WorldWideScience

Sample records for regional experiment fire-ii

  1. Regional Sociological Research Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Vladimirovich Morev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the experience of the Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories of RAS in conducting sociological research on the territory of the Vologda Oblast and the Northwestern Federal District. It describes the historical aspects of formation of the system for public opinion monitoring and examines its theoretical and methodological foundations. The author of the article analyzes the structure of monitoring indicators and provides a brief interpretation of research findings that reflect social wellbeing and social perception trends. In addition, the paper analyzes people’s attitude toward the activities of federal and regional authorities, trends in social well-being, consumer sentiment and also the complex indicator – the index of public sentiment in the region – developed by ISEDT RAS researchers. The results of sociological studies carried out at ISEDT RAS correlate with the dynamics of the all-Russian public opinion polls conducted by the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VCIOM, Levada-Center, etc. They indicate that Russian society gradually adapts to new conditions of life after the collapse of the USSR. Besides, opinion polls show the most important features of the post-Soviet Russian history at its present stage; they are associated with the intensification of international political relations, the consequences of the “Crimean spring” and the new challenges Russia’s economy is facing now. The article concludes that as global community, of which Russian society is part, is evolving, sociological knowledge begins to play an increasingly important role in administration and national security; this is associated with the greater importance attached to intangible development factors. Therefore, a necessary prerequisite for administration effectiveness in all its stages is to implement the results of sociological research on social

  2. Comparisons of cloud ice mass content retrieved from the radar-infrared radiometer method with aircraft data during the second international satellite cloud climatology project regional experiment (FIRE-II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matrosov, S.Y. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)]|[National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Lab., Boulder, CO (United States); Heymsfield, A.J. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Kropfli, R.A.; Snider, J.B. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Comparisons of remotely sensed meteorological parameters with in situ direct measurements always present a challenge. Matching sampling volumes is one of the main problems for such comparisons. Aircraft usually collect data when flying along a horizontal leg at a speed of about 100 m/sec (or even greater). The usual sampling time of 5 seconds provides an average horizontal resolution of the order of 500 m. Estimations of vertical profiles of cloud microphysical parameters from aircraft measurements are hampered by sampling a cloud at various altitudes at different times. This paper describes the accuracy of aircraft horizontal and vertical coordinates relative to the location of the ground-based instruments.

  3. Regional Development Planning in Ethiopia: Past Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regional Development Planning in Ethiopia: Past Experience, Current Initiatives and Future Prospects. ... Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review ... The main contention of the paper is that in the past, regional development, in line with the functional integration approach, was considered a national project.

  4. Regional Community and International Relations: the Volgograd Region Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danakari Richard A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the complex and controversial problems of the new regional communities’ formation and the impact of the interethnic relations sphere on them. The author notes that the processes of interaction between representatives of different cultures and civilizations, ethnic groups and religions have become increasingly controversial and tense in the context of continuous social dynamics. Similarly to the Russian society as a whole, regional communities are in a state of transitivity. They get transformed, they acquire new qualities such as multicasting and heterogeneity, multi-ethnicity and multi-confessionalism, fragmentarity and multiculturality. This fact increases the risks and uncertainties, problematizes future prospects. National non-governmental organizations are increasingly positioning themselves as civil society institutions at the present stage of social development at the regional level. They perform a difficult dual task: on the one hand, they ensure the preservation and development of history, native language, culture, ethnic traditions, and on the other hand, they work on the integration, on the common identity and the Russian nation formation. On the territory of the Volgograd region, largely due to the active cooperation of regional authorities and local authorities with national public associations, international and inter-confessional relations are stable. The basis of such activity is respect for history, native language, culture, tradition, religion, national dignity of all people in the region, regardless of their belonging to a certain ethnic group or religion. Over two decades of accumulated considerable experience of joint inter-ethnic dialogue and cooperation, provided tolerance and peace, harmony and mutual understanding between people of different ethnicities and religions in the country.

  5. Comparison of DSMC and CFD Solutions of Fire II Including Radiative Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechty, Derek S.; Johnston, Christopher O.; Lewis, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to compute rarefied, ionized hypersonic flows is becoming more important as missions such as Earth reentry, landing high mass payloads on Mars, and the exploration of the outer planets and their satellites are being considered. These flows may also contain significant radiative heating. To prepare for these missions, NASA is developing the capability to simulate rarefied, ionized flows and to then calculate the resulting radiative heating to the vehicle's surface. In this study, the DSMC codes DAC and DS2V are used to obtain charge-neutral ionization solutions. NASA s direct simulation Monte Carlo code DAC is currently being updated to include the ability to simulate charge-neutral ionized flows, take advantage of the recently introduced Quantum-Kinetic chemistry model, and to include electronic energy levels as an additional internal energy mode. The Fire II flight test is used in this study to assess these new capabilities. The 1634 second data point was chosen for comparisons to be made in order to include comparisons to computational fluid dynamics solutions. The Knudsen number at this point in time is such that the DSMC simulations are still tractable and the CFD computations are at the edge of what is considered valid. It is shown that there can be quite a bit of variability in the vibrational temperature inferred from DSMC solutions and that, from how radiative heating is computed, the electronic temperature is much better suited for radiative calculations. To include the radiative portion of heating, the flow-field solutions are post-processed by the non-equilibrium radiation code HARA. Acceptable agreement between CFD and DSMC flow field solutions is demonstrated and the progress of the updates to DAC, along with an appropriate radiative heating solution, are discussed. In addition, future plans to generate more high fidelity radiative heat transfer solutions are discussed.

  6. Regional Policies For Social Housing. An experience in Regione Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Trombetta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Social housing is again a dynamic sector of construction. European «cohesion» and «convergence» programs aim to promote Mediterranean housing in order to improve competitiveness, innovation and employment in under-developed regions. The whole SH planning and implementing process implies criticalities that often damage local initiatives. This study of the Calabria Case has pointed out that both public and private entrepreneurs perceive the cumbersome requirements and procedures as ‘unfriendly’ and tend to renounce the incentives. Process management information instruments together with simpler evaluation and certification systems seem to encourage suitable and flexible solutions, reliable results as well as transparency and quality of action.

  7. Technology and politics: The regional airport experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, J. D.; Brown, J.; Gerhardt, J. M.; Dominus, M. I.

    1976-01-01

    The findings of a comparative study of the following six regional airports were presented: Dallas/Fort Worth, Kansas City, Washington, D.C., Montreal, Tampa, and St. Louis. Each case was approached as a unique historical entity, in order to investigate common elements such as: the use of predictive models in planning, the role of symbolism to heighten dramatic effects, the roles of community and professional elites, and design flexibility. Some of the factors considered were: site selection, consolidation of airline service, accessibility, land availability and cost, safety, nuisance, and pollution constraints, economic growth, expectation of regional growth, the demand forecasting conundrum, and design decisions. The hypotheses developed include the following: the effect of political, social, and economic conflicts, the stress on large capacity and dramatic, high-technology design, projections of rapid growth to explain the need for large capital outlays.

  8. Atmospheric tracer experiments for regional dispersion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffter, J.L.; Ferber, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    Tracer experiments are being conducted to verify atmospheric transport and dispersion calculations at distances from tens to hundreds of km from pollutant sources. In one study, a 2 1/2 year sampling program has been carried out at 13 sites located 30 to 140 km from a source of 85 Kr at the Savannah River Plant in South Carolina. Average weekly concentrations as well as twice-daily concentrations were obtained. Sampling data and meteorological data, including surface, tower, and rawinsonde observations are available on magnetic tape for model verification studies. Some verification results for the Air Resources Laboratories Atmospheric Transort and Dispersion Model (ARL-ATAD) are shown for averaging periods from one week to two years

  9. Patients’ experience of a regional allergy service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Jones

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The principle reason for referral to specialist allergy clinics is to establish diagnoses and provide treatment plans to help patients manage their allergy. If patients do not accept, understand, or remember diagnoses or treatment, clinic visits may have been a waste of time. Few specialist allergy clinics follow up patients after diagnosis.Design and Methods. This was a postal survey to assess patients’ i perception of usefulness of specialist allergy clinic visits, ii under- standing of their allergy, iii confidence in managing it, and iv response to joining a regional online forum. Data for patients with confirmed allergy who attended the Peninsula Allergy Service (PAS from 1998-2009 were extracted from consultant letters to general practitioners. Postal questionnaires were sent to 933 patients; 39% (336 responded.Results. Two-thirds (63% thought their clinic visit useful and resulted in them being more in control of their allergy; 9% thought it useful but they still had problems, 26% thought it had not been much use. One in six (16%, 55 respondents had major differences in their view of their allergy compared to that recorded by PAS. Over half (56% had had further symptoms since their clinic visit and 120 patients, who were not confident in coping with their allergy, listed aspects of their lives that gave concern.Conclusions. Specialist clinics need routine feedback from patients if they are to monitor their effectiveness and some better form of follow up for patients is needed to reinforce education and support patients. Public education is important.

  10. The regional energy integration: the latin-american experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The ways of the regional economic integrations are not identical and generate different repercussions on the markets and the energy industries evolution. The example of the Latin America proposes many various experiences to evaluate the stakes and the limits of each regional integrations. These limits lead to solution researches including indisputable convergencies. The first part of this document presents the genesis of these regional economic integrations experiences in Latina America, to study in the second part the energy consequences of the liberal ALENA and of the more political MERCOSUR. (A.L.B.)

  11. The International Experience of Regional Development of Creative Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turskyj Ihor V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at generalizing the international experience of regional development of creative industries and defining directions of its implementation in Ukraine. The experience of the world countries on regional development of creative industries has been generalized, tendencies and specificity of these development processes have been identified. The interrelation of the process of development of creative industries with innovation development of regions has been defined. Prospects for development of creative industries in regions of Ukraine have been identified and directions of implementation of foreign experience have been suggested. Thus, strategic measures for the development of creative clusters can be the corresponding priorities of cultural policy in the regions, the development of specific projects and programs, the opening of art-incubators, the creation of a favorable investment climate, financial and tax incentives as conditions for interaction between creativity and business. The scale and dynamics of the world’s creative sector, which has a significant potential for growth and less vulnerability in financial-economic crises compared to the traditional sector, gives chance to high expectations for the development of creative industries in Ukraine as well.

  12. Urban and regional studies in the experience economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne; Jeannerat, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    is to deconstruct economic value and innovation in regional studies and elaborate on the role of consumers and stages of consumption. Another is the actor perspective and the question of how localized networks of innovative actors evolve and engage in experiential staging. Finally the experience economy is seen...... as an integrated approach in policy and strategic planning on as well as across different scales. Future research should not only trace the evolution of experience offerings, stages and destinations and its possible dependence on specific economic phases and contexts. It should also develop further the potentials......The paper introduces a special issue on `the experience turn in development and planning’. It is argued that the notion of the experience economy is able to challenge established theories of the culture economy in three ways. First, by placing consumption and consumers as point of departure...

  13. INCREASE THE INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF THE REGION: THE EXPERIENCE OF THE VORONEZH REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Podmolodina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The paper clarifies the relationship of concepts investment climate, investment attractiveness, investment activity. It has been established that investment activity is a sign of effective investment attractiveness. Investment attractiveness of the subject of the Russian Federation due to the efforts of the regional authorities in the areas of improving the investment climate in the region; improvement of legal norms for domestic and foreign investors; developing incentives for investment activity. The article substantiates the investment policy measures that should contribute to the objectives of the investment strategy through implementation of investment programs. The priorities of the investment policy in the region include the creation of clusters, the development of branches of agriculture, increase the volume of production of import-substituting products. The attractiveness of the Voronezh region due to its favorable geopolitical location, large capacity market, its personnel and scientific potential. Investment activity in the Voronezh region largely determines the special organization "Agency for Investment and Strategic Projects." Investment activity in the region is stimulated by the development of industrial parks in the territory of which the large investment projects world producers. Voronezh region has rich experience in attracting potential investors and working with them. The article discusses a set of preferences granted inve-Sided, clarity and transparency of the existing mechanism of their production, thereby increasing the investment attractiveness of the Voronezh region. Provides an overview of realized and announced for implementation of investment projects. The article notes that further increase the investment attractiveness of the Voronezh region is associated with the improvement of legal and regulatory framework; development of infrastructure for the implementation of investment projects; Formation of

  14. Current status of RMS and technical experience for regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung-Soo

    2006-01-01

    The NNCA uses secure remote monitoring systems, both for reporting to the IAEA and for the bilateral cooperation with Sandia (SNL) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The NNCA system architecture has changed from a system using a Central Monitoring Station at the former TCNC, to direct internet reporting on a simultaneous basis to the IAEA and the NNCA. The NNCA reporting system is applied at 16 power reactors. This experience provides the basis for a detailed cost analysis and evaluation of trouble-shooting experience. Progress in establishing remote monitoring cooperation between the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute's new Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process Facility (ACPE) and Sandia is a precondition for regional cooperation. The ACPF system, which is currently in final testing, features network configuration and equipment that differ from safeguards standards for reasons of cost and flexibility. This allows the NNCA to take advantage of rapidly developing technologies at lower cost. (author)

  15. REGIONAL CLIMATE MODELING STUDY FOR THE CARPATHIAN REGION USING REGCM4 EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PIECZKA I.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The newest model version of RegCM is adapted with the ultimate aim of providing climate projection for the Carpathian region with 10 km horizontal resolution. For this purpose, first, coarse resolution reanalysis data and global climate model outputs are used to drive 50 km resolution model experiments, from which the outputs are used to provide necessary boundary conditions for the fine scale model runs. Besides the historical runs (for the period 1981-2010, RCP4.5 scenario is also analyzed in this paper for the 21st century. These experiments are essential since they form the basis of national climate and adaptation strategies by providing detailed regional scale climatic projections and enabling specific impact studies for various sectors.

  16. Centralization of a Regional Clinical Microbiology Service: The Calgary Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre L Church

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic laboratory services in Alberta have been dramatically restructured over the past five years. In 1994, Alberta Health embarked on an aggressive laboratory restructuring that cut back approximately 30% of the overall monies previously paid to the laboratory service sector in Calgary. A unique service delivery model consolidated all institutional and community-based diagnostic testing in a company called Calgary Laboratory Services (CLS in late 1996. CLS was formed by a public/private partnership between the Calgary Regional Health Care Authority (CRHA and MDS-Kasper Laboratories. By virtue of its customer service base and scope of testing, CLS provides comprehensive regional laboratory services to the entire populace. Regional microbiology services within CLS have been successfully consolidated over the past three years into a centralized high volume laboratory (HVL. Because the HVL is not located in a hospital, rapid response laboratories (RRLs are operated at each acute care site. Although the initial principle behind the proposed test menus for the RRLs was that only procedures requiring a clinical turnaround time of more than 2 h stay on-site, many other principles had to be used to develop and implement an efficient and clinically relevant RRL model for microbiology. From these guiding principles, a detailed assessment of the needs of each institution and extensive networking with user groups, the functions of the microbiology RRLs were established and a detailed implementation plan drawn up. The experience at CLS with regards to restructuring a regional microbiology service is described herein. A post-hoc analysis provides the pros and cons of directing and operating a regionalized microbiology service.

  17. Atlantic Coast Unique Regional Atmospheric Tracer Experiment (ACURATE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.F.; Heffter, J.L.; Mead, G.A.

    1983-05-01

    The Atlantic Coast Unique Regional Atmospheric Tracer Experiment (ACURATE) is a program designed to obtain data necessary to evaluate atmospheric transport and diffusion models used to calculate regional population doses caused by nuclear facility emissions to the atmosphere. This experiment will significantly improve the basis for evaluating the cost effectiveness of different methods of managing airborne nuclear wastes. During the period from March 1982 through September 1982, twice daily air samples have been collected at each of five sampling stations located on a radial from the SRP to Murray Hill, NJ (1000 km). Kr-85 emitted from the F and H area chemical separations facilities is being used as a tracer to determine the transport and diffusion of atmospheric releases from the SRP. The Kr-85 concentrations in the air samples will be compared with the calculated concentrations as predicted by the transport and diffusion models. The Kr-85 data and the meteorological data are being archived and will be made available to the modeling community

  18. Regional innovative policy: Developed countries' experience and lessons for Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beljaeva Julija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The research into formation of national innovative system at the regional level in developed countries gives the opportunity to reveal specific instruments of governmental policy and their adoption in Russian conditions. Nowadays Europe has got its general task in science development to build up common scientific area. According to the European Commission, it is possible to perform this task if EU countries and agree to unite their resources, and their national scientific policy is reformed under this common European standard. The main instrument of EU scientific and technological policy is European Framework programs of scientific research and technological development. In the context of these programs free funding is given as support to international scientific and technological projects. So, the most favorable climate is being created in Europe, which will let it become one of the centers of worldwide scientific research. The Japanese model of regional innovative system assumes building of brand new cities that is technology towns concentrating scientific research in forward spheres and industrial production. Herewith building of such technology towns to a great extent is funded at the regional level. Tax incentives play the significant role in the innovative activity stimulation in developed countries. For example, in Great Britain big corporations have the right to write down 125% of their scientific expenses to the cost, small write down 150%. Taxable profit decreases by a certain per cent what depends on increasing in expenses on scientific research. In another at a very high speed building up its innovative capital country - China - a differentiated VAT rate takes place. On average it is 18%, but it is twice lower in the sphere of IT. So, analysis of foreign experience of innovative development lets us underline the following necessary instruments of innovative policy: Private and governmental partnership in financing of academic and

  19. [Organizational wellbeing in the health sector: the Piemonte Region experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converso, Daniela; Baratti, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the Health Councillorship of the Piedmont region announced, in convention with the Psychology Department of the University of Turin, of the creation of "Workgroup for Safeguard of Organizational Wellbeing" composed by psychologists, occupational doctors, and superintendents for Prevention and Protection services. This group is aimed at promoting pilot experiences in the Health Units in order to prevent and combat psychosocial discomfort and to sustain workers' wellbeing. A complex intervention started in January 2009 and involved the personnel from Services for the Organization and Development of Human Resources, Personnel Services, Services for Occupational Medicine, Services of Communication, Quality Services, belonging to all of the Health Units from Piedmont, and of some structures operating within the national health service, for a total of 23 work groups. Based on the results produced and/or from the shared reflections in the classroom between the 23 groups, four main themes were singled out, corresponding to different levels and fields of interventions, in order to favour the contrast of psychosocial distress and to promote a culture of wellbeing, were adopted taking into account needs and cultural specificity of different Units' realities. The activities embarked on, inside every main theme represent, in the expectations of all the participants, good practices that could be spread to the different Local Health Units.

  20. Estimation of regional mass anomalies from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) over Himalayan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, R.; Singh, S. K.; Rajawat, A. S.; Ajai

    2014-11-01

    Time-variable gravity changes are caused by a combination of postglacial rebound, redistribution of water and snow/ice on land and as well as in the ocean. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission, launched in 2002, provides monthly average of the spherical harmonic co-efficient. These spherical harmonic co-efficient describe earth's gravity field with a resolution of few hundred kilometers. Time-variability of gravity field represents the change in mass over regional level with accuracies in cm in terms of Water Equivalent Height (WEH). The WEH reflects the changes in the integrated vertically store water including snow cover, surface water, ground water and soil moisture at regional scale. GRACE data are also sensitive towards interior strain variation, surface uplift and surface subsidence cover over a large area. GRACE data was extracted over the three major Indian River basins, Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra, in the Himalayas which are perennial source of fresh water throughout the year in Northern Indian Plain. Time series analysis of the GRACE data was carried out from 2003-2012 over the study area. Trends and amplitudes of the regional mass anomalies in the region were estimated using level 3 GRACE data product with a spatial resolution at 10 by 10 grid provided by Center for Space Research (CSR), University of Texas at Austin. Indus basin has shown a subtle decreasing trend from 2003-2012 however it was observed to be statistically insignificant at 95 % confidence level. Ganga and Brahmaputra basins have shown a clear decreasing trend in WEH which was also observed to be statistically significant. The trend analysis over Ganga and Brahamputra basins have shown an average annual change of -1.28 cm and -1.06 cm in terms of WEH whereas Indus basin has shown a slight annual change of -0.07 cm. This analysis will be helpful to understand the loss of mass in terms of WEH over Indian Himalayas and will be crucial for hydrological and

  1. GOVERNANCE OF SMART SPECIALISATION: EXPERIENCES OF FOUR EUROPEAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca SĂFTESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we compare four European regional development models in order to conclude on good practices on smart specialisation. The concept of smart specialisation (European Commission, 2008, Foray et al., 2009, S3 Platform, 2016 has been placed at the core of the European regional development strategies and it brought the focus on local endowments, international network orientation of the regions and their potential for excellence globally. That encouraged the regions’ governments to align their actions to the general consent and to adopt place-based policies which foster innovation. The analysis draws from four European regions, each with a different innovation performance, according to the Regional Innovation Scoreboard: South-East Ireland is an Innovation Follower, Castilla de la Mancha, Spain and Central Hungary, are moderate innovators, while Bucharest-Ilfov in Romania is a modest innovator. Their different level of development gives a broader perspective on the regional development policies and, therefore, it allows us to identify good practices of smart specialisation approach and their current position in the global value chain. The present article is not limited to the description of various models for smart specialisation governance, but it also proposes a series of recommendations to better capitalise regional strengths and to create regional governance environments that generates smarter public services supportive for entrepreneurship, wealth creation and growth.

  2. Regional Advection Perturbations in an Irrigated Desert (RAPID) Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debruin, H.A.R.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Allen, R.G.; Kramer, J.W.J.L.

    2005-01-01

    The RAPID field experiment took place in August - September 1999 at a site 25km south of Twin Falls, Idaho, USA. The experiment concerned micrometeorological observations over extensive, well-irrigated fields covered with the fast-growing crop alfalfa. During daytime, on a number of days the

  3. Lagopedo: two F-region ionospheric depletion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongratz, M.B.; Smith, G.M.; Sutherland, C.D.; Zinn, J.

    1977-01-01

    A significant depletion of ionospheric plasma was produced by a chemical release experiment in the F-layer ionosphere over Hawaii. The results of measurements of the hole produced in the ionospheric plasma are reported

  4. Thyroid cancer: experiences at the Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep, V.M.; Gangadharan, P.; Nair, Krishnan M.

    1999-01-01

    Above 300 thyroid cancers are seen at the Regional Cancer Centre annually. There has been an increase in the number of TC registered over the years. This is at least partly due to improved diagnostic services and availability of 131 I therapy. Almost 90 % of the cases seen at the Centre are well-differentiated cancers

  5. Universities, regional innovation systems and the Bangalore experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jan; Coenen, Lars; Chaminade, Christina

    2007-01-01

    This paper takes stock with one-size-fits-all models on the role of universities in regional innovation systems in Asia. It proposes a contextual and evolutionary perspective which focuses on the match between the specific competences and capabilities of the universities and the firms' particular...

  6. Atlantic Coast Unique Regional Atmospheric Tracer Experiment (ACURATE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.F.; Heffter, J.L.; Mead, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    A long-range, long-term data set on the regional scale for air pollution model was developed for evaluation. The ACURATE model used Kr-85 emitted intermittently from the Savannah River Plant as a tracer of hourly source emission data at 5 sites for a total of 3858 measurements

  7. Machine constraints for experiments in an intermediate luminosity interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groom, D.

    1989-05-01

    We summarize existing information about the luminosity as a function of clear space between the interaction point and the front of the final-focus triplet, and about the minimum beam pipe dimensions (stay-clear dimensions) in the region. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Polarization experiments with photons in the nucleon resonances region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miczaika, T.S.

    1983-10-01

    I discuss the photoexcitation of the nucleaon γN->Nπ and the photodisintegration of the deuteron γd->pn. The photo-couplings to the nucleon resonances that are measured in these experiments can be compared to quark model calculations, and exact data on the smaller amplitudes can serve as input to refined theories. (orig./HSI)

  9. A Regional Integrated Virtual Learning Environment: The AOU's Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Hammad

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose to construct a Regional Integrated Virtual Learning Environment (RIVLE for the Arab Open University (AOU. AOU is a new nonprofit learning institution with branches in six Arab countries and more branches scheduled to open in the near future. The university adopts an open learning methodology. We describe the major elements of the RIVLE and their interaction. We present a generic interface between the RIVLE and the Student Information System (SIS. We focus on the characteristics of the pedagogical model in the Arab Open University context and explain why RIVLE would be a perfect fit for this model. We argue that the potential benefits of a RIVLE are realized in such a setting. We also study the possibility of extending the RIVLE to existing learning institutions in the region.

  10. The role of regional networks in regional policy: European experience and perspectives for Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Arzhenovsky, Igor; Solodkova, Natalia

    2003-01-01

    The processes of globalization and localization as frame conditions of regional development cause some radical changes of spatial organization of economy and regional policy. One of such alteration is a widespread horizontal method (in addition to traditional hierarchical form) of relationship between different firms, organizations and other partners through informal contacts, intensive informational flows and cooperation skills. The report concerns theoretical substantiation, essence, differ...

  11. The regional energy integration: the latin-american experiences; L'integration energetique regionale: les experiences latino-americaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The ways of the regional economic integrations are not identical and generate different repercussions on the markets and the energy industries evolution. The example of the Latin America proposes many various experiences to evaluate the stakes and the limits of each regional integrations. These limits lead to solution researches including indisputable convergencies. The first part of this document presents the genesis of these regional economic integrations experiences in Latina America, to study in the second part the energy consequences of the liberal ALENA and of the more political MERCOSUR. (A.L.B.)

  12. The regional energy integration: the latin-american experiences; L'integration energetique regionale: les experiences latino-americaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The ways of the regional economic integrations are not identical and generate different repercussions on the markets and the energy industries evolution. The example of the Latin America proposes many various experiences to evaluate the stakes and the limits of each regional integrations. These limits lead to solution researches including indisputable convergencies. The first part of this document presents the genesis of these regional economic integrations experiences in Latina America, to study in the second part the energy consequences of the liberal ALENA and of the more political MERCOSUR. (A.L.B.)

  13. Early experience in the combination of regional hyperthermia and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, G.C.W.; Bleehen, N.M.

    1987-01-01

    An annular array of radiative radiofrequency applicators (APA) has been developed by the BSD Corporation, Salt Lake City (USA) which has been shown to be capable of deep heating. The BSD 1000 clinical hyperthermia system has been installed at Cambridge for 18 months and a pilot study has been performed to assess the feasibility of pelvic regional hyperthermia in the treatment of extensive pelvic malignancy. The study confirms published data that the APA is capable of heating at depth within the pelvis. Therapeutic temperatures may be reached in the majority of treatments but are difficult to maintain due to acute toxicity. Steering of the area of maximal energy deposition may improve treatments considerably. A randomised trial is now being designed to assess whether the synergism between radiation and hyperthermia seen in superficial lesions can be demonstrated in tumours occurring in the pelvis. (orig./MG)

  14. Interacting with Compatriots in Russian Regions: the Experience of Tatarstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radik R. Gimatdinov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Work with compatriots promoting the cultural presence of Russia in the world becomes an important element of "soft power" Supporting the preservation and development among compatriots the cultural traditions of the Tatar people as components of ethnic and cultural diversity of Russia, Tatarstan participates in the implementation of the national foreign policy. The Republic of Tatarstan interacts constructively with the Russian Foreign Ministry, Rossotrudnichestvo, takes part in the activities of the Government Commission on Compatriots Abroad. Work with compatriots is carried out by the executive authorities of the republic within a number of regional government programs. The Coordination Council for the Affairs of Compatriots is created in Tatarstan .The sessions of the World Congress of Tatars (WCT are held every five years. The Executive Committee of the WCT is in contact with one and a half hundreds of Tatar organizations in about 40 countries. The most important event in the in the cultural life of Tatar diaspora is celebration of Sabantui. The Days of the Republic of Tatarstan are also held abroad with great success,and they are aimed at strengthening bilateral cooperation together with the promotion of Tatar culture in the world.A special place in the activities of all the Tatar communities takes the honoring and support of the WWII and labor veterans. Work with the young people is the part of interaction with compatriots: youth forums and camps with the study of the Tatar language are organized. Attracting of compatriots to Tatarstan universities is carried out within Russian government programs.The work of strengthening business ties in the framework of the Tatar diaspora is conducted systematically. The interaction with various target groups of compatriots (women, scientists, cultural figures is organized.The authors propose measures of uniting overseas communities of compatriots and exploiting their potential to promote the interests

  15. Experience with digital subtraction angiography of cervicocranial region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohutova, J.; Neuwirth, J.; Kuncova, S.; Lerlova, L.

    1988-01-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) of the head was performed in 100 patients for mostly neurological indications, less frequently pathological processes in the region of the external carotid artery. The intravenous or intraarterial route was selected according to the condition and age of the patient and clinical diagnosis. In 55% of cases the contrast medium was administered into the ascending aorta, in 13% selectively into the carotid or vertebral arteries. The examination was performed intravenously in 32%, most frequently via inferior vena cava (26%). The visualization of the whole area of the carotid and vertebral arteries from the ramification of the aortal arc up to the periphery requires to make at least 4 to 5 administrations of contrast medium, since simultaneous representation of lateral and AP projection for DSA has not been so far possible and the screen size is small. In intravenous DSA the amount of contrast medium increases up to 200 ml. Instillation into the ascending artery is therefore preferred and half of the amount is thus sufficient. DSA has proved of advantage in the examination of patients with arteriosclerosis, angiomas and arteriovenous malformations, vascularized and avascular expansive processes in intracranial and extracranial localizations. Quality angiograms were obtained in 84%, those still suitable for evaluation in 14% and useless in 2% of cases. (author). 14 figs., 1 tab., 16 refs

  16. Management of open tibial fractures – a regional experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, WA; Nguyen, DQA; Rooker, JC; Dickson, JK; Goroszeniuk, DZ; Khan, MS; Camp, D

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The treatment of soft-tissue injuries associated with tibial diaphyseal fractures presents a clinical challenge that is best managed by a combined plastic and orthopaedic surgery approach. The current study was undertaken to assess early treatment outcomes and burden of service provision across five regional plastic surgery units in the South-West of England. SUBJECTS AND METHODS We conducted a prospective 6-month audit of open tibial diaphyseal fracture management in five plastic surgery units (Bristol, Exeter, Plymouth, Salisbury, Swansea) with a collective catchment of 9.2 million people. Detailed data were collected on patient demographics, injury pattern, surgical management and outcome followed to discharge. RESULTS The study group consisted of 55 patients (40 male, 15 female). Twenty-two patients presented directly to the emergency department at the specialist hospital (primary group), 33 patients were initially managed at a local hospital (tertiary group). The mean time from injury to soft tissue cover was significantly less (P < 0.001) in the primary group (3.6 ± 0.8 days) than the tertiary group (10.8 ± 2.2 days), principally due to a delay in referral in the latter group (5.4 ±1.7 days). Cover was achieved with 39 flaps (19 free, 20 local), eight split skin grafts. Nine wounds closed directly or by secondary intention. There were 11 early complications (20%) including one flap failure and four infections. The overall mean length of stay was 17.5 ± 2.8 days. CONCLUSIONS Multidisciplinary management of severe open tibial diaphyseal may not be feasible at presentation of injury depending on local hospital specialist services available. Our results highlight the need for robust assessment, triage and senior orthopaedic review in the early post-injury phase. However, broader improvements in the management of lower limb trauma will additionally require further development of combined specialist trauma centres. PMID:21047449

  17. Peel Region TransHelp's experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    TransHelp was founded in the Peel Region of Ontario in 1981 to provide paratransit service to individuals unable to use conventional transit. The TransHelp vehicle fleet consists of 40 buses that make over 220,000 one way trips annually. Each vehicle has a typical life span of between 375,000 and 425,000 km. TransHelp vehicles spend much of their time idling in emissions-sensitive areas, such as outside hospitals. In order to reduce fuel costs, TransHelp adopted the use of propane to fuel its vehicles. However, difficulties were experienced with this technology, particularly on V-10 engines where increased maintenance was a problem. SFI Technologies Inc. provided a solution with their SEQUIN System which allows seamless transitioning between gasoline and propane under all conditions without any operator involvement in fuel selection. The technology favours propane as the fuel of choice and automatically switches between propane and gasoline based on the ideal conditions at the time of operation. The technology has received certification from the Environmental Protection Agency in the United States and the Canadian Standards Association. The use of the SEQUIN System has proven to successful for TransHelp. It has allowed the use of propane to be continued, meaning that vehicle emissions are greatly reduced relative to gasoline or diesel fuelled vehicles. TransHelp has realized a fuel savings of 15-20 per cent over gasoline and receives an additional federal transit rebate of 15 per cent for the conversion cost.

  18. MANAGEMENT OF RENEWABLE ENERGY AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT: EUROPEAN EXPERIENCES AND STEPS FORWARD

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Ileana Zamfir

    2011-01-01

    The issues of the renewable energy and regional development have become major priorities for public policymakers across the globe. Therefore, this study explores some European experiences and steps forward in the field of the management of renewable energy and regional development. Firstly, an overview of renewable energy issues in European regions is revealed, and secondly, some measures and actions for managing regional development of renewable energy in Romania taking into account the fina...

  19. Promoting University and Industry Links at the Regional Level: Comparing China's Reform and International Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po, Yang; Cai, Yuzhuo; Lyytinen, Anu; Hölttä, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    This paper intends to learn from international experiences in order to facilitating China's ongoing regional university transformation with an ultimate goal to enhance the role of university in regional economic development and innovation. In so doing, this paper compares major models of universities of applied sciences (UAS) around the world from…

  20. Assistive Solutions in Practice: Experiences from AAL Pilot Regions in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Nesrin; Aumayr, Georg; Drobics, Mario; Förster, Kristina Maria; Frauenberger, Christopher; Garschall, Markus; Kofler, Manfred; Krainer, Daniela; Kropf, Johannes; Majcen, Kurt; Oberzaucher, Johannes; Piazolo, Felix; Rzepka, Angelika; Sauskojus, Julia; Schneider, Cornelia; Stainer-Hochgatterer, Andreas; Sturm, Nadine; Waibel, Uli; Willner, Viktoria

    2017-01-01

    Since 2012 six AAL pilot regions were launched in Austria. The main goal of these pilot regions is to evaluate the impact of AAL technologies in daily use considering the entire value chain. Additionally, go-to market strategies for assistive technologies based on an involvement of all relevant stakeholders are developed. Within this paper an overview of the specific objectives, approaches and the status of all Austrian AAL pilot regions is given. Taking into account the different experiences of the different pilot regions, specific challenges in establishing, implementing and sustaining pilot region projects are discussed and lessons-learned are presented. Results show that a careful planning of all project phases taking into account available resources is crucial for the successful implementation of an AAL pilot region. In particular, this applies to all activities related to the active involvement of end-users.

  1. Formative experience mediated by virtual learning environment: science and mathematics teachers’ education in the amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    France Fraiha Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports results of a qualitative research, in the narrative modality. We investigated the formative experiences of teachers of Mathematics and Science through distance learning in the Amazon region, experienced in a course through the Virtual Learning Environment (VLE. We investigated under what conditions this education experience was a catalyst for teachers’ reflections on the Amazonian context of teaching science and mathematics. By using Discursive Textual Analysis some categories e merged: graduating in the Amazon region: obstacles and confrontations; AVA and Technologies: meaning (s of the education experience and the impact of the experience in the perceptions of teachers’ practices and training. The analysis of the results reveals the obstacles to the training in this context. The dynamics experienced by the use of VLE technologies and of the teachers reverberated methodological insights regarding the use of technology in teaching practices, indicating also the VLE as an alternative of (self education on the Amazon reality

  2. SPURS: Salinity Processes in the Upper-Ocean Regional Study: THE NORTH ATLANTIC EXPERIMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Eric; Bryan, Frank; Schmitt, Ray

    2015-01-01

    In this special issue of Oceanography, we explore the results of SPURS-1, the first part of the ocean process study Salinity Processes in the Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS). The experiment was conducted between August 2012 and October 2013 in the subtropical North Atlantic and was the first of two experiments (SPURS come in pairs!). SPURS-2 is planned for 20162017 in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean.

  3. The Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia: Analyzing Regional Land Use Change Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Keller; Maria Assunção Silva-Dias; Daniel C. Nepstad; Meinrat O. Andreae

    2004-01-01

    The Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is a multi-disciplinary, multinational scientific project led by Brazil. LBA researchers seek to understand Amazonia in its global context especially with regard to regional and global climate. Current development activities in Amazonia including deforestation, logging, cattle ranching, and agriculture...

  4. The Emergence of a Regional Hub: Comparing International Student Choices and Experiences in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon, Jae-Eun; Lee, Jenny J.; Byun, Kiyong

    2014-01-01

    As the demand for international education increases, middle-income non-English speaking countries, such as South Korea, play an increasing role in hosting the world's students. This mixed-methods study compares the different motivations and experiences of international students within and outside the East Asian region. Based on findings, this…

  5. Experience in the management of radioactive wastes from power reactors - scope for regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.T.; Khan, A.A.

    The paper presents the R and D and operational experience of India in the development of a viable technology in the field of radioactive waste management and examines the scope for regional cooperation between countries with comparable conditions with a view to minimise the discharge of radioactivity to the environment. (author)

  6. Measurements of atmospheric and gamma rays-balloon experiments at subantartic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayanthi, U.B.; Correa, R.V.; Blanco, F.G.

    1986-01-01

    The results of two stratospheric balloon experiments conducted to measure the atmospheric X and gamma rays are presented. These experiments, conducted at Comandante Ferraz base in subantarctic region, have provided the spectrum of ground radioactivity in gamma rays (0.2 to 2.9 MeV) and atmospheric X-ray spectra at different altitudes. We specifically chose to discuss the observed ceiling spectrum of X-rays in the 28 to 180KeV region observed at 7.0 g. cm -2 . We have utilized the data of other experiments with different telescope geometries, to evaluate the builup effects due to cosmic ray secondaries in atmosphere. This behaviour, previoulsy studied for atmospheric gamma rays, permitted to compare the up/down flux rations to explain the observed atmospheric X-ray spectrum. (Author) [pt

  7. Generalization of the World Experience in Differentiation of Regions on Account of Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blahun Ivan S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main strategic objectives of our State is to promote innovation, which should include development and launch of new products at the national market, development and introduction of new technologies, creation and application of new knowledge. In accordance with the said above, the article has examined the experience of European Union Member States to improve the efficiency of innovation and differentiation of regions in terms of innovation, tools for evaluation of the innovation activity status has been determined in relation to the territories of the European Union at the level of regions.

  8. A Gravity data along LARSE (Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment) Line II, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooley, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a detailed gravity study along part of the Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment (LARSE) transect across the San Fernando Basin and Transverse Ranges to help characterize the structure underlying this area. 249 gravity measurements were collected along the transect and to augment regional coverage near the profile. An isostatic gravity low of 50-60 mGal reflects the San Fernando-East Ventura basin. Another prominent isostatic gravity with an amplitude of 30 mGal marks the Antelope Valley basin. Gravity highs occur over the Santa Monica Mountains and the Transverse Ranges. The highest isostatic gravity values coincide with outcrops of Pelona schist.

  9. Students' perceptions of their learning experiences: A repeat regional survey of healthcare students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamshire, Claire; Barrett, Neil; Langan, Mark; Harris, Edwin; Wibberley, Christopher

    2017-02-01

    Student experience is an international concern and recent research has focused on initiatives to improve students' learning experiences and ultimately reduce attrition levels. To determine similarities and differences between students' perceptions of their learning experiences between 2011 and 2015 in relation to campus-based learning, placement-based learning and personal circumstances. A repeat online survey in 2011 and 2015; using a questionnaire developed from thematic analysis of narrative interviews with a subsample of the target population. Nine universities in the North West of England. A total of 1080 students completed the survey in 2011 and 1983 students in 2015 from a target population of all students studying on commissioned pre-registration healthcare education programmes. An online survey was made available to all undergraduate students studying on Health Education funded programmes within the region and survey respondents were invited to give demographic information and rate their agreement to statements on four-point Likert-type responses. Responses to a repeat survey of healthcare studying in the North West of England in 2015 were strikingly similar overall to those of an original 2011 survey. Although the students were positive overall about their experiences, a number were dissatisfied with some aspects of their experiences - particularly in relation to initial support on campus and whilst studying on placement. Four years on from the original survey, despite a considerable investment in improving students' experiences across the region, there appears to be little change in students' perceptions of their learning experiences CONCLUSION: In the short-term monitoring of student experience needs to be continued; and links to attrition (potential or actual) noted and acted upon. However, given that attrition from these courses has been a long-term problem and the complexity of its resolution a recurrent finding in the literature; new ways of framing

  10. Assessment of CORDEX-South Asia experiments for monsoonal precipitation over Himalayan region for future climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, A.; Dimri, A. P.

    2018-04-01

    Precipitation is one of the important climatic indicators in the global climate system. Probable changes in monsoonal (June, July, August and September; hereafter JJAS) mean precipitation in the Himalayan region for three different greenhouse gas emission scenarios (i.e. representative concentration pathways or RCPs) and two future time slices (near and far) are estimated from a set of regional climate simulations performed under Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment-South Asia (CORDEX-SA) project. For each of the CORDEX-SA simulations and their ensemble, projections of near future (2020-2049) and far future (2070-2099) precipitation climatology with respect to corresponding present climate (1970-2005) over Himalayan region are presented. The variability existing over each of the future time slices is compared with the present climate variability to determine the future changes in inter annual fluctuations of monsoonal mean precipitation. The long-term (1970-2099) trend (mm/day/year) of monsoonal mean precipitation spatially distributed as well as averaged over Himalayan region is analyzed to detect any change across twenty-first century as well as to assess model uncertainty in simulating the precipitation changes over this period. The altitudinal distribution of difference in trend of future precipitation from present climate existing over each of the time slices is also studied to understand any elevation dependency of change in precipitation pattern. Except for a part of the Hindu-Kush area in western Himalayan region which shows drier condition, the CORDEX-SA experiments project in general wetter/drier conditions in near future for western/eastern Himalayan region, a scenario which gets further intensified in far future. Although, a gradually increasing precipitation trend is seen throughout the twenty-first century in carbon intensive scenarios, the distribution of trend with elevation presents a very complex picture with lower elevations

  11. WCRP COordinated Regional Downscaling EXperiment (CORDEX: a diagnostic MIP for CMIP6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Gutowski Jr.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The COordinated Regional Downscaling EXperiment (CORDEX is a diagnostic model intercomparison project (MIP in CMIP6. CORDEX builds on a foundation of previous downscaling intercomparison projects to provide a common framework for downscaling activities around the world. The CORDEX Regional Challenges provide a focus for downscaling research and a basis for making use of CMIP6 global climate model (GCM output to produce downscaled projected changes in regional climates and assess sources of uncertainties in the projections, all of which can potentially be distilled into climate change information for vulnerability, impacts and adaptation studies. CORDEX Flagship Pilot Studies advance regional downscaling by targeting one or more of the CORDEX Regional Challenges. A CORDEX-CORE framework is planned that will produce a baseline set of homogeneous high-resolution, downscaled projections for regions worldwide. In CMIP6, CORDEX coordinates with ScenarioMIP and is structured to allow cross comparisons with HighResMIP and interaction with the CMIP6 VIACS Advisory Board.

  12. Observations of star-forming regions with the Midcourse Space Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraemer, KE; Shipman, RF; Price, SD; Mizuno, DR; Kuchar, T; Carey, SJ

    We have imaged seven nearby star-forming regions, the Rosette Nebula, the Orion Nebula, W3, the Pleiades, G300.2-16.8, S263, and G159.6-18.5, with the Spatial Infrared Imaging Telescope on the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite at 1800 resolution at 8.3, 12.1, 14.7, and 21.3 mum. The large

  13. Prostitution as a social issue - the experiences of Russian women prostitutes in the Barents region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Skaffari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses prostitution in the Barents Region as a social question through the subjective experiences of female Russian prostitutes. The women who were interviewed for this research live their everyday lives in the context of Russia. The operational possibilities of the women are based on a sociocultural framework which differs from that of Western countries. This article addresses the following question: How does prostitution construct the agency of women in the Barents Region? The question is explored in terms of the social relationships of the women, their everyday agency within the local environment, their living conditions, and the marginal conditions of their lives. Our focus is on the social structures and the position of the women within them. The data used in this article consist of observational material as well as interviews with 17 women, wherein they discuss their experiences of prostitution in the Barents Region. All of the material was collected in Murmansk, Russia between 2004 and 2008. Qualitative content analysis was performed as a means to understand the aforementioned women’s experiences of prostitution and its relation to everyday life. Prostitution is a product of social structures, a woman’s position, the accessibility of support, and the available personal, social and mental resources. Sometimes prostitution is a way to survive. Women who practice prostitution are often seen only as stereotypes, but the individual paths of their lives and the social contexts in which they live are integral to an understanding of the causes and effects of sex work.

  14. Modeling prescribed burning experiments and assessing the fire impacts on local to regional air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Baker, K. R.; Napelenok, S. L.; Elleman, R. A.; Urbanski, S. P.

    2016-12-01

    Biomass burning, including wildfires and prescribed burns, strongly impact the global carbon cycle and are of increasing concern due to the potential impacts on ambient air quality. This modelling study focuses on the evolution of carbonaceous compounds during a prescribed burning experiment and assesses the impacts of burning on local to regional air quality. The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is used to conduct 4 and 2 km grid resolution simulations of prescribed burning experiments in southeast Washington state and western Idaho state in summer 2013. The ground and airborne measurements from the field experiment are used to evaluate the model performance in capturing surface and aloft impacts from the burning events. Phase partitioning of organic compounds in the plume are studied as it is a crucial step towards understanding the fate of carbonaceous compounds. The sensitivities of ambient concentrations and deposition to emissions are conducted for organic carbon, elemental carbon and ozone to estimate the impacts of fire on air quality.

  15. CVB: the Constrained Vapor Bubble Capillary Experiment on the International Space Station MARANGONI FLOW REGION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayner, Peter C., Jr.; Kundan, Akshay; Plawsky, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The Constrained Vapor Bubble (CVB) is a wickless, grooved heat pipe and we report on a full- scale fluids experiment flown on the International Space Station (ISS). The CVB system consists of a relatively simple setup a quartz cuvette with sharp corners partially filled with either pentane or an ideal mixture of pentane and isohexane as the working fluids. Along with temperature and pressure measurements, the two-dimensional thickness profile of the menisci formed at the corners of the quartz cuvette was determined using the Light Microscopy Module (LMM). Even with the large, millimeter dimensions of the CVB, interfacial forces dominate in these exceedingly small Bond Number systems. The experiments were carried out at various power inputs. Although conceptually simple, the transport processes were found to be very complex with many different regions. At the heated end of the CVB, due to a high temperature gradient, we observed Marangoni flow at some power inputs. This region from the heated end to the central drop region is defined as a Marangoni dominated region. We present a simple analysis based on interfacial phenomena using only measurements from the ISS experiments that lead to a predictive equation for the thickness of the film near the heated end of the CVB. The average pressure gradient for flow in the film is assumed due to the measured capillary pressure at the two ends of the liquid film and that the pressure stress gradient due to cohesion self adjusts to a constant value over a distance L. The boundary conditions are the no slip condition at the wall interface and an interfacial shear stress at the liquid- vapor interface due to the Marangoni stress, which is due to the high temperature gradient. Although the heated end is extremely complex, since it includes three- dimensional variations in radiation, conduction, evaporation, condensation, fluid flow and interfacial forces, we find that using the above simplifying assumptions, a simple successful

  16. The first year experience of occupational therapy students at an Australian regional university: Promoting student retention and developing a regional and remote workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Jackie; Cordier, Reinie; Thomas, Yvonne; Tanner, Bronwyn; Salata, Karen

    2017-02-01

    Student retention at regional universities is important in addressing regional and remote workforce shortages. Students attending regional universities are more likely to work in regional areas. First year experience at university plays a key role in student retention. This study aimed to explore factors influencing the first year experience of occupational therapy students at a regional Australian university. Surveys were administered to 58 second year occupational therapy students in the first week of second year. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, inferential statistics (Pearson χ 2 ; Spearman rho) and summarising descriptive responses. An Australian regional university. Second year undergraduate occupational therapy students. Factors influencing students' decisions to study and continue studying occupational therapy; factors enhancing first year experience of university. Fifty-four students completed the survey (93.1%). A quarter (25.9%) of students considered leaving the course during the first year. The primary influence for continuing was the teaching and learning experience. Most valued supports were orientation week (36.7%) and the first year coordinator (36.7%). The importance of the first year experience in retaining occupational therapy students is highlighted. Engagement with other students and staff and academic support are important factors in facilitating student retention. It is important to understand the unique factors influencing students' decisions, particularly those from regional and remote areas, to enter and continue in tertiary education to assist in implementing supports and strategies to improve student retention. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  17. Experiences of parents of children with intellectual disabilities in the Ashanti Region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Badu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Parents of children with intellectual disabilities could experience difficulties associated with their care. Yet, insight into individual experiences is inadequate to guide effective responses to the needs of parents and their sons and daughters with intellectual disability. This study sought to explore the experiences of parents of children with intellectual disability with the aim of making these experiences visible to guide the design and provision of support services for the parents and their children. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 parents of children with intellectual disability between the ages of 4 and 15 years residing in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis to explore themes that describe the experiences of the parents. The study found that parents of intellectually disabled children encounter challenges looking after their children due to the negative perceptions associated with having such children. Financial costs and managing behavioral challenges of intellectually disabled children were also major sources of stressors for parents. Although informal support and assurances from professionals alleviated parental stress and gave them some hope about the future of their children, these support services seem inadequate. A more structured support programme that includes financial empowerment of the parents and recognizes the importance of early detection and intervention practices is needed.  Keywords: Intellectual disability, parents, caregivers, support services, health professionals

  18. User experiences with different regional health information exchange systems in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyppönen, Hannele; Reponen, Jarmo; Lääveri, Tinja; Kaipio, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    The interest in cross-organizational Health Information Exchange (HIE) is increasing at regional, national and cross-European levels. The purpose of our study was to compare user experiences (usability) of different regional health information exchange system (RHIE) types as well as the factors related to the experienced level of success of different RHIE system types. A web-based questionnaire was sent to 95% of Finnish physicians aged between 25 and 65 years of age. RHIE systems were mainly available in the public sector and only in certain regions. Those 1693 physicians were selected from the 3929 respondents of the original study, who met these criteria. The preferred means (paper/fax vs. electronic) of cross-organizational HIE, and replies to the 11 questions measuring RHIE success were used as the main dependent variables. Two thirds (73%) of the primary care physicians and one third (33%) of the specialized care physicians replied using an electronic RHIE system rather than paper or fax as a primary means of cross-organizational HIE. Respondents from regions where a regional virtual EHR (type 3) RHIE system was employed had used electronic means rather than paper HIE to a larger extend compared to their colleagues in regions where a master patient index-type (type 1) or web distribution model (type 2) RHIE system was used. Users of three local EHR systems preferred electronic HIE to paper to a larger extend than users of other EHR systems. Experiences with an integrated RHIE system (type 3) were more positive than those with other types or RHIE systems. The study revealed User preferences for the integrated virtual RHIE-system (type 3) over the master index model (type 1) or web distribution model (type 2). Success of individual HIE tasks of writing, sending and reading were impacted by the way these functionalities were realized in the EHR systems. To meet the expectations of increased efficiency, continuity, safety and quality of care, designers of HIE

  19. Sensitivity experiments of a regional climate model to the different convective schemes over Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armand J, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, version 4 of the regional climate model (RegCM4) is used to perform 6 years simulation including one year for spin-up (from January 2001 to December 2006) over Central Africa using four convective schemes: The Emmanuel scheme (MIT), the Grell scheme with Arakawa-Schulbert closure assumption (GAS), the Grell scheme with Fritsch-Chappell closure assumption (GFC) and the Anthes-Kuo scheme (Kuo). We have investigated the ability of the model to simulate precipitation, surface temperature, wind and aerosols optical depth. Emphasis in the model results were made in December-January-February (DJF) and July-August-September (JAS) periods. Two subregions have been identified for more specific analysis namely: zone 1 which corresponds to the sahel region mainly classified as desert and steppe and zone 2 which is a region spanning the tropical rain forest and is characterised by a bimodal rain regime. We found that regardless of periods or simulated parameters, MIT scheme generally has a tendency to overestimate. The GAS scheme is more suitable in simulating the aforementioned parameters, as well as the diurnal cycle of precipitations everywhere over the study domain irrespective of the season. In JAS, model results are similar in the representation of regional wind circulation. Apart from the MIT scheme, all the convective schemes give the same trends in aerosols optical depth simulations. Additional experiment reveals that the use of BATS instead of Zeng scheme to calculate ocean flux appears to improve the quality of the model simulations.

  20. Experience of South Regional Delegation in radiation protection diffusion by means of policies of social communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malagamba, Eduardo; Canibano, Javier; Gatica, Nidia

    2001-01-01

    The diffusion of the criteria and principles of radiological safety that are applied to the different practices of use of radioactive materials, is one of the ways to diminish the risks of its use besides enhance the perception of risk in society. Since June of 1999, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Argentina have intensified the dissemination of information for the public in general, specialized personnel indirectly involved with radioactive substances and the users in general of radioactive materials.This work has as objective to present the experience of South Regional Delegation with information dissemination policy and its results

  1. To the Extremes! A Teacher Research Experience Program in the Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, J.; Bartholow, S.

    2014-12-01

    PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a teacher professional development program, began with the International Polar Year in 2004 and continues today in the United States. In 2007, the National Science Foundation designated PolarTREC as potentially transformative, meaning that the "research results often do not fit within established models or theories and may initially be unexpected or difficult to interpret; their transformative nature and utility might not be recognized until years later." PolarTREC brings U.S. K-12 educators and polar researchers together through an innovative teacher research experience model. Teachers spend three to six weeks in remote arctic and Antarctic field camps. Since 2007, over 100 teachers have been placed in field experiences throughout the Arctic and Antarctic and with half of them participating in field experiences in Antarctica. During their experience, teachers become research team members filling a variety of roles on the team. They also fulfil a unique role of public outreach officer, conducting live presentations about their field site and research as well as journaling, answering questions, and posting photos. Evaluation data collected over the past eight years on program participants shows that PolarTREC has clearly achieved it goals and strongly suggests programs that link teachers and researchers can have the potential to transform the nature of science education. By giving teachers the content knowledge, pedagogical tools, confidence, understanding of science in the broader society, and experiences with scientific inquiry, participating teachers are using authentic scientific research in their classrooms. Not surprisingly this has also led to increases in student interest and knowledge about the Polar Regions. In this presentation, we will highlight the best practices of teacher research experiences as well as discuss why it is vital to have teachers and researchers work together to communicate

  2. Regional climate projections for Northeast India: an appraisal from CORDEX South Asia experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D.; Dimri, A. P.

    2017-11-01

    An appraisal of the recent changes in the present climate (1970-2005) followed by the possible future (2006-2100) changes in the climate has been carried out in the current study using the observations and regional climate model (REMO) over the Northeast Indian region. The regional climate model simulation has been used from the COordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiment (CORDEX) South Asia framework. A consistent warming for the winter (December, January, and February (DJF)) and post-monsoon (October and November (ON)) has been observed for the present climate especially in the northern and eastern parts of the region. The changes in the near future (2020-2049) and far future (2070-2099) temperature climatology suggest a rise in temperature by 3-8 °C across different representative concentration pathways (RCPs). The rate of long-term (1970-2099) increase in temperature has been found ranging between 0.01 and 0.07 °C/year across the region in the least emission (RCP2.6) to strongest emission (RCP8.5) scenarios. The daily mean precipitation statistics suggests an overall increasing trends of precipitation during the pre-monsoon (March, April, and May (MAM)) for the present across the region with a mixed trend in other seasons. A change in daily mean precipitation ranging from - 60% (during winter) to + 40% during post-monsoon has been projected by the model across different RCPs. RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 show a strong deficit in precipitation in the warmer climate across the region as compared to RCP2.6. This fact is also confirmed from the long-term trend of precipitation where a consistent decreasing trend dominates in the RCP4.5- and RCP8.5-simulated precipitations by the end of the twenty-first century. A large model bias in temperature and precipitation along with high amount of uncertainty is associated with the model simulations; thus, in order to use the projections, a more careful approach to improve the utility of downscaled product should be adopted.

  3. Cephalic region war injuries in children: Experience in French NATO hospital in Kabul Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehab, Hussam El; Agard, Emilie; Dot, Corinne

    2018-06-09

    The NATO KAIA Hospital (Kabul International Airport), under French command, provided medical support for NATO forces in the Kabul region from 2009 to 2014. Medical assistance to civilians was an additional mission which included support for children who were war injured. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics of cephalic injuries in children victims of war trauma. A retrospective study was conducted and commenced with the hospital opening (July 2009) to March 2012 on all children (<15years) with war trauma. We distinguished cephalic lesions in cranial (neuro-surgical), ophthalmological and neck regions. We analyzed mechanism, region, severity score, surgeries and resuscitation efforts. 217 children were operated on with 81 war traumas (mean age 10.2years). 36 children (44.4%) had a cephalic injury. 52.9% of the injured had an ophthalmological injury, 38.2% a cranial region injury and 29.4% a neck lesion. Mortality rate was 5.6% (1 hemorrhagic shock and 1 cerebral wound) in this cephalic lesion group. Ophthalmic injuries were the most common of cephalic injuries; 19 children of which 7 had a bilateral injury (26 eyes). In this group, fragmentary injuries were the most frequent (64% of eyes). In cerebral lesion group, the lesions were linked to a bullet or a shrapnel in 9 of 13 children. This mechanism systematically caused a crania-cerebral wound. Explosion (fragmentary and shrapnel) was the most important in the neck lesions (7 children of 10). The cephalic lesions were the second most common region in children during our experience in Afghanistan. Lack of protection (helmet) in children may explain the frequency of cephalic wounds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Towards a probabilistic regional reanalysis system for Europe: evaluation of precipitation from experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liselotte Bach

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A new development in the field of reanalyses is the incorporation of uncertainty estimation capabilities. We have developed a probabilistic regional reanalysis system for the CORDEX-EUR11 domain that is based on the numerical weather prediction model COSMO at a 12-km grid spacing. The lateral boundary conditions of all ensemble members are provided by the global reanalysis ERA-Interim. In the basic implementation of the system, uncertainties due to observation errors are estimated. Atmospheric assimilation of conventional observations perturbed by means of random samples of observation error yields estimates of the reanalysis uncertainty conditioned to observation errors. The data assimilation employed is a new scheme based on observation nudging that we denote ensemble nudging. The lower boundary of the atmosphere is regularly updated by external snow depth, sea surface temperature and soil moisture analyses. One of the most important purposes of reanalyses is the estimation of so-called essential climate variables. For regional reanalyses, precipitation has been identified as one of the essential climate variables that are potentially better represented than in other climate data sets. For that reason, we assess the representation of precipitation in our system in a pilot study. Based on two experiments, each of which extends over one month, we conduct a preliminary comparison to the global reanalysis ERA-Interim, a dynamical downscaling of the latter and the high-resolution regional reanalysis COSMO-REA6. In a next step, we assess our reanalysis system's probabilistic capabilities versus the ECMWF-EPS in terms of six-hourly precipitation sums. The added value of our probabilistic regional reanalysis system motivates the current production of a 5-year-long test reanalysis COSMO-EN-REA12 in the framework of the FP7-funded project Uncertainties in Ensembles of Regional Re-Analyses (UERRA.

  5. The Scenario Approach to the Development of Regional Waste Management Systems (Implementation Experience in the Regions of Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomin, Eugene P.; Alekseev, Audrey A.; Fomina, Natalia E.; Dorozhkin, Vladimir E.

    2016-01-01

    The article illustrates a theoretical approach to scenario modeling of economic indicators of regional waste management system. The method includes a three-iterative algorithm that allows the executive authorities and investors to take a decision on logistics, bulk, technological and economic parameters of the formation of the regional long-term…

  6. Regionalização e novos rumos para o SUS: a experiência de um colegiado regional Regionalization and new courses to SUS: the experience of a regional college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Assis

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Em que pese todos os avanços no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS desde a sua implantação, são também notórias as suas fragilidades e seus limites. Um deles, não obstante a diretriz constitucional de regionalização, é que até recentemente não havia uma política concreta de estímulo de integração entre os municípios e, consequentemente, de regiões de saúde, tão necessárias à garantia da integralidade da atenção. Nos últimos três anos, entretanto, o Ministério da Saúde, com a implementação do Pacto pela Saúde, na sua dimensão da gestão, iniciou esse processo, que tem se mostrado promissor para o desenvolvimento e crescimento do SUS nacional. Este trabalho apresenta a experiência positiva de implantação de um Colegiado Regional no Estado de São Paulo, na região de Campinas, através da qual gestores e técnicos das secretarias de saúde estão se tornando sujeitos mais "empoderados" da construção da Saúde na região.Despite all the advances that have occurred in Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS - National Health System since its implementation, its weaknesses and limits are also remarkable. One of them, in spite of the constitutional guideline for regionalization, is that, until recently, there had been no concrete policy to stimulate integration between municipalities and, consequently, between health regions, which are necessary to ensure integral care. In the last three years, however, the Ministry of Health, with the implementation of the Health Pact in its management dimension, started this process, which has been promising to the development and growth of the national SUS. This study presents the positive experience of implementation of a Regional College in the State of São Paulo, in the region of Campinas, through which managers and technicians of the health departments are becoming empowered subjects of the construction of Health in the region.

  7. Experience with WASP and MAED among IAEA Member States participating in the Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA) in Asia and the Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The report includes the proceedings and papers presented during the workshop on the experience with WASP/MAED computer programs among IAEA Member States participating in the regional co-operative agreement (RCA) in Asia and the Pacific Region, organized by the IAEA and held in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) between 5-9 December 1988. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 14 papers presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Challenges in Regional CTBT Monitoring: The Experience So Far From Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt, S. R.

    2001-05-01

    for estimating location, depth and uncertainty bounds; and validated, regionally-calibrated travel times, event characterization parameters and screening criteria. A new IDC program to fund research to calibrate regional seismic travel paths seeks to address, in cooperation with other national efforts, one item on this list. More effective use of the full waveform data and cross-technology synergies must be explored. All of this work must be integrated into modular software systems that can be maintained and improved over time. To motivate these regional monitoring challenges and possible improvements, the experience from the IDC will be presented via a series of illustrative, sample events. Challenges in the technical and policy arenas must be addressed as well. IMS data must first be available at the IDC before they can be analyzed. The encouraging experience to date is that the availability of data arriving via the GCI is significantly higher (~95%) than the availability (~70%) from the same stations prior to GCI installation, when they were transmitting data via other routes. Within the IDC, trade-offs must be considered between the desired levels of product quality and timeliness, and the investment in personnel and system development to support the levels sought. Another high-priority objective is to develop a policy for providing data and products to scientific and disaster alert organizations. It is clear that broader exploitation of these rich and unique assets could be of great, mutual benefit, and is, perhaps, a necessity for the CTBT verification system to achieve its potential.

  9. Experiments with a Regional Vector-Vorticity Model, and Comparison with Other Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konor, C. S.; Dazlich, D. A.; Jung, J.; Randall, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Vector-Vorticity Model (VVM) is an anelastic model with a unique dynamical core that predicts the three-dimensional vorticity instead of the three-dimensional momentum. The VVM is used in the CRMs of the Global Quasi-3D Multiscale Modeling Framework, which is discussed by Joon-Hee Jung and collaborators elsewhere in this session. We are updating the physics package of the VVM, replacing it with the physics package of the System for Atmosphere Modeling (SAM). The new physics package includes a double-moment microphysics, Mellor-Yamada turbulence, Monin-Obukov surface fluxes, and the RRTMG radiation parameterization. We briefly describe the VVM and show results from standard test cases, including TWP-ICE. We compare the results with those obtained using the earlier physics. We also show results from experiments on convection aggregation in radiative-convective equilibrium, and compare with those obtained using both SAM and the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS).

  10. Extending synchrotron-based atomic physics experiments into the hard X-ray region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBrun, T.

    1996-01-01

    The high-brightness, hard x-ray beams available from third-generation synchrotron sources are opening new opportunities to study the deepest inner shells of atoms, an area where little work has been done and phenomena not observed in less tightly bound inner-shells are manifested. In addition scattering processes which are weak at lower energies become important, providing another tool to investigate atomic structure as well as an opportunity to study photon/atom interactions beyond photoabsorption. In this contribution the authors discuss some of the issues related to extending synchrotron-based atomic physics experiments into the hard x-ray region from the physical and the experimental point of view. They close with a discussion of a technique, resonant Raman scattering, that may prove invaluable in determining the spectra of the very highly-excited states resulting from the excitation of deep inner shells

  11. A difficult legacy: the urban rehabilitation experience in the Emilia- Romagna Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Bacchini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose to examine the twenty years-old policy in urban rehabilitation, carried within the Emilia-Romagna region. The argument is very complex, the reconstruct of its unesasy results requires to be reconstructed comparing law documents, effectiveness of public and local offices action and, finally, the real quality of urban transformations obtained. Rehabilitation programs were supposed to treat critical situation of urban decay, with a double purpose: an internal environmental renewal (able to recover tissues and architectural quality and a strategy aimed to establish a wider range of urban relationships. Despite all these virtuous intentions, what we have really obtained from this experience is a set of urban projects which, in most cases, have obtained results that have further jeopardized situations they were expected to heal.

  12. The experience of a nationwide Community of Practice to set up Regional Prevention Plans in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Angela; Perra, Alberto; Lombardo, Flavia

    2017-07-27

    In 2010, the Italian Ministry of Health decided to start the planning process to elaborate the National Plan of Prevention 2010-2012 jointly with the 21 Regions. The National Institute of Health was responsible for supporting regional planners (RPs) by an original participatory approach of a web-based Community of Practice (CoP) to set up their own Regional Plans of Prevention. In this paper, we summarise the theoretical framework adopted, the main phases characterising the lifecycle of the nationwide CoP, the evaluation approach adopted and its findings. Following the CoP theoretical framework from Wenger, an initial group of RPs were trained on Project Cycle Management as a planning method and thereafter they started interacting on a web-based Moodle platform for 8 months. The CoP evaluation mainly took into account aspects of 'immediate value', such as members interactions within the website, and several quantitative and qualitative tools were used to monitor changes over time. Data were retrieved from Moodle statistics or directly from the RPs by the means of a Knowledge, Attitude and Practice survey, a reaction survey, SWOT analysis and focus groups. The level of individual RPs knowledge increased after the initial course from 55.7% to 75%, attitudes and competence perception about the planning process method also showed an overall favourable change. During the CoP life span, the number of members increased from the original 98 RPs to include up to 600 new members on the basis of spontaneous demand. From April 2010 to January 2011, the 'vital signs' of the CoP were monitored, including RP logins (13,450 total logins and 3744 unique logins), views (27,522) and posts (1606) distributed in 326 forum discussion threads. Data and information retrieved from quantitative and qualitative evaluation approaches proved to be useful for the management and follow-up of the CoP. The CoP experience was successful as 19 out of 20 Regions submitted their Regional Preventive

  13. Investigation of Electron Density Profile in the ionospheric D and E region by Kagoshima rocket experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashihara, Y.; Ishisaka, K.; Miyake, T.; Okada, T.; Nagano, I.; Abe, T.; Ono, T.

    2007-12-01

    The radio wave propagation characteristic in the lower ionosphere is important because of its effect on commercial radio communication, navigation, and broadcast services. The electron density is of primary interest in this region because the high ion-neutral collision frequencies result in radio wave absorption. In order to investigate the ionization structure in the ionospheric D and E region by using the propagation characteristics of MF-band and LF-band radio waves, S-310-37 and S-520-23 sounding rocket experiments have been carried out at Uchinoura Space Center (USC). S-310-37 sounding rocket was launched at 11:20 LT on January 16, 2007. The apex of rocket trajectory was about 138 km. Then S-520-23 sounding rocket was launched at 19:20 LT on September 2, 2007. The apex was about 279 km. As a common measurement, these sounding rockets measure the fields intensities and the waveform of radio waves from NHK Kumamoto broadcasting station (873kHz, 500kW) and JJY signals from Haganeyama LF radio station (60kHz, 50kW). The approximate electron density profile can be determined from the comparison between these experimental results and propagation characteristics calculated by the full wave method. We will get the most probable electron density profile in the ionosphere. In presentation, we will show the propagation characteristic of LF/MF radio waves measured by two sounding rocket experiments. Then we will discuss the analysis method and the estimated electron density profile in the ionosphere.

  14. Performance of upstream interaction region detectors for the FIRST experiment at GSI

    CERN Document Server

    Abou-Haidar, Z; Alvarez, M A G; Anelli, M; Aumann, T; Battistoni, G; Bocci, A; Bohlen, T T; Boudard, A; Brunetti, A; Carpinelli, M; Cirrone, G A P; Cortes-Giraldo, M A; Cuttone, G; De Napoli, M; Durante, M; Fernandez-Garcia, J P; Finck, C; Gallardo, M I; Golosio, B; Iarocci, E; Iazzi, F; Ickert, G; Introzzi, R; Juliani, D; Krimmer, J; Kurz, N; Labalme, M; Leifels, Y; Le Fevre, A; Leray, S; Marchetto, F; Monaco, V; Morone, M C; Oliva, P; Paoloni, A; Patera, V; Piersanti, L; Pleskac, R; Quesada, J M; Randazzo, N; Romano, F; Rossi, D; Rosso, V; Rousseau, M; Sacchi, R; Sala, P; Sarti, A; Schuy, C; Sciubba, A; Sfienti, C; Simon, H; Sipala, V; Spiriti, E; Stuttge, L; Tropea, S; Younis, H

    2012-01-01

    The FIRST (Fragmentation of Ions Relevant for Space and Therapy) experiment at GSI has been designed to study carbon fragmentation, measuring (12)C double differential cross sections (- (2)I /- - E) for different beam energies between 100 and 1000 MeV/u. The experimental setup integrates newly designed detectors in the, so called, Interaction Region around the graphite target. The Interaction Region upstream detectors are a 250 mum thick scintillator and a drift chamber optimized for a precise measurement of the ions interaction time and position on the target. In this article we review the design of the upstream detectors along with the preliminary results of the data taking performed on August 2011 with 400 MeV/u fully stripped carbon ion beam at GSI. Detectors performances will be reviewed and compared to those obtained during preliminary tests, performed with 500 MeV electrons (at the BTF facility in the INFN Frascati Laboratories) and 80 MeV/u protons and carbon ions (at the INFN LNS Laboratories in Cata...

  15. The Evolution of the Region of Interest Builder for the ATLAS Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00060668; Blair, Robert; Crone, Gordon Jeremy; Green, Barry; Love, Jeremy; Proudfoot, James; Rifki, Othmane; Panduro Vazquez, William; Vandelli, Wainer; Zhang, Jinlong

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS is a general purpose particle detector, at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, designed to measure the products of proton collisions. Given the high interaction rate (40 MHz), selective triggering in real time is required to reduce the rate to the experiment's data storage capacity (1 kHz). To meet this requirement, ATLAS employs a hardware trigger that reduces the rate to 100 kHz and software based triggers to select interesting interactions for physics analysis. The Region of Interest Builder (RoIB) is an essential part of the ATLAS detector Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) chain where the coordinates of the regions of interest (RoIs) identified by the first level trigger (L1) are collected and passed to the High Level Trigger (HLT) to make a decision. While the current custom VME based RoIB operated reliably during the first run of the LHC, it is desirable to have a more flexible RoIB and more operationally maintainable in the future, as the LHC reaches higher luminosity and ATLAS increases t...

  16. Experience of prenatal consultation in Zaporizhzhia region over the 2011-2015 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Avramenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Congenital malformations are one of the main causes of high infant mortality and disability from childhood. Medical and genetic counseling is an important integral part of prenatal diagnosis. Aim. The experience of the work of prenatal consultation at the clinic of Zaporizhzhya Regional Center of Human Reproduction for the 2011- 2015 years has been analyzed. Modern methods of prenatal diagnosis, including mass and selective testing of pregnant women on birth defects and chromosomal abnormalities by ultrasound examination and evaluation of maternal serum markers, as well as prenatal, cytogenetic diagnosis of chromosomal diseases in high-risk groups have been used for the early detection and prevention of birth of children with hereditary diseases in the Zaporizhzhia region. Methods and results. 2,528 Pregnant women with suspected congenital malformations of the fetus have been examined. To adequately assess the perinatal prognosis and develop tactics of pregnancy in the early neonatal period the diagnosis of pregnant women included consultation of geneticist, obstetrician - gynecologist, others specialists. Malformations of the fetus have been identified in 1.435 pregnant women. Conclusions. To identify chromosomal aberrations and congenital malformations in the fetus the prenatal consultation defines: the forecast for the life and health of the child, the tactics of pregnancy and birth, postnatal correction. Multiple malformations in the fetus and congenital central nervous system development occupy the first place in the structure of abortion during the observed period (2011-2015 years.

  17. Exploring experiences of the food environment among immigrants living in the Region of Waterloo, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Paulina I; Dean, Jennifer; Kirkpatrick, Sharon; Berbary, Lisbeth; Scott, Steffanie

    2016-06-09

    This exploratory study aimed to shed light on the role of the food environment in shaping food access among immigrants living in the Region of Waterloo, Ontario. In this qualitative case study, in-depth interviews aided by photovoice were conducted with nine immigrants, and key informant (KI) interviews were conducted with nine community stakeholders (e.g., settlement workers, planners) who held expert knowledge of the local context with respect to both the food system and experiences of immigrants in interacting with this system. In this paper, we focus specifically on insights related to the food environment, applying the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity Framework to assess economic, physical, socio-cultural and political aspects. Economic features of the food environment, including food prices and differential costs of different types of food, emerged as factors related to food access. However, interactions with the food environment were shaped by broader economic factors, such as limited employment opportunities and low income. Most immigrants felt that they had good geographic access to food, though KIs expressed concerns about the types of outlet and food that were most accessible. Immigrants discussed social networks and cultural food practices, whereas KIs discussed political issues related to supporting food security in the Region. This exploratory case study is consistent with prior research in highlighting the economic constraints within which food access exists but suggests that there may be a need to further dissect food environments.

  18. The GEM detectors for the innermost region of the forward muon station of the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Alfonsi, M

    The LHCb experiment will take place at the LHC accelerator at CERN and will start in 2008. It is dedicated to precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays in the b quark sec- tor. The apparatus is a single arm spectrometer and it is designed with a robust and flexible trigger in order to extensively gain access to a wide spread of differ ent physical processes involving beauty particles. This will allow to over-constrain the Standard M odel predictions about CP violation, and to discover any possible inconsistency, whi ch would reveal the presence of “New Physics” beyond the Standard Model. This thesis reports the work performed on two aspects of the L HCb experiment: the main contribution is the development and the construction of a de tector based on Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology for the instrumentation of the high irradiated region around the beam pipe of the forward Muon Station; in the second part t he possibility of the search of the rare D 0 → + − decay at the LHCb exper...

  19. Enabling sustainable uranium production: The Inter-regional Technical Cooperation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulsidas, H.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Uranium production cycle activities are increasing worldwide, often in countries with little or no previous experience in such activities. Initial efforts in uranium exploration and mining were limited to a few countries, which progressed through a painful learning curve often associated with high socioeconomic costs. With time, good practices for the sustainable conduct of operations became well established, but new projects in different regional contexts continue to face challenges. Moreover, there have been highs and lows in the levels of activities and operations in the uranium industry, which has disrupted the stabilizing of the experiences and lessons learned, into a coherent body of knowledge. This collective experience, assimilated over time, has to be transferred to a new generation of experts, who have to be enabled to use this knowledge effectively in their local contexts in order to increase efficiency and reduce the footprint of the operations. This makes it sustainable and socially acceptable to local communities, as well as in the global context. IAEA has implemented several projects in the last five years to address gaps in transferring a coherent body of knowledge on sustainable uranium production from a well experienced generation of experts to a new generation facing similar challenges in different geographical, technological, economic and social contexts. These projects focused on enabling the new practitioners in the uranium production industry to avoid the mistakes of the past and to apply good practices established elsewhere, adapted to local needs. The approach was intended to bring considerable cost savings while attracting elevated levels of social acceptance. These projects were effective in introducing experts from different areas of the uranium production cycle and with different levels of experience to the availability of advanced tools that can make operations more efficient and productive, reduce footprint, increase competencies in

  20. Field work in geography. Region with experience in socio-environmental conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Ensabella

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article emphasizes the importance of the geographical field work in a region with socio-environmental conflict, such us the problem with water in Sierras Chicas, Cordoba. The main focus is a pedagogical experience, the Socio-Communal Practice (SCP, performed by professors, students and assistants of the subject Rural Geography, of the Bachelor’s in Geography course of studies of the Philosophy and Humanity School (PHS, in the city of La Granja, in Colón, Córdoba. The SCP is an experience that makes the students approach the social field of the territory conflicts. It is an activity that goes beyond the extension project, since it involves all the students doing the subject. And it is also a way to combine -in our case, from the geographic work- the teaching, investigation and extension functions typical of the university students. Through the SCP, we aim to make the Rural Geography students approach the field work, with local social organizations that deeply know the problems of their cities and that work together with our investigation group. In addition, this contact together with the individual thoughts, the group discussion and the debates between the university students, will broaden, in the whole society, the knowledge about the reality in which they live and with which they struggle. This article starts by defining what it is understood by SCP. Then, taking into account our practice, we develop what we consider to be the two logics that support the field work. One refers to the building of knowledge and to the different ways of learning and knowing. The other is related to the understanding of the socio-territory conflict in the area where the practice will be done: the Mesa del Agua and La Granja environment. We include a section about the description of the experience and its results, and we conclude with some reflections made taking into account the continuity of the practice

  1. The Experience of Barometric Drifter Application for Investigating the World Ocean Arctic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Motyzhev

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of the problem solution to create a regionally-oriented data computing system for marine dynamics and ecosystem evolution modeling and forecasting (that should be capable for providing reliable information for managerial decision making, justifying future economic projects and adjusting the existing ones depends on development level of observational systems, environmental evolution, mathematical models and techniques for observational data assimilation. The analysis of the system as an observational segment of modern geo-informational technology allows us to draw a conclusion that the system of drifter observations is one of the most effective ones nowadays. Surface drifter network, continuously operating in the World Ocean, provides systematic operational data on the surface water circulation, thermal processes in the upper ocean and air pressure. Drifter data, acquired over the past 15 years, allowed one to improve and even change the existing concepts of patterns and mechanisms of regional climatic trend and hydrometeorological anomaly formation under effect of global processes in the Ocean – Atmosphere model (in the high latitudes as well. In the present paper the principle results of the analysis of expediency and feasibility of drifting systematic operative pressure field monitoring establishment in the near-surface atmosphere layer over the Arctic Ocean and the seas of the Russian Federation Arctic Zone have been considered. More than 30 drifters of BTC60/GPS/ice type, whose summarized lifetime as for June 2015 exceeded 6500 days, were deployed in the Arctic in 2012–2015. According to data acquired from the drifters, more than 155 000 air pressure readings were received. The most intensive drifter observations were carried out in two regions: in the Beaufort Sea – Canada Basin and in the Central Arctic. The results of experiments revealed that hardware-software solutions implemented in polar modifications of barometric

  2. The Relationship of a Pilot's Educational Background, Aeronautical Experience and Recency of Experience to Performance In Initial Training at a Regional Airline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, Nancy R.

    The purpose of this study was to determine how a pilot's educational background, aeronautical experience and recency of experience relate to their performance during initial training at a regional airline. Results show that variables in pilots' educational background, aeronautical experience and recency of experience do predict performance in training. The most significant predictors include years since graduation from college, multi-engine time, total time and whether or not a pilot had military flying experience. Due to the pilot shortage, the pilots entering regional airline training classes since August 2013 have varied backgrounds, aeronautical experience and recency of experience. As explained by Edward Thorndike's law of exercise and the law of recency, pilots who are actively using their aeronautical knowledge and exercising their flying skills should exhibit strong performance in those areas and pilots who have not been actively using their aeronautical knowledge and exercising their flying skills should exhibit degraded performance in those areas. Through correlation, chi-square and multiple regression analysis, this study tests this theory as it relates to performance in initial training at a regional airline.

  3. Regional seismic observations of the Non-Proliferation Experiment at the Livermore NTS Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, W.R.; Mayeda, K.; Patton, H.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    The Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), a 1-kiloton chemical explosion in N-tunnel at Rainier Mesa on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), was recorded by the four station, regional seismic Livermore NTS Network, (LNN). In this study we compare the NPE`s seismic yield, frequency content, and discrimination performance with other NTS events recorded at LNN. Preliminary findings include: The NPE LNN average magnitudes are 4.16 for m{sub b}(P{sub n}) and 4.59 for m{sub b}(L{sub g}). Using published magnitude-yield relations gives nuclear equivalent yields of 2.3 and 2.2 kilotons respectively, implying enhanced coupling of chemical relative to nuclear explosions. A comparison of the NPE seismograms with those with similar magnitude N-tunnel nuclear explosions shows remarkable similarity over the frequency band 0.5 to 5.0 Hz. Outside this band the explosions show more variability, with the NPE having the least relative energy below 0.5 Hz and the most energy above 5 Hz when scaled by magnitude. Considering the variability within the N-tunnel nuclear explosions, these low- and high-frequency NPE-nuclear differences may not reflect chemical-nuclear source differences. The NPE was compared to a large number of NTS nuclear explosions and earthquakes as part of an ongoing short-period discrimination study of P{sub N}/L{sub g},P{sub g}/L{sub g}, and spectral ratios in the P{sub n}, P{sub g},L{sub g}, and coda phases. For these discriminants, the NPE looks very similar to N-tunnel nuclear explosions and other NTS nuclear explosions, implying seismic identification of contained, non-ripple-fired, chemical explosions as non-nuclear may not be possible. However, such blasts might serve as surrogate nuclear explosions when calibrating seismic discriminants in regions where nuclear testing has not occurred.

  4. FIREX (Fire Influence on Regional and Global Environments Experiment): Measurements of Nitrogen Containing Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, C.; Schwarz, J. P.; Yokelson, R. J.; Roberts, J. M.; Koss, A.; Coggon, M.; Yuan, B.; Sekimoto, K.

    2017-12-01

    A combination of a warmer, drier climate with fire-control practices over the last century have produced a situation in which we can expect more frequent fires and fires of larger magnitude in the Western U.S. and Canada. There are urgent needs to better understand the impacts of wildfire and biomass burning (BB) on the atmosphere and climate system, and for policy-relevant science to aid in the process of managing fires. The FIREX (Fire Influence on Regional and Global Environment Experiment) research effort is a multi-year, multi-agency measurement campaign focused on the impact of BB on climate and air quality from western North American wild fires, where research takes place on scales ranging from the flame-front to the global atmosphere. FIREX includes methods development and small- and large-scale laboratory and field experiments. FIREX will include: emission factor measurements from typical North American fuels in the fire science laboratory in Missoula, Montana; mobile laboratory deployments; ground site measurements at sites influenced by BB from several western states. The main FIREX effort will be a large field study with multiple aircraft and mobile labs in the fire season of 2019. One of the main advances of FIREX is the availability of various new measurement techniques that allows for smoke evaluation in unprecedented detail. The first major effort of FIREX was the fire science laboratory measurements in October 2016, where a large number of previously understudied Nitrogen containing volatile organic compounds (NVOCs) were measured using H3O+CIMS and I-CIMS instruments. The contribution of NVOCs to the total reactive Nitrogen budget and the relationship to the Nitrogen content of the fuel are investigated.

  5. The Impact Snow Albedo Feedback over Mountain Regions as Examined through High-Resolution Regional Climate Change Experiments over the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Theodore

    As the climate warms, the snow albedo feedback (SAF) will play a substantial role in shaping the climate response of mid-latitude mountain regions with transient snow cover. One such region is the Rocky Mountains of the western United States where large snow packs accumulate during the winter and persist throughout the spring. In this dissertation, the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF) configured as a regional climate model is used to investigate the role of the SAF in determining the regional climate response to forced anthropogenic climate change. The regional effects of climate change are investigated by using the pseudo global warming (PGW) framework, which is an experimental configuration in a which a mean climate perturbation is added to the boundary forcing of a regional model, thus preserving the large-scale circulation entering the region through the model boundaries and isolating the mesoscale climate response. Using this framework, the impact of the SAF on the regional energetics and atmospheric dynamics is examined and quantified. Linear feedback analysis is used to quantify the strength of the SAF over the Headwaters region of the Colorado Rockies for a series of high-resolution PGW experiments. This technique is used to test sensitivity of the feedback strength to model resolution and land surface model. Over the Colorado Rockies, and integrated over the entire spring season, the SAF strength is largely insensitive to model resolution, however there are more substantial differences on the sub-seasonal (monthly) timescale. In contrast, the SAF strength over this region is very sensitive to choice of land surface model. These simulations are also used to investigate how spatial and diurnal variability in warming caused by the SAF influences the dynamics of thermally driven mountain-breeze circulations. It is shown that, the SAF causes stronger daytime mountain-breeze circulations by increasing the warming on the mountains slopes thus enhancing

  6. Archetype-based conversion of EHR content models: pilot experience with a regional EHR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Exchange of Electronic Health Record (EHR) data between systems from different suppliers is a major challenge. EHR communication based on archetype methodology has been developed by openEHR and CEN/ISO. The experience of using archetypes in deployed EHR systems is quite limited today. Currently deployed EHR systems with large user bases have their own proprietary way of representing clinical content using various models. This study was designed to investigate the feasibility of representing EHR content models from a regional EHR system as openEHR archetypes and inversely to convert archetypes to the proprietary format. Methods The openEHR EHR Reference Model (RM) and Archetype Model (AM) specifications were used. The template model of the Cambio COSMIC, a regional EHR product from Sweden, was analyzed and compared to the openEHR RM and AM. This study was focused on the convertibility of the EHR semantic models. A semantic mapping between the openEHR RM/AM and the COSMIC template model was produced and used as the basis for developing prototype software that performs automated bi-directional conversion between openEHR archetypes and COSMIC templates. Results Automated bi-directional conversion between openEHR archetype format and COSMIC template format has been achieved. Several archetypes from the openEHR Clinical Knowledge Repository have been imported into COSMIC, preserving most of the structural and terminology related constraints. COSMIC templates from a large regional installation were successfully converted into the openEHR archetype format. The conversion from the COSMIC templates into archetype format preserves nearly all structural and semantic definitions of the original content models. A strategy of gradually adding archetype support to legacy EHR systems was formulated in order to allow sharing of clinical content models defined using different formats. Conclusion The openEHR RM and AM are expressive enough to represent the existing clinical

  7. Archetype-based conversion of EHR content models: pilot experience with a regional EHR system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Daniel

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exchange of Electronic Health Record (EHR data between systems from different suppliers is a major challenge. EHR communication based on archetype methodology has been developed by openEHR and CEN/ISO. The experience of using archetypes in deployed EHR systems is quite limited today. Currently deployed EHR systems with large user bases have their own proprietary way of representing clinical content using various models. This study was designed to investigate the feasibility of representing EHR content models from a regional EHR system as openEHR archetypes and inversely to convert archetypes to the proprietary format. Methods The openEHR EHR Reference Model (RM and Archetype Model (AM specifications were used. The template model of the Cambio COSMIC, a regional EHR product from Sweden, was analyzed and compared to the openEHR RM and AM. This study was focused on the convertibility of the EHR semantic models. A semantic mapping between the openEHR RM/AM and the COSMIC template model was produced and used as the basis for developing prototype software that performs automated bi-directional conversion between openEHR archetypes and COSMIC templates. Results Automated bi-directional conversion between openEHR archetype format and COSMIC template format has been achieved. Several archetypes from the openEHR Clinical Knowledge Repository have been imported into COSMIC, preserving most of the structural and terminology related constraints. COSMIC templates from a large regional installation were successfully converted into the openEHR archetype format. The conversion from the COSMIC templates into archetype format preserves nearly all structural and semantic definitions of the original content models. A strategy of gradually adding archetype support to legacy EHR systems was formulated in order to allow sharing of clinical content models defined using different formats. Conclusion The openEHR RM and AM are expressive enough to

  8. Trans-European transport networks influence on the regional development and urban systems: Serbian experience

    OpenAIRE

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2004-01-01

    The trans-European transport network has different effects at macro-regional, mezzo-regional and micro-regional level, and on urban systems development, and its effectiveness rises at the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and for more balanced and polycentric system of city networks has been underlined...

  9. MCRTOF, Multiple Scattering of Resonance Region Neutron in Time of Flight Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Mako

    1984-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: Multiple scattering of neutrons in the resonance energy region impinging on a disk with an arbitrary angle. 2 - Method of solution: The Monte Carlo method is employed to simulate the path of an incident neutron in a medium for which macroscopic cross sections are determined by resonance parameters. By tracing a large number of neutrons, probabilities for capture, transmission, front-face scattering, rear-face scattering and side-face scattering are determined and printed out as function of incident neutron energy. Optionally, the distribution of capture locations in the disk can be printed. The incident neutron energy is swept to fit a situation as encountered in time-of-flight experiments. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The cross section file is constructed from input resonance parameters with a single- level Breit-Wigner formula. The following restrictions and simplifications apply: - The maximum number of resonances is five. - Reactions other than capture and scattering are neglected. - The angular scattering distribution in the center-of-mass system is assumed to be uniform. - Chemical binding effects are neglected

  10. Simulation of D and E region high-power microwave heating with HF ionospheric modification experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meltz, G.; Rush, C.M.; Violette, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The microwave power beam from a Solar Power Satellite (SPS) is sufficiently intense to cause large changes in the properties of the lower ionosphere by ohmic heating of the plasma. Power is absorbed from the beam at a rate that is proportional to the ratio of the flux s and the square of an effective frequency f/sub e/. Throughout most of the lower ionosphere f/sub e/ = f -+ f/sub L/, where f is the wave frequency and f/sub L is a reduced electron gyrofrequency. It follows that SPS equivalent heating can be simulated at much lower power fluxes with HF radio waves. A detailed examination of the frequency scaling, based on fluid and kinetic theory estimates of the change in electron temperature and density, shows that the high-power HF facility at Platteville, CO, can simulate or exceed the ohmic effects of the SPS beam up to 90 km. This paper describes the results of a series of 5.2 and 9.9 MHz underdense heating experiments undertaken to study the effect of high-power microwaves on the lower ionosphere. A pulsed ionosonde probe, located nearly below the most intense portion of the high-power beam, was used to observe the changes in the D and lower E region. Both phase and amplitude measurements were recorded during CW and intermittent heating

  11. Challenges in successfully developing three regional radiotherapy centres. The NCCI experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenham, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Full text: This presentation will provide an overview of the processes, experience, challenges and success involved in the establishment of the North Coast Cancer Institute (NCCI). The NCCI is a network of three Integrated Oncology centres in Northern New South Wales offering integrated Medical, Radiation and Haematology outpatient services. NCCI was developed as part of the introduction of radiotherapy into a region previously without access to a local radiotherapy service and as a result with poor radiotherapy utilisation and referral rates. NCCI commenced radiotherapy services in Coffs Harbour in May 2007 followed by Port Macquarie in August of the same year and finally in Lismore in May 20 I O. Radiotherapy services commenced with Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy and Image guided radiotherapy as standard of care for some disease sites with remote access to planning systems and electronic workflow process supporting the treatment process. Forming a small team to simultaneously design, build and establish two new treatment centres to take advantage of the most contemporary treatment modalities while also planning for a third centre was a significant challenge. The challenges and successful outcomes will be discussed as part of this presentation.

  12. Atmospheric response in aurora experiment: Observations of E and F region neutral winds in a region of postmidnight diffuse aurora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, M.F.; Marshall, T.R.; Mikkelsen, I.S.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of the Atmospheric Response in Aurora (ARIA) experiment carried out at Poker Flat, Alaska, on March 3, 1992, was to determine the response of the neutral atmosphere to the long-lived, large-scale forcing that is characteristic of the diffuse aurora in the postmidnight sector. A combination of chemical release rocket wind measurements, intrumented rocket composition measurements, and ground-based optical measurements were used to characterize the response of the neutral atmosphere. The rocket measurements were made at the end of a 90-min period of strong Joule heating. We focus on the neutral wind measurements made with the rocket. The forcing was determined by running the assimilated mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics (AMIE) analysis procedure developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The winds expected at the latitude and longitude of the experiment were calculated using the spectral thermospheric general circulation model developed at the Danish Meteorological Institute. Comparisons of the observations and the model suggest that the neutral winds responded strongly in two height ranges. An eastward wind perturbation of ∼100 m s -1 developed between 140 and 200 km altitude with a peak near 160 km. A southwestward wind with peak magnitude of ∼150 m s -1 developed near 115 km altitude. The large amplitude winds at the lower altitude are particularly surprising. They appear to be associated with the upward propagating semidiurnal tide. However, the amplitude is much larger than predicted by any of the tidal models, and the shear found just below the peak in the winds was nomially unstable with a Richardson number of ∼0.08. 17 refs., 12 figs

  13. Timeslice experiments for understanding regional climate projections: applications to the tropical hydrological cycle and European winter circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Robin; Douville, Hervé; Skinner, Christopher B.

    2017-11-01

    A set of atmosphere-only timeslice experiments are described, designed to examine the processes that cause regional climate change and inter-model uncertainty in coupled climate model responses to CO_2 forcing. The timeslice experiments are able to reproduce the pattern of regional climate change in the coupled models, and are applied here to two cases where inter-model uncertainty in future projections is large: the tropical hydrological cycle, and European winter circulation. In tropical forest regions, the plant physiological effect is the largest cause of hydrological cycle change in the two models that represent this process. This suggests that the CMIP5 ensemble mean may be underestimating the magnitude of water cycle change in these regions, due to the inclusion of models without the plant effect. SST pattern change is the dominant cause of precipitation and circulation change over the tropical oceans, and also appears to contribute to inter-model uncertainty in precipitation change over tropical land regions. Over Europe and the North Atlantic, uniform SST increases drive a poleward shift of the storm-track. However this does not consistently translate into an overall polewards storm-track shift, due to large circulation responses to SST pattern change, which varies across the models. Coupled model SST biases influence regional rainfall projections in regions such as the Maritime Continent, and so projections in these regions should be treated with caution.

  14. New Comparative Experiments of Different Soil Types for Farmland Water Conservation in Arid Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiben Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated farmland is the main food source of desert areas, and moisture is the main limiting factor of desert farmland crop productivity. Study on the influence of irrigation on desert farmland soil moisture can guide the agricultural water resource utilization and agricultural production in those regions. At present, the efficiency of irrigation water usage in Northwest China is as low as approximately 40% of the irrigated water. To understand the response of farmland soil moisture in different soil types on irrigation in the Ulan Buh Desert of Inner Mongolia of China, this experimental study takes advantage of different infiltration characteristics and hydraulic conductivities of sand, clay, and loam to determine an optimized soil combination scheme with the purpose of establishing a hydraulic barrier that reduces infiltration. This study includes three comparative experiments with each consisting of a 100 cm thick of filled sand, or clay, or loam soil underneath a 50 cm plough soil, with a total thickness of 150 cm soil profile. A new type of lysimeter is installed below the above-mentioned 150 cm soil profile to continuously measure deep soil recharge (DSR, and the ECH2O-5 soil moisture sensors are installed at different depths over the 150 cm soil profile to simultaneously monitor the soil moisture above the lysimeter. The study analyzes the characteristics of soil moisture dynamics, the irrigation-related recharge on soil moisture, and the DSR characteristics before and after irrigation, during the early sowing period from 2 April to 2 May 2017. Research results show that: (1 Irrigation significantly influences the soil moisture of 0–150 cm depths. The soil moisture increase after the irrigation follows the order from high to low when it is in the order of loam, sand, and clay. (2 Irrigation-induced soil moisture recharge occurs on all three soil combinations at 0–150 cm layers, and the order of soil moisture recharge from high to low

  15. Managed Aquifer Recharge: from Local Research and Experiences to Regional Aquifer Storage and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, D.; Faneca, M.; Oude Essink, G.; van Baaren, E.; Stuurman, R.; Delsman, J. R.; van Kempen, C.; de Louw, P.

    2016-12-01

    Many areas in the world experience periodic water shortages due to meteorological drought, salt water intrusion or over-exploitation of the water resources. Recently, it was established that the depletion of aquifers in many areas of the world is in an advanced state (Gleeson et al, 2012). This poses enormous challenges as 2.5 billion people and many companies depend on groundwater now and in the future (UN, 2015; ESG, 2016). A solution to increase robustness of water systems and prevent water shortage is subsurface storage of water during wet periods using Managed Aquifer Research (MAR). In addition to mitigation of water shortage, MAR can also reduce the occurrence and degree of flooding. Here, we present an overview of Deltares MAR expertise and available tools for up-scaling MAR. Deltares has experience with both research and implementation of MAR in different parts of the world under various hydro(geo)logical, climatic and socio-economic conditions. Various MAR techniques were assessed/tested in coastal areas of the Netherlands, Spain, New York, New Orleans and in Bangladesh. In some of these areas specific groundwater shortage related issues occur, such as salt water intrusion or subsidence. In Singapore, monitoring campaigns and modeling were done to design MAR by infiltration of water in over-exploited aquifers. In Abu Dhabi, geophysical methods were used to detect the optimal conditions for MAR systems. To effectively increase the robustness of groundwater systems up-scaling of MAR is required. For this purpose, Deltares developed tools that provide insight in the potential demand, possibilities and effectiveness of MAR at larger scales. The Quick scan tool for Fresh Groundwater Buffering provides insight on regional to national scale and is based on GIS-information of water demand, water resources, and subsurface properties. This quick scan tool has been applied for Mozambique, Kenya, India and Bangladesh. The Fresh Water Optimizer assesses the

  16. Why a regional approach to postgraduate water education makes sense - the WaterNet experience in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, L.; van der Zaag, P.; Gumbo, B.; Rockström, J.; Love, D.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2012-03-01

    This paper reports the experience of a regional network of academic departments involved in water education that started as a project and evolved, over a period of 12 yr, into an independent network organisation. The paper pursues three objectives. First, it argues that it makes good sense to organise postgraduate education and research on water resources on a regional scale. This is because water has a transboundary dimension that poses delicate sharing questions, an approach that promotes a common understanding of what the real water-related issues are, results in future water specialists speaking a common (water) language, enhances mutual respect, and can thus be considered an investment in future peace. Second, it presents the WaterNet experience as an example that a regional approach can work and has an impact. Third, it draws three generalised lessons from the WaterNet experience. Lesson 1: For a regional capacity building network to be effective, it must have a legitimate ownership structure and a clear mandate. Lesson 2: Organising water-related training opportunities at a regional and transboundary scale makes sense - not only because knowledge resources are scattered, but also because the topic - water - has a regional and transboundary scope. Lesson 3: Jointly developing educational programmes by sharing expertise and resources requires intense intellectual management and sufficient financial means.

  17. Analysis of the clinical experience with perampanel in the Moscow Region: Efficacy, tolerability, individual choice priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Rudakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze our clinical experience with perampanel (PER, by evaluating the efficacy, tolerability, and individual choice priorities.Patients and methods. The investigation enrolled 28 patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy; the patients' mean age was 38.3±10.7 years. The proportion of men was 46.4%; the disease duration was 8 to 33 years (mean 20.2 years. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs were changed 7–10 times in 66% of the patients and 5–6 times in 23%. The efficacy and tolerability of AEDs and the electroclinical features of epilepsy were compared in two groups: responders and non-responders.Results and discussion. The responder and non-responder groups had a substantial preponderance of patients with frontal lobe epilepsy and diffuse epileptiform electroencephalographic (EEG patterns (80%:46% and 80%:38%, respectively; p = 0.0001, but those with temporal lobe epilepsy and isolated regional EEG patterns were 2–3 times fewer (20%: 53.8% and 20%:61.5%; p = 0.0001. Only one of 10 combinations of carbamazepine (CBM and PER was successful. Aggression, fear, and psychosis, which occurred in 5 (17.8% patients taking PER 2–6 mg/day, were the most common adverse reactions associated with its discontinuation. PER is an effective agent to overcome of drug resistance in epilepsy. The benefit of the drug is that it may be used in undifferentiated antiepileptic therapy regimens. When predicting the effects of PER, preliminary switch from CBZ to oxcarbazepine or eslicarbazepine is reasonable. 

  18. A Three-Year Experience of Medical Thoracoscopy at A Tertiary Care Center of Himalayan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhee Sodhi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical thoracoscopy is a minimally invasive procedure for diagnosing and treating pleural diseases. Despite its proven role in diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, it is infrequently used, which could be because of cost of equipment and lack of training. We analyzed our initial 3 years record of thoracoscopy at Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, a tertiary care center in Himalayan region of north India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was to analyze our experience of medical thoracoscopy which was started in Jan 2011 at our center. All patients who underwent thoracoscopy during the period between Jan 2011 to Dec 2013 were included in the study. Thoracoscopy was performed for diagnosis of undiagnosed pleural effusions. Clinical, radiological, cytological & histopathological data of the patients were collected prospectively and analysed. Results: The diagnostic yield for a pleuroscopic pleural biopsy in our study was 87.23% (41/47. Malignancy was diagnosed histopathologically in 70.2% (33/47 patients (both primary & metastatic pleural carcinoma and tuberculosis in 10.6% (5/47. There was no mortality related to procedure. Only three patients had minor complications like subcutaneous emphysema which was mild and resolved by second post-procedure day. Pain at intercostal drain site was observed in some patients. Conclusion: Thoracoscopy is an easy outpatient procedure and an excellent diagnostic tool for pleural effusion of uncertain etiology. It has low complication rate even in settings where the procedure is just started. It should be included in the armamentarium of tools for management of pleural effusion.

  19. Comparisons of Box Model Calculations and Measurements of Formaldehyde from the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, G. J.; Fried, Alan; Lee, Y.- N.; Wert, B.; Henry, B.; Drummond, J. R.; Evans, M. J.; Fehsenfeld, Fred C.; Goldan, P. D.; Holloway, J. S.; Hubler, Gerhard F.; Jakoubek, R.; Jobson, B Tom T.; Knapp, K.; Kuster, W. C.; Roberts, J.; Rudolph, Jochen; Ryerson, T. B.; Stohl, A.; Stroud, C.; Sueper, D. T.; Trainer, Michael; Williams, J.

    2002-04-18

    Formaldehyde (CH2O) measurements from two independent instruments are compared with photochemical box model calculations. The measurements were made on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration P-3 aircraft as part of the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE 97). The data set considered here consists of air masses sampled between 0 and 8 km over the North Atlantic Ocean which do not show recent influence from emissions or transport. These air masses therefore should be in photochemical steady state with respect to CH2O when constrained by the other P-3 measurements, and methane oxidation was expected to be the predominant source of CH2O in these air masses. For this data set both instruments measured identical CH2O concentrations to within 40 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) on average over the 0–800 pptv range, although differences larger than the combined 2s total uncertainty estimates were observed between the two instruments in 11% of the data. Both instruments produced higher CH2O concentrations than the model in more than 90% of this data set, with a median measured-modeled [CH2O] difference of 0.13 or 0.18 ppbv (depending on the instrument), or about a factor of 2. Such large differences cannot be accounted for by varying model input parameters within their respective uncertainty ranges. After examining the possible reasons for the model-measurement discrepancy, we conclude that there are probably one or more additional unknown sources of CH2O in the North Atlantic troposphere.

  20. Generic Regional Development Strategies from Local Stakeholders' Scenarios - an Alpine Village Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Loibl

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the participatory elaboration of strategies for sustainable regional development in an Alpine tourist region in Austria to cope with global change effects evolving locally, considering climate change, economic change as well as (local societal change. Local stakeholders in an Alpine village in the Montafon region contributed in workshops to achieve the final results: participant teams conducted system analyses of the regional system to explore key elements of the region. Narrative scenarios described possible positive and negative development trends and indicated the critical issues controlling future development; 3D-images of landscape transition simulations show the consequences of certain development directions. Alternative development directions supported the local stakeholders to elaborate regional development strategies. In the end, the scientist team derived generic strategies for Alpine regions based on the locally developed strategy bundle. The article presents the intention, progress and outcome of the participatory approach and elaborates the potential to derive generic strategies from local ones and discusses the possibly occurring conflicts regarding cross-scale transfers of these local strategies. Overall, tourism was seen as a key element for future regional development, which can on the one hand derogate Alpine regions and is on the other hand threatened by climate change and diminution of landscape attractiveness. The suggested development strategies will help to cope with global change issues mitigating the negative consequences on the local society and environment.

  1. Retinoblastoma: experience of a referral center in the North Region of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha-Bastos R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available RA da Rocha-Bastos,1 JR Araújo,1 RS Silva,2 MJ Gil-da-Costa,2 E Brandão,1 NJ Farinha,2,3 F Falcão-Reis,1,4 T Dinah-Bragança1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital São João, 2Hematology and Oncology Unit, Pediatric Hospital, Hospital São João, 3Pediatrics Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4Department of Sense Organs, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal Purpose: To describe the experience of the Ophthalmology Department of Hospital São João (HSJ, a tertiary health care center in North Region, Portugal, in terms of the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of retinoblastoma. Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients diagnosed with retinoblastoma in Hospital São João, between 1978 and 2012. Results: Fifty patients with retinoblastoma were evaluated in our institution between 1978 and 2012. Four patients were excluded due to loss of follow-up. Among the 46 retinoblastoma cases, 33 (71.7% were unilateral and 13 (28.3% bilateral, with a mean age at diagnosis of 22.19 months and 6.92 months, respectively (P<0.001. Leukocoria was the most common presenting sign (36.9%, followed by strabismus (19.6%, a combination of leukocoria and strabismus (8.7%, and buphthalmia (2.2%. Between 1978 and 1992, nine retinoblastoma cases were referred to our hospital, all of them unilateral, and, in each case, enucleation was performed, with or without salvage therapy. Between 1993 and 2012, 18 eyes with retinoblastoma were successfully managed with conservative treatment. Conclusion: Demographic results were generally coincident with previous reports. It is crucial to screen leukocoria in pediatric practice, even in asymptomatic children. The outcome of retinoblastoma treatment in our hospital is similar to other series in developed countries. Keywords: retinoblastoma, leukocoria, strabismus, enucleation, pediatric cancer

  2. Trans-European transport networks influence on the regional development and urban systems: Serbian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The trans-European transport network has different effects at macro-regional, mezzo-regional and micro-regional level, and on urban systems development, and its effectiveness rises at the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and for more balanced and polycentric system of city networks has been underlined. The question is how the new major transport infrastructure affects the development of functional complementarity between cities and regions. Changes of the spatial organization, utilization and structure of cities, as well as of social benefits and losses subsequent to impacts of trans-European transport corridor "X" on urban system Ćuprija-Jagodina-Paraćin at section Belgrade-Nis have been analysed. The new trans-European or major transport infrastructure does not per se create regional and urban system network development, although it can affect the conditions for the processes that create growth and development. The effects can be increased by co-ordination of measures of regional and urban policy, land use, transport and other policies. The guidances and options of urban systems and urban centres development policies in trans-European transport corridor, as well as possibilities to improve our planning system have been given. The necessary measure is the introduction of spatial impact assessment as sectorial policy instrument for the large transport infrastructure projects.

  3. Regional Incentives and Patient Cross-Border Mobility: Evidence from the Italian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenka Brenna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background In recent years, accreditation of private hospitals followed by decentralisation of the Italian National Health Service (NHS into 21 regional health systems has provided a good empirical ground for investigating the Tiebout principle of “voting with their feet”. We examine the infra-regional trade-off between greater patient choice (due to an increase in hospital services supply and financial equilibrium, and we relate it to the significant phenomenon of Cross-Border Mobility (CBM between Italian regions. Focusing on the rules supervising the financial agreements between regional authorities and providers of hospital care, we find incentives for private accredited providers in attracting patient inflows. Methods The analysis is undertaken from an institutional, regulatory and empirical perspective. We select a sample of five regions with higher positive CBM balance and we examine regional regulations governing the contractual agreements between purchasers and providers of hospital care. According to this sample, we provide a statistical analysis of CBM and apply a Regional Attraction Ability Index (RAAI, aimed at testing patient preferences for private/public accredited providers. Results We find that this index is systematically higher for private providers, both in the case of distance/boundary patients and of excellence/general hospitals. Conclusion Conclusions address both financial issues regarding the coverage of regional healthcare systems and equity issues on patient healthcare access. They also raise concerns on the new European Union (EU directive inherent to patient mobility across Europe.

  4. Regional incentives and patient cross-border mobility: evidence from the Italian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenna, Elenka; Spandonaro, Federico

    2015-03-20

    In recent years, accreditation of private hospitals followed by decentralisation of the Italian National Health Service (NHS) into 21 regional health systems has provided a good empirical ground for investigating the Tiebout principle of "voting with their feet". We examine the infra-regional trade-off between greater patient choice (due to an increase in hospital services supply) and financial equilibrium, and we relate it to the significant phenomenon of Cross-Border Mobility (CBM) between Italian regions. Focusing on the rules supervising the financial agreements between regional authorities and providers of hospital care, we find incentives for private accredited providers in attracting patient inflows. The analysis is undertaken from an institutional, regulatory and empirical perspective. We select a sample of five regions with higher positive CBM balance and we examine regional regulations governing the contractual agreements between purchasers and providers of hospital care. According to this sample, we provide a statistical analysis of CBM and apply a Regional Attraction Ability Index (RAAI), aimed at testing patient preferences for private/public accredited providers. We find that this index is systematically higher for private providers, both in the case of distance/boundary patients and of excellence/general hospitals. Conclusions address both financial issues regarding the coverage of regional healthcare systems and equity issues on patient healthcare access. They also raise concerns on the new European Union (EU) directive inherent to patient mobility across Europe. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  5. Inclusive Education of Students with Disabilities in the Regional Multidisciplinary University: The Experience of Cherepovets State University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisova O.A.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the regional experience of teaching students with disabilities in a multidisciplinary university. Analysis of resources and algorithms of educational support provided at the university creates the opportunity to share this experience and to evaluate its significance for the development of higher inclusive education, as well as to assess the perspectives for its application in similar educational environments. Consulting, education, coordination and rehabilitation services are the main forms of assistance to students and teachers at all stages of education and socialization of people with disabilities. The university has a department that provides support to students with disabilities and their teachers. The analysis of the successes and challenges of higher education of persons with disabilities shows that there is an objective need to unite the efforts of the university with the regional non-governmental organizations and the authorities of the region, with health care, education and social services in order to support young people with disabilities.

  6. Implementation of the GFS physical package in the GRAPES regional model: single column experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baode; Huang, Wei; Bao, Jian-wen

    2015-04-01

    There is a growing concern about coupling among physical components in NWP models. The Physics package of the NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS) has been considerably turned and connection among various components is well considered. Thus, the full GFS physical package was implemented into the GRAPES-MESO and its single column version as well. Using the data collected at ARM Southern Great Plain site during the summer 1997 Intensive Observing Period, several experiments of single-column model (SCM) were conducted to test performance of a set of original physical processes of GRAPES(CTL experiment) and the GFS physics package implemented(GFS experiment). Temperature, moisture, radiation, surface heat flux, surface air temperature and precipitation are evaluated. It is found that potential temperature and vapor mixing ratio simulated by GFS experiment is more accurate than that of CTL experiment. Errors of surface downward solar and long-wave radiation simulated by GFS experiment are less than that of CTL experiment and upward latent and sensible heat flux are also better agreeing with observation. The maximum and minimum 2-m air temperatures of the GFS experiment are close to observation compared with that of CTL experiment. Analysis of precipitation simulated shows that both sets of physical processes well reproduce heavy rainfall events. Failure and delay of moderate rainfall events and over predictions of drizzle events are commonly found for two sets of experiments. For the case of three rainfall events, the errors of potential temperature and vapor mixing ratio simulated by GFS experiment were smaller than that of CTL experiment. It is shown that the late occurrences of rainfall are resulted from a more stable temperature profile and lower moisture simulated in boundary layer than those from the observation prior to rainfall. When the simulated rainfall occurs, the simulated temperature and moisture become more favorable to the precipitation than observation.

  7. Trans-European transport networks influence on the regional development and urban systems: Serbian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The trans-European transport network has different effects at macro regional mezzo-regional and micro-regional level, and its effectiveness rises with the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and for a more balanced and polycentric system of city networks has been underlined. Changes in the spatial organization utilization and structure of cities, as well as in social benefits and losses subsequent to impacts of trans-European transport corridor "X" section Belgrade-Niš have been analyzed. The new trans-European or major transport infrastructure does not per se create regional and urban system network development, although it can affect the conditions for the processes that create growth and development. The effects can be increased by co-ordination of measures of regional, spatial and urban policy, land use transport, environmental and other policies. The necessary measure is the introduction of spatial impact assessment as sartorial policy instrument for the large transport infrastructure plans and projects.

  8. High-Resolution Regional Reanalysis in China: Evaluation of 1 Year Period Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Pan, Yinong; Wang, Shuyu; Xu, Jianjun; Tang, Jianping

    2017-10-01

    Globally, reanalysis data sets are widely used in assessing climate change, validating numerical models, and understanding the interactions between the components of a climate system. However, due to the relatively coarse resolution, most global reanalysis data sets are not suitable to apply at the local and regional scales directly with the inadequate descriptions of mesoscale systems and climatic extreme incidents such as mesoscale convective systems, squall lines, tropical cyclones, regional droughts, and heat waves. In this study, by using a data assimilation system of Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation, and a mesoscale atmospheric model of Weather Research and Forecast model, we build a regional reanalysis system. This is preliminary and the first experimental attempt to construct a high-resolution reanalysis for China main land. Four regional test bed data sets are generated for year 2013 via three widely used methods (classical dynamical downscaling, spectral nudging, and data assimilation) and a hybrid method with data assimilation coupled with spectral nudging. Temperature at 2 m, precipitation, and upper level atmospheric variables are evaluated by comparing against observations for one-year-long tests. It can be concluded that the regional reanalysis with assimilation and nudging methods can better produce the atmospheric variables from surface to upper levels, and regional extreme events such as heat waves, than the classical dynamical downscaling. Compared to the ERA-Interim global reanalysis, the hybrid nudging method performs slightly better in reproducing upper level temperature and low-level moisture over China, which improves regional reanalysis data quality.

  9. Does regional diversity recover after disturbance? A field experiment in constructed ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M. Woods

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of disturbance on local species diversity have been well documented, but less recognized is the possibility that disturbances can alter diversity at regional spatial scales. Since regional diversity can dictate which species are available for recolonization of degraded sites, the loss of diversity at regional scales may impede the recovery of biodiversity following a disturbance. To examine this we used a chemical disturbance of rotenone, a piscicide commonly used for fish removal in aquatic habitats, on small fishless freshwater ponds. We focused on the non-target effects of rotenone on aquatic invertebrates with the goal of assessing biodiversity loss and recovery at both local (within-pond and regional (across ponds spatial scales. We found that rotenone caused significant, large, but short-term losses of species at both local and regional spatial scales. Using a null model of random extinction, we determined that species were selectively removed from communities relative to what would be expected if species loss occurred randomly. Despite this selective loss of biodiversity, species diversity at both local and regional spatial scales recovered to reference levels one year after the addition of rotenone. The rapid recovery of local and regional diversity in this study was surprising considering the large loss of regional species diversity, however many aquatic invertebrates disperse readily or have resting stages that may persist through disturbances. We emphasize the importance of considering spatial scale when quantifying the impacts of a disturbance on an ecosystem, as well as considering how regional species loss can influence recovery from disturbance.

  10. Paragangliomas of the head and neck region: A single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumudachalam Pindicura

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Paragangliomas of the head and neck are uncommon lesions. The most common site in the head and neck region was the jugulotympanic region. Most cases of jugulotympanic paraganglioma presented in the fifth decade and later. Laryngeal paraganglioma presented clinically earlier in the second decade. Jugulotympanic and laryngeal paraganglioma showed dominance of tumor vasculature histologically. There was a rare case of laryngeal paraganglioma with lateral neck extension in this study.

  11. Automated detection of regions of interest for tissue microarray experiments: an image texture analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaçali, Bilge; Tözeren, Aydin

    2007-01-01

    Recent research with tissue microarrays led to a rapid progress toward quantifying the expressions of large sets of biomarkers in normal and diseased tissue. However, standard procedures for sampling tissue for molecular profiling have not yet been established. This study presents a high throughput analysis of texture heterogeneity on breast tissue images for the purpose of identifying regions of interest in the tissue for molecular profiling via tissue microarray technology. Image texture of breast histology slides was described in terms of three parameters: the percentage of area occupied in an image block by chromatin (B), percentage occupied by stroma-like regions (P), and a statistical heterogeneity index H commonly used in image analysis. Texture parameters were defined and computed for each of the thousands of image blocks in our dataset using both the gray scale and color segmentation. The image blocks were then classified into three categories using the texture feature parameters in a novel statistical learning algorithm. These categories are as follows: image blocks specific to normal breast tissue, blocks specific to cancerous tissue, and those image blocks that are non-specific to normal and disease states. Gray scale and color segmentation techniques led to identification of same regions in histology slides as cancer-specific. Moreover the image blocks identified as cancer-specific belonged to those cell crowded regions in whole section image slides that were marked by two pathologists as regions of interest for further histological studies. These results indicate the high efficiency of our automated method for identifying pathologic regions of interest on histology slides. Automation of critical region identification will help minimize the inter-rater variability among different raters (pathologists) as hundreds of tumors that are used to develop an array have typically been evaluated (graded) by different pathologists. The region of interest

  12. Integrated Verification Experiment data collected as part of the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Source Region Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, R.W.; Noel, S.D.

    1992-12-01

    The summary report by Tom Weaver gives the overall background for the series of IVE (Integrated Verification Experiment) experiments including information on the full set of measurements made. This appendix presents details of the infrasound data for the and discusses certain aspects of a few special experiments. Prior to FY90, the emphasis of the Infrasound Program was on underground nuclear test (UGT) detection and yield estimation. During this time the Infrasound Program was a separate program at Los Alamos, and it was suggested to DOE/OAC that a regional infrasound network be established around NTS. The IVE experiments took place in a time frame that allowed simultaneous testing of possible network sites and examination of propagation in different directions. Whenever possible, infrasound stations were combined with seismic stations so that a large number could be efficiently fielded. The regional infrasound network was not pursued by DOE, as world events began to change the direction of verification toward non-proliferation. Starting in FY90 the infrasound activity became part of the Source Region Program which has a goal of understanding how energy is transported from the UGT to a variety of measurement locations.

  13. Antimicrobial Resistance Control Strategies: A Coordinated Research Initiative Experience in the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Lisette; Asenjo, Gabriela; Vergara, Constanza; Cornejo, Javiera

    2017-05-01

    The objective was to gather information on the status of antimicrobial surveillance in the Asia Pacific region and suggest control strategies. Twenty-one economies of the Asia Pacific region participated in this initiative. A survey was conducted on antimicrobial use and surveillance throughout the region. A workshop was carried out to create awareness about the issue and discuss the implementation of control strategies. Based on the survey results and workshop conclusions, it can be established that there is better understanding of the implications of antimicrobial resistance in the human medicine area. Only few economies take actions to control antimicrobial resistance on a veterinary/agricultural level. To confront antimicrobial resistance, it is critical to raise awareness; cooperation between all countries is needed to apply international standards, to be able to have harmonized public policies. Countries must align and improve their systems for surveillance and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in human, animals, and the environment.

  14. Renewable Energy Development in the Context of Green Economy: the Experience of Kostanay Region (Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Anatolyevna Pakina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The world’s best practices of “green” economy principles implementation demonstrate that one of the key criteria in this way is increasing energy efficiency. We have investigated the perspectives of renewable energy use through the case study of the Kostanay region – one of developed regions of Kazakhstan with industrial-agrarian type of the economy. The analysis of the natural conditions revealed that the area has sufficient resources to generate energy through renewable sources. The average annual radiation on the territory of the Kostanay region amounts to 3.55 kWh/mІ per day, and wind resources are also available to produce energy: the average wind speed here is 4-5 m/s, with the maximum wind speed 40 m/s in the southern part of the region. At the same time the biomass resources have the greatest potential as a renewable energy source. Taking into account the share of agricultural areas (92 %, the Kostanay region has a great potential for recycling agricultural production wastes – of both the livestock and crop production – for energy purposes, and such facilities are already in operation in some farms of the region. The assessment of biogas production potential, carried out in the article, showed that it can be considered as the most effective way to reduce fossil fuels consumption and to cover energy demand in the agricultural sector. Development of renewable energy will also contribute to environmental problems solution and raising the living standards of the local population.

  15. CO2 emissions reduction using energy conservation measures: EPA Region IV's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berish, C.; Day, R.; Sibold, K.; Tiller, J.

    1994-01-01

    EPA Region 4 concluded in a recent comparative environmental risk evaluation that global climate change could substantially impact the Southeast. To address this risk, Region 4 developed an action plan to promote cost-effective pollution prevention and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, The regional plan contains programs that aye specific to Region 4 as well as geographic components of the national Climate Change Action Plan. Sources of carbon dioxide emissions were targeted for pollution prevention based on an energy model that allows the user to create energy efficiency scenarios in four sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation. Activities were selected using the modeled information on sector reduction potentials and resource and cost-effectiveness criteria. Given the high level of uncertainty associated with climate change projections, the programs developed are all cost effective, prevent pollution and/or result in sound adaptation policies. Currently, policy makers at national, regional, and local levels are deciding on what types of energy efficiency programs to implement. The region's action plan is composed of several programs and approaches. The authors have developed implemented, and/or participated in the following: energy scenario model. EARTHWALK (residential energy conservation); energy conservation in affordable homes (new residences); Cool Communities Program (strategic tree planting and light colored surfaces); EPA's Green Lights Program; WAVE (water conservation), the Plant Protection Center; QUEST TO SAVE THE EARTH (outreach tools); energy and water use planning for the 1996 Olympic Games, and planning for sea-level rise. Reviewing the practices of the above programs will be the focus of this paper

  16. [Experience of Regional Vascular Centre in assisting patients with severe cerebrovascular accidents in Novosibirsk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronin, B M; Marushak, A A; Popova, T F; Gribacheva, I A; Petrova, E V

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the work of the neurological department of the Novosibirsk regional vascular center of City Clinical Hospital #1 for the period from 2013 to 2015 was done. We analyzed the annual reports of the regional vascular center, dynamics of cerebrovascular disease patterns, lethality, about the provision of medical care to patients with stroke, the use of high-tech methods of diagnosis and treatment. Ascertain the progress achieved and the perspectives of further improving the quality of care to patients with stroke due to wider use of methods of rehabilitation in the acute stage of stroke.

  17. Environmental Equity and the Role of Public Policy: Experiences in the Rijnmond Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruize, Hanneke; Driessen, Peter P. J.; Glasbergen, Pieter; van Egmond, Klaas (N. D.)

    2007-10-01

    This Φ Ψ study of environmental equity uses secondary quantitative data to analyze socioeconomic disparities in environmental conditions in the Rijnmond region of the Netherlands. The disparities of selected environmental indicators—exposure to traffic noise (road, rail, and air), NO2, external safety risks, and the availability of public green space—are analyzed both separately and in combination. Not only exposures to environmental burdens (“bads”) were investigated, but also access to environmental benefits (“goods”). Additionally, we held interviews and reviewed documents to grasp the mechanisms underlying the environmental equity situation, with an emphasis on the role of public policy. Environmental equity is not a priority in public policy for the greater Rotterdam region known as the Rijnmond region, yet environmental standards have been established to provide a minimum environmental quality to all local residents. In general, environmental quality has improved in this region, and the accumulation of negative environmental outcomes (“bads”) has been limited. However, environmental standards for road traffic noise and NO2 are being exceeded, probably because of the pressure on space and the traffic intensity. We found an association of environmental “bads” with income for rail traffic noise and availability of public green space. In the absence of regulation, positive environmental outcomes (“goods”) are mainly left up to market forces. Consequently, higher-income groups generally have more access to environmental “goods” than lower-income groups.

  18. Samara region experience in organization of emergency care system for patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duplyakov D.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the general features of healthcare program for patients with acute coronary syndrome which started in Samara region in 2007. Some results and perspectives of future development of Samara “myocardial infarction network” are elucidated.

  19. The Outlook for Low-Grade Fuels in Tomsk Region: Research Experience at Tomsk Polytechnic University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaustov Sergei A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of the discussed issue is caused by the need to substitute in the regional fuel-energy balances imported energy resources with local low-grade fuels. The main aim of the study is to estimate thermal properties of local fuels in Tomsk region and evaluate its energy use viability. The methods used in the study were based standard GOST 52911-2008, 11022-95 and 6382-2001, by means of a bomb calorimeter ABK-1 and Vario micro cube analyzer. The mineral ash of researched fuels was studied agreeing with GOST 10538-87. The results state the fact that discussed low-grade fuels of Tomsk region in the unprepared form are not able to replace imported coal in regional energy balance, because of the high moisture and ash content values. A promosing direction of a low-temperature fue processing is a catalytic converter, which allows receiving hydrogen-enriched syngas from the initial solid raw.

  20. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with gemcitabine plus regional hyperthermia for locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma. Initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohguri, Takayuki; Imada, Hajime; Yahara, Katsuya; Morioka, Tomoaki; Nakano, Keita; Korogi, Yukunori; Narisada, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with gemcitabine plus regional hyperthermia (HT) for locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma (LAPC). A total of 29 patients with LAPC treated with concurrent CRT using gemcitabine were retrospectively analyzed. Radiotherapy was administered with a median total dose of 61.2 Gy. Of the 29 patients, 20 (69%) also underwent regional HT during CRT (CRHT group). The remaining 9 patients did not receive regional HT (CRT group) because of a common bile duct stent placement, patient refusal, older age, or obesity. The efficacy and toxicity of the treatments and the predictors of good outcome were evaluated. The median disease progression-free and overall survival times were significantly better for the CRHT group than for the CRT group (8.8 vs. 4.9 months, P=0.02, and 18.6 vs. 9.6 months, P=0.01), respectively. Grade 3-4 hematological toxicities for the CRHT group were detected in eight patients (40%) and grade 3 nonhematologic toxicity in one (diarrhea). Concurrent CRT using gemcitabine with regional HT may be a feasible and promising regimen for LAPC, and the results justified further evaluation in a large number of patients to confirm its definite benefit. (author)

  1. Working-Class Ideas and Experiences of Sexuality in Twentieth-Century Britain: Regionalism as a Category of Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Helen

    2018-03-01

    This article will explore region as a category of analysis for understanding gender, sexual cultures, and the expression of same-sex desire. In unpicking the notion of regional difference in both its tangible and intangible forms, it outlines the corresponding impact on how sexual cultures developed and were experienced in twentieth-century Britain. By recognizing that the area in which an individual lived could have as much impact on their sense of self and their sexual experiences as issues of race, gender, and class, a new and fruitful avenue of interpretation is opened up for the history of sexuality and twentieth-century British history more broadly. Such a methodology has the potential to add a new dimension to all histories of non-state-sanctioned sexual experience such as illegitimacy, premarital sex, extramarital affairs, and prostitution. In using regional case studies and interrogating ideas of sexual taboo, this article offers a unique interpretation of sexual experience that destabilizes current London-centric narratives and offers a more democratic and nuanced history of sex.

  2. Documentation of polio eradication initiative best practices: Experience from WHO African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeibunor, Joseph; Nshimirimana, Deo; Nsubuga, Peter; Mutabaruka, Evariste; Tapsoba, Leonard; Ghali, Emmanuel; Kabir, Shaikh Humayun; Gassasira, Alex; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal

    2016-10-10

    The African Region is set to achieving polio eradication. During the years of operations, the Polio Eradication Initiative [PEI] in the Region mobilized and trained tremendous amount of manpower with specializations in surveillance, social mobilization, supplementary immunization activities [SIAs], data management and laboratory staff. Systems were put in place to accelerate the eradication of polio in the Region. Standardized, real-time surveillance and response capacity were established. Many innovations were developed and applied to reaching people in difficult and security challenged terrains. All of these resulted in accumulation of lessons and best practices, which can be used in other priority public health intervention if documented. The World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa [WHO/AFRO] developed a process for the documentation of these best practices, which was pretested in Uganda. The process entailed assessment of three critical elements [effectiveness, efficiency and relevance] five aspects [ethical soundness, sustainability, involvement of partners, community involvement, and political commitment] of best practices. A scored card which graded the elements and aspects on a scale of 0-10 was developed and a true best practice should score >50 points. Independent public health experts documented polio best practices in eight countries in the Region, using this process. The documentation adopted the cross-sectional design in the generation of data, which combined three analytical designs, namely surveys, qualitative inquiry and case studies. For the selection of countries, country responses to earlier questionnaire on best practices were screened for potential best practices. Another criterion used was the level of PEI investment in the countries. A total of 82 best practices grouped into ten thematic areas were documented. There was a correlation between the health system performances with DPT3 as proxy, level of PEI investment in countries

  3. Muslim Students' Cultural and Religious Experiences in City, Suburban and Regional University Campuses in NSW, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possamai, Adam; Dunn, Kevin; Hopkins, Peter; Worthington, Lisa; Amin, Faroque

    2016-01-01

    Although there has been much research about the growing ethnic and religious diversity on university campuses across the world, relatively little is known about the religious and cultural experiences of Muslim students on university campuses in Australia. We draw upon an analysis of a questionnaire that was completed by 323 Muslim students who…

  4. Synthesis of field experiments concerning the grass layer in the savanna regions of southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Connor, TG

    1985-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this synthesis of long term experiments was to develop an account of how the principal determinants (rainfall, soil type, woody/grass ratio, herbivory, fire) influence the dynamics of the grass layer of southern African savannas...

  5. Chemical safety of cassava products in regions adopting cassava production and processing - experience from Southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyirenda, D.B.; Chiwona-Karltun, L.; Chitundu, M.

    2011-01-01

    and perceptions concerning cassava and chemical food safety. Chips, mixed biscuits and flour, procured from households and markets in three regions of Zambia (Luapula-North, Western and Southern) as well as products from the Northern, Central and Southern regions of Malawi, were analyzed for total cyanogenic...... of products commercially available on the market. Risk assessments disclose that effects harmful to the developing central nervous system (CNS) may be observed at a lower exposure than previously anticipated. We interviewed farmers in Zambia and Malawi about their cultivars, processing procedures......The cassava belt area in Southern Africa is experiencing an unforeseen surge in cassava production, processing and consumption. Little documentation exists on the effects of this surge on processing procedures, the prevailing levels of cyanogenic glucosides of products consumed and the levels...

  6. Soil water movement in the unsaturated zone of an inland arid region: Mulched drip irrigation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Zhou, Tiantian

    2018-04-01

    Agricultural irrigation with trans-basin water diversion can effectively relieve the water paucity in arid and semi-arid regions, however, this may be accompanied by eco-environmental problems (e.g., saline soils, rising groundwater levels, water quality problems). The mechanism of soil water movement under irrigation in the unsaturated zone of arid regions is a key scientific problem that should be solved in order to evaluate agricultural water management and further improve current irrigation practices. This study investigated the impact of drip irrigation on soil water movement in the unsaturated zone of a cotton field in an inland arid region (the Karamay Agricultural Development Area), northwest China. Combining in situ observational physical data with temporal variation in stable isotopic compositions of soil water, we described the soil water flow system and mechanism in severe (Plot 1) and mild (Plot 2) saline-alkali cotton fields. The infiltration depths are 0-150 cm for both plots. Drip irrigation scheduling makes no significant contribution to local groundwater recharge, however, groundwater can move into the unsaturated zone through capillary rise during cotton flowering and boll periods. Plot 2 is less prone to having secondary soil salinization than Plot 1 due to the existence of a middle layer (approximately 100 cm thick), which elongated the distance between the root zone and aquifer. Rise in the water table (approximately 60 cm for Plot 1 and 50 cm for Plot 2) could be caused by lateral groundwater flow instead of vertical infiltration. We estimated the soil water storage changes in the unsaturated zone and proposed a conceptual model for deciphering the movement process of soil water. This study provides a scientific basis for determining the rise of groundwater levels and potential development of saline soils and improving agricultural water management in arid regions.

  7. Resolving regional conflicts and public opinion: The Nigerian experience in Liberian crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salami, B.O.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria played an important role which led to the resolution of the Liberian crisis between 1990 and 1997. But between 1990 and 1993 towards the end of General Ibrahim Babangida’s regime (1985-1993, Nigeria’s role in the Liberian peace process became a major issue which preoccupied Nigeria’s external relations within the West African Sub-region. This paper examines in how public opinion influences government attitude and posture towards the Liberian situation.

  8. Small Arms Proliferation and Homegrown Terrorism in the Great Lakes Region: Uganda’s Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    in Karamoja was also motivated by the low standard of living there, as the colonial administration and other entrepreneurs expropriated their land...facilitate homegrown terrorism. Because of porous borders that make it easier for potentially disruptive groups to cross into the country, the Act makes it...used by homegrown terrorists and conflicts in the region.209 Conflict entrepreneurs continue to profit from illegal small arms trade taking advantage

  9. Multi scale Disaster Risk Reduction Systems Space and Community based Experiences over HKH Region

    OpenAIRE

    Gurung, D. R.; Shrestha, M.; Shrestha, N.; Debnath, B.; Jishi, G.; Bajracharya, R.; Dhonju, H. K.; Pradhan, S.

    2014-01-01

    An increasing trend in the recurrence of natural disasters and associated impacts due to Floods, Glacier Lake out bursts, landslides and forest fire is reported over Hindu Kush Himalyan (HKH) region. Climate change and anthropogenic coupled factors are identified as primary factors for such increased vulnerability. The large degree of poverty, lack of infrastructure, poor accessibility and uncertainties involved in understanding high altitude land surface and climate dynamics poses s...

  10. Influence of Professional Associations on Regional Policy in Education: International Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Tezikova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the organizational development analisys, as well as literature review and author’s participation in the European and American professional associations the main ideas to establish the ratio between regional government bodies and non-profit organisations are proposed. The historical-pedagogical review of teachers’associations permitted to define organizational conditions for teacher professional developmen and they are represented in the article.

  11. The Regional Autopsy Center: The University of Alabama at Birmingham Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Daniel Stephen; Reilly, Stephanie

    2017-09-01

    Rates of autopsied deaths have decreased significantly for the last several decades. It may not be practical for some institutions to maintain the facilities and staffing required to perform autopsies. In recent years, the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) has established contracts to perform autopsies for several regional institutions including the Alabama Department of Forensic Sciences (ADFS), the United States Veterans Affairs, the local prison system, local community hospitals, and with families for private autopsy services. Contracts and autopsy data from 2004 to 2015 were obtained and reviewed. Since 2004, the number of UAB hospital autopsies trended slightly downward. On average, UAB hospital cases comprised most yearly cases, and the ADFS was the second largest contributor of cases. Income generated from outside autopsies performed from 2006 to 2015 totaled just more than 2 million dollars, and most of the income was generated from referred ADFS cases. This study provides evidence that a centralized institution (regional autopsy center [RAC]) can provide regional autopsy service in a practical, feasible, and economically viable manner, and a RAC can benefit both the referring institutions as well as the RAC itself.

  12. Experience of measuring the level of victimization of the population of Nizhniy Novgorod region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Glukhova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective basing on the data from empirical sociological study to identify the level of latency and victimization of the population of Nizhny Novgorod region. Methods general scientific analysis systemicstructural approach to the analysis of object of research comparativelegal as well as logical methods and specific scientific method survey ndash questionnaires and interviews. nbsp Results qualitative and quantitative analysis is performed of the overall situation referring to unrecorded crime latent crime committed on the territory of Nizhny Novgorod city and Nizhny Novgorod oblast as well as comparative analysis of the level of latent crime in the city and region by the types and trends of criminal activities the main reasons are identified for refusal the victims to appeal to police in Nizhny Novgorod and Nizhny Novgorod oblast recommendations and proposals are elaborated of the work of territorial bodies of the Ministry of Domestic Affairs to the aim of reducing the level of latent crime. Scientific novelty for the first time on the basis of data obtained during a sociological survey the crime situation on the territory of Nizhny Novgorod region is discussed revealing the actual level of latent delinquency and proposals and practical recommendations are formulated for the adjustment of the work of territorial bodies of the Ministry of Domestic Affairs to the aim of reducing the level of latent crime. Practical significance basing on the research the recommendations are to improve the work of territorial bodies of the Ministry of Domestic Affairs to the aim of reducing the level of latent crime.

  13. Regional co-operation in the nuclear field: The Nordic experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    Experience from 25 years of co-operation in the nuclear field between the Nordic countries is described. A pragmatic approach with a minimum of formalism is used. The co-operation takes place mainly through ''horizontal'' channels between corresponding bodies in the different countries - safety authorities, research institutions, electricity producers, etc. In addition, a ''vertical'' co-ordination between these different circles is accomplished through a Nordic Liaison Committee. The experience shows that valuable results can be obtained, mainly through rationalization and improved use of resources. Difficulties, which are inherent in international co-operation, can be reduced, provided that there is a strong political will, an efficient system to promote contacts, and a flexible financing scheme. Apart from the benefits obtained in each of the countries - whether or not it has its own nuclear power - particular advantages accrue when a ''Nordic group'' can present co-ordinated viewpoints on the international scene. (author)

  14. Archetype-based conversion of EHR content models : pilot experience with a regional EHR system

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Rong; Klein, Gunnar O; Sundvall, Erik; Karlsson, Daniel; Åhlfeldt, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Background: Exchange of Electronic Health Record (EHR) data between systems from different suppliers is a major challenge. EHR communication based on archetype methodology has been developed by openEHR and CEN/ISO. The experience of using archetypes in deployed EHR systems is quite limited today. Currently deployed EHR systems with large user bases have their own proprietary way of representing clinical content using various models. This study was designed to investigate the feasibility of re...

  15. Listening to music during regional anesthesia: patients' experiences and the effect on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sven-Olof Trängeberg, Örjan; Stomberg, Margareta Warrén

    2013-10-01

    Many patients experience a sense of anxiety and insecurity during the perianesthesia period. It is important to the care relationship that the nurse be able to help the patient to establish a degree of control over their situation and thus regain their own sense of security. Music therapy can be a useful tool to accomplish this. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a music intervention on patient's mood and self-reported satisfaction. A multimodal research design using an open-ended interview and quantitative anxiety scale was used. A total of 15 patients were interviewed with an open question in addition to completing the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and the HAD scale according to standard practice. An analysis of the interviews revealed a main theme: a feeling of satisfaction, and three subthemes: positive experience, inner peace, and detachment from reality. It emerged from the interviews that it was important for the patients to select music themselves. Patients had a positive experience, inner peace, and detachment from reality with changes in the patients' state of mind before and after the musical intervention. The anxiety level significantly decreased (P = .019) after the patients listened to music during surgery compared with the prevalence of anxiety before listening to music. This study shows that music has a positive impact on patients undergoing anesthesia. Copyright © 2013 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Passive seismic experiment in the Olduvai Gorge and Laetoli region (Ngorongoro Conservation Area), Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Laura; Lombardo, Luigi; Tang, Zheng; Mai, P. Martin

    2017-04-01

    The Olduvai Gorge and Laetoli basins, located within the Ngorogoro Conservation Area (NCA), are a cornerstone for understanding the evolution of early humans and are two paleo-antropological excavation sites of global importance. NCA is located at the boundary between the Tanzanian Craton and East African Rift (EAR), in the vicinity of Ngorongoro Crater and other major volcanic edifices. Thus, understanding the geology and tectonics of the NCA may shed light onto the question why early Hominins settled in this region. Environmental and geological conditions in the Olduvai and Laetoli region that promoted human settlement and development are still debated by geologists and paleo-anthropologists. Paleo-geographical reconstructions of the study area of the last 2 million years may take advantage of modern passive seismology. Therefore, we installed a dense seismic network covering a surface of approximately 30 x 40 km within the NCA to map the depth extent of known faults, and to identify seismically active faults that have no surface expression. Our ten seismic stations, equipped with Trillium Compact 120 s sensors, started to operate in June 2016 and will continue for a total of 2 years. At the end of the first year, other 5 stations will densify our network. Here we analyse data quality of the first four months of continuous recordings. Our network provides good quality 3-C waveforms in the frequency range of 0.7-50 Hz. Vertical component seismograms record frequencies reliably down to 8 mHz. Preliminary results of the seismicity obtained with standard location procedures show that NCA is characterised by frequent tectonic seismicity (not volcano-related) with Ml between 0.5 and 2.0. Seismic activity is more frequent in the South (Laetoli region) where major fault systems have not been recognised at the surface yet.

  17. Were equatorial regions less affected by the 2009 influenza pandemic? The Brazilian experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Schuck-Paim

    Full Text Available Although it is in the Tropics where nearly half of the world population lives and infectious disease burden is highest, little is known about the impact of influenza pandemics in this area. We investigated the mortality impact of the 2009 influenza pandemic relative to mortality rates from various outcomes in pre-pandemic years throughout a wide range of latitudes encompassing the entire tropical, and part of the subtropical, zone of the Southern Hemisphere (+5(°N to -35(°S by focusing on a country with relatively uniform health care, disease surveillance, immunization and mitigation policies: Brazil. To this end, we analyzed laboratory-confirmed deaths and vital statistics mortality beyond pre-pandemic levels for each Brazilian state. Pneumonia, influenza and respiratory mortality were significantly higher during the pandemic, affecting predominantly adults aged 25 to 65 years. Overall, there were 2,273 and 2,787 additional P&I- and respiratory deaths during the pandemic, corresponding to a 5.2% and 2.7% increase, respectively, over average pre-pandemic annual mortality. However, there was a marked spatial structure in mortality that was independent of socio-demographic indicators and inversely related with income: mortality was progressively lower towards equatorial regions, where low or no difference from pre-pandemic mortality levels was identified. Additionally, the onset of pandemic-associated mortality was progressively delayed in equatorial states. Unexpectedly, there was no additional mortality from circulatory causes. Comparing disease burden reliably across regions is critical in those areas marked by competing health priorities and limited resources. Our results suggest, however, that tropical regions of the Southern Hemisphere may have been disproportionally less affected by the pandemic, and that climate may have played a key role in this regard. These findings have a direct bearing on global estimates of pandemic burden and the

  18. Characteristics of smoke emissions from biomass fires of the Amazon region--Base-A experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.E.; Setzer, A.W.; Kaufman, Y.J.; Rasmussen, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    An airborne sampling system was used to collect grab samples of smokes for analysis of both in-plume smoke characteristics and ambient air in Brazil. In addition to the emission measurements, the chemical composition of the forest biomass burned by one fire in the Amazon region of Brazil was compared to the fuel composition for biomass burned in North America. The limited data set suggests that combustion efficiencies for tropical biomass combustion are higher than those of temperature forest fuels, as are emission factors for carbon dioxide

  19. Service experience with AISI type 316 steel components in CEGB Midlands Region power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastow, B.; Bagnall, B.I.; Yeldham, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    The service performance of AISI Type 316 steel components in sections up to 100 mm thick in Power Plant of the Midlands Region of the C.E.G.B. is reviewed. A comparison is drawn between the satisfactory performance of components whose dimensional stability is not critical and the difficulties experienced when rapid rates of change of temperature cause distortion in thick section components. Weldment manufacture and performance are reviewed and both are considered to be satisfactory. In general the material has performed well and the difficulties due to distortion have been overcome by imposing operating regimes which limit rates of temperature change. (author)

  20. Experience from cooperation of medical surveillance personnel and hygiene services in North Moravian Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillova, J.

    1988-01-01

    Surveillance in health car institutions with sources of ionizing radiation is discussed. A special group of workers who sat for examinations and were trained in special courses was selected. A number of special publications are put out in the field of radiation protection. Surveillance personnel visit the individual workplaces and point out any shortcomings in the observance of radiation protection principles. Demonstration dosimetry is carried out in the vicinity of radiation sources. Attention is also devoted to radiation technology, and significant exposures of personnel are examined. Also mentioned are the problems of radiaton protection in the region and possible improvement of the work of surveillance personnel. (M.D.)

  1. CLUSTER DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMY OF REGION: THEORETICAL OPPORTUNITIES AND PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Romanova

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In clause theoretical approaches to formation industrial cluster кластеров in regions of the Russian Federation are considered. Оn the basis of which the methodological scheme of the project of cluster creation is offered. On an example hi-tech cluster “Titanic valley”, created in Sverdlovsk area, basic elements of its formation reveal: a substantiation of use cluster forms of the organization of business, an estimation of preconditions of creation, the description of the cluster purposes, problems, structures; mechanism of management and stages of realization of the project of cluster creation, measures of the state support.

  2. Apoio regional no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: um relato de experiência

    OpenAIRE

    Roseni Pinheiro; Ana Maria Auler Matheus Peres; Gabriel Velloso; Marcela de Souza Caldas

    2014-01-01

    No contexto do processo de regionalização do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) surgiram iniciativas para promover as regiões de saúde e seus municípios circunscritos por meio do apoio, que busca reformular os tradicionais mecanismos de gestão. Propõe-se o conceito de apoio regional, que se iniciou, na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, com o objeto deste trabalho: o Projeto Apoiadores Regionais, criado pelo Conselho de Secretários Municipais de Sa&#...

  3. The Evolution of the Region of Interest Builder in the ATLAS Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Rifki, Othmane; The ATLAS collaboration; Crone, Gordon Jeremy; Green, Barry; Love, Jeremy; Proudfoot, James; Panduro Vazquez, William; Vandelli, Wainer; Zhang, Jinlong

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS is a general purpose particle detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN designed to measure the products of proton collisions. Given their high interaction rate (1GHz), selective triggering in real time is required to reduce the rate to the experiment’s data storage capacity (1KHz). To meet this requirement, ATLAS employs a combination of hardware and software triggers to select interesting collisions for physics analysis. The Region of Interest Builder (RoIB) is an integral part of the ATLAS detector Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) chain where the coordinates of the regions of interest (RoIs) identified by the first level trigger (L1) are collected and passed to the High Level Trigger (HLT) to make a decision. While the current custom RoIB operated reliably during the first run of the LHC, it is desirable to have the RoIB more operationally maintainable in the new run, which will reach higher luminosities with an increased complexity of L1 triggers. We are responsible for migrating the ...

  4. Metropolization Process for enhancing local and regional planning : an experience of cirebon metropolitan, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyadi Rustidja, E.

    2018-03-01

    Metropolitan develops in line with resource utilization, investment, and transactions of regional activities. Metropolization of an area gives emerge urban economy that changes the situation, form, and pattern of urban space interactions. On the other hand, metropolism concerns the strategy of changing variation of urban space, so that metropolitan invasion not only form of urban space but also the process of interaction among stakeholders in developing metropolitan area. Based on participatory research, this article explores metropolitan invasion process for enhancing local and regional planning, both indigenous and intrusive cataclysmic. The study find that the primeval, rural, and urban as elemental environment must be considered in developing metropolitan, not merely form the structure and pattern of urban space. The metropolization process also requires the strategic of rural urban linkage, context setting and local assessment, strategic community investment, and interculturalist approach. The other findings of the study show that metropolization in Cirebon Metropolitan, West Java emphasizing on promotion of competitiveness strategy, value chain urban activities, and networking of urban areas. Cirebon Metropolitan must promote the realization of growth centers and connect the interregional activities of metropolitan area for providing sustainable economic growth.

  5. Impact of evolving greenhouse gas forcing on the warming signal in regional climate model experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerez, S; López-Romero, J M; Turco, M; Jiménez-Guerrero, P; Vautard, R; Montávez, J P

    2018-04-03

    Variations in the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) may not be included as external forcing when running regional climate models (RCMs); at least, this is a non-regulated, non-documented practice. Here we investigate the so far unexplored impact of considering the rising evolution of the CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O atmospheric concentrations on near-surface air temperature (TAS) trends, for both the recent past and the near future, as simulated by a state-of-the-art RCM over Europe. The results show that the TAS trends are significantly affected by 1-2 K century -1 , which under 1.5 °C global warming translates into a non-negligible impact of up to 1 K in the regional projections of TAS, similarly affecting projections for maximum and minimum temperatures. In some cases, these differences involve a doubling signal, laying further claim to careful reconsideration of the RCM setups with regard to the inclusion of GHG concentrations as an evolving external forcing which, for the sake of research reproducibility and reliability, should be clearly documented in the literature.

  6. The Economic Impact of Labeled Regional Products: The Experience of the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Entlebuch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Knaus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Protected area management bodies are increasingly required to address economic development alongside the original goal of conservation. This is especially true for United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO biosphere reserves, which are expected to function as models for sustainable development. Economic development has been achieved in many places through nature-based tourism. Sale of products labeled as coming from protected areas is considered promising in this respect too, especially in Europe, but their economic impact has not been assessed so far. This study estimated the gross added value generated by labeled products from the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Entlebuch—a rural, mountainous region in Switzerland. After a management-guided phase of building up credibility, identity, and innovations, labeled products generated a remarkable gross added value of US$ 5.8 million in 2014, 13 years after the product label was introduced. This corresponds to 4% of the jobs in agriculture and forestry and 1% of all jobs in the region. Given potential synergies with biodiversity, tourism, individual well-being, and other assets, labeled products can be true advantages for protected areas and their managers.

  7. The evolution of the region of interest builder for the ATLAS experiment at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B.; Rifki, O.; Blair, R.; Love, J.; Proudfoot, J.; Zhang, J.; Crone, G.; Green, B.; Vazquez, W.P.; Vandelli, W.

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS detector uses a real time selective triggering system to reduce the high interaction rate from 40 MHz to its data storage capacity of 1 kHz. A hardware first level (L1) trigger limits the rate to 100 kHz and a software high level trigger (HLT) selects events for offline analysis. The HLT uses the Regions of Interest (RoIs) identified by L1 and provided by the Region of Interest Builder (RoIB). The current RoIB is a custom VMEbus based system that operated reliably since the first run of the LHC . Since the LHC will reach higher luminosity and ATLAS will increase the complexity and number of L1 triggers, it is desirable to have a more flexible and more operationally maintainable RoIB in the future. In this regard, the functionality of the multi-card VMEbus based RoIB is being migrated to a PC based RoIB with a PCI-Express card. Testing has produced a system that achieved the targeted rate of 100 kHz

  8. The Evolution of the Region of Interest Builder in the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, Robert; The ATLAS collaboration; Green, Barry; Love, Jeremy; Proudfoot, James; Rifki, Othmane; Panduro Vazquez, Jose Guillermo; Zhang, Jinlong

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS is a general purpose particle detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN designed to measure the products of proton collisions. Given their high interaction rate (1GHz), selective triggering in real time is required to reduce the rate to the experiment’s data storage capacity (1KHz). To meet this requirement, ATLAS employs a combination of hardware and software triggers to select interesting collisions for physics analysis. The Region of Interest Builder (RoIB) is an integral part of the ATLAS detector Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) chain where the coordinates of the regions of interest (RoIs) identified by the first level trigger (L1) are collected and passed to the High Level Trigger (HLT) to make a decision. While the current custom RoIB operated reliably during the first run of the LHC, it is desirable to have the RoIB more operationally maintainable in the new run, which will reach higher luminosities with an increased complexity of L1 triggers. We are responsible for migrating the ...

  9. EXPERIENCE OF USE OF PNEUMOCOCCAL CONJUGATED 7-VALENT VACCINE IN SOME REGIONS OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Ruleva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An experience of immunization with pneumococcal conjugated 7-valent vaccine Prevenar in 234 children under 5 years old with different state of health was analyzed. There were no any severe reactions, postvaccinal complications or local reactions to the vaccine injection. Mild and moderate postvaccinal reactions were detected in 3,4% (n = 8 of children. The vaccine can be used in children under 5 years old.Key words: children, vaccination, pneumococcal conjugated 7-valent vaccine, safety.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(2:119-123

  10. An Overview of the Regional Experiments for Land-atmosphere Exchanges 2012 (REFLEX 2012) Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Wim J.; van der Tol, Christiaan; Timmermans, Joris; Ucer, Murat; Chen, Xuelong; Alonso, Luis; Moreno, Jose; Carrara, Arnaud; Lopez, Ramon; de la Cruz Tercero, Fernando; Corcoles, Horacio L.; de Miguel, Eduardo; Sanchez, Jose A. G.; Pérez, Irene; Franch, Belen; Munoz, Juan-Carlos J.; Skokovic, Drazen; Sobrino, Jose; Soria, Guillem; MacArthur, Alasdair; Vescovo, Loris; Reusen, Ils; Andreu, Ana; Burkart, Andreas; Cilia, Chiara; Contreras, Sergio; Corbari, Chiara; Calleja, Javier F.; Guzinski, Radoslaw; Hellmann, Christine; Herrmann, Ittai; Kerr, Gregoire; Lazar, Adina-Laura; Leutner, Benjamin; Mendiguren, Gorka; Nasilowska, Sylwia; Nieto, Hector; Pachego-Labrador, Javier; Pulanekar, Survana; Raj, Rahul; Schikling, Anke; Siegmann, Bastian; von Bueren, Stefanie; Su, Zhongbo (Bob)

    2015-12-01

    The REFLEX 2012 campaign was initiated as part of a training course on the organization of an airborne campaign to support advancement of the understanding of land-atmosphere interaction processes. This article describes the campaign, its objectives and observations, remote as well as in situ. The observations took place at the experimental Las Tiesas farm in an agricultural area in the south of Spain. During the period of ten days, measurements were made to capture the main processes controlling the local and regional land-atmosphere exchanges. Apart from multi-temporal, multi-directional and multi-spatial space-borne and airborne observations, measurements of the local meteorology, energy fluxes, soil temperature profiles, soil moisture profiles, surface temperature, canopy structure as well as leaf-level measurements were carried out. Additional thermo-dynamical monitoring took place at selected sites. After presenting the different types of measurements, some examples are given to illustrate the potential of the observations made.

  11. [Functional results of cryosurgical procedures in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment including macula region - our experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrapek, O; Sín, M; Jirková, B; Jarkovský, J; Rehák, J

    2013-10-01

    Aim of this study is to evaluate retrospectively functional results of cryosurgical treatment of uncomplicated, idiopathic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment including macula region in phakic patients operated on at the Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty Hospital, Palacký University, Olomouc, Czech Republic, E.U., during the period 2002 -2013, and to evaluate the significance of the macula detachment duration for the final visual acuity. In the study group were included 56 eyes of 56 patients operated in the years 2003 - 2012 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty Hospital, Palacký University, Olomouc. All patients were phakic and in all of them, the retinal detachment including the macula region was diagnosed. The mean follow-up period of the patients was 8,75 months. The initial and final visual acuity testing were performed. Comparing the initial and final visual acuity we rated the level of the visual acuity change. The result was stated as improved, if the visual acuity improved by 1 or more lines on the ETDRS chart. The result was rated as stabilized, if the visual acuity remained the same or it changed by 1 line of the ETDRS chart only. The result was evaluated as worsened, if the visual acuity decreased by 1 or more lines of the ETDRS chart. In the followed-up group, the authors compared visual acuity levels in patients with the macula detachment duration 10 days and 11 days. For the statistical evaluation of achieved results, the Mann - Whitney U test was used. The visual acuity improved in 49 (87 %), did not changed in 5 (9 %) and worsened in 2 (4 %) patients. The patients with macula detachment duration 10 days achieved statistically significant better visual acuity than patients with macula detachment duration 11 days. Patients with macula detachment duration 10 days have better prognosis for functional result than patients with macula detachment duration 11 days.

  12. Generating new telehealth services using a whole of community approach: experience in regional Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anthony C; Caffery, Liam J; Saunders, Ruth; Bradford, Natalie K; Gray, Leonard C

    2014-10-01

    We implemented a community telehealth project in the three towns in the Darling Downs area of Queensland over a 2-year period starting in July 2012. The purpose of the project was to generate telehealth activity in hospitals, general practice and selected residential aged care facilities. Telehealth education and training was provided to clinicians in the three towns and a community awareness campaign was delivered using advertisements in newspapers, messages in social media and presentations at community events. A total of 55 stakeholders were engaged with during 61 site visits to health care facilities during the first two years of the project. During the study period, telehealth activity in Queensland increased in the hospital sector by 39% and in the non-hospital sector by 99%. In the Darling Downs region, telehealth activity in the hospital sector increased by 104%, compared to 28% in the rest of Queensland. However, in the non-hospital sector, the increase in telehealth activity in the Darling Downs region was similar to the rest of Queensland. Telehealth services established and/or facilitated by the project included specialist geriatric ward rounds in Dalby, Chinchilla and Miles for patients in the local hospitals and nursing homes; and ad-hoc teleconsultations for children and adults living in these communities, with specialists at Toowoomba and hospitals in Brisbane. An increase in telehealth implies better access to a range of clinical services, which may result in improved clinical outcomes for patients. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions:]br]sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN RURAL REGION: THE EXPERIENCE OF THE ALTAI TERRITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Redkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggravation of global environmental problems in the second half of XX century set the task of search of new options for modern world evolution. Thus in one of the first reports – «World Conversation Strategy», published in 1980 by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, the concept of sustainable development was just being discussed, in 1987 the World Commission on Environment and Development in the renowned report «Our Common Future» recognized sustainable development as the central guiding principle for civilization (Our Common Future 1989. By the middle of the 1990s all fields of economic activity including tourism were incorporated with a view to the long-term development. First appeared in the materials of the World Conference on Sustainable Tourism (Lanzarote in 1995 the concepts of sustainable tourism development and sustainable tourism have gained increasing importance and were inscribed into many UNWTO documents and initiatives (Seselkin 2014. There’ so no well-established definition of sustainable tourism for now, while there’s distinct vision and framework approach to how it should be. Sustainable tourism is tourism that meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunity for the future development, capable to adapt to specific ethnic and cultural environment, meeting the requirements of social justice, ecologically compatible and retaining the economic advantages (Arsenyeva and others. Various types of tourism can be the basis for sustainable tourism industry in various regions. It must be the type most appealing for local community which by integrating other types of tourism will form tourist destinations due to the principles of sustainable development. Rural tourism serves as the basis for sustainable tourism in Altai krai.

  14. Triple-GEM detectors for the innermost region of the muon apparatus at the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Poli-Lener, M; Bencivenni, G

    2005-01-01

    The LHCb experiment will take place at the future LHC accelerator at CERN and will start in 2007. It is a single arm spectrometer to precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays in the b quark sector. Recent experimental results have shown that CP violation is large in this sector. LHCb is designed with a robust and flexible trigger in order to extensively gain access to a wide spread of different physical processes involving the beauty particles. This will allow to over-constrain the Standard Model predictions about $\\mathcal{CP}$ violation, and to discover any possible inconsistency, which would reveal the presence of ''New Physics''. The work presented in this thesis has two main parts: the development of a charged particle detector based on Gas Electron Multiplication (GEM) and the study of luminosity measurements with the physical channels $Z^{0} \\rightarrow \\mu^{+} \\mu^{-}$ and $W^{\\pm} \\rightarrow \\mu^{\\pm} \

  15. Enhancement of international cooperation and experience exchange: international and regional cooperation in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper will explore methods that have been effective in accomplishing broad-based technology transfer relationships between international commercial nuclear organizations, and have enhanced the benefits from such relationships through mutual participation in the development of new technology. The factors involved in accomplishing technology transfer will be examined based on the 25 years of Westinghouse experience in establishing successful nuclear technology relationships with over 20 different associates world-wide. This will include information pertaining to organization, training, consultation, technical information transmission, and other important aspects of technology transfer. Additionally, the methodology of enhancing and increasing the benefits of technology transfer through cooperative development programs as produced and promoted by Weatinghouse with its associates will be examined. This will include reviews of several significant copperative programs, such as the programs for the Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor and the Integrated Protection and Control Systems for future plants. (author)

  16. Enhancement of international cooperation and experience exchange - international and regional cooperation in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper will explore methods that have been effective in accomplishing broad-based technology transfer relationships between international commercial nuclear organizations, and have enhanced the benefits from such relationships through mutual participation in the development of new technology. The factors involved in accomplishing technology transfer will be examined based on the 25 years of Westinghouse experience in establishing successful nuclear technology relationships with over 20 different associates world-wide. This will include information pertaining to organization, training, consultation, technical information transmission, and other important aspects of technology transfer. Additionally, the methodology of enhancing and increasing the benefits of technology transfer through cooperative development programs as produced and promoted by Westinghouse with its associates will be examined. This will include reviews of several significant cooperative programs, such as the programs for the Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor and the Integrated Protection and Control Systems for future plants

  17. Flow and heat transfer experiments in the turbine airfoil/endwall region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin Taek

    An experimental investigation of the three-dimensional flow and heat transfer near the junction between the endwall and suction wall of a gas turbine was performed. A large-scale, two-half-blade facility which simulates a turbine cascade was introduced. The simulator consists of two large half-blade sections, one wall simulating the pressure surface and the other wall simulating the suction surface. The advantage of this configuration is that the features of the secondary flow are large, because of the relatively large test section, and the flow is easily accessible with probes. Qualification of this simulator was by comparison to a multi-blade cascade flow. Various flow visualization techniques--oil and lampblack, ink and oil of wintergeeen, a single tuft probe, and a tuft grid--were employed to confirm that the important features of the cascade flow were replicated in this simulator. The triangular region on the suction surface, which was affected by the passage vortex, and the endwall secondary crossflow were observed by shear stress visualization and the liquid crystal measurement techniques. In order to investigate the effects of the turbulence level on the secondary flow in a turbine passage, a turbulence generator, designed to reproduce the characteristics of a combustor exit flow, was built. The generator was designed not only to generate a high turbulence level but to produce three main features of a combustor exit flow. The generator produced a turbulence intensity level of about 10 percent and an integral length scale of 5 centimeters. It was observed that the endwall secondary flow, including the passage vortex, is not significantly influenced by freestream turbulence levels up to 10 percent. A flow management technique using a boundary layer fence designed to reduce some harmful effects of secondary flow in the endwall region of a turbine passage was introduced. The boundary layer fence is effective in changing the passage of the vortex and reducing

  18. Study of the Quality of Life of the Older Generation: a Regional Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalii Nikolaevich Barsukov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase in life expectancy in Russia along with low fertility has led to the fact that the age structure of the population has undergone significant changes: the proportion of children in the total population was continuously reducing, while the share of people over 60 was growing. Such transformations have multiple impacts, ranging from the issues of financial provision of pension systems, functioning of the labor market to the change in the value orientations of society. The growth of socio-demographic groups of elderly people leads to the fact that it is becoming increasingly important for the socio-economic development of territories, thus facilitating research in the field of studying its resource potential and quality of life. The paper is devoted to the study of components of a “subjective” quality of life of the specified group of the population. The authors present conceptual approaches to the problem of an “ageing” society and specifics of studying the quality of life of the elderly. The paper substantiates the importance of sociological assessments in the study of issues typical of the elderly. The authors show the place of Russia in the international ranking of the Global AgeWatch Index and its position for all the four particular indices. Based on the findings of a sociological study, the authors highlight major problem areas that hinder the improvement of the quality of life of the elderly population, and put forward possible ways to level them. The paper considers the main normative legal acts that regulate the activities of federal and regional authorities in ensuring the decent quality of life of this socio-demographic group. The authors discuss several social projects (taking the Vologda Oblast as an example that aim to improve the living conditions of the elderly, highlight the problems associated with the implementation and scientific substantiation of the relevance of these projects. The conclusion is made

  19. Long-term regional shifts in plant community composition are largely explained by local deer impact experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Frerker

    Full Text Available The fact that herbivores and predators exert top-down effects to alter community composition and dynamics at lower trophic levels is no longer controversial, yet we still lack evidence of the full nature, extent, and longer-term effects of these impacts. Here, we use results from a set of replicated experiments on the local impacts of white-tailed deer to evaluate the extent to which such impacts could account for half-century shifts in forest plant communities across the upper Midwest, USA. We measured species' responses to deer at four sites using 10-20 year-old deer exclosures. Among common species, eight were more abundant outside the exclosures, seven were commoner inside, and 16 had similar abundances in- and outside. Deer herbivory greatly increased the abundance of ferns and graminoids and doubled the abundance of exotic plants. In contrast, deer greatly reduced tree regeneration, shrub cover (100-200 fold in two species, plant height, plant reproduction, and the abundance of forbs. None of 36 focal species increased in reproduction or grew taller in the presence of deer, contrary to expectations. We compared these results to data on 50-year regional shifts in species abundances across 62 sites. The effects of herbivory by white-tailed deer accurately account for many of the long-term regional shifts observed in species' abundances (R2 = 0.41. These results support the conjecture that deer impacts have driven many of the regional shifts in forest understory cover and composition observed in recent decades. Our ability to link results from shorter-term, local experiments to regional long-term studies of ecological change strengthens the inferences we can draw from both approaches.

  20. [Experience of Handicap International in providing humanitarian relief in region near Aceh, Indonesia from March 1 to 27, 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Y

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the experience of the author in March 2005 during the relief efforts deployed in the region near Aceh, Indonesia (North Sumatra) by Handicap International, one of the 400 NGO that provided humanitarian aid following the tsunami disaster that struck Southeast Asia on December 26, 2004. Working in Banda Aceh and Meulaboh, the author was confronted with the extent of the devastation both in terms of property damage and human suffering. Clinical cases were often severe and rarely encountered in industrialized countries. The tsunami worsened the already poor sanitary conditions: rundown care facilities, poorly trained health care personnel, tropical disease, poor hygiene, and AVP.

  1. Early Experience with Combining Awake Craniotomy and Intraoperative Navigable Ultrasound for Resection of Eloquent Region Gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiyadi, Aliasgar; Shetty, Prakash

    2017-03-01

    Introduction  Optimal resection of tumors in eloquent locations requires a combination of intraoperative imaging and functional monitoring during surgery. Combining awake surgery with intraoperative magnetic resonanceis logistically challenging. Navigable ultrasound (US) is a useful alternative in such cases. Methods  A total of 22 subjects with eloquent tumors were operated on (1 intended biopsy and 21 intended radical resections) using combined modality three-dimensional (3D) US and awake craniotomy with intraoperative clinical monitoring. We describe the technical details for these cases specifically addressing the feasibility of combining the two modalities. Results  US was used for resection control in 18 cases. There were technical limitations in three cases. Transient intraoperative worsening was encountered in eight, necessitating premature termination of the procedure. All patients tolerated the awake procedure well. Mean duration of the surgery was 3.2 hours. Radical resections were obtained in 14 of 18 where this was intended and in 12 of the 13 where there was no adverse intraoperative monitoring event prompting premature termination of the resection. Conclusions  Combining awake surgery with 3DUS is feasible and beneficial. It does not entail any additional surgical workflow modification or patient discomfort. This combined modality intraoperative monitoring can be beneficial for eloquent region tumors. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Eltrombopag for the Treatment of Immune Thrombocytopenia: The Aegean Region of Turkey Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Füsun Özdemirkıran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: OBJECTIVE: Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP is an immune mediated disease characterized by transient or persistent decrease of the platelet count to less than 100 × 109/l. Although it is included in a benign disease group, bleeding complications may be mortal. With a better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease, thrombopoietin receptor agonists which came into use in recent years, seem to be an effective option in the treatment of resistant patients. METHODS: In this study, retrospective data of 40 patients who were treated with Eltrombopag due to the diagnosis of refractory ITP in the Aegean region were examined and evaluated. RESULTS: In the study total rate of response was 87%, and in the cases with response the median period that number of platelets reached over 50. × 109/l was determined as 19.5 (5-60 days. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: CONCLUSION: In one patient venous sinus thrombosis was observed and showed no other additional risk factor due to/ related to thrombosis. The other patient with complete response and irregular follow-up for 12 months was lost due to sudden death as the result of propable acute myocardial infarction.

  3. Sociodemographic parameters of Esophageal Cancer in northwest India: A regional cancer center experience of 10 years

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    Akhil Kapoor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite various advances in the treatment of Esophageal Cancer (EC, being one of the least responsive tumors to cancer therapy, the overall prognosis remains poor. Therefore, it is significant to understand various sociodemographic factors associated with EC to find out various schemes for primary prevention of the disease. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of medical records of the EC patients registered in the regional cancer center of northwest India from January 2003 to December 2012. The site of the disease and the histology were also recorded in addition to the various sociodemographic parameters. Results: Out of 55,742 patients registered in our hospital; 3,667 were diagnosed to have EC. Male:female ratio was 1.15:1. The mean age was 54.6 ± 11.74 years; 66.15% of the patients were illiterate and 48.6% belonged to the low socioeconomic status. Smoking and alcohol consumption were identified as risk factors in 48 and 25.6% of the patients, respectively. Conclusions: The etiology in majority of the patients is linked to tobacco and alcohol, thus, modification of life style with limiting the use of addictions may be an effective strategy in the prevention of this dreaded and mostly incurable disease.

  4. Hepatic retransplantation in New England--a regional experience and survival model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powelson, J A; Cosimi, A B; Lewis, W D; Rohrer, R J; Freeman, R B; Vacanti, J P; Jonas, M; Lorber, M I; Marks, W H; Bradley, J

    1993-04-01

    Hepatic retransplantation (reTx) offers the only alternative to death for patients who have failed primary hepatic transplantation (PTx). Assuming a finite number of donor organs, reTx also denies the chance of survival for some patients awaiting PTx. The impact of reTx on overall survival (i.e., the survival of all candidates for transplantation) must therefore be clarified. Between 1983 and 1991, 651 patients from the New England Organ Bank underwent liver transplantation, and 73 reTx were performed in 71 patients (11% reTx rate). The 1-year actuarial survival for reTx (48%) was significantly less than for PTx (70%, P 365 days, 83%). Patients on the regional waiting list had an 18% mortality rate while awaiting transplantation. These results were incorporated into a mathematical model describing survival as a function of reTx rate, assuming a limited supply of donor livers. ReTx improves the 1-year survival rate for patients undergoing PTx but decreases overall survival (survival of all candidates) for liver transplantation. In the current era of persistently insufficient donor numbers, strategies based on minimizing the use of reTx, especially in the case of patients in whom chances of success are minimal, will result in the best overall rate of patient survival.

  5. Aerosol study and transformations over the Marseille/Fos-Berre region: ESCOMPTE experiment; Etude de l'aerosol et de ses transformations dans la region de Marseille Fos-Berre: experience escompte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulagnier, F.

    2003-12-01

    The importance of particulate pollution in urban and suburban zones is getting more and more obvious worldwide. Any policy abatement in relation with the aerosol impact relies on an accurate knowledge of their physico-chemical properties: size, chemical composition and number concentrations. As part of the ESCOMPTE experiment (http://medias.obs-mip.fr:8000/escompte/) which aims to estimate the photochemical pollution in the Marseille Fos/Berre region, this work presents an extensive study of the atmospheric particulate phase and documents its transformations. Interestingly in this region, three intense aerosol sources (urban, industrial and biogenic) produce important particle concentration levels in the whole domain of the study. The aerosol exhaustive characterization has shown an anthropogenic and differentiated signature with important amounts of particulate carbon, sulfate and nitrate. On the other hand, the influence of the marine source is not significant. The most original result is the evidence of secondary aerosol formation on a regional scale which is much more important than those usually observed at these latitudes since two thirds of the particulate mass collected off source zones was generated during transport. It appears thus of high importance to consider the formation pathways of these secondary particles in order to set up an appropriate strategy for the abatement of atmospheric particle concentrations. Finally, this study brings innovative hypotheses for the first modelling tests of aerosol concentrations and their radiative impact. (author)

  6. Preshot predictions for the near-source region in the non-proliferation experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patch, D.F.; Welch, J.E.; Zerkle, J. [SAIC/Simulation Technology Operation, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper summarizes a number of one and two-dimensional, ground motion calculations made in support of the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), a 1KT high explosive shot fired on 22 September 1993 at the Nevada Test Site. These calculations were sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency`s late-time containment program, and were completed well before the test was executed. They addressed a variety of test design, analysis and construction issues, and sought to identify any potential safety concerns. The test site model used in these calculations was based in large part on earlier work performed at SAIC and by other Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) contractors for the nearby underground nuclear test, code named MISTY ECHO. In particular, to obtain physical property and quasi-static material response data for the site, a number of core samples recovered near the MISTY ECHO working point (WP) were tested by TerraTek. We then used these data to develop a numerical response model for the site.

  7. Microsurgical free flap reconstructions of head and neck region in 406 cases: a 13-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerressen, Marcus; Pastaschek, Claudia Inge; Riediger, Dieter; Hilgers, Ralf-Dieter; Hölzle, Frank; Noroozi, Nelson; Ghassemi, Alireza

    2013-03-01

    The reconstruction of extended soft tissue and bony defects in the maxillofacial region with microsurgical flaps is considered to be the therapy of first choice. The aim of this retrospective study was to detect different influencing factors concerning flap survival. We examined the data of 406 patient cases (121 female and 285 male cases; mean age, 57 years) undergoing reconstruction with a microsurgical flap in our facility between 1998 and 2010. In these cases 326 soft tissue flaps (radial forearm flap, scapula flap, latissimus dorsi flap, anterolateral thigh flap, lateral arm flap, and jejunum flap) and 80 bony flaps (fibula flap and deep circumflex iliac artery flap) were examined. Evaluated parameters were, among others, the timing of reconstruction, defect localization, and recipient vessels used (external vs internal jugular system), as well as anticoagulative management. We statistically analyzed data by means of a χ(2) test, taking account of the odds ratio with P < .05, which was deemed significant. The overall flap survival rate was approximately 92%, without any gender- or age-specific differences. Primary reconstructions proceeded distinctly more successfully than secondary reconstructions (P < .01). Likewise, the defect localization exerted a significant effect on the survival rate (P = .01), with a more caudal localization affecting flap survival positively. Finally, neither the anticoagulation regimen nor the choice of recipient vein system exercised an influence on the survival rate. Microsurgical tissue transfer is a convenient and reliable method in maxillofacial surgery, provided that one is aware of the determining factors for success. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Localization of insulinomas to regions of the pancreas by intraarterial calcium stimulation: the NIH experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guettier, Jean-Marc; Kam, Anthony; Chang, Richard; Skarulis, Monica C; Cochran, Craig; Alexander, H Richard; Libutti, Steven K; Pingpank, James F; Gorden, Phillip

    2009-04-01

    Selective intraarterial calcium injection of the major pancreatic arteries with hepatic venous sampling [calcium arterial stimulation (CaStim)] has been used as a localizing tool for insulinomas at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) since 1989. The accuracy of this technique for localizing insulinomas was reported for all cases until 1996. The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy and track record of the CaStim over time and in the context of evolving technology and to review issues related to result interpretation and procedure complications. CaStim was the only invasive preoperative localization modality used at our center. Endoscopic ultrasound (US) was not studied. We conducted a retrospective case review at a referral center. Twenty-nine women and 16 men (mean age, 47 yr; range, 13-78) were diagnosed with an insulinoma from 1996-2008. A supervised fast was conducted to confirm the diagnosis of insulinoma. US, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and CaStim were used as preoperative localization studies. Localization predicted by each preoperative test was compared to surgical localization for accuracy. We measured the accuracy of US, CT, MRI, and CaStim for localization of insulinomas preoperatively. All 45 patients had surgically proven insulinomas. Thirty-eight of 45 (84%) localized to the correct anatomical region by CaStim. In five of 45 (11%) patients, the CaStim was falsely negative. Two of 45 (4%) had false-positive localizations. The CaStim has remained vastly superior to abdominal US, CT, or MRI over time as a preoperative localizing tool for insulinomas. The utility of the CaStim for this purpose and in this setting is thus validated.

  9. Improving mortality outcomes of Stevens Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis: A regional burns centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamoglu, M; Ward, J A; Frew, Q; Gerrish, H; Martin, N; Shaw, A; Barnes, D; Shelly, O; Philp, B; El-Muttardi, N; Dziewulski, P

    2018-05-01

    Stevens Johnson Syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) are rare, potentially fatal desquamative disorders characterised by large areas of partial thickness skin and mucosal loss. The degree of epidermal detachment that occurs has led to SJS/TEN being described as a burn-like condition. These patients benefit from judicious critical care, early debridement and meticulous wound care. This is best undertaken within a multidisciplinary setting led by clinicians experienced in the management of massive skin loss and its sequelae. In this study, we examined the clinical outcomes of SJS/TEN overlap & TEN patients managed by our regional burns service over a 12-year period. We present our treatment model for other burn centres treating SJS/TEN patients. A retrospective case review was performed for all patients with a clinical diagnosis of TEN or SJS/TEN overlap admitted to our paediatric and adult burns centre between June 2004 and December 2016. Patient demographics, percentage total body surface area (%TBSA), mucosal involvement, causation, severity of illness score (SCORTEN), length of stay and survival were appraised with appropriate statistical analysis performed using Graph Pad Prism 7.02 Software. During the study period, 42 patients (M26; F: 16) with TEN (n=32) and SJS/TEN overlap (n=10) were managed within our burns service. Mean %TBSA of cutaneous involvement was 57% (range 10-100%) and mean length of stay (LOS) was 27 days (range 1-144 days). We observed 4 deaths in our series compared to 16 predicted by SCORTEN giving a standardised mortality ratio (SMR) of 24%. Management in our burns service with an aggressive wound care protocol involving debridement of blistered epidermis and wound closure with synthetic and biological dressings seems to have produced benefits in mortality when compared to predicted outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. Mountain biking injuries requiring trauma center admission: a 10-year regional trauma system experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Peter T W; Jangra, Dalbhir; Ritchie, Alec H; Lower, Mary Ellen; Kasic, Sharon; Brown, D Ross; Baldwin, Greg A; Simons, Richard K

    2006-02-01

    Mountain biking has become an increasingly popular recreational and competitive sport with increasingly recognized risks. The purpose of this study was to review a population based approach to serious injuries requiring trauma center admission related to mountain biking, identify trends and develop directions for related injury prevention programs. Three trauma centers in the Greater Vancouver area exclusively serve a major mountain bike park and the North Shore Mountains biking trails. The Trauma Registries and the patient charts were reviewed for mountain bike injuries from 1992 to 2002. The data were analyzed according to demographics, distribution, and severity of injuries, and need for operative intervention. Findings were reviewed with injury prevention experts and regional and national mountain-biking stakeholders to provide direction to injury prevention programs. A total of 1,037 patients were identified as having bicycling-related injuries. Of these, 399 patients sustained 1,092 injuries while mountain biking. There was a threefold increase in the incidence of mountain biking injuries over a 10-year period. Young males were most commonly affected. Orthopedic injuries were most common (46.5%) followed by head (12.2%), spine (12%), chest (10.3%), facial (10.2%), abdominal (5.4%), genitourinary (2.2%), and neck injuries (1%). High operative rate was observed: 38% of injuries and 66% of patients required surgery. One patient died from his injuries. Injury prevention programs were developed and successfully engaged the target population. Mountain biking is a growing cause of serious injuries. Young males are principally at risk and serious injuries result from intended activity and despite protective equipment. Injury prevention programs were developed to address these concerns.

  11. [Rheumatoid arthritis among mapuche aborigines. A 16 years experience in the IX Region of the Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliski, S; Bustos, L; Artigas, C; Alarcón, C; Vega, M A; Cárdenas, C

    2001-03-01

    Mapuche, Chilean natives, represent approximately 9.8% of Chilean population and in the IX region of the country, they account for 18.4% of population over 15 years old. They preserve some socio-cultural characteristics that make them different to the rest of the population. To describe the epidemiological characteristics rheumatoid arthritis among Mapuche natives. Retrospective review of patients of Mapuche origin with rheumatoid arthritis, seen at Temuco Hospital between 1980 and 1996. Among 308 cases gathered, only 106 (93 women, aged 55 +/- 10 years old) complied with 1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for rheumatoid arthritis. The disease began between 29 and 52 years old in 73% of patients and the mean delay in diagnosis was 4.4 years. At diagnosis, 99% had symmetric poliarthritis, 28.3% had either fatigue, fever or weight loss, and 46.9% were in class III or in class IV of ACR-1991. Fifty three percent of patients developed Sicca syndrome, 36% developed nodules, 23% developed Raynaud phenomenon, 11% developed pulmonary involvement, 7% developed vasculitis, 5% developed neurological manifestations and 19% developed ophthalmologic involvement. Rheumatoid factor was positive in 78% and 73% had erosions. HLA DR4 was (+) in 60% of 30 patients. Thirty percent required 3 or more disease modifying drugs and prednisone over 10 mg/day. There was no correlation between functional capacity and several other features of the disease. Mapuche rheumatoid arthritis patients are detected late and have a poor functional capacity at the time of diagnosis. They also have a higher proportion of extraarticular manifestations, more erosions and require more aggressive treatments.

  12. An Experience of Statistical Method Application in Forest Survey at Angara River Region in 1932

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    L. N. Vashchuk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Report of the Angara forest economic expedition of forest economic survey in 1932 on the left bank of the Angara River has been found. The survey covered a part of Krasnoyarsk Territory and Irkutsk region, a total area of 18641.8 thousand ha. The report describes technology of forest inventory and achievements that have not previously been published. The survey was conducted by statistical method, which consisted of a sample by a continuous forest inventory enumeration of trees on sample plots (SP, arranged in an array on a particular system, followed by mathematical-statistical recalculation of the sample results to the entire survey. To do this, strip finders (sights were cut in the latitudinal direction at a distance from one another at 16 km. On the hacked sights, by every 2 km, 0.1 ha (10 × 100 m SP were established. In total 32 forest inventory sights were hacked, with total length of 9931 km, which incorporated 4817 SP. The accuracy of forest resources’ inventory characteristics determining also was investigated using smaller sample plots. For this purpose, each of the SP were cut to smaller area of 0.01 ha (10 × 10 m, where independent continuous enumeration of trees was conducted, andsample trees were cut, measured and bucked to the assortments, to explore the tree stand assortment structure. At each «sample cutting area» all the trees were felled out from 44 cm and above DBH. At half of the sample plot with 5 × 10 m size, located in the eastern end, all the trees were felled out and measured from 24 cm and above DBH. Every four «sample cutting area» in the fifth, all the trees with 12 cm and above DBH were cut down and measured. According to the results of the work, a detailed description of forest resources in the whole Angara river basin, and across 17 forest exploitation areas was completed.

  13. The multiple mini-interview for selecting medical residents: first experience in the Middle East region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ashraf; Qayed, Khalil Ibrahim; Abdulrahman, Mahera; Tavares, Walter; Rosenfeld, Jack

    2014-08-01

    Numerous studies have shown that multiple mini-interviews (MMI) provides a standard, fair, and more reliable method for assessing applicants. This article presents the first MMI experience for selection of medical residents in the Middle East culture and an Arab country. In 2012, we started using the MMI in interviewing applicants to the residency program of Dubai Health Authority. This interview process consisted of eight, eight-minute structured interview scenarios. Applicants rotated through the stations, each with its own interviewer and scenario. They read the scenario and were requested to discuss the issues with the interviewers. Sociodemographic and station assessment data provided for each applicant were analyzed to determine whether the MMI was a reliable assessment of the non-clinical attributes in the present setting of an Arab country. One hundred and eighty-seven candidates from 27 different countries were interviewed for Dubai Residency Training Program using MMI. They were graduates of 5 medical universities within United Arab Emirates (UAE) and 60 different universities outside UAE. With this applicant's pool, a MMI with eight stations, produced absolute and relative reliability of 0.8 and 0.81, respectively. The person × station interaction contributed 63% of the variance components, the person contributed 34% of the variance components, and the station contributed 2% of the variance components. The MMI has been used in numerous universities in English speaking countries. The MMI evaluates non-clinical attributes and this study provides further evidence for its reliability but in a different country and culture. The MMI offers a fair and more reliable assessment of applicants to medical residency programs. The present data show that this assessment technique applied in a non-western country and Arab culture still produced reliable results.

  14. Experiments on radionuclide accumulation by fishes from the Angra Dos Reis region of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, J.R.D.

    1988-11-01

    To follow the bioaccumulation and tissue distribution of 137 Cs and 60 Co in fish from tropical waters near the Angra nuclear power station in Brazil, juvenile grouper (Epinephelus sp.) were exposed under laboratory conditions to Angra sea water containing the two radionuclides initially added in chloride form. During the 4-month exposure period, the sea water was not changed and the fish received regular rations of non-radioactive food. Following uptake, the fish were dissected and composite tissue samples monitored for radioactivity. 137 Cs concentration factors (CFs) were 3 and 5 in whole fish and muscle, respectively. The highest concentration of 137 Cs was found in the muscle which accounted for 66% of the total body burden. In contrast, the highest concentration and greatest fraction (19%) of 60 Co was located in the liver. Whole body and muscle CFs for 60 Co, 0.2 and 0.08 respectively, were much lower than those for 137 Cs. Compared with published data, only very small amounts of both radionuclides were taken up by bone in the present study. This observation and the fact that much higher 137 Cs CFs have been reported in fish from field studies suggests that uptake through the food chain is the principal pathway for bioaccumulation in nature. Elution of freshly-prepared and previously-used radioactive sea water through chelating resins indicated that 60 Co added in the cationic form was almost totally converted to neutral or anionic forms after four months. Additional experiments carried out with the previously-used experimental media demonstrated that the possibly ligand-bound 60 Co was approximately 2.5 times more available for uptake by grouper than the cationic forms initially present. It is concluded that the uptake of 60 Co by fish exposed to radioactive effluents would be a function of the different forms of 60 Co present. 20 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Analysis of patterns of palliative radiotherapy in north west India: A regional cancer center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Kapoor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Palliative radiotherapy (PRT is the eventual requirement in 30-50% of all cancer patients. PRT is primarily aimed to relieve pain and prevent/treat collapse or fracture in case of bone metastasis, to reduce edema in patients with cranial metastasis, and to control distressing symptoms of rapid primary growth. An audit of PRT planned in a busy cancer center can help in the characterization of the requirements of the patients and the formulation of institutional policies. Materials and Methods: In total, 516 patients who received PRT in our regional cancer center from January 2012 to December 2012 and whose complete records were available for analysis were selected for this retrospective study. Medical records and radiotherapy files were analyzed to obtain data such as sociodemographic parameters, prescription of PRT, and follow up. Descriptive statistics were evaluated in terms of frequencies and percentages to allow comparisons. Results: Of the 516 patients, 73% patients were male; the median age of the patients receiving PRT was 62 years (range 13-83 years. About 48% ( n = 248 patients received PRT at the primary site while rest (52% were given PRT at the metastatic site. The most common indication of PRT was pain (56.8% cases, followed by cytostatic PRT (19.8% and raised ICT (12.4%. The median dose prescribed was 30 Gy (range 8-36 Gy delivered in 1-12 fractions over the duration of 1-18 days. The overall response rate was about 43% at 2 weeks of completion of PRT; the median follow-up of the patients was 154 days (range 9-256 days. The long-term symptom relief at median follow up was 8%. Conclusions: Good clinical judgment and expertise is required in prescribing correct fractionation schedule to achieve effective symptom palliation with lowest possible cost and inconvenience to the patients and relatives. Hypofractionated radiotherapy is a feasible treatment option in patients with advanced incurable disease to achieve effective

  16. Design and experiment of controlled bistable vortex induced vibration energy harvesting systems operating in chaotic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, B. H.; Tjahjowidodo, T.; Zhong, Z.-W.; Wang, Y.; Srikanth, N.

    2018-01-01

    linearized model, the control gain matrix is calculated using the pole placement technique. The results show that the OGY controller is capable of stabilizing the chaotic responses by driving them to the desired inter-well period-one periodic vibrations and it is also shown that the harvested power is successfully improved. For validation purpose, a real-time experiment was carried out on a computer-based forced-feedback testing platform to validate the applicability of the controller in real-time applications. The experimental results confirm the feasibility of the controller to stabilize the responses.

  17. Atmospheric Transport Modeling with 3D Lagrangian Dispersion Codes Compared with SF6 Tracer Experiments at Regional Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Van Dorpe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of four gas tracer experiments of atmospheric dispersion on a regional scale are used for the benchmarking of two atmospheric dispersion modeling codes, MINERVE-SPRAY (CEA, and NOSTRADAMUS (IBRAE. The main topic of this comparison is to estimate the Lagrangian code capability to predict the radionuclide atmospheric transfer on a large field, in the case of risk assessment of nuclear power plant for example. For the four experiments, the results of calculations show a rather good agreement between the two codes, and the order of magnitude of the concentrations measured on the soil is predicted. Simulation is best for sampling points located ten kilometers from the source, while we note a divergence for more distant points results (difference in concentrations by a factor 2 to 5. This divergence may be explained by the fact that, for these four experiments, only one weather station (near the point source was used on a field of 10 000 km2, generating the simulation of a uniform wind field throughout the calculation domain.

  18. A preliminary experiment for the long-term regional reanalysis over Japan assimilating conventional observations with NHM-LETKF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Shin; Iwasaki, Toshiki; Saito, Kazuo; Seko, Hiromu; Kunii, Masaru

    2016-04-01

    Several long-term global reanalyses have been produced by major operational centres and have contributed to the advance of weather and climate researches considerably. Although the horizontal resolutions of these global reanalyses are getting higher partly due to the development of computing technology, they are still too coarse to reproduce local circulations and precipitation realistically. To solve this problem, dynamical downscaling is often employed. However, the forcing from lateral boundaries only cannot necessarily control the inner fields especially in long-term dynamical downscaling. Regional reanalysis is expected to overcome the difficulty. To maintain the long-term consistency of the analysis quality, it is better to assimilate only the conventional observations that are available in long period. To confirm the effectiveness of the regional reanalysis, some assimilation experiments are performed. In the experiments, only conventional observations (SYNOP, SHIP, BUOY, TEMP, PILOT, TC-Bogus) are assimilated with the NHM-LETKF system, which consists of the nonhydrostatic model (NHM) of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF). The horizontal resolution is 25 km and the domain covers Japan and its surroundings. Japanese 55-year reanalysis (JRA-55) is adopted as the initial and lateral boundary conditions for the NHM-LETKF forecast-analysis cycles. The ensemble size is 10. The experimental period is August 2014 as a representative of warm season for the region. The results are verified against the JMA's operational Meso-scale Analysis, which is produced with assimilating observation data including various remote sensing observations using a 4D-Var scheme, and compared with those of the simple dynamical downscaling experiment without data assimilation. Effects of implementation of lateral boundary perturbations derived from an EOF analysis of JRA-55 over the targeted domain are also examined. The comparison

  19. Real-Time Very High-Resolution Regional 4D Assimilation in Supporting CRYSTAL-FACE Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Donghai; Minnis, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    To better understand tropical cirrus cloud physical properties and formation processes with a view toward the successful modeling of the Earth's climate, the CRYSTAL-FACE (Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment) field experiment took place over southern Florida from 1 July to 29 July 2002. During the entire field campaign, a very high-resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP) and assimilation system was performed in support of the mission with supercomputing resources provided by NASA Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS). By using NOAA NCEP Eta forecast for boundary conditions and as a first guess for initial conditions assimilated with all available observations, two nested 15/3 km grids are employed over the CRYSTAL-FACE experiment area. The 15-km grid covers the southeast US domain, and is run two times daily for a 36-hour forecast starting at 0000 UTC and 1200 UTC. The nested 3-km grid covering only southern Florida is used for 9-hour and 18-hour forecasts starting at 1500 and 0600 UTC, respectively. The forecasting system provided more accurate and higher spatial and temporal resolution forecasts of 4-D atmospheric fields over the experiment area than available from standard weather forecast models. These forecasts were essential for flight planning during both the afternoon prior to a flight day and the morning of a flight day. The forecasts were used to help decide takeoff times and the most optimal flight areas for accomplishing the mission objectives. See more detailed products on the web site http://asd-www.larc.nasa.gov/mode/crystal. The model/assimilation output gridded data are archived on the NASA Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS) UniTree system in the HDF format at 30-min intervals for real-time forecasts or 5-min intervals for the post-mission case studies. Particularly, the data set includes the 3-D cloud fields (cloud liquid water, rain water, cloud ice, snow and graupe/hail).

  20. Factors Affecting Successful use of Erythropoietin in the Treatment of Anemia in Patients on Hemodialysis: Experience in Hajjah Region, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL-Rohani Muhamed

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo became an essential part of the treatment of anemia in patients with end stage renal failure (ESRF. Our experience at the Hajjah region, Yemen, confirms that the use of rHuEpo significantly increases the level of hemoglobin (HB and hematocrit (Hct, improves work tolerance and overall quality of life of patients on hemodialysis. The observable improvement occurred in 87.5% of patients. The most prominent factors that caused deterioration in the increment of HB and Hct were infection with malaria and chronic infection. Failure of patients′ compliance, largely due to lack of education, was another important factor effecting the results. Many of our patients did not understand the importance of diet and drug regime. It is very important to spend more time on educating such patients.

  1. Using Space Technologies for a timely detection of forest fires: the experience of end-users in 3 Italian Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filizzola, Carolina; Belloni, Antonella; Benigno, Giuseppe; Biancardi, Alberto; Corrado, Rosita; Coviello, Irina; De Costanzo, Giovanni; Genzano, Nicola; Lacava, Teodosio; Lisi, Mariano; Marchese, Francesco; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Merzagora, Cinzio; Paciello, Rossana; Pergola, Nicola; Sannazzaro, Filomena; Serio, Salvatore; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2013-04-01

    Every year, hundreds of thousands of hectares of European forests are destroyed by fires. Due to the particular topography, landscape and demographic distribution in Europe (very different from typical scenarios of China, USA, Canada and Australia), rapidity in fire sighting is still the determining factor in limiting damages to people and goods. Moreover, the possibility of early fire detection means also potentially to reduce the size of the event to be faced, the necessary fire fighting resources and, therefore, even the reaction times. In such a context, integration of satellite technologies (mainly high temporal resolution data) and traditional surveillance systems within the fire fighting procedures seems to positively impact on the effectiveness of active fire fighting as demonstrated by recent experiences over Italian territory jointly performed by University of Basilicata, IMAA-CNR and Local Authorities. Real time implementation was performed since 2007, during fire seasons, over several Italian regions with different fire regimes and features, in order to assess the actual potential of different satellite-based fire detection products to support regional and local authorities in efficiently fighting fires and better mitigating their negative effects. Real-time campaigns were carried out in strict collaboration with end-users within the framework of specific projects (i.e. the AVVISA, AVVISTA and AVVISA-Basilicata projects) funded by Civil Protection offices of Regione Lombardia, Provincia Regionale di Palermo and Regione Basilicata in charge of fire risk management and mitigation. A tailored training program was dedicated to the personnel of Regional Civil Protection offices in order to ensure the full understanding and the better integration of satellite based products and tools within the existing fire fighting protocols. In this work, outcomes of these practices are shown and discussed, especially highlighting the impact that a real time satellite

  2. OBSERVATION OF TeV GAMMA RAYS FROM THE CYGNUS REGION WITH THE ARGO-YBJ EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Bernardini, P.; Bleve, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita del Salento, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, Y. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918, 100049 Beijing (China); Bolognino, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica dell' Universita di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Branchini, P.; Budano, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Calabrese Melcarne, A. K. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-CNAF, Viale Berti-Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Camarri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Cardarelli, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Cattaneo, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Chen, T. L. [Tibet University, 850000 Lhasa, Xizang (China); Creti, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Cui, S. W. [Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016, Hebei (China); Dai, B. Z. [Yunnan University, 2 North Cuihu Road, 650091 Kunming, Yunnan (China); D' Ali Staiti, G., E-mail: chensz@ihep.ac.cn [Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2012-02-15

    We report the observation of TeV {gamma}-rays from the Cygnus region using the ARGO-YBJ data collected from 2007 November to 2011 August. Several TeV sources are located in this region including the two bright extended MGRO J2019+37 and MGRO J2031+41. According to the Milagro data set, at 20 TeV MGRO J2019+37 is the most significant source apart from the Crab Nebula. No signal from MGRO J2019+37 is detected by the ARGO-YBJ experiment, and the derived flux upper limits at the 90% confidence level for all the events above 600 GeV with medium energy of 3 TeV are lower than the Milagro flux, implying that the source might be variable and hard to be identified as a pulsar wind nebula. The only statistically significant (6.4 standard deviations) {gamma}-ray signal is found from MGRO J2031+41, with a flux consistent with the measurement by Milagro.

  3. [Systematic hearing screening for newborns in the Champagne-Ardennes region: 32,500 births in 2 years of experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, P; Leveque, M; Danvin, J-B; Leroux, B; Chays, A

    2007-09-01

    To report a Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) program developed in the Champagne-Ardennes region in 2004-2005. A team of ENT specialists and pediatricians set up a UNHS program designed to reduce the age of diagnosis and care of bilateral congenital deafness. The program was mainly based on automated acoustic otoacoustic emissions and a strict follow-up by the Regional Neonatal Screening Center. In 2004 and 2005, 29,944 neonates from 30,518 births were screened (98.11%). Of the neonates screened, 409 (1.38%) failed the test and were referred. The average retest delay was 2 weeks. Eleven were lost to follow-up, 371 (94%) had a successful second test on one or both ears, 27 (7%) failed the test a second time and had a diagnosis of ABR. Twenty-four cases of bilateral deafness were identified early, 14 of which had no risk factors. One of the children lost to follow-up was actually deaf, which was diagnosed at 18 months of age. Since the beginning of the UNHS program, the average age of diagnosis was lowered to less than 3 months. Our experience tends to demonstrate that UNHS is possible and the program allows an early diagnosis of bilateral congenital hearing loss.

  4. Contracting but not without caution: experience with outsourcing of health services in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Sameen; Masud, Tayyeb Imran; Sabri, Belgacem

    2006-11-01

    The public sector in developing countries is increasingly contracting with the non-state sector to improve access, efficiency and quality of health services. We conducted a multicountry study to assess the range of health services contracted out, the process of contracting and its influencing factors in ten countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, the Syrian Arab Republic and Tunisia. Our results showed that Afghanistan, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran and Pakistan had experience with outsourcing of primary care services; Jordan, Lebanon and Tunisia extensively contracted out hospital and ambulatory care services; while Bahrain, Morocco and the Syrian Arab Republic outsourced mainly non-clinical services. The interest of the non-state sector in contracting was to secure a regular source of revenue and gain enhanced recognition and credibility. While most countries promoted contracting with the private sector, the legal and bureaucratic support in countries varied with the duration of experience with contracting. The inherent risks evident in the contracting process were reliance on donor funds, limited number of providers in rural areas, parties with vested interests gaining control over the contracting process, as well as poor monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. Contracting provides the opportunity to have greater control over private providers in countries with poor regulatory capacity, and if used judiciously can improve health system performance.

  5. Contracting but not without caution: experience with outsourcing of health services in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Sameen; Masud, Tayyeb Imran; Sabri, Belgacem

    2006-01-01

    The public sector in developing countries is increasingly contracting with the non-state sector to improve access, efficiency and quality of health services. We conducted a multicountry study to assess the range of health services contracted out, the process of contracting and its influencing factors in ten countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, the Syrian Arab Republic and Tunisia. Our results showed that Afghanistan, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran and Pakistan had experience with outsourcing of primary care services; Jordan, Lebanon and Tunisia extensively contracted out hospital and ambulatory care services; while Bahrain, Morocco and the Syrian Arab Republic outsourced mainly non-clinical services. The interest of the non-state sector in contracting was to secure a regular source of revenue and gain enhanced recognition and credibility. While most countries promoted contracting with the private sector, the legal and bureaucratic support in countries varied with the duration of experience with contracting. The inherent risks evident in the contracting process were reliance on donor funds, limited number of providers in rural areas, parties with vested interests gaining control over the contracting process, as well as poor monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. Contracting provides the opportunity to have greater control over private providers in countries with poor regulatory capacity, and if used judiciously can improve health system performance. PMID:17143460

  6. High resolution modelling of aerosol dispersion regimes during the CAPITOUL field experiment: from regional to local scale interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aouizerats

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available High resolution simulation of complex aerosol particle evolution and gaseous chemistry over an atmospheric urban area is of great interest for understanding air quality and processes. In this context, the CAPITOUL (Canopy and Aerosol Particle Interactions in the Toulouse Urban Layer field experiment aims at a better understanding of the interactions between the urban dynamics and the aerosol plumes. During a two-day Intensive Observational Period, a numerical model experiment was set up to reproduce the spatial distribution of specific particle pollutants, from the regional scales and the interactions between different cities, to the local scales with specific turbulent structures. Observations show that local dynamics depends on the day-regime, and may lead to different mesoscale dynamical structures. This study focuses on reproducing these fine scale dynamical structures, and investigate the impact on the aerosol plume dispersion. The 500-m resolution simulation manages to reproduce convective rolls at local scale, which concentrate most of the aerosol particles and can locally affect the pollutant dispersion and air quality.

  7. Initial experiences and innovations in supervising community health workers for maternal, newborn, and child health in Morogoro region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberton, Timothy; Applegate, Jennifer; Lefevre, Amnesty E; Mosha, Idda; Cooper, Chelsea M; Silverman, Marissa; Feldhaus, Isabelle; Chebet, Joy J; Mpembeni, Rose; Semu, Helen; Killewo, Japhet; Winch, Peter; Baqui, Abdullah H; George, Asha S

    2015-04-09

    Supervision is meant to improve the performance and motivation of community health workers (CHWs). However, most evidence on supervision relates to facility health workers. The Integrated Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health (MNCH) Program in Morogoro region, Tanzania, implemented a CHW pilot with a cascade supervision model where facility health workers were trained in supportive supervision for volunteer CHWs, supported by regional and district staff, and with village leaders to further support CHWs. We examine the initial experiences of CHWs, their supervisors, and village leaders to understand the strengths and challenges of such a supervision model for CHWs. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected concurrently from CHWs, supervisors, and village leaders. A survey was administered to 228 (96%) of the CHWs in the Integrated MNCH Program and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 CHWs, 8 supervisors, and 15 village leaders purposefully sampled to represent different actor perspectives from health centre catchment villages in Morogoro region. Descriptive statistics analysed the frequency and content of CHW supervision, while thematic content analysis explored CHW, supervisor, and village leader experiences with CHW supervision. CHWs meet with their facility-based supervisors an average of 1.2 times per month. CHWs value supervision and appreciate the sense of legitimacy that arises when supervisors visit them in their village. Village leaders and district staff are engaged and committed to supporting CHWs. Despite these successes, facility-based supervisors visit CHWs in their village an average of only once every 2.8 months, CHWs and supervisors still see supervision primarily as an opportunity to check reports, and meetings with district staff are infrequent and not well scheduled. Supervision of CHWs could be strengthened by streamlining supervision protocols to focus less on report checking and more on problem solving and skills development

  8. Mineral weathering experiments to explore the effects of vegetation shifts in high mountain region (Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavris, Christian; Furrer, Gerhard; Dahms, Dennis; Anderson, Suzanne P.; Blum, Alex; Goetze, Jens; Wells, Aaron; Egli, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Climate change influences the evolution of soil and landscape. With changing climate, both flora and fauna must adapt to new conditions. It is unknown in many respects to what extent soils will react to warming and vegetation change. The aim of this study was to identify possible consequences for soils in a dry-alpine region with respect to weathering of primary minerals and leaching of elements under expected warming climate conditions due to shifts in vegetation. To achieve this, a field empirical approach was used in combination with laboratory weathering experiments simulating several scenarios. Study sites located in Sinks Canyon and in Stough Basin of the Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA, encompass ecotones that consist of tundra, forest, or sagebrush (from moist to dry, with increasing temperature, respectively). All soils are developed on granitoid moraines. The mineralogy of the soils along the altitudinal sequence was analysed using cathodoluminescence and X-ray diffraction, and revealed clear mineral transformations: biotite and plagioclase were both weathered to smectite while plagioclase also weathered to kaolinite. Cooler, wetter, altitude-dependent conditions seemed to promote weathering of these primary minerals. To test the impact of soil solutions from different ecotones on mineral weathering, aqueous extracts from topsoils (A horizons) were reacted with subsoils (B horizons) in batch experiments. Aqueous extracts of topsoil samples were generated for all three ecotones, and these solutions were characterized. For the batch experiments, the topsoil extracts were reacted for 1800 hours with the subsoil samples of the same ecotone, or with the subsoil samples from higher altitude ecotones. Solutions collected periodically during the experiments were measured using ICP-OES and ion chromatography. Dissolved Ca, Mg and K were mainly controlled by the chemical weathering of oligoclase, K-feldspar and biotite. With increasing altitude (and consequently

  9. The butterfly fauna of the Nizhny Novgorod Region inventarisation experience (Insecta: Lepidoptera and its use for the regional Red Data Book building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav K. Korb

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Discussed is an inventory of the Lepidoptera fauna of the Nizhny Novgorod region, its current status and prospects of its study. At the moment 1412 species of Lepidoptera are known from this area, but according to preliminary estimates the total number of species of Lepidoptera in this area amounts probably between 1800 and 2000. The necessity of the inclusion of 66 species of Lepidoptera in the Red Data Book of the Nizhny Novgorod region (approximately 4.5% of its current fauna and about 3.2% of its expected fauna is discussed. The necessity of the exception of 49 species of Lepidoptera by the Red Data Book of Nizhny Novgorod region is shown. The prospects for the protection of the Lepidoptera fauna within this area are discussed. Proposed is the usage of the IUCN status criteria for regional Red List with their modification in the area of the species.

  10. Solar Lyman-Alpha Polarization Observation of the Chromosphere and Transition Region by the Sounding Rocket Experiment CLASP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narukage, Noriyuki; Kano, Ryohei; Bando, Takamasa; Ishikawa, Ryoko; Kubo, Masahito; Katsukawa, Yukio; Ishikawa, Shinnosuke; Hara, Hiroshi; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Giono, Gabriel; hide

    2015-01-01

    We are planning an international rocket experiment Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) is (2015 planned) that Lyman a line (Ly(alpha) line) polarization spectroscopic observations from the sun. The purpose of this experiment, detected with high accuracy of the linear polarization of the Ly(alpha) lines to 0.1% by using a Hanle effect is to measure the magnetic field of the chromosphere-transition layer directly. For polarization photometric accuracy achieved that approx. 0.1% required for CLASP, it is necessary to realize the monitoring device with a high throughput. On the other hand, Ly(alpha) line (vacuum ultraviolet rays) have a sensitive characteristics that is absorbed by the material. We therefore set the optical system of the reflection system (transmission only the wavelength plate), each of the mirrors, subjected to high efficiency of the multilayer coating in accordance with the role. Primary mirror diameter of CLASP is about 30 cm, the amount of heat about 30,000 J is about 5 minutes of observation time is coming mainly in the visible light to the telescope. In addition, total flux of the sun visible light overwhelmingly large and about 200 000 times the Ly(alpha) line wavelength region. Therefore, in terms of thermal management and 0.1% of the photometric measurement accuracy achieved telescope, elimination of the visible light is essential. We therefore, has a high reflectivity (> 50%) in Lya line, visible light is a multilayer coating be kept to a low reflectance (Science was achieved a high throughput as a device for a vacuum ultraviolet ray of the entire system less than 5% (CCD of QE is not included).

  11. Can you see me? Experiences of nurses working night shift in Australian regional hospitals: a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Idona

    2013-10-01

    To report a study that explored the experiences of night-shift nurses, focusing on employee interrelationships and work satisfaction. Night-shift nurses are a critical component in hospital care making it essential to understand the experiences that give meaning to their work and understand how these nurses and the organization can benefit from their contribution to hospital care. A literature review revealed minimal research in this area. Qualitative case study. A qualitative case study using semi-structured interviews and self-completed diaries was conducted in 2010 in regional public hospitals in Australia. Participants were 14 nurses working nights half or more of their shifts in medical or surgical wards. Thematic analysis identified four major areas of concern: work relationships, work environment, work practices and lifestyle impact. Notably, work relationships were most meaningful for nurses on the same shift; night-shift nurses experienced working conditions inferior to their daytime counterparts including a perception of minimal leadership. Despite limited education opportunities, night shift provided opportunity for professional growth for some nurses with a slippage in skills for others; night shift provided flexibility for family and social activities, yet impeded these same activities, primarily due to pervasive fatigue. Night-shift nurses considered their role critical, yet believed that they were poorly regarded. The strong interpersonal relationships developed between night-shift workers need to be capitalized on whilst developing a more effective leadership model, improved work environment, more equitable professional development, and genuine recognition of the critical role of night nurses. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Partnering with law enforcement to deliver good public health: the experience of the HIV/AIDS Asia regional program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the “Strike- Hard” campaign in China or the “war on drugs” in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam’s response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based drug dependence treatment in several settings. The public health consequences of this approach have been extremely serious, with some of the highest documented prevalence of preventable blood-borne viral infections, including HIV, and hepatitis B and C. The wider socioeconomic consequences of this have been borne by families, communities and the governments themselves. The HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP) aims to stop the spread of HIV associated with drug use in South-East Asia and parts of southern China. HAARP works across five countries (Cambodia, China Burma, Laos, Viet Nam) chiefly through the Ministries of Health and Social Affairs, National Drug Control Agencies, and Public Security sectors, including prisons. HAARP has also engaged with UN agencies and a wide range of civil society organisations, including organisations of people who use drugs, to ensure their meaningful involvement in matters that directly affect them. We describe the experience of HAARP in implementing a large-scale harm reduction programme in the Sub-Mekong Region. HAARP chose to direct its efforts in three main areas: supporting an enabling environment for effective harm reduction policies, building core capacity among national health and law enforcement agencies, and supporting “universal access” goals by making effective, high-coverage services available to injecting drug users and their partners. The activities supported by HAARP are humble yet important steps. However, a much higher

  13. Partnering with law enforcement to deliver good public health: the experience of the HIV/AIDS Asia regional program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Mukta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the “Strike- Hard” campaign in China or the “war on drugs” in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam’s response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based drug dependence treatment in several settings. The public health consequences of this approach have been extremely serious, with some of the highest documented prevalence of preventable blood-borne viral infections, including HIV, and hepatitis B and C. The wider socioeconomic consequences of this have been borne by families, communities and the governments themselves. The HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP aims to stop the spread of HIV associated with drug use in South-East Asia and parts of southern China. HAARP works across five countries (Cambodia, China Burma, Laos, Viet Nam chiefly through the Ministries of Health and Social Affairs, National Drug Control Agencies, and Public Security sectors, including prisons. HAARP has also engaged with UN agencies and a wide range of civil society organisations, including organisations of people who use drugs, to ensure their meaningful involvement in matters that directly affect them. We describe the experience of HAARP in implementing a large-scale harm reduction programme in the Sub-Mekong Region. HAARP chose to direct its efforts in three main areas: supporting an enabling environment for effective harm reduction policies, building core capacity among national health and law enforcement agencies, and supporting “universal access” goals by making effective, high-coverage services available to injecting drug users and their partners. The activities supported by HAARP are humble yet important

  14. Endovascular treatment for acute ischaemic stroke with large vessel occlusion: the experience of a regional stroke service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCusker, M.W.; Robinson, S.; Looby, S.; Power, S.; Ti, J.P.; Grech, R.; Galvin, L.; O'Hare, A.; Brennan, P.; O'Kelly, P.; O'Brien, P.; Collins, R.; Dolan, E.; Williams, D.J.; Thornton, J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To report the experience of a regional stroke referral service with endovascular treatment for patients with acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) and large vessel occlusion. Materials and methods: A prospective review was undertaken of 93 consecutive cases receiving endovascular treatment for AIS over a 42-month period (January 2010 to June 2013). The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), location of large vessel occlusion, details of endovascular procedure, and degree of reperfusion achieved (Thrombolysis In Cerebral Infarction [TICI] score) were recorded. Mortality and functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale [mRS]) were measured at 90 days. Results: The mean patient age was 62 years (range 26–87 years). The mean NIHSS at presentation was 16 (range 6–29). All patients had confirmed proximal large-artery occlusion on computed tomography (CT) angiography: 87 in the anterior circulation, six in the posterior circulation. Of the 93 patients treated, 64 (69%) received intravenous thrombolysis. Successful reperfusion (TICI grade 2a to 3) was achieved in 80 (86%) cases. There were 13 (14%) cases of failed vessel recanalisation (TICI grade 0). Good functional outcome (mRS ≤2) was achieved in 51 (55%) cases. The 90-day mortality was 20 (22%) cases. Fifty-seven (61%) cases were transferred from outside centres. There was no significant increase in morbidity or mortality for transferred patients. Conclusion: Successful endovascular recanalisation can result in good functional outcomes for patients with AIS and large vessel occlusion. Our interventional neuroradiology service provides endovascular treatment as part of a regional stroke service without increase in morbidity or mortality for patients transferred from outside institutions. - Highlights: • Acute stoke patients may benefit from transfer to a specialist centre for endovascular treatment. • The authors offer endovascular treatment for suitable patients as part of a regional stroke service.

  15. Radiation safety in the Moscow region: Experience of cooperation SUE SIA Radon with mass media and public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishin, O.; Rakov, S. [SUE SIA RADON, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Radiation safety in the present period acquires complex character and closely corresponds with other elements of social and political process, with various spheres of public life. After earthquake in Japan in March 11, 2011 and emergency on the nuclear power plant Fukushima-1 the theme of radiating safety of megapolises has today become urgent, as never. Provision of radiation safety of the Moscow region, taking into account a number of factors, is an important problem in a context of modernization state. Today in sphere of radio ecological safety there are certain achievements: new monitoring systems are developed, technological processes are improved, new information-communicative channels of interaction with mass media and public are formed. Information policy of enterprises the functioning of which is connected with provision of safe ecological conditions and its monitoring is focused on constant and duly informing of public through mass-media. Experience and technologies of interaction with mass-media and public of Moscow State Unitary-Enterprise- united ecological, scientific and research centre of decontamination of radioactive waste and environmental protection (State Unitarian Enterprise, Scientific and Industrial Association Radon, SUE SIA RADON) is submitted in the article. (author)

  16. Multidisciplinary and multisectoral coalitions as catalysts for action against antimicrobial resistance: Implementation experiences at national and regional levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Mohan P; Chintu, Chifumbe; Mpundu, Mirfin; Kibuule, Dan; Hazemba, Oliver; Andualem, Tenaw; Embrey, Martha; Phulu, Bayobuya; Gerba, Heran

    2018-03-20

    The multi-faceted complexities of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) require consistent action, a multidisciplinary approach, and long-term political commitment. Building coalitions can amplify stakeholder efforts to carry out effective AMR prevention and control strategies. We have developed and implemented an approach to help local stakeholders kick-start the coalition-building process. The five-step process is to (1) mobilise support, (2) understand the local situation, (3) develop an action plan, (4) implement the plan, and (5) monitor and evaluate. We first piloted the approach in Zambia in 2004, then used the lessons learned to expand it for use in Ethiopia and Namibia and to the regional level through the Ecumenical Pharmaceutical Network [EPN]. Call-to-action declarations and workshops helped promote a shared vision, resulting in the development of national AMR action plans, revision of university curricula to incorporate relevant topics, infection control activities, engagement with journalists from various mass media outlets, and strengthening of drug quality assurance systems. Our experience with the coalition-building approach in Ethiopia, Namibia, Zambia, and with the EPN shows that coalitions can form in a variety of ways with many different stakeholders, including government, academia, and faith-based organisations, to organise actions to preserve the effectiveness of existing antimicrobials and contain AMR.

  17. Radiation safety in the Moscow region: Experience of cooperation SUE SIA Radon with mass media and public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishin, O.; Rakov, S.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation safety in the present period acquires complex character and closely corresponds with other elements of social and political process, with various spheres of public life. After earthquake in Japan in March 11, 2011 and emergency on the nuclear power plant Fukushima-1 the theme of radiating safety of megapolises has today become urgent, as never. Provision of radiation safety of the Moscow region, taking into account a number of factors, is an important problem in a context of modernization state. Today in sphere of radio ecological safety there are certain achievements: new monitoring systems are developed, technological processes are improved, new information-communicative channels of interaction with mass media and public are formed. Information policy of enterprises the functioning of which is connected with provision of safe ecological conditions and its monitoring is focused on constant and duly informing of public through mass-media. Experience and technologies of interaction with mass-media and public of Moscow State Unitary-Enterprise- united ecological, scientific and research centre of decontamination of radioactive waste and environmental protection (State Unitarian Enterprise, Scientific and Industrial Association Radon, SUE SIA RADON) is submitted in the article. (author)

  18. THE NATIONAL ONCOLOGICAL PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION – EXPERIENCE IN THE VLADIMIR REGION (TO THE 70TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE REGIONAL CLINICAL ONCOLOGICAL DISPENSARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Zirin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available By 2010, on the background of the steady increase in the incidence of malignant tumors in the Vladimir area, primary oncological care level worked inefficiently.Condition of material and technical base of the Vladimir Regional Clinical Oncological Dispensary was also unsatisfactory. All these problems required solution in the form of the National Oncology Program realization in the region. The National Oncological Program has begun to work in the Vladimir region since 2011. Target indicators of the oncological program implementation by 2015 were established. They are: Increase of 5-year survival value of patients with malignant tumors after diagnosis date to 51.4%; Increase the number of malignant tumors early detection cases at the I–II stages up to 51%; Decrease the mortality rate of working age population to 99 per 100 000; Decrease of mortality within one year from the first time of cancer diagnosis to 27%. The following main objectives such as radically improved the material and technical base of oncology dispensary; modern methods of prevention, diagnosis and patients treatment improvement and introduction; the system providing population cancer care focused on the cancer early detection and the specialized combined antitumor treatment provision are realized in order to achieve these goals. The implementation of the tasks allowed to achieve positive dynamics of Vladimir region population cancer care indicators. All the main targets of the National Oncology Program for the Vladimir region were achieved successfully. Implementation of the National Oncology Program has had an extremely positive effect on the cancer services development of, as well as for the health of the entire population of the Vladimir region.

  19. Assessment of the performance of CORDEX-South Asia experiments for monsoonal precipitation over the Himalayan region during present climate: part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, S.; Choudhary, A.; Dimri, A. P.

    2018-04-01

    Analysis of regional climate simulations to evaluate the ability of 11 Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment in South Asia experiments (CORDEX-South Asia) along with their ensemble to produce precipitation from June to September (JJAS) over the Himalayan region have been carried out. These suite of 11 combinations come from 6 regional climate models (RCMs) driven with 10 initial and boundary conditions from different global climate models and are collectively referred here as 11 CORDEX South Asia experiments. All the RCMs use a similar domain and are having similar spatial resolution of 0.44° ( 50 km). The set of experiments are considered to study precipitation sensitivity associated with the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) over the study region. This effort is made as ISM plays a vital role in summertime precipitation over the Himalayan region which acts as driver for the sustenance of habitat, population, crop, glacier, hydrology etc. In addition, so far the summer monsoon precipitation climatology over the Himalayan region has not been studied with the help of CORDEX data. Thus this study is initiated to evaluate the ability of the experiments and their ensemble in reproducing the characteristics of summer monsoon precipitation over Himalayan region, for the present climate (1970-2005). The precipitation climatology, annual precipitation cycles and interannual variabilities from each simulation have been assessed against the gridded observational dataset: Asian Precipitation-Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards the Evaluation of Water Resources for the given time period. Further, after the selection of the better performing experiment the frequency distribution of precipitation was also studied. In this study, an approach has also been made to study the degree of agreement among individual experiments as a way to quantify the uncertainty among them. The experiments though show a wide variation among themselves and individually over

  20. Technical cooperation for the pacific uses of nuclear technology in Latin America and Caribbean: the experience of regional agreement ARCAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondinelli Junior, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    This thesis studies the international technical cooperation in the field of peaceful applications of the nuclear technology, focusing on the experience of Latin American countries, where the Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean, also known as ARCAL, is in force. The study adopts as theoretical approach the concept of state capacities, particularly with regard to the institutional capacities applicable to the ARCAL Agreement. Within this approach, three dimensions of analysis are adopted: the institutional dimension, the governance dimension and the focus on outcomes. The evaluation of the ARCAL Agreement is carried out in order to confirm if the intended role to promote regional technical cooperation in the nuclear sector is being implemented. The methodological approach adopted the case study model. It starts with the analysis of the institutional evolution of the Agreement, and identifies variables articulating with the three dimensions above mentioned. The empirical data were collected in two stages. In the first stage it were performed 29 interviews carried out by the author with the technical and staff members of the Department of Technical Cooperation of IAEA, in Vienna, Austria, headquarter of IAEA. The other stage involved an electronic questionnaire submitted to the national coordinator of ARCAL in 14 countries, in a universe of 21 member states. The conclusion of the research points to the fact that the ARCAL Agreement has incorporated, throughout its trajectory, elements of the institutional capacities which are still in the process of development. They give to the Agreement the potential to induce the development of the state capacities of the respective countries in the field of peaceful applications of nuclear technology. (author)

  1. Investigations of the low frequency seismic waves recorded at near-regional distances from the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, H.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Seismic waves recorded at near-regional distances are used to characterize the source of the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) and three selected nuclear explosions detonated in N-tunnel on Rainier Mesa. For periods longer than 5 sec, the signal-to-noise ratio is poor on most recordings of the NPE. A seismogram-stacking method is used in order to reduce background noise in coherent arrivals of Rayleigh waves. This method requires equalization of path dispersion and attenuation, which is accomplished in this study with empirical Green`s functions. The stacked, equalized Rayleigh-wave spectra are inverted, along with the spectral amplitudes of Lg waves with periods of 2-5 sec, for estimates of the seismic moment tensor. The NPE isotropic moment is 1.6 x 10{sup 14} Nt-m. The inferred static level of the reduced displacement potential is 825 m{sup 3}, which is about two times smaller than the estimate from free-field data recorded within 1 km of the NPE. Moment tensors of the NPE and nuclear explosions are asymmetric, describing prolate ellipsoids of rotation with the long axis in the vertical direction. The asymmetries are among the largest for explosions on Pahute and Rainier Mesa. The non-isotropic component is a compensated linear vector dipole (CLVD), which may represent driven block motions occurring within a conical volume of material extending from the shot point (apex) to the free surface. The CLVD source can help explain some observations of scalloping in the spectra of Lg waves and Lg spectral ratios. Seismic radiation from the NPE is virtually indistinguishable from that of nearby nuclear explosions for frequencies below 1 Hz.

  2. The temporal response to drought in a Mediterranean evergreen tree: comparing a regional precipitation gradient and a throughfall exclusion experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Stpaul, Nicolas K; Limousin, Jean-Marc; Vogt-Schilb, Hélène; Rodríguez-Calcerrada, Jesus; Rambal, Serge; Longepierre, Damien; Misson, Laurent

    2013-08-01

    Like many midlatitude ecosystems, Mediterranean forests will suffer longer and more intense droughts with the ongoing climate change. The responses to drought in long-lived trees differ depending on the time scale considered, and short-term responses are currently better understood than longer term acclimation. We assessed the temporal changes in trees facing a chronic reduction in water availability by comparing leaf-scale physiological traits, branch-scale hydraulic traits, and stand-scale biomass partitioning in the evergreen Quercus ilex across a regional precipitation gradient (long-term changes) and in a partial throughfall exclusion experiment (TEE, medium term changes). At the leaf scale, gas exchange, mass per unit area and nitrogen concentration showed homeostatic responses to drought as they did not change among the sites of the precipitation gradient or in the experimental treatments of the TEE. A similar homeostatic response was observed for the xylem vulnerability to cavitation at the branch scale. In contrast, the ratio of leaf area over sapwood area (LA/SA) in young branches exhibited a transient response to drought because it decreased in response to the TEE the first 4 years of treatment, but did not change among the sites of the gradient. At the stand scale, leaf area index (LAI) decreased, and the ratios of stem SA to LAI and of fine root area to LAI both increased in trees subjected to throughfall exclusion and from the wettest to the driest site of the gradient. Taken together, these results suggest that acclimation to chronic drought in long-lived Q. ilex is mediated by changes in hydraulic allometry that shift progressively from low (branch) to high (stand) organizational levels, and act to maintain the leaf water potential within the range of xylem hydraulic function and leaf photosynthetic assimilation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. One-year experience of a regional service model of teleconsultation for planning and treatment of complex thoracoabdominal aortic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisci, Emiliano; de Donato, Gianmarco; Fargion, Aaron; Ventoruzzo, Giorgio; Parlani, Gianbattista; Setacci, Carlo; Ercolini, Leonardo; Michelagnoli, Stefano

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to report the methodology and 1-year experience of a regional service model of teleconsultation for planning and treatment of complex thoracoabdominal aortic disease (TAAD). Complex TAADs without a feasible conventional surgical repair were prospectively evaluated by vascular surgeons of the same public health service (National Health System) located in a huge area of 22,994 km 2 with 3.7 million inhabitants and 11 tertiary hospitals. Surgeons evaluated computed tomography scans and clinical details that were placed on a web platform (Google Drive; Google, Mountain View, Calif) and shared by all surgeons. Patients gave informed consent for the teleconsultation. The surgeon who submits a case discusses in detail his or her case and proposes a possible therapeutic strategy. The other surgeons suggest other solutions and options in terms of grafts, techniques, or access to be used. Computed tomography angiography, angiography, and clinical outcomes of cases are then presented at the following telemeetings, and a final agreement of the operative strategy is evaluated. Teleconsultation is performed using a web conference service (WebConference.com; Avaya Inc, Basking Ridge, NJ) every month. An inter-rater agreement statistic was calculated, and the κ value was interpreted according to Altman's criteria for computed tomography angiography measurements. The rate of participation was constant (mean number of surgeons, 11; range, 9-15). Twenty-four complex TAAD cases were discussed for planning and operation during the study period. The interobserver reliability recorded was moderate (κ = 0.41-0.60) to good (κ = 0.61-0.80) for measurements of proximal and distal sealing and very good (κ = 0.81-1) for detection of any target vessel angulation >60 degrees, significant calcification (circumferential), and thrombus presence (>50%). The concordance for planning and therapeutic strategy among all participants was complete in 16 cases. In

  4. Regional development and regional policy

    OpenAIRE

    Šabić, Dejan; Vujadinović, Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Economic polarization is a process that is present at global, national and regional level. Economic activity is extremely spatially concentrated. Cities and developed regions use the agglomeration effect to attract labor and capital, thus achieving more favorable economic conditions than the agrarian region. Scientific research and European experiences over the past decades have contributed to the discrepancy among theorists about the causes and consequences of regional inequalities. Regional...

  5. experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda da R. Becker

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La Educación Infantil es un derecho reconocido en la Convención de Derechos de los Niños (2005. Sin embargo, este derecho ha sido pasado por alto, pues muchos países no tienen programas oficiales para los primeros años de infancia, o si tienen algunos programas, éstos no son efectivos. En 1966, el gobierno brasileño adoptó la política de integrar dentro del sector educativo la responsabilidad administrativa de las sala-cunas de niños y niñas de cero a tres años y de los preescolares de cuatro a seis años, lo cual fue un primer paso para la expansión de la provisión de Educación Inicial. Diez años más tarde, todavía hay una carencia de establecimientos públicos y los gobiernos locales no le dan alta prioridad en sus presupuestos a esta fase de la educación. Este artículo se dirige a analizar la experiencia brasileña de Educación Inicial, con el fin de identificar los obstáculos que todavía impiden lograr las metas establecidas. El análisis empírico se enfoca hacia las diferencias entre las regiones del país y entre las etapas de expansión de la Educación Inicial, para medir la brecha existente entre el número de matrículas y la demanda por cupos. Se evalúan los datos oficiales, como el número de establecimientos y de matrículas desde 1996 hasta 2006. El análisis señala algunos obstáculos que deberían superar los gobiernos locales para poder mejorar la provisión y la calidad de la Educación Inicial

  6. The regulated distribution transformer. Experiences gathered in the grid of EnBW Regional AG; Erfahrungen mit dem regelbaren Ortsnetztransformator im Netz der EnBW Regional AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, Matthias; Koerner, Christian [EnBW Regional AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Schmid, Ronald [Siemens AG, Nuernberg (Germany); Handt, Karsten [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Regulated distribution transformers will play an important role in achieving voltage control for distributions grids with a high amount of volatile decentralized power generation. As a part of their research project named ''NetLab'', EnBW Regional AG tests a 400-kVA-substation-transformer provided by Siemens AG, which is fully integrated in the operating distribution grid. The transformer prototype with its thyristor-based on-load tap-changer can switch between three different transmission ratios. Its independent control unit is located in the secondary substation and supports the testing of different control algorithms. Extensive measurements allow a detailed monitoring of the voltage and load characteristics in the network and examining the transformer's switching behaviour as well as its effects on power quality. (orig.)

  7. Food as an element in developing tourist experiences. A case study of the Finnmark region in Northern Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Alita Dagmar

    2017-01-01

    The focus on food as a significant element and topic in tourism and tourists’ experiences has increased. How tourists experience food has changed together with tourists’ motivation and needs. Current findings indicate that tourists seek and expect to find local food experiences while travelling to a new destination. This thesis aims to build knowledge on how food as an element in tourism play a role for the tourism and hospitality industry, and their development of relevant tourist produ...

  8. Leveraging 35 years of Pinus taeda research in the southeastern US to constrain forest carbon cycle predictions: regional data assimilation using ecosystem experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn Thomas, R.; Brooks, Evan B.; Jersild, Annika L.; Ward, Eric J.; Wynne, Randolph H.; Albaugh, Timothy J.; Dinon-Aldridge, Heather; Burkhart, Harold E.; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Fox, Thomas R.; Gonzalez-Benecke, Carlos A.; Martin, Timothy A.; Noormets, Asko; Sampson, David A.; Teskey, Robert O.

    2017-07-01

    Predicting how forest carbon cycling will change in response to climate change and management depends on the collective knowledge from measurements across environmental gradients, ecosystem manipulations of global change factors, and mathematical models. Formally integrating these sources of knowledge through data assimilation, or model-data fusion, allows the use of past observations to constrain model parameters and estimate prediction uncertainty. Data assimilation (DA) focused on the regional scale has the opportunity to integrate data from both environmental gradients and experimental studies to constrain model parameters. Here, we introduce a hierarchical Bayesian DA approach (Data Assimilation to Predict Productivity for Ecosystems and Regions, DAPPER) that uses observations of carbon stocks, carbon fluxes, water fluxes, and vegetation dynamics from loblolly pine plantation ecosystems across the southeastern US to constrain parameters in a modified version of the Physiological Principles Predicting Growth (3-PG) forest growth model. The observations included major experiments that manipulated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, water, and nutrients, along with nonexperimental surveys that spanned environmental gradients across an 8.6 × 105 km2 region. We optimized regionally representative posterior distributions for model parameters, which dependably predicted data from plots withheld from the data assimilation. While the mean bias in predictions of nutrient fertilization experiments, irrigation experiments, and CO2 enrichment experiments was low, future work needs to focus modifications to model structures that decrease the bias in predictions of drought experiments. Predictions of how growth responded to elevated CO2 strongly depended on whether ecosystem experiments were assimilated and whether the assimilated field plots in the CO2 study were allowed to have different mortality parameters than the other field plots in the region. We present

  9. Leveraging 35 years of Pinus taeda research in the southeastern US to constrain forest carbon cycle predictions: regional data assimilation using ecosystem experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Q. Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Predicting how forest carbon cycling will change in response to climate change and management depends on the collective knowledge from measurements across environmental gradients, ecosystem manipulations of global change factors, and mathematical models. Formally integrating these sources of knowledge through data assimilation, or model–data fusion, allows the use of past observations to constrain model parameters and estimate prediction uncertainty. Data assimilation (DA focused on the regional scale has the opportunity to integrate data from both environmental gradients and experimental studies to constrain model parameters. Here, we introduce a hierarchical Bayesian DA approach (Data Assimilation to Predict Productivity for Ecosystems and Regions, DAPPER that uses observations of carbon stocks, carbon fluxes, water fluxes, and vegetation dynamics from loblolly pine plantation ecosystems across the southeastern US to constrain parameters in a modified version of the Physiological Principles Predicting Growth (3-PG forest growth model. The observations included major experiments that manipulated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 concentration, water, and nutrients, along with nonexperimental surveys that spanned environmental gradients across an 8.6  ×  105 km2 region. We optimized regionally representative posterior distributions for model parameters, which dependably predicted data from plots withheld from the data assimilation. While the mean bias in predictions of nutrient fertilization experiments, irrigation experiments, and CO2 enrichment experiments was low, future work needs to focus modifications to model structures that decrease the bias in predictions of drought experiments. Predictions of how growth responded to elevated CO2 strongly depended on whether ecosystem experiments were assimilated and whether the assimilated field plots in the CO2 study were allowed to have different mortality parameters than the other field

  10. Simulation of West African air pollution during the DACCIWA experiment with the GEOS-Chem West African regional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Eleanor; Evans, Mathew

    2017-04-01

    Pollutant emissions from West African cities are forecast to increase rapidly in future years because of extensive economic and population growth, together with poorly regulated industrialisation and urbanisation. Observational constraints in this region are few, leading to poor understanding of present-day air pollution in this region. To increase our understanding of the processes controlling air pollutants over the region, airborne observations were made from three research aircraft based out of Lomé, Togo during the DACCIWA field campaign in June-July 2016. A new 0.25x0.3125 degree West Africa regional version of the GEOS-Chem offline chemical transport model has also been developed to explore the processes controlling pollutants over the region. We evaluate the model using the aircraft data and focus on primary (CO, SO2, NOx, VOCs) and secondary pollutants (O3, aerosol). We find significant differences between the model and the measurements for certain primary compounds which is indicative of significant uncertainties in the base (EDGAR) emissions. For CO (a general tracer of pollution) we evaluate the role of different emissions sources (transport, low temperature combustion, power generation) in determining its concentration in the region. We conclude that the leading cause of uncertainty in our simulation is associated with the emissions datasets and explore the impact of using differing datasets.

  11. External quality assessment in gynaecological cytology: The Trent Region experience. The Trent Regional Gynaecological Pathology Quality Assurance Group for the National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, D N; Hewer, E M; Melling, S E; Rice, S

    2002-08-01

    A Department of Health Executive Letter stated in 1998 that the principal function of external quality assessment (EQA) is educational. Subsequently, in England, it has no longer been acceptable to assess performance in gynaecological cytology by proficiency testing. This paper describes the EQA scheme in gynaecological cytology that has been run by the Trent Regional Gynaecological Pathology Quality Assurance Group for the NHS Cervical Screening Programme (NHSCSP) since 1998. It conforms as closely as possible to the recommendations published by the Department of Health Working Group on Histopathology EQA Accreditation, and replaced the national proficiency testing protocol. The educational value of the scheme is derived predominantly from a numerical score which provides confidential and quantitative feedback to all participants. Personal performance monitoring occurs as a secondary function. For primary screeners and checkers, this is based purely on the distinction between negative, inadequate and abnormal smears. For pathologists, personal performance monitoring also includes grading of abnormalities. The EQA has been designed so that all professional groups participate in a manner that closely mimics normal practice. Only slides that have achieved an 80% consensus amongst participants are used in the EQA. Substandard performance has been defined as those participants with scores falling below the 2.5%ile. The paper describes the EQA in detail and illustrates its use by means of the second round results. The EQA protocol developed within Trent and described in this paper has contributed to proposals contained in the current national EQA in gynaecological cytology for the NHSCSP. In particular this paper highlights the effectiveness of the scoring system contained within the Trent and National EQA protocols.

  12. An exploration of the perceptions of male partners involved in the birthing experience at a regional Australian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrett, Liesel; Barkla, Sally; Knights, Janice; de Costa, Caroline; Harmen, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    The benefits to women of having their male partners present during labor and birth have been well documented, but the effects on men of sharing the birth experience have been less well explored. Several studies have suggested that male partners' positive experiences at this time may benefit partner and family relationships subsequently, whereas negative experiences may translate into later difficulties in these relationships. This study explored the perceptions of male partners involved in the birthing experience in the Integrated Women's Health Unit of Cairns Base Hospital, Cairns, Australia, over a 6-month period in 2010. The aims of the study were to document male partners' self-reported perceptions of their antenatal, labor, and birth experiences and birth expectations and birth involvement and to determine whether these perceptions influenced their feelings that their presence during birth was beneficial to the birthing woman. Participants were men experiencing for the first time their partner giving birth. A self-administered 14-item questionnaire was used to collect data; 163 of 200 eligible participants returned completed questionnaires. Continuous variables were converted to categorical variables and chi-square testing was used to determine significant differences between groups. The relationship between beneficial presence and antenatal, labor, and birthing experiences was assessed using correlation analysis and hierarchical regression analysis. There was a significant relationship demonstrated between perceived benefit of the partners' presence and positive perception of both antenatal experience and birth involvement. There also was a positive relationship between realized birth expectations and both antenatal experience and birth involvement. This study suggests that male partners' perceptions of beneficial presence during the birth experience can be enhanced by their feeling well informed and supported during the antenatal period and feeling involved

  13. Absolute measurement of β eff based on Feynman-α experiments and the two-region model in the IPEN/MB-01 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Renato Y.R.; Santos, Adimir dos; Jerez, Rogerio; Diniz, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    A new methodology for absolute measurement of the effective delayed neutron fraction β eff based on Feynman-α experiments and the two-region model was developed. This method made use of Feynman-α experiments and the two-region model. To examine the present methodology, a series of Feynman-α experiments were conducted at the IPEN/MB-01 research reactor facility. In contrast with other techniques like the slope method, Nelson-number method and 252 Cf-source method, the main advantage of this new methodology is to obtain β eff with the required accuracy and without knowledge of any other parameter. By adopting the present approach, β eff was measured with a 0.67% uncertainty. In addition, the prompt neutron generation time, Λ, and other parameters, was also obtained in an absolute experimental way. In general, the measured parameters are in good agreement with the values found from frequency analysis experiments. The theory-experiment comparison for the β eff measured in this work shows that JENDL3.3 presented the best agreement (within 1%). The reduction of the 235 U thermal yield as proposed by Okajima and Sakurai is completely justified according to the β eff measurements performed in this work

  14. Origin of surface and columnar Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) aerosols using source- and region-tagged emissions transport in a general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S.; Venkataraman, C.; Boucher, O.

    2008-12-01

    We study the relative influence of aerosols emitted from different sectors and geographical regions on aerosol loading in south Asia. Sectors contributing aerosol emissions include biofuel and fossil fuel combustion, open biomass burning, and natural sources. Geographical regions include India (the Indo-Gangetic plain, central India, south India, and northwest India), southeast Asia, east Asia, Africa-west Asia, and the rest of the world. Simulations of the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), from January to March 1999, are made in the general circulation model of Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD-ZT GCM) with emissions tagged by sector and geographical region. Anthropogenic emissions dominate (54-88%) the predicted aerosol optical depth (AOD) over all the receptor regions. Among the anthropogenic sectors, fossil fuel combustion has the largest overall influence on aerosol loading, primarily sulfate, with emissions from India (50-80%) and rest of the world significantly influencing surface concentrations and AOD. Biofuel combustion has a significant influence on both the surface and columnar black carbon (BC) in particular over the Indian subcontinent and Bay of Bengal with emissions largely from the Indian region (60-80%). Open biomass burning emissions influence organic matter (OM) significantly, and arise largely from Africa-west Asia. The emissions from Africa-west Asia affect the carbonaceous aerosols AOD in all receptor regions, with their largest influence (AOD-BC: 60%; and AOD-OM: 70%) over the Arabian Sea. Among Indian regions, the Indo-Gangetic Plain is the largest contributor to anthropogenic surface mass concentrations and AOD over the Bay of Bengal and India. Dust aerosols are contributed mainly through the long-range transport from Africa-west Asia over the receptor regions. Overall, the model estimates significant intercontinental incursion of aerosol, for example, BC, OM, and dust from Africa-west Asia and sulfate from distant regions (rest

  15. Local and Regional Food Aid Procurement: An Assessment of Experience in Africa and Elements of Good Donor Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Tschirley, David L.; del Castillo, Anne Marie

    2008-01-01

    This Policy Synthesis is a summary of a longer report that discusses the procurement of food aid within the country or region where it is needed. Referred to as local and regional procurement – LRP – this practice has become a major element in multilateral food aid response over the past decade1. The paper examines the relevance and the rationale for using LRP, reviews the efficiency of World Food Program (WFP) LRP activities in Africa relative to inkind food aid and to prices in the markets ...

  16. Macro-regional variation in attitudes toward and experiences of vulvar and vaginal atrophy among Italian post-menopausal women: a post hoc analysis of REVIVE survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappi, Rossella E; Particco, Martire; Biglia, Nicoletta; Cagnacci, Angelo; Di Carlo, Costantino; Luisi, Stefano; Paoletti, Anna Maria

    2017-05-01

    Italian participants in the European REVIVE survey reported that vaginal and vulvar atrophy (VVA) impaired various aspects of their lives, notably the ability to enjoy sex. The aim of the present study was to explore regional differences in knowledge, experiences, and treatment of VVA in the Italian REVIVE sample (n = 1000), which was analyzed according to region of residence. While many respondents were unfamiliar with the VVA condition, most could relate their VVA symptoms to the menopause. The rate of diagnosis of VVA was twice as high in Central Italy as in the North-East. For individual VVA symptoms, 25.4-41.6% of respondents judged that the symptom had worsened over time. There were no significant regional differences for symptoms in terms of reported rate, change in severity, impact on sexual activity, or health-care visits. Testosterone cream and OTC medication based on hyaluronic acid showed significant regional differences in lifetime rates of use. In Italy, there are modest regional differences in knowledge, diagnosis, and treatment of VVA, some of which may be explained by inter-regional differences in health care. Further efforts are needed to ensure that Italian women are properly informed about VVA and have access to appropriate health care and treatments.

  17. Experience of Approbation and Target Reference Points of Introduction of the Professional Standard "Pedagogue-Psychologist (Educational psychologist" in Sverdlovsk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyagina N.N.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The experience of application of the professional standard "Pedagogue-psychologist (educational psychologist" in the Sverdlovsk region is described. A regional model for the application of the professional standard developed on the basis of the principles of unity of centralization and decentralization, interdepartmental and network interaction developed by the authors is presented. The main forms and methods of work on the application of a professional standard in the region are disclosed; the results of the Sverdlovsk region internship site are described, including mechanisms for identifying personnel shortages and development of personalized trajectories of the professional development of psychology teachers in the region. The following are highlighted as priority areas: the development of regional normative legal acts regulating the professional activity of pedagogue-psychologists, the application of the professional standard of the pedagogue-psychologist in the formation of the personnel policy in the field of education, and the modernization of the system of vocational training and additional vocational education of psychologists.

  18. A Decade of Experience: Which Network Structures Maximize Fire Service Capacity for Homeland Security Incidents in Metropolitan Regions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency QHSR Quadrennial Homeland Security Review Report RCP Regional Catastrophic Preparedness SAA State...service has evolved from a single-purpose service focused on controlling fires to a multidimensional response element responsible for pre- hospital ... hospital preparedness program Preparedness Training for all personnel; training and network activities during prior year assist in preparedness

  19. Do Rural and Regional Students in Queensland Experience an ICT "Turn-Off" in the Early High School Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Lyn; Anderson, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Students learning in regional, rural and remote locations in Queensland are currently experiencing a "turn-off" in relation to school-based ICT in the first three years of high school. At the same time, students are experiencing increasing levels of interest and motivation from their use of ICT at home. Given the importance of ICT as an…

  20. Signatures of the high-altitude polar cusp and dayside auroral regions as seen by the Viking electric field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, G.T.; Blomberg, L.G.; Faelthammar, C.G.; Erlandson, R.E.; Potemra, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Electric field and satellite potential observations along 42 Viking orbits in the high-altitude (2R E ) polar cusp and dayside auroral region have been examined. Within the cusp the plasma density usually reaches a maximum, and it is typically very homogeneous, in contrast to the irregular and lower density in the cleft and dayside auroral regions. The maxima in the plasma density are sometimes anticorrelated with the magnetic field strength, indicating a diamagnetic effect. The entire cusp and dayside auroral regions are characterized by irregular and burstlike electric fields, comprising field reversals on various scales (up to 3 min or 500 km), the larger scales, however, being rare in the cusp. Another common feature in these regions is the high correlation between mutually orthogonal components of the electric and magnetic fields, both for large-scale variations across spatial structures and for wave and pulsations in the ULF frequency range. The electric field signatures in the cusp (in the 1100-1300 MLT sector) are, however, characteristically different from the cleft and oval field signatures in that the electric field is usually less intense and less structured and not correlated with the substorm activity level

  1. Regional cerebral blood flow studies with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT); Clinical experiences, possibilities. Regionalis agyi veratfolyas vizsgalata egyfotonos emissios computer tomographiaval (SPECT); Klinikai tapasztalatok, lehetoesegek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavics, Laszlo; Csernay, Laszlo; Doczi, Tamas; Lang, Jenoe; Blaho, Gabor; Janka, Zoltan; Bodosi, Mihaly [Szegedi Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Szeged (Hungary)

    1990-01-07

    Clinical experiences based on regional cerebral blood flow investigations with {sup 99m}Tc hexamethylpropyleneamin-oxime (HMPAO) SPECT in 164 patients are reported. The pharmacokinetics of the {sup 99m}Tc HMPAO are summarized, and the important indications of the investigations are interpreted in case reports (stroke, surgical solution of intracavernous aneurysm, Alzheimer and multiinfarct types of dementia). The literature data suggest that the diagnostic possibilities with this method are advantageous, even in other diseases. (author) 36 refs.; 7 figs.

  2. Analysis of world experience in constructing underground small nuclear power plants and assessment of its potential use in the Russian Arctic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Yu. G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the common ideology and main idea of locating underground nuclear plants. Specific examples in domestic and foreign experience have been analyzed. It has been established that underground small nuclear power plants can be used as an alternative source of electric and thermal energy for solving defense-strategic and social-economic tasks particularly when developing mineral raw material resources in the Russian Arctic regions

  3. ”How do the patients and their close relatives experience The Coordinated Investigation Model of Dementia in the North Denmark Region?”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgaard, Hanne; Ottesen, Aase Marie

    How do the patients and their close relatives experience The Coordinated Investigation Model of Dementia in the North Denmark Region? The aim of the project was to investigate how the patients and their close relatives experienced the investigation and the subsequent social medicine intervention,...... with lowest effective cost. A formal agreement regarding follow-up should be implemented. The relatives should be more involved during both investigation period and in the socio-medical follow-up....

  4. Changing patterns in the association between regional socio-economic context and dental caries experience according to gender and age: a multilevel study in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Choi, Youn-Hee; Park, Hyoung Wook; Lee, Sang Gyu

    2012-07-28

    Little is known about the effects of socio-environmental factors on dental caries in different demographic situations in Asian populations. We investigated whether the nature of the association between regional socio-economic context and dental caries experience differed according to gender and age groups in Korean adults. We obtained a linked data set containing individual information from the 2000 Korean National Oral Health Survey and regional information from the "Major statistical indices of Si-Gun-Gu" (city-county-ward), published by the Korean Statistical Office. We stratified participants into women and men and into four 10-year-interval age groups (19-34, 35-44, 45-54, and 55-64 years) and analysed the linked data using a multilevel analysis. In total, 5,259 individuals were included in the final study population. Regional socio-economic context was significantly associated with dental caries experience in men, but not in women. The patterns of the association between regional contextual variables and dental caries experience differed among age groups. People 35-44 years of age living in areas less dependent on the manufacturing industry and those 45-54 years of age living in areas where local government was relatively poor were more prone to have caries experience. The results of this study indicated that socio-economic factors affecting residents' dental health status may operate through different mechanisms or degrees according to geographic location, suggesting that some gender- and age-defined subgroups may be likely to benefit from different types of intervention, including the development of specific health policies.

  5. The effect of perceived regional accents on individual economic behavior: a lab experiment on linguistic performance, cognitive ratings and economic decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Heblich

    Full Text Available Does it matter if you speak with a regional accent? Speaking immediately reveals something of one's own social and cultural identity, be it consciously or unconsciously. Perceiving accents involves not only reconstructing such imprints but also augmenting them with particular attitudes and stereotypes. Even though we know much about attitudes and stereotypes that are transmitted by, e.g. skin color, names or physical attractiveness, we do not yet have satisfactory answers how accent perception affects human behavior. How do people act in economically relevant contexts when they are confronted with regional accents? This paper reports a laboratory experiment where we address this question. Participants in our experiment conduct cognitive tests where they can choose to either cooperate or compete with a randomly matched male opponent identified only via his rendering of a standardized text in either a regional accent or standard accent. We find a strong connection between the linguistic performance and the cognitive rating of the opponent. When matched with an opponent who speaks the accent of the participant's home region--the in-group opponent--, individuals tend to cooperate significantly more often. By contrast, they are more likely to compete when matched with an accent speaker from outside their home region, the out-group opponent. Our findings demonstrate, firstly, that the perception of an out-group accent leads not only to social discrimination but also influences economic decisions. Secondly, they suggest that this economic behavior is not necessarily attributable to the perception of a regional accent per se, but rather to the social rating of linguistic distance and the in-group/out-group perception it evokes.

  6. Latvian experience of 'Regional Project on Quality Control and Quality Assurance for Nuclear Analytical Techniques' (RER/2/004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skujina, Anita

    2002-01-01

    This report outlined the Latvian Radiation Safety Centre experience gained from the participation in the project. The accomplishments of the project are presented and the main difficulties are identified. In the course of the project 16 operating procedures and 17 instructions have been developed and the laboratory operations have been set in accordance with the ISO 17025 requirements

  7. Environmental Radiation Surveillance Results from over the Last Decade of Operational Experience at the Regional Radiation Monitoring Stations(RRMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae Young [Daegu Regional Radiation Monitoring Station, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Dong Han [Ulsan Regional Radiation Monitoring Station, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Hoon [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The objectives of the current program are to monitor environmental radiation/radioactivity level in Korea and to provide the base-line data on environmental radiation/radioactivity which will be useful in the case of radiological emergency situations. This program plays an important role in the view of protecting the public health against the potential hazards of radiation and maintaining a clean environment. This paper describes an introduction to the Regional Radiation Monitoring Stations (RRMS), and also presents some results of recent years (2001-2014). The environmental radiation surveillance results of years 2001-2014 have been described. It indicates normal levels of radiation in the past years. These kinds of studies are very important in providing references in understanding the environmental radioactivity level in a particular region.

  8. Impact of a dengue outbreak experience in the preventive perceptions of the community from a temperate region: Madeira Island, Portugal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Nazareth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to effectively modify behaviours is increasingly relevant to attain and maintain a good health status. Current behaviour-change models and theories present two main approaches for (healthier decision-making: one analytical/logical, and one experiential/emotional/intuitive. Therefore, to achieve an integral and dynamic understanding of the public perceptions both approaches should be considered: community surveys should measure cognitive understanding of health-risk contexts, and also explore how past experiences affect this understanding. In 2011, community perceptions regarding domestic source reduction were assessed in Madeira Island͘. After Madeira's first dengue outbreak (2012 a unique opportunity to compare perceptions before and after the outbreak-experience occurred. This was the aim of this study, which constituted the first report on the effect of an outbreak experience on community perceptions regarding a specific vector-borne disease. A cross-sectional survey was performed within female residents at the most aegypti-infested areas. Perceptions regarding domestic source reduction were assessed according to the Essential Perception (EP-analysis tool. A matching process paired individuals from studies performed before and after the outbreak, ensuring homogeneity in six determinant variables. After the outbreak, there were more female residents who assimilated the concepts considered to be essential to understand the proposed behaviour. Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed in the number of female residents who achieved the defined 'minimal understanding''. Moreover, most of the population (95.5% still believed at least in one of the identified myths. After the outbreak some myths disappeared and others appeared. The present study quantified and explored how the experience of an outbreak influenced the perception regarding a dengue-preventive behaviour. The outbreak experience surprisingly led to the appearance

  9. Impact of a Dengue Outbreak Experience in the Preventive Perceptions of the Community from a Temperate Region: Madeira Island, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazareth, Teresa; Sousa, Carla Alexandra; Porto, Graça; Gonçalves, Luzia; Seixas, Gonçalo; Antunes, Luís; Silva, Ana Clara; Teodósio, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    The ability to effectively modify behaviours is increasingly relevant to attain and maintain a good health status. Current behaviour-change models and theories present two main approaches for (healthier) decision-making: one analytical/logical, and one experiential/emotional/intuitive. Therefore, to achieve an integral and dynamic understanding of the public perceptions both approaches should be considered: community surveys should measure cognitive understanding of health-risk contexts, and also explore how past experiences affect this understanding. In 2011, community perceptions regarding domestic source reduction were assessed in Madeira Island. After Madeira’s first dengue outbreak (2012) a unique opportunity to compare perceptions before and after the outbreak-experience occurred. This was the aim of this study, which constituted the first report on the effect of an outbreak experience on community perceptions regarding a specific vector-borne disease. A cross-sectional survey was performed within female residents at the most aegypti-infested areas. Perceptions regarding domestic source reduction were assessed according to the Essential Perception (EP)-analysis tool. A matching process paired individuals from studies performed before and after the outbreak, ensuring homogeneity in six determinant variables. After the outbreak, there were more female residents who assimilated the concepts considered to be essential to understand the proposed behaviour. Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed in the number of female residents who achieved the defined ‘minimal understanding’’. Moreover, most of the population (95.5%) still believed at least in one of the identified myths. After the outbreak some myths disappeared and others appeared. The present study quantified and explored how the experience of an outbreak influenced the perception regarding a dengue-preventive behaviour. The outbreak experience surprisingly led to the appearance of new

  10. Profile of 1 year of fieldwork experiences for undergraduate occupational therapy students from a large regional Australian university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Lynette; O'Toole, Gjyn

    2017-10-01

    Objective Fieldwork experience is a significant component of many health professional education programs and affects future practice for graduates. The present study used self-reported student data to produce a profile of undergraduate student placement experiences. Methods Cross-sectional surveys exploring placement location, setting and client types, models of supervision, interventions and financial costs were completed by students following each placement. Data were analysed using descriptive analysis. Results Placements were predominantly conducted outside capital cities (69.8%; n=184), with 25.8% (n=68) in rural settings. Students experienced predominantly public health in-patient settings and community settings, with only 15% experiencing private settings. Conclusions The placement profile of undergraduate occupational therapy students appeared to be consistent with workforce reports on occupational therapy professional practice. What is known about the topic? Fieldwork experienced by health professional students is critical to preparing new graduates for practice. Although the World Federation of Occupational Therapy provides guidance on what is required for occupational therapy fieldwork experience, little is known about what students actually experience during their fieldwork placements. What does this paper add? The present study is the first to document the range of fieldwork experienced by occupational therapy students in one program over 1 year, and provides the basis for comparison with other occupational therapy programs, as well as other disciplines nationally and internationally. What are the implications for practitioners? Occupational therapy students experienced few opportunities in private practice or speciality services, and had mostly one-on-one supervision. To provide a future workforce that is able to address the changing health system, it is vital that students are exposed to a range of fieldwork experiences and supervision styles that

  11. Impact of a dengue outbreak experience in the preventive perceptions of the community from a temperate region: Madeira Island, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazareth, Teresa; Sousa, Carla Alexandra; Porto, Graça; Gonçalves, Luzia; Seixas, Gonçalo; Antunes, Luís; Silva, Ana Clara; Teodósio, Rosa

    2015-03-01

    The ability to effectively modify behaviours is increasingly relevant to attain and maintain a good health status. Current behaviour-change models and theories present two main approaches for (healthier) decision-making: one analytical/logical, and one experiential/emotional/intuitive. Therefore, to achieve an integral and dynamic understanding of the public perceptions both approaches should be considered: community surveys should measure cognitive understanding of health-risk contexts, and also explore how past experiences affect this understanding. In 2011, community perceptions regarding domestic source reduction were assessed in Madeira Island͘. After Madeira's first dengue outbreak (2012) a unique opportunity to compare perceptions before and after the outbreak-experience occurred. This was the aim of this study, which constituted the first report on the effect of an outbreak experience on community perceptions regarding a specific vector-borne disease. A cross-sectional survey was performed within female residents at the most aegypti-infested areas. Perceptions regarding domestic source reduction were assessed according to the Essential Perception (EP)-analysis tool. A matching process paired individuals from studies performed before and after the outbreak, ensuring homogeneity in six determinant variables. After the outbreak, there were more female residents who assimilated the concepts considered to be essential to understand the proposed behaviour. Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed in the number of female residents who achieved the defined 'minimal understanding''. Moreover, most of the population (95.5%) still believed at least in one of the identified myths. After the outbreak some myths disappeared and others appeared. The present study quantified and explored how the experience of an outbreak influenced the perception regarding a dengue-preventive behaviour. The outbreak experience surprisingly led to the appearance of new myths

  12. Preliminary Experience Using Eye-Tracking Technology to Differentiate Novice and Expert Image Interpretation for Ultrasound-Guided Regional Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Lindsay K; Harrison, T Kyle; Kou, Alex; Mariano, Edward R; Udani, Ankeet D; Kim, T Edward; Shum, Cynthia; Howard, Steven K

    2018-02-01

    Objective measures are needed to guide the novice's pathway to expertise. Within and outside medicine, eye tracking has been used for both training and assessment. We designed this study to test the hypothesis that eye tracking may differentiate novices from experts in static image interpretation for ultrasound (US)-guided regional anesthesia. We recruited novice anesthesiology residents and regional anesthesiology experts. Participants wore eye-tracking glasses, were shown 5 sonograms of US-guided regional anesthesia, and were asked a series of anatomy-based questions related to each image while their eye movements were recorded. The answer to each question was a location on the sonogram, defined as the area of interest (AOI). The primary outcome was the total gaze time in the AOI (seconds). Secondary outcomes were the total gaze time outside the AOI (seconds), total time to answer (seconds), and time to first fixation on the AOI (seconds). Five novices and 5 experts completed the study. Although the gaze time (mean ± SD) in the AOI was not different between groups (7 ± 4 seconds for novices and 7 ± 3 seconds for experts; P = .150), the gaze time outside the AOI was greater for novices (75 ± 18 versus 44 ± 4 seconds for experts; P = .005). The total time to answer and total time to first fixation in the AOI were both shorter for experts. Experts in US-guided regional anesthesia take less time to identify sonoanatomy and spend less unfocused time away from a target compared to novices. Eye tracking is a potentially useful tool to differentiate novices from experts in the domain of US image interpretation. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  13. Uncertainty in the learning rates of energy technologies. An experiment in a global multi-regional energy system model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, Ullash K.; Blesl, Markus; Fahl, Ulrich; Remme, Uwe; Voss, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    The diffusion of promising energy technologies in the market depends on their future energy production-cost development. When analyzing these technologies in an integrated assessment model using endogenous technological learning, the uncertainty in the assumed learning rates (LRs) plays a crucial role in the production-cost development and model outcomes. This study examines the uncertainty in LRs of some energy technologies under endogenous global learning implementation and presents a floor-cost modeling procedure to systematically regulate the uncertainty in LRs of energy technologies. The article narrates the difficulties of data assimilation, as compatible with mixed integer programming segmentations, and comprehensively presents the causes of uncertainty in LRs. This work is executed using a multi-regional and long-horizon energy system model based on 'TIMES' framework. All regions receive an economic advantage to learn in a common domain, and resource-ample regions obtain a marginal advantage for better exploitation of the learning technologies, due to a lower supply-side fuel-cost development. The lowest learning investment associated with the maximum LR mobilizes more deployment of the learning technologies. The uncertainty in LRs has an impact on the diffusion of energy technologies tested, and therefore this study scrutinizes the role of policy support for some of the technologies investigated. (author)

  14. Peace with Hunger: Colombia’s Checkered Experience with Post-Conflict Sustainable Community Development in Emerald-Mining Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel B. Franco

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between conflict and local development has puzzled scholars and practitioners alike. This article explores why the advent of peace in Colombia’s emerald-mining regions for the past few years, as well as a broader national peace process, has not delivered the expected development dividends among mining communities. We contrast differences in stakeholders’ perceptions between levels of governance (local, regional and national. Based on the research, we conclude that while stakeholder collaboration is successful at the regional and national levels of governance, it fails at the local level. While peace has allowed an increase in mainstream business investment in mining, this has concentrated production in a few hands leading to a deterioration in many aspects of community livelihoods and wealth distribution. There has been a shift in the concentration of wealth and production from traditional elites to large companies. Communities noted a loss of collective assets and lack of community and institutional capacity to overcome pressing issues in a post-conflict market economy that favors those who control capital and technology. Based on an evaluation of community perceptions through a focus group methodology, this study recommends ways to prepare and better coordinate stakeholders to engage with complex relationships, and protect community assets in a collaborative governance scenario. This research suggests that political reconciliation processes amid complex resource geographies require greater devolution and community engagement on post-conflict economic development during the peace process itself.

  15. Local-regional anesthesia in the management of stingray stings: Experience of the Bouffard medical-surgical hospital in Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanoye, C; Lacroix, G; Le Gonidec, E; Couret, A; Benois, A; Peigne, V

    2017-02-01

    Stingray injuries are very painful. Systemic analgesics are ineffective, and the use of local-regional anesthesia has been reported. This retrospective descriptive study reviewed all cases of stingray injuries seen at the emergency department of the Bouffard Hospital (Djbouti, Africa) between 2011 and 2014. The study included 35 patients. Most of the injuries (n= 31, 89%) concerned the lower limbs. Median pain intensity was 6 [5-8] on a visual analog scale of 0 (no pain) to 10. The following systemic medications were administered: acetaminophen to 13 (27%) patients, morphine to 8 (23%), and tramadol to 6 (17%). In all, 25 (71%) patients received local-regional anesthesia, 15 (60%) by injections at the ankle. All procedures were successful, and no adverse event was reported. This study reports clinical data about stingray injuries in the Red Sea area and highlights the interest of local-regional anesthesia in their management. Most of the procedures were distal and could be performed by trained emergency physicians.

  16. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in brain tumors and cervical region. Experience of the Dean Funes Medical Center, first experience in stereotactic radiotherapy and radiosurgery inside the country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Vita, H.; Brunetto, M.; Derechinsky, V; Derechinsky, G.; Derechinsky, M.; Gonzalez, S.; Marinello, A.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: A retrospective study to analyze the results of 53 patients treated with stereotactic radiotherapy in 'Centro Medico Dean Funes' was performed. The patients had brain and head and neck tumors. Patients and methods: From November 1997 to March 2003, 53 patients were treated with stereotactic radiotherapy in 'Centro Medico Dean Funes'. The daily dose administered varied from 1.8 to 2 Gy and the total dose from 30 to 70 Gy. The minimal follow up was 2 months, and the medium follow up 32 months. Local control and survival were analyzed in all patients, as well as tolerance and the complications of the treatment. Results: Since these series represented a very heterogeneous group of patients, the final results were very difficult to compare with other alternative treatments. However, an excellent tolerance to therapy was observed. Some subsets of patients had good results to treatment: patients with metastasis to the orbit, patients with lesions to the sellar and parasellar regions and some who relapsed following conventional radiotherapy, mainly lymphomas. Conclusions: Stereotactic radiotherapy is a valid therapeutic method to treat tumors of the brain and head and neck, as long as the tumor has a moderate size (6 cm. or less) and the shape is cylindrical or ellipsoid. Stereotactic radiation improves the therapeutic ratio as compared with the conventional radiotherapy. It has advantages over the 3D technique, and could compete with IMRT (Intensity modulated radiation therapy). (author) [es

  17. A refined regional modeling approach for the Corn Belt - Experiences and recommendations for large-scale integrated modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Yiannis; Gassman, Philip W.; Jha, Manoj K.; Kling, Catherine L.; Campbell, Todd; Srinivasan, Raghavan; White, Michael; Arnold, Jeffrey G.

    2015-05-01

    Nonpoint source pollution from agriculture is the main source of nitrogen and phosphorus in the stream systems of the Corn Belt region in the Midwestern US. This region is comprised of two large river basins, the intensely row-cropped Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) and Ohio-Tennessee River Basin (OTRB), which are considered the key contributing areas for the Northern Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone according to the US Environmental Protection Agency. Thus, in this area it is of utmost importance to ensure that intensive agriculture for food, feed and biofuel production can coexist with a healthy water environment. To address these objectives within a river basin management context, an integrated modeling system has been constructed with the hydrologic Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model, capable of estimating river basin responses to alternative cropping and/or management strategies. To improve modeling performance compared to previous studies and provide a spatially detailed basis for scenario development, this SWAT Corn Belt application incorporates a greatly refined subwatershed structure based on 12-digit hydrologic units or 'subwatersheds' as defined by the US Geological Service. The model setup, calibration and validation are time-demanding and challenging tasks for these large systems, given the scale intensive data requirements, and the need to ensure the reliability of flow and pollutant load predictions at multiple locations. Thus, the objectives of this study are both to comprehensively describe this large-scale modeling approach, providing estimates of pollution and crop production in the region as well as to present strengths and weaknesses of integrated modeling at such a large scale along with how it can be improved on the basis of the current modeling structure and results. The predictions were based on a semi-automatic hydrologic calibration approach for large-scale and spatially detailed modeling studies, with the use of the Sequential

  18. Assessment of the performance of CORDEX-SA experiments in simulating seasonal mean temperature over the Himalayan region for the present climate: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nengker, T.; Choudhary, A.; Dimri, A. P.

    2018-04-01

    The ability of an ensemble of five regional climate models (hereafter RCMs) under Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiments-South Asia (hereafter, CORDEX-SA) in simulating the key features of present day near surface mean air temperature (Tmean) climatology (1970-2005) over the Himalayan region is studied. The purpose of this paper is to understand the consistency in the performance of models across the ensemble, space and seasons. For this a number of statistical measures like trend, correlation, variance, probability distribution function etc. are applied to evaluate the performance of models against observation and simultaneously the underlying uncertainties between them for four different seasons. The most evident finding from the study is the presence of a large cold bias (-6 to -8 °C) which is systematically seen across all the models and across space and time over the Himalayan region. However, these RCMs with its fine resolution perform extremely well in capturing the spatial distribution of the temperature features as indicated by a consistently high spatial correlation (greater than 0.9) with the observation in all seasons. In spite of underestimation in simulated temperature and general intensification of cold bias with increasing elevation the models show a greater rate of warming than the observation throughout entire altitudinal stretch of study region. During winter, the simulated rate of warming gets even higher at high altitudes. Moreover, a seasonal response of model performance and its spatial variability to elevation is found.

  19. From Theory to Experiment: Hadron Electromagnetic Form Factors in Space-like and Time-like Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Gakh, G.I.; Rekalo, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Hadron electromagnetic form factors contain information on the intrinsic structure of the hadrons. The pioneering work developed at the Kharkov Physical-Technical Institute in the 60's on the relation between the polarized cross section and the proton form factors triggered a number of experiments. Such experiments could be performed only recently due to the progress in accelerator and polarimetry techniques. The principle of these measurements is recalled and surprise and very precise results obtained on proton are presented. The actual status of nucleon electromagnetic form factors is reviewed, with special attention to the basic work done in Kharkov Physical-Technical Institute. This Paper is devoted to the memory of Prof. M.P. Rekalo

  20. Experience of South Regional Delegation in radiation protection diffusion by means of policies of social communication; Experiencia de la Delegacion Regional Sur en la difusion de seguridad radiologica mediante politicas de comunicacion social

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malagamba, Eduardo; Canibano, Javier; Gatica, Nidia [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Delegacion Regional Sur

    2001-07-01

    The diffusion of the criteria and principles of radiological safety that are applied to the different practices of use of radioactive materials, is one of the ways to diminish the risks of its use besides enhance the perception of risk in society. Since June of 1999, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Argentina have intensified the dissemination of information for the public in general, specialized personnel indirectly involved with radioactive substances and the users in general of radioactive materials.This work has as objective to present the experience of South Regional Delegation with information dissemination policy and its results.

  1. Impact of isoprene and nitrogen oxides on O3 chemistry at the local and the regional scale : the ESCOMPTE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortinovis, J.; Solmon, F.; Personne, E.; Serça, D.; Rosset, R.

    2003-04-01

    Concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO+NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a crucial role in the atmospheric chemistry through the production-destruction of tropospheric O3. In rural areas, NOx concentrations are much lower than in urban areas, whereas VOCs emissions can be relatively high. This is due to a relative longer residence time of VOCs, and to the substantial contribution of Biogenic VOCs (BVOCs) representing more than 85% of all the VOCs emitted at the Earth surface (half of it being isoprene). For these reasons, O3 production in rural areas is most of the time NOx-limited. Taking into account biogenic emissions of isoprene in global scale atmospheric chemistry modeling adds from 10 to 40% to the ozone produced when compared to the same simulation without isoprene. This suggests that BVOCs and NOx emissions must be accounted for in models of atmospheric pollution forecasting at local and regional scales. In this study, we present a sensitivity analysis on the impact of the isoprene and nitrogen oxides emissions at the local and the regional scale. This study is done from data collected during the ESCOMPTE campaign which took place in June and July 2001 in the Marseille region (Southwest France) characterized by both strong natural and anthropogenic sources of trace gases. Isoprene emission experimental data from a Quercus Pubescens Mediterranean forest are used to constrain the 1Dz Soil-Vegetation-Atmospheric-Transfer ISBA model. This SVAT is used in the 3D MESO-NH-Chemistry model to simulate scenarios of pollution at the regional scale including the measured biogenic source for isoprene, and GENEMIS anthropogenic sources for other trace gases. To focus on the chemistry aspect of these simulations, the atmospheric dynamics are set to an "ideal" configuration. We have investigated the impact of the relative position and distance between the biogenic and anthropogenic sources on the O3 budget. According to this, and to the intensity of the

  2. Knowledge, attitude, and experience of health professionals of female genital mutilation (FGM): A qualitative study in Iraqi Kurdistan Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabila, Nazar P; Ahmed, Hamdia M; Safari, Kolsoom

    2017-11-01

    We aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and experience of health professionals of female genital mutilation (FGM). The study involved content analysis of semistructured interviews with 21 health professionals. The participants had poor knowledge regarding different aspects of FGM including its types, prevalence, and complications as well as the existing legislation that prohibits FGM. They believed that FGM is mainly practiced for religious reasons and to reduce sexual desire/arousal. Health professionals are apparently not involved in performing FGM, and they do not support its continuation. Health professionals can take a leading role in raising the awareness of women and combating FGM.

  3. [Knowledge and life experiences of mothers facing certain addictive behaviours in youths in the region of Tunis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askri, M; Belgacem, B; Zine, I; Haddad, M; Besrour, M

    2008-01-01

    We surveyed 415 mothers who regularly consult primary healthcare centres about their knowledge of addictive behavior in teenagers in relation to tobacco, alcohol and drugs. Most mothers considered the teenage period difficult. Apprehension of this period increased with the educational level of the mothers. Mothers did not often discuss the issue of addiction with their children, especially related to alcohol and drugs. Nevertheless, the mothers were aware of the risks of addiction. They considered information campaigns about this topic an efficient means of prevention. About half of the mothers had experience of addictive conduct involving a family member. They resolved the problems through family help or consultation with a specialist.

  4. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  5. Monitoring and Management of Karstic Coastal Groundwater in a Changing Environment (Southern Italy: A Review of a Regional Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Polemio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The population concentration in coastal areas and the increase of groundwater discharge in combination with the peculiarities of karstic coastal aquifers constitute a huge worldwide problem, which is particularly relevant for coastal aquifers of the Mediterranean basin. This paper offers a review of scientific activities realized to pursue the optimal utilization of Apulian coastal groundwater. Apulia, with a coastline extending for over 800 km, is the Italian region with the largest coastal karst aquifers. Apulian aquifers have suffered both in terms of water quality and quantity. Some regional regulations were implemented from the 1970s with the purpose of controlling the number of wells, well locations, and well discharge. The practical effects of these management criteria, the temporal and spatial trend of recharge, groundwater quality, and seawater intrusion effects are discussed based on long-term monitoring. The efficacy of existing management tools and the development of predictive scenarios to identify the best way to reconcile irrigation and demands for high-quality drinking water have been pursued in a selected area. The Salento peninsula was selected as the Apulian aquifer portion exposed to the highest risk of quality degradation due to seawater intrusion. The capability of large-scale numerical models in groundwater management was tested, particularly for achieving forecast scenarios to evaluate the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. The results show qualitative and quantitative groundwater trends from 1930 to 2060 and emphasize the substantial decrease of the piezometric level and a serious worsening of groundwater salinization due to seawater intrusion.

  6. Vertical integration and contractual network in the cardiovascular sector: the experience of the Italian region Emilia Romagna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolini, Cristina; Nobilio, Lucia

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Objective We analysed the integrated planning model adopted by the Italian region Emilia Romagna in year 2000 to cover the entire range of treatment of cardiovascular disease. This model, called “hub and spoke”, provides for the transfer of patient care and treatment from peripheral units (the spokes) to central units (the hubs) once a certain complexity threshold has been reached. Methods We examined inter-temporal variations in patients flows for the selection/referral and follow-up phases between cardiac surgery and cardiology units during two periods characterised by different organisational set-ups, in order to reflect on the progress being made in the organisation of the network. The database consisted of regional records of hospital discharges during the 1997–2001 period. Results The investigation pointed to the achievement of a good degree of coordination between structures at different levels of specialisation in the case of cardiac surgery, for which six centres were selected already in 1996. On the other hand, the more recent introduction of a hierarchical system for interventional cardiology points to the prevalence of operations on patients previously treated within the same centre, to admissions by direct access, and to follow-up mainly conducted within the hub providing the initial service. Conclusions Despite the progress made towards the more effective rationalisation of the health care network, there is still room for improvement in relations between different centres, in particular with regard to the clearer definition of the roles and interdependence of those intermediate-level centres located between the hub centres and basic healthcare facilities. PMID:16896380

  7. Water movement through a shallow unsaturated zone in an inland arid region: Field drip irrigation experiment under matrix potential control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, T.; Han, D.; Song, X.

    2017-12-01

    It is vital to study soil water movement in unsaturated zone for evaluating and improving current irrigation mode for prevention and control of soil secondary salinization, especially in inland arid area, where is characterized by strong evaporation, poor drainage system and shallow water table depth. In this study, we investigated the applicability of drip irrigation under matrix potential control during cotton growth seasons in an inland arid region of northwest China. Combined physical observation with stable isotopes tracing method, we studied soil water flow system and recharge sources of shallow groundwater in heavy (Pilot 1) and light (Pilot 2) saline-alkali cotton fields. Evaporation depths (about 50-60 cm) are about the same for both pilots, but infiltration depths (about 60 cm for Pilot 1 and 150 cm for Pilot 2) are very different due to different soil texture, soil structure and soil salt content. Middle layer (about 100 cm thick) is a critical barrier for water exchange between surface and deep layer. Irrigation water is the major source (about 79.6% for Pilot 1 and 81.6% for Pilot 2), while evapotranspiration is the major sink (about 80.7% for Pilot 1 and 83.1% for Pilot 2) of unsaturated zone. The increase of soil water storage is not enough to make up the water shortage of middle layer and thus drip irrigation water doesn't recharge into groundwater for both pilots. Water table rise (about 60 cm for Pilot 1 and 50 cm for Pilot 2) could be caused by lateral groundwater flow instead of vertical infiltration. This irrigation mode could retard the water table rise in this region. However, improving horizontal drainage system may be indispensable for sustainable agriculture development. The study can provide important basis for soil secondary salinization prevention and agricultural water management in inland arid areas.

  8. Vertical integration and contractual network in the cardiovascular sector: the experience of the Italian region Emilia Romagna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolini, Cristina; Nobilio, Lucia

    2003-01-01

    We analysed the integrated planning model adopted by the Italian region Emilia Romagna in year 2000 to cover the entire range of treatment of cardiovascular disease. This model, called "hub and spoke", provides for the transfer of patient care and treatment from peripheral units (the spokes) to central units (the hubs) once a certain complexity threshold has been reached. We examined inter-temporal variations in patients flows for the selection/referral and follow-up phases between cardiac surgery and cardiology units during two periods characterised by different organisational set-ups, in order to reflect on the progress being made in the organisation of the network. The database consisted of regional records of hospital discharges during the 1997-2001 period. The investigation pointed to the achievement of a good degree of coordination between structures at different levels of specialisation in the case of cardiac surgery, for which six centres were selected already in 1996. On the other hand, the more recent introduction of a hierarchical system for interventional cardiology points to the prevalence of operations on patients previously treated within the same centre, to admissions by direct access, and to follow-up mainly conducted within the hub providing the initial service. Despite the progress made towards the more effective rationalisation of the health care network, there is still room for improvement in relations between different centres, in particular with regard to the clearer definition of the roles and interdependence of those intermediate-level centres located between the hub centres and basic healthcare facilities.

  9. Effects of auditory recall experience on regional cerebral blood flow as assessed by 99m-Tc-HMPAO SPECT in 13 Post Traumatic Stress Disorder patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagani, M.M.E.; Salmaso, D.; Soares, J.; Aberg-Wistedt, A.; Sundin, O.; Jacobsson, H.; Larsson, S.A.; Haellstroem, T.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a severe condition affecting about 8% of population and increasing the risk of depression. PTSD patients, among other symptoms, suffer from intrusive distressing recollections of the traumatic event and avoidance of stimuli related to trauma. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) between two groups of subjects exposed to the same type of traumatic stressor either developing PTSD or not. Materials and Methods: Thirteen subway drivers developing PTSD (PTSD) and 19 not developing PTSD (CTR) after being exposed to earlier person-under-the-train accident were included in the study. The rCBF distribution was compared between the two groups during a situation involving an auditory evoked re-experiencing of their traumatic event. 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT, using a three-headed gamma camera, was performed and the radiopharmaceutical uptake in 7 bilateral regions of the brain was assessed using a standardised digitalised brain atlas. The chosen regions were those supposed to be involved in fear and emotional response and were located in the thalamus, limbic cortex and prefrontal, temporal and parietal lobes. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the significance of the differences in flow in such functional regions. Results: In the global analysis, rCBF significantly differed between groups (0.04), hemispheres (p<0.02) and regions (p<0.0001). There was also a significant region x hemisphere interaction (p<0.0001). As compared to CTR, PTSD rCBF increased in the primary and associative auditory cortex (p<0.03) and in the temporal poles (p<0.02). Significant hemispheric differences were found in these latter regions (p<0.001 and p<0.0001, respectively), anterior cingulate cortex (p<0001) and multi-medial parietal association cortex (p<0.0001). Conclusions: Higher rCBF values in PTSD patients under recall of their traumatic experience were found as compared to CTR. The

  10. Contact lens wearers' experiences while trekking in the Khumbu region/Nepal: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Irmgard L

    2015-01-01

    Safe contact lens wear depends on a hygiene regime and lens-appropriate wear patterns which may be compromised during travel in remote and wilderness areas. The purpose of this study was to describe the experience of contact lens wearers while trekking at high-altitude in Nepal. For this descriptive study, trekkers with contact lenses were recruited in Lukla and invited to complete an online-questionnaire on trip preparation, contact lens use, care and experiences, and possible changes for future travel. Quantitative data were analysed using SurveyMonkey; content analysis applied to qualitative responses. The majority of the 158 participants (124; 78.48%) reported no problems with their lenses (daily disposables, soft lenses, extended-wear lenses, hard/rigid lenses) during their stay although dry air, dust, wind, cold temperatures, and difficult hygiene maintenance were challenging. Freezing lenses and freezing solutions were additional challenges. Thirty-four (21.52%) experienced a variety of problems. Improvements were requested from manufacturers. Lodges should provide better access to clean water, mirrors and lighting. Almost 60% of participants had not sought any pre-travel health advice. Remote and wilderness areas provide a challenge for appropriate contact lens wear and care. The decision between the potential risk of infection due to touching lenses (daily disposables, soft/hard lenses) and the potential risk of corneal erosion (extended-wear lenses) needs to be made in pre-travel consultations. Travel health professionals and travel agencies should remind CL-wearing trekkers to carefully assess their wear and care routine to accommodate potentially challenging conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. CONDITION OF DECENTRALIZATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL LEGAL FORMS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONS OF UKRAINE IN THE CONTEXT OF THE GLOBAL EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiia Kulchytska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the modern condition of decentralization and organizational legal forms of sustainable development of regions of Ukraine in the context of the global experience are analyzed, possible ways to overcome regional disparities are proved. A special place in scientific research article takes a significant number of modern researchers analyzed the theoretical and methodological foundations of a system of financial support of local authorities in the transition to decentralization of public administration. In this regard, particular relevance is the problem of defining the role of decentralization principles in forming the financial support of local government. The importance of decentralization in the process of local government reform is proved. The ways implementing decentralization in modern Ukraine are shown. The scientific approaches to determining the meaning and role of decentralization in a market economy are analyzed and summarized. Key words: decentralization, deconcentration of power, the territorial organization of government, local communities, dotatsiynist, sustainable development. JEL: H 70, R 58

  12. [Challenges to decentralization and local participation within the health rights protection framework: Experience of the SUSALUD Northern Macro-regional Intendance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebaza-Iparraguirre, Henry; Vela-López, Miguel; Villegas-Ortega, José; Lozada-Urbano, Michelle; Munares-García, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    In Peru, health protection rights and the National Health Authority (SUSALUD) coexist with the aim to ensure that every Peruvian may exercise his/her rights. According to the L.D. (Spanish: Decreto legislativo) N° 1158, strategies must be deployed to ensure effective decentralization and ensure compliance with user rights. As a result, the Northern Macro-regional Intendance (IMRN) was created, with headquarters in the city of Chiclayo, and a coverage area including Lambayeque, Tumbes, Piura, Cajamarca, La Libertad, and Amazonas. The northern macro-region promotes information dissemination, coordination, and local participation in health activities, with an emphasis on handling complaints and claims as well as implementation and operation support of user boards (JUS). After 6 months, implementation of the IMRN experience is undergoing consolidation.

  13. Performance analysis of fusion nuclear-data benchmark experiments for light to heavy materials in MeV energy region with a neutron spectrum shifter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Isao; Ohta, Masayuki; Miyamaru, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Keitaro; Yoshida, Shigeo; Iida, Toshiyuki; Ochiai, Kentaro; Konno, Chikara

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear data are indispensable for development of fusion reactor candidate materials. However, benchmarking of the nuclear data in MeV energy region is not yet adequate. In the present study, benchmark performance in the MeV energy region was investigated theoretically for experiments by using a 14 MeV neutron source. We carried out a systematical analysis for light to heavy materials. As a result, the benchmark performance for the neutron spectrum was confirmed to be acceptable, while for gamma-rays it was not sufficiently accurate. Consequently, a spectrum shifter has to be applied. Beryllium had the best performance as a shifter. Moreover, a preliminary examination of whether it is really acceptable that only the spectrum before the last collision is considered in the benchmark performance analysis. It was pointed out that not only the last collision but also earlier collisions should be considered equally in the benchmark performance analysis.

  14. Suspension of mandatory vaccination and public health preserving: Rovigo local health unit experience after appliance of Veneto regional law 7/2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattarin, M; Bellè, M; Bergamini, M; Gallo, L

    2013-09-01

    The burden of infectious diseases preventable by vaccination decreased considerably over last decades in all countries provided with effective immunization schedules. Implementation of these programs with new vaccines has started discussion on duality between mandatory and recommended vaccinations. Regional autonomy has allowed the Veneto Region, with introduction of Law 7/2007, to experience suspension of all mandatory childhood vaccinations, replaced by an active and free offer of all vaccines recognized as safe and effective. Coverage's trends and acceptance of invitation are carefully monitored to avoid loss of compliance and reduction of immunized children. The evaluation, performed on population of Rovigo ULSS18 for 2002-2008 birth cohorts (2008 is the first concerned by the change), revealed no fall for previously mandatory vaccinations, but rather a slight increase. Percentage of non-vaccinated children was negligible. The leading cause of non-vaccination to polio was inability to deliver the letter of invitation due to wrong address. An informed dissent was expressed only by a minority (0.9% in 2008 birth cohort). Compliance to immunization offer was elevated both for previously compulsory and recommended vaccinations. Experience of Rovigo ULSS 18 showed that, in a context of already high levels of coverage for recommended vaccinations with optimal organization of immunization services, coverage rates for ex-mandatory vaccines remain unchanged. Further research and reports are required to carefully assess the effect on coverage rates in next birth cohorts, but available data are encouraging. Similar legislative measures can be successfully adopted by other Regions with starting conditions comparable to Veneto Region.

  15. Universal salt iodization in the Central and Eastern Europe, Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE/CIS) Region during the decade 2000-09: experiences, achievements, and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Haar, Frits; Gerasimov, Gregory; Tyler, Vilma Qahoush; Timmer, Arnold

    2011-12-01

    By 2000, the global track record on universal salt iodization (USI) indicated 26% access to adequately iodized salt in the Central and Eastern Europe, Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE/ CIS) Region. Aimed at extracting lessons learned, this study examined experiences, achievements, and outcomes of USI strategies in CEE/CIS countries during the subsequent decade. Information from the design, timing, execution, outputs, multi-sector management and results of actions by national stakeholders yielded 20 country summaries. Analysis across countries used a LogFrame Analysis typical for public nutrition development. By 2009, USI strategies had reached the target and population iodine nutrition shown adequate levels in 9 countries, while in 6 others, USI was close and/or population iodine status showed only minor imperfection. True USI, i.e., iodization of salt destined both for the food industry and the household, had been made mandatory in 13 of these 15 countries. In the Balkan area, USI and iodine nutrition advanced more than in CIS. Of the 20 sample countries, 17 (85%) had exceeded the mark of 50% adequate access, while the overall regional score reached 55% by 2010. Experience from this region suggests that strong partnership collaboration, a new concept in post-Soviet societies, was a major success factor. Voluntary iodization or focusing on household salt alone was less likely conducive for success. Achieving optimum iodine nutrition required the setting of proper iodine standard Weak political leadership insistence in the Russian Federation and Ukraine to embrace USI is the main factor why the region remains behind in the global progress.

  16. Arсhaeomineralogy of Ancient Nonferrous Metallurgy Pieces of the Perm Region: Experience of Usage of Electron Microprobe Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Chaykovsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of archaeological features has been studied by means of the scanning electronic microscopy. It was shown that due to the oxidation process, the surface layer is enriched with some elements, which were present at unaltered metal (Ag, Pb and those included later (As, Zn, Pb. It imposes meaningful limitation for use of the X-ray fluorescence and spectral analysis, which allow obtaining only total (patina + metal composition. Sixteen minerals (oxides, carbonates, sulphates, chlorides, phosphates, sulfides and native phases are established in patina composition. Tin bronze structure contains the impurities, which may be an evidence of import to Perm Region of tin and silver possibly from Altai, tin and lead possibly from Karelia during "harinsky" and "rodanovsky" cultures respectively. Various composition of the alloys used for casting and filigree witnesses that ancient metallurgists had known about alloys handling. The presence of barium and fluorine can tell us about composition of the used furnacecharge. The obtained data may be the basis for chemical-metallurgical typification of pieces from nonferrous (and noble metals.

  17. The legitimation of the power process: experiences of small entrepreneurs in the region of Passo Fundo/RS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Frasson Lima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The legitimation of power among small entrepreneurs toward the employees was analyzed in the region of Passo Fundo/RS; it’s a process in which these entrepreneurs consolidate working relationships to perform their functions with self-confidence. A descriptive qualitative research was done and used as method of data collection a semi-structured interview, with observation and documental analysis. Four directors of franchises in the field of language education in the northern of Rio Grande do Sul participated in the research. The collected data were submitted to an interpretative analysis that made use of the academic frame to rescue the conception of power, its role and its fountainsin the organizations. The results reinforced the difficulties in measuring the legitimation of power. The phenomenon was investigated from an array of angles and a series of related factors were identified, provokingan evolution on its understanding.It was realized that the strategies of legitimation of the power vary according to the history and leadership style of the directors creating similar results in short term, but not always attending to professionalization and expansion matters.

  18. Neutron integral test of graphite cross sections in MeV energy region for the JENDL-3T through an analysis of WINFRITH shielding experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, Kohtaro; Sakurai, Kiyoshi.

    1988-01-01

    The neutron integral tests of graphite cross sections in MeV neutron energy region for the ENDF/B-IV, JENDL-2, JENDL-3PR1 and -3T were performed through the Monte Carlo analysis of the graphite shielding experiment at the WINFRITH. The measured values were on the reaction rates of 115 In(n,n') 115m In, 27 Al(n,α) 24 Na, 32 S(n,p) 32 P, and 103 Rh(n,n') 103m Rh threshold detectors located in the graphite slabs, so that the experiment on the graphite was good at the integral test of neutron cross sections in MeV energy resion. (author)

  19. Experience of the posterior lip augmentation device in a regional hip arthroplasty unit as a treatment for recurrent dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggett, L; Cross, C; Helm, T

    2017-12-01

    Dislocation after total hip arthroplasty (THA) remains a significant complication of the procedure and is the third leading cause for revision THA. One technique for treatment of this complication is the use of the posterior lip augmentation device (PLAD). We describe our experience using the PLAD including complication rates. A retrospective review of 55 PLADs (54 patients) was carried out following identification from electronic theatre records. Basic patient demographics, operative records and radiographs were collected and reviewed and data was analysed using Microsoft Excel. Failure of the PLAD was defined as further operative intervention after PLAD insertion and included: dislocation, implant breakage, infection and revision of the THA for loosening of either component. 55 PLADs were implanted in 54 patients with an average age of 77 years. There was a significant preponderance of females and a variety of surgical approaches had been used for the original hip replacement, including trochanteric osteotomy, posterior and antero-lateral. 9 (16%) patients had recurrent dislocations,1 (2%) failed secondary to screw breakage, 3 (5%) had and infection requiring intervention and 2 (4%) underwent further revision for aseptic loosening of the femoral component. The overall failure rate was 25% with 14 patients requiring intervention post PLAD. Our results are inferior to other published results and indicate that the PLAD should be used with caution for recurrent dislocations of the Charnley hip replacement.

  20. The experience of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among Hispanic women in a U.S. border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan-Olah, Mary; Duarte-Gardea, Maria; Lechuga, Julia; Salinas-Lopez, Silvia

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of Hispanic women of Mexican origin with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). GDM is associated with poorer maternal and infant outcomes. Rates of GDM occur at higher rates among Hispanic women of Mexican origin compared to non-Hispanic White women. High rates of GDM in this population pose a major health problem which is exacerbated by disadvantage, obesity and high birth-rates. Eighteen interviews were conducted with pregnant women using an interpretative phenomenological analysis approach. Our findings included 5 themes located along a path of gradual adjustment to GDM: (1) distress and fear; (2) realizing the changes required; (3) learning to manage GDM; (4) finding motivation; and (5) compliance despite limited understanding. Participants were highly motivated to act in the infant's best interest and the majority of women in the study made the necessary dietary and exercise changes to successfully manage their GDM. Nonetheless, it seems likely that additional low literacy information on food values may be beneficial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Transport and reaction kinetics at the glass:solution interface region: results of repository-oriented leaching experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Bates, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    Repository-oriented leaching experiments involving Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) 165 type glass under a γ-radiation field (1 +/- 0.2 x 10 4 R/h) have been performed by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project. In this communication, they discuss glass surface analyses obtained by SEM, nuclear resonance profiling, and SIMS together with leachate solution data in relation to a mechanism that couples diffusion, hydrolysis (etching and gelation), and precipitation to qualitatively describe the release of different glass components to the leachant solutions. The release of mobile (e.g., Li) and partly mobile (e.g., B) species is controlled primarily by interdiffusion with water species across the interdiffusion zone. Glass components that are immobile in the interdiffusion zone are released to the solution by etching. For prediction of long-term steady-state concentrations of glass components with low solubility, the relative rates of release from the glass and secondary mineral precipitation must be taken into account. 20 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  2. Safety and predictability of conscious sedation in dentistry -- a multi-centre regional audit: South and West Wales experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukrishnan, A; McGregor, J; Thompson, S

    2013-10-01

    There are no previously published reports of audits in conscious sedation from a group comprising the general dental services (GDS), community dental services (CDS) and hospital dental services (HDS). The main aim of this audit was to assess current practice within the group in relation to the safety and predictability of dental treatment undertaken with the aid of conscious sedation. A total of nine centres collected data prospectively on 1,037 sedation episodes over the course of one year. Audit standards were locally agreed based on current evidence and local experience. They were set at a completion rate of 90% and an adverse incident rate of 2% or less. Based on the data collected, a completion rate of 92% and a minor adverse incident rate of 2.6% were recorded. The participating centres met the standards set locally for this audit. Current practice in the participating centres was found to be safe and predictable. The audit tool is being refined to improve the quality of data collection. Further research and service evaluation is recommended.

  3. Bodily Sensory Inputs and Anomalous Bodily Experiences in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Evaluation of the Potential Effects of Sound Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tajadura-Jiménez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscientific studies have shown that human's mental body representations are not fixed but are constantly updated through sensory feedback, including sound feedback. This suggests potential new therapeutic sensory approaches for patients experiencing body-perception disturbances (BPD. BPD can occur in association with chronic pain, for example in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS. BPD often impacts on emotional, social, and motor functioning. Here we present the results from a proof-of-principle pilot study investigating the potential value of using sound feedback for altering BPD and its related emotional state and motor behavior in those with CRPS. We build on previous findings that real-time alteration of the sounds produced by walking can alter healthy people's perception of their own body size, while also resulting in more active gait patterns and a more positive emotional state. In the present study we quantified the emotional state, BPD, pain levels and gait of twelve people with CRPS Type 1, who were exposed to real-time alteration of their walking sounds. Results confirm previous reports of the complexity of the BPD linked to CRPS, as participants could be classified into four BPD subgroups according to how they mentally visualize their body. Further, results suggest that sound feedback may affect the perceived size of the CRPS affected limb and the pain experienced, but that the effects may differ according to the type of BPD. Sound feedback affected CRPS descriptors and other bodily feelings and emotions including feelings of emotional dominance, limb detachment, position awareness, attention and negative feelings toward the limb. Gait also varied with sound feedback, affecting the foot contact time with the ground in a way consistent with experienced changes in body weight. Although, findings from this small pilot study should be interpreted with caution, they suggest potential applications for regenerating BDP and its related

  4. Bodily Sensory Inputs and Anomalous Bodily Experiences in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Evaluation of the Potential Effects of Sound Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajadura-Jiménez, Ana; Cohen, Helen; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Neuroscientific studies have shown that human's mental body representations are not fixed but are constantly updated through sensory feedback, including sound feedback. This suggests potential new therapeutic sensory approaches for patients experiencing body-perception disturbances (BPD). BPD can occur in association with chronic pain, for example in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). BPD often impacts on emotional, social, and motor functioning. Here we present the results from a proof-of-principle pilot study investigating the potential value of using sound feedback for altering BPD and its related emotional state and motor behavior in those with CRPS. We build on previous findings that real-time alteration of the sounds produced by walking can alter healthy people's perception of their own body size, while also resulting in more active gait patterns and a more positive emotional state. In the present study we quantified the emotional state, BPD, pain levels and gait of twelve people with CRPS Type 1, who were exposed to real-time alteration of their walking sounds. Results confirm previous reports of the complexity of the BPD linked to CRPS, as participants could be classified into four BPD subgroups according to how they mentally visualize their body. Further, results suggest that sound feedback may affect the perceived size of the CRPS affected limb and the pain experienced, but that the effects may differ according to the type of BPD. Sound feedback affected CRPS descriptors and other bodily feelings and emotions including feelings of emotional dominance, limb detachment, position awareness, attention and negative feelings toward the limb. Gait also varied with sound feedback, affecting the foot contact time with the ground in a way consistent with experienced changes in body weight. Although, findings from this small pilot study should be interpreted with caution, they suggest potential applications for regenerating BDP and its related bodily feelings in

  5. [Dissemination of psychotherapy modules for traumatized refugees : Experience gained from trauma work in crisis and conflict regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbert, T; Wilker, S; Schauer, M; Neuner, F

    2017-01-01

    With each additional accumulative exposure to severe and traumatic stressors, the likelihood of developing mental health problems and physical diseases increases. Displaced individuals have usually experienced a number of serious threats to health due to organized violence in their home country or attacks during the flight. Frequently, domestic violence adds additional strain to the stressors experienced. The resulting impairments in psychosocial functioning reduce the resources needed for social adjustment and integration. Social exclusion then in turn often further aggravates the existing mental health complications. For the treatment of trauma spectrum disorders, different evidence-based psychotherapies are available. In high-income countries, trained and licensed psychotherapists are typically in positions to apply such interventions; however, even an advanced system with a high capacity, such as the psychotherapeutic care offered in Germany, severely struggles to manage the demands associated with the rapid addition of hundreds of thousands of displaced people. Germany's mental healthcare system at present lacks the resources, both human and technological, to effectively manage the present demands. Systematic scientific studies in resource-poor regions of war and conflict have demonstrated that the dissemination of effective treatment to local personnel, even with limited training, results in substantial improvements in the mental health challenges within the community: Organized as a cascade model, members of the refugee community learn to identify weakened fellow citizens requiring in-depth diagnostic interviews. Educated, bilingual individuals acquainted with their country's healthcare system (e. g. nurses, teachers and social workers) receive training to conduct structured interviews and evidence-based interventions under the supervision of centrally organized licensed psychotherapists. More complex cases are referred to local psychotherapists

  6. Long lasting second remission and quality of life following brachytherapy of relapsing cancer in preirradiated regions. Experience in 108 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, B.F.; Kwiatkowski, J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction: In patients with unresectable relapsing malignant tumor following external beam radiotherapy retreatment by brachytherapy gives a second chance of good palliation and even cure. But regardless the great number of tumor relapse reirradiation is given only to few patients due to the impending risks of severe radiation sequelae. Material and method: From January 1st 1992 to December 31st 1995 overall 108 patients with histologically proven local tumor relapses in preirradiated regions were reirradiated by interstitial or intraluminal brachytherapy (192-Iridium sources). The preirradiation dose was 40 to 70 Gray (Gy) in conventional fractionation. The brachytherapy retreatment dose was 30 to 40 Gy at the individually shaped reference isodose shell. In high dose-rate technique (about two third of all patients) mostly single doses of 5 Gy were applied once or twice a week. If low dose-rate techniques were used, a maximum dose of 60 Gy was applied. In some cases a second course of external beam radiotherapy was added. The sites of reirradiation were: ear-nose-throat-yaw areas 76, large airways 24, soft tissues 7, scalp 1. Results: In (23(108)) patients (21 %) complete or partial remission could be achieved lasting at least one year. In (8(23)) patients (overall 7,4 %) the second remission lasted longer than two years. The quality of life in the long time survivors was felt to be good or at least acceptable. Local necroses, not life threatening, occurred in about 20 %. No fatal complication was to be observed. Altogether in about 85 % the reirradiation resulted in effective palliation and was well tolerated. Discussion and conclusion: Retreatment by brachytherapy yields valuable palliation to the vast majority of patients and gives a second chance of long time good quality survival to about 10 % of all retreated patients. Careful selection of patients and experienced realisation of brachytherapy is essential to avoid severe complications

  7. Simultaneous observations of equatorial F-region plasma depletions over Brazil during the Spread-F Experiment (SpreadFEx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-D. Pautet

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available From September to November 2005, the NASA Living with a Star program supported the Spread-F Experiment campaign (SpreadFEx in Brazil to study the effects of convectively generated gravity waves on the ionosphere and their role in seeding Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, and associated equatorial plasma bubbles. Several US and Brazilian institutes deployed a broad range of instruments (all-sky imagers, digisondes, photometers, meteor/VHF radars, GPS receivers covering a large area of Brazil. The campaign was divided in two observational phases centered on the September and October new moon periods. During these periods, an Utah State University (USU all-sky CCD imager operated at São João d'Aliança (14.8° S, 47.6° W, near Brasilia, and a Brazilian all-sky CCD imager located at Cariri (7.4° S, 36° W, observed simultaneously the evolution of the ionospheric bubbles in the OI (630 nm emission and the mesospheric gravity wave field. The two sites had approximately the same magnetic latitude (9–10° S but were separated in longitude by ~1500 km.

    Plasma bubbles were observed on every clear night (17 from Brasilia and 19 from Cariri, with 8 coincident nights. These joint datasets provided important information for characterizing the ionospheric depletions during the campaign and to perform a novel longitudinal investigation of their variability. Measurements of the drift velocities at both sites are in good agreement with previous studies, however, the overlapping fields of view revealed significant differences in the occurrence and structure of the plasma bubbles, providing new evidence for localized generation. This paper summarizes the observed bubble characteristics important for related investigations of their seeding mechanisms associated with gravity wave activity.

  8. Simultaneous observations of equatorial F-region plasma depletions over Brazil during the Spread-F Experiment (SpreadFEx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-D. Pautet

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available From September to November 2005, the NASA Living with a Star program supported the Spread-F Experiment campaign (SpreadFEx in Brazil to study the effects of convectively generated gravity waves on the ionosphere and their role in seeding Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, and associated equatorial plasma bubbles. Several US and Brazilian institutes deployed a broad range of instruments (all-sky imagers, digisondes, photometers, meteor/VHF radars, GPS receivers covering a large area of Brazil. The campaign was divided in two observational phases centered on the September and October new moon periods. During these periods, an Utah State University (USU all-sky CCD imager operated at São João d'Aliança (14.8° S, 47.6° W, near Brasilia, and a Brazilian all-sky CCD imager located at Cariri (7.4° S, 36° W, observed simultaneously the evolution of the ionospheric bubbles in the OI (630 nm emission and the mesospheric gravity wave field. The two sites had approximately the same magnetic latitude (9–10° S but were separated in longitude by ~1500 km. Plasma bubbles were observed on every clear night (17 from Brasilia and 19 from Cariri, with 8 coincident nights. These joint datasets provided important information for characterizing the ionospheric depletions during the campaign and to perform a novel longitudinal investigation of their variability. Measurements of the drift velocities at both sites are in good agreement with previous studies, however, the overlapping fields of view revealed significant differences in the occurrence and structure of the plasma bubbles, providing new evidence for localized generation. This paper summarizes the observed bubble characteristics important for related investigations of their seeding mechanisms associated with gravity wave activity.

  9. Fistula-in-Ano complicated by Fournier′s gangrene our experience in North-Eastern region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar A Bakari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fistula-in-ano when complicated by Fournier′s gangrene is an unusual finding and always carries high morbidity. This study details our experience in managing 10 cases. Methods of Study: Case files of all patients managed in University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital and Federal Medical Center of Yola and Gombe from January, 2007 to December, 2011 were retrieved from Medical Record Departments and other Hospital Records. These were analyzed for demographic, clinical and pathological variables, the type of treatment and follow-up. Results: A total of 10 men with a mean age of 50.5 years (35-60 were managed in the period of study. Nearly, 50% of the patients were farmers, 30% businessmen and 20% were civil servant. 7 (70% of these patients presented with Fournier′s gangrene within 4 weeks of development of fistula-in-ano and the rest within 8 weeks. 4 (40% of these patients had inadequate drainage of their perianal abscess and 2 (20% had incision and drainage. Another 4 (40% had spontaneously rupture of the perianal abscess. 6 (60% of the fistula-in-ano was submuscular, 30% subcutaneous and 10% were complex or recurrent. Nearly, 20% of patients had fistulotomy and seton application for adequate drainage. Mucosal advancement flap was performed in 5 (50% and fistulotomy in 3 (30% patients. Another 30% had fistulotomy and continuing sitz bath. Conclusion: Cryptoglandular infection is an important cause of perianal abscesses and fistula-in-ano and if poorly managed results in Fournier′s gangrene. Early broad spectrum parenteral antibiotic therapy and primary surgical treatment can prevent Fournier′s gangrene.

  10. Downscale climate change scenarios over the Western Himalayan region of India using multi-generation CMIP experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Lalu; Meher, Jitendra K.; Akhter, Javed

    2017-04-01

    Assessing climate change information over the Western Himalayan Region (WHR) of India is crucial but challenging task due to its limited numbers of station data containing huge missing values. The issues of missing values of station data were replaced the Multiple Imputation Chained Equation (MICE) technique. Finally 22 numbers of rain gauge stations having continuous data during 1901-2005 and 16 numbers stations having continuous temperature data during 1969-2009 were considered as " reference stations for assessing rainfall and temperature trends in addition to evaluation of the GCMs available in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 3 (CMIP3) and phase 5 (CMIP5) over WRH. Station data indicates that the winter warming is higher and rapid (1.05oC) than other seasons and less warming in the post monsoon season in the last 41 years. Area averaged using 22 station data indicates that monsoon and winter rainfall has decreased by -5 mm and -320 mm during 1901-2000 while pre-monsoon and post monsoon showed an increasing trends of 21 mm and 13 mm respectively. Present study is constructed the downscaled climate change information at station locations (22 and 16 stations for rainfall and temperature respectively) over the WHR from the GCMs commonly available in the IPCC's different generations assessment reports namely 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th thereafter known as SAR, TAR, AR4 and AR5 respectively. Once the downscaled results are obtained for each generation model outputs, then a comparison of studies is carried out from the results of each generation. Finally an overall model improvement index (OMII) is developed using the downscaling results which is used to investigate the model improvement across generations as well as the improvement of downscaling results obtained from the empirical statistical downscaling (ESD) methods. In general, the results indicate that there is a gradual improvement of GCMs simulations as well as downscaling results across generation

  11. Heavy metal pollutionof soil and new approch to its remediation: Research experiences in arid region in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hari, A.; Lekouch, N.; Chaik, M.; El Fadeli, S.; Sedki, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: With climate change and water scarcity remarkable for agricultural soils in the countries of North Africa, pollution with heavy metals represent a great danger for aquatic as well as terrestrial ecosystems. Indeed, they are persistent and non-biodegradable in the environment. When in excess, these metals may influence the soil's biochemical and physico-chemical characteristics, or disturb plants' physiology and contaminate alimentary chains. Therefore, a possible action for rehabilitation of contaminated sites would be an original approach: phytostabilisation. This technique, which is used in Europe but not yet in Morocco, consists of using plants in order to stop soil contaminant migration towards the aquifer. The objective of this study is to try to find vegetal species that are both adapted to the arid climate of Marrakech and capable of purifying the soil and the ground water. In addition, we have chosen to study waters and soils of two sites with different sources of contamination, both located in the surroundings of Marrakech, one representing the used water zone, namely the region of El Azzouzia and the other being the mining zone called D raa Lasfar . On the other hand, thanks to germination and growing tests, we have tried to apply the phytostabilisation technique on different soils by selecting varieties, among 15 vegetal species, which can resist the presence of heavy metals the most, especially Cadmium, and accumulate heavy metals in order to play a purifying role. Our study results have shown that among these 15 vegetal species, only three show the highest growth and most important resistance to Cadmium. The three vegetal species in question are Corn, Wheat and Trigonella. The study has also been able to demonstrate that among these three species, Trigonella is the most hyper accumulative of Zinc and Cadmium. It could therefore be suggested to be a means of phytostabilisation on polluted soils of the city and surroundings of Marrakech

  12. OUTPATIENT REGISTER OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES IN THE RYAZAN REGION (RECVASA: PRINCIPAL TASKS, EXPERIENCE OF DEVELOPMENT AND FIRST RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Boytsov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate risk factors and comorbidity structure, cardiovascular diseases outcomes, evaluate their diagnostics and treatment quality in real outpatient practice using a register of patients with arterial hypertension (HT, ischemic heart disease (IHD, chronic heart failure (CHF and atrial fibrillation (AF in the Ryazan Region – the territorial subject ofRussian Federation with high cardiovascular mortality rate.Material and methods. The total of 1000 HT, IHD, CHF, AF patients, applied for general practitioners or cardiologists of theRyazan outpatient clinics in March-May of 2012 were sequentially enrolled in the outpatient REgister of CardioVAscular diseases (RECVASA.Results. According to outpatient cards data HT, IHD, CHF and AF were diagnosed in 99.0%; 70.9%; 74.8% and 13.7% of the 1000 cases, respectively. 820 (82% patients revealed a concomitant cardiovascular pathology (cardiac comorbidity, at that the most frequent was combination of HT with IHD and CHF (50.4%. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in 209 (20.9% patients. 770 (77% patients were assessed on their total cholesterol level; smoking status and family history of heart diseases were estimated in 28 (2.8% and 49 (4.9% patients, respectively. Exercise tolerance test (stress-test was carried out in 2% of the patients (including 2.8% of the IHD patients, 24-hour blood pressure (BP and ECG monitoring – in 0.7% and 5.5%, respectively; echocardiography and ultrasound of brachiocephalic arteries (BCA – in 25.6% and 8.6%, respectively; coronary angiography – in 1.6% (which includes 2.3% of the IHD patients. The following drug groups were prescribed most frequently: antiplatelet agents – in 60.4% of the cases (584 patients received acetylsalicylic acid and 20 – clopidogrel, ACE inhibitors – in 62.9%, β-blockers – in 43.9% of the patients. Target BP level was achieved in 245 of 956 cases (25.6%. 50.6% of IHD patients and 51.1% of hypercholesterolemic patients received

  13. Versatile high-repetition-rate phase-locked chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray spectral region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plogmaker, Stefan; Johansson, Erik M. J.; Rensmo, Haakan; Feifel, Raimund; Siegbahn, Hans [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Linusson, Per [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Eland, John H. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom); Baker, Neville [Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    A novel light chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) and x-ray spectral region has been developed. It can be phase-locked and synchronized with a synchrotron radiation storage ring, accommodating repetition rates in the range of {approx}8 to {approx}120 kHz by choosing different sets of apertures and subharmonics of the ring frequency (MHz range). Also the opening time of the system can be varied from some nanoseconds to several microseconds to meet the needs of a broad range of applications. Adjusting these parameters, the device can be used either for the generation of single light pulses or pulse packages from a microwave driven, continuous He gas discharge lamp or from storage rings which are otherwise often considered as quasi-continuous light sources. This chopper can be utilized for many different kinds of experiments enabling, for example, unambiguous time-of-flight (TOF) multi-electron coincidence studies of atoms and molecules excited by a single light pulse as well as time-resolved visible laser pump x-ray probe electron spectroscopy of condensed matter in the valence and core level region.

  14. MRI-guided procedures in various regions of the body using a robotic assistance system in a closed-bore scanner: preliminary clinical experience and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moche, Michael; Zajonz, Dirk; Kahn, Thomas; Busse, Harald

    2010-04-01

    To present the clinical setup and workflow of a robotic assistance system for image-guided interventions in a conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) environment and to report our preliminary clinical experience with percutaneous biopsies in various body regions. The MR-compatible, servo-pneumatically driven, robotic device (Innomotion) fits into the 60-cm bore of a standard MR scanner. The needle placement (n = 25) accuracy was estimated by measuring the 3D deviation between needle tip and prescribed target point in a phantom. Percutaneous biopsies in six patients and different body regions were planned by graphically selecting entry and target points on intraoperatively acquired roadmap MR data. For insertion depths between 29 and 95 mm, the average 3D needle deviation was 2.2 +/- 0.7 mm (range 0.9-3.8 mm). Patients with a body mass index of up to approximately 30 kg/m(2) fitted into the bore with the device. Clinical work steps and limitations are reported for the various applications. All biopsies were diagnostic and could be completed without any major complications. Median planning and intervention times were 25 (range 20-36) and 44 (36-68) minutes, respectively. Preliminary clinical results in a standard MRI environment suggest that the presented robotic device provides accurate guidance for percutaneous procedures in various body regions. Shorter procedure times may be achievable by optimizing technical and workflow aspects. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX: towards a holistic understanding of the feedbacks and interactions in the land–atmosphere–ocean–society continuum in the northern Eurasian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Lappalainen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The northern Eurasian regions and Arctic Ocean will very likely undergo substantial changes during the next decades. The Arctic–boreal natural environments play a crucial role in the global climate via albedo change, carbon sources and sinks as well as atmospheric aerosol production from biogenic volatile organic compounds. Furthermore, it is expected that global trade activities, demographic movement, and use of natural resources will be increasing in the Arctic regions. There is a need for a novel research approach, which not only identifies and tackles the relevant multi-disciplinary research questions, but also is able to make a holistic system analysis of the expected feedbacks. In this paper, we introduce the research agenda of the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX, a multi-scale, multi-disciplinary and international program started in 2012 (https://www.atm.helsinki.fi/peex/. PEEX sets a research approach by which large-scale research topics are investigated from a system perspective and which aims to fill the key gaps in our understanding of the feedbacks and interactions between the land–atmosphere–aquatic–society continuum in the northern Eurasian region. We introduce here the state of the art for the key topics in the PEEX research agenda and present the future prospects of the research, which we see relevant in this context.

  16. Effects of forest cover changes in European Russia on regional weather conditions: results of numerical experiments with the COSMO-CLM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olchev, Alexander; Kuzmina, Ekaterina; Rozinkina, Inna; Nikitin, Mikhail; Rivin, Gdaly S.

    2017-04-01

    The forests have a significant effect on the climatic system. They capture CO2 from the atmosphere, regulate the surface evaporation and runoff, and influence the radiation and thermal conditions of the land surface. It is obvious, that their influence depends on many different factors including regional climate conditions, land use and vegetation structure, surface topography, etc. The main goal of the study is to assess the possible influence of forest cover changes (under deforestation and/or afforestation) on regional weather conditions in the central part of European Russia using the results of modeling experiments provided by the meso-scale COSMO-CLM model. The need of the study lies in a lack of the experimental and modeling data characterizing the influence of the forest and land-use changes on regional weather conditions in European part of Russia. The forest ecosystems in the study region play a very important biosphere role that is significantly increased in the last decades due to considerable strengthening of anthropogenic activity in the area of European Russia. The area selected for the study is located in the central part of European Russia between 55 and 59N and 28 and 37E. It comprises several geographical zones including dark-coniferous forests of the South-European taiga in the north, the mixed forests in the central part and the broad-leaved forests in the south. The forests within the study area are very heterogeneous. The total area covered by forests according to recent remote sensing data is about 50%. The numerical experiments were provided using the COSMO-CLM model with the spatial resolution 13.2 km. As initial and boundary conditions for the numerical experiments the global reanalysis ERA Interim (with the 6-hour resolution in time and 0.75° × 0.75° in space) were used. The weather conditions were simulated in a continuous cycle for several months for the entire area of European Russia using the results of global reanalysis on

  17. Experiments with the MD-1 detector at the e+e- collider VEPP-4 in the energy region of Υ mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baru, S.E.; Blinov, A.E.; Blinov, V.E.; Bondar, A.E.; Bukin, A.D.; Groshev, V.R.; Eidelman, Yu.I.; Kiselev, V.A.; Klimenko, S.G.; Kolachev, G.M.; Mishnev, S.I.; Onuchin, A.P.; Panin, V.S.; Petrov, V.V.; Protopopov, I.Ya.; Shamov, A.G.; Sidorov, V.A.; Skovpen, Yu.I.; Skrinsky, A.N.; Tayursky, V.A.; Telnov, V.I.; Tikhonov, Yu.A.; Tumaikin, G.M.; Undrus, A.E.; Vorobiov, A.I.; Zhilich, V.N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews physical results obtained at the e + e - collider VEPP-4 with the MD-1 detector. The results of experiments on the Υ meson physics and study of the hadron production in continuum in the energy region 7.2-10.3 GeV as well as the results of study of the two photon reactions are presented. Among results obtained in the upsilon physics: the precise measurement of the Υ(1S), Υ(2S), Υ(3S) masses and the precise determination of the Υ(1S) and Υ(2S) electronic widths. In the experiments on study of the hadron production in continuum the precise measurement of the R was carried out. The peculiarity of the detector is the magnetic field transverse to the orbit plane which provided the possibility to study two photon reactions with tagging one or both scattered electrons even at zero emission angle. Among results on the γγ reactions is the measurement of the two photon total hadronic cross section performed in the double-tag mode. In the QED experiments a new QED effect - the impact parameter cut-off in single bremsstrahlung was discovered. (orig.)

  18. Methodology of regional emission inventories: Application to the emission inventories of the ESCOMPTE experiment and to their regional extension to the PACA (Provence-Alpes-Cote-d'Azur) region; Methodologie d'etablissement de cadastres d'emissions a l'echelle regionale: application au cadastre escompte et a son extension a la region PACA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, St.

    2004-06-01

    With the industrial revolution and then the massive use of fossil fuels, the air quality has been considerably worsening. Air quality is a complex function of meteorological situations (wind, sun radiation) and pollutant emissions. All those parameters must be accounted for modelling the reactive transports of pollutants in the atmosphere but only the anthropogenic emissions can be managed on a short time frame, as well concerning the composition of the flux as the emitted quantities. This overall modelling problematic emphasize the crucial role of emission databases in the air quality modelling processes, as diagnostic or prognostic tool for air quality issues. To obtain a consistent and realistic modelling, not only the emissions and meteorological data have to be taken take into account, especially the emissions in the proper chemical reaction mechanisms but the quality of the emission data is crucial. The starting point of our study was that few or no inventories exist, and from the ones available, they are not adapted to be used efficiently in regional air quality modelling. The resolution, especially regarding spatial emission distribution of the national inventories can not lead to proper input data for this kind of studies. Our study include both the method aspects (theoretical studies) and the operational aspects (applied studies) regarding the generation of high resolution spatial emission data (based on national statistical data standards) that can be used as suitable input data for meso-scale photochemical models of the reactive transport of pollutants. This work was part of the ESCOMPTE program, an unparalleled scientific in the domain of air quality experiment in France. Our tasks in this program also included a methodological transfer (accompanied with the software tools related to the emission databases) of the study to the local air quality monitoring authority (AIRMARAIX for the city of Marseille). This overall application proved the feasibility

  19. Sensory experience of food and obesity: a positron emission tomography study of the brain regions affected by tasting a liquid meal after a prolonged fast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelParigi, Angelo; Chen, Kewei; Salbe, Arline D; Reiman, Eric M; Tataranni, P Antonio

    2005-01-15

    The sensory experience of food is a primary reinforcer of eating and overeating plays a major role in the development of human obesity. However, whether the sensory experience of a forthcoming meal and the associated physiological phenomena (cephalic phase response, expectation of reward), which prepare the organism for the ingestion of food play a role in the regulation of energy intake and contribute to the development of obesity remains largely unresolved. We used positron emission tomography (PET) and 15O-water to measure changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and to assess the brain's response to the oral administration of 2 ml of a liquid meal (Ensure Plus, 1.5 kcal/ml) after a 36-h fast and shortly before consuming the same meal. Twenty-one obese (BMI > 35 kg/m2, 10M/11F, age 28 +/- 6 years, body fat 40 +/- 6%) and 20 lean individuals (BMI obese individuals had higher fasting plasma glucose (83.3 +/- 6.2 vs. 75.5 +/- 9.6 mg/dl; P = 0.0003) and insulin concentrations (6.1 +/- 3.5 vs. 2.5 +/- 1.7 microU/ml; P food, differences in rCBF were observed in several regions of the brain, including greater increases in the middle-dorsal insula and midbrain, and greater decreases in the posterior cingulate, temporal, and orbitofrontal cortices in obese compared to lean individuals (P obesity is associated with an abnormal brain response to the sensory aspects of a liquid meal after a prolonged fast especially in areas of the primary gustatory cortex. This is only partially explained by the elevated glycemia and high level of disinhibition which characterize individuals with increased adiposity. These results provide a new perspective on the understanding of the neuroanatomical correlates of abnormal eating behavior and their relationship with obesity in humans.

  20. ReMap 2018: an updated atlas of regulatory regions from an integrative analysis of DNA-binding ChIP-seq experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chèneby, Jeanne; Gheorghe, Marius; Artufel, Marie; Mathelier, Anthony; Ballester, Benoit

    2018-01-04

    With this latest release of ReMap (http://remap.cisreg.eu), we present a unique collection of regulatory regions in human, as a result of a large-scale integrative analysis of ChIP-seq experiments for hundreds of transcriptional regulators (TRs) such as transcription factors, transcriptional co-activators and chromatin regulators. In 2015, we introduced the ReMap database to capture the genome regulatory space by integrating public ChIP-seq datasets, covering 237 TRs across 13 million (M) peaks. In this release, we have extended this catalog to constitute a unique collection of regulatory regions. Specifically, we have collected, analyzed and retained after quality control a total of 2829 ChIP-seq datasets available from public sources, covering a total of 485 TRs with a catalog of 80M peaks. Additionally, the updated database includes new search features for TR names as well as aliases, including cell line names and the ability to navigate the data directly within genome browsers via public track hubs. Finally, full access to this catalog is available online together with a TR binding enrichment analysis tool. ReMap 2018 provides a significant update of the ReMap database, providing an in depth view of the complexity of the regulatory landscape in human. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. The System of Creative Tasks for Activization of French and English Speaking of Future Teachers (Experience of Universities of Odessa Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kniazian Marianna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In today's multi-ethnic world, one of the most important problems is the development of future teachers’ communicative competence, cultural pluralism, plurilingualism and tolerance. It is important to enrich individual person’s experience of language in its cultural contexts. This issue is related to such an important task as the activization of students’ speaking in foreign language classes. There is interesting experience of teaching speaking in French and English at universities in Odessa region. We offer the students the following system of creative tasks: representative (involve retelling the course of events, description of the characters; analytical (direct students to analyze the actions and behaviour of heroes of short stories, to compare the characters; hypothetical (guide students how to express their viewpoints on the factors that have influenced the nature of the character, his or her deeds. In addition to creative tasks the linguistic exercises are offered to the future teachers. These tasks have been developed in the process of studying the stories of Guy de Maupassant («La Parure», «Deux amis», «Le Papa de Simon», «Sur l’eau», « Clair de lune », O. Henry (« The Last Leaf», « The Gift of the Magi », John Galsworthy ( « Acme », « The First and the Last ».

  2. Regional-scale analysis of karst underground flow deduced from tracing experiments: examples from carbonate aquifers in Malaga province, southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberá, J. A.; Mudarra, M.; Andreo, B.; De la Torre, B.

    2018-02-01

    Tracer concentration data from field experiments conducted in several carbonate aquifers (Malaga province, southern Spain) were analyzed following a dual approach based on the graphical evaluation method (GEM) and solute transport modeling to decipher flow mechanisms in karst systems at regional scale. The results show that conduit system geometry and flow conditions are the principal factors influencing tracer migration through the examined karst flow routes. Solute transport is mainly controlled by longitudinal advection and dispersion throughout the conduit length, but also by flow partitioning between mobile and immobile fluid phases, while the matrix diffusion process appears to be less relevant. The simulation of tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) suggests that diffuse and concentrated flow through the unsaturated zone can have equivalent transport properties under extreme recharge, with high flow velocities and efficient mixing due to the high hydraulic gradients generated. Tracer mobilization within the saturated zone under low flow conditions mainly depends on the hydrodynamics (rather than on the karst conduit development), which promote a lower longitudinal advection and retardation in the tracer migration, resulting in a marked tailing effect of BTCs. The analytical advection-dispersion equation better approximates the effective flow velocity and longitudinal dispersion estimations provided by the GEM, while the non-equilibrium transport model achieves a better adjustment of most asymmetric and long-tailed BTCs. The assessment of karst underground flow properties from tracing tests at regional scale can aid design of groundwater management and protection strategies, particularly in large hydrogeological systems (i.e. transboundary carbonate aquifers) and/or in poorly investigated ones.

  3. A Experiência do Planejamento Regional em Bases Territoriais na Amazônia O Caso da Regionalização do Estado do Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Rodrigues Dias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional integration is a historic challenge for the construction of an alternative model of development in state of Pará. The regions of Integration arise from the need to obtain a spatial clipping more consistent with the model of development proposed by the Government which took over the administration of the State, during the period from 2007-2010 and had the purpose of integrating the spaces, aimed at reducing regional inequalities. In this sense, the article proposes to contextualize the experience of regional planning in the state of Pará, from the use of instruments that were intended to promote development on territorial level. The twelve Regions of Integration arose from the selection of socioeconomic indicators of the Pará State in the northern region, which then were tiered, defining thus the municipalities that compose each region. The methodology is embodied in literature review and document analysis, in order to clarify the concept of regions, emphasizing integration strategies and instruments used, formulated with the objective of effective decentralization. Thus, present themselves as a result use of the territory for purposes of territorial planning, substantiated in the creation of centres and regional Centres; the establishment of the territorial planning through the development of Regional Sustainable development plans (PDRS; the attempt of adequacy of proposed regionalization through the Participative Territorial Planning and the inauguration of new Federal relationship, particularly, between the State Government and the municipalities. However, it was not possible to assess properly the main objective, combating regional inequalities.

  4. Experiences of and responses to disrespectful maternity care and abuse during childbirth; a qualitative study with women and men in Morogoro Region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Shannon A; George, Asha S; Chebet, Joy J; Mosha, Idda H; Mpembeni, Rose N M; Winch, Peter J

    2014-08-12

    Interventions to reduce maternal mortality have focused on delivery in facilities, yet in many low-resource settings rates of facility-based birth have remained persistently low. In Tanzania, rates of facility delivery have remained static for more than 20 years. With an aim to advance research and inform policy changes, this paper builds on a growing body of work that explores dimensions of and responses to disrespectful maternity care and abuse during childbirth in facilities across Morogoro Region, Tanzania. This research drew on in-depth interviews with 112 respondents including women who delivered in the preceding 14 months, their male partners, public opinion leaders and community health workers to understand experiences with and responses to abuse during childbirth. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated and coded using Atlas.ti. Analysis drew on the principles of Grounded Theory. When initially describing birth experiences, women portrayed encounters with providers in a neutral or satisfactory light. Upon probing, women recounted events or circumstances that are described as abusive in maternal health literature: feeling ignored or neglected; monetary demands or discriminatory treatment; verbal abuse; and in rare instances physical abuse. Findings were consistent across respondent groups and districts. As a response to abuse, women described acquiescence or non-confrontational strategies: resigning oneself to abuse, returning home, or bypassing certain facilities or providers. Male respondents described more assertive approaches: requesting better care, paying a bribe, lodging a complaint and in one case assaulting a provider. Many Tanzanian women included in this study experienced unfavorable conditions when delivering in facilities. Providers, women and their families must be made aware of women's rights to respectful care. Recommendations for further research include investigations of the prevalence and dimensions of disrespectful care and

  5. Satellite SAR imagery for site discovery, change detection and monitoring activities in cultural heritage sites: experiments on the Nasca region, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapete, D.; Cigna, F.; Masini, N.; Lasaponara, R.

    2012-04-01

    Besides their suitability for multi-temporal and spatial deformation analysis, the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image archives acquired by space-borne radar sensors can be exploited to support archaeological investigations over huge sites, even those partially or totally buried and still to be excavated. Amplitude information is one of the main properties of SAR data from which it is possible to retrieve evidences of buried structures, using feature extraction and texture analysis. Multi-temporality allows the reconstruction of past and recent evolution of both landscape and built-up environment, with the possibility to detect natural and/or anthropogenic changes, including human-induced damages to the conservation of cultural heritage. We present the methodology and first results of the experiments currently undertaken using SAR data in the Nasca region (Southern Peru), where two important civilizations such as Paracas and Nasca developed and flourished from 4th century BC to the 6th century AD. The study areas include a wide spectrum of archaeological and environmental elements to be preserved, among which: the archaeological site of Cahuachi and its surroundings, considered the largest adobe Ceremonial Centre in the World; the Nasca lines and geoglyphs in the areas of Palpa, Atarco and Nasca; the ancient networks of aqueducts and drainage galleries in the Puquios area, built by Nasca in the 1st-6th centuries AD. Archaeological prospection and multi-purpose remote sensing activities are currently carried out in the framework of the Italian mission of heritage Conservation and Archaeogeophysics (ITACA), with the direct involvement of researchers from the Institute for Archaeological and Monumental Heritage and the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis, Italian National Research Council. In this context, C- and L-band SAR images covering the Nasca region since 2001 were identified for the purposes of this research and, in particular, the following

  6. First clinical experience with a multiple region of interest registration and correction method in radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beek, Suzanne van; Kranen, Simon van; Mencarelli, Angelo; Remeijer, Peter; Rasch, Coen; Herk, Marcel van; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss the first clinical experience with a multiple region of interest (mROI) registration and correction method for high-precision radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer patients. Materials and methods: 12-13 3D rectangular-shaped ROIs were automatically placed around bony structures on the planning CT scans (n = 50 patients) which were individually registered to subsequent CBCT scans. mROI registration was used to quantify global and local setup errors. The time required to perform the mROI registration was compared with that of a previously used single-ROI method. The number of scans with residual local setup error exceeding 5 mm/5 deg. (warnings) was scored together with the frequency ROIs exceeding these limits for three or more consecutive imaging fractions (systematic errors). Results: In 40% of the CBCT scans, one or more ROI-registrations exceeded the 5 mm/5 deg.. Most warnings were seen in ROI 'hyoid', 31% of the rotation warnings and 14% of the translation warnings. Systematic errors lead to 52 consults of the treating physician. The preparation and registration time was similar for both registration methods. Conclusions: The mROI registration method is easy to use with little extra workload, provides additional information on local setup errors, and helps to select patients for re-planning.

  7. Transient regional climate change: analysis of the summer climate response in a high-resolution, century-scale, ensemble experiment over the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Scherer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Integrating the potential for climate change impacts into policy and planning decisions requires quantification of the emergence of sub-regional climate changes that could occur in response to transient changes in global radiative forcing. Here we report results from a high-resolution, century-scale, ensemble simulation of climate in the United States, forced by atmospheric constituent concentrations from the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario. We find that 21st century summer warming permanently emerges beyond the baseline decadal-scale variability prior to 2020 over most areas of the continental U.S. Permanent emergence beyond the baseline annual-scale variability shows much greater spatial heterogeneity, with emergence occurring prior to 2030 over areas of the southwestern U.S., but not prior to the end of the 21st century over much of the southcentral and southeastern U.S. The pattern of emergence of robust summer warming contrasts with the pattern of summer warming magnitude, which is greatest over the central U.S. and smallest over the western U.S. In addition to stronger warming, the central U.S. also exhibits stronger coupling of changes in surface air temperature, precipitation, and moisture and energy fluxes, along with changes in atmospheric circulation towards increased anticylonic anomalies in the mid-troposphere and a poleward shift in the mid-latitude jet aloft. However, as a fraction of the baseline variability, the transient warming over the central U.S. is smaller than the warming over the southwestern or northeastern U.S., delaying the emergence of the warming signal over the central U.S. Our comparisons with observations and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) ensemble of global climate model experiments suggest that near-term global warming is likely to cause robust sub-regional-scale warming over areas that exhibit relatively little baseline variability. In contrast, where there is greater

  8. Interdisciplinary study of atmospheric processes and constituents of the mid-Atlantic coastal region. Attachment 3: Data set for Craney Island oil refinery installation experiment. [air pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindle, E. C.; Bandy, A.; Copeland, G.; Blais, R.; Levy, G.; Sonenshine, D.; Adams, D.; Maier, G.

    1975-01-01

    Data tables and maps are presented which include background information and experimental data on the Craney Island oil refinery installation experiment. The experiment was to investigate air pollution effects.

  9. Comparison of lidar-derived PM10 with regional modeling and ground-based observations in the frame of MEGAPOLI experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Raut

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An innovative approach using mobile lidar measurements was implemented to test the performances of chemistry-transport models in simulating mass concentrations (PM10 predicted by chemistry-transport models. A ground-based mobile lidar (GBML was deployed around Paris onboard a van during the MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation summer experiment in July 2009. The measurements performed with this Rayleigh-Mie lidar are converted into PM10 profiles using optical-to-mass relationships previously established from in situ measurements performed around Paris for urban and peri-urban aerosols. The method is described here and applied to the 10 measurements days (MD. MD of 1, 15, 16 and 26 July 2009, corresponding to different levels of pollution and atmospheric conditions, are analyzed here in more details. Lidar-derived PM10 are compared with results of simulations from POLYPHEMUS and CHIMERE chemistry-transport models (CTM and with ground-based observations from the AIRPARIF network. GBML-derived and AIRPARIF in situ measurements have been found to be in good agreement with a mean Root Mean Square Error RMSE (and a Mean Absolute Percentage Error MAPE of 7.2 μg m−3 (26.0% and 8.8 μg m−3 (25.2% with relationships assuming peri-urban and urban-type particles, respectively. The comparisons between CTMs and lidar at ~200 m height have shown that CTMs tend to underestimate wet PM10 concentrations as revealed by the mean wet PM10 observed during the 10 MD of 22.4, 20.0 and 17.5 μg m−3 for lidar with peri-urban relationship, and POLYPHEMUS and CHIMERE models, respectively. This leads to a RMSE (and a MAPE of 6.4 μg m−3 (29.6% and 6.4 μg m−3 (27.6% when considering POLYPHEMUS and CHIMERE CTMs, respectively. Wet integrated PM10 computed (between the ground and 1 km above the ground level from lidar, POLYPHEMUS and CHIMERE results

  10. Study of X-ray and gamma ray sources observed by the SIGNE (Prognoz 6 Satellite) experiment in the regions of the galactic center and anticenter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violes, F.

    1981-12-01

    Characteristics of the SIGNE II MP 6 experiment are reported and procedures to obtain the fluxes detected from all the sources are described. We next present deconvolution method used to isolate the galactic center sources. In the last chapter we present and discuss the photon spectra of the sources observed by the SIGNE II MP 6 experiment [fr

  11. Experiences gained in the conditioning of radioactive wastes from regional depots by example of Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, and recommendations for the establishment of regional depots in the new Federal States of unified Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifer, W.

    1992-01-01

    Details are given about radioactive waste management and radioactive waste management fundamentals as well as about the respective methods applied by the Baden-Wuerttemberg radioacive waste depot. The waste treatment, quality assurance and internal inspection methods applied by Hauptabteilung Dekontaminationsbetriebe (HDB), Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) are described, and recommendations are given for the establishment of regional depots in the new provinces of the Federal Republic of Germany. These recommendations which are based on Western German standards before unification suggest regional depots with combined administrative systems which watch over the depot use and charges, the foundation of a waste management association responsible for the disposal, transport, intermediate storage and conditioning of radioactive wastes in the new provinces, and the establishment of a facility to be run by the proposed waste management association for the intermediate storage of conditioned waste packages intended for final disposal. (orig.) [de

  12. A success story of regional projects implemented for the management of marine environment. Turkish experience related to the black sea and the mediterranean sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goktepe, B.G.; Gungor, N.; Gungor, E.; Karakelle, B.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A wide scope Regional Technical Co-operation Project RER/2/003 'Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region' is implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the period 1995-2001. This project was initiated in response to the needs of participating Member States - the six Black Sea coastal countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Russian Federation, Georgia and Turkey) to establish capabilities for reliably assessing radionuclides in the Black Sea environment and applying tracer techniques to marine pollution studies The project has various important aspects: Scientifically; one of the major environmental issue radioactivity pollution is addressed. Technically; laboratory capability for transuranic analysis is being developed. Economically; the reversing the ecological deterioration and developing sustainable uses of the Black Sea and its natural resources is one of the major interests. Politically; responsibility of pollution control and rehabilitation plans of six Black Sea countries are addressed through various convention and declarations. Socio-economically, fisheries and tourism sectors are expected to benefit. Highlights from the joint radioactivity-monitoring program of the project among six Black Sea countries are outlined. Examples from the Turkish monitoring work consist of the routine sampling of seawater, algae, mussels, fish samples and beach sand from the selected stations along the Black Sea coast are presented for illustration. The success of the Black Sea regional project has given rise to a new regional project 'Marine Environmental Assessment of the Mediterranean Region' based on the request of the member countries, which will be initiated in 2005 by the IAEA. The initial phase the project, its objectives and the schedule will be summarized. Key words: marine radioactivity, environmental management, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, regional cooperation

  13. Public works as a way of overcoming of a food crisis: historical experience of the Orenburg region (1891–1892 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Lyubichankovskiy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of food crisis of 1891-1892 in the Russian Empire, including the organization of public works by the government, has long history of studying. This problem gradually moved from the periphery to the center of attention of researchers. The Orenburg region in this context is the real terra incognito as its rich sources materials wasn't attracted at the solution of the matter at all though this region appeared among the most affected territories. Government campaign of the help to the population which was injured from a crop failure of 1891 included measures for regulation of the grain prices and railway tariffs, food aid in the form of grain loans and the labor help. Within the Orenburg region the main actions were the loan operation and the organization of public works. Unlike the loan operation introduction of public works in the Orenburg region in practice was inefficient – only 4% of the needing population used this type of the help. The reasons of so obvious failure of campaign for opening of public works consisted in the wrong approach to its organization: the untimely beginning (the majority of works opened in the spring of 1892 when crisis declined, and peasants were busy in their fields, the wrong choice of works (the majority of works were connected with construction and demanded special skills which peasants didn't possess.

  14. European integration and the supervision of local and regional authorities
    Experiences in the Netherlands with requirements of European Community law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Hessel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of increasing European integration, local and regional authorities are having to deal with European law more and more intensively. As Member States (read: central government are responsible vis-à-vis the Community for the errors of local and regional authorities, the question arises within Member States whether the central government possesses sufficient supervisory instruments for complying with their obligations under Community law: they must ensure that the errors of local and regional authorities are rectified in time, and national law must provide for sufficient possibilities to do so. Although Community law is neutral towards the internal relations between the various tiers of government within the Member States, this responsibility of the central government may, as a result of European integration, lead to a need for more powerful supervisory instruments in relation to local and regional authorities. In the past five years there has been some debate on this subject within the Netherlands and after a long delay the Dutch cabinet in 2004 decided that the existing supervisory instruments in the decentralized unitary state of the Netherlands should be expanded. The legislation intended to realize this expansion is being prepared. This discussion and its results would seem of interest to other Member States of the Community facing similar problems.

  15. The vibrational spectrum of the hydrated alanine-leucine peptide in the amide region from IR experiments and first principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Irtaza; Donati, Luca; Stensitzki, Till; Keller, Bettina G.; Heyne, Karsten; Imhof, Petra

    2018-04-01

    We have combined infrared (IR) experiments with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in solution at finite temperature to analyse the vibrational signature of the small floppy peptide Alanine-Leucine. IR spectra computed from first-principles MD simulations exhibit no distinct differences between conformational clusters of α -helix or β -sheet-like folds with different orientations of the bulky leucine side chain. All computed spectra show two prominent bands, in good agreement with the experiment, that are assigned to the stretch vibrations of the carbonyl and carboxyl group, respectively. Variations in band widths and exact maxima are likely due to small fluctuations in the backbone torsion angles.

  16. DART-bid for loco-regionally advanced NSCLC. Summary of acute and late toxicity with long-term follow-up; experiences with pulmonary dose constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurstbauer, Karl [Paracelsus Medical University, Institute for Research and Development on Advanced Radiation Technologies (radART), Salzburg (Austria); Zehentmayr, Franz; Deutschmann, Heinz; Sedlmayer, Felix [Paracelsus Medical University, Institute for Research and Development on Advanced Radiation Technologies (radART), Salzburg (Austria); Paracelsus Medical University Clinics, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Landeskrankenhaus, Salzburg (Austria); Dagn, Karin; Exeli, Ann-Katrin; Kopp, Peter [Paracelsus Medical University Clinics, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Landeskrankenhaus, Salzburg (Austria); Porsch, Peter; Maurer, Birgit; Studnicka, Michael [Paracelsus Medical University Clinics, Departement of Pneumology, Salzburg (Austria)

    2017-04-15

    To report acute and late toxicity with long-term follow-up, and to describe our experiences with pulmonary dose constraints. Between 2002 and 2009, 150 patients with 155 histologically/cytologically proven non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC; tumor stages II, IIIA, IIIB in 6, 55 and 39%, respectively) received the following median doses: primary tumors 79.2 Gy (range 72.0-90.0 Gy), lymph node metastases 59.4 Gy (54.0-73.8 Gy), nodes electively 45 Gy; with fractional doses of 1.8 Gy twice daily (bid). In all, 86% of patients received 2 cycles of chemotherapy previously. Five treatment-related deaths occurred: pneumonitis, n = 1; progressive pulmonary fibrosis in patients with pre-existing pulmonary fibrosis, n = 2; haemorrhage, n = 2. In all, 8% of patients experienced grade 3 and 1.3% grade 4 pneumonitis; 11% showed late fibrotic alterations grade 2 in lung parenchyma. Clinically relevant acute esophagitis (grade 2 and 3) was seen in 33.3% of patients, 2 patients developed late esophageal stenosis (G3). Patients with upper lobe, middle lobe and central lower lobe tumours (n = 130) were treated with V20 (total lung) up to 50% and patients with peripheral lower lobe tumours (n = 14, basal lateral tumours excluded) up to 42%, without observing acute or late pulmonary toxicity >grade 3. Only patients with basal lateral lower lobe tumours (n = 5) experienced grade 4/5 pulmonary toxicity; V20 for this latter group ranged between 30 and 53%. The mean lung dose was below the QUANTEC recommendation of 20-23 Gy in all patients. The median follow-up time of all patients is 26.3 months (range 2.9-149.4) and of patients alive 80.2 months (range 63.9-149.4.). The median overall survival time of all patients is 26.3 months; the 2-, 5- and 8-year survival rates of 54, 21 and 15%, respectively. The local tumour control rate at 2 and 5 years is 70 and 64%, the regional control rate 90 and 88%, respectively. Grade 4 or 5 toxicity occurred in 7/150 patients (4.7%), which can be

  17. Ten years' experience of directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS in Gambella Regional State, Ethiopia: An evaluation of tuberculosis control program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Sisay

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The recommended TSR set by WHO was achieved as it was already been fulfilled more than 85% from 2009 up to 2011 in the region and the reported CDR was far below (40.9% for smear-positive pulmonary TB including other forms of TB from the target. Therefore, extensive efforts should be established to maintain the achieved TSR and to increase the low level of CDR for all forms of TB cases through implementing alternative case finding strategies.

  18. Coordination as a best practice from the polio eradication initiative: Experiences from five member states in the African region of the World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeibunor, Joseph; Nsubuga, Peter; Salla, Mbaye; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal

    2016-10-10

    As part of the efforts to eradicate polioviruses in the African Region, structures were put in place to ensure coordinated mobilization and deployment of resources within the framework of the global polio eradication initiative (PEI). The successes of these structures made them not only attractive to other public health interventions, but also caused them to be deployed to the response efforts of other diseases interventions, without any systematic documentation. This article documents the contributions of PEI coordination units to other public health interventions in the African Region of World Health Organization METHODS: We reviewed the contributions of PEI coordination units to other public health interventions in five countries in the African Region. The analysis identified significant involvement of PEI coordination structures in the implementation of routine immunization programs in all the countries analyzed. Similarly, maternal and child health programs were planned, implemented, monitored and evaluation the Inter-Agency Coordination Committees of the PEI programs in the different countries. The hubs system used in PEI in Chad facilitated the efficient coordination of resources for immunization and other public health interventions in Chad. Similarly, in the Democratic Republic of Congo PEI led coordination activities benefited other public health programs like disease control and the national nutrition program, the national malaria control program, and the tuberculosis control program. In Nigeria, the polio Expert Review Committee effectively deployed the Emergency Operation Center for the implementation of prioritized strategies and activities of the National Polio Eradication Emergency Plan, and it was utilized in the response to Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in the country. The PEI-led coordination systems are thus recognized as having made significant contribution to the coordination and delivery of other public health interventions in the African

  19. Experiences with IAEA project: TC Regional Project on Quality Control and Quality Assurance for Nuclear Analytical Techniques (RER/2/004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glavic-Cindro, Denis; Korun, Matjaz

    2002-01-01

    In the TC Regional Project on Quality Control and Quality Assurance for Nuclear Analytical Techniques RER/2/004, 12 laboratories from east and central European countries participated. Within this project 4 workshops, 2 audit inspections and 2 proficiency tests were organized. The aim of this project was to help these laboratories to implement quality assurance system based on the ISO 17025 standard and to help them on the way towards accreditation. (author)

  20. Analysing the Air: Experiences and Results of Long Term Air Pollution Monitoring in the Asia-Pacific Region Using Nuclear Analysis Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanacio, Armand J.

    2015-01-01

    Particles present in the air we breathe are now recognized as a major cause of disease and premature death globally. In fact, a World Health Organization (WHO) report recently ranked ambient air pollution as one of the top 10 causes of death in the world, directly contributing annually to around 3.7 million premature deaths worldwide 65% of which occurred in the Asian region alone. Airborne particulate matter (PM) can be generated from natural sources such as windblown soil or coastal sea-spray; as well as anthropogenic sources such as power stations, industry, vehicles and domestic biomass burning. At low concentration these fine pollution particles are too small to be seen by eye, but penetrate deep into our lungs and even our blood stream as our nose and throat are inefficient at filtering them out. At large concentrations, they can also have wider regional effects including reduced visibility, acid rain and even climate variability. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 2000, recognizing air pollution as a significant local, national and global challenge, initiated a collaborative air pollution study involving 14 countries across the greater Asia-pacific region from 2000 to 2015. This has amassed a database containing more than 14,000 data lines of PM mass concentration and the concentration of up to 40 elements using nuclear analytical techniques. It represents the most comprehensive and long-term airborne PM data set compiled to date for the Asia-Pacific region and as will be discussed, can be used to statistically resolve individual source fingerprints and their contributions to total air pollution using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). This sort of data necessary for implementing or reviewing the effectiveness of policy level changes aimed at targeted air pollution reduction. (author)

  1. The experience of functioning of the dairy cluster of the Voronezh region in the aspect of observing the criteria of economic efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kotarev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the analysis of tendencies of development of sector of dairy animal industries on the basis of formation of a dairy cluster is given. It is shown that the structure of dairy cattle breeding in the Voronezh region is built in the form of a milk cluster, in the functioning of which most of the existing enterprises of the dairy industry take part. The largest participants of the dairy cluster are: EkoNivaAgro LLC, GK Molvest, Agroholding Don-Agro. In the cluster, all the operations of the whole milk production process are carried out, starting from the production of feed and breeding of breeding animals and ending with the delivery of finished products to the end users. Also, the cluster included auxiliary organizations that carry out scientific, educational, research and veterinary support of the entire production chain. Within the framework of the cluster, effective interaction of all its participants is established, which is necessary for obtaining high quality milk and dairy products. The advantage of a dairy cluster in the Voronezh region is the opportunity to provide targeted benefits to organizations that are important for the economy of the region, and the state gets the opportunity to regulate innovation, investment flows and evaluate the effectiveness of financial investments. The implementation of investment projects in animal husbandry in the medium term (for the period until 2020 will increase milk production by 30%. The economic efficiency of dairy cattle is a cumulative category that reflects the impact of technological, economic, social and environmental factors on the productivity of production. Cluster development of the dairy cattle breeding industry in the Voronezh Region allows obtaining a positive synergistic effect, reducing transaction costs, and increasing the genetic potential of dairy cattle.

  2. A review of a regional primary percutaneous coronary intervention service, with a focus on door to reperfusion times: the 2012 Auckland/Northland experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Aaron; Oh, Timothy; Alawami, Mohammed; Webster, Mark; El-Jack, Seif; Scott, Douglas; Stewart, James; Ormiston, John; Armstrong, Guy; Khan, Ali; Kay, Patrick; Harrison, Wil; Kerr, Andrew; McGeorge, Alastair; Gamble, Greg; Ruygrok, Peter; Ellis, Chris J

    2015-01-01

    Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the optimal management for ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. We reviewed the largest primary PCI regional service in New Zealand: the Auckland/Northland service based at Auckland City Hospital, to assess patient management, in particular the door to reperfusion times (DTRTs), and predictors of death in hospital. We obtained patient details from a comprehensive prospective database of all primary PCI patients admitted with STEMI from 1/1/12 to 31/12/12 to the Auckland City Hospital cardiac catheterisation laboratory. Of four District Health Boards (DHBs) within the region, two accessed this regional service at all times, and two accessed the Auckland City Hospital cardiac catheterisation laboratory 'after hours': all times except for 08:00 to 16:00 hours on Monday to Friday. A total of 401 adult patients underwent a primary PCI at the Auckland City Hospital Regional centre for a STEMI presentation, over the 12 months period. The median patient age was 61 years, 77% were male. Overall 183 (46%) (95% CI 41, 51) patients achieved a DTRT of Auckland/Northland primary PCI service delivers good outcomes consistent with current Australasian standards. Although geographical isolation complicates door to reperfusion times, these may potentially be improved by more focus on direct transfer to the cardiac catheterisation laboratory, especially directly from the community. Copyright © 2014 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment of Thyroid Cancer: A Review of the Regional Experiences (including countries from Asia-Pacific, Europe, North America, Africa and Latin America)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, D.; Nagataki, S.; Padhy, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    Radioiodine (I-131) therapy has been in use for the treatment of thyroid diseases for the past six decades. Although the use of radioiodine has been in vogue for a long time, its use in therapy for well-differentiated thyroid cancer is still controversial, varied and in many instances based on personal and institutional philosophy. The practice is also influenced by available infrastructure, national policy with regard to health, financial and human resources; as well as social, cultural and ethnic milieu of a particular region or country. The World Radiopharmaceutical Therapy Council had carried out a survey on the practice of radioiodine treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer around the world. This paper is a compilation of information from several countries/ regions around the world, which may offer insight into the practice of one of the most important and widely practiced radionuclide therapeutic procedures in clinical medicine. It is interesting to note that despite regional or national differences with regard to history, culture, finance, resources, beliefs, practices and attitude there has been more or less a universal unanimity on the 'basics' related to the practice of radioiodine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer. (author)

  4. Human Factors in the Large: Experiences from Denmark, Finland and Canada in Moving Towards Regional and National Evaluations of Health Information System Usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaipio, J.; Nieminen, M.; Hyppönen, H.; Lääveri, T.; Nohr, C.; Kanstrup, A. M.; Berg Christiansen, M.; Kuo, M.-H.; Borycki, E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives The objective of this paper is to explore approaches to understanding the usability of health information systems at regional and national levels. Methods Several different methods are discussed in case studies from Denmark, Finland and Canada. They range from small scale qualitative studies involving usability testing of systems to larger scale national level questionnaire studies aimed at assessing the use and usability of health information systems by entire groups of health professionals. Results It was found that regional and national usability studies can complement smaller scale usability studies, and that they are needed in order to understand larger trends regarding system usability. Despite adoption of EHRs, many health professionals rate the usability of the systems as low. A range of usability issues have been noted when data is collected on a large scale through use of widely distributed questionnaires and websites designed to monitor user perceptions of usability. Conclusion As health information systems are deployed on a widespread basis, studies that examine systems used regionally or nationally are required. In addition, collection of large scale data on the usability of specific IT products is needed in order to complement smaller scale studies of specific systems. PMID:25123725

  5. Experiências de adubação do amendoim em campos da região de Botucatu Fertilizer experiments with peanuts on two «campo» soils of the botucatu region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz V. Rocha

    1965-01-01

    tratamentos que receberam calcário + NPK, nos canteiros sem corretivo e sem adubo da gleba Estrada baixou a 34% e, nos da gleba Rincão, a tão somente 10% . Os fatôres mencionados contribuiram, ainda, para aumentar o teor de óleo nas sementes.Two trials were conducted for two years on virgin areas of poor «campo» soils (a dark red latosol and a red-yellow latosol of the Botucatu region, State of São Paulo, to study the possibility of using them for the peanut production with the aid of fertilizers. Of the compared treatments, phosphorus (ordinary superphosphate and limestone were the principal yield increasing factors. The low fertility level of the soils and the ease of its correction can be evidenced by showing that, in the second year of the experiment on the dark red latosol, the «no lime, no fertilizer>> plots yielded 476 kg/ha (kilograms per hectare of pods, the plots treated with lime + NPK only in the previous year, 1,655 kg/ha, and those additionally fertilized with NPK in the second year, 2,096 kg/ha. On the red-yellow latosol, the yields were, respectively, 333, 2,065, and 2,224 kg/ha. The rate of application of limestone was 2 metric tons per hectare; in the first and second years the NPK treatments corresponded to 30-60-30 and 30-45-30 kg/ha of N-P2O5-K2O, respectively. The lime and NPK treatments influenced considerably the quality of the pods. The shelling percentages varied between 70 and 73 in the lime + NPK plots of both soils, but decreased, respectively, to 34 and 10 in the «no treatment>> plots of the dark red latosol and the red-yellow latosol. Even the oil content of the seeds was appreciably increased by the mentioned treatments.

  6. A narrative inquiry into women’s perception and experience of labour pain: A study in the western region of ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Asamoah Ampofo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a general notion among Ghanaian women that the labour is a painful process that must be endured. Regardless of this notion, labour pain experience overwhelms most women. The aim of this study was to inquire into women’s perceptions and experience of labour pain and how women cope with pain. Using the narrative inquiry methodology, five low risk pregnant Ghanaian women; two nulliparous and three multiparas were purposefully selected. Tape-recorded conversations, writing of field notes and journals were used as the main source of data collection before delivery and within one week after delivery. The women’s perception of pain before and after delivery was used to construct narrative accounts from which the findings of the study were generated. To ensure credibility of each narrative account, the interim narrative accounts constructed by the researcher were sent to the women to read and respond to. The findings revealed that before the labour experience, women perceived labour as a painful experience expected to be endured. Antenatal education on labour pain management was inadequate. Additionally use of pain relief methods was lacking although women expressed need for pain relief. Furthermore the findings revealed inadequate physical and emotional support for women in labour to help cope with labour pain. In conclusion the researcher recommends that midwives in consultation with clients adopt a more active method of assessing labour pain. Also antenatal education on pain relief options must be provided. A more conscious effort to provide support for women in labour should be promoted.

  7. Interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The Interaction Region Group addressed the basic questions of how to collide the SLC beams, how to maximize and monitor the luminosity, and how to minimize the detector backgrounds at the interaction region. In practice, five subgroups evolved to study these questions. The final focus group provided three alternative designs to acheive the 1 to 2 micron beam spot size required by the SLC, as well as studying other problems including: eta, eta' matching from the collider arcs, the implementation of soft bends near the interaction region, beam emittance growth, and magnet tolerances in the final focus. The beam position monitor group proposed two devices, a strip line monitor, and a beamstrahlung monitor, to bring the beams into collision. The luminosity monitor group reviewed the possible QED processes that would be insensitive to weak interaction (Z 0 ) effects. The beam dumping group proposed locations for kicker and septum magnets in the final focus that would achieve a high dumping efficiency and would meet the desired beam tolerances at the Moller scattering target in the beam dump line. Working with the Polarization Group, the Moller experiment was designed into the beam dump beam line. A beam dump was proposed that would maintain radiation backgrounds (penetrating muons) at acceptible levels. The detector backgrounds group proposed soft-bend and masking configurations to shield the detector from synchrotron radiation from the hard/soft bends and from the final focus quadrupoles and evaluated the effectiveness of these designs for the three final focus optics designs. Backgrounds were also estimated from: large angle synchrotron radiation, local and distant beam-gas interactions, 2-photon interactions, and from neutrons and backscattered photons from the beamstrahlung dump

  8. Evidence for Surface Water Ice in the Lunar Polar Regions Using Reflectance Measurements from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter and Temperature Measurements from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Elizabeth A.; Lucey, Paul G.; Lemelin, Myriam; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Siegler, Matthew A.; Mazarico, Erwan; Aharonson, Oded; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Hayne, Paul O.; Neumann, Gregory A.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We find that the reflectance of the lunar surface within 5 deg of latitude of theSouth Pole increases rapidly with decreasing temperature, near approximately 110K, behavior consistent with the presence of surface water ice. The North polar region does not show this behavior, nor do South polar surfaces at latitudes more than 5 deg from the pole. This South pole reflectance anomaly persists when analysis is limited to surfaces with slopes less than 10 deg to eliminate false detection due to the brightening effect of mass wasting, and also when the very bright south polar crater Shackleton is excluded from the analysis. We also find that south polar regions of permanent shadow that have been reported to be generally brighter at 1064 nm do not show anomalous reflectance when their annual maximum surface temperatures are too high to preserve water ice. This distinction is not observed at the North Pole. The reflectance excursion on surfaces with maximum temperatures below 110K is superimposed on a general trend of increasing reflectance with decreasing maximum temperature that is present throughout the polar regions in the north and south; we attribute this trend to a temperature or illumination-dependent space weathering effect (e.g. Hemingway et al. 2015). We also find a sudden increase in reflectance with decreasing temperature superimposed on the general trend at 200K and possibly at 300K. This may indicate the presence of other volatiles such as sulfur or organics. We identified and mapped surfaces with reflectances so high as to be unlikely to be part of an ice-free population. In this south we find a similar distribution found by Hayne et al. 2015 based on UV properties. In the north a cluster of pixels near that pole may represent a limited frost exposure.

  9. The lithospheric structure of the Western Carpathian-Pannonian Basin region based on the CELEBRATION 2000 seismic experiment and gravity modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tašárová, Alasonati; Afonso, J. C.; Bielik, M.; Götze, H.-J.; Hók, J.

    2009-10-01

    The lithospheric structure of the Western Carpathian-Pannonian Basin region was studied using 3-D modelling of the Bouguer gravity anomaly constrained by seismic models and other geophysical data. The thermal structure and density distribution in the shallow upper mantle were also estimated using a combination of petrological, geophysical, and mineral physics information (LitMod). This approach is necessary if the more complicated structure of the Pannonian Basin is to be better constrained. As a result, we have constructed the first 3-D gravity model of the region that combines various geophysical datasets and is consistent with petrological data. The model provides improved estimates of both the density distribution within the lithosphere and the depth to major density discontinuities. We present new maps of the thickness of major sedimentary basins and of the depth to the Moho and the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. In our best-fitting model, the Pannonian Basin is characterised by extremely thin crust and lithospheric mantle, both of which have low density. A low-density uppermost asthenospheric mantle layer is also included at depths of 60-100 km. The Western Carpathians have only a thin crustal root and moderate densities. In contrast, the European Platform and Eastern Alps are characterised by lithosphere that is considerably thicker and denser. This inference is also supported by stripped gravity anomalies from which sediment, Moho and asthenospheric gravity contributions have been removed. These residual anomalies are characteristically low in the Western Carpathian-Pannonian Basin region, which suggests that both the ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia microplates are 'exotic terranes' that are markedly different to the European Platform.

  10. Evidence for surface water ice in the lunar polar regions using reflectance measurements from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter and temperature measurements from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Elizabeth A.; Lucey, Paul G.; Lemelin, Myriam; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Siegler, Matthew A.; Mazarico, Erwan; Aharonson, Oded; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Hayne, Paul O.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Paige, David A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2017-08-01

    We find that the reflectance of the lunar surface within 5° of latitude of the South Pole increases rapidly with decreasing temperature, near ∼110 K, behavior consistent with the presence of surface water ice. The North polar region does not show this behavior, nor do South polar surfaces at latitudes more than 5° from the pole. This South pole reflectance anomaly persists when analysis is limited to surfaces with slopes less than 10° to eliminate false detection due to the brightening effect of mass wasting, and also when the very bright south polar crater Shackleton is excluded from the analysis. We also find that south polar regions of permanent shadow that have been reported to be generally brighter at 1064 nm do not show anomalous reflectance when their annual maximum surface temperatures are too high to preserve water ice. This distinction is not observed at the North Pole. The reflectance excursion on surfaces with maximum temperatures below 110 K is superimposed on a general trend of increasing reflectance with decreasing maximum temperature that is present throughout the polar regions in the north and south; we attribute this trend to a temperature or illumination-dependent space weathering effect (e.g. Hemingway et al., 2015). We also find a sudden increase in reflectance with decreasing temperature superimposed on the general trend at 200 K and possibly at 300 K. This may indicate the presence of other volatiles such as sulfur or organics. We identified and mapped surfaces with reflectances so high as to be unlikely to be part of an ice-free population. In this south we find a similar distribution found by Hayne et al. (2015) based on UV properties. In the north a cluster of pixels near that pole may represent a limited frost exposure.

  11. Observation of ion scale fluctuations in the pedestal region during the edge-localized-mode cycle on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diallo, A.; Kramer, G. J.; Bell, R. E.; Guttenfelder, W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Podesta, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Smith, D. R.; McKee, G. J. [Departments of Engineering Physics and Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 37831 (United States); Fonck, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Departments of Engineering Physics and Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Characterization of the spatial structure of turbulence fluctuations during the edge localized mode cycle in the pedestal region is reported. Using the beam emission spectroscopy and the correlation reflectometry systems, measurements show spatial structure-k{sub Up-Tack }{rho}{sub i}{sup ped}-ranging from 0.2 to 0.7 propagating in the ion diamagnetic drift direction at the pedestal top. These propagating spatial scales are found to be anisotropic and consistent with ion-scale microturbulence of the type ion temperature gradient and/or kinetic ballooning modes.

  12. Control of water infiltration into near surface low-level waste disposal units. Final report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.; O'Donnell, E.

    1997-09-01

    This study''s objective was to assess means for controlling water infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work was carried out in large-scale lysimeters 21.34 m x 13.72 m x 3.05 m (70 ft x 45 ft x 10 ft) at Beltsville, Maryland. Results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration were investigated: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and (3) bioengineering management

  13. Measurements of energy behaviour of spin-dependent np—observables over 1.2-3.7 GeV energy region Dubna ``Delta-Sigma'' Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharov, V. I.; Anischenko, N. G.; Antonenko, V. G.; Averichev, S. A.; Azhgirey, L. S.; Bartenev, V. D.; Bazhanov, N. A.; Belyaev, A. A.; Blinov, N. A.; Borisov, N. S.; Borzakov, S. B.; Borzunov, Yu. T.; Bushuev, Yu. P.; Chernenko, L. P.; Chernykh, E. V.; Chumakov, V. F.; Dolgh, S. A.; Fedorov, A. N.; Fimushkin, V. V.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Golovanov, L. B.; Gurevich, G. M.; Guriev, D. K.; Janata, A.; Kirillov, A. D.; Kolomiets, V. G.; Komogorov, E. V.; Kovalenko, A. D.; Kovalev, A. I.; Krasnov, V. A.; Krstonoshich, P.; Kuzmin, E. S.; Kuzmin, N. A.; Ladygin, V. P.; Lazarev, A. B.; Lehar, F.; de Lesquen, A.; Liburg, M. Yu.; Livanov, A. N.; Lukhanin, A. A.; Maniakov, P. K.; Matafonov, V. N.; Matyushevsky, E. A.; Moroz, V. D.; Morozov, A. A.; Neganov, A. B.; Nikolaevsky, G. P.; Nomofilov, A. A.; Panteleev, Tz.; Pillpenko, Yu. K.; Pisarev, I. L.; Plis, Yu. A.; Polunin, Yu. P.; Prokofiev, A. N.; Prytkov, V. Yu.; Rukoyatkin, P. A.; Schedrov, V. A.; Schevelev, O. N.; Shilov, S. N.; Shindin, R. A.; Slunecka, M.; Slunečková, V.; Starikov, A. Yu.; Stoletov, G. D.; Strunov, L. N.; Svetov, A. L.; Usov, Yu. A.; Vasiliev, T.; Volkov, V. I.; Vorobiev, E. I.; Yudin, I. P.; Zaitsev, I. V.; Zhdanov, A. A.; Zhmyrov, V. N.

    2005-01-01

    New accurate data on the neutron-proton spin-dependent total cross section difference Δ σ L( np) at the neutron beam kinetic energies 1.4, 1.7, 1.9 and 2.0 GeV are presented. A number of physical and methodical results on investigation of an elastic np→pn charge exchange process over a few GeV region are also presented. Measurements were carried out at the Synchrophasotron and Nuclotron of the Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energies of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research.

  14. Major limitations to achieving "4 per 1000" increases in soil organic carbon stock in temperate regions: Evidence from long-term experiments at Rothamsted Research, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Paul; Johnston, Johnny; Macdonald, Andy; White, Rodger; Powlson, David

    2018-01-21

    We evaluated the "4 per 1000" initiative for increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) by analysing rates of SOC increase in treatments in 16 long-term experiments in southeast United Kingdom. The initiative sets a goal for SOC stock to increase by 4‰ per year in the 0-40 cm soil depth, continued over 20 years. Our experiments, on three soil types, provided 114 treatment comparisons over 7-157 years. Treatments included organic additions (incorporated by inversion ploughing), N fertilizers, introducing pasture leys into continuous arable systems, and converting arable land to woodland. In 65% of cases, SOC increases occurred at >7‰ per year in the 0-23 cm depth, approximately equivalent to 4‰ per year in the 0-40 cm depth. In the two longest running experiments (>150 years), annual farmyard manure (FYM) applications at 35 t fresh material per hectare (equivalent to approx. 3.2 t organic C/ha/year) gave SOC increases of 18‰ and 43‰ per year in the 23 cm depth during the first 20 years. Increases exceeding 7‰ per year continued for 40-60 years. In other experiments, with FYM applied at lower rates or not every year, there were increases of 3‰-8‰ per year over several decades. Other treatments gave increases between zero and 19‰ per year over various periods. We conclude that there are severe limitations to achieving the "4 per 1000" goal in practical agriculture over large areas. The reasons include (1) farmers not having the necessary resources (e.g. insufficient manure); (2) some, though not all, practices favouring SOC already widely adopted; (3) practices uneconomic for farmers-potentially overcome by changes in regulations or subsidies; (4) practices undesirable for global food security. We suggest it is more realistic to promote practices for increasing SOC based on improving soil quality and functioning as small increases can have disproportionately large beneficial impacts, though not necessarily translating into increased crop yield

  15. Ten years' experience of Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) in Gambella Regional State, Ethiopia: An evaluation of tuberculosis control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisay, Solomon; Mengistu, Belete; Erku, Woldargay; Woldeyohannes, Desalegne

    2016-12-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) declared tuberculosis (TB) as a global public health emergency and recommended DOTS as a standard strategy for controlling the disease. TB is one of the major causes of infectious diseases in the world, and 25% of all avoidable deaths in developing countries. About a third of the world's population is estimated to be infected with tubercle bacilli, and hence at risk of developing active disease. The objective of the study was, therefore, to evaluate the impact of DOTS strategy on smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis case finding and their treatment outcomes in Gambella Regional State, Ethiopia. A retrospective health facility-based descriptive study was employed. Quarterly data were collected by using WHO structured reporting format for TB case finding and treatment outcome from all DOTS implementing health facilities in the region. A total of 10,024 TB cases (all forms) were registered and reported between the periods from 2003 up to 2012. Out of these, 4100 (40.9%) were smear-positive pulmonary TB, 3164 (31.6%) were smear-negative pulmonary TB and 2760 (27.5%) had extra-pulmonary TB. An average case detection rate (CDR) 1 of 40.9% (SD=0.1) and treatment success rate (TSR) 2 of 55.7% (SD=0.28) for smear-positive pulmonary TB including other forms of TB were reported for the specified years period. Additionally, the average mean values of treatment defaulter and treatment failure rates were 4.2% and 0.3%, respectively. The recommended TSR set by WHO was achieved as it was already been fulfilled more than 85% from 2009 up to 2011 in the region and the reported CDR was far below (40.9%) for smear-positive pulmonary TB including other forms of TB from the target. Therefore, extensive efforts should be established to maintain the achieved TSR and to increase the low level of CDR for all forms of TB cases through implementing alternative case finding strategies. Copyright © 2016.

  16. An experience of knowledge co-production for setting up landslide risk management processes in a critical infrastructure: the case of Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianna, Guido; Roca Collell, Marta; Uzielli, Marco; Van Ruiten, Kees; Mercogliano, Paola; Ciervo, Fabio; Reder, Alfredo

    2017-04-01

    In Campania Region (Southern Italy), expected increases in heavy rainfall events under the effect of climate changes and demographic pressure could entail a growth of occurrence of weather induced landslides and associated damages. Indeed, already in recent years, pyroclastic covers mantling the slopes of a large part of the Region have been affected by numerous events often causing victims and damages to infrastructures serving the urban centers. Due to the strategic relevance of the area, landslide events affecting volcanic layers in Campania Region are one of the five case studies investigated in the FP7 European Project INTACT about the impacts of extreme weather on critical infrastructure. The main aim of INTACT project is to increase the resilience of critical infrastructures (CI) facing extreme weather events improving the awareness of stakeholders and asset managers about such phenomena and their potential variations due to Climate Changes and providing tools to support risk management strategies. A WIKI has been designed as a remote support for all stages of the risk process through brief theoretical explanations (in Wiki style) about tools and methods proposed and reports on the findings and hints returned by case studies investigations. In order to have a product tailored to the needs and background of CI owners, managers and policy makers, an intense effort of knowledge co-production between researchers and stakeholders have been carried out in different case studies through questionnaires, meetings, workshops and/or 1-to-1 interviews. This work presents the different tools and approaches adopted to facilitate the exchange with stakeholders in the Campanian case study such as the "Storytelling approach", aiming to stress the need for a comprehensive and overall approach to the issue between the different disaster management phases (mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery) and actors; the CIRCLE approach developed by Deltares, partner in INTACT

  17. Women's preferences for obstetric care in rural Ethiopia: a population-based discrete choice experiment in a region with low rates of facility delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, M E; Paczkowski, M M; Tegegn, A; Tessema, F; Hadley, C; Asefa, M; Galea, S

    2010-11-01

    Delivery attended by skilled professionals is essential to reducing maternal mortality. Although the facility delivery rate in Ethiopia's rural areas is extremely low, little is known about which health system characteristics most influence women's preferences for delivery services. In this study, women's preferences for attributes of health facilities for delivery in rural Ethiopia were investigated. A population-based discrete choice experiment (DCE) was fielded in Gilgel Gibe, in southwest Ethiopia, among women with a delivery in the past 5 years. Women were asked to select a hypothetical health facility for future delivery from two facilities on a picture card. A hierarchical Bayesian procedure was used to estimate utilities associated with facility attributes: distance, type of provider, provider attitude, drugs and medical equipment, transport and cost. 1006 women completed 8045 DCE choice tasks. Among them, 93.8% had delivered their last child at home. The attributes with the greatest influence on the overall utility of a health facility for delivery were availability of drugs and equipment (mean β=3.9, pdelivery nonetheless value health facility attributes that indicate high technical quality: availability of drugs and equipment and physician providers. Well-designed policy experiments that measure the contribution of quality improvements to facility delivery rates in Ethiopia and other countries with low health service utilisation and high maternal mortality may inform national efforts to reduce maternal mortality.

  18. The contribution of environmental monitoring in the epidemiological assessment of exogenous risk. The experience of ARPA in the Emilia-Romagna Region of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavatti, A; Lauriola, P

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the Emilia Romagna-Region Agency for Prevention and Environment (ARPA) is to define and improve interactions among the various prevention departments of the Emilia-Romagna Local Health Authorities in order to attain better knowledge about the health status of the population by using epidemiology and etiology studies, as well as predictive models. This is the basis for the environmental health risk assessment strategy of ARPA. The priority activity areas for ARPA are: urban areas, environmental and health effects of traffic (atmospheric pollution and noise pollution); industrial areas (Ravenna chemical plants, Modena/Reggio-Emilia ceramic factories and Ferrara chemical plants); high-speed trains; pesticides; asbestos; and pollution of the Adriatic Sea.

  19. An experiment to measure the spectra of primary proton, helium and iron nuclei at the 'knee' region at a high altitude

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, X W; Ding, L K; Zhang, C S; Ohnishi, M

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of measuring the energy spectra of some single elements (proton, helium and iron) in primary cosmic rays at the 'knee' energies, by setting up an air shower (AS) core detector in the AS gamma array (4300 m a.s.l., Tibet, China) is investigated. Taking into account the sensitivity and the acceptance needed for this measurement, the feasibility of construction and operation of the apparatus at a high altitude, and the cost, it is shown that this aim can be achieved by a simple AS core detector that mainly measures the high-energy electromagnetic components in AS cores. In this paper, such a detector is described. With a three-year exposure, proton, helium and iron spectra at the 'knee' energy region can be obtained with three event samples selected by an artificial neural network (ANN).

  20. Chronic disease in the Caribbean: strategies to respond to the public health challenge in the region. What can we learn from Jamaica's experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, T S; Tulloch-Reid, M K; Cunningham-Myrie, C A; Davidson-Sadler, T; Copeland, S; Lewis-Fuller, E; Wilks, R J

    2011-07-01

    With the advent of the epidemiological transition, chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCDs) have emerged as the leading cause of death globally. In this paper we present an overview of the burden of CNCDs in the Caribbean region and use Jamaica as a case-study to review the impact of policy initiatives and interventions implemented in response to the CNCD epidemic. The findings show that while Jamaica has implemented several policy initiatives aimed at stemming the tide of the CNCD epidemic, a comparison of data from two national health and lifestyle surveys conducted in Jamaica in 2000/01 and 2007/08 revealed that there was an increase in the prevalence of intermediate CNCD risk factors such as hypertension and obesity. We therefore present recommended strategies which we believe will enhance the current CNCD response and thus reduce, or at least stem, the current epidemic of CNCDs.

  1. Evaluating the ecological association of casino industry economic development on community health status: a natural experiment in the Mississippi delta region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honoré, Peggy A; Simoes, Eduardo J; Moonesinghe, Ramal; Wang, Xueyuan; Brown, Lovetta

    2007-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to examine for associations of casino industry economic development on improving community health status and funding for public health services in two counties in the Mississippi Delta Region of the United States. An ecological approach was used to evaluate whether two counties with casino gaming had improved health status and public health funding in comparison with two noncasino counties in the same region with similar social, racial, and ethic backgrounds. Variables readily available from state health department records were used to develop a logic model for guiding analytical work. A linear regression model was built using a stepwise approach and hierarchical regression principles with many dependent variables and a set of fixed and nonfixed independent variables. County-level data for 23 variables over an 11-year period were used. Overall, this study found a lack of association between the presence of a casino and desirable health outcomes or funding for public health services. Changes in the environment were made to promote health by utilizing gaming revenues to build state-of-the-art community health and wellness centers and sports facilities. However, significant increases in funding for local public health services were not found in either of the counties with casinos. These findings are relevant for policy makers when debating economic development strategies. Analysis similar to this should be combined with other routine public health assessments after implementation of development strategies to increase knowledge of health outcome trends and shifts in socioeconomic position that may be expected to accrue from economic development projects.

  2. Assessment of regional lung functional impairment with co-registered respiratory-gated ventilation/perfusion SPET-CT images: initial experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Yasuhiko, Kawakami; Zaki, Mohammed; Yamashita, Tomio; Seto, Aska; Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2004-01-01

    In this study, respiratory-gated ventilation and perfusion single-photon emission tomography (SPET) were used to define regional functional impairment and to obtain reliable co-registration with computed tomography (CT) images in various lung diseases. Using a triple-headed SPET unit and a physiological synchroniser, gated perfusion SPET was performed in a total of 78 patients with different pulmonary diseases, including metastatic nodules (n=15); in 34 of these patients, it was performed in combination with gated technetium-99m Technegas SPET. Projection data were acquired using 60 stops over 120 for each detector. Gated end-inspiration and ungated images were reconstructed from 1/8 data centered at peak inspiration for each regular respiratory cycle and full respiratory cycle data, respectively. Gated images were registered with tidal inspiration CT images using automated three-dimensional (3D) registration software. Registration mismatch was assessed by measuring 3D distance of the centroid of the nine selected round perfusion-defective nodules. Gated SPET images were completed within 29 min, and increased the number of visible ventilation and perfusion defects by 9.7% and 17.2%, respectively, as compared with ungated images; furthermore, lesion-to-normal lung contrast was significantly higher on gated SPET images. In the nine round perfusion-defective nodules, gated images yielded a significantly better SPET-CT match compared with ungated images (4.9±3.1 mm vs 19.0±9.1 mm, P<0.001). The co-registered SPET-CT images allowed accurate perception of the location and extent of each ventilation/perfusion defect on the underlying CT anatomy, and characterised the pathophysiology of the various diseases. By reducing respiratory motion effects and enhancing perfusion/ventilation defect clarity, gated SPET can provide reliable co-registered images with CT images to accurately characterise regional functional impairment in various lung diseases. (orig.)

  3. Analysis of regional timelines to set up a global phase III clinical trial in breast cancer: the adjuvant lapatinib and/or trastuzumab treatment optimization experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger-Filho, Otto; de Azambuja, Evandro; Bradbury, Ian; Saini, Kamal S; Bines, José; Simon, Sergio D; Dooren, Veerle Van; Aktan, Gursel; Pritchard, Kathleen I; Wolff, Antonio C; Smith, Ian; Jackisch, Christian; Lang, Istvan; Untch, Michael; Boyle, Frances; Xu, Binghe; Baselga, Jose; Perez, Edith A; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine

    2013-01-01

    This study measured the time taken for setting up the different facets of adjuvant lapatinib and/or trastuzumab treatment optimization (ALTTO), an nternational phase III study being conducted in 44 participating countries. Time to regulatory authority (RA) approval, time to ethics committee/institutional review board (EC/IRB) approval, time from study approval by EC/IRB to first randomized patient, and time from first to last randomized patient were prospectively collected in the ALTTO study. Analyses were conducted by grouping countries into either geographic regions or economic classes as per the World Bank's criteria. South America had a significantly longer time to RA approval (median: 236 days, range: 21-257 days) than Europe (median: 52 days, range: 0-151 days), North America (median: 26 days, range: 22-30 days), and Asia-Pacific (median: 62 days, range: 37-75 days). Upper-middle economies had longer times to RA approval (median: 123 days, range: 21-257 days) than high-income (median: 47 days, range: 0-112 days) and lower-middle income economies (median: 57 days, range: 37-62 days). No significant difference was observed for time to EC/IRB approval across the studied regions (median: 59 days, range 0-174 days). Overall, the median time from EC/IRB approval to first recruited patient was 169 days (range: 26-412 days). This study highlights the long time intervals required to activate a global phase III trial. Collaborative research groups, pharmaceutical industry sponsors, and regulatory authorities should analyze the current system and enter into dialogue for optimizing local policies. This would enable faster access of patients to innovative therapies and enhance the efficiency of clinical research.

  4. O ENSINO DOS SABERES DA CULINÁRIA REGIONAL: experiência docente na amazônia paraense no município de Vigia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maraísa Andrade de Castro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata-se de um relato deexperiênciadocentevivenciadanoInstituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Pará, Polo Avançado de Vigia de Nazaré, no processo de planejamento e ministração da disciplina Saberes da Culinária Regional para o Curso Técnico Subsequente em Turismo e Hospitalidade, cujo projeto pedagógico experimental, baseado na metodologia da alternância, adaptado de um modelo da educação rural, teve sua estrutura curricular organizada via temas geradores, conforme a proposta freireana de educação, que prevê a abordagem do conhecimento cientí co através dos saberes empíricos dos estudantes. Por meio do levantamento dos hábitos alimentares dos discentes e de entrevistas com idosos da comunidade, o conteúdo central da disciplina foi desenvolvido, e após leituras de textos, visitas técnicas e atividades práticas e lúdicas, os futuros técnicos sugeriram proposições para valorização da culinária típica da região, e posteriormente realizaram um evento objetivando sensibilizar o empresariado sobre essa questão. O artigo tem como objetivo apresentar uma abordagem de ensino temática diferenciada que pode contribuir para o aprimoramento das práticas de ensino em qualquer instância, assim como inspirar docentes para elaboração de planos de aula criativos. Dentre os resultados obtidos, destaca-se a re exão sobre as modi cações nos hábitos alimentares da comunidade. Palavras-chave: Ensino técnico. Hábitos alimentares. Culinária regional.

  5. Cultural influences behind cholera transmission in the Far North Region, Republic of Cameroon: a field experience and implications for operational level planning of interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Moise Chi; Young, Alyson; Liang, Song; Blackburn, Jason; Mouhaman, Arabi; Morris, John Glenn

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the Far North Region of Cameroon has experienced serious and recurrent cholera outbreaks. Yet, understanding of cultural influences on outbreaks and spread remain poorly understood. This qualitative study explored cultural influences on cholera exposure in this region. Interviews and group discussions were conducted in two phases. Phase I involved key informants and phase II included focus group and household discussions. Thematic techniques including word repetition, key-indigenous-terms, and key-words-in-context were used for qualitative data analysis. Key informants attributed cholera etiology to dirt and spread through water ( caneri ) and food (group eating or faire-un-rond ) while group discussions attributed it to a reprimand from god and transmission through the air. Participants suggested that funerals, weddings, open defecation, and mountaintop burial might influence cholera exposure and facilitate its spread. Hospital avoidance and non-adherence with cholera treatment regimens were linked to favorable beliefs about traditional medicine (rural-urban mentality confrontation). Furthermore, a multiplicity of ethnic languages, mistrust of message sources, culture of dependency and sentimental animal husbandry were barriers to the reception of public health messages. Many participants had limited scientific knowledge about cholera etiology and transmission. The cultural practice of mountain burial seemed to explain the high cholera attack rate in the mountainous terrain compared to the floodplains. Cultural factors are likely to play important roles in the exposure to and spread of cholera. Understanding cultural context, individual and community perceptions of risk and disease may help public health agencies in response to outbreak prevention and control.

  6. The nuclear core of sun: theoretical perspectives and characterization of the scientific performances of the GOLF / SOHO experiment detector; La region nucleaire du soleil: perspectives theoriques et caracterisation des performances scientifiques du detecteur de l`experience GOLF / SOHO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzitko, H

    1995-06-23

    The subject of this thesis is the nuclear core of the sun. The first part is theoretical and concerns neutrino flux predictions. A precise description of the solar plasma is necessary to predict boron, beryllium and CNO cycle neutrinos. We treat here the nuclear reaction rates. They are mainly determined by the cross sections and the enhancement factors due to plasma particles, the co-called screening factors. We have discussed the various possible formalisms that could be used in stellar evolution and performed direct calculations of screened cross sections. We concluded that the screening prescriptions which have been used so far in stellar evolution should be replaced by the Mitler formalism. Next, we examine the cross section uncertainties and we show that it is possible to get a better agreement between theory and experiment. Discrepancies between the gallium experiments and the calculations suggest that we should go beyond the classical solar model. This has motivated our study on possible magnetic fields deeply buried in the solar core. We discuss here the influence of a magnetic pressure perturbation on solar evolution. In the experimental part of this work, we deal with the GOLF experiment, one of the three helio-seismological experiments on board the space probe SOHO. The purpose of this instrument is the study of the global oscillation modes in the frequency range 10{sup -7} to 6 10{sup -3} Hz with a sensitivity for frequencies higher than 2 10{sup -4} Hz of about 1 mm/s over 20 days of continuous integration at counting rates of 12 10{sup 6} cs/s. One part of this work was devoted to the precise characterization of the photomultipliers and their associated electronics in order to select them according to their intrinsic performances. This step was followed by long duration tests of three weeks simulating as well as possible the flight conditions. We show that the detection chain effectively meets the stability requirements of around 10{sup -7} by

  7. A experiência vivida pelo ser-gestor no desenvolvimento regional em um consórcio de pequenos municípios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Flores Battistella

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo a compreensão da experiência vivida pelos gestores envolvidos no Consórcio de Desenvolvimento Sustentável da Quarta Colônia (Condesus/Quarta Colônia, a partir da reflexão de seus atores principais. O Condesus/Quarta Colônia é um consórcio de nove municípios que formam uma aliança estratégica em busca do desenvolvimento sustentável da região. Com base nas reflexões dos principais atores organizacionais, desvela-se a experiência de ser-gestor do Condesus/Quarta Colônia. O desvelamento do fenômeno foi possível por meio de suas quatro essências significativas da experiência de ser-gestor do consórcio em questão. A primeira essência é a da superação, uma essência provocativa que declara a superação das divergências, conflitos e rivalidades históricas, pessoais e políticas em nome de um futuro próspero em comum. A segunda essência desvelada foi a da força provocada pela união dos municípios por meio do consórcio. Vê-se que isso gerou um sentimento de orgulho (a terceira essência entre seus membros e que esse sentimento ultrapassou as fronteiras físicas do consórcio, perpassando, hoje, por toda a comunidade, conforme as falas de seus gestores. A quarta essência do ser-gestor do consórcio compreende estar imerso em um processo, aceitando e lidando com as conjunturas, mudanças externas e internas e, diante disso, apreendendo a lidar com as frustrações e se auto-organizando continuamente.

  8. Social and cultural factors behind community resistance during an Ebola outbreak in a village of the Guinean Forest region, February 2015: a field experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión Martín, A I; Derrough, T; Honomou, P; Kolie, N; Diallo, B; Koné, M; Rodier, G; Kpoghomou, C; Jansà, J M

    2016-05-01

    During the Ebola outbreak in Guinea, community resistance obstructed case investigation and response. We investigated a cluster of Ebola cases that were hiding in the forest, refusing external help, to identify sociocultural determinants related to community resistance. Participant observation, interviews and focus group discussions were carried out. Most villagers feared the Ebola treatment centre (ETC) as there was the belief that people were killed in ETCs for organ trade. Four survivors accompanied back to the village from the ETC shared their experiences and reassured their neighbours. Subsequently, community compliance with contact tracing improved, leading to the timely detection of cases. Engaging Ebola virus disease survivors improved community compliance. Understanding the sociocultural context and community perceptions may improve community engagement and prevent Ebola virus transmission. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Tracing Hopes of Racist-Free and Multicultural-Friendly Campuses: A Phenomenological Exploration on the Lived Experiences of Blacks in the National Capital Region Universities (Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaldy Collado

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Philippine campuses nowadays, the presence of foreign students is a common sight, making our academic communities one of the most culturally diverse universities in the world. This requires us to provide necessary local environment appropriate and ready to attend to multicultural sensitivities. Thus the research aimed to look at how well-prepared Philippine universities are in terms of having multi-cultural friendly campuses. Through in-depth interviews and phenomenological method, the researcher explored the lived experiences of Black African students in their respective campuses. The results showed that (a the participants’ decision to study in the Philippines was based on factors such as the hassle-less application process, cheaper yet of quality education and the image of Filipinos as being friendly and kind (b the common, though very light, concern was not racism nor discrimination, but speaking in the local language in their presence made them feel sometimes isolated or insulted and (c that racism and discrimination against blacks were not an institutional reality, though unfriendly encounters with Filipinos were also recorded, those were not seen as serious cases of racist behavior. The study suggested that since blacks’ experiences are generally devoid of racism and discrimination, school administrations do not tend to formulate explicit policies and enough activities to ensure racistfree campuses and inter-cultural inclusiveness among Filipinos and the blacks. In any case, the black students were determined to obtain their degrees here no matter what and such a goal was made easier because of the kind of tertiary academic communities their respective schools offer

  10. Clinical study of burn patients requiring admission: A single center experience at North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Health and Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donkupar Khongwar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although burns are a major problem in health care, a lot of the variation in risk factors exists from region to region which if uncovered correctly could help take effective prevention measures. Aims and Objectives: To assess the 3-year (January 2012 to January 2015 epidemiology of burn injuries admitted to our hospital (primary objective and to find areas of improvement in burn care (secondary objective. Materials and Methods: After obtaining ethical approval data were obtained from the medical record section regarding age, sex, residence, occupation, marital status, socioeconomic status, dates of admission and discharge, circumstances regarding the place, intent, cause, and source of heat. Clinical assessment was done using Wallace's “Rule of Nine” in adult and “Lund and Browder” chart in the pediatric age groups. The interrelationships between clinical and epidemiological variables with burn injury were studied. Results: An increasing trend in the admission rates of burn victims noted in last 3 years males (55.47% outnumbered females (44.52%. The most common age group affected is older children, adolescents, and young adults (between 11 and 30 years. Flame (38.3% and scald (25.3% burns contributed to most of the injuries. Females (52.30% are the major victim of flame burns. Electrical and chemical burns affected only the males suggesting work-related injuries. Trunk (30.8% is the most severely affected site in all cases. Depression (6.8% and power line workers (4.7% seem to be important risk factors in our study. Inability to complete treatment (26.7% was a major concern in our study. Conclusions: This study highlights the need for proper burn care that could be provided at the primary health-care level. The majority of burns were accidental in nature in school going children, young adults, and females. Flame and scald burns were the most common cause. Preventive measures directed toward burn safety and first aid measures

  11. Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW disposal units. Progress report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland: Volume 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.; O'Donnell, E.

    1994-12-01

    The project objective is to assess means for controlling waste infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work is being performed in large scale lysimeters (70 ft x 45 ft x 10 ft) at Beltsville, MD and results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of LLW, uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three concepts are under investigation: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and bioengineering water management. The resistive layer barrier consists of compacted earth (clay). The conductive layer barrier is a special case of the capillary barrier and it requires a flow layer (e.g. fine sandy loam) over a capillary break. As long as unsaturated conditions are maintained water is conducted by the flow layer to below the waste. This barrier is most efficient at low flow rates and is thus best placed below a resistive layer barrier. Such a combination of the resistive layer over the conductive layer barrier promises to be highly effective provided there is no appreciable subsidence. Bioengineering water management is a surface cover that is designed to accommodate subsidence. It consists of impermeable panels which enhance run-off and limit infiltration. Vegetation is planted in narrow openings between panels to transpire water from below the panels. This system has successfully dewatered two lysimeters thus demonstrating that this procedure could be used for remedial action (drying out) existing water-logged disposal sites at low cost

  12. Role of regional anesthesia for placement of peritoneal dialysis catheter under ultrasound guidance: Our experience with 52 end-stage renal disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranjit Chatterjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The number of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD has shown a consistent rise in India in recent years. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD remains one of the safe and effective forms of treatment. In this study, we have tried to assess the effectiveness of field block technique for analgesia during catheter placement surgery until 24 h postoperatively, also, if it can obviate the need for general anesthesia in these high-risk patients. Materials and Methods: We studied 52 ESRD patients from 2010 to 2012 who were posted for CAPD catheterization in the Department of Urology, Care Hospital, Hyderabad, India. Under ultrasound guidance, "unilateral posterior" and "unilateral subcostal" transversus abdominis plane block anesthesia were given for the placement of CAPD catheter. Patient′s intra-operative pain and post-operative pain were recorded with visual analog scores (VAS and analyzed. Results: All patients in our study belonged to American Society of Anesthesiologists category 2 or 3 with multiple co-morbidities. 41 out of 52 patients required no supplemental analgesia during the procedure; 8 patients needed additional infiltration of local anesthetic during skin incisions. Three patients required supplemental analgesia and were considered as failure. A VAS of two was noted in 30 patients and 1 in 19 Patients. No Patient had significant pain 24 h post operatively. No local complication was noted in any patient. Conclusion: CAPD Catheterization under regional field block remains safe and effective options for ESRD patients.

  13. Regions Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Masciarelli, Francesca; Prencipe, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    capital at the regional level, with a large-scale data set of the innovative activities of a representative sample of 2,413 Italian manufacturing firms from 21 regions, and controlling for a large set of firm and regional characteristics, we find that being located in a region characterized by a high...

  14. The De-Icing Comparison Experiment (D-ICE): A campaign for improving data retention rates of radiometric measurements under icing conditions in cold regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, C. J.; Morris, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Longwave and shortwave radiative fluxes are fundamental quantities regularly observed globally using broadband radiometers. In cold climates, frost, rime, snow and ice (collectively, "icing") frequently builds up on sensor windows, contaminating measurements. Since icing occurs under particular meteorological conditions, associated data losses constitutes a climatological bias. Furthermore, the signal caused by ice is difficult to distinguish from that of clouds, hampering efforts to identify contaminated from real data in post-processing. Because of the sensitivity of radiometers to internal temperature instabilities, there are limitations to using heat as a de-icing method. The magnitude of this problem is indicated by the large number of research institutions and commercial vendors that have developed various de-icing strategies. The D-ICE campaign has been designed to bring together a large number of currently available systems to quantitatively evaluate and compare ice-migration strategies and also to characterize the potentially adverse effects of the techniques themselves. For D-ICE, a variety of automated approaches making use of ventilation, heating, modified housings and alcohol spray are being evaluated alongside standard units operating with only the regularly scheduled manual cleaning by human operators at the NOAA Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) station in Utqiaġvik (formerly Barrow), Alaska. Previous experience within the BSRN community suggests that aspiration of ambient air alone may be sufficient to maintain ice-free radiometers without increasing measurement uncertainty during icing conditions, forming the main guiding hypothesis of the experiment. Icing on the sensors is monitored visually using cameras recording images every 15 minutes and quantitatively using an icing probe and met station. The effects of applied heat on infrared loss in pyranometers will be analyzed and the integrated effect of icing on monthly averages will be

  15. Solubility and speciation results from oversaturation experiments on neptunium, plutonium and americium in a neutral electrolyte with a total carbonate similar to water from Yucca Mountain Region Well UE- 25p No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torretto, P.; Becraft, K.; Prussin, T.; Roberts, K.; Carpenter, S.; Hobart, D.; Nitsche, H.

    1995-12-01

    Solubility and speciation are important in understanding aqueous radionuclide transport through the geosphere. They define the source term for transport retardation processes such as sorption and colloid formation. Solubility and speciation data are useful in verifying the validity of geochemical codes that are a part of predictive transport models. Solubility experiments will approach solution equilibrium from both oversaturation and undersaturation. In these experiments, we have approached the solubility equilibrium from oversaturation, Results are given for solubility and speciation experiments from oversaturation of 237 NpO 2 + 239 Pu 4+ , and 241 Am 3+ /Nd 3+ in a neutral electrolyte containing a total carbonate concentration similar to groundwater from the Yucca Mountain region, Nevada, which is being investigated as a potential high-level nuclear waste disposal site, at 25 degrees C and three pH values. In these experiments, the solubilitycontrolling steady-state solids were identified and the speciation and/or oxidation states present in the supernatant solutions were determined

  16. Community mental health nurses’ experience of decentralised and integrated psychiatric-mental health care services in the Southern mental health region of Botswana (part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Maphorisa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the inception of the decentralisation and integration of psychiatric mental health care services into the general health care delivery system in Botswana, there has never been a study to investigate what community mental health nurses are experiencing due to the policy. Many of these nurses have been leaving the scantily staffed mental health care services in increasing numbers to join other sectors of health or elsewhere since the beginning of the implementation of the policy. During the research study, phenomenological in-depth interviews were conducted with three groups of 12 community mental health nurses altogether. An open central question was posed to each group followed by probing questions to explore and describe these nurses’ experience of the decentralisation and integration of psychiatric-mental health care services. After the data was analysed, related literature was incorporated and guidelines for advanced psychiatric nurses were formulated and described to assist these nurses to cope with the decentralisation and integration of psychiatric-mental health care services. The guidelines were set up for the management of the community mental health nurses who are experiencing obstacles in the quest for mental health which also interfere with their capabilities as mental health care providers.

  17. The vacuum chamber in the interaction region of particle colliders a historical study and developments implementations in the LHCb experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Knaster, J R; Gamez-Mejias, L

    2004-01-01

    The history of particle colliders begins in the early 60's when an idea previously patented by R. Wideroe in 1953 is constructed. The design of the vacuum chamber in their experimental area became essential as it was the rst physical barrier that the particles to be detected needed to traverse. The interaction of the products of the collisions with the vacuum chamber structural materials, hindered the identification of the significative events. This Thesis analyses the historical evolution of the experimental vacuum chambers and summarizes the technical criteria that are to be fulfilled. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) presently under construction at CERN is the last generation of particle colliders. Four big experiments will be in operation (ATLAS, CMS, ALICE and LHCb) in the LHC with diferent physics objectives. In particular, LHCb will be devoted to the study of CP violation and the design of its vacuum chamber is the scope of this Thesis. Physics simulations with an initial design consisting of a conical ...

  18. Experiences of Barriers and Motivators to Weight-Loss among Saudi People with Overweight or Obesity in Qassim Region - A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mohaimeed, Abdulrahman A; Elmannan, Abeer Abuzeid Atta

    2017-12-15

    Obesity has become a global health threat. Saudi Arabia ranks among the countries with high obesity and overweight rates. This study aims to explore experiences of Saudi people with overweight or obesity with a particular focus on the perceived barriers and motivators to weight loss. We used a qualitative approach to recruiting a purposive sample using maximum variation sampling technique. Those who had previously attempted weight loss at least once were included in the study. In-depth interviews were conducted, transcribed and/ or audiotaped. Interviews continued until saturation was reached. The qualitative content analysis was performed. A total of 19 males and 18 females participated in this study with a mean Body Mass Index (BMI) of 32.6 kg/m 2 . Their main triggers to weight loss were concerns about overall health and the desire to improve their looks. Declining motivation, lack of family support and unhealthy eating during social gatherings were perceived as the main barriers. Motivating factors included concerns about health, family support, and availability of exercise facilities. Factors responsible for a successful weight- loss is context-specific. This study has shown several barriers as well as motivators, which play an important role in weight reduction and maintenance.

  19. The clinical utility of reduced-distortion readout-segmented echo-planar imaging in the head and neck region: initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyasu, Sho; Iima, Mami; Umeoka, Shigeaki; Morisawa, Nobuko; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Sakyo-Ku, Kyoto (Japan); Porter, David A. [Siemens AG, MED MR PLM AW Neurology, Allee am Roethelheimpark 2, Erlangen (Germany); Ito, Juichi [Kyoto University, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Sakyo-Ku, Kyoto (Japan); Le Bihan, Denis [Kyoto University, Human Brain Research Center, Graduate School of Medicine, Sakyo-Ku, Kyoto (Japan); Neurospin, CEA-Saclay Center, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2014-12-15

    To evaluate whether readout-segmented echo-planar imaging (RS-EPI) diffusion weighted image (DWI) can diminish image distortion in the head and neck area, compared with single-shot (SS)-EPI DWI. We conducted phantom and patient studies using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a 16-channel coil. For the phantom study, we evaluated distortion and signal homogeneity in gel phantoms. For the patient study, 29 consecutive patients with clinically suspicious parotid lesions were prospectively enrolled. RS-EPI and SS-EPI DWI were evaluated by two independent readers for identification of organ/lesion and distortion, using semiquantitative scales and quantitative scores. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and contrast-noise ratios of parotid tumours (if present; n = 15) were also compared. The phantom experiments showed that RS-EPI provided less distorted and more homogeneous ADC maps than SS-EPI. In the patient study, RS-EPI was found to provide significantly less distortion in almost all organs/lesions (p < 0.05), according to both semiquantitative scales and quantitative scores. There was no significant difference in ADC values and contrast-noise ratios between the two DWI techniques. The distortion in DWI was significantly reduced with RS-EPI in both phantom and patient studies. The RS-EPI technique provided more homogenous images than SS-EPI, and can potentially offer higher image quality in the head and neck area. (orig.)

  20. Moho Depth and Geometry in the Illinois Basin Region Based on Gravity and Seismic Data from an EarthScope FlexArray Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, D. D.; Pavlis, G. L.; Yang, X.; Hamburger, M. W.; Zhang, H.; Ravat, D.

    2017-12-01

    We present results from a combined analysis of seismic and gravity in the Illinois Basin region that demonstrate the presence of an unusually deep and highly variable Moho discontinuity. We construct a new, high-resolution image of the Earth's crust beneath the Illinois Basin using teleseismic P-wave receiver functions from the EarthScope OIINK (Ozarks, Illinois, INdiana, Kentucky) Flexible Array and the USArray Transportable Array. Our seismic analyses involved data from 143 OIINK stations and 80 USArray stations, using 3D plane-wave migration and common conversion point (CCP) stacking of P-to-S conversion data. Seismic interpretation has been done using the seismic exploration software package Petrel. One of the most surprising results is the anomalous depth of the Moho in this area, ranging from 41 to 63 km, with an average depth of 50 km. This thickened crust is unexpected in the Illinois Basin area, which has not been subject to convergence and mountain building processes in the last 900 Ma. This anomalously thick crust in combination with the minimal topography requires abnormally dense lower crust or unusually light upper mantle in order to retain gravitational equilibrium. Combining gravity modeling with the seismically identified Moho and a ubiquitous lower crustal boundary, we solve for the density variation of the middle and lower crust. We test the hypothesis that the anomalously thick crust and its high lower crustal layer observed in most of the central and southeastern Illinois Basin predates the formation and development of the current Illinois Basin. Post-formation tectonic activity, such as late Precambrian rifting or underplating are inferred to have modified the crustal thickness as well. The combination of high-resolution seismic data analysis and gravity modeling promises to provide additional insight into the geometry and composition of the lower crust in the Illinois Basin area.

  1. Effect of rainfall intensity and slope steepness on the development of soil erosion in the Southern Cis-Ural region (A model experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, N. V.; Gabbasova, I. M.; Komissarov, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    The effect of rainfall intensity on the erosion of residual calcareous agrogray soils and clay-illuvial agrochernozems in the Southern Cis-Ural region on slopes of different inclination and vegetation type has been studied by simulating with a small-size sprinkler. It has been shown that soil loss linearly depends on rainfall intensity (2, 4, and 6 mm/min) and slope inclination (3° and 7°). When the rainfall intensity and duration, and the slope inclination increase, soil loss by erosion from agrogray soils increases higher than from agrochernozems. On the plowland with a slope of 3°, runoff begins 12, 10, and 5 min, on the average, after the beginning of rains at these intensities. When the slope increases to 7°, runoff begins earlier by 7, 6, and 4 min, respectively. After the beginning of runoff and with its increase by 1 mm, the soil loss from slopes of 3° and 7° reaches 4.2 and 25.7 t/ha on agrogray soils and 1.4 and 4.7 t/ha on agrochernozems, respectively. Fallow soils have higher erosion resistance, and the soil loss little depends on the slope gradient: it gradually increases to 0.3-1.0 t/ha per 1 mm of runoff with increasing rainfall intensity and duration. The content of physical clay in eroded material is higher than in the original soils. Fine fractions prevail in this material, which increases their humus content. The increase in rainfall intensity and duration to 4 and 6 mm/min results in the entrapment of coarse silt and sand by runoff.

  2. Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW disposal units. Progress report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland: Volume 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.

    1995-04-01

    This study's objective is to assess means for controlling water infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work is being performed in large-scale lysimeters 21.34 m x 13.72 m x 3.05 m (75 ft x 45 ft x 10 ft) at Beltsville, Maryland. Results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration are being investigated: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and (3) bioengineering management. The resistive layer barrier consists of compacted earthen material (e.g., clay). The conductive layer barrier consists of a conductive layer in conjunction with a capillary break. As long as unsaturated flow conditions are maintained, the conductive layer will wick water around the capillary break. Below-grade layered covers such as (1) and (2) will fail if there is appreciable subsidence of the cover, and remedial action for this kind of failure will be difficult. A surface cover, called bioengineering management, is meant to overcome this problem. The bioengineering management surface barrier is easily repairable if damaged by subsidence; therefore, it could be the system of choice under active subsidence conditions. The bioengineering management procedure also has been shown to be effective in dewatering saturated trenches and could be used for remedial action efforts. After cessation of subsidence, that procedure could be replaced by a resistive layer barrier or, perhaps even better, by a resistive layer barrier/conductive layer barrier system. The latter system would then give long-term effective protection against water entry into waste without institutional care

  3. Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW disposal units: Progress report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.

    1996-08-01

    This study's objective is to assess means for controlling water infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work is being performed in large-scale lysimeters 21.34 m x 13.72 m x 3.05 m (70 ft x 45 ft x 10 ft) at Beltsville, Maryland. Results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration are being investigated: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and (3) bioengineering management. The resistive layer barrier consists of compacted earthen material (e.g., clay). The conductive layer barrier consists of a conductive layer in conjunction with a capillary break. As long as unsaturated flow conditions are maintained, the conductive layer will wick water around the capillary break. Below-grade layered covers such as (1) and (2) will fail if there is appreciable subsidence of the cover, and remedial action for this kind of failure will be difficult. A surface cover, called bioengineering management, is meant to overcome this problem. The bioengineering management surface barrier is easily repairable if damaged by subsidence; therefore, it could be the system of choice under active subsidence conditions. The bioengineering management procedure also has been shown to be effective in dewatering saturated trenches and could be used for remedial action efforts. After cessation of subsidence, that procedure could be replaced by a resistive layer barrier or, perhaps even better, by a resistive layer barrier/conductive layer barrier system. The latter system would then give long-term effective protection against water entry into waste without institutional care

  4. Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW disposal units-progress report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, E.; Ridky, R.W.; Schulz, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    The study's objective is to assess means for controlling water infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work is being performed in large-scale lysimeters (75'x45'x10') at Beltsville, MD, and results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration are being investigated. They are: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and (3) bioengineering management. The conductive layer barrier consists of a conductive layer in conjunction with a capillary break. As long as unsaturated flow conditions are maintained, the conductive layer will wick water around the capillary break. Below-grade layered covers such as (1) and (2) will fail if there is appreciable subsidence of the cover. Remedial action for this kind of failure will be difficult. A surface cover, called bioengineering management, is meant to overcome this problem. The bioengineering management surface barrier is easily repairable if damaged by subsidence; therefore, it could be the system of choice under active subsidence conditions. The bioengineering management procedure also has been shown to be effective in dewatering saturated trenches and could be used for remedial action efforts. After cessation of subsidence, that procedure could be replaced by a resistive layer barrier, or perhaps even better, a resistive layer barrier/conductive layer barrier system. This latter system would then give long-term effective protection against water entry into waste and without institutional care

  5. Regional cooperation in transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    As Floridas urbanized areas grow and merge, : neighboring jurisdictions experience interrelated : problems and opportunities, and regional : cooperation becomes an imperative. In the : transportation sector, Floridas metropolitan : planning org...

  6. Comparing early years and childhood experiences and outcomes in Scotland, England and three city-regions: a plausible explanation for Scottish 'excess' mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taulbut, Martin; Walsh, David; O'Dowd, John

    2014-10-10

    Negative early years and childhood experiences (EYCE), including socio-economic circumstances, parental health and parenting style, are associated with poor health outcomes both in childhood and adulthood. It has also been proposed that EYCE were historically worse in Scottish areas, especially Glasgow and the Clyde Valley, compared to elsewhere in the UK and that this variation can provide a partial explanation for the excess of ill health and mortality observed among those Scottish populations. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to two large, representative, British birth cohorts (the NCDS58 and the BCS70), to test the independent association of area of residence at ages 7 and 5 with risk of behavioural problems, respiratory problems and reading/vocabulary problems at the same age. Cohort members resident in Scotland were compared with those who were resident in England, while those resident in Glasgow and the Clyde Valley were compared with those resident in Merseyside and Greater Manchester. After adjustment for a range of relevant variables, the risk of adverse childhood outcomes was found to be either no different, or lower, in the Scottish areas. At a national level, the study reinforces the combined association of socio-economic circumstances, parental health (especially maternal mental health) and parenting with child health outcomes. Based on these samples, the study does not support the hypothesis that EYCE were worse in Scotland and Glasgow and the Clyde Valley. It seems, therefore (based on these data), less likely that the roots of the excess mortality observed in the Scottish areas can be explained by these factors.

  7. LITHOSPHERIC STRUCTURE OF THE CARPATHIAN-PANNONIAN REGION BASED ON THE GRAVITY MODELING BY INTEGRATING THE CELEBRATION2000 SEISMIC EXPERIMENT AND NEW GEOPHYSICAL RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielik, M.; Alasonati Tašárová, Z.; Zeyen, H. J.; Afonso, J.; Goetze, H.; Dérerová, J.

    2009-12-01

    Two different methods for the 3-D interpretation of the gravity field have been applied to the study of the structure and tectonics of the Carpathian-Pannonian lithosphere. The first (second) method provided a set of the different stripped gravity maps (the new lithosphere thickness map). The contribution presents the interpretation of the gravity field, which takes into account the CELEBRATION2000 seismic as well as new geophysical results. The sediment stripped gravity map is characterized by gravity minima in the Eastern Alps and Western Carpathians, and gravity maxima in the Pannonian Back-arc Basin system and the European platform. The gravity low in the Eastern Alps is produced by the thick crust (more than 45 km). The Western Carpathian gravity minimum is a result of the interference of two main gravitational effects. The first one comes from the low-density sediments of the Outer Western Carpathians and Carpathian Foredeep. The second one is due to the thick low-density upper and middle crust, reaching up to 25 km. In the Pannonian Back-arc Basin system can be observed the regional gravity high which is a result of the gravity effect of the anomalously shallow Moho. The most dominant feature of the complete 3-D stripped gravity map (crustal gravity effect map) is the abrupt change of the gravity field along the Klippen Belt zone. While the European platform is characterized by positive anomalies, the Western Carpathian orogen and the Pannonian Back-arc Basin system by relatively long-wavelength gravity low (several hundred kilometers). The lowest values are associated with the thick low-density upper and middle crust of the Inner Western Carpathians. That is why we suggest that the European Platform consists of the significantly denser crust with respect to the less dense crust of the microplates ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia. The contrast in the gravity fields over the European platform and microplates ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia reflect also their different crustal

  8. J/ψ suppression and elliptic flow in 200 GeV Au+Au collisions at the mid rapidity region of the PHENIX experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomssa, E.T.

    2008-12-01

    J/Ψ are considered to be one of the key probes of the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) formation in heavy ion collisions. Color screening was proposed as a mechanism leading to anomalous suppression beyond normal absorption in nuclear matter if J/Ψs were created in a deconfined medium, providing a direct evidence of deconfinement. The higher energy density that is available at RHIC should create a hotter QGP, and render the suppression signature more significant than in previous measurement performed at CERN SPS. The PHENIX detector is one of the four experiments that were installed at RHIC, with a design that is optimal for the measurement of the J/Ψ meson at forward rapidity in the dimuon decay channel, and at mid rapidity in the dielectron decay channel. Since day one operation in 2001, PHENIX has measured, among many other observables, J/Ψ yields in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions in a wide range of energies going from 19 GeV to 200 GeV per pair of nucleons. The work presented here covers the analysis of data taken by the mid rapidity spectrometers of PHENIX in Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV. The nuclear modification factor is measured as a function of centrality, and compared to extrapolations of cold nuclear matter suppression constrained in d+Au collisions at the same energy. Though the suppression seen in the most central collisions goes up to a factor of more than three, given the large errors in the extrapolations, most of it can possibly be accounted for by cold nuclear effects, and the significance of the extra anomalous suppression is small. More strikingly, comparisons to the CERN SPS results and to the suppression measurement at forward rapidity in PHENIX show features that seem to suggest the violation of the intuitive picture of increasing suppression with local energy density. This has led to the speculation that regeneration, a J/Ψ production mechanism by association of uncorrelated c and c-bar quarks, might be at play in central heavy ion

  9. Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW disposal units - Progress report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Donnell, Edward [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Ridky, Robert W [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Schulz, Robert K [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The study's objective is to assess means for controlling water infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work is being performed in large-scale lysimeters (75x45x10') at Beltsville, MD, and results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration are being investigated. They are: 1) resistive layer barrier, 2) conductive layer barrier, and 3) bioengineering management. The resistive layer barrier consists of compacted earthen material (e.g., clay). The conductive layer barrier consists of a conductive layer in conjunction with a capillary break. As long as unsaturated flow conditions are maintained, the conductive layer will wick water around the capillary break. Below-grade layered covers such as (1) and (2) will fail if there is appreciable subsidence of the cover. Remedial action for this kind of failure will be difficult. A surface cover, called bioengineering management, is meant to overcome this problem. The bioengineering management surface barrier is easily repairable if damaged by subsidence; therefore, it could be the system of choice under active subsidence conditions. The bioengineering management procedure also has been shown to be effective in dewatering saturated trenches and could be used for remedial action efforts. After cessation of subsidence, that procedure could be replaced by a resistive layer barrier, or perhaps even better, a resistive layer barrier/conductive layer barrier system. This latter system would then give long-term effective protection against water entry into waste and without institutional care. As mentioned in the preceding paragraph, a bioengineering management cover might well be the cover of choice during tho active subsidence phase of a waste disposal unit. Some maintenance is required during that period. Final

  10. Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW disposal units - Progress report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, Edward; Ridky, Robert W.; Schulz, Robert K.

    1992-01-01

    The study's objective is to assess means for controlling water infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work is being performed in large-scale lysimeters (75x45x10') at Beltsville, MD, and results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration are being investigated. They are: 1) resistive layer barrier, 2) conductive layer barrier, and 3) bioengineering management. The resistive layer barrier consists of compacted earthen material (e.g., clay). The conductive layer barrier consists of a conductive layer in conjunction with a capillary break. As long as unsaturated flow conditions are maintained, the conductive layer will wick water around the capillary break. Below-grade layered covers such as (1) and (2) will fail if there is appreciable subsidence of the cover. Remedial action for this kind of failure will be difficult. A surface cover, called bioengineering management, is meant to overcome this problem. The bioengineering management surface barrier is easily repairable if damaged by subsidence; therefore, it could be the system of choice under active subsidence conditions. The bioengineering management procedure also has been shown to be effective in dewatering saturated trenches and could be used for remedial action efforts. After cessation of subsidence, that procedure could be replaced by a resistive layer barrier, or perhaps even better, a resistive layer barrier/conductive layer barrier system. This latter system would then give long-term effective protection against water entry into waste and without institutional care. As mentioned in the preceding paragraph, a bioengineering management cover might well be the cover of choice during tho active subsidence phase of a waste disposal unit. Some maintenance is required during that period. Final

  11. ESTABLISHING THE PAN-EURASIAN EXPERIMENT (PEEX LAND-ATMOSPHERE IN SITU OBSERVATION NETWORK ACROSS THE NORTHERN EURASIAN ARCTIC-BOREAL REGIONS ‒ INTRODUCTION TO THE RUSSIAN STATIONS’ METADATA ENQUIRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Lappalainen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX initiative (https://www.atm.helsinki.fi/peex/, initiated in 2012, is an international, multidisciplinary, multiscale program focused on solving interlinked global challenges influencing societies in the Northern Eurasian region and in China. As a part of the program, PEEX is aimed to establish an in situ observation network, which would cover environments from the Arctic coastal regions, tundra to boreal forests, from pristine to urban megacities. The PEEX network will be based on two components: (i the existing stations activities and (ii establishing new stations. The upgrading plans of the existing stations as well as the new stations will be based on a SMEAR (Stations for Measuring Earth surface ‒ Atmosphere Relations concept. The development of the coordinated, comprehensive PEEX observation network is contributing to the sustainable development of the Northern Eurasian regions. It is aimed at providing quantified information on climate relevant variables for the research communities and for constructing services, such as early warning systems, for the society.

  12. The presence of depression in women who are victims of violence. The experiences of Anti Violence centers in the region of Calabria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juli, Maria Rosaria

    2014-11-01

    As is clear from research accredited by the ONU, the violence suffered by the partner, husband or other family members is the leading cause of death and disability for women aged 15 to 44 years. The WHO has also shown that at least one in five women suffers a beating or any form of violence in herl lifetime. Gender-based violence is undoubtedly a widespread phenomenon on a worldwide scale regardless of ethnicity, religion, social class,or level of education. It is a traumatic experience that produces different effects depending on the type of violence and the person who is the victim. There is a close relationship of cause and effect between violence and health status of women. They are in fact relevant primary effects related to the consequences of direct physical violence on the body and the side effects associated with mental and physical damage to repetitive exposure and situations of traumatic impact. The health consequences can be of different nature,rainging from Physical, Psychological and Behavioral, Sexual and Reproductive, to Death. The first important Psychological consequences are Depressive Disorder and Anxiety. The objective of this study was to analyze, through the administration of diagnostic tests, the methods of the links of the subjects on the one hand, attachment and relationships on the other; grouped in practice to detect if there is a close relationship between a Depressive Disorder and Violence suffered. 20 women aged between 23 and 50 years who have experienced various forms of violence, were randomly selected and followed by the three anti-violence centers of Calabria. The Separation Anxiety Depressive trait that explains the current Depression is not the result of the violence, but it is due to lack of self-confidence, difficulty im being identified and ability to plan for their lives. These difficulties are established in the woman through an enmeshed relationship with her partner, in fact, what has emerged is the establishment of an

  13. Structural analysis of polymer thin films using GISAXS in the tender X-ray region: Concept and design of GISAXS experiments using the tender X-ray energy at BL-15A2 at the Photon Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, H., E-mail: takagih@post.kek.jp; Igarashi, N.; Mori, T.; Saijo, S.; Nagatani, Y.; Shimizu, N. [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Ohta, H. [Mitsubishi Electric System & Service Co., Ltd, Accelerator Engineering Center, 2-8- 8 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0045 (Japan); Yamamoto, K. [Graduate School of Engineering, Department of Materials Science & Technology, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2016-10-14

    If small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) utilizing the soft X-ray region is available, advanced and unique experiments, which differ from traditional SAXS methods, can be realized. For example, grazing-incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) using hard X-ray is a powerful tool for understanding the nanostructure in both vertical and lateral directions of thin films, while GISAXS utilizing the tender X-ray region (SX-GISAXS) enables depth-resolved analysis as well as a standard GISAXS analysis in thin films. Thus, at BL-15A2 at the Photon Factory, a dedicated diffractometer for SX-GISAXS (above 2.1 keV) was constructed. This diffractometer is composed of four vacuum chambers and can be converted into the vacuum state from the sample chamber in front of the detector surface. Diffractions are clearly observed until 12th peak when measuring collagen by SAXS with an X-ray energy of 2.40 keV and a camera length of 825 mm. Additionally, we conducted the model experiment using SX-GISAXS with an X-ray energy of 2.40 keV to confirm that a poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(n-butyl acrylate) block copolymer thin film has a microphase-separated structure in the thin film, which is composed of lamellae aligned both parallel and perpendicular to the substrate surface. Similarly, in a polystyrene-poly(methyl methacrylate) block copolymer thin film, SX-GISAXS with 3.60 keV and 5.73 keV revealed that hexagonally packed cylinders are aligned parallel to the substrate surface. The incident angle dependence of the first order peak position of the q{sub z} direction obtained from experiments at various incident X-ray energies agrees very well with the theoretical one calculated from the distorted wave Born approximation.

  14. Structural analysis of polymer thin films using GISAXS in the tender X-ray region: Concept and design of GISAXS experiments using the tender X-ray energy at BL-15A2 at the Photon Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, H.; Igarashi, N.; Mori, T.; Saijo, S.; Nagatani, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Ohta, H.; Yamamoto, K.

    2016-01-01

    If small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) utilizing the soft X-ray region is available, advanced and unique experiments, which differ from traditional SAXS methods, can be realized. For example, grazing-incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) using hard X-ray is a powerful tool for understanding the nanostructure in both vertical and lateral directions of thin films, while GISAXS utilizing the tender X-ray region (SX-GISAXS) enables depth-resolved analysis as well as a standard GISAXS analysis in thin films. Thus, at BL-15A2 at the Photon Factory, a dedicated diffractometer for SX-GISAXS (above 2.1 keV) was constructed. This diffractometer is composed of four vacuum chambers and can be converted into the vacuum state from the sample chamber in front of the detector surface. Diffractions are clearly observed until 12th peak when measuring collagen by SAXS with an X-ray energy of 2.40 keV and a camera length of 825 mm. Additionally, we conducted the model experiment using SX-GISAXS with an X-ray energy of 2.40 keV to confirm that a poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(n-butyl acrylate) block copolymer thin film has a microphase-separated structure in the thin film, which is composed of lamellae aligned both parallel and perpendicular to the substrate surface. Similarly, in a polystyrene-poly(methyl methacrylate) block copolymer thin film, SX-GISAXS with 3.60 keV and 5.73 keV revealed that hexagonally packed cylinders are aligned parallel to the substrate surface. The incident angle dependence of the first order peak position of the q_z direction obtained from experiments at various incident X-ray energies agrees very well with the theoretical one calculated from the distorted wave Born approximation.

  15. Structural region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Structural region. The two groups had 4 substitutions similar to Yawat strain. The Yawat strain had 5 unique mutations. 3 in the E2 region and 2 in the E1 region. The mutation, I702V (E2), though different from all the recent Indian and Reunion sequences was similar ...

  16. A identidade territorial enogastronômica como elemento de sustentação turística regional : a experiência do Tirol e Südtirol = Territorial enogastronony identity as a point of regional touristic development : Tyrol and Soul Tyrol experience

    OpenAIRE

    do Nascimento e Silva, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    No que diz respeito ao turismo, percebe-se que, espaços antes isolados, ou então com relações restritas em escala regional, tornam-se partes de um sistema de abrangência global que acaba por sofrer influências da padronização de produtos e da redefinição de territórios. Todavia a enogastronomia busca oportunizar a reação regional através do oferecimento de produtos particulares, impregnados de cultura, em que sociedades reconhecem suas identidades e atraem visitantes para a localidade, fazend...

  17. Near-death experiences, attacks by family members, and absence of health care in their home countries affect the quality of life of refugee women in Germany: a multi-region, cross-sectional, gender-sensitive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesuthasan, Jenny; Sönmez, Ekin; Abels, Ingar; Kurmeyer, Christine; Gutermann, Jana; Kimbel, Renate; Krüger, Antje; Niklewski, Guenter; Richter, Kneginja; Stangier, Ulrich; Wollny, Anja; Zier, Ulrike; Oertelt-Prigione, Sabine; Shouler-Ocak, Meryam

    2018-02-01

    The year 2016 has marked the highest number of displaced people worldwide on record. A large number of these refugees are women, yet little is known about their specific situation and the hurdles they have to face during their journey. Herein, we investigated whether sociodemographic characteristics and traumatic experiences in the home country and during the flight affected the quality of life of refugee women arriving in Germany in 2015-2016. Six hundred sixty-three women from six countries (Afghanistan, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Somalia, and Eritrea) living in shared reception facilities in five distinct German regions were interviewed by native speakers using a structured questionnaire. Sociodemographic data and information about reasons for fleeing, traumatic experiences, symptoms, quality of life, and expectations towards their future were elicited. All information was stored in a central database in Berlin. Descriptive analyses, correlations, and multivariate analyses were performed. The most frequent reasons cited for fleeing were war, terror, and threat to one's life or the life of a family member. Eighty-seven percent of women resorted to smugglers to make the journey to Europe, and this significantly correlated to residence in a war zone (odds ratio (OR) = 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-4.6, p = 0.003) and homelessness prior to fleeing (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1-4.3, p = 0.04). Overall the described quality of life by the women was moderate (overall mean = 3.23, range of 1-5) and slightly worse than that of European populations (overall mean = 3.68, p Refugee women experience multiple traumatic experiences before and/or during their journey, some of which are gender-specific. These experiences affect the quality of life in their current country of residence and might impact their integration. We encourage the early investigation of these traumatic experiences to rapidly identify women at higher risk and to improve health

  18. Regional Innovation Policies in MERCOSUR : Obstacles and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... review existing regional cooperation initiatives, identify sectors with strong potential for regional cooperation, review other experiences in regional cooperation for innovation (European Union - EU, North American Free Trade Agreement - NAFTA), and propose institutional arrangements for promoting innovation among ...

  19. SNAKEBITE MANAGEMENT: Experiences From Gulu Regional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antivenom in snakebite management. ... December 2002 the outcome of supportive therapy in management of 108 cases of snakebite was ..... Venomous Bites and Strings, 14th edn. Volume ... Turner P, Pearson R.M. Adverse Drug Reactions.

  20. Southwest Region Experiment Station (SWRES) 1990 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-03-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems and components have been tested at the SWRES since 1981. The US Department of Energy provided the initial funding for the 12 support structures on the site. Approximately 40 kW of PV was installed on the roofs of these support structures to study the performance of residential applications. A review of the performance of these systems during the decade of the 1980`s is included in Section 2 of this report.

  1. Video digitizer (real time-frame grabber) with region of interest suitable for quantitative data analysis used on the infrared and H alpha cameras installed on the DIII-D experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, S.W.; Kevan, D.K.; Hill, D.N.; Allen, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a CAMAC based video digitizer with region of interest (ROI) capability that was designed for use with the infrared and H alpha cameras installed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory on the DIII-D experiment at G.A. Technologies in San Diego, California. The video digitizer uses a custom built CAMAC video synchronizer module to clock data into a CAMAC transient recorder on a line-by-line basis starting at the beginning of a field. The number of fields that are recorded is limited only by the available transient recorder memory. In order to conserve memory, the CAMAC video synchronizer module provides for the alternative selection of a specific region of interest in each successive field to be recorded. Memory conservation can be optimized by specifying lines in the field, start time, stop time, and the number of data samples per line. This video frame grabber has proved versatile for capturing video in such diverse applications as recording video fields from a video tape recorder played in slow motion or recording video fields in real time during a DIII-D shot. In other cases, one or more lines of video are recorded per frame to give a cross sectional slice of the plasma. Since all the data in the digitizer memory is synchronized to video fields and lines, the data can be read directly into the control computer in the proper matrix format to facilitate rapid processing, display, and permanent storage

  2. An ethnographic action research study to investigate the experiences of Bindjareb women participating in the cooking and nutrition component of an Aboriginal health promotion programme in regional Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilson, Caroline; Kearing-Salmon, Karrie-Anne; Morrison, Paul; Fetherston, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the experiences of women participating in a cooking and nutrition component of a health promotion research initiative in an Australian Aboriginal regional community. Weekly facilitated cooking and nutrition classes were conducted during school terms over 12 months. An ethnographic action research study was conducted for the programme duration with data gathered by participant and direct observation, four yarning groups and six individual yarning sessions. The aim was to determine the ways the cooking and nutrition component facilitated lifestyle change, enabled engagement, encouraged community ownership and influenced community action. Regional Bindjareb community in the Nyungar nation of Western Australia. A sample of seventeen Aboriginal women aged between 18 and 60 years from the two kinships in two towns in one shire took part in the study. The recruitment and consent process was managed by community Elders and leaders. Major themes emerged highlighting the development of participants and their recognition of the need for change: the impact of history on current nutritional health of Indigenous Australians; acknowledging shame; challenges of change around nutrition and healthy eating; the undermining effect of mistrust and limited resources; the importance of community control when developing health promotion programmes; finding life purpose through learning; and the need for planning and partnerships to achieve community determination. Suggested principles for developing cooking and nutrition interventions are: consideration of community needs; understanding the impact of historical factors on health; understanding family and community tensions; and the engagement of long-term partnerships to develop community determination.

  3. Evaluation of water transport behavior in sodium fire experiment-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagiri, Toshio [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    2000-02-01

    Evaluation of water transport behavior in Sodium Fire-II (Run-D4) was performed. Results of other experiments performed in Oarai-Engineering Center were considered in the evaluation, and the results of the evaluation were compared with the calculated results of ASSCOPS code. The main conclusions are described below. (1) It was estimated that aerosol hydrates were not formed in the test cell in the experiment, because of high gas temperatures (200degC - 300degC), but water vapor absorption by the formation of aerosol hydrates and water vapor condensation were occurred in humility measure line, because of low gas temperature (20degC - 40degC). Therefore, it was considered appropriate that measured water vapor concentration in the humidity measure line was different from the real concentration in the test cell. (2) Water vapor concentration in the test cell was assumed to be about 35,000 ppm during sodium leak, and reached to about 70,000 ppm because of water release from heated concrete (over 100degC) walls after 190 min from sodium leak started. The assumed value of about 35,000 ppm during sodium leak almost agree with assumed value from the quantity of aerosol in the humidity measure line, but no support for the value of about 70,000 ppm after 190 min could be found. Therefore, water release rate from heated concrete walls can change with their temperature history. (author)

  4. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  5. Excerpts from Dr. P. Kotaiah's paper: Policies on Institutional Credit to Generate Employment and Marketing Skills among the Rural Youth in Asia and the Pacific region -- the Indian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaiah, P

    1998-03-01

    This article summarizes a seminar presented at a CIRDAP regional workshop in February 1998, on gender equity, poverty, rights, and participation. This seminar discussed India's experience with banks and financial policies. The recent East Asian crisis has shown that poverty eradication and sustainable development are not possible without an effective and transparent state that can play a catalytic, facilitating role and can increase and complement the activities of private businesses and individuals. The economy grows faster with a well diversified, efficient financial sector for promoting investment. Well developed, market oriented financial systems contribute to greater economic growth than weak and stringently regulated ones. Formal banks play a key role in meeting the growing needs of the economy and pursuing a social agenda. India, in 1991, reformed its banks which became more competitive and responsive to emerging challenges of a fast growing economy. India has an anti-poverty agenda that for the last 50 years promoted economic growth, offered wage assurance and self employment schemes, and provided a safety net for the poor. These schemes have met with varying success. For example, some operational constraints to credit in rural non-farm schemes were: the bank's perception that rural businesses were high risk and less profitable; poor infrastructure; and a slow process of credit delivery changes and skill upgrades for visible results. The author touches on other issues, such as the changing labor market, collateral substitutes, self-help concepts, venture capital, and integration of rural development programs within banking systems.

  6. Tourism of Khmelnytskyi region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Інна Шоробура

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of tourism in Khmelnytskyi region, its priority areas, types, including cultural-educational, environmental, sportrecreative and others have been revealed in the article. The basic tasks of tourism development in the region, aimed at the formation and protection of the tourism-recreational sector, market of competitive services, attraction of maximum number of tourists to the region, etc. have been cleared out. The attention is focused on the main tourist potential of Khmelnytskyi region, including National Nature Park «Podilski Tovtry», National historical-cultural nature reserve «Kamianets», «Samchyky», Medzhybizh regional historical-ethnographic museum-fortress, sanatorium-resort facilities based on mineral waters and others. The attention is paid to the increase in income from tourism. Traditional hospitality of the population of the region, especially in rural areas, provides the possibility to combine tourists’ accommodation with the study of rural customs and traditions directly in the villages. Tourism in Khmelnytskyi region will be attractive to all tourists who want to eat healthy food, to stay outdoors and enjoy the beauty of the region. Also the article tells us about the development of other directions and familiarizes tourists with other enticements of Khmelnytskyi region using the positive brand of Kamianets-Podilskyi. All three potential areas of tourism development (historical tourism in Kamianets-Podilskyi, recreational tourism on rivers, lakes and in the forests, as well as rural tourism can be combined within the global promotion of nature and traditions of the region. It is indicated that Khmelnytskyi is a promising tourist region of Ukraine. The main problems of the region are inadequate tourism infrastructure, accommodation facilities, food and roads. The experience of the tourism cluster «Oberih» (Protective Charm proves the perspectives of agritourism. Developing these two areas together, we

  7. TRISTAN experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Seigi

    1994-01-01

    Any successor to PETRA and PEP colliders was expected to extend the energy range to the region where the weak interaction effect becomes sizable in annihilation process. The aim was to reach the level, at which the all round study of the standard model can be performed in a clean system of e + e - collision. Also it was aimed to explore the energy region where top quark pair production is likely. Considering the available site for accelerator construction and the expected size of the electroweak interference effect, the target energy was set at 60 GeV at the lowest. TRISTAN-1 experiment is a big initial step in the long range physics program. The laboratory established the plan to move on to TRISTAN-2 (B Factory) project. The TRISTAN accelerator including the main storage ring, the time sequence of storage ring operation, three experimental groups of AMY, TOPAZ and VENUS, and so on are explained. The experiments on basic annihilation process, the search for new particles, the electroweak interaction, QCD studies and so on are reported. The optimum TRISTAN ring was estimated as 3 km in diameter, but the largest possible size in the site was 1/3 of that. Hard decision was made to equip the ring with unusually many accelerating RF cavities and to apply superconducting technology. (K.I.)

  8. AMHARA REGION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the contribution of school curriculum committee in facilitating and coordinating ... schools of Amhara Region' ln undertaking the study the descriptive survey method was used. .... pupil and the teacher are available. ... prepared for each level and grade has ..... the principals have the opinion that the.

  9. Atlantic Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elands, B.H.M.; Bell, S.; Blok, J.

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 2 explores recreation and tourism practices in forest areas in the Atlantic region, which refers to the geographical area close to the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The Atlantic countries described in this section are Belgium (Flanders and Wallonia), Denmark, Iceland, Ireland, the

  10. AFRA: Supporting regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) provides a framework for African Member States to intensify their collaboration through programmes and projects focused on the specific shared needs of its members. It is a formal intergovernmental agreement which entered into force in 1990. In the context of AFRA, Regional Designated Centres for training and education in radiation protection (RDCs) are established African institutions able to provide services, such as training of highly qualified specialists or instructors needed at the national level and also to facilitate exchange of experience and information through networks of services operating in the field

  11. Water vapor variability and comparisons in the subtropical Pacific from The Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment-Pacific Asian Regional Campaign (T-PARC) Driftsonde, Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC), and reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junhong; Zhang, Liangying; Lin, Po-Hsiung; Bradford, Mark; Cole, Harold; Fox, Jack; Hock, Terry; Lauritsen, Dean; Loehrer, Scot; Martin, Charlie; Vanandel, Joseph; Weng, Chun-Hsiung; Young, Kathryn

    2010-11-01

    During the THORPEX (The Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment) Pacific Asian Regional Campaign (T-PARC), from 1 August to 30 September 2008, ˜1900 high-quality, high vertical resolution soundings were collected over the Pacific Ocean. These include dropsondes deployed from four aircrafts and zero-pressure balloons in the stratosphere (NCAR's Driftsonde system). The water vapor probability distribution and spatial variability in the northern subtropical Pacific (14°-20°N, 140°E-155°W) are studied using Driftsonde and COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate) data and four global reanalysis products. Driftsonde data analysis shows distinct differences of relative humidity (RH) distributions in the free troposphere between the Eastern and Western Pacific (EP and WP, defined as east and west of 180°, respectively), very dry with a single peak of ˜1% RH in the EP and bi-modal distributions in the WP with one peak near ice saturation and one varying with altitude. The frequent occurrences of extreme dry air are found in the driftsonde data with 59% and 19% of RHs less than or equal to 5% and at 1% at 500 hPa in the EP, respectively. RH with respect to ice in the free troposphere exhibits considerable longitudinal variations, very low (problems in Driftsonde, two National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalyses and COSMIC data. The moist layer at 200-100 hPa in the WP shown in the ERA-Interim, JRA and COSMIC is missing in Driftsonde data. Major problems are found in the RH means and variability over the study region for both NCEP reanalyses. Although the higher-moisture layer at 200-100 hPa in the WP in the COSMIC data agrees well with the ERA-Interim and JRA, it is primarily attributed to the first guess of the 1-Dimensional (1D) variational analysis used in the COSMIC retrieval rather than the refractivity measurements. The limited soundings (total 268) of Driftsonde data are capable of

  12. Regional Inflation and Financial Dollarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, M.; de Haas, R.; Sokolov, V.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: We exploit variation in consumer price inflation across 71 Russian regions to examine the relationship between the perceived stability of the local currency and financial dollarization. Our results show that regions with higher inflation experience an increase in the dollarization of

  13. AN EXPERIENCE OF INFORMATION SUPPORT FOR REGIONS OF THE NORTH OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION ON THE STATUS AND CHANGES OF WATER OBJECTS AND DRAINS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATIC AND ANTHROPOGENIC FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Filatov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The review presents results of the creation of databases, geoinformation and information systems, catalogs and expert systems and atlases of the Northern European part of Russia. The main goals of the created products are to systematize existing information on water resources and water bodies and provide official information about water bodies of all subjects of water relations; predict current and future planning of water use, and also reasonably set fees for the use of water bodies and resources. An important application of the works performed in the NWPI is to solve problems related to ensuring environmental safety. The experience of development and technology for the implementation of GIS projects such as “Water Resources”, “Water Objects”, information and reference systems “Lakes, rivers, hydropower structures”, as well as the creation of electronic atlases of the White Sea and their catchment area and the geographical atlas of the region have been shown. The electronic and paper versions of the catalog of lakes and rivers of Karelia, GIS of hydro-technical constructions, GIS-underground waters, sources of technogenic impacts on water objects have been developed. A paper and GIS version of the Onego Lake atlas was created with blocks: сlimate, hydrology, hydrochemistry, hydrobiology, geology, water supply complex, etc. Work has been done to evaluate the overall assessment of hydrography of the territorial structure, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of water resources; inventories of lakes, rivers, groundwaters on maps with the scale smaller than 1: 100000 have been carried out, cadastral numbers have been assigned to water bodies; a quantitative assessment of the distribution of lakes and rivers in the basins of the White Sea and Baltic Sea and the main river watersheds, as well as classification of reservoirs according to size have been made. Expert systems have been developed to assess water quality, trophic

  14. Transition region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, C.

    1977-01-01

    The Glossary is designed to be a technical dictionary that will provide solar workers of various specialties, students, other astronomers and theoreticians with concise information on the nature and the properties of phenomena of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. Each term, or group of related terms, is given a concise phenomenological and quantitative description, including the relationship to other phenomena and an interpretation in terms of physical processes. The references are intended to lead the non-specialist reader into the literature. This section deals with: transition region; di-electronic recombination; intersystem or intercombination lines; satellite lines; grazing-incidence optics; and crystal spectrometers. (B.R.H.)

  15. Technical cooperation for the pacific uses of nuclear technology in Latin America and Caribbean: the experience of regional agreement ARCAL; Cooperacao tecnica para os usos pacificos da tecnologia nuclear na America Latina e no Caribe: a experiencia do acordo regional ARCAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondinelli Junior, Francisco

    2017-11-01

    This thesis studies the international technical cooperation in the field of peaceful applications of the nuclear technology, focusing on the experience of Latin American countries, where the Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean, also known as ARCAL, is in force. The study adopts as theoretical approach the concept of state capacities, particularly with regard to the institutional capacities applicable to the ARCAL Agreement. Within this approach, three dimensions of analysis are adopted: the institutional dimension, the governance dimension and the focus on outcomes. The evaluation of the ARCAL Agreement is carried out in order to confirm if the intended role to promote regional technical cooperation in the nuclear sector is being implemented. The methodological approach adopted the case study model. It starts with the analysis of the institutional evolution of the Agreement, and identifies variables articulating with the three dimensions above mentioned. The empirical data were collected in two stages. In the first stage it were performed 29 interviews carried out by the author with the technical and staff members of the Department of Technical Cooperation of IAEA, in Vienna, Austria, headquarter of IAEA. The other stage involved an electronic questionnaire submitted to the national coordinator of ARCAL in 14 countries, in a universe of 21 member states. The conclusion of the research points to the fact that the ARCAL Agreement has incorporated, throughout its trajectory, elements of the institutional capacities which are still in the process of development. They give to the Agreement the potential to induce the development of the state capacities of the respective countries in the field of peaceful applications of nuclear technology. (author)

  16. Spatial distribution of meteorological parameters around 900 hPa level over the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean regions during the IFP-99 of the INDOEX programme as revealed from the constant altitude balloon experiments conducted from Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Appu, K.S.; Nair, S.M.; Kunhikrishnan, P.K.; Moorthy, K.K.; Sarode, P.R.; Rao, L.V.G.; Bajpai, S.R.; Prakash, L.H.; Viswanathan, G.; Mitra, A.P.; Sadourny, R.; Basdevant, C.; Ethe, C.; Ovarlez, H.; Chapuis, R.; Dartiguelongue, B.; Vianeys, P.

    of the payload Operational life Electric power Helium ~ 900 hPa 100?5hPa 1350?20g ~3kg ~3kg Several days to a week Lithium batteries INDIAN OCEAN EXPERIMENT duct such experiments as was demonstrated from the balloon flights carried out during the FFP-98...

  17. Experience in using a multilevel model of the boundary layer for estimating changes in microclimatic characteristics in the region of construction of the Adychan and middle Enisei hydroelectric stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyuk, T.P.; Shklyarevich, O.B.

    1993-01-01

    The results of estimating the impact of artificial water bodies in regions of construction of hydroelectric stations on the micro- and mesoclimatic characteristics of the surrounding territory are given

  18. A campaign to study atmospheric pollution at the regional scale: the Escompte programme; Une experience d'etude de la pollution atmospherique a l'echelle regionale. Le programme Escompte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, P. [Meteo-France - Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS URA 1357), 31 - Toulouse (France); Cros, B. [Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, Lab. d' Aerologie, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS UMR 5560), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2004-02-01

    The Escompte programme was set up to improve and validate regional scale chemistry-transport numerical models. During summer 2001, an ambitious field campaign collected data on the meteorological and chemical parameters of the atmosphere during some photo-oxidant pollution events. Performed in the region of Marseille city and Berre lake, this campaign deployed a huge quantity of instruments, and constitutes one of the major operations in this field. (authors)

  19. Os impasses da pobreza absoluta: a experiência da Ouvidoria Coletiva na região da Leopoldina, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brasil The impasses of unconditional poverty: the experience of Collective Ombudsman in the Leopoldina region, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Lisboa Guimarães

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A experiência de Ouvidoria Coletiva desenvolvida na região da Leopoldina, na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, amplia a visão tradicional de vigilância em saúde e objetiva organizar um sistema de vigilância capaz de identificar os problemas de saúde da população e os recursos utilizados na tentativa de superá-los. Profissionais de saúde, líderes comunitários e religiosos se reuniram em fóruns mensais para apresentar e discutir as condições de vida percebidas nas comunidades em que atuam. A partir do olhar das dimensões sociais envolvidas nos processos de saúde-doença, este trabalho visa discutir de que forma a pobreza compromete a saúde das classes populares, especialmente no que se refere à saúde mental e ao "sofrimento difuso". A metodologia permitiu organizar, de modo sistemático, a escuta e favoreceu o reconhecimento do saber local, construído a partir das experiências de vida das pessoas que lidam com o sofrimento, a doença e seus determinantes nas condições de vida da população. A situação de pobreza absoluta de uma parcela significativa da população foi percebida como geradora de impasses para a resolução de problemas de saúde. Os resultados confirmam a importância de se compreenderem as estratégias de enfrentamento da população e as propostas para possíveis ações no campo da saúdeThe experience of Collective Ombudsman developed in the Leopoldina region, city of Rio de Janeiro, enlarges the traditional vision of health vigilance and consists in organizing a system of qualitative evaluation of the sanitary vigilance able to identify the health problems of the population and the methods utilized in the attempt to overcome these problems. Health professionals, religious and community leaders congregated in monthly forums to present and discuss living conditions perceived in the communities in which they carry on their activities. From the point of view of the social dimensions involved in the health

  20. Initiatives for regional dialogue consideration of regional disarmament guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschik, R.

    1994-01-01

    The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted guidelines and recommendations for regional approaches to disarmament within the context of global security. The guidelines contain 52 principles on: relationship between regional disarmament, arm limitation and global security; general guidelines and recommendations for regional disarmament efforts; possible ways and means to assist and implement these efforts; possible role of the United Nations in aiding these efforts. Experiences gained in Europe and Near East are analysed in the framework of the situation in Northeast, South and Southeast Asia

  1. Regional cooperation on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, W.Y.; Chen, J.H.; Kim, D.H.; Simmons, R.B.V.; Surguri, S.

    1985-01-01

    A review has been conducted of a number of multi-national and bilateral arrangements between governments and between utility-sponsored organizations which provide the framework for international cooperation in the field of nuclear safety. These arrangements include the routine exchange operational data, experiences, technical reports and regulatory data, provision of special assistance when requested, collaboration in safety research, and the holding of international conferences and seminars. Areas which may be better suited for cooperation on a regional basis are identified. These areas include: exchange of operational data and experience, sharing of emergency planning information, and collaboration in safety research. Mechanisms to initiate regional cooperation in these areas are suggested

  2. Shielding experiments for accelerator facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Susumu; Sakamoto, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2000-06-01

    A series of shielding experiments was carried out by using AVF cyclotron accelerator of TIARA at JAERI in order to validate shielding design methods for accelerator facilities in intermediate energy region. In this paper neutron transmission experiment through thick shields and radiation streaming experiment through a labyrinth are reported. (author)

  3. Shielding experiments for accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Susumu; Sakamoto, Yukio

    2000-01-01

    A series of shielding experiments was carried out by using AVF cyclotron accelerator of TIARA at JAERI in order to validate shielding design methods for accelerator facilities in intermediate energy region. In this paper neutron transmission experiment through thick shields and radiation streaming experiment through a labyrinth are reported. (author)

  4. Department of Energy's solar update. Four regional conferences highlighting the objectives, plans, and experience of the National Commercial Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program and the National Solar Data Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-07-01

    These proceedings represent the overview and project papers made available to all the participants at each of the regional conferences. Papers not available at time of publication, and additional materials, including a summary and analysis of the Workshop/Panel Sessions are included in the complete proceedings CONF-780701--(Rev.) for which individual abstracts were prepared for each paper. (MHR)

  5. Regions and the Territorial Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Ianos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Territorial cohesion is an important target of European Union, constantly promoted by its institutions and their representatives. In the context of the Europe 2020 strategy, one of the most important support documents, the region represents a very important issue, being considered to be the key to its successfulness. The region is seen as a support for the smart growth and all the operational policy concepts try to make use of the spatial potential, by taking better account of the territorial specificities. Two main questions play attention: the need to transform the present-day developmental regions into administrative ones is a priority? What kind of regionalization it must to be promoted? Correlating these issues with already defined territorial cohesion, the administrative region is a real tool for the future territorial development. The experience of the last 14 years asks urgently the building of a new territorial administrative reform, giving competences to regions. For instant, each development region is a construction resulted from a free association of the counties. Their role in the regional development is much reduced one, because their regional councils are not elected; decisions taken at this level are consultative for the social, economical, cultural or political actors.

  6. Returning "Region" to World Regional Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Peter W.; Legates, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    World regional geography textbooks rarely focus on the process of region formation, despite frequent calls to reincorporate a regional approach to teaching global geography. An instructional strategy using problem-based learning in a small honors section of a large world regional geography course is described. Using a hypothetical scenario…

  7. Tourism and excursion: the rural qualifying adjective: a study about the experiences and potentialities of the Old North Region of Paraná, Brazil Turismo e excursionismo: o qualificativo rural : um estudo das experiências e potencialidades no Norte Velho do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Carmen Matilde Huertas Calvente

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses the contemporary diversification of tourism under the Geography perspective, having the rural tourism as its main theme, and as sub-themes its potentiality, regulation, impacts and perspectives. Among the current trends of the social practices of tourism there is the valorization of rusticity and natural landscapes – the rural areas are, therefore, also considered appropriate for leisure. In rural tourism does not have a predetermined concept. In the discussion of what it is or what is must be, in the interrelation among the several agents connected to its regulation, some possibilities are put into perspective: the activity can be a means to a modernization, which excludes large number of Brazilian population; on the other hand, it can be a way of integrating these people in the transformations the society needs. The final text was divided was divided into five parts: the diversification of tourism while a contemporary process, examining its current trends; the different contributions which support conceptual understanding of the main theme and survey of the problems and benefits; the different actions which have an influence on rural tourism; at different levels; the elements of potentiality; and a picture of the rural tourism in the studied region. The empirical survey dealt with the incipient development of tourism in the rural areas of Old North Region of Paraná, based on the new trends, on the experiences carried out by their supporters as well as on the profile of the farm owners who are engaged with this activity as an economic alternative, or as visitors. Through the necessary relation between the theoretical and empirical approaches, there is an attempt to contribute to the knowledge, understanding and analysis of this expanding phenomenon, not yet thoroughly dealt with by geographical studies.Este estudo enfoca a diversificação contemporânea do turismo, na perspectiva da Geografia, tendo o turismo rural como

  8. Exploring Online Shopping Behaviour within the Context of Online Advertisement, Customer Service Experience Consciousness and Price Comparison Websites: Perspectives from Young Female Shoppers in the Zlínský Region

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Nedu Osakwe; Miloslava Chovancová

    2015-01-01

    Online shopping behaviour within the context of price comparison websites presents an interesting area of consumer behaviour, yet very little research has been done in this area. Hence, the focus of this paper was to critically explore the impact of online advertisement and customer service experience consciousness on young female shoppers' intention to use price comparison websites as a purchase decision-making tool within the online retail environment. Our sample consisted of 123 female res...

  9. Exploring Online Shopping Behaviour within the Context of Online Advertisement, Customer Service Experience Consciousness and Price Comparison Websites: Perspectives from Young Female Shoppers in the Zlínský Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Nedu Osakwe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Online shopping behaviour within the context of price comparison websites presents an interesting area of consumer behaviour, yet very little research has been done in this area. Hence, the focus of this paper was to critically explore the impact of online advertisement and customer service experience consciousness on young female shoppers’ intention to use price comparison websites as a purchase decision-making tool within the online retail environment. Our sample consisted of 123 female respondents of the Tomas Bata University students in Zlín, Czech Republic. From the sample, we found out using the Partial Least Square approach to Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM that both online advertisement (Ads and customer service experience consciousness are directly and positively related to online shoppers’ intention to use price comparison websites. Hence, our two stated hypotheses were supported based on the outcome of the structural model. Apparently, customer service experience consciousness is a better predictor of female shoppers’ intention to use price comparison websites compared to online advertising. Nonetheless, we have highlighted the need for a further research based on the study’s limitations.

  10. Customer experience

    OpenAIRE

    Koperdáková, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor thesis deals with the theme of customer experience and terms related to this topic. The thesis consists of three parts. The first part explains the terms generally, as the experience or customer loyalty. The second part is dedicated to medotology used for Customer Experience Management. In the third part is described application of Customer Experience Management in practice, particularly in the context Touch Point Analyses in GE Money Bank.

  11. Using Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS)-based analysis in the development of regional risk adjustment tools to trend quality in a voluntary trauma system: the experience of the Trauma Foundation of Northeast Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, C; Barnoski, A; Tinnell, C; Fallon, W

    2000-04-01

    Presently, no trauma system exists in Ohio. Since 1993, all hospitals in Cuyahoga County (CUY), northeast Ohio (n = 22) provide data to a trauma registry. In return, each received hospital-specific data, comparison data by trauma care level and a county-wide aggregate summary. This report describes the results of this approach in our region. All cases were entered by paper abstract or electronic download. Interrater reliability audits and z score analysis was performed by using the Major Trauma Outcome Study and the CUY 1994 baseline groups. Risk adjustment of mortality data was performed using statistical modeling and logistic regression (Trauma and Injury Severity Score, Major Trauma Outcome Study, CUY). Trauma severity measures were defined. In 1995, 3,375 patients were entered. Two hundred ninety-one died (8.6%). Severity measures differed by level of trauma care, indicating differences in case mix. Probability of survival was lowest in the Level I centers, highest in the acute care hospitals. Outcomes z scores demonstrated survival differences for all levels. In a functioning trauma system, the most severely injured patients should be cared for at the trauma centers. A low volume at acute care hospitals is desirable. By using Trauma and Injury Severity Score with community-specific constants, NE Ohio is accomplishing these goals. The Level I performance data are an interesting finding compared with the data from the Level II centers in the region

  12. Electron beam optics for the FEL experiment and IFEL experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Steenbergen, A.

    1990-01-01

    Electron beam transport system parameters for the FEL experiment and for the FEL experiment are given. The perturbation of the ''interaction region'' optics due to wiggler focussing is taken into account and a range of solutions are provided for relevant Twiss parameters in the FEL or IFEL region. Modifications of the transport optics in specific sections of the overall beam transport lines, for reasons of enhanced diagnostic capability or enhanced beam momentum analysis resolution, is also presented

  13. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - Region 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 4, which is comprised of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Geor...

  14. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - region 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe : Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 2, : which is comprised of Arizona, Oklahoma, New Mexic...

  15. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - region 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 3, which is comprised of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michiga...

  16. Regional transport and dilution during high-pollution episodes in southern France: Summary of findings from the Field Experiment to Constraint Models of Atmospheric Pollution and Emissions Transport (ESCOMPTE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobinski, P.; SaïD, F.; Ancellet, G.; Arteta, J.; Augustin, P.; Bastin, S.; Brut, A.; Caccia, J. L.; Campistron, B.; Cautenet, S.; Colette, A.; Coll, I.; Corsmeier, U.; Cros, B.; Dabas, A.; Delbarre, H.; Dufour, A.; Durand, P.; GuéNard, V.; Hasel, M.; Kalthoff, N.; Kottmeier, C.; Lasry, F.; Lemonsu, A.; Lohou, F.; Masson, V.; Menut, L.; Moppert, C.; Peuch, V. H.; Puygrenier, V.; Reitebuch, O.; Vautard, R.

    2007-07-01

    In the French Mediterranean basin the large city of Marseille and its industrialized suburbs (oil plants in the Fos-Berre area) are major pollutant sources that cause frequent and hazardous pollution episodes, especially in summer when intense solar heating enhances the photochemical activity and when the sea breeze circulation redistributes pollutants farther north in the countryside. This paper summarizes the findings of 5 years of research on the sea breeze in southern France and related mesoscale transport and dilution of pollutants within the Field Experiment to Constraint Models of Atmospheric Pollution and Emissions Transport (ESCOMPTE) program held in June and July 2001. This paper provides an overview of the experimental and numerical challenges identified before the ESCOMPTE field experiment and summarizes the key findings made in observation, simulation, and theory. We specifically address the role of large-scale atmospheric circulation to local ozone vertical distribution and the mesoscale processes driving horizontal advection of pollutants and vertical transport and mixing via entrainment at the top of the sea breeze or at the front and venting along the sloped terrain. The crucial importance of the interactions between processes of various spatial and temporal scales is thus highlighted. The advances in numerical modeling and forecasting of sea breeze events and ozone pollution episodes in southern France are also underlined. Finally, we conclude and point out some open research questions needing further investigation.

  17. Regional transport and dilution during high-pollution episodes in southern France: Summary of findings from the Field Experiment to Constraint Models of Atmospheric Pollution and Emissions Transport (ESCOMPTE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobinski, P.; Menut, L.; Ancellet, G.; Bastin, S.; Colette, A.; Said, F.; Brut, A.; Campistron, B.; Cros, B.; Durand, P.; Lohou, F.; Moppert, C.; Puygrenier, V.; Arteta, J.; Cautenet, S.; Augustin, P.; Delbarre, H.; Caccia, J.L.; Guenard, V.; Coll, I.; Lasry, F.; Corsmeier, U.; Hasel, M.; Kalthoff, N.; Kottmeier, C.; Dabas, A.; Dufour, A.; Lemonsu, A.; Masson, V.; Peuch, V.H.; Reitebuch, O.; Vautard, R.

    2007-01-01

    In the French Mediterranean basin the large city of Marseille and its industrialized suburbs (oil plants in the Fos-Berre area) are major pollutant sources that cause frequent and hazardous pollution episodes, especially in summer when intense solar heating enhances the photochemical activity and when the sea breeze circulation redistributes pollutants farther north in the countryside. This paper summarizes the findings of 5 years of research on the sea breeze in southern France and related mesoscale transport and dilution of pollutants within the Field Experiment to Constraint Models of Atmospheric Pollution and Emissions Transport (ESCOMPTE) program held in June and July 2001. This paper provides an overview of the experimental and numerical challenges identified before the ESCOMPTE field experiment and summarizes the key findings made in observation, simulation, and theory. We specifically address the role of large-scale atmospheric circulation to local ozone vertical distribution and the mesoscale processes driving horizontal advection of pollutants and vertical transport and mixing via entrainment at the top of the sea breeze or at the front and venting along the sloped terrain. The crucial importance of the interactions between processes of various spatial and temporal scales is thus highlighted. The advances in numerical modeling and forecasting of sea breeze events and ozone pollution episodes in southern France are also underlined. Finally, we conclude and point out some open research questions needing further investigation. (authors)

  18. Regional transport and dilution during high-pollution episodes in southern France: Summary of findings from the Field Experiment to Constraint Models of Atmospheric Pollution and Emissions Transport (ESCOMPTE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drobinski, P.; Menut, L. [Ecole Polytechnique, Inst Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Ancellet, G.; Bastin, S.; Colette, A. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Service d' aeronomie, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, (France); Said, F.; Brut, A.; Campistron, B.; Cros, B.; Durand, P.; Lohou, F.; Moppert, C.; Puygrenier, V. [Univ Toulouse, Lab Aerol, F-31400 Toulouse, (France); Arteta, J.; Cautenet, S. [Univ Clermont Ferrand, Lab Meteorol Phys, F-63174 Aubiere, (France); Augustin, P.; Delbarre, H. [Univ Littoral Cote d' Opale, Lab Physicochim Atmosphere, F-59140 Dunkerque, (France); Caccia, J.L.; Guenard, V. [Univ Toulon and Var, Lab Sondages Electromagnet Environm Terr, F-83957 La Garde, (France); Coll, I.; Lasry, F. [Fac Sci and Technol, Lab Interuniv Syst Atmospher, F-94010 Creteil, (France); Corsmeier, U.; Hasel, M.; Kalthoff, N.; Kottmeier, C. [Univ Karlsruhe, Inst Meteorol and Klimaforsch, Forschungszentrum, D-76133 Karlsruhe, (Germany); Dabas, A.; Dufour, A.; Lemonsu, A.; Masson, V.; Peuch, V.H. [Ctr Natl Rech Meteorol, F-31057 Toulouse, (France); Reitebuch, O. [Deutsch Zentrum Luft and Raumfahrt, Inst Atmospher Phys, D-82234 Wessling, (Germany); Vautard, R. [Inst Pierre Simon Laplace, CEA Saclay, Lab Sci Climat and Environm, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)

    2007-07-01

    In the French Mediterranean basin the large city of Marseille and its industrialized suburbs (oil plants in the Fos-Berre area) are major pollutant sources that cause frequent and hazardous pollution episodes, especially in summer when intense solar heating enhances the photochemical activity and when the sea breeze circulation redistributes pollutants farther north in the countryside. This paper summarizes the findings of 5 years of research on the sea breeze in southern France and related mesoscale transport and dilution of pollutants within the Field Experiment to Constraint Models of Atmospheric Pollution and Emissions Transport (ESCOMPTE) program held in June and July 2001. This paper provides an overview of the experimental and numerical challenges identified before the ESCOMPTE field experiment and summarizes the key findings made in observation, simulation, and theory. We specifically address the role of large-scale atmospheric circulation to local ozone vertical distribution and the mesoscale processes driving horizontal advection of pollutants and vertical transport and mixing via entrainment at the top of the sea breeze or at the front and venting along the sloped terrain. The crucial importance of the interactions between processes of various spatial and temporal scales is thus highlighted. The advances in numerical modeling and forecasting of sea breeze events and ozone pollution episodes in southern France are also underlined. Finally, we conclude and point out some open research questions needing further investigation. (authors)

  19. Climate related natural hazards management in the vulnerable regions of Uzbekistan - experiences in the frame of projects Climate Risk Management in Uzbekistan (CRM-Uz) and Water in Central Asia (CAWa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkushkin, Alexander; Gafurov, Abror; Agaltseva, Natalya; Pak, Alexander; Mannig, Birgit; Paeth, Heiko; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Unger-Shayesteh, Katy

    2014-05-01

    Increased frequency of natural hazards under conditions of observed climate change in Uzbekistan has become challenging concern and shows the need to develop more effective climate risk mechanisms towards improving the security of society and sustainable development. In the framework of presented study, the importance of drought monitoring and methodologies for early warning for such purposes in Uzbekistan are demonstrated. For the conditions of Uzbekistan, droughts are most dangerous climate related natural phenomenon. Therefore, the CRM-Uz Project on Climate Risk Management was established with focus on reducing climate risks, strengthening adaptive capacity for stimulating the development of early warning mechanisms, as well as to build up the basis for long-term investments. This serves to increase resilience to climate impacts in the country. In the frame of the CRM-Uz Project, Drought Early Warning System (DEWS), has been developed and implemented in one of the southern provinces of Uzbekistan (Kashkadarya). The main task of DEWS is to provide population with information on the possibility of upcoming drought season in advance. DEWS is used for the assessment, monitoring, prevention, early warning and decision making in this region. Such early warning system provides the required information to undertake appropriate measures against drought and to mitigate its adverse effects to society. It is clear that during years with expected drought the hydrological forecasts become much more important. Complex mathematical model which simulates of run-off formation as a basis of DEWS provides the seasonal hydrological forecasts that are used to inform all concerned sectors, especially the agricultural sector on water availability during the vegetation period. In the frame of cooperation with German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) within the CAWa Project, the DEWS was extended through implementation of MODSNOW - the operational tool for snow cover monitoring at

  20. Meteorological tracers in regional planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, K.H.

    1974-11-01

    Atmospheric tracers can be used as indicators to study both the ventilation of an urban region and its dispersion meteorology for air pollutants. A correlation analysis applied to the space-time dependent tracer concentrations is able to give transfer functions, the structure and characteristic parameters of which describe the meteorological and topographical situation of the urban region and its surroundings in an integral manner. To reduce the number of persons usually involved in a tracer experiment an automatic air sampling system had to be developed

  1. Clinical experience with insulin detemir type 2 diabetes mellitus, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Rabat-Sale-Zemmour-Zaer Region cohort of the A 1 chieve study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmjid Chraibi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The A 1 chieve, a multicentric (28 countries, 24-week, non-interventional study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with T2DM (n = 66 726 in routine clinical care across four continents. Materials and Methods: Data was collected at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from Rabat-Sale-Zemmour-Zaer region, Morocco. Results: A total of 424 patients were enrolled in the study. Four different insulin analogue regimens were used in the study. Study patients had started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart (n = 177, insulin detemir (n = 150, insulin aspart (n = 11, basal insulin plus insulin aspart (n = 45 and other insulin combinations (n = 41. At baseline glycaemic control was poor for both insulin naïve (mean HbA 1 c: 10.1% and insulin user (mean HbA 1 c: 9.4% groups. After 24 weeks of treatment, all the study groups showed improvement in HbA 1 c (insulin naïve: −2.5%, insulin users: −1.8%. Major hypoglycaemia was observed in the insulin user group after 24 weeks (0.1 events/patient-year. SADRs were reported in 0.5% of insulin users. Conclusion: Starting or switching to insulin analogues was associated with improvement in glycaemic control with a low rate of hypoglycaemia.

  2. Clinical experience with insulin detemir type 2 diabetes mellitus, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Rabat-Sale-Zemmour-Zaer Region cohort of the A1chieve study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chraibi, Abdelmjid; Belmejdoub, Ghizlane

    2013-11-01

    The A1chieve, a multicentric (28 countries), 24-week, non-interventional study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with T2DM (n = 66 726) in routine clinical care across four continents. Data was collected at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from Rabat-Sale-Zemmour-Zaer region, Morocco. A total of 424 patients were enrolled in the study. Four different insulin analogue regimens were used in the study. Study patients had started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart (n = 177), insulin detemir (n = 150), insulin aspart (n = 11), basal insulin plus insulin aspart (n = 45) and other insulin combinations (n = 41). At baseline glycaemic control was poor for both insulin naïve (mean HbA1c: 10.1%) and insulin user (mean HbA1c: 9.4%) groups. After 24 weeks of treatment, all the study groups showed improvement in HbA1c (insulin naïve: -2.5%, insulin users: -1.8%). Major hypoglycaemia was observed in the insulin user group after 24 weeks (0.1 events/patient-year). SADRs were reported in 0.5% of insulin users. Starting or switching to insulin analogues was associated with improvement in glycaemic control with a low rate of hypoglycaemia.

  3. Performance assessment of fire-sat monitoring system based on satellite time series for fire danger estimation : the experience of the pre-operative application in the Basilicata Region (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanorte, Antonio; Desantis, Fortunato; Aromando, Angelo; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the results we obtained in the context of the FIRE-SAT project during the 2012 operative application of the satellite based tools for fire monitoring. FIRE_SAT project has been funded by the Civil Protection of the Basilicata Region in order to set up a low cost methodology for fire danger monitoring and fire effect estimation based on satellite Earth Observation techniques. To this aim, NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), ASTER, Landsat TM data were used. Novel data processing techniques have been developed by researchers of the ARGON Laboratory of the CNR-IMAA for the operative monitoring of fire. In this paper we only focus on the danger estimation model which has been fruitfully used since 2008 to 2012 as an reliable operative tool to support and optimize fire fighting strategies from the alert to the management of resources including fire attacks. The daily updating of fire danger is carried out using satellite MODIS images selected for their spectral capability and availability free of charge from NASA web site. This makes these data sets very suitable for an effective systematic (daily) and sustainable low-cost monitoring of large areas. The preoperative use of the integrated model, pointed out that the system properly monitor spatial and temporal variations of fire susceptibility and provide useful information of both fire severity and post fire regeneration capability.

  4. Pixel Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Augustesen, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Pixel Experiments The term pixel is traditionally defined as any of the minute elements that together constitute a larger context or image. A pixel has its own form and is the smallest unit seen within a larger structure. In working with the potentials of LED technology in architectural lighting...... for using LED lighting in lighting design practice. The speculative experiments that have been set-up have aimed to clarify the variables that can be used as parameters in the design of lighting applications; including, for example, the structuring and software control of light. The experiments also...... elucidate and exemplify already well-known problems in relation to the experience of vertical and horizontal lighting. Pixel Experiments exist as a synergy between speculative test setups and lighting design in practice. This book is one of four books that is published in connection with the research...

  5. TRIO experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.

    1984-09-01

    The TRIO experiment is a test of in-situ tritium recovery and heat transfer performance of a miniaturized solid breeder blanket assembly. The assembly (capsule) was monitored for temperature and neutron flux profiles during irradiation and a sweep gas flowed through the capsule to an anaytical train wherein the amounts of tritium in its various chemical forms were determined. The capsule was designed to operate at different temperatures and sweep gas conditions. At the end of the experiment the amount of tritium retained in the solid was at a concentration of less than 0.1 wppM. More than 99.9% of tritium generated during the experiment was successfully recovered. The results of the experiment showed that the tritium inventories at the beginning and at the end of the experiment follow a relationship which appears to be characteristic of intragranular diffusion

  6. Users guide to REGIONAL-1: a regional assessment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.E.; Eadie, W.J.; Powell, D.C.

    1979-09-01

    A guide was prepared to allow a user to run the PNL long-range transport model, REGIONAL 1. REGIONAL 1 is a computer model set up to run atmospheric assessments on a regional basis. The model has the capability of being run in three modes for a single time period. The three modes are: (1) no deposition, (2) dry deposition, (3) wet and dry deposition. The guide provides the physical and mathematical basis used in the model for calculating transport, diffusion, and deposition for all three modes. Also the guide includes a program listing with an explanation of the listings and an example in the form of a short-term assessment for 48 hours. The purpose of the example is to allow a person who has past experience with programming and meteorology to operate the assessment model and compare his results with the guide results. This comparison will assure the user that the program is operating in a proper fashion

  7. Regional cluster policies: learning by comparing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, Gerrit J.; Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with an intriguing paradox that can be observed in today’s regional economic policy making: whereas unique local factors are increasingly seen as the determinants of regional economic success, simultaneously more and more governments try to copy policy experiences that proved to be

  8. Recombination in disordered regions at semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artem'ev, V.A.; Mikhnovich, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical estimates indicate the need to allow for the heating of carriers by the electrostatic field in disordered regions when studies are made of recombination properties. An analysis is made of the experiments in which the influence of heating on the properties of disordered regions may be manifested and experimentally verifiable effects of this influence are considered

  9. Central Region Regionally Ecological Significant Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  10. SUPERCOLLIDER: Planning for experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    To push forward the necessarily lengthy preparations for experiments at the proposed US Superconducting Super Collider, a Workshop on Experiments, Detectors and Experimental Areas was held at Berkeley from 7 to 17 July. Participants looked ahead to the task of extracting physics (like the search for Higgs particles, supersymmetry or other heavy quarks and leptons) from the chaos of hadron collisions at 20 TeV beam energies with luminosities in excess of 10 32 . The door would also have to be left open for unexpected physics in these higher energy regions

  11. Crustal investigations of the earthquake-prone Vrancea region in Romania - Part 2: Novel deep seismic reflection experiment in the southeastern Carpathian belt and its foreland basin - survey target, design, and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocanu, V. I.; Stephenson, R. A.; Diaconescu, C. C.; Knapp, J. H.; Matenco, L.; Dinu, C.; Harder, S.; Prodehl, C.; Hauser, F.; Raileanu, V.; Cloetingh, S. A.; Leever, K.

    2001-12-01

    structures related to basin evolution, especially neotectonic structures, with deep (mantle) structure and seismicity; and, (4) integratration with complementary studies in the Carpathian-Transylvanian region for evaluation and validation of competing geodynamic models for the present-day development and neotectonic character of the Vrancea Zone-Focsani Basin-Danube Delta-Black Sea corridor.

  12. Classic experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Franklin, M

    2001-01-01

    These will be a set of lectures on classic particle physics experiments, with emphasis on how the emasurements are made. I will discuss experiments made to measure the electric charge distribution of particles, to measure the symmetries of the weak decays, to measure the magnetic moment of the muon. As well as experiments performed which discovered new particles or resonances, like the tAU2and the J/Psi. The coverage will be general and should be understandable to someone knowing little particle physics.

  13. Simulated experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerknes, R.

    1977-01-01

    A cybernetic model has been developed to elucidate some of the main principles of the growth regulation system in the epidermis of the hairless mouse. A number of actual and theoretical biological experiments have been simulated on the model. These included simulating the cell kinetics as measured by pulse labelling with tritiated thymidine and by continuous labelling with tritiated thymidine. Other simulated experiments included steady state, wear and tear, painting with a carcinogen, heredity and heredity and tumour. Numerous diagrams illustrate the results of these simulated experiments. (JIW)

  14. Researching experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa; Ingemann, Bruno

    In the beginning was - not the word - but the experience. This phenomenological approach provides the basis for this book, which focuses on how a person-in-situation experiences and constructs meaning from a variety of cultural visual events. This book presents video-based processual methods......, dialogue, moods, values and narratives have been investigated qualitatively with more than sixty informants in a range of projects. The processual methodological insights are put into a theoretical perspective and also presented as pragmatic dilemmas. Researching Experiences is relevant not only...

  15. Anisotropy of Wood in the Microwave Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziherl, Sasa; Bajc, Jurij; Urankar, Bernarda; Cepic, Mojca

    2010-01-01

    Wood is transparent for microwaves and due to its anisotropic structure has anisotropic dielectric properties. A laboratory experiment that allows for the qualitative demonstration and quantitative measurements of linear dichroism and birefringence in the microwave region is presented. As the proposed experiments are based on the anisotropy (of…

  16. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - region 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 1, which is comprised of Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and H...

  17. Regionalization: A Story Map Lesson on Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    This lesson introduces the concept of regionalization and types of regions. After a brief introductory activity, students explore a story map to learn the material. The teacher can project the story map on a screen for all students to follow or students may work individually on computers. Working individually will allow students to set their own…

  18. Scientific-technical exchange of experiences between Germany and the GUS, the Baltic and MOE states, and central Asia and other regions. Workshop and establishment of a common knowledge base for nuclear safety and security. Final report; Wissenschaftlich-technischer Erfahrungsaustausch Deutschlands mit der GUS, den Baltischen und den MOE-Staaten sowie Laendern Zentralasiens und anderer Regionen. Arbeitstreffen und Schaffung gemeinsamer Wissensbasen fuer nukleare Sicherheit und Sicherung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabrowski, Anna

    2017-03-15

    The report on the workshop concerning scientific-technical exchange of experiences between Germany and the GUS, the Baltic and MOE states, and central Asia and other regions includes the following issues: Results an d success of know-how transfer from West to East, topical issues for mutual exchange of experience, scope of the project, concept of the realization of mutual exchange of experiences. The emphasis of the workshop covered the following issues: emergency preparedness, international requirements concerning nuclear safety and radiation protection, transport of radioactive wastes and communication in nuclear technology.

  19. Antimatter Experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Antimatter should behave in identical fashion to matter if a form of spacetime symmetry called CPT invariance holds. Two experiments at CERN near Geneva are testing this hypothesis using antihydrogen atoms

  20. Pixel Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Augustesen, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Pixel Experiments The term pixel is traditionally defined as any of the minute elements that together constitute a larger context or image. A pixel has its own form and is the smallest unit seen within a larger structure. In working with the potentials of LED technology in architectural lighting...... lighting design in practice, one quickly experiences and realises that there are untapped potentials in the attributes of LED technology. In this research, speculative studies have been made working with the attributes of LEDs in architectural contexts, with the ambition to ascertain new strategies...... for using LED lighting in lighting design practice. The speculative experiments that have been set-up have aimed to clarify the variables that can be used as parameters in the design of lighting applications; including, for example, the structuring and software control of light. The experiments also...

  1. Experiment Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanschoren, Joaquin; Blockeel, Hendrik

    Next to running machine learning algorithms based on inductive queries, much can be learned by immediately querying the combined results of many prior studies. Indeed, all around the globe, thousands of machine learning experiments are being executed on a daily basis, generating a constant stream of empirical information on machine learning techniques. While the information contained in these experiments might have many uses beyond their original intent, results are typically described very concisely in papers and discarded afterwards. If we properly store and organize these results in central databases, they can be immediately reused for further analysis, thus boosting future research. In this chapter, we propose the use of experiment databases: databases designed to collect all the necessary details of these experiments, and to intelligently organize them in online repositories to enable fast and thorough analysis of a myriad of collected results. They constitute an additional, queriable source of empirical meta-data based on principled descriptions of algorithm executions, without reimplementing the algorithms in an inductive database. As such, they engender a very dynamic, collaborative approach to experimentation, in which experiments can be freely shared, linked together, and immediately reused by researchers all over the world. They can be set up for personal use, to share results within a lab or to create open, community-wide repositories. Here, we provide a high-level overview of their design, and use an existing experiment database to answer various interesting research questions about machine learning algorithms and to verify a number of recent studies.

  2. Regional differences of consumer preferences when shopping for regional products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Kalábová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents partial results of a research on consumer preferences when shopping for groceries. It is focused on regional products and consumer preferences in relation to the country of origin of food products. The main objective of this paper is to find the existence of spatial relationships between spatial deployment of regional products and consumer preferences for regional products. It will be necessary to create a data model for monitoring the deployment of regional products and also a data model for tracking important indicators of consumer behavior in all regions of the Czech Republic. The results are based on questionnaire survey that was conducted within the period from October 2010 to January 2011 on a sample of 3767 respondents from the Czech Republic, via both online questionnaires and their printed version. For the data collection the questionnaire system ReLa, developed by the Department of Marketing and Trade at Faculty of Business and Economics at Mendel University in Brno, was used. Data was processed with statistical software STATISTICA (ver. 10. Spatial visualisation was processed with GIS software ArcGIS (ver. 10.1. Preferences for food of Czech origin were analysed in relation to identification criteria. The research results show that the origin of food has an important role in consumer purchase decision-making. There is no significant difference in importance of this factor based on gender of consumers, however, we could prove moderate dependence on respondent’s occupation, education and age. We could also experience regional differences in levels of preferences of local products or products of Czech origin in regard of 14 regions of the Czech Republic. χ2 (N = 3767 = 245.25; p < 0.001. Value of Pearson’s coefficient of contingency is 0.334.

  3. The Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana Nicoara, Floare

    2016-04-01

    My name is Nicoara Floarea and I am teacher at Secondary School Calatele and I teach students from preparatory class and the second grade . They are six-eight years old. In my activity, for introducing scientific concepts to my students, I use various and active methods or traditional methods including experiments. The experiment stimulates students' curiosity, their creativity, the understanding and knowledge taught accessibility. I propose you two such experiments: The life cycle of the plants (long-term experiment, with rigorous observation time):We use beans, wheat or other; They are grown in pots and on the cotton soaked with water,keeping under students' observation protecting them ( just soak them regularly) and we waiting the plants rise. For discussions and comments of plant embryo development we use the plants which rose on the cotton soaked with water plants at the end of the first week. Last school year we had in the pot climbing beans which in May made pods. They were not too great but our experiment was a success. The students could deduce that there will develop those big beans which after drying will be planted again. The influence of light on plants (average duration experiment with the necessary observation time): We use two pots in which plants are of the same type (two geraniums), one of them is situated so as to get direct sunlight and other plant we put in a closed box. Although we wet both plants after a week we see that the plant that benefited from sunlight has turned strain in direct sunlight, developing normally in return the plant out of the box I have yellowed leaves, photosynthesis does not She has occurred . Students will understand the vital role of the Sun in plants' life, both in the classroom and in nature. The experiment is a method of teaching students extremely pleasant, with a remarkable percentage of acquiring more knowledge.

  4. Social Facilitation: the Kaliningrad Region and Russian Mainland Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toropov Pavel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors look at the concept of social facilitation as a possible component of Russian social consolidation in the course of social reforms. The article focuses on the results of an empirical study of the levels and characteristics of competence in social facilitation, which is here understood as the ability to apply certain knowledge and systems of skills and as a success rate of actions based on experience in improving the conditions of social development. The study was conducted in the Kaliningrad region in 2012—2013. The data was obtained through a survey of 400 respondents using the authors’ methodology encompassing eight basic elements of competence and a structured interview aimed at a better understanding of the subject of the study and attitudes towards it. The data is compared against the results of a similar study in two regions of central Russia with similar conditions. The results suggest a disharmonic and inconsistent structure of competence in social facilitation, low motivation for social activity in youth, and a narrow range of ideas about possible areas of personal activities in the current conditions. Gender differences are identified in the level and structure of competence. The authors believe that certain differences in competence components identified through mathematical methods are determined by the geographical characteristics of the Kaliningrad region — its exclave nature, a relatively small territory, and proximity to the EU countries. It is stressed that the regional conditions affecting motivation, forms and areas of activities, and structure of experience should be taken into account in selecting means and methods of organising youth activities. They can also serve as a basis for the regional youth policy.

  5. [The AMY experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The AMY experiment is one of three major experiments at TRISTAN which is studying the states the matter produced in electron positron annihilations in the center of mass energy range of 50--65GeV. It provides information between the lower energy facilities such as PEP and PETRA and the new facilities SLC and LEP which are designed to operate in the region of the Z 0 mass near 90GeV. In the region of the AMY experiment, interaction cross sections are near their minimum of about 100pb, making it difficult to acquire large data samples during typical running cycles. This last year has seen an accumulation of about 10---12pb -1 of integrated luminosity in the energy range from 58 to 61.7GeV. Despite this limited data sample, the AMY experiment has been extremely active in attempting to extract the minimum amount of information from the data. Some of the most significant results are discussed in this paper. 9 refs

  6. Regional Alternative Transportation Evaluation: Region 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-28

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Federal Lands Highway (FLH), and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) have conducted regional alternative transportation evaluations (RATEs) in almost each of FWSs eight ...

  7. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association

  8. Collaborative experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Thomas Bøtker

    -Doerr, 1996) and has been shown to have a positive effect to the outcome of collaborative R&D (Sampson, 2005). Anand & Khanna (2000), furthermore, hypothesized that research joint ventures are more ambiguous than marketing joint ventures and even more the licensing and showed that the effect of collaborative......Literature review: Collaborative experience has been shown to have a positive effect on the collaborative outcome in general (Anand & Khanna, 2000; Kale, Dyer & Singh, 2002). Furthermore, it has been linked to the ability to exploit the network of the firm for learning (Powell, Koput and Smith...... experience was largest the higher the hypothesized ambiguity. Theoretically contribution: This research project aims at contributing to existing literature by arguing, that collaborative experience is a moderating variable which moderates the effects on collaborative outcome from the level of complexity...

  9. Channeling experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelin, H.; Birgersson, L.; Widen, H.; Aagren, T.; Moreno, L.; Neretnieks, I.

    1990-07-01

    Channeling of water flow and tracer transport in real fractures in a granite body at Stripa have been investigated experimentally. The experimental site was located 360 m below the ground level. Two kinds of experiments were performed. In the single hole experiments, 20 cm diameter holes were drilled about 2.5 m into the rock in the plane of the fracture. Specially designed packers were used to inject water into the fracture in 5 cm intervals all along the fracture trace in the hole. The variation of the injection flowrates along the fracture were used to determine the transmissivity variations in the fracture plane. Detailed photographs were taken from inside the hole and the visual fracture aperture was compared with the injection flowrates in the same locations. Geostatistical methods were used to evaluate the results. Five holes were measured in great detail. In addition 7 holes were drilled and scanned by simpler packer systems. A double hole experiment was performed where two parallel holes were drilled in the same fracture plane at nearly 2 m distance. Pressure pulse tests were made between the holes in both directions. Tracers were injected in 5 locations in one hole and monitored for in many locations in the other hole. The single hole experiment and the double hole experiment show that most of the fracture planes are tight but that there are open sections which form connected channels over distances of at least 2 meters. It was also found in the double hole experiment that the investigated fracture was intersected by at least one fracture between the two holes which diverted a large amount of the injected tracers to several distant locations at the tunnel wall. (authours)

  10. Physical experience enhances science learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontra, Carly; Lyons, Daniel J; Fischer, Susan M; Beilock, Sian L

    2015-06-01

    Three laboratory experiments involving students' behavior and brain imaging and one randomized field experiment in a college physics class explored the importance of physical experience in science learning. We reasoned that students' understanding of science concepts such as torque and angular momentum is aided by activation of sensorimotor brain systems that add kinetic detail and meaning to students' thinking. We tested whether physical experience with angular momentum increases involvement of sensorimotor brain systems during students' subsequent reasoning and whether this involvement aids their understanding. The physical experience, a brief exposure to forces associated with angular momentum, significantly improved quiz scores. Moreover, improved performance was explained by activation of sensorimotor brain regions when students later reasoned about angular momentum. This finding specifies a mechanism underlying the value of physical experience in science education and leads the way for classroom practices in which experience with the physical world is an integral part of learning. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Poetic Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahab Yar Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature of poetic experience is hereby redefined. The present article initially deals with the perennial nature of true poetic experience and its essential relevance to the world. It attempts to elaborate the process through which a poet is uplifted in a creative moment beyond terrestrial boundaries and is aligned with the ‘state of Perfection'. The role of successive generations of audiences in rediscovering the meaning of a poetic image is defined as life principle of all great poetry. Shakespeare is discussed as the ultimate example of this principle since his popularity remains an irreversible phenomenon

  12. EXPERIENCE WITH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SURGERY DEPT

    Abstract. Background:Island flap techniques currently used in urethroplasty utilize the prepuce and the dorsal penile skin. Our experience with a one-stage island flap urethroplasty for urethral strictures utilizing the ventral penile skin is described. Patients and Method: This is a longitudinal study of seventy six consecutive ...

  13. Local, Regional or Global?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian

    to be consistent with models of internationalization that incorporate different assumptions about strategic choice and global competition. Preliminary results show that large multinationals follow home region oriented internationalization paths, although much of the regional effect reported by previous studies...

  14. COMPETITIVENESS IN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA MĂDĂLINA OPRIȚESCU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The development and diversification of the economic activities, the stimulation of investments both in the public sector, but mainly in the private one, the reduction of unemployment, the improvement of living standards are just some of the concepts aimed at by the regional development. The main method which can lead to a balanced development of the regions is financing them differentially so that the underdeveloped regions would obtain proportionally more funds that the developed ones. At a region level, the main objective is represented by the more accelerated growth of the less developed regions, in an effort to diminish the inter-regional and intra-regional development disparities. A key role is played by the sustainable economic growth concept, while also analyzing the competitiveness at a regional level, as well as the main development factors.

  15. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remus Gherman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Regional development policy is a policy of investment for economic development by supporting competitiveness, increasing the standards of living, improving the quality of life, creating new jobs. Regions and regional development policy occupies in recent decades an increasingly important position in the list of the economic and social factors being found on the agendas of governments, both central and local authorities, of political groups and civil society. Regional development and regional development policy in Romania are present both in the economic reform and in social one. Development Regions from Romania are set up in 1998 by Law number 151 and supported by their own institutional framework. The applicability of regional development in Romania must take into account the fundamental elements of the possibilities of Regional Development, meaning the major indicators of reference for measuring the level of disparities, GDP per capita and unemployment.

  16. Drycleaner Database - Region 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Drycleaner Database (R7DryClnDB) which tracks all Region7 drycleaners who notify...

  17. Regional Seismic Threshold Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kvaerna, Tormod

    2006-01-01

    ... model to be used for predicting the travel times of regional phases. We have applied these attenuation relations to develop and assess a regional threshold monitoring scheme for selected subregions of the European Arctic...

  18. Regional inequalities in mortality.

    OpenAIRE

    Illsley, R; Le Grand, J

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To examine the hypothesis of sustained and persistent inequalities in health between British regions and to ask how far they are a consequence of using standardised mortality ratios as the tool of measurement. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS--Data are regional, age specific death rates at seven points in time from 1931 to 1987-89 for the British regions, reconstructed to make them comparable with the 1981 regional definitions. Log variance is used to measure inequality; regi...

  19. Regional manpower planning

    OpenAIRE

    G. Erens; P. Salamink; C.A. Van der Merwe CA

    2003-01-01

    Particular problems come to the fore when planning development at the regional level. These range from the complexities of the multifarious interactions between the sect oral and local components of the region to the necessity of achieving extensive participation of regional stakeholders in the planning process. In this paper a methodology for regional manpower planning is proposed. The methodology is designed to accommodate the full range of problems by applying a systems approach which is b...

  20. HRM: HII Region Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Trey V.; Kepley, Amanda K.; Balser, Dana S.

    2017-07-01

    HII Region Models fits HII region models to observed radio recombination line and radio continuum data. The algorithm includes the calculations of departure coefficients to correct for non-LTE effects. HII Region Models has been used to model star formation in the nucleus of IC 342.

  1. Constructing Regional advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asheim, Bjørn T.; Boschma, Ron; Cooke, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related variety, knowledge bases and policy platforms. Related variety attaches importance to knowledge spillovers across complementary...... economic development within and between regions in action lines appropriate to incorporate the basic principles behind related variety and differentiated knowledge bases....

  2. Regional Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Sponsored Work Regional Economic Development Technology Opportunities User Facilities About Us Metrics In the News Publications Policies Feynman Center » Deploying Innovation » Regional Economic Development Regional Economic Development Supporting companies in every stage of development through access to

  3. New stimulation method with the function of narrowing and moving the stimulated region for cochlear implants. Its evaluation by the animal experiment and the numerical analysis; Jinko naiji no tame no shigeki bui no seneika to ido kino wo motta shigeki hoshiki. Suchi kaiseki to dobutsu jikken ni yoru hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyoshi, S.; Sakajiri, M.; Ifukube, T.; Matsushima, J. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    The electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve can elicit auditory sensations in the subjects with sensorineural deafness. Each stimulating electrode of an electrode array of the multi-channel cochlear implants may stimulate a distinct neural population. However, a great deal of current spreads from each electrode throughout a lymph because of the high electrical conductivity of the lymph liquid. This phenomenon causes the transmitted information to be reduce due to channel interactions. Even if the number of electrodes is increased, the transmitted information will be limited because of current spread. We have proposed the Tripolar Electrode Stimulation Method (TESM) which may succeed in narrowing the stimulation region and continuously moving the stimulation site for the cochlear implants. We evaluate whether or not TESM works according to a theory which is based on the numerical analysis using the auditory nerve fiber model consisted of unmyelinated and myelinated segments. In this simulation, the neural site and the am of the excited fibers are compared with the compound action potentials which we obtained through animal experiments. As a result, based on the numerical analysis using this model, it is also proved that the anodal/cathodal threshold stimulation current ratio increases by decreasing unmyelinated segment between the inner hair cell and the habenula perforate. Also by comparing the result of the numerical analysis with that of the animal experiment, It is suggested that an effect of the unmyelinated segment is not significant. Based on their results mentioned above, we succeed in narrowing a Stimulation region by controlling the am of the currents emitted from the electrodes on both sides. Also we succeed in continuously moving a stimulation site by changing the ratio of the currents emitted from the electrodes on both sides. 11 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Renovascular hypertension: ten years' experience in a regional centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellars, L; Siamopoulos, K; Hacking, P M; Proud, G; Taylor, R M; Essenhigh, D M; Wilkinson, R

    1985-07-01

    In a unit serving a population of three million, 60 hypertensive patients with renovascular disease were identified over a 10-year period. The presence of renovascular disease was usually suggested by intravenous urography (IVU), although this was falsely negative in 21 per cent of cases; isotope renography (IR) was normal in a similar proportion of patients (25 per cent). Eight patients were treated medically and 52 underwent surgical procedures; nephrectomy in 32, autotransplantation in 10, by pass graft in six and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in four. Twenty-three per cent of patients were cured, 37 per cent improved and 40 per cent unchanged one year after surgery, but the response could not be accurately predicted. Clinical features were of some value in that those patients most likely to benefit from surgery were younger, had less severe hypertension of shorter duration, smoked less, had less severe retinopathy and less cardiomegaly. There was also a trend for those with better renal function and less electrocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy to benefit from surgery. The IVU and IR did not predict response to surgery but arteriographic appearances of fibromuscular dysplasia indicated there should be a favourable response. The renal vein renin ratio, basal or stimulated, was of no prognostic value since approximately two-thirds of patients with ratios above or below the threshold value had some benefit from surgery. We conclude that the surgical treatment of renovascular hypertension is worthwhile but the number of patients suitable for surgery is small. Clinical features and the results of simple investigations provided the best guide to surgical outcome in our patients.

  5. Rural Planning in Regional Development: The Kenyan Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Newly independent governments of Asia and Africa embarked on comprehensive ... had proved very effective in assisting European countries to recover from the destruction ... rural development planning and management, poverty alleviation ...

  6. Multinational Experiment 7. Maritime Security Region: The Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    increasingly affect human communities , natural systems, and infrastructure. Resources and Trade Routes in the Arctic Climate change in the Far...capelin, herring, navaga, and wolffishes. Some areas of the Arctic and sub-Arctic suffer from high levels of illegal fishing and overfishing , and...maneuvering, joint air defense drills, communications and search and rescue operations. The exercise is normally held every second year. 8 In

  7. Transient Region Coverage in the Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Over the last several years researchers at NASA Glenn and Ames Research Centers have developed a real-time fault detection and isolation system for propulsion...

  8. Sharing experiences about developing a regional social science virtual library

    OpenAIRE

    Babini, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    Why and how a Latin American and the Caribbean social sciences network (Consejo Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales, CLACSO) started a cooperative open access digital library to disseminate research results (journal articles, books, working documents)

  9. Informatization of regional education organizations management: the experience of Sevastopol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilchenko S.L.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available according to the author, automated information systems play a significant role in successful implementation of the strategy of modern Russian education. The use of information technologies in management in the aspect of improving the quality of education contributes to a change in functional responsibilities and the role of manager, change of organizational structure of management, the emergence of a certain regulation performance, changes in ways of management of an educational institution as a whole.

  10. Regional safeguards arrangements: The Argentina-Brazil experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzo, M.; Gonzales, H.L.; Iskin, M.C.L.; Vicens, H.

    1997-01-01

    A Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Material (SCCC) was established by Argentina and Brazil in July 1992. It is a full scope safeguard's system in both countries. The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was created to apply the SCCC. The main elements of the SCCC are presented. The main safeguards' procedures are described. A brief discussion of the inspection methodology and its impact for facility operators is performed. The safeguard's implementation from the operator's point of view is commented, taking as example a fuel fabrication plant in Argentina and a uranium enrichment plant in Brazil. (author)

  11. Experience from the ECORS program in regions of complex geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damotte, B.

    1993-04-01

    The French ECORS program was launched in 1983 by a cooperation agreement between universities and petroleum companies. Crustal surveys have tried to find explanations for the formation of geological features, such as rifts, mountains ranges or subsidence in sedimentary basins. Several seismic surveys were carried out, some across areas with complex geological structures. The seismic techniques and equipment used were those developed by petroleum geophysicists, adapted to the depth aimed at (30-50 km) and to various physical constraints encountered in the field. In France, ECORS has recorded 850 km of deep seismic lines onshore across plains and mountains, on various kinds of geological formations. Different variations of the seismic method (reflection, refraction, long-offset seismic) were used, often simultaneously. Multiple coverage profiling constitutes the essential part of this data acquisition. Vibrators and dynamite shots were employed with a spread generally 15 km long, but sometimes 100 km long. Some typical seismic examples show that obtaining crustal reflections essentialy depends on two factors: (1) the type and structure of shallow formations, and (2) the sources used. Thus, when seismic energy is strongly absorbed across the first kilometers in shallow formations, or when these formations are highly structured, standard multiple-coverage profiling is not able to provide results beyond a few seconds. In this case, it is recommended to simultaneously carry out long-offset seismic in low multiple coverage. Other more methodological examples show: how the impact on the crust of a surface fault may be evaluated according to the seismic method implemented ( VIBROSEIS 96-fold coverage or single dynamite shot); that vibrators make it possible to implement wide-angle seismic surveying with an offset 80 km long; how to implement the seismic reflection method on complex formations in high mountains. All data were processed using industrial seismic software, which was not always appropriate for records at least 20 s long. Therefore, a specific procedure adapted to deep seismic surveys was developed for several processing steps. The long duration of the VIBROSEIS sweeps often makes it impossible to perform correlation and stack in the recording truck in the field. Such field records were first preprocessed, in order to be later correlated and stacked in the processing center. Because of the long duration of the recordings and the great length of the spread, several types of final sections were replayed, such as: (1) detailed surface sections (0-5 s), (2) entire sections (0-20 s) after data compression, (3) near-trace sections and far-trace sections, which often yield complementary information. Standard methods of reflection migration gave unsatisfactory results. Velocities in depth are inaccurate, the many diffractions do not all come from the vertical plane of the line, and the migration software is poorly adapted to deep crustal reflections. Therefore, migration is often performed graphically from arrivals picked in the time section. Some line-drawings of various onshore lines, especially those across the Alps and the Pyrenees, enable to judge the results obtained by ECORS.

  12. The Andean Common Market: An Experiment in Regional Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Reynold E.

    The Grupo Andino (GRAN) was formed in 1969 as an effort at economic integration by six Latin American countries (Bolivia, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela). It was an outgrowth of its predecessor, the Latin American Free Trade Association (LAFTA), which had been formed in 1960 with eleven member countries. The Andean Group (GRAN) from…

  13. The zitterbewegung region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidharth, B. G.; Das, Abhishek

    2017-07-01

    This paper deals with a precise description of the region of zitterbewegung below the Compton scale and the stochastic nature associated with it. We endeavor to delineate this particular region by means of Ito’s calculus and instigate certain features that are in sharp contrast with conventional physics. Interestingly, our work substantiates that the zitterbewegung region represents a pre-space-time region and from therein emerges the notion of our conventional space-time. Interestingly, this unique region engenders the relativistic and quantum mechanical aspects of space-time.

  14. Authoring experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knox, Jeanette Bresson Ladegaard; Svendsen, Mette Nordahl

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the storytelling aspect inphilosophizing with rehabilitating cancer patients in small Socratic dialogue groups (SDG). Recounting an experienceto illustrate a philosophical question chosen by the participantsis the traditional point of departure for the dialogicalexchange....... However, narrating is much more than abeginning point or the skeletal framework of events and itdeserves more scholarly attention than hitherto given. Storytelling pervades the whole Socratic process and impactsthe conceptual analysis in a SDG. In this article weshow how the narrative aspect became a rich...... an experiencethrough a collaborative effort, most participants hadtheir initial experience existentially refined and the chosenconcept of which the experience served as an illustrationtransformed into a moral compass to be used in self-orientationpost cancer....

  15. Dirac experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, F.; Adeva, B.; Afanasev, L.; Benayoun, M.; Brekhovskikh, V.; Caragheorgheopol, G.; Cechak, T.; Chiba, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Doudarev, A.; Dreossi, D.; Drijard, D.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Gallas, M.V.; Gerndt, J.; Giacomich, R.; Gianotti, P.; Goldin, D.; Gorin, A.; Gortchakov, O.; Guaraldo, C.; Hansroul, M.; Hosek, R.; Iliescu, M.; Jabitski, M.; Kalinina, N.; Karpoukhine, V.; Kluson, J.; Kobayashi, M.; Kokkas, P.; Komarov, V.; Koulikov, A.; Kouptsov, A.; Krouglov, V.; Krouglova, L.; Kuroda, K.-I.; Lanaro, A.; Lapshine, V.; Lednicky, R.; Leruste, P.; Levisandri, P.; Lopez Aguera, A.; Lucherini, V.; Maki, T.; Manuilov, I.; Montanet, L.; Narjoux, J.-L.; Nemenov, L.; Nikitin, M.; Nunez Pardo, T.; Okada, K.; Olchevskii, V.; Pazos, A.; Pentia, M.; Penzo, A.; Perreau, J.-M.; Petrascu, C.; Plo, M.; Ponta, T.; Pop, D.; Riazantsev, A.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Rodriguez Fernandez, A.; Rykaline, V.; Santamarina, C.; Saborido, J.; Schacher, J.; Sidorov, A.; Smolik, J.; Takeutchi, F.; Tarasov, A.; Tauscher, L.; Tobar, M.J.; Trusov, S.; Vazquez, P.; Vlachos, S.; Yazkov, V.; Yoshimura, Y.; Zrelov, P.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of DIRAC experiment is the measurement of the lifetime τ of the exotic hadronic atom consisting of π + and π - mesons. The lifetime of this atom is determined by the decay mode π + π - → π 0 π 0 due to the strong interaction. Through the precise relationship between the lifetime and the S-wave pion-pion scattering length difference |a 0 - a 2 | for isospin 0 and 2 (respectively), a measurement of τ with an accuracy of 10% will allow a determination of |a 0 - a 2 | at a 5% precision level. Pion-pion scattering lengths have been calculated in the framework of chiral perturbation theory with an accuracy below 5%. In this way DIRAC experiment will provide a crucial test of the chiral symmetry breaking scheme in QCD effective theories at low energies

  16. Dirac experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, F.; Adeva, B.; Afanasev, L.; Benayoun, M.; Brekhovskikh, V.; Caragheorgheopol, G.; Cechak, T.; Chiba, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Doudarev, A.; Dreossi, D.; Drijard, D.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Gallas, M.V.; Gerndt, J.; Giacomich, R.; Gianotti, P.; Goldin, D.; Gorin, A.; Gortchakov, O.; Guaraldo, C.; Hansroul, M.; Hosek, R.; Iliescu, M.; Jabitski, M.; Kalinina, N.; Karpoukhine, V.; Kluson, J.; Kobayashi, M.; Kokkas, P.; Komarov, V.; Koulikov, A.; Kouptsov, A.; Krouglov, V.; Krouglova, L.; Kuroda, K.-I.; Lanaro, A.; Lapshine, V.; Lednicky, R.; Leruste, P.; Levisandri, P.; Lopez Aguera, A.; Lucherini, V.; Maki, T.; Manuilov, I.; Montanet, L.; Narjoux, J.-L.; Nemenov, L.; Nikitin, M.; Nunez Pardo, T.; Okada, K.; Olchevskii, V.; Pazos, A.; Pentia, M.; Penzo, A.; Perreau, J.-M.; Petrascu, C.; Plo, M.; Ponta, T.; Pop, D.; Riazantsev, A.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Rodriguez Fernandez, A.; Rykaline, V.; Santamarina, C.; Saborido, J.; Schacher, J.; Sidorov, A.; Smolik, J.; Takeutchi, F.; Tarasov, A.; Tauscher, L.; Tobar, M.J.; Trusov, S.; Vazquez, P.; Vlachos, S.; Yazkov, V.; Yoshimura, Y.; Zrelov, P

    2001-04-01

    The main objective of DIRAC experiment is the measurement of the lifetime {tau} of the exotic hadronic atom consisting of {pi}{sup +} and {pi}{sup -} mesons. The lifetime of this atom is determined by the decay mode {pi}{sup +} {pi}{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0} due to the strong interaction. Through the precise relationship between the lifetime and the S-wave pion-pion scattering length difference |a{sub 0} - a{sub 2}| for isospin 0 and 2 (respectively), a measurement of {tau} with an accuracy of 10% will allow a determination of |a{sub 0} - a{sub 2}| at a 5% precision level. Pion-pion scattering lengths have been calculated in the framework of chiral perturbation theory with an accuracy below 5%. In this way DIRAC experiment will provide a crucial test of the chiral symmetry breaking scheme in QCD effective theories at low energies.

  17. Russian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabalka, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Soviet research in terrestrial decontamination appears to have paralleled that of the US in many respects. However, the probability exists that long-term evaluations of decontamination techniques (over 10 to 20 years) have been carried out at one nuclear accident site (a marked divergence from US experience). The area of aquatic decontamination seems to offer the most intriguing possibilities for new information acquisition from the USSR; at this point only its potential importance can be speculated upon

  18. Polarization experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halzen, F.

    1977-02-01

    In a theoretical review of polarization experiments two important points are emphasized: (a) their versatility and their relevance to a large variety of aspects of hadron physics (tests of basic symmetries; a probe of strong interaction dynamics; a tool for hadron spectroscopy); (b) the wealth of experimental data on polarization parameters in pp and np scattering in the Regge language and in the diffraction language. (author)

  19. Experiments expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Gorini, B; Meschi, E

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the expectations and the constraints of the experiments relatively to the commissioning procedure and the running conditions for the 2015 data taking period. The views about the various beam parameters for the p-p period, like beam energy, maximum pileup, bunch spacing and luminosity limitation in IP2 and IP8, are discussed. The goals and the constraints of the 2015 physics program are also presented, including the heavy ions period as well as the special...

  20. Media experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses mediated experiences from the perspective of the visual modality in combination with the multimodal interaction. ICT-studies has a rapid influx of new words and concepts. Digital technology led to a need to describe the convergence of images, text and sound has taken various w...... to educational practices as still more advanced technology emerge and intertwine the scientific areas in new and cross-disciplinary frameworks....

  1. Regional Anaesthesia in Thyroid Surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, N.; Abbas, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Thyroidectomy is usually performed under general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Bilateral cervical plexus block has been occasionally used as sole anaesthesia technique for this operation in certain parts of world. Indications for regional anaesthesia elsewhere in the world are patient's preference and associated marked cardio-respiratory disease. This is the first report of thyroidectomy done solely under bilateral cervical plexus block in Pakistan. The patient had thyroid cancer and was medically compromised due to cardiac failure with ejection fraction of 25%. Bilateral cervical plexus block was performed to avoid the high risk with general anaesthesia. Total thyroidectomy was done while patient remained painfree during the procedure and top-up local anaesthetic infiltration was not required. Patient remained stable without any morbidity. Positive experience from this case indicates that regional anaesthesia with monitored anaesthesia care is safer than general anaesthesia in high risk patients and could be offered to selective thyroidectomy candidates. (author)

  2. Antimatter gravity experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.E.; Camp, J.B.; Darling, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    An experiment is being developed to measure the acceleration of the antiproton in the gravitational field of the earth. Antiprotons of a few MeV from the LEAR facility at CERN will be slowed, captured, cooled to a temperature of about 10 K, and subsequently launched a few at a time into a drift tube where the effect of gravity on their motion will be determined by a time-of-flight method. Development of the experiment is proceeding at Los Alamos using normal matter. The fabrication of a drift tube that will produce a region of space in which gravity is the dominant force on moving ions is of major difficulty. This involves a study of methods of minimizing the electric fields produced by spatially varying work functions on conducting surfaces. Progress in a number of areas is described, with stress on the drift-tube development

  3. Experiments around I-8

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    The lithium transition-radiation detectors and the large liquid argon calorimeters of experiment R806T are shown above and below the intersection at I-8 (Brookhaven-CERN-Saclay-Syracuse-Yale Collaboration, Study of large transverse momentum phenomena by electron and photon detection). At 90 deg to the intersecting beams are the monitoring proporional chambers of experiment R805 (Measurement of real to imaginary ratio of forward scattering amplitude - Coulomb interference - by the CERN-Rome Collaboration). Left and right of the intersection one sees, symmetrically placed around the interaction region, the large scintillation counters hodoscopes used by R801 (Pisa-Stony Brook Collaboration) to measure the pp total cross section and the features of inelastic collisions.

  4. Entrepreneurship and regional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine

    This literature review examines how entrepreneurship and regional development has been previously addressed theoretically and empirically. Regional Science and Entrepreneurship are two fields with their own distinct literature's. The question is therefore, how do these two fields talk about...... the respective other? What are the commonalities and differences? The purpose of this article is to create an analytical synthesis by combining the insights of the two literature's in order to gain a fuller understanding of the relation between entrepreneurship and regional development....

  5. Regional Innovation Clusters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — The Regional Innovation Clusters serve a diverse group of sectors and geographies. Three of the initial pilot clusters, termed Advanced Defense Technology clusters,...

  6. Border region studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The contemporary conditions of academic capitalism exert pressures on researchers to avoid ‘peripheral’ journals and ‘unfashionable’ topics. Here an attempt is made to shed light onto the structure of one such ‘offbeat’ field, namely ‘border region studies’, by discussing its geographical...... distribution, key themes, significance and impact. The review suggests that border region studies can be considered a significant and important ‘branch’ of regional studies, which accounts for a small but increasing proportion of regional studies research particularly in Europe and North America. Four main...

  7. Regional Redistribution and Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manasse, Paolo; Schultz, Christian

    We study a model with free migration between a rich and a poor region. Since there is congestion, the rich region has an incentive to give the poor region a transfer in order to reduce immigration. Faced with free migration, the rich region voluntarily chooses a transfer, which turns out...... to be equal to that a social planner would choose. Provided migration occurs in equilibrium, this conclusion holds even in the presence of moderate mobility costs. However, large migration costs will lead to suboptimal transfers in the market solution...

  8. Approaching Regional Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David; Shah, Ali; Kazmi, Atia

    The report contains ideas on enhanced cooperation on both security and economy. It is a particular relevant read for regional political decision makers, institutions, private companies, and researchers that wish to gain insight into the present and future political and economic developments...... of Afghan-Pakistani relations and to the region in general. Military institutions, officers and officials facing deployment in the region as well as universities and scholars with ongoing research and programmes in the region will also benefit from output of the stabilization project that this report...

  9. Styringskapaciteten i regional arbejdsmarkedspolitik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Charlotte

    This book discovers the potential in regional labour market policy. It raises the question whether the regional labour market councils seek for and follows deliberative proces norms when they formulate the regional policy, and the more theoretical question about whether corporatism is compatible...... with deliberative proces norms at all. The conclusion is that if certain circumstances are fullfilled such as 1) competence to decide the policy, 2) trust from the central level and 3) an orientation towards a regional identity then there actually exists an institutional basis for deliberation....

  10. Experimenting with a design experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakker, Judith

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The design experiment is an experimental research method that aims to help design and further develop new (policy instruments. For the development of a set of guidelines for the facilitation of citizens’ initiatives by local governments, we are experimenting with this method. It offers good opportunities for modeling interventions by testing their instrumental validity –the usefulness for the intended practical purposes. At the same time design experiments are also useful for evaluating the empirical validity of theoretical arguments and the further development of these arguments in the light of empirical evidence (by using e.g. the technique of pattern matching. We describe how we have applied this methodology in two cases and discuss our research approach. We encountered some unexpected difficulties, especially in the cooperation with professionals and citizens. These difficulties complicate the valid attribution of causal effects to the use of the new instrument. However, our preliminary conclusion is that design experiments are useful in our field of study

    El experimento de diseño es un método de investigación experimental que tiene como objetivo diseñar y desarrollar posteriormente nuevas herramientas (políticas. En este artículo experimentamos con este método para desarrollar un conjunto de directrices que permitan a los gobiernos locales facilitar las iniciativas ciudadanas. El método ofrece la oportunidad de modelar las intervenciones poniendo a prueba su validez instrumental (su utilidad para el fin práctico que se proponen. Al mismo tiempo, los experimentos de diseño son útiles también para evaluar la validez empírica de las discusiones teóricas y el posterior desarrollo de esas discusiones a la luz de la evidencia empírica (usando, por ejemplo, técnicas de concordancia de patrones. En este trabajo describimos cómo hemos aplicado este método a dos casos y discutimos nuestro enfoque de

  11. Operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McRae, L.P.; Six, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    In 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company began operating a first-generation integrated safeguards system in the Plutonium Finishing Plant storage vaults. This Vault Safety and Inventory System is designed to integrate data into a computer-based nuclear material inventory monitoring system. The system gathers, in real time, measured physical parameters that generate nuclear material inventory status data for thousands of stored items and sends tailored report to the appropriate users. These data include canister temperature an bulge data reported to Plant Operations and Material Control and Accountability personnel, item presence and identification data reported to Material Control and Accountability personnel, and unauthorized item movement data reported to Security response forces and Material Control and Accountability personnel. The Westinghouse Hanford Company's experience and operational benefits in using this system for reduce radiation exposure, increase protection against insider threat, and real-time inventory control are discussed in this paper

  12. Management Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Popovici

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the survey about the changes in modern management, identified from the experience of Romanian managers. By this online study one presents both the obstacles encountered and the recommendations for such a type of management that the present and future mangers must take into account. What motivated the respondent Romanian managers most to open their own business is the independence it offered them. They work in the field they have liked since they were young. The second reason was the perspective to have an additional income from the business development. The third argument in favour of opening a business is the possibility to assure the balance between personal life and career.

  13. On Austrian regional economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.; Leen, A.R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research note is two-fold, firstly, to clarify the growing interaction between regional science and Austrian economics and their awareness of each other. We elucidate the Austrian methodology, called praxeology, which is especially misunderstood in regional science. Secondly, we

  14. The Wealth of Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nistotskaya, Marina; Charron, Nicholas; Lapuente, Victor

    2015-01-01

    . Using original survey data on QoG from 172 regions in eighteen European Union countries, we find that regions where governments are perceived by their citizens as impartial and free from corruption have on average significantly more SMEs. We also find that in less corrupt countries the spatial...... distribution of SMEs is more even than in more corrupt countries...

  15. Forest regions of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. Arno

    1979-01-01

    In this paper, Montana is divided into eight geographic subdivisions called "forest regions," based on distributions of tree and undergrowth species and the relationship of these patterns to climate and topography. The regions serve as a geographic reference for describing patterns of forest vegetation across the State. Data on the distributions of plant...

  16. Regionalism, Devolution and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanor, Vernon

    1977-01-01

    Described are effects of political decentralization in the United Kingdom on political and social institutions, particularly education. The author concludes that regionalism could yield advantages of power decentralization, diversity of decision making, and educational systems which are more closely connected to regional and local traditions.…

  17. Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

  18. Politics, Planning and Regionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukosky, Jerome

    The concept of regionalism identifies the issues in public affairs pertaining to a region and develops structures through which citizens can participate in the decisionmaking process. This speech describes educational decisions in the State of New York as affected by local decentralization and by concentration of power at the State level. Relevant…

  19. The Scandinavian regional model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torfing, Jacob; Lidström, Anders; Røiseland, Asbjørn

    2015-01-01

    This article maps how the sub-national regional levels of governance in Denmark, Norway and Sweden have changed from a high degree of institutional convergence to a pattern of institutional divergence. It analyses the similarities and differences in the changes in regional governance and discusses...

  20. Regional final energy consumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report comments the differences observed between the French regions and also between these regions and national data in terms of final energy consumption per inhabitant, per GDP unit, and per sector (housing and office building, transport, industry, agriculture). It also comments the evolutions during the last decades, identifies the most recent trends

  1. Measuring regional authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marks, G.W.; Hooghe, E.A.E.B.; Schakel, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    This article sets out a conceptual basis for measuring regional authority and engages basic measurement issues. Regional authority is disaggregated into two domains (self-rule and shared rule) and these are operationalised in eight dimensions. The article concludes by examining the robustness of

  2. Emergence of regional clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael S.; Østergaard, Christian Richter; Dalum, Bent

    2010-01-01

    The literature on regional clusters has increased considerably during the last decade. The emergence and growth patterns are usually explained by such factors as unique local culture, regional capabilities, tacit knowledge or the existence of location-specific externalities (knowledge spillovers...

  3. Arkadien. Region og identitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Heine

    Oldtidens Grækenland bestod af et mylder af bystater, grupperet i regioner, og grækerne mente, at de forskellige regioners beboere havde hver deres karakteristika. Bogen undersøger dette emne nærmere i forhold til Arkadien på Peloponnes: Hvad ville det sige at være arkader? Var det et geografisk...

  4. Mercosur's regional health agenda: architecture and themes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Guimaraes Queiroz

    Full Text Available This article describes the shaping of institutional health spaces in the Mercosur, with analysis of themes and results and considerations on the construction of the regional agenda and on the effects of regional economic integration processes on health policies and systems. We discuss the organization, operation, focus topics, and results achieved in specific health forums (Meeting of Ministers of Health and Sub-Working Group 11, seeking to analyze the architecture and issues addressed by the regional agenda and drawing parallels with the European experience. The aim of this reflection is to identify how the work done by Mercosur structures contributes to building a regional agenda, with the expectation that the integration can contribute to reducing inequalities in access to health care in the region.

  5. Subotica municipality as a learning region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantić Marijana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Some differences in territorial organization between Serbian and EU countries are obvious. The level of centralization and tradition in systems for implementation of ideas are differently back- grounded. However, these are the most important facts for the opportunity to realize Learning Region as a concept of the European future. There is no part of space that should be considered as unchangeable and the way to a better position and Learning Region concept implementation of each region in Serbia in practice should lead towards few necessary steps and further. The starting point is awareness of the facts on the creation of Subotica region as it is at present. The healthy future of each region is provided by looking back in the past and learning from the history. The other important thing is bench marking- learning on the positive and successful experiences of other regions, and finally, making its own concept of Learning Region adapted to local surrounding and true need of local people. Some experiences, suggestions and comparisons will be made in this case study, in relation to one of the Serbian municipalities nearest t to EU neighboring countries in a territorial way. .

  6. Evanescent spectroscopy - theory and experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Karabchevsky, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Outline1 Introduction2 Literature Overview3 Photonic-Plasmonic WaveguideStructureModellingTheory4 ResultsOptical TransmittanceLoss of Fundamental Mode in a Gold RegionOptical Surface Intensity5 NIR Spectroscopy - Experiment6 Conclusions7 Acknowledgements

  7. Connecting to Regional Markets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coulibaly, Souleymane; Thomsen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Central Asian food processors face a number of constraints when they attempt to export to the region and beyond. The Central Asian economies in focus here are landlocked, and thus lack easy access to sea transport. In addition, the region's transport network was built to reinforce the interdepend......Central Asian food processors face a number of constraints when they attempt to export to the region and beyond. The Central Asian economies in focus here are landlocked, and thus lack easy access to sea transport. In addition, the region's transport network was built to reinforce...... the interdependence of the then Soviet republics, while conflicting economic interests make cross-border cooperation difficult. Based on extensive fieldwork on infrastructure systems and firm export strategies, this paper identifies contemporary infrastructure and transportation issues within the Central Asian region...

  8. Crisis and Regional Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    , Tunisia, Egypt …. ), where the crisis referred to could be humanitarian, environmental, economic, political … Europe, too, has also according to mass media, been a victim of a crisis, the financial one. Could ‘crisis’ be a beginning of enhanced regional integration? This paper will try to look...... at the processes of regional integration in relation to ‘crisis’ in Africa and Europe. First, this paper will look at the concept of ‘crisis’, before it moves on to discuss ‘regional integration’ and the correlation between the two, emphasizing the approaches of neo-functionalism and federal theory....... This is the basis for two short case studies of African and European regional integration. The paper tentative answers to the question: will the crisis in Africa and Europe respectively further or block regional integration? With a ‘that depends’. But the use of Federalism theory and neo-functionalism is seen...

  9. The Regional Dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl

    2013-01-01

    is largely dependent on regional media systems, yet the role this regional dimension plays has been largely overlooked. This article presents a comparative study of climate-change coverage in three geo-cultural regions, The Middle East, Scandinavia, and North America, and explores the link between global......Global perspectives and national approaches have dominated studies of climate-change communication, reflecting the global nature of climate change as well as the traditional research focus on national media systems. In the absence of a global public sphere, however, transnational issue attention...... climate-change communication and regional media systems. It finds that regional variations in climate-change communication carry important communicative implications concerning perceptions of climate change's relevance and urgency...

  10. Bridging regional innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis

    2013-01-01

    to assess the progress of integration in the regions, as well as the effect of cross-border innovation policies. Consequently, important questions are left unanswered, including the central research question of this paper: does the sudden removal of significant physical barriers directly impacts......The topics of regional innovation systems (RIS) and cross-border regions attract increasing attention, but few studies combine the themes. Further, the existing empirical studies of cross-border innovation and knowledge creation analyse one case at one point in time, thus, making it difficult...... collaboration activity in cross-border innovation systems? This paper examines regional integration in the Oresund Region over time. It deals with a specific part of the RIS, as it analyses research collaboration between actors from the Danish and Swedish sides, with a specific emphasis on the biotech industry...

  11. Water masers in NGC7538 region

    Science.gov (United States)