation as well as for the probable magnitude of Tertiary extension north of Las Vegas Valley. Subsequent to Mesozoic deformation, the CP Hills were disrupted by at least two episodes of Tertiary extensional deformation: (1) an earlier episode represented by pre-middle Miocene low-angle normal faults, and (2) a later, post-11 Ma episode of high-angle normal faulting. Both episodes of extension were related to regional deformation, the latter of which has resulted in the present basin and range topography of the NTS region

  11. ANTI-TERROR POLICY OF UZBEKISTAN IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE REGIONAL ANTI-TERRORIST POLICY OF THE SCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С П Базылева

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the XXI century was marked by a number of serious problems, including cancer, world hunger, environmental problems and increasing every year the problem of global terrorism, which poses a great threat to the security of the modern multipolar world. Uzbekistan today occupies a firm position in fight against terrorist threat. The principled position of Uzbekistan in the fight against terrorism is that “no country should exclude their participation in the fight against global terrorism, there must be no transit zones and "green corridors" for terrorist organizations”. The Central Asian region is one of the most vulnerable, because it is necessary to pay special attention to the strategy of the anti-terrorist security of the countries included in the structure of the Central Asian region. In this article, we consider the anti-terrorist policy of Uzbekistan in the framework of the regional anti-terrorist policy of the SCO.

  12. A statistical framework to predict functional non-coding regions in the human genome through integrated analysis of annotation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiongshi; Hu, Yiming; Sun, Jiehuan; Cheng, Yuwei; Cheung, Kei-Hoi; Zhao, Hongyu

    2015-05-27

    Identifying functional regions in the human genome is a major goal in human genetics. Great efforts have been made to functionally annotate the human genome either through computational predictions, such as genomic conservation, or high-throughput experiments, such as the ENCODE project. These efforts have resulted in a rich collection of functional annotation data of diverse types that need to be jointly analyzed for integrated interpretation and annotation. Here we present GenoCanyon, a whole-genome annotation method that performs unsupervised statistical learning using 22 computational and experimental annotations thereby inferring the functional potential of each position in the human genome. With GenoCanyon, we are able to predict many of the known functional regions. The ability of predicting functional regions as well as its generalizable statistical framework makes GenoCanyon a unique and powerful tool for whole-genome annotation. The GenoCanyon web server is available at http://genocanyon.med.yale.edu.

  13. Ancient engineering geology projects in China; A canal system in Ganzu province and trenches along the Great Wall in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R.E.; Bucknam, R.C.; Hanks, T.C.

    1994-01-01

    Two major construction projects of ancient times in China involved what today would be considered engineering geology. We describe an ancient canal system in Gaotai County, Gansu province that was possibly begun in the Han dynasty (206 BC-220 AD). The canal system heads at the Dasha River and extends northwestward for about 55 km to the City of Camels and Xusanwan village. Four parallel canals are present at the local site we examined. The canals were likely built primarily to transport water but may also have served as defensive military barriers. A second project involves trenches and berms along the north side of the Great Wall, clearly part of the Great Wall defensive system. This site is in Ningxia Autonomous Region near the town of Shizuishan. ?? 1994.

  14. A framework to predict the impacts of shale gas infrastructures on the forest fragmentation of an agroforest region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racicot, Alexandre; Babin-Roussel, Véronique; Dauphinais, Jean-François; Joly, Jean-Sébastien; Noël, Pascal; Lavoie, Claude

    2014-05-01

    We propose a framework to facilitate the evaluation of the impacts of shale gas infrastructures (well pads, roads, and pipelines) on land cover features, especially with regards to forest fragmentation. We used a geographic information system and realistic development scenarios largely inspired by the PA (United States) experience, but adapted to a region of QC (Canada) with an already fragmented forest cover and a high gas potential. The scenario with the greatest impact results from development limited by regulatory constraints only, with no access to private roads for connecting well pads to the public road network. The scenario with the lowest impact additionally integrates ecological constraints (deer yards, maple woodlots, and wetlands). Overall the differences between these two scenarios are relatively minor, with shale gas industry, we show that it is possible, within a reasonable time frame, to produce a robust assessment of the impacts of shale gas extraction. The framework we propose could easily be applied to other contexts or jurisdictions.

  15. Development of ecological monitoring systems for near-boundary regions of Russia and Kazakhstan in the 'Integration' Federal program framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valyaev, A.N.; Kiselev, V.P.; Gerasimenko, N.N.; Dzhamanbalin, K.K.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to description of basic works carrying out within framework of the International project 'Ecological monitoring of Russia and Kazakhstan boundary regions'. In 2002 the works were conducted by three directions: preparation of necessary boundary areas' electronic maps; overview of existing information sources (Kostanai and Chelyabinsk cities are as an example); implementation of ecological information data bases structures on boundary areas. The geographic information system MapInfo was selected in the capacity of geo-information system. The implementation information-simulating complex is planing as open developing system. In the framework of the complex the combined operation of a set of different-scale special-purpose information, simulating and geo-information systems have been provided

  16. Framework for developing a regional system architecture for intelligent transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Defining an architecture for intelligent transportation systems (ITS) at the regional level, where most ITS deployment occurs, is constrained by jurisdictional, institutional, financial, political, and regulatory factors. These constraints provide op...

  17. Geologic Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, William L.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in geologic time with an introduction to the subject. Separate sections discuss the relative time scale, major divisions in geologic time, index fossils used as guides for telling the age of rocks, the atomic scale, and the age of the earth.…

  18. From smart specialisation to smart experimentation: Towards a new theoretical framework for EU regional policy

    OpenAIRE

    Benner, Maximilian

    2013-01-01

    The idea of smart specialisation has gained high prominence in the discourse about EU regional policy. In the coming program period from 2014 to 2020 it is expected to be a major pillar of EU structural funds. The notion of smart specialisation incorporates some basic principles of evolutionary economics and centers on the idea of an entrepreneurial discovery process of new trajectories on the regional level. It does not, however, sufficiently take into account the relevance of in...

  19. A Bayesian posterior predictive framework for weighting ensemble regional climate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel Bayesian statistical approach to computing model weights in climate change projection ensembles in order to create probabilistic projections. The weight of each climate model is obtained by weighting the current day observed data under the posterior distribution admitted under competing climate models. We use a linear model to describe the model output and observations. The approach accounts for uncertainty in model bias, trend and internal variability, including error in the observations used. Our framework is general, requires very little problem-specific input, and works well with default priors. We carry out cross-validation checks that confirm that the method produces the correct coverage.

  20. Extending the Multi Regional Input-Output framework to labor related impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardadi, Gilang; Pizzol, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    -O framework to social impacts. These challenges are addressed in this study where the Exiobase database was extended with new data on five quantitative indicators available from the International Labor Organization: employment; working hours; salary; occupational accident cases; and unemployment....... This required modeling steps, such as the disaggregation of data from sector to product group level, and filling the data gaps for missing countries by primary data collection or interpolation. A characterization step where indicator values are converted into social impacts on human productivity and human well...

  1. Semantics-informed cartography: the case of Piemonte Geological Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piana, Fabrizio; Lombardo, Vincenzo; Mimmo, Dario; Giardino, Marco; Fubelli, Giandomenico

    2016-04-01

    correlated through the whole region and described using the GeoSciML vocabularies. A hierarchical schema is provided for the Piemonte Geological Map that gives the parental relations between several orders of GeologicUnits referring to mostly recurring geological objects and main GeologicEvents, in a logical framework compliant with GeoSciML and INSPIRE data models. The classification criteria and the Hierarchy Schema used to define the GEOPiemonteMap Legend, as well as the intended meanings of the geological concepts used to achieve the overall classification schema, are explicitly described in several WikiGeo pages (implemented by "MediaWiki" open source software, https://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/MediaWiki). Moreover, a further step toward a formal classification of the contents (both data and interpretation) of the GEOPiemonteMap was triggered, by setting up an ontological framework, named "OntoGeonous", in order to achieve a thorough semantic characterization of the Map.

  2. Geological interpretation of gravity data On a part at the western region of the High Dam Lake, South Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, H. A. [حمزه احمد ابراهيم

    1999-01-01

    The structural setting of the area was determined using the horizontal gradient of the gravitational field and the statistical analysis of its maximum trends. The gravitational field was resolved into its two components; residual and regional using the available software programs. The calculated residual field was used to determine the interfaces of shallow depths. The spectral analysis technique was also carried out to estimate depths to the buried causative discontinuities. 2.5 gravity mode...

  3. Beyond CDR-grafting: Structure-guided humanization of framework and CDR regions of an anti-myostatin antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apgar, James R; Mader, Michelle; Agostinelli, Rita; Benard, Susan; Bialek, Peter; Johnson, Mark; Gao, Yijie; Krebs, Mark; Owens, Jane; Parris, Kevin; St Andre, Michael; Svenson, Kris; Morris, Carl; Tchistiakova, Lioudmila

    2016-10-01

    Antibodies are an important class of biotherapeutics that offer specificity to their antigen, long half-life, effector function interaction and good manufacturability. The immunogenicity of non-human-derived antibodies, which can be a major limitation to development, has been partially overcome by humanization through complementarity-determining region (CDR) grafting onto human acceptor frameworks. The retention of foreign content in the CDR regions, however, is still a potential immunogenic liability. Here, we describe the humanization of an anti-myostatin antibody utilizing a 2-step process of traditional CDR-grafting onto a human acceptor framework, followed by a structure-guided approach to further reduce the murine content of CDR-grafted antibodies. To accomplish this, we solved the co-crystal structures of myostatin with the chimeric (Protein Databank (PDB) id 5F3B) and CDR-grafted anti-myostatin antibody (PDB id 5F3H), allowing us to computationally predict the structurally important CDR residues as well as those making significant contacts with the antigen. Structure-based rational design enabled further germlining of the CDR-grafted antibody, reducing the murine content of the antibody without affecting antigen binding. The overall "humanness" was increased for both the light and heavy chain variable regions.

  4. A compilation of U.S. Geological Survey pesticide concentration data for water and sediment in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta region: 1990–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Beginning around 2000, abundance indices of four pelagic fishes (delta smelt, striped bass, longfin smelt, and threadfin shad) within the San Francisco Bay and Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta began to decline sharply (Sommer and others, 2007). These declines collectively became known as the pelagic organism decline (POD). No single cause has been linked to this decline, and current theories suggest that combinations of multiple stressors are likely to blame. Contaminants (including current-use pesticides) are one potential stressor being investigated for its role in the POD (Anderson, 2007). Pesticide concentration data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at multiple sites in the delta region over the past two decades are critical to understanding the potential effects of current-use pesticides on species of concern as well as the overall health of the delta ecosystem. In April 2010, a compilation of contaminant data for the delta region was published by the State Water Resources Control Board (Johnson and others, 2010). Pesticide occurrence was the major focus of this report, which concluded that “there was insufficient high quality data available to make conclusions about the potential role of specific contaminants in the POD.” The report cited multiple sources; however, data collected by the USGS were not included in the publication even though these data met all criteria listed for inclusion in the report. What follows is a summary of publicly available USGS data for pesticide concentrations in surface water and sediments within the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta region from the years 1990 through 2010. Data were retrieved though the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) database, a publicly available online-data repository (U.S. Geological Survey, 1998), and from published USGS reports (also available online at http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/). The majority of the data were collected in support of two long term USGS monitoring programs

  5. Discussion on geological features and genesis of Chulute uranium metallogenetic region of North Hanggay Province in Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Fengmin

    2005-01-01

    Chulute uranium metallogenetic region is situated in the northern part of North Hanggay Province in Mongolia. Geotectonically, it is located at the very western end of Mongolia-Transbaikal fold system. The granite with elevated uranium content is widely developed in this region, where the uranium content in the granite aged from Later Triassic to Early Jurassic ranges from 5 x 10 -6 to 6 x 10 -6 . Due to the neotectonic activation, quaternary palaeo-valleys that incised the basement were formed on the basement granite and were filled with organic matter-rich clastic sediments and basalt crusts. The palaeo-valley type uranium mineralization (Dajinhe, Bayaer and Shuer uranium occurrences) is discovered in the two palaeo-valleys which incised the granitoids. Of them, Shuer uranium occurrence has been studied more in detail. An ore-body with the thickness from 9.1 m to 19.75 m has been found in an area with the width of 500 m, and the uranium grade ranging from 0.01% to 0.05%. The uranium mineralization occurs in the bleached and limonitized grey loam and clayey soil and sand which bear rich calliferous plant debris and lamella of black mudstones. Coffinite is the uranium mineral. The uranium resources in Shuer deposit has been proven as 2500 t. The total predictive resources in above mentioned two palaeo-valleys reach as much as 15000-16000 t (P 2 ). The uranium mineralization in this region is characterized by young mineralization age and adjacent sources. The ore formation is possibly related to the surface thermal field which is originated from the eruption of the basaltic magmas. (authors)

  6. Remote mapping of vegetation and geological features by lidar in the 9-11-μm region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foy, Bernard R.; McVey, Brian D.; Petrin, Roger R.; Tiee, Joe J.; Wilson, Carl W.

    2001-01-01

    We report examples of the use of a scanning tunable CO 2 laser lidar system in the 9-11-μm region to construct images of vegetation and rocks at ranges as far as 5 km from the instrument. Range information is combined with horizontal and vertical distances to yield an image with three spatial dimensions simultaneous with the classification of target type. Object classification is based on reflectance spectra, which are sufficiently distinct to allow discrimination between several tree species, between trees and scrub vegetation, and between natural and artificial targets. Limitations imposed by laser speckle noise are discussed

  7. Marysville, Montana, Geothermal Project: Geological and Geophysical Exploration at Marysville Geothermal Area: 1973 Results (With a Section on ''Contemporary Seismicity in the Helena, Montana Region'')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwell, D.D.; Brott, C.A.; Goforth, T.T.; Holdaway, M.J.; Morgan, P.; Friedline, R.; Smith, R.L.

    1974-04-01

    This report describes field geological and geophysical investigations of the Marysville geothermal area, including geological mapping, sample collection, a ground total field magnetic survey, gravity survey, seismic ground noise survey, microearthquake survey, and heat flow study. Although sufficient data are not available, it is likely that a magma chamber is the heat source. A second section, ''Contemporary Seismicity in the Helena, Montana, Region'' examines the coincidence of high heat flow and earthquake swarm activity in this region. (GRA)

  8. A multicriteria framework for producing local, regional, and national insect and disease risk maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank J. Jr. Krist; Frank J. Sapio

    2010-01-01

    The construction of the 2006 National Insect and Disease Risk Map, compiled by the USDA Forest Service, State and Private Forestry Area, Forest Health Protection Unit, resulted in the development of a GIS-based, multicriteria approach for insect and disease risk mapping that can account for regional variations in forest health concerns and threats. This risk mapping...

  9. Educating for Futures in Marginalized Regions: A Sociological Framework for Rethinking and Researching Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipin, Lew; Sellar, Sam; Brennan, Marie; Gale, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    "Raising aspirations" for education among young people in low socioeconomic regions has become a widespread policy prescription for increasing human capital investment and economic competitiveness in so-called "knowledge economies". However, policy tends not to address difficult social, cultural, economic and political…

  10. The regional governance of climate adaptation: a framework for developing legitimate, effective, and resilient governance arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Dewulf, A.; Rijswick, H.F.M.W.; Buuren, van A.; Huitema, D.; Meijerink, S.; Rayner, T.; Wiering, M.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation to climate change raises important governance issues. Notwithstanding the increasing attention on climate adaptation at the global and European level, the variety of local conditions and climate impacts points towards a prime role for regional actors in climate change adaptation. They

  11. The regional governance of climate adaptation : A framework for developing legitimate, effective, and resilient governance arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, Catrien C. J. A. M.; Dewulf, Art; Van Rijswick, Helena; Van Buuren, Arwin; Huitema, Dave; Meijerink, Sander; Rayner, Tim; Wiering, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation to climate change raises important governance issues. Notwithstanding the increasing attention on climate adaptation at the global and European level, the variety of local conditions and climate impacts points towards a prime role for regional actors in climate change adaptation. They

  12. The Council of Regional Accrediting Commissions Framework for Competency-Based Education: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butland, Mark James

    2017-01-01

    Colleges facing pressures to increase student outcomes while reducing costs have shown an increasing interest in competency-based education (CBE) models. Regional accreditors created a joint policy on CBE evaluation. Two years later, through this grounded theory study, I sought to understand from experts the nature of this policy, its impact, and…

  13. ERTS-A data as a teaching and research tool in the Department of Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grybeck, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 prints have been used extensively in a geology of Alaska class to give a basic framework of the geology of the state. In addition, they have been intermittantly used in such diverse classes as: (1) Economic Geology (e.g. the Sn-bearing granites of the Seward Peninsula are particularly noticeable due to their wide contact metamorphic aureoles.) (2) A canned geology of Alaska lecture which has been given to two different introductory geology courses. (3) Structural Geology (e.g. the Fairweather and Denali faults are striking obvious). It was found most convenient for larger classes to prepare 35mm slides of the ERTS-1 prints that are used in conjunction with slides of the topographic and geologic maps at about the same scale. Thus the emphasis has been in integration of the ERTS-1 material into existing courses. As such, the ERTS-1 data has provided a unique and striking viewpoint that never fails to initiate favorable comment. In addition, prints have been examined by numerous researchers to develop a regional, integrated overview of such varied topics as regional geology to a background for local geologic mapping to studies of ore deposits and to the definition of a formation to be studied in detail at its type locality.

  14. BRICK v0.2, a simple, accessible, and transparent model framework for climate and regional sea-level projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tony E.; Bakker, Alexander M. R.; Ruckert, Kelsey; Applegate, Patrick; Slangen, Aimée B. A.; Keller, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    Simple models can play pivotal roles in the quantification and framing of uncertainties surrounding climate change and sea-level rise. They are computationally efficient, transparent, and easy to reproduce. These qualities also make simple models useful for the characterization of risk. Simple model codes are increasingly distributed as open source, as well as actively shared and guided. Alas, computer codes used in the geosciences can often be hard to access, run, modify (e.g., with regards to assumptions and model components), and review. Here, we describe the simple model framework BRICK (Building blocks for Relevant Ice and Climate Knowledge) v0.2 and its underlying design principles. The paper adds detail to an earlier published model setup and discusses the inclusion of a land water storage component. The framework largely builds on existing models and allows for projections of global mean temperature as well as regional sea levels and coastal flood risk. BRICK is written in R and Fortran. BRICK gives special attention to the model values of transparency, accessibility, and flexibility in order to mitigate the above-mentioned issues while maintaining a high degree of computational efficiency. We demonstrate the flexibility of this framework through simple model intercomparison experiments. Furthermore, we demonstrate that BRICK is suitable for risk assessment applications by using a didactic example in local flood risk management.

  15. The Study of Geological Structures in Suli and Tulehu Geothermal Regions (Ambon, Indonesia Based on Gravity Gradient Tensor Data Simulation and Analytic Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Lewerissa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In early 2017, the geothermal system in the Suli and Tulehu areas of Ambon (Indonesia was investigated using a gravity gradient tensor and analytic signal. The gravity gradient tensor and analytic signal were obtained through forward modeling based on a rectangular prism. It was applied to complete Bouguer anomaly data over the study area by using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT. The analysis was conducted to enhance the geological structure like faults as a pathway of geothermal fluid circulation that is not visible on the surface because it is covered by sediment. The complete Bouguer anomaly ranges of 93 mGal up to 105 mGal decrease from the southwest in Suli to the northeast in Tulehu. A high gravity anomaly indicates a strong magmatic intrusion below the Suli region. The gravity anomalies decrease occurs in the Eriwakang mountain and most of Tulehu, and it is associated with a coral limestone. The lower gravity anomalies are located in the north to the northeast part of Tulehu are associated with alluvium. The residual anomaly shows that the drill well TLU-01 and geothermal manifestations along with the Banda, and Banda-Hatuasa faults are associated with lowest gravity anomaly (negative zone. The gravity gradient tensor simulation and an analytic signal of Suli and Tulehu give more detailed information about the geological features. The gzz component allows accurate description of the shape structures, especially the Banda fault associated with a zero value. This result will be useful as a geophysical constraint to subsurface modeling according to gravity gradient inversion over the area.

  16. Understanding urban water performance at the city-region scale using an urban water metabolism evaluation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, Marguerite A; Kenway, Steven J; Lam, Ka Leung; Weber, Tony; Roux, Estelle; Serrao-Neumann, Silvia; Choy, Darryl Low; Morgan, Edward A

    2018-06-15

    Water sensitive interventions are being promoted to reduce the adverse impacts of urban development on natural water cycles. However it is currently difficult to know the best strategy for their implementation because current and desired urban water performance is not well quantified. This is particularly at the city-region scale, which is important for strategic urban planning. This work aimed to fill this gap by quantifying the water performance of urban systems within city-regions using 'urban water metabolism' evaluation, to inform decisions about water sensitive interventions. To do this we adapted an existing evaluation framework with new methods. In particular, we used land use data for defining system boundaries, and for estimating natural hydrological flows. The criteria for gauging the water performance were water efficiency (in terms of water extracted externally) and hydrological performance (how much natural hydrological flows have changed relative to a nominated pre-urbanised state). We compared these performance criteria for urban systems within three Australian city-regions (South East Queensland, Melbourne and Perth metropolitan areas), under current conditions, and after implementation of example water sensitive interventions (demand management, rainwater/stormwater harvesting, wastewater recycling and increasing perviousness). The respective water efficiencies were found to be 79, 90 and 133 kL/capita/yr. In relation to hydrological performance, stormwater runoff relative to pre-urbanised flows was of most note, estimated to be 2-, 6- and 3- fold, respectively. The estimated performance benefits from water sensitive interventions suggested different priorities for each region, and that combined implementation of a range of interventions may be necessary to make substantive gains in performance. We concluded that the framework is suited to initial screening of the type and scale of water sensitive interventions needed to achieve desired water

  17. Readying Health Services for Climate Change: A Policy Framework for Regional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Climate change presents the biggest threat to human health in the 21st century. However, many public health leaders feel ill equipped to face the challenges of climate change and have been unable to make climate change a priority in service development. I explore how to achieve a regionally responsive whole-of-systems approach to climate change in the key operational areas of a health service: service governance and culture, service delivery, workforce development, asset management, and financing. The relative neglect of implementation science means that policymakers need to be proactive about sourcing and developing models and processes to make health services ready for climate change. Health research funding agencies should urgently prioritize applied, regionally responsive health services research for a future of climate change. PMID:21421953

  18. Readying health services for climate change: a policy framework for regional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Erica

    2011-05-01

    Climate change presents the biggest threat to human health in the 21st century. However, many public health leaders feel ill equipped to face the challenges of climate change and have been unable to make climate change a priority in service development. I explore how to achieve a regionally responsive whole-of-systems approach to climate change in the key operational areas of a health service: service governance and culture, service delivery, workforce development, asset management, and financing. The relative neglect of implementation science means that policymakers need to be proactive about sourcing and developing models and processes to make health services ready for climate change. Health research funding agencies should urgently prioritize applied, regionally responsive health services research for a future of climate change.

  19. The impact of the petrochemical industry in the economic development framework of the Montreal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danis, M.

    1992-01-01

    A brief overview of the petrochemical industry in Canada was presented. The industry, which employs approximately 100,000 Canadians, has an annual production estimated to be in excess of 20 billion dollars. Similarly, in the province of Quebec, the petrochemical industry makes a very significant contribution to the economy of the province, especially to that of the Montreal region. Recent initiatives and investments by the Canadian Government in the petrochemical sector were summarized. Among these, subsidies to Petromont to improve and modernize its plant facilities in Varennes, to Himont Canada, also of Varennes, to develop a new manufacturing process, to Gaz Metropolitain to establish a centre of gas technology, were highlighted. These and other government measures and initiatives provide a solid foundation for the petrochemical industry to continue to play a pre-eminent role in the economy of the Montreal region

  20. Potential Bias in Projecting Future Regional Megadrought Risk: Insights From A Global Data-Model Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overpeck, J. T.; Ault, T.; Cole, J. E.; Fasullo, J.; Loope, G. R.; Parsons, L. A.; Stevenson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Megadrought is one of the most significant and costly climate extremes, and one that stakeholders (e.g., water and other resource managers) the world over wish to understand better; in particular, they need estimates of the risk of severe droughts as a function of drought frequency, severity, duration, and atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration. In many dry-climate regions of the globe, megadrought is synonymous with multi-decadal drought. However, in other regions, megadrought can be defined as extended drought, mostly not seen in the period of instrumental observations, and that would have large impacts if it were to occur in the future. New and published paleoclimatic observations allow us to understand the spectrum of drought in many regions of the globe; droughts exceeding 50 years have occurred in recent Earth history in southwestern North America, sub-Saharan Africa, the Mediterranean and Australia, whereas shorter megadroughts have occurred in Monsoon Asia, Amazonia and elsewhere. Data-model comparisons for regions with sufficiently long (e.g., 1000-2000 years) records of observed hydroclimatic variability suggest that state-of-the-art models can provide realistic estimates of interannual to decadal drought risk, but underestimate the risk of megadrought. Likely reasons for this shortcoming are the lack of sufficient multi-decadal variability in simulations of the past and future, plus an underappreciated understanding about how temperature variability and land-surface feedbacks interact with hydrological and ecological drought, as well as the roles played by unusually wet hydroclimatic extremes (e.g., ENSO related) in ending droughts of long duration. Paleoclimatic records also provide the opportunity to estimate how much models underestimate megadrought risk as a function of locale, frequency, severity, duration, and atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration; they also aid in providing stakeholders with bias-corrected estimates of megadrought risk.

  1. Gas hydrate on the northern Cascadia margin: regional geophysics and structural framework

    OpenAIRE

    Riedel, Michael; Willoughby, E. C.; Chen, M. A.; He, T.; Novosel, I.; Schwalenberg, K.; Hyndman, R. D.; Spence, G. D.; Chapman, N. R.; Edwards, R. N.

    2006-01-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 311 is based on ex- tensive site survey data and historic research at the northern Cas- cadia margin since 1985. This research includes various regional geophysical surveys using a broad spectrum of seismic tech- niques, coring and logging by the Ocean Drilling Program Leg 146, heat flow measurements, shallow piston coring, and bottom video observations across a cold-vent field, as well as novel con- trolled-source electromagne...

  2. Analysis of Drought in North Darfur Region of Sudan: Application of the DPSIR Framework on Long Term Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohmmed, Alnail; Zhange, Ke; Makomere, Reuben; Twecan, Dalson; Mohamme, Mustafa

    2017-04-01

    Darfur region in western Sudan is located in one of the world's most inhospitable environments, adjacent to the Sahara desert, conflicts and drought have severely degraded this fragile area, devastating the environment, livestock and people. Northern Darfur is bedeviled with frequent drought due to insufficient water resources, high summer temperatures, and poor precipitation. Monitoring drought and providing timely seasonal predictions is important for integrated drought risk reduction in the region. This paper evaluates drought conditions in North Darfur by applying meteorological, remote sensing and crop production data, as well as the Driving force-Pressure-State-Impacts-Response (DPSIR) assessment framework. Interviews, group discussions and participant observations were conducted in order to understand the DPSIR framework indicators. The relationship between the Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI), Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) and Soil Moisture Content Index (SMCI) were evaluated utilizing data from all five North Darfur counties during 10 growing seasons (2004-2013). Our results showed a strong correlation between RDI, VCI, and SMAI. Also, a significant agreement was noticed between Yield Anomaly Index (YAI) and Rainfall Anomaly Index (RAI). Generally, a high correlation coefficient was obtained between the meteorology drought index and remote sensing indices, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the above indices for evaluating agricultural drought in the sub-Saharan area. Keywords: Drought; Vegetation Condition Index; Reconnaissance Drought Index; Soil Moisture Content Index; North Darfur.

  3. Regional management units for marine turtles: a novel framework for prioritizing conservation and research across multiple scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Bryan P; DiMatteo, Andrew D; Hurley, Brendan J; Finkbeiner, Elena M; Bolten, Alan B; Chaloupka, Milani Y; Hutchinson, Brian J; Abreu-Grobois, F Alberto; Amorocho, Diego; Bjorndal, Karen A; Bourjea, Jerome; Bowen, Brian W; Dueñas, Raquel Briseño; Casale, Paolo; Choudhury, B C; Costa, Alice; Dutton, Peter H; Fallabrino, Alejandro; Girard, Alexandre; Girondot, Marc; Godfrey, Matthew H; Hamann, Mark; López-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; Marcovaldi, Maria Angela; Mortimer, Jeanne A; Musick, John A; Nel, Ronel; Pilcher, Nicolas J; Seminoff, Jeffrey A; Troëng, Sebastian; Witherington, Blair; Mast, Roderic B

    2010-12-17

    Resolving threats to widely distributed marine megafauna requires definition of the geographic distributions of both the threats as well as the population unit(s) of interest. In turn, because individual threats can operate on varying spatial scales, their impacts can affect different segments of a population of the same species. Therefore, integration of multiple tools and techniques--including site-based monitoring, genetic analyses, mark-recapture studies and telemetry--can facilitate robust definitions of population segments at multiple biological and spatial scales to address different management and research challenges. To address these issues for marine turtles, we collated all available studies on marine turtle biogeography, including nesting sites, population abundances and trends, population genetics, and satellite telemetry. We georeferenced this information to generate separate layers for nesting sites, genetic stocks, and core distributions of population segments of all marine turtle species. We then spatially integrated this information from fine- to coarse-spatial scales to develop nested envelope models, or Regional Management Units (RMUs), for marine turtles globally. The RMU framework is a solution to the challenge of how to organize marine turtles into units of protection above the level of nesting populations, but below the level of species, within regional entities that might be on independent evolutionary trajectories. Among many potential applications, RMUs provide a framework for identifying data gaps, assessing high diversity areas for multiple species and genetic stocks, and evaluating conservation status of marine turtles. Furthermore, RMUs allow for identification of geographic barriers to gene flow, and can provide valuable guidance to marine spatial planning initiatives that integrate spatial distributions of protected species and human activities. In addition, the RMU framework--including maps and supporting metadata--will be an

  4. Regional Management Units for Marine Turtles: A Novel Framework for Prioritizing Conservation and Research across Multiple Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Bryan P.; DiMatteo, Andrew D.; Hurley, Brendan J.; Finkbeiner, Elena M.; Bolten, Alan B.; Chaloupka, Milani Y.; Hutchinson, Brian J.; Abreu-Grobois, F. Alberto; Amorocho, Diego; Bjorndal, Karen A.; Bourjea, Jerome; Bowen, Brian W.; Dueñas, Raquel Briseño; Casale, Paolo; Choudhury, B. C.; Costa, Alice; Dutton, Peter H.; Fallabrino, Alejandro; Girard, Alexandre; Girondot, Marc; Godfrey, Matthew H.; Hamann, Mark; López-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; Marcovaldi, Maria Angela; Mortimer, Jeanne A.; Musick, John A.; Nel, Ronel; Pilcher, Nicolas J.; Seminoff, Jeffrey A.; Troëng, Sebastian; Witherington, Blair; Mast, Roderic B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Resolving threats to widely distributed marine megafauna requires definition of the geographic distributions of both the threats as well as the population unit(s) of interest. In turn, because individual threats can operate on varying spatial scales, their impacts can affect different segments of a population of the same species. Therefore, integration of multiple tools and techniques — including site-based monitoring, genetic analyses, mark-recapture studies and telemetry — can facilitate robust definitions of population segments at multiple biological and spatial scales to address different management and research challenges. Methodology/Principal Findings To address these issues for marine turtles, we collated all available studies on marine turtle biogeography, including nesting sites, population abundances and trends, population genetics, and satellite telemetry. We georeferenced this information to generate separate layers for nesting sites, genetic stocks, and core distributions of population segments of all marine turtle species. We then spatially integrated this information from fine- to coarse-spatial scales to develop nested envelope models, or Regional Management Units (RMUs), for marine turtles globally. Conclusions/Significance The RMU framework is a solution to the challenge of how to organize marine turtles into units of protection above the level of nesting populations, but below the level of species, within regional entities that might be on independent evolutionary trajectories. Among many potential applications, RMUs provide a framework for identifying data gaps, assessing high diversity areas for multiple species and genetic stocks, and evaluating conservation status of marine turtles. Furthermore, RMUs allow for identification of geographic barriers to gene flow, and can provide valuable guidance to marine spatial planning initiatives that integrate spatial distributions of protected species and human activities. In addition

  5. Surficial geology and soils of the Elmira-Williamsport region, New York and Pennsylvania, with a section on forest regions and great soil groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Charles Storrow; Lyford, Walter Henry; Goodlett, J.C.

    1963-01-01

    The Elmira-Williamsport region, lying south of the Finger Lakes in central New York and northern Pennsylvania, is part of the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province. A small segment of the Valley and Ridge province is included near the south border. In 1953 and 1954, the authors, a geologist and a soil scientist, made a reconnaissance of about 5,000 square miles extending southward from the Finger Lakes, N.Y., to Williamsport, Pa., and eastward from Wellsboro, Pa., to Towanda, Pa. Glacial drift of Wisconsin age, covering the central and most of the northern parts of the region, belongs to the Olean substage of MacClintock and Apfel. This drift is thin and patchy, is composed of the relatively soft sandstones, siltstone, shales, and conglomerates of the plateaus, commonly has a low calcium carbonate content, and is deeply leached. Mantling its surface are extensive rubbly colluvial deposits. No conspicuous terminal moraine marks the relatively straight border of Olean drift. The Valley Heads moraine of Fairchild near the south ends of the Finger Lakes is composed of relatively thick drift containing a considerable amount of somewhat resistant sedimentary and crystalline rocks. Commonly this drift has a relatively high carbonate content and is leached to only shallow depths. The Valley Heads drift is younger than Olean, but its precise age is undetermined. The age of the Olean is perhaps between Sangamon and Farmdale, on the basis of, in part, a carbon-14 date from peat at Otto, N.Y. All differences in soil development on these two Wisconsin drifts are clearly related to the lithology of the parent material or the drainage, rather than to weathering differing in kind or in duration. The authors believe that the soils are relatively young, are in equilibrium with the present environment, and contain few, if any, features acquired during past weathering intervals. The effect of tree throw on soil profiles and the presence of soils on slopes clearly indicate that

  6. A multi-modal geological investigation framework for subsurface modeling and kinematic monitoring of a slow-moving landslide complex in Colorado, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, B. W.; Zhou, W.; Smartgeo

    2010-12-01

    The Muddy Creek landslide complex is a large area of active and reactivating landslides that impact the operation of both a state highway and Paonia Reservoir in Gunnison County, Colorado, United States. Historically, the monitoring of this slide has been investigated using disparate techniques leading to protracted analysis and project knowledge attrition. We present an integrated, data-driven investigation framework that supports continued kinematic monitoring, document cataloging, and subsurface modeling of the landslide complex. A geospatial information system (GIS) was integrated with a visual programming based subsurface model to facilitate modular integration of monitoring data with borehole information. Subsurface modeling was organized by material type and activity state based on multiple sources of kinematic measurement. The framework is constructed to modularly integrate remotely sensed imagery and other spatial datasets such as ASTER, InSAR, and LiDAR derived elevation products as more precise datasets become available. The framework allows for terrestrial LiDAR survey error estimation, borehole siting, and placement of wireless sensor (GPS, accelerometers, geophysical ) networks for optimized spatial relevance and utility. Coordinated spatial referencing within the GIS facilitates geotechnical and hydrogeological modeling input generation and common display of modeling outputs. Kinematic data fusion techniques are accomplished with integration of instrumentation, surficial feature tracking, subsurface classification, and 3D interpolation. The framework includes dynamic decision support including landslide dam failure estimates, back-flooding scenario planning that can be accessed by multiple agencies and stakeholders.

  7. An Improved Privacy-Preserving Framework for Location-Based Services Based on Double Cloaking Regions with Supplementary Information Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kuang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of location-based services in the field of mobile network applications, users enjoy the convenience of location-based services on one side, while being exposed to the risk of disclosure of privacy on the other side. Attacker will make a fierce attack based on the probability of inquiry, map data, point of interest (POI, and other supplementary information. The existing location privacy protection techniques seldom consider the supplementary information held by attackers and usually only generate single cloaking region according to the protected location point, and the query efficiency is relatively low. In this paper, we improve the existing LBSs system framework, in which we generate double cloaking regions by constraining the supplementary information, and then k-anonymous task is achieved by the cooperation of the double cloaking regions; specifically speaking, k dummy points of fixed dummy positions in the double cloaking regions are generated and the LBSs query is then performed. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by the experiments on real datasets.

  8. Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment: Building a Framework to Track Physical and Social Indicators of Climate Change Across Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecni, Z. N.; Keener, V. W.

    2016-12-01

    Assessments inform regional and local climate change governance and provide the critical scientific basis for U.S. climate policy. Despite the centrality of scientific information to public discourse and decision making, comprehensive assessments of climate change drivers, impacts, and the vulnerability of human and ecological systems at regional or local scales are often conducted on an ad hoc basis. Methods for sustained assessment and communication of scientific information are diverse and nascent. The Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment (PIRCA) is a collaborative effort to assess climate change indicators, impacts, and adaptive capacity of the Hawaiian archipelago and the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI). In 2012, PIRCA released the first comprehensive report summarizing the state of scientific knowledge about climate change in the region as a technical input to the U.S. National Climate Assessment. A multi-method evaluation of PIRCA outputs and delivery revealed that the vast majority of key stakeholders view the report as extremely credible and use it as a resource. The current study will present PIRCA's approach to establishing physical and social indicators to track on an ongoing basis, starting with the Republic of the Marshall Islands as an initial location of focus for providing a cross-sectoral indicators framework. Identifying and tracking useful indicators is aimed at sustaining the process of knowledge coproduction with decision makers who seek to better understand the climate variability and change and its impacts on Pacific Island communities.

  9. A multi-objective framework to predict flows of ungauged rivers within regions of sparse hydrometeorologic observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, M.; Kibler, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    Despite advances in flow prediction, managers of ungauged rivers located within broad regions of sparse hydrometeorologic observation still lack prescriptive methods robust to the data challenges of such regions. We propose a multi-objective streamflow prediction framework for regions of minimum observation to select models that balance runoff efficiency with choice of accurate parameter values. We supplement sparse observed data with uncertain or low-resolution information incorporated as `soft' a priori parameter estimates. The performance of the proposed framework is tested against traditional single-objective and constrained single-objective calibrations in two catchments in a remote area of southwestern China. We find that the multi-objective approach performs well with respect to runoff efficiency in both catchments (NSE = 0.74 and 0.72), within the range of efficiencies returned by other models (NSE = 0.67 - 0.78). However, soil moisture capacity estimated by the multi-objective model resonates with a priori estimates (parameter residuals of 61 cm versus 289 and 518 cm for maximum soil moisture capacity in one catchment, and 20 cm versus 246 and 475 cm in the other; parameter residuals of 0.48 versus 0.65 and 0.7 for soil moisture distribution shape factor in one catchment, and 0.91 versus 0.79 and 1.24 in the other). Thus, optimization to a multi-criteria objective function led to very different representations of soil moisture capacity as compared to models selected by single-objective calibration, without compromising runoff efficiency. These different soil moisture representations may translate into considerably different hydrological behaviors. The proposed approach thus offers a preliminary step towards greater process understanding in regions of severe data limitations. For instance, the multi-objective framework may be an adept tool to discern between models of similar efficiency to select models that provide the "right answers for the right reasons

  10. The framework of a UAS-aided flash flood modeling system for coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Xu, H.

    2016-02-01

    Flash floods cause severe economic damage and are one of the leading causes of fatalities connected with natural disasters in the Gulf Coast region. Current flash flood modeling systems rely on empirical hydrological models driven by precipitation estimates only. Although precipitation is the driving factor for flash floods, soil moisture, urban drainage system and impervious surface have been recognized to have significant impacts on the development of flash floods. We propose a new flash flooding modeling system that integrates 3-D hydrological simulation with satellite and multi-UAS observations. It will have three advantages over existing modeling systems. First, it will incorporate 1-km soil moisture data through integrating satellite images from European SMOS mission and NASA's SMAP mission. The utilization of high-resolution satellite images will provide essential information to determine antecedent soil moisture condition, which is an essential control on flood generation. Second, this system is able to adjust flood forecasting based on real-time inundation information collected by multi-UAS. A group of UAS will be deployed during storm events to capture the changing extent of flooded areas and water depth at multiple critical locations simultaneously. Such information will be transmitted to a hydrological model to validate and improve flood simulation. Third, the backbone of this system is a state-of-the-art 3-D hydrological model that assimilates the hydrological information from satellites and multi-UAS. The model is able to address surface water-groundwater interactions and reflect the effects of various infrastructures. Using Web-GIS technologies, the modeling results will be available online as interactive flood maps accessible to the public. To support the development and verification of this modeling system, surface and subsurface hydrological observations will be conducted in a number of small watersheds in the Coastal Bend region. We envision this

  11. A framework for joint management of regional water-energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira-Cardenal, S.J.

    2013-09-15

    -power system, and the results compared with traditional methods that represent hydropower benefits through exogenous prices. It was found that representing hydropower benefits through a constant price can be inadequate because it does not reflect the seasonality in power demand and water inflows, which affect the availability, and therefore value, of hydropower. Monthly prices were able to represent seasonality but resulted in unrealistic operation rules, such as emptying the reservoir during the month with the highest price, which can only be avoided through the inclusion of additional constraints. In contrast, including a simple representation of the power market into a hydro-economic model resulted in more realistic reservoir operation policies that adapted to changing inflow conditions. The effects of spatial aggregation on the analysis of water-power systems were evaluated by comparing results from an aggregated and a partially disaggregated model. The aggregated model, where all reservoirs were represented as a single equivalent energy reservoir, provided valuable insights into the management of water and power systems, but only at the Peninsula scale. The disaggregated model revealed that optimal allocations were achieved by managing water resources differently in each river basin according to local inflow, storage capacity, hydropower productivity, and irrigation demand and productivity. This highlights the importance of considering spatial differences in this type of analysis. The method was successfully used to assess linkages between the water and the power systems of the Iberian Peninsula. The framework is flexible and can potentially be used to model more aspects of the water-energy nexus, for instance: the energy requirements of the transport sector and the impact of biofuels on agriculture; the impact of reduced river discharge on cooling of thermal power plants; or the impact of carbon capture and storage on water resources. The increasing pressure of

  12. U.S. Geological Survey climate and land use change science strategy: a framework for understanding and responding to global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Virginia R.; Kirtland, David A.; Taylor, Ione L.; Belnap, Jayne; Cronin, Thomas M.; Dettinger, Michael D.; Frazier, Eldrich L.; Haines, John W.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Milly, Paul C.D.; ,; ,; ,; Robert, S.; Maule, Alec G.; McMahon, Gerard; Striegl, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a nonregulatory Federal science agency with national scope and responsibilities, is uniquely positioned to serve the Nation’s needs in understanding and responding to global change, including changes in climate, water availability, sea level, land use and land cover, ecosystems, and global biogeochemical cycles. Global change is among the most challenging and formidable issues confronting our Nation and society. Scientists agree that global environmental changes during this century will have far-reaching societal implications (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007; U.S. Global Change Research Program, 2009). In the face of these challenges, the Nation can benefit greatly by using natural science information in decisionmaking.

  13. Energy security and pattern of regional conflicts in Eurasia: From a constructive framework of analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalin Mohapatra

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The term energy security is undergoing a sea change from a state-centric economic conception to a sociological one. The definitional aspect is undergoing a transformation because of the changing pattern of relations between “energy producing and consuming states” along with “transit states”. Eurasia is one such region where the broader definition of energy security can be applicable. The existence of historically rooted social conflicts like Chechnya, South Ossetia, Crimea, “simmering discontent” in Siberia and Far East, and primordial apprehensions between ethnic groups (Armenian and Azeri in Nagorno Karabakh are providing a structural basis for the accentuation of regional conflicts. Most of these conflicts are taking place in Eurasia due to existence of natural resources like energy. Often competition over controlling transportation corridor is also generating societal tension. Some of these trajectories are putting this geopolitical space into a “cauldron.” Against this backdrop, Constructivism is emerging as a major theoretical approach to study the securitization processes in Eurasia.

  14. Rural and Regional Development Policies in Europe: Social Farming in the Common Strategic Framework (Horizon 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Francesc TULLA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Social Farming (SF is an emerging sector in the rural European context, but the European Economic and Social Committee (2013/C 44/07 emphasizes that SF should be planned and implemented under the new 2014-20 rural development policy because of the positive results obtained. The SF concept can be associated with agriculture as a multifunctional activity, giving agricultural practice new meanings and functions and incorporating social services, medical treatment and rehabilitation, and educational training and support. In addition, agriculture must be considered as a means of employment and social integration for groups as diverse as individuals who are unemployed or living with mental retardation, mental disorders, or addictions, among others. As a result, innovative SF activities are contributing to the social economy, rural and regional development, and support for a new agro-social paradigm. These are mainly activities linked with the endogenous resources of the territory that generate new enterprises, together with complementary activities that consolidate an economic network as the basis for regional development.

  15. Education and Research in the SEENET-MTP Regional Framework for Higher Education in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, R.; Djordjevic, G. S.

    2010-01-01

    Southeastern European countries undergo significant changes in the demand/supply ratio on the labour market and in the structure of professional competences that are necessary for undertaking a professional activity. In addition, brain-drain process and decrease of interest for a career in basic sciences put many challenges for our community. Consequently, based on the activity of the Southeastern European Network in Mathematical and Theoretical Physics (SEENET MTP Network) in connecting groups and persons working in mathematics and theoretical physics, we investigate specific qualifications recognized in these fields in all the countries from the region, and the related competences necessary for practising the respective occupations. A list of new possible occupations will be promoted for inclusion in the National Qualifications Register for Higher Education. Finally, we analyze the vision existing in this region on the higher education qualifications against the European vision and experience, in particular in training of Master students, PhD students, and senior teaching and research staff through the Network, i.e. multilateral and bilateral programs.

  16. Summary of regional geology, petroleum potential, resource assessment and environmental considerations for oil and gas lease sale area No. 56

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, William P.; Klitgord, Kim D.; Paull, Charles K.; Grow, John A.; Ball, Mahlon M.; Dolton, Gordon L.; Powers, Richard B.; Khan, Abdul S.; Popenoe, Peter; Robb, James M.; Dillon, William P.

    1980-01-01

    This report summarizes our general knowledge of the petroleum potential, as well as problems and hazards associated with development of petroleum resources in the area proposed for nominations for lease sale number 56. This area includes the U.S. eastern continental margin from the North Carolina-Virginia border south to approximately Cape Canaveral, Florida and from three miles from shore, seaward to include the upper Continental Slope and inner Blake Plateau. The area for possible sales is shown in figure 1; major physiographic features of the region are shown in figure 2.No wells have been drilled for petroleum within this proposed lease area and no significant commercial production has been obtained onshore in the Southeast Georgia Embayment. The COST GE-1 stratigraphic test well, drilled on the Continental Shelf off Jacksonville, Fla. (fig- 1), reached basement at 3,300 m. The bottom third of the section consists of dominantly continental rocks that are typically poor sources of petroleum (Scholle, 1979) and the rocks that contain organic carbon adequate for generation of petroleum at the well are seen in seismic profiles always at shallow subbottom depths, so they probably have not reached thermal maturity. However, seismic profiles indicate that the sedimentary deposits thicken markedly in a seaward direction where more of the section was deposited under marine conditions; therefore, commercial accumulations of petroleum offshore are more likely.Several potential sources of environmental hazard exist. Among the most important are hurricanes, the Gulf Stream, and earthquakes. The potential danger from high wind, waves, storm surges, and storm-driven currents associated with hurricanes is obvious. Evidence for significant bottom scour by the Gulf Stream is abundant; such scour is a threat to the stability of bottom-mounted structures. The fast-flowing water also will hamper floating drill rigs and control of drill strings. A major earthquake of about magnitude

  17. Curriculum Framework (CF) Implementation Conference. Report of the Regional Educational Laboratory Network Program and the National Network of Eisenhower Mathematics and Science Regional Consortia (Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, January 26-27, 1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jackie; Powell, Mary Jo

    The Laboratory Network Program and the National Network of Eisenhower Mathematics and Science Regional Consortia, operating as the Curriculum Frameworks Task Force, jointly convened a group of educators involved in implementing state-level mathematics or science curriculum frameworks (CF). The Hilton Head (South Carolina) conference had a dual…

  18. CarbonTracker-Lagrange: A Framework for Greenhouse Gas Flux Estimation at Regional to Continental Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    CarbonTracker-Lagrange (CT-L) is a flexible modeling framework developed to take advantage of newly available atmospheric data for CO2 and other long-lived gases such as CH4 and N2O. The North American atmospheric CO2 measurement network has grown from three sites in 2004 to >100 sites in 2015. The US network includes tall tower, mountaintop, surface, and aircraft sites in the NOAA Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network along with sites maintained by university, government and private sector researchers. The Canadian network is operated by Environment and Climate Change Canada. This unprecedented dataset can provide spatially and temporally resolved CO2 emissions and uptake flux estimates and quantitative information about drivers of variability, such as drought and temperature. CT-L is a platform for systematic comparison of data assimilation techniques and evaluation of assumed prior, model and observation errors. A novel feature of CT-L is the optimization of boundary values along with surface fluxes, leveraging vertically resolved data available from NOAA's aircraft sampling program. CT-L uses observation footprints (influence functions) from the Weather Research and Forecasting/Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (WRF-STILT) modeling system to relate atmospheric measurements to upwind fluxes and boundary values. Footprints are pre-computed and the optimization algorithms are efficient, so many variants of the calculation can be performed. Fluxes are adjusted using Bayesian or Geostatistical methods to provide optimal agreement with observations. Satellite measurements of CO2 and CH4 from GOSAT are available starting in July 2009 and from OCO-2 since September 2014. With support from the NASA Carbon Monitoring System, we are developing flux estimation strategies that use remote sensing and in situ data together, including geostatistical inversions using satellite retrievals of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence. CT-L enables quantitative

  19. Seabed maps showing topography, ruggedness, backscatter intensity, sediment mobility, and the distribution of geologic substrates in Quadrangle 6 of the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Region offshore of Boston, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Page C.; Gallea, Leslie B.

    2015-11-10

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Marine Sanctuary Program, has conducted seabed mapping and related research in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (SBNMS) region since 1993. The area is approximately 3,700 square kilometers (km2) and is subdivided into 18 quadrangles. Seven maps, at a scale of 1:25,000, of quadrangle 6 (211 km2) depict seabed topography, backscatter, ruggedness, geology, substrate mobility, mud content, and areas dominated by fine-grained or coarse-grained sand. Interpretations of bathymetric and seabed backscatter imagery, photographs, video, and grain-size analyses were used to create the geology-based maps. In all, data from 420 stations were analyzed, including sediment samples from 325 locations. The seabed geology map shows the distribution of 10 substrate types ranging from boulder ridges to immobile, muddy sand to mobile, rippled sand. Mapped substrate types are defined on the basis of sediment grain-size composition, surface morphology, sediment layering, the mobility or immobility of substrate surfaces, and water depth range. This map series is intended to portray the major geological elements (substrates, topographic features, processes) of environments within quadrangle 6. Additionally, these maps will be the basis for the study of the ecological requirements of invertebrate and vertebrate species that utilize these substrates and guide seabed management in the region.

  20. Destination: Geology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Louise

    2016-04-01

    "While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits

  1. An integrated framework to address climate change (ESCAPE) and further developments of the global and regional climate modules (MAGICC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulme, M.; Raper, S.C.B.

    1995-01-01

    ESCAPE (the Evaluation of Strategies to address Climate change by Adapting to and Preventing Emissions) is an integrated climate change assessment model constructed between 1990 and 1992 for DG XI of the Commission of the European Community by a consortium of research institutes headed by the Climatic Research Unit (CRU). It has been designed to enable the user to generate future scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (through an energy-economic model), examine their impact on global climate and sea level (through two independent global climate models), and illustrate some of the consequences of this global climate change at a regional scale for the European Community (through a regional climate scenario generator and impact models). We provide a very brief overview of the ESCAPE model which, although innovative, suffers from a number of major limitations. Subsequent work in the CRU has concentrated on improvements to the global climate module and work has also commenced on an improved regional climate scenario generating module. These improvements will lead to a new integrated climate change assessment model, MAGICC (Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse gas Induced Climate Change) which can easily be incorporated into new larger integrated frameworks developed by other institutes. (Author)

  2. Geohydrology of Big Bear Valley, California: phase 1--geologic framework, recharge, and preliminary assessment of the source and age of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Brandt, Justin; Christensen, Allen H.; Flint, Alan L.; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Jachens, Robert; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Martin, Peter; Sneed, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    The Big Bear Valley, located in the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California, has increased in population in recent years. Most of the water supply for the area is pumped from the alluvial deposits that form the Big Bear Valley groundwater basin. This study was conducted to better understand the thickness and structure of the groundwater basin in order to estimate the quantity and distribution of natural recharge to Big Bear Valley. A gravity survey was used to estimate the thickness of the alluvial deposits that form the Big Bear Valley groundwater basin. This determined that the alluvial deposits reach a maximum thickness of 1,500 to 2,000 feet beneath the center of Big Bear Lake and the area between Big Bear and Baldwin Lakes, and decrease to less than 500 feet thick beneath the eastern end of Big Bear Lake. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) was used to measure pumping-induced land subsidence and to locate structures, such as faults, that could affect groundwater movement. The measurements indicated small amounts of land deformation (uplift and subsidence) in the area between Big Bear Lake and Baldwin Lake, the area near the city of Big Bear Lake, and the area near Sugarloaf, California. Both the gravity and InSAR measurements indicated the possible presence of subsurface faults in subbasins between Big Bear and Baldwin Lakes, but additional data are required for confirmation. The distribution and quantity of groundwater recharge in the area were evaluated by using a regional water-balance model (Basin Characterization Model, or BCM) and a daily rainfall-runoff model (INFILv3). The BCM calculated spatially distributed potential recharge in the study area of approximately 12,700 acre-feet per year (acre-ft/yr) of potential in-place recharge and 30,800 acre-ft/yr of potential runoff. Using the assumption that only 10 percent of the runoff becomes recharge, this approach indicated there is approximately 15,800 acre-ft/yr of total recharge in

  3. Framework for laboratory harmonization of folate measurements in low- and middle-income countries and regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Christine M; Zhang, Mindy; Jabbar, Shameem

    2018-02-01

    The measurement of serum and red blood cell folate, two commonly used biomarkers of folate status in populations, is complicated by analytical and data interpretation challenges. Folate results show poor comparability across laboratories, even using the same analytical technique. The folate microbiologic assay produces accurate results and requires simple instrumentation. Thus, it could be set up and maintained in low- and middle-income country laboratories. However, the assay has to be harmonized through the use of common critical reagents (e.g., microorganism and folate calibrator) in order to produce comparable results across laboratories and over time, so that the same cutoff values can be applied across surveys. There is a limited need for blood folate measurements in a country owing to the periodic nature of surveys. Having a network of regional resource laboratories proficient in conducting the folate microbiologic assay and willing and able to perform service work for other countries will be the most efficient way to create an infrastructure wherein qualified laboratories produce reliable blood folate data. Continuous participation of these laboratories in a certification program can verify and document their proficiency. If the resource laboratories conduct the work on a fee-for-service basis, they could become self-sustaining in the long run. © 2018 This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. The influence of regional geological settings on the seismic hazard level in copper mines in the Legnica-Głogów Copper Belt Area (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burtan Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current level of rockburst hazard in copper mines of the (LGOM Legnica- Głogów Copper Belt Area is mostly the consequence of mining-induced seismicity, whilst the majority of rockbursting events registered to date were caused by high-energy tremors. The analysis of seismic readings in recent years reveals that the highest seismic activity among the copper mines in the LGOM is registered in the mine Rudna. This study investigates the seismic activity in the rock strata in the Rudna mine fields over the years 2006-2015. Of particular interest are the key seismicity parameters: the number of registered seismic events, the total energy emissions, the energy index. It appears that varied seismic activity in the area may be the function of several variables: effective mining thickness, the thickness of burst-prone strata and tectonic intensity. The results support and corroborate the view that principal factors influencing the actual seismic hazard level are regional geological conditions in the copper mines within the Legnica-Głogów Copper Belt Area.

  5. The influence of regional geological settings on the seismic hazard level in copper mines in the Legnica-Głogów Copper Belt Area (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtan, Zbigniew

    2017-11-01

    The current level of rockburst hazard in copper mines of the (LGOM) Legnica- Głogów Copper Belt Area is mostly the consequence of mining-induced seismicity, whilst the majority of rockbursting events registered to date were caused by high-energy tremors. The analysis of seismic readings in recent years reveals that the highest seismic activity among the copper mines in the LGOM is registered in the mine Rudna. This study investigates the seismic activity in the rock strata in the Rudna mine fields over the years 2006-2015. Of particular interest are the key seismicity parameters: the number of registered seismic events, the total energy emissions, the energy index. It appears that varied seismic activity in the area may be the function of several variables: effective mining thickness, the thickness of burst-prone strata and tectonic intensity. The results support and corroborate the view that principal factors influencing the actual seismic hazard level are regional geological conditions in the copper mines within the Legnica-Głogów Copper Belt Area.

  6. State — Region — Field — Enterprise: Framework of Economics System Stability of Russia Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgy Borisovich Kleiner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the factors of a stability of the Russian economy are investigated from the systematic positions as a multilevel, multisubject and multidimensional socio-economic system. The concept of economics system stability as abilities to keep prerequisites for growth with the support and effective use of system structure of economy is formulated. The leading role of all economic subjects of different levels (including government as a subject of the international relations, regions as the subjects of Federation, enterprises as economic entities in economic stability is shown. The need of "extension" of a network of subjects due to strengthening of the subjectivity of economic fields is emphasized. Research of an internal basic system structure of an economic subject and external structure of its immediate environment in socioeconomic, administrative-and-managerial, and market spaces with the use of the results of the new theory of economic systems leads to a conclusion of similarity of these structures. It is shown that each of these system complexes includes (together with a subject four systems of various types — object, environmental, processed, and designed. The system environment of a subject in the administrative-and-managerial space of inter-level interactions has the same structure. It gives the chance to reduce a problem of subjects’ resistance to a question of balance of system structures of the complexes forming an internal filling and an external environment of subjects. The method of balance index of similar complexes is given. Recommendations on a choice of the measures of economic policy for providing economics system stability of Russia during the crisis are formulated. It is shown that such policy has to be developed with the principles of a subject-preservation, system balance of internal filling and external environment of subjects, a corporate solidarity of subjects despite their level in the administrative

  7. The ecological framework for environmental effects monitoring: a perspective from outside the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, J. P.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of key issues, early problems and experiences of the last two decades in environmental monitoring of offshore oil and natural gas exploration and production is provided, emphasizing that the key issues (What is being discharged? How much and how often? Where are things going in the environment? What are the short and long-term effects?) have not changed; we have a large body of scientific knowledge on the characterization of wastes, their fates in the marine environment and their zones of biological influence; we also have the experience gained over two decades of offshore exploration and production to provide guidance, and while every geographic region has its own uniqueness, the range of responses will not vary by orders of magnitude. It is suggested that it is not necessary to reinvent the wheel every time we move into a new exploration area. A more prudent strategy would be to concentrate on what is really unique about the particular area of interest, followed by a selective monitoring and assessment program to validate the data and the conclusions drawn from studies in other parts of the world. A number of specific studies done during the past two decades are identified as particularly significant in terms of variety of environments, target chemicals, target populations and environmental monitoring designs that may provide useful information for any pending environmental monitoring situation. Also included in this paper are valuable observations concerning the Canadian program of offshore environmental monitoring as gleaned from the papers presented and discussions which have taken place at this conference. 9 refs

  8. State — Region — Field— Enterprise: Framework of Economics System Stability of Russia Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgy Borisovich Kleyner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the factors of a stability of the Russian economy are investigated from the systematic positions as a multilevel, multisubject and multidimensional socio-economic system. The concept of economics system stability as abilities to keep prerequisites for growth with the support and effective use of system structure of economy is formulated. The leading role of all economic subjects of different levels (including government as a subject of the international relations, regions as subjects of Federation, enterprises as economic entities in economic stability is shown. The need of «extension» of a network of subjects due to strengthening of the subjectivity of economic fields is emphasized. Research of an internal basic system structure of an economic subject and external structure of its immediate environment in socioeconomic, administrative-and-managerial, and market spaces with the use of the results of the new theory of economic systems leads to a conclusion of similarity of these structures. It is shown that each of these system complexes includes (together with a subject four systems of various types — object, environmental, processed, and designed. The system environment of a subject in the administrative-and-managerial space of inter-level interactions has the same structure. It gives the chance to reduce a problem of subjects’ resistance to a question of balance of system structures of the complexes forming an internal filling and an external environment of subjects. The method of balance index of similar complexes is given. Recommendations on a choice of the measures of economic policy for providing economics system stability of Russia during the crisis are formulated. It is shown that such policy has to be developed with the principles of a subject-preservation, system balance of internal filling and external environment of subjects, a corporate solidarity of subjects despite their level in the administrative hierarchy

  9. Synergies, Trade-offs, and Losses of Ecosystem Services in Urban Regions: an Integrated Multiscale Framework Applied to the Leipzig-Halle Region, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Haase

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Because we have entered the 'millennium of the cities', urban ecological research needs to account for the provisions ecosystem services provide to urban regions. In urban areas, ecosystem service assessment studies need to account for the complex land use patterns, which change over relatively short periods of time. We discuss an analytical framework for the spatial and temporal integration of different ecosystem services in an urban region to determine synergies, trade-offs and losses, and we employ a case study in Leipzig-Halle, Germany. The following five ecosystem services, which are of special importance for urban areas, were selected: local climate regulation, recreation potential, biodiversity potential, food supply, and above-ground carbon storage. These services were analyzed from 1990 to 2006. Our results identified only slight increases in urbanization (1% or 3 km² and in mining restoration (-11 km². However, the detected land use changes led to synergies with biodiversity and climate regulation of > 50% of the total area, whereas trade-offs of approximately 60% were detected between variables such as climate regulation and recreation. Finally, we address both the opportunities and the challenges that were encountered in the integration study, specifically with respect to the application in land use planning.

  10. A framework for streamflow prediction in the world's most severely data-limited regions: Test of applicability and performance in a poorly-gauged region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, M. H.; Kibler, Kelly M.

    2018-02-01

    A framework methodology is proposed for streamflow prediction in poorly-gauged rivers located within large-scale regions of sparse hydrometeorologic observation. A multi-criteria model evaluation is developed to select models that balance runoff efficiency with selection of accurate parameter values. Sparse observed data are supplemented by uncertain or low-resolution information, incorporated as 'soft' data, to estimate parameter values a priori. Model performance is tested in two catchments within a data-poor region of southwestern China, and results are compared to models selected using alternative calibration methods. While all models perform consistently with respect to runoff efficiency (NSE range of 0.67-0.78), models selected using the proposed multi-objective method may incorporate more representative parameter values than those selected by traditional calibration. Notably, parameter values estimated by the proposed method resonate with direct estimates of catchment subsurface storage capacity (parameter residuals of 20 and 61 mm for maximum soil moisture capacity (Cmax), and 0.91 and 0.48 for soil moisture distribution shape factor (B); where a parameter residual is equal to the centroid of a soft parameter value minus the calibrated parameter value). A model more traditionally calibrated to observed data only (single-objective model) estimates a much lower soil moisture capacity (residuals of Cmax = 475 and 518 mm and B = 1.24 and 0.7). A constrained single-objective model also underestimates maximum soil moisture capacity relative to a priori estimates (residuals of Cmax = 246 and 289 mm). The proposed method may allow managers to more confidently transfer calibrated models to ungauged catchments for streamflow predictions, even in the world's most data-limited regions.

  11. The First USGS Global Geologic Map of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, E. J.; Patthoff, D. A.; Senske, D.; Collins, G. C.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the global scale geology of Europa is paramount to gaining insight into the potential habitability of this icy world. To this end, work is ongoing to complete a global geological map at the scale of 1:15 million that incorporates data at all resolutions collected by the Voyager and Galileo missions. The results of this work will aid the Europa Clipper mission, now in formulation, by providing a framework for collaborative and synergistic science investigations. To understand global geologic and tectonic relations, a total of 10 geologic units have been defined. These include: Low Albedo Ridge Material (lam)—low albedo material that irregularly surrounds large (>20 km) ridge structures; Ridged plains (pr)—distributed over all latitudes and characterized by subparallel to cross-cutting ridges and troughs visible at high resolution (material (b)—linear to curvilinear zones with a distinct, abrupt albedo change from the surrounding region; Crater material (c), Continuous Crater Ejecta (ce) and Discontinuous Crater Ejecta (dce)—features associated with impact craters including the site of the impact, crater material, and the fall-out debris respectively; Low Albedo Chaos (chl), Mottled Albedo Chaos (chm) and High Albedo Chaos (chh)—disrupted terrain with a relatively uniform low albedo, patchy/variegated albedo, and uniform high albedo appearance respectively; Knobby Chaos (chk) - disrupted terrain with rough and blocky texture occurring in the high latitudes. In addition to the geologic units, our mapping also includes structural features—Ridges, Cycloids, Undifferentiated Linea, Crater Rims, Depression Margins, Dome Margins and Troughs. We also introduce a point feature (at the global scale), Microchaos, to denote small (material. The completed map will constrain the distribution of different Europa terrains and provide a general stratigraphic framework to assess the geologic history of Europa from the regional to the global scale. Here, we

  12. Geological mapping of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, M. S.; Sukhanov, A. L.; Trifonov, V. G.; Florenskiy, P. V.; Shkerin, L. M.

    1974-01-01

    Compilation and labelling of geological and morphological charts on a scale of 1:1,000,000 are discussed with emphasis on the regions of Maria Tranquilitatis, Crisium, Fecunditatis, Humorum and Nukium as well as certain prominent craters.

  13. A Framework Predicting Water Availability in a Rapidly Growing, Semi-Arid Region under Future Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, B.; Benner, S. G.; Glenn, N. F.; Lindquist, E.; Dahal, K. R.; Bolte, J.; Vache, K. B.; Flores, A. N.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change can lead to dramatic variations in hydrologic regime, affecting both surface water and groundwater supply. This effect is most significant in populated semi-arid regions where water availability are highly sensitive to climate-induced outcomes. However, predicting water availability at regional scales, while resolving some of the key internal variability and structure in semi-arid regions is difficult due to the highly non-linearity relationship between rainfall and runoff. In this study, we describe the development of a modeling framework to evaluate future water availability that captures elements of the coupled response of the biophysical system to climate change and human systems. The framework is built under the Envision multi-agent simulation tool, characterizing the spatial patterns of water demand in the semi-arid Treasure Valley area of Southwest Idaho - a rapidly developing socio-ecological system where urban growth is displacing agricultural production. The semi-conceptual HBV model, a population growth and allocation model (Target), a vegetation state and transition model (SSTM), and a statistically based fire disturbance model (SpatialAllocator) are integrated to simulate hydrology, population and land use. Six alternative scenarios are composed by combining two climate change scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) with three population growth and allocation scenarios (Status Quo, Managed Growth, and Unconstrained Growth). Five-year calibration and validation performances are assessed with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency. Irrigation activities are simulated using local water rights. Results show that in all scenarios, annual mean stream flow decreases as the projected rainfall increases because the projected warmer climate also enhances water losses to evapotranspiration. Seasonal maximum stream flow tends to occur earlier than in current conditions due to the earlier peak of snow melting. The aridity index and water deficit generally increase in the

  14. Geological Corrections in Gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuška, J.; Marušiak, I.

    2015-12-01

    Applying corrections for the known geology to gravity data can be traced back into the first quarter of the 20th century. Later on, mostly in areas with sedimentary cover, at local and regional scales, the correction known as gravity stripping has been in use since the mid 1960s, provided that there was enough geological information. Stripping at regional to global scales became possible after releasing the CRUST 2.0 and later CRUST 1.0 models in the years 2000 and 2013, respectively. Especially the later model provides quite a new view on the relevant geometries and on the topographic and crustal densities as well as on the crust/mantle density contrast. Thus, the isostatic corrections, which have been often used in the past, can now be replaced by procedures working with an independent information interpreted primarily from seismic studies. We have developed software for performing geological corrections in space domain, based on a-priori geometry and density grids which can be of either rectangular or spherical/ellipsoidal types with cells of the shapes of rectangles, tesseroids or triangles. It enables us to calculate the required gravitational effects not only in the form of surface maps or profiles but, for instance, also along vertical lines, which can shed some additional light on the nature of the geological correction. The software can work at a variety of scales and considers the input information to an optional distance from the calculation point up to the antipodes. Our main objective is to treat geological correction as an alternative to accounting for the topography with varying densities since the bottoms of the topographic masses, namely the geoid or ellipsoid, generally do not represent geological boundaries. As well we would like to call attention to the possible distortions of the corrected gravity anomalies. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract APVV-0827-12.

  15. Quantifying the streamflow response to frozen ground degradation in the source region of the Yellow River within the Budyko framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taihua; Yang, Hanbo; Yang, Dawen; Qin, Yue; Wang, Yuhan

    2018-03-01

    The source region of the Yellow River (SRYR) is greatly important for water resources throughout the entire Yellow River Basin. Streamflow in the SRYR has experienced great changes over the past few decades, which is closely related to the frozen ground degradation; however, the extent of this influence is still unclear. In this study, the air freezing index (DDFa) is selected as an indicator for the degree of frozen ground degradation. A water-energy balance equation within the Budyko framework is employed to quantify the streamflow response to the direct impact of climate change, which manifests as changes in the precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, as well as the impact of frozen ground degradation, which can be regarded as part of the indirect impact of climate change. The results show that the direct impact of climate change and the impact of frozen ground degradation can explain 55% and 33%, respectively, of the streamflow decrease for the entire SRYR from Period 1 (1965-1989) to Period 2 (1990-2003). In the permafrost-dominated region upstream of the Jimai hydrological station, the impact of frozen ground degradation can explain 71% of the streamflow decrease. From Period 2 (1990-2003) to Period 3 (2004-2015), the observed streamflow did not increase as much as the precipitation; this could be attributed to the combined effects of increasing potential evapotranspiration and more importantly, frozen ground degradation. Frozen ground degradation could influence streamflow by increasing the groundwater storage when the active layer thickness increases in permafrost-dominated regions. These findings will help develop a better understanding of the impact of frozen ground degradation on water resources in the Tibetan Plateau.

  16. 3D Geological Model for "LUSI" - a Deep Geothermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Reza; Jansen, Gunnar; Mazzini, Adriano; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal applications require the correct simulation of flow and heat transport processes in porous media, and many of these media, like deep volcanic hydrothermal systems, host a certain degree of fracturing. This work aims to understand the heat and fluid transport within a new-born sedimentary hosted geothermal system, termed Lusi, that began erupting in 2006 in East Java, Indonesia. Our goal is to develop conceptual and numerical models capable of simulating multiphase flow within large-scale fractured reservoirs such as the Lusi region, with fractures of arbitrary size, orientation and shape. Additionally, these models can also address a number of other applications, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), CO2 sequestration (Carbon Capture and Storage CCS), and nuclear waste isolation. Fractured systems are ubiquitous, with a wide-range of lengths and scales, making difficult the development of a general model that can easily handle this complexity. We are developing a flexible continuum approach with an efficient, accurate numerical simulator based on an appropriate 3D geological model representing the structure of the deep geothermal reservoir. Using previous studies, borehole information and seismic data obtained in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n°308126), we present here the first 3D geological model of Lusi. This model is calculated using implicit 3D potential field or multi-potential fields, depending on the geological context and complexity. This method is based on geological pile containing the geological history of the area and relationship between geological bodies allowing automatic computation of intersections and volume reconstruction. Based on the 3D geological model, we developed a new mesh algorithm to create hexahedral octree meshes to transfer the structural geological information for 3D numerical simulations to quantify Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) physical processes.

  17. The Role of Geologic Mapping in NASA PDSI Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. A.; Skinner, J. A.; Radebaugh, J.

    2017-12-01

    Geologic mapping is an investigative process designed to derive the geologic history of planetary objects at local, regional, hemispheric or global scales. Geologic maps are critical products that aid future exploration by robotic spacecraft or human missions, support resource exploration, and provide context for and help guide scientific discovery. Creation of these tools, however, can be challenging in that, relative to their terrestrial counterparts, non-terrestrial planetary geologic maps lack expansive field-based observations. They rely, instead, on integrating diverse data types wth a range of spatial scales and areal coverage. These facilitate establishment of geomorphic and geologic context but are generally limited with respect to identifying outcrop-scale textural details and resolving temporal and spatial changes in depositional environments. As a result, planetary maps should be prepared with clearly defined contact and unit descriptions as well as a range of potential interpretations. Today geologic maps can be made from images obtained during the traverses of the Mars rovers, and for every new planetary object visited by NASA orbital or flyby spacecraft (e.g., Vesta, Ceres, Titan, Enceladus, Pluto). As Solar System Exploration develops and as NASA prepares to send astronauts back to the Moon and on to Mars, the importance of geologic mapping will increase. In this presentation, we will discuss the past role of geologic mapping in NASA's planetary science activities and our thoughts on the role geologic mapping will have in exploration in the coming decades. Challenges that planetary mapping must address include, among others: 1) determine the geologic framework of all Solar System bodies through the systematic development of geologic maps at appropriate scales, 2) develop digital Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based mapping techniques and standards to assist with communicating map information to the scientific community and public, 3) develop

  18. Tectonic erosion and consequent collapse of the Pacific margin of Costa Rica: Combined implications from ODP leg 170, seismic offshore data, and regional geology of the Nicoya Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucchi, P.; Scholl, D. W.; Meschede, M.; McDougall-Reid, K.

    2001-01-01

    The convergent margin off the Pacific coast of the Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica exhibits evidence for subduction erosion caused by the underthrusting Cocos plate. Critical evidence for efficacy of this process was recovered at the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) drilling Site 1042 (Leg 170), positioned ???7 km landward of the Middle America trench axis off the Nicoya Peninsula. The primary drilling objective at this site was to identify the age and origin of a regionally extensive and prominent seismic discontinuity, the so-called base-of-slope sediment (BOSS) horizon or surface. The BOSS horizon, which can be traced landward from near the trench to the Nicoya coastal area and parallel to it for hundreds of kilometers, separates a low-velocity (??? 2.0-2.5 km s-1) sequence of slope sediment, from an underlying sequence of much higher-velocity (> 4-4.5 km s-1) rock. Site 1042 reached the acoustically defined BOSS horizon at a below sea level depth of ??? 3900 m and yielded a carbonate-cemented calcarenitic breccia of early-middle Miocene age. Sedimentological, geochemical, paleontological, and cement paragenesis data document that the breccia accumulated in a shallow water depositional environment. On the basis of coastal exposures, the BOSS horizon, as a margin-wide geologic interface, can be temporally and lithostratigraphically correlated to a regional angular unconformity. This unconformity, known as the Mal Pais unconformity, separates Neogene and younger shelf-to-littoral beds from the underlying mafic units of the Mesozoic Nicoya Complex and Cretaceous and early Tertiary sedimentary sequences. At Site 1042 it is inferred that tectonism caused the vertical subsidence of the early Neogene breccia from a shallow to a deep water setting. The Mal Pais unconformity of the BOSS horizon thus connects the rock fabric of the outermost part of margin to that of coastal Nicoya and implies that in the early Neogene the Nicoya shelf extended seaward to near the present

  19. Stochastic Coastal/Regional Uncertainty Modelling: a Copernicus marine research project in the framework of Service Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervatis, Vassilios; De Mey, Pierre; Ayoub, Nadia; Kailas, Marios; Sofianos, Sarantis

    2017-04-01

    The project entitled Stochastic Coastal/Regional Uncertainty Modelling (SCRUM) aims at strengthening CMEMS in the areas of ocean uncertainty quantification, ensemble consistency verification and ensemble data assimilation. The project has been initiated by the University of Athens and LEGOS/CNRS research teams, in the framework of CMEMS Service Evolution. The work is based on stochastic modelling of ocean physics and biogeochemistry in the Bay of Biscay, on an identical sub-grid configuration of the IBI-MFC system in its latest CMEMS operational version V2. In a first step, we use a perturbed tendencies scheme to generate ensembles describing uncertainties in open ocean and on the shelf, focusing on upper ocean processes. In a second step, we introduce two methodologies (i.e. rank histograms and array modes) aimed at checking the consistency of the above ensembles with respect to TAC data and arrays. Preliminary results highlight that wind uncertainties dominate all other atmosphere-ocean sources of model errors. The ensemble spread in medium-range ensembles is approximately 0.01 m for SSH and 0.15 °C for SST, though these values vary depending on season and cross shelf regions. Ecosystem model uncertainties emerging from perturbations in physics appear to be moderately larger than those perturbing the concentration of the biogeochemical compartments, resulting in total chlorophyll spread at about 0.01 mg.m-3. First consistency results show that the model ensemble and the pseudo-ensemble of OSTIA (L4) observation SSTs appear to exhibit nonzero joint probabilities with each other since error vicinities overlap. Rank histograms show that the model ensemble is initially under-dispersive, though results improve in the context of seasonal-range ensembles.

  20. Applications of research from the U.S. Geological Survey program, assessment of regional earthquake hazards and risk along the Wasatch Front, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Paula L.

    1993-01-01

    engineering studies. Translated earthquake hazard maps have also been developed to identify areas that are particularly vulnerable to various causes of damage such as ground shaking, surface rupturing, and liquefaction. The implementation of earthquake hazard reduction plans are now under way in various communities in Utah. The results of a survey presented in this paper indicate that technical public officials (planners and building officials) have an understanding of the earthquake hazards and how to mitigate the risks. Although the survey shows that the general public has a slightly lower concern about the potential for economic losses, they recognize the potential problems and can support a number of earthquake mitigation measures. The study suggests that many community groups along the Wasatch Front, including volunteer groups, business groups, and elected and appointed officials, are ready for action-oriented educational programs. These programs could lead to a significant reduction in the risks associated with earthquake hazards. A DATA BASE DESIGNED FOR URBAN SEISMIC HAZARDS STUDIES: A computerized data base has been designed for use in urban seismic hazards studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The design includes file structures for 16 linked data sets, which contain geological, geophysical, and seismological data used in preparing relative ground response maps of large urban areas. The data base is organized along relational data base principles. A prototype urban hazards data base has been created for evaluation in two urban areas currently under investigation: the Wasatch Front region of Utah and the Puget Sound area of Washington. The initial implementation of the urban hazards data base was accomplished on a microcomputer using dBASE III Plus software and transferred to minicomputers and a work station. A MAPPING OF GROUND-SHAKING INTENSITIES FOR SALT LAKE COUNTY, UTAH: This paper documents the development of maps showing a

  1. Geological analysis and petrographic training Tarata in careers (Upper Paleozoic)-test paleoclimatic interpretation in the light of the glacial episode devono-carboniferous (Arlit region, northern Niger)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hamet, Mai Ousmane

    1983-01-01

    anomalies observed in geochemistry will in the same direction. 4-redox phenomena. The study of the diagenetic evolution of double oxides of iron and titanium indicates that tarat sediments were deposited in a reducing environment (the importance of organic matter pyritized) before being oxidized by the late circulation of groundwater acids and oxidizing leaching especially in training Permian reddened.5-Tectonics. The synsedimentary tectonic replays and slow both the regional and the scope of mining have controlled a crucial sedimentation, and consequently the uranium mineralization.6-Impact on uranium mineralization.The analysis of the geological past and new ones made by this study helps identify the problem of setting up large concentrations of uranium Arlit. These seem to be controlled by the combined action of several factors, most of them are themselves controlled by the synsedimentary tectonic replays and slow. Uranium is largely due to leaching of volcanic materials belonging to indigenous or overlying formations. Indeed, originally, uranium appears to be related to volcanic phenomena of soil in tundra environments. Then its concentration is dependent upon the phenomena of oxidation-reduction in conjunction with circulations of water acidic oxidizing water in reducing sediment initially. It is present in the sandy sediment mainly as uraninite pec sphalerite, coffinite and vanadate; in facies for silty clay, it is mainly as complexes organophylliteux and seems to be syn sedimentary. A geochemical study summary shows that the uranium in the deposit Arlit, in addition to its u sual escorts (Pb, Mo, V, Cu) associated with zirconium and titanium. The new stratigraphy proposed for careers in Tarat SOMAIR shows that the mineralized sediments belong to the Lower Carboniferous, but also to Permian [fr

  2. Biostratigraphic correlation of the western and eastern margins of the Labrador–Baffin Seaway and implications for the regional geology. Appendix 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Nøhr-Hansen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available New analyses of the palynological assemblages in 13 offshore wells on the Canadian margin and six on the West Greenland Margin, in conjunction with onshore data, have led to a new biostratigraphic framework for the Cretaceous–Cenozoic strata of the Labrador Sea – Davis Strait – Baffin Bay (Labrador–Baffin Seaway region and the first broad biostratigraphic correlation of the Canadian and Greenland margins. This framework is based on 167 last occurrences and 18 local/regional peak/common-occurrence events for dinocysts, miospores, fungal spores and Azolla. Detailed biostratigraphic evidence has confirmed the following hiatuses: pre-Aptian in the Hopedale Basin; pre-Albian in the Saglek Basin; Albian–Turonian in some wells of the Hopedale Basin; Turonian–Santonian/Campanian in some areas; pre-Campanian and late Campanian – Thanetian on the Greenland Margin; late Maastrichtian and Danian in some wells of the Hopedale Basin and in the Saglek Basin; Selandian in part of the Hopedale Basin, in all the Saglek Basin wells and in two wells on the West Greenland Margin; late Ypresian and/or Lutetian on both sides; Oligocene to middle Miocene of considerable variability on both margins, with all of the Oligocene and the lower Miocene missing in all the West Greenland Margin wells; and middle to late Miocene on the western side. On the Canadian margin, the hiatuses can be partially matched with the five previously recognised regional unconformities; on the Greenland margin, however, the relationship to the five unconformities is more tenuous. Palynomorph assemblages show that most Aptian to Albian sediments were deposited in generally non-marine to marginal marine settings, interrupted by a short-lived shallow marine episode in the Aptian. A marine transgression started in the Cenomanian–Turonian and led to the most open-marine, oceanic conditions in the Campanian–Lutetian; shallowing probably started in the late Lutetian and continued into

  3. Biostratigraphic correlation of the western and eastern margins of the Labrador–Baffin Seaway and implications for the regional geology. Fig. 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Nøhr-Hansen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available New analyses of the palynological assemblages in 13 offshore wells on the Canadian margin and six on the West Greenland Margin, in conjunction with onshore data, have led to a new biostratigraphic framework for the Cretaceous–Cenozoic strata of the Labrador Sea – Davis Strait – Baffin Bay (Labrador–Baffin Seaway region and the first broad biostratigraphic correlation of the Canadian and Greenland margins. This framework is based on 167 last occurrences and 18 local/regional peak/common-occurrence events for dinocysts, miospores, fungal spores and Azolla. Detailed biostratigraphic evidence has confirmed the following hiatuses: pre-Aptian in the Hopedale Basin; pre-Albian in the Saglek Basin; Albian–Turonian in some wells of the Hopedale Basin; Turonian–Santonian/Campanian in some areas; pre-Campanian and late Campanian – Thanetian on the Greenland Margin; late Maastrichtian and Danian in some wells of the Hopedale Basin and in the Saglek Basin; Selandian in part of the Hopedale Basin, in all the Saglek Basin wells and in two wells on the West Greenland Margin; late Ypresian and/or Lutetian on both sides; Oligocene to middle Miocene of considerable variability on both margins, with all of the Oligocene and the lower Miocene missing in all the West Greenland Margin wells; and middle to late Miocene on the western side. On the Canadian margin, the hiatuses can be partially matched with the five previously recognised regional unconformities; on the Greenland margin, however, the relationship to the five unconformities is more tenuous. Palynomorph assemblages show that most Aptian to Albian sediments were deposited in generally non-marine to marginal marine settings, interrupted by a short-lived shallow marine episode in the Aptian. A marine transgression started in the Cenomanian–Turonian and led to the most open-marine, oceanic conditions in the Campanian–Lutetian; shallowing probably started in the late Lutetian and continued into

  4. Geoethics and Forensic Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Laurance

    2017-04-01

    The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), Initiative on Forensic Geology (IFG) was set up in 2011 to promote and develop the applications of geology to policing and law enforcement throughout the world. This includes the provision of crime scene examinations, searches to locate graves or items of interest that have been buried beneath the ground surface as part of a criminal act and geological trace analysis and evidence. Forensic geologists may assist the police and law enforcement in a range of ways including for example; homicide, sexual assaults, counter terrorism, kidnapping, humanitarian incidents, environmental crimes, precious minerals theft, fakes and fraudulent crimes. The objective of this paper is to consider the geoethical aspects of forensic geology. This includes both delivery to research and teaching, and contribution to the practical applications of forensic geology in case work. The case examples cited are based on the personal experiences of the authors. Often, the technical and scientific aspect of forensic geology investigation may be the most straightforward, after all, this is what the forensic geologist has been trained to do. The associated geoethical issues can be the most challenging and complex to manage. Generally, forensic geologists are driven to carry-out their research or case work with integrity, honesty and in a manner that is law abiding, professional, socially acceptable and highly responsible. This is necessary in advising law enforcement organisations, society and the scientific community that they represent. As the science of forensic geology begins to advance around the world it is desirable to establish a standard set of principles, values and to provide an agreed ethical a framework. But what are these core values? Who is responsible for producing these? How may these become enforced? What happens when geoethical standards are breached? This paper does not attempt to provide all of the answers, as further work

  5. Low-Probability High-Consequence (LPHC) Failure Events in Geologic Carbon Sequestration Pipelines and Wells: Framework for LPHC Risk Assessment Incorporating Spatial Variability of Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Budnitz, Robert J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-31

    accident sequences of concern and of their consequences, and crucially the methodology provides insights into what measures might be taken to mitigate those accident sequences identified as of concern. Mitigating strategies could address reducing the likelihood of an accident sequence of concern, or reducing the consequences, or some combination. The methodology elucidates both local and integrated risks along the pipeline or at the well providing information useful to decision makers at various levels including local (e.g., property owners and town councils), regional (e.g., county and state representatives), and national levels (federal regulators and corporate proponents).

  6. Research on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this research are to develop criteria for reviewing acceptability of the adequacy of the result of Preliminary and Detailed Investigations submitted by the implementor, and to establish a basic policy to secure safety for safety review. In FY 2010, 13 geology/climate related events for development of acceptance criteria for reviewing the adequacy of the result of Preliminary and Detailed Investigations were extracted. And the accuracy of geophysical exploration methods necessary for the Preliminary Investigation was evaluated. Regarding the research for safety review, we developed an idea of safety concept of Japanese geological disposal, and analyzed basic safety functions to secure safety. In order to verify the groundwater flow evaluation methods developed in regulatory research, the hydrological and geochemical data at Horonobe, northern Hokkaido were obtained, and simulated result of regional groundwater flow were compared with measured data. And we developed the safety scenario of geology/climate related events categorized by geological and geomorphological properties. Also we created a system to check the quality of research results in Japan and other countries in order to utilize for safety regulation, and developed a database system to compile them. (author)

  7. A Cross-cultural Analytical Framework for Territorial Development Policies : The Application to Flood Risk Management Policies in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongwinriyaphanich, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a proposed analytical framework that takes cultural dimensions as main parameters to explain territorial development processes. It is illustrated through the analysis of flood risk management in two case study areas in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region. It aims

  8. Planetary geology

    CERN Document Server

    Gasselt, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date interdisciplinary geoscience-focused overview of solid solar system bodies and their evolution, based on the comparative description of processes acting on them. Planetary research today is a strongly multidisciplinary endeavor with efforts coming from engineering and natural sciences. Key focal areas of study are the solid surfaces found in our Solar System. Some have a direct interaction with the interplanetary medium and others have dynamic atmospheres. In any of those cases, the geological records of those surfaces (and sub-surfaces) are key to understanding the Solar System as a whole: its evolution and the planetary perspective of our own planet. This book has a modular structure and is divided into 4 sections comprising 15 chapters in total. Each section builds upon the previous one but is also self-standing. The sections are:  Methods and tools Processes and Sources  Integration and Geological Syntheses Frontiers The latter covers the far-reaching broad topics of exo...

  9. Comments of the Wisconsin Radioactive Waste Review Board's Technical Advisory Council on the review draft of the north central regional geologic and environmental characterization reports, May 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This document contains a collection of official comments on a draft report characterizing the subsurface geology of an area of Wisconsin proposed for a high-level radioactive waste disposal site. Most comments identify passages requiring correction or question the interpretation of the data

  10. An analytical framework for extracting hydrological information from time series of small reservoirs in a semi-arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annor, Frank; van de Giesen, Nick; Bogaard, Thom; Eilander, Dirk

    2013-04-01

    small reservoirs in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Reservoirs without obvious large seepage losses (field survey) were selected. To verify this, stable water isotopic samples are collected from groundwater upstream and downstream from the reservoir. By looking at possible enrichment of downstream groundwater, a good estimate of seepage can be made in addition to estimates on evaporation. We estimated the evaporative losses and compared those with field measurements using eddy correlation measurements. Lastly, we determined the cumulative surface runoff curves for the small reservoirs .We will present this analytical framework for extracting hydrological information from time series of small reservoirs and show the first results for our study region of northern Ghana.

  11. Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal energy storage. Volume 1: Regions 1 through 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    The geologic and hydrologic framework, major aquifers, aquifers which are suitable and unsuitable for annual thermal energy storage (ATES) and the ATES potential of the western mountains, alluvial basins, Columbia LAVA plateau, Colorado plateau, high plains, and glaciated central region are discussed.

  12. The role of the Salon-Cavaillon fault in the structural framework of Provence region (SE France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molliex, Stéphane; Bellier, Olivier; Terrier, Monique; Lamarche, Juliette; Martelet, Guillaume; Espurt, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    The Provence region is located in the South-East France Basin, in the foreland domain of the Pyrenean and the Alpine mountain belts. The structural pattern of Provence is characterized by W-trending ramp anticlines and N- to NE-trending oblique reverse strike-slip faults. It results from the superimposition of Pyrenean (late Cretaceous to Eocene) and Alpine (Miocene to present-day) compressional tectonic regimes. In addition, extensional tectonics affected the region during Oligocene (W to NW-trending σ3). The Salon-Cavaillon strike-slip fault (SCF) separates two main E-trending ridges (Alpilles to the West and Luberon to the East). A structural study has been realized in order to characterize the post-Oligocene deformation of this domain. Field data and balanced cross-sections show that the post-Oligocene deformation drastically differs on both sides of the SCF. The Luberon ridge results from a fault propagation-fold developed on a S-verging ramp. Laterally, the western anticline termination is bended as a drag fold along the SCF. The Alpilles ridge results from a less developed fault propagation fold. Its eastern termination was affected by a rigid counter-clockwise rotation around a vertical axis, driven by a major curved right- lateral fault. In addition, we integrated gravity data and reprocessed seismic reflection sections to image the sub-surface structures to the West of the SCF at a larger scale. It permits to precise the regional tectonic framework in term of structure and chronology and to detect several hidden E-trending S-verging ramp anticline. The main shortening episode in Provence occurred during pyreneo-provençal phase from Late Cretaceous to Eocene, with 65 % of the total shortening to the East of the SCF and 95 % to the West. Alpine (Miocene to Present-day) shortening differs drastically on both sides of the SCF (2 km of shortening to the East, for less than 0.4 km to the West). This underlines the major role of the SCF in the transfer of

  13. Geomass: geological modelling analysis and simulation software for the characterisation of fractured hard rock environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.J.; Humm, J.P.; Todaka, N.; Takeuchi, S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the development and functionality of a suite of applications which are being developed to support the geological investigations in the Tono URL. GEOMASS will include 3D geological modelling, 3D fluid flow and solute transport and 3D visualisation capabilities. The 3D geological modelling in GEOMASS will be undertaken using a commercially available 3D geological modelling system, EarthVision. EarthVision provides 3D mapping, interpolation, analysis and well planning software. It is being used in the GEOMASS system to provide the geological framework (structure of the tectonic faults and stratigraphic and lithological contacts) to the 3D flow code. It is also being used to gather the geological data into a standard format for use throughout the investigation programme. The 3D flow solver to be used in GEOMASS is called Frac-Affinity. Frac-Affinity models the 3D geometry of the flow system as a hybrid medium, in which the rock contains both permeable, intact rock and fractures. Frac-Affinity also performs interpolation of heterogeneous rock mass property data using a fractal based approach and the generation of stochastic fracture networks. The code solves for transient flow over a user defined sub-region of the geological framework supplied by EarthVision. The results from Frac-Affinity are passed back to EarthVision so that the flow simulation can be visualized alongside the geological structure. This work-flow allows rapid assessment of the role of geological features in controlling flow. This paper will present the concepts and approach of GEOMASS and illustrate the practical application of GEOMASS using data from Tono

  14. Geologic sources of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Price, Raymond A.; Scholl, David W.; Stone, David B.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes the exploration, development, and geologic setting of petroleum resources (including tar sands), coal resources (including coalbed methane), and geothermal energy resources of the Northern Cordillera.For petroleum resources, the chapter describes: (1) the history of petroleum development and production, first for Alaska and then for the Canadian Cordillera; and (2) generalized basin analysis geologic settings for the six major petroleum basins that are illustrated in summary maps and cross sections. Subsequent sections of the chapter describe the nature and geologic setting of tar sand resources, geothermal energy resources, and coal resources. The area distribution of the energy resources of the region are depicted in the Energy Resources Map that has multiple layers that can be displayed in various arrangements. Employing this map in a separate window while reading the text will be greatly beneficial. Many geographic names are employed in the descriptions throughout this chapter. While reading this chapter, viewing the Geographic Regions Layer of the Energy Resources Map, as needed, will be valuable.

  15. Regional framework and geology of iron oxide-apatite-rare earth element and iron oxide-copper-gold deposits of the Mesoproterozoic St. Francois Mountains Terrane, southeast Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Warren C.; Slack, John F.; Ayuso, Robert A.; Seeger, Cheryl M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on the genesis of Mesoproterozoic igneous rocks and associated iron oxide ± apatite (IOA) ± rare earth element, iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG), and iron-rich sedimentary deposits in the St. Francois Mountains terrane of southeast Missouri, USA. The St. Francois Mountains terrane lies along the southeastern margin of Laurentia as part of the eastern granite-rhyolite province. The province formed during two major pulses of igneous activity: (1) an older early Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.50–1.44 Ga) episode of volcanism and granite plutonism, and (2) a younger middle Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.33–1.30 Ga) episode of bimodal gabbro and granite plutonism. The volcanic rocks are predominantly high-silica rhyolite pyroclastic flows, volcanogenic breccias, and associated volcanogenic sediments with lesser amounts of basaltic to andesitic volcanic and associated subvolcanic intrusive rocks. The iron oxide deposits are all hosted in the early Mesoproterozoic volcanic and volcaniclastic sequences. Previous studies have characterized the St. Francois Mountains terrane as a classic, A-type within-plate granitic terrane. However, our new whole-rock geochemical data indicate that the felsic volcanic rocks are effusive derivatives from multicomponent source types, having compositional similarities to A-type within-plate granites as well as to S- and I-type granites generated in an arc setting. In addition, the volcanic-hosted IOA and IOCG deposits occur within bimodal volcanic sequences, some of which have volcanic arc geochemical affinities, suggesting an extensional tectonic setting during volcanism prior to emplacement of the ore-forming systems.The Missouri iron orebodies are magmatic-related hydrothermal deposits that, when considered in aggregate, display a vertical zonation from high-temperature, magmatic ± hydrothermal IOA deposits emplaced at moderate depths (~1–2 km), to magnetite-dominant IOA veins and IOCG deposits emplaced at shallow subvolcanic depths. The shallowest parts of these systems include near-surface, iron oxide-only replacement deposits, surficial epithermal sediment-hosted replacement deposits, synsedimentary ironstone deposits, and Mn-rich exhalite deposits. Alteration associated with the IOA and IOCG mineralizing systems of the host volcanic rocks dominantly produced potassic with lesser amounts of calcic- and sodic-rich mineral assemblages. No deposits are known to be hosted in granite, implying that the mineralizing systems were operative during a relatively short, postvolcanic period yet prior to intrusion of the granitoids.Companion studies in this special issue on mineral chemistry, stable isotopes, and iron isotopes suggest that the magnetite within the IOA deposits formed from high-temperature fluids of magmatic or magmatic-hydrothermal origin. However, the data do not discriminate between a magmatic-hydrothermal source fluid exsolved from an Fe-rich immiscible liquid or an Fe-rich silicate magma. Mineral chemical, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope data from these new studies record the effects of metasomatic fluids that interacted with crustal reservoirs such as volcanic rocks or seawater.

  16. Tectono-Thermal History Modeling and Reservoir Simulation Study of the Nenana Basin, Central Alaska: Implications for Regional Tectonics and Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Nilesh C.

    Central Interior Alaska is an active tectonic deformation zone highlighted by the complex interactions of active strike-slip fault systems with thrust faults and folds of the Alaska Range fold-and-thrust belt. This region includes the Nenana basin and the adjacent Tanana basin, both of which have significant Tertiary coal-bearing formations and are also promising areas (particularly the Nenana basin) with respect to hydrocarbon exploration and geologic carbon sequestration. I investigate the modern-day crustal architecture of the Nenana and Tanana basins using seismic reflection, aeromagnetic and gravity anomaly data and demonstrate that the basement of both basins shows strong crustal heterogeneity. The Nenana basin is a deep (up to 8 km), narrow transtensional pull-apart basin that is deforming along the left-lateral Minto Flats fault zone. The Tanana basin has a fundamentally different geometry and is a relatively shallow (up to 2 km) asymmetrical foreland basin with its southern, deeper side controlled by the northern foothills of the central Alaska Range. NE-trending strike-slip faults within the Tanana basin are interpreted as a zone of clockwise crustal block rotation. Seismic refection data, well data, fracture data and apatite fission track data further constrain the tectonic evolution and thermal history of the Nenana basin. The Nenana basin experienced four distinct tectonic phases since Late Paleocene time. The basin initiated as a narrow half-graben structure in Late Paleocene with accumulation of greater than 6000 feet of sediments. The basin was then uplifted, resulting in the removal of up to 5000 feet of Late Paleocene sediments in Eocene to Oligocene time. During Middle to Late Miocene time, left lateral strike-slip faulting was superimposed on the existing half-graben system. Transtensional deformation of the basin began in the Pliocene. At present, Miocene and older strata are exposed to temperatures > 60°C in the deeper parts of the Nenana

  17. Sand Resources, Regional Geology, and Coastal Processes of the Chandeleur Islands Coastal System: an Evaluation of the Breton National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Breton National Wildlife Refuge, the Chandeleur Islands chain in Louisiana, provides habitat and nesting areas for wildlife and is an initial barrier protecting New Orleans from storms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in partnership with the University of New Orleans Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences undertook an intensive study that included (1) an analysis of island change based on historical maps and remotely sensed shoreline and topographic data; (2) a series of lidar surveys at 3- to 4-month intervals after Hurricane Katrina to determine barrier island recovery potential; (3) a discussion of sea level rise and effects on the islands; (4) an analysis of sea floor evolution and sediment dynamics in the refuge over the past 150 years; (5) an assessment of the local sediment transport and sediment resource availability based on the bathymetric and subbottom data; (6) a carefully selected core collection effort to groundtruth the geophysical data and more fully characterize the sediments composing the islands and surrounds; (7) an additional survey of the St. Bernard Shoals to assess their potential as a sand resource; and (8) a modeling study to numerically simulate the potential response of the islands to the low-intensity, intermediate, and extreme events likely to affect the refuge over the next 50 years. Results indicate that the islands have become fragmented and greatly diminished in subaerial extent over time: the southern islands retreating landward as they reorganize into subaerial features, the northern islands remaining in place. Breton Island, because maintenance of the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet (MRGO) outer bar channel requires dredging, is deprived of sand sufficient to sustain itself. Regional sediment transport trends indicate that large storms are extremely effective in transporting sand and controlling the shoreline development and barrier island geometry. Sand is transported north and south from a divergent zone near

  18. Surficial geologic map of the Heath-Northfield-Southwick-Hampden 24-quadrangle area in the Connecticut Valley region, west-central Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Janet R.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.

    2010-01-01

    The surficial geologic map layer shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of 24 7.5-minute quadrangles (1,238 mi2 total) in west-central Massachusetts. Across Massachusetts, these materials range from a few feet to more than 500 ft in thickness. They overlie bedrock, which crops out in upland hills and as resistant ledges in valley areas. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial materials also are known in engineering classifications as unconsolidated soils, which include coarse-grained soils, fine-grained soils, and organic fine-grained soils. Surficial materials underlie and are the parent materials of modern pedogenic soils, which have developed in them at the land surface. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for assessing water resources, construction aggregate resources, and earth-surface hazards, and for making land-use decisions. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text, quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), metadata for the GIS layers, scanned topographic base maps (TIF), and a readme.txt file.

  19. Geology and bedrock engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This book deals with geology of Korea which includes summary, geology in central part and southern part in Korea and characteristic of geology structure, limestone like geology property of limestone, engineered property of limestone, and design and construction case in limestone area. It also introduces engineered property of the cenozoic, clay rock and shale, geologic and engineered property of phyllite and stratum.

  20. Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1) Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.A. Levich; J.S. Stuckless

    2006-01-01

    Yucca Mountain in Nevada represents the proposed solution to what has been a lengthy national effort to dispose of high-level radioactive waste, waste which must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. This chapter reviews the background of that national effort and includes some discussion of international work in order to provide a more complete framework for the problem of waste disposal. Other chapters provide the regional geologic setting, the geology of the Yucca Mountain site, the tectonics, and climate (past, present, and future). These last two chapters are integral to prediction of long-term waste isolation

  1. Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1) Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Levich; J.S. Stuckless

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain in Nevada represents the proposed solution to what has been a lengthy national effort to dispose of high-level radioactive waste, waste which must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. This chapter reviews the background of that national effort and includes some discussion of international work in order to provide a more complete framework for the problem of waste disposal. Other chapters provide the regional geologic setting, the geology of the Yucca Mountain site, the tectonics, and climate (past, present, and future). These last two chapters are integral to prediction of long-term waste isolation.

  2. Old Geology and New Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 28 May 2003Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. Geohydrologic-engineering geology evaluation of the Selma Group in western Alabama and northeast Mississippi for possible radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, S.

    1975-06-01

    The following topics are discussed: regional stratigraphy, lithologic characteristic-chalk sequences, structural geology settting, earthquakes and historical seismicity, regional geomorphology, recovery of geological resources, and groundwater hydrology

  4. Research on geological disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The aims of this research are to develop criteria for reviewing reliability and suitability of the result from Preliminary Investigations to be submitted by the implementer, and to establish a basic policy for safety review. For development of reliability and suitability criteria for reviewing the result of Preliminary Investigations, we evaluated the uncertainties and their influence from limited amount of investigations, as well as we identified important procedures during investigations and constructions of models, as follows: (1) uncertainties after limited amount of geological exploration and drilling, (2) influence of uncertainties in regional groundwater flow model, (3) uncertainties of DFN (Discrete Fracture Network) models in the fractured rock, (4) analyzed investigation methods described in implementer's report, and (5) identified important aspects in investigation which need to be reviewed and follow QA (Quality Assurance). For development of reliability and suitability criteria for reviewing the result of Detailed Investigations, we analyzed important aspects in investigation which supplies data to design and safety assessment, as well as studied the applicability of pressure interference data during excavation to verify hydrogeological model. Regarding the research for safety review, uncertainties of geologic process in long time-scale was studied. In FY2012, we started to evaluate the structural stabilities of concrete and bentonite in disposal environment. Finally, we continued to accumulate the knowledge on geological disposal into the database system. (author)

  5. Geologic map of the Western Grove quadrangle, northwestern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark R.; Turner, Kenzie J.; Repetski, John E.

    2006-01-01

    This map summarizes the geology of the Western Grove 7.5-minute quadrangle in northern Arkansas that is located on the southern flank of the Ozark dome, a late Paleozoic regional uplift. The exposed bedrock of this map area comprises approximately 1,000 ft of Ordovician and Mississippian carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks that have been mildly folded and broken by faults. A segment of the Buffalo River loops through the southern part of the quadrangle, and the river and adjacent lands form part of Buffalo National River, a park administered by the U.S. National Park Service. This geologic map provides information to better understand the natural resources of the Buffalo River watershed, particularly its karst hydrogeologic framework.

  6. [GEOLOGICAL OVERVIEW OF THE VILNIUS REGION BY J. E. GILIBERT (1741-1814), THE FIRST PROFESSOR OF NATURAL HISTORY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF VILNIUS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkowski, Radosław

    2015-01-01

    In 1775-1783, Jean-Emmanuel Gilibert (1741-1814) stayed in Respublica Poloniae to oranize a veterinary school, the Royal Botanic Garden and the Royal School of Physicians in Grodno, and since 1781 he worked in Vilnius as Professor of Natural History at the Principal School of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Little is known about his work conducted in Lithuania in the field of geology and earth sciences. The author has decided, on the basis of Gilibert's publications and analysis of the literature (works of J. Garbowska and P. Daszkiewicz and others), to present his teaching and research activities in this field. In Grodno, Gilibert looked after and multiplied the collections of the natural history cabinet at the Royal School of Physicians, renowned for its rich mineralogical and fossil collections watched and admired by, among others, King Stanisław August, J. Bernoulli (1744-1807) and M. Patrin (1742-1815) who mentions the amber rosary with a different species of insects preserved in each bead. Gilibert's tours around Lithuania were the opportunity to enlarge the geological collections and to adapt them to the needs of the school. He also appreciated the importance of ordinary specimens representing the geology of the area. These specimens not only enriched the natural history cabinet, but also defined the way of working and collecting. Ha was the first to found and gather fossil animals from near Grodno. The signs of mineralogical and geological interests of Gilibert can be found in the works of other authors of that epoch (L. Viteta (1736-1809) and J. Bernoulli). In Vilnius, Gilibert conducted a one year-long full lecture on natural history (zoology, botany and mineralogy). In his lectures on mineralogy, he presented not only the systematics, but also emphasized the usefulness of minerals in medicine, for the production of ornamental items and in different sectors of the economy. He adapted the process of teaching to the needs of practical life, based on

  7. On the effect of the 3-D regional geology on the seismic design of critical structures: the case of the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, F.; Lopez-Caballero, F.; Clouteau, D.; Paolucci, R.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, numerical investigation is performed on a realistic source-to-site earthquake scenario, with the aim to assess the role of complex 3-D geological structures on the predicted wavefield. With this respect, the paper pointedly targets the seismic response of nuclear power plants in near-field conditions and the verification of some simplified assumptions commonly adopted for earthquake ground motion prediction and site effects analysis. To this purpose, the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant (Japan) is assumed as reference case-study. In 2007, the nuclear site and its surroundings were struck by the Niigata-Ken Chūetsu-Oki seismic sequence, which caused some of the peak ground motion design limits to be largely overpassed. The dense observation network deployed at the site recorded a highly incoherent and impulsive earthquake ground motion. Many studies argued that the intricate syncline-anticline geology lying underneath the nuclear facility was highly responsible of the observed seismic response. Therefore, a physics-based numerical model of the epicentral area is built-up (≈60 km wide) and tested for small aftershocks, so to discount the effect of extended source on the synthetic site-response. The numerical model (based on the Spectral Element Method) reproduces the source-to-site wave propagation by embracing the effects of the surface topography along with the presence of the Japan Sea (i.e. the bathymetry, the coastline and the fluid-solid interaction). Broad-band (0-5 Hz) synthetic waveforms are obtained for two different aftershocks, located at the two opposite sides of the nuclear facility, aiming to assess the influence of the incidence angle the radiated wave field impinges the foldings beneath it. The effect of the folding presence is assessed by comparing it to a subhorizontally layered geology, in terms of numerical outcome, and by highlighting the differences with respect to the observations. The presence of an intricate geology

  8. Geologic environmental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yoon; Koh, Young Kown; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kim, Jhin Wung

    2000-05-01

    The geoscience research works are focused on the production of geologic basic data accompanying with the technical development of geology and hydrogeologic characterization. The lithology of the Korean peninsula consis