WorldWideScience

Sample records for regional conservation corridors

  1. Metro Conservation Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Metro Conservation Corridors (MeCC) grow out of the natural resource analysis work done by the DNR in the late '90's, documented in the Metro Greenprint...

  2. Hot Spots and Hot Times: Wildlife Road Mortality in a Regional Conservation Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrah, Evelyn; Danby, Ryan K.; Eberhardt, Ewen; Cunnington, Glenn M.; Mitchell, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Strategies to reduce wildlife road mortality have become a significant component of many conservation efforts. However, their success depends on knowledge of the temporal and spatial patterns of mortality. We studied these patterns along the 1000 Islands Parkway in Ontario, Canada, a 37 km road that runs adjacent to the St. Lawrence River and bisects the Algonquin-to-Adirondacks international conservation corridor. Characteristics of all vertebrate road kill were recorded during 209 bicycle surveys conducted from 2008 to 2011. We estimate that over 16,700 vertebrates are killed on the road from April to October each year; most are amphibians, but high numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles were also found, including six reptiles considered at-risk in Canada. Regression tree analysis was used to assess the importance of seasonality, weather, and traffic on road kill magnitude. All taxa except mammals exhibited distinct temporal peaks corresponding to phases in annual life cycles. Variations in weather and traffic were only important outside these peak times. Getis-Ord analysis was used to identify spatial clusters of mortality. Hot spots were found in all years for all taxa, but locations varied annually. A significant spatial association was found between multiyear hot spots and wetlands. The results underscore the notion that multi-species conservation efforts must account for differences in the seasonality of road mortality among species and that multiple years of data are necessary to identify locations where the greatest conservation good can be achieved. This information can be used to inform mitigation strategies with implications for conservation at regional scales.

  3. From corridor to region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne; Jespersen, Per Homann

    2006-01-01

    The corridor between Oslo and Berlin is by the politicians of the regional authorities in the Scandinavian part of the corridor seen a region with unique qualities and a large innovation and growth potential. In order to explore and develop this potential an In-terreg project has been launched...... this task by applying principles of participative planning and with action research methodology are involving stakeholders in the process of defining, developing and disseminating the idea of the Corridor of Innovation and Cooperation - COINCO....

  4. Large-Scale Habitat Corridors for Biodiversity Conservation: A Forest Corridor in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjona Ramiadantsoa

    Full Text Available In biodiversity conservation, habitat corridors are assumed to increase landscape-level connectivity and to enhance the viability of otherwise isolated populations. While the role of corridors is supported by empirical evidence, studies have typically been conducted at small spatial scales. Here, we assess the quality and the functionality of a large 95-km long forest corridor connecting two large national parks (416 and 311 km2 in the southeastern escarpment of Madagascar. We analyze the occurrence of 300 species in 5 taxonomic groups in the parks and in the corridor, and combine high-resolution forest cover data with a simulation model to examine various scenarios of corridor destruction. At present, the corridor contains essentially the same communities as the national parks, reflecting its breadth which on average matches that of the parks. In the simulation model, we consider three types of dispersers: passive dispersers, which settle randomly around the source population; active dispersers, which settle only in favorable habitat; and gap-avoiding active dispersers, which avoid dispersing across non-habitat. Our results suggest that long-distance passive dispersers are most sensitive to ongoing degradation of the corridor, because increasing numbers of propagules are lost outside the forest habitat. For a wide range of dispersal parameters, the national parks are large enough to sustain stable populations until the corridor becomes severely broken, which will happen around 2065 if the current rate of forest loss continues. A significant decrease in gene flow along the corridor is expected after 2040, and this will exacerbate the adverse consequences of isolation. Our results demonstrate that simulation studies assessing the role of habitat corridors should pay close attention to the mode of dispersal and the effects of regional stochasticity.

  5. Conservation Lands and Preserves, Private - Volusia County Conservation Corridor

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — The Volusia Conservation Corridor (VCC) is a mosaic of contiguous parcels of land, approximately 55,000 acres in size, which sits essentially in the middle of the...

  6. The actual relevance of ecological corridors in nature conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćurčić Nina B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers theoretical and applied foundations of the concept of the ecological corridors in nature conservation. Their relevance comes from recent ecological phenomenon of habitat fragmentation which is rapidly increasing during last decades. Habitat fragmentation is one of the main threats to richness and diversity of wildlife. Ecological corridors can mitigate the loss and fragmentation of habitat. Corridors perform as “bridges” between habitats for species and they provide a flow of the natural or even anthropogenic caused disturbances. In this paper we will present the meaning and significance of ecological corridors in nature conservation, as well as types of ecological corridors and their ecological benefits. Methodological and practical approaches in nature protection system in Serbia are included. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47007 i br. 176008

  7. Effects of vegetation, corridor width and regional land use on early successional birds on powerline corridors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Askins

    Full Text Available Powerline rights-of-way (ROWs often provide habitat for early successional bird species that have suffered long-term population declines in eastern North America. To determine how the abundance of shrubland birds varies with habitat within ROW corridors and with land use patterns surrounding corridors, we ran Poisson regression models on data from 93 plots on ROWs and compared regression coefficients. We also determined nest success rates on a 1-km stretch of ROW. Seven species of shrubland birds were common in powerline corridors. However, the nest success rates for prairie warbler (Dendroica discolor and field sparrow (Spizella pusilla were <21%, which is too low to compensate for estimated annual mortality. Some shrubland bird species were more abundant on narrower ROWs or at sites with lower vegetation or particular types of vegetation, indicating that vegetation management could be refined to favor species of high conservation priority. Also, several species were more abundant in ROWs traversing unfragmented forest than those near residential areas or farmland, indicating that corridors in heavily forested regions may provide better habitat for these species. In the area where we monitored nests, brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater occurred more frequently close to a residential area. Although ROWs support dense populations of shrubland birds, those in more heavily developed landscapes may constitute sink habitat. ROWs in extensive forests may contribute more to sustaining populations of early successional birds, and thus may be the best targets for habitat management.

  8. Designing Conservation Corridors in Production Landscapes: Assessment Methods, Implementation Issues, and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda T. Lombard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Designing broad-scale conservation corridors has become increasingly common as a way of conducting an assessment for achieving targets for the representation and persistence of nature. However, since many of these corridors must traverse agricultural and other production landscapes, planning and implementation are not trivial tasks. Most approaches to conservation assessments in the dynamic world of production landscapes are data-intensive and analytically complex. However, in the real world, donor and other external requirements impose time and budget constraints, and dictate strong stakeholder involvement in the entire planning process. In order to accommodate this, assessments must be rapid, cheap, and the approach and products must be comprehensible and acceptable to stakeholders. Here we describe such an assessment aimed at identifying and implementing a network of conservation corridors in the Gouritz Initiative project domain of South Africa's Cape Floristic Region hotspot. We used empirical data and expert knowledge to identify a corridor network hypothesized to sustain key ecological and evolutionary processes. We also consulted experts to provide a spatially explicit assessment of the opportunity costs of conservation associated with agriculture, the predominant land use in the region. We used these products to identify categories of land requiring different actions and instruments to achieve conservation goals, thereby moving from the "where" to the "how" of conservation. This information was then fed into the collaborative strategy development process for the Gouritz Initiative. Our discussion emphasizes the lessons that we learnt from undertaking this assessment, particularly lessons regarding the implementation of the planning products. We conclude that at the outset of any planning project, a consensus on the vision must be achieved, a detailed social assessment of appropriate institutions must be undertaken, and a learning

  9. Regional Ecological Corridors - MLCCS derived 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Identification of potential ecological corridors between the MLCCS derived ecological patches (ear_eco08py3). This was generated using cost / distance analysis,...

  10. Green Infrastructure and Ecological Corridors: A Regional Study Concerning Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignazio Cannas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a methodological approach to identify a multifunctional green infrastructure (GI on the basis of four values (conservation value, natural value, recreation value and anthropic heritage that represent many functions (biodiversity conservation, supply of ecosystem services, recreation, identity building performed by the landscape. By taking the Italian region of Sardinia as a case study, we argue that the methodology can support the making of landscape plans as understood in the European Landscape Convention. Moreover, we propose and implement a methodology to identify ecological corridors (ECs connecting Natura 2000 sites (N2Ss, based on the prioritization of functional land patches related to their suitability to ecosystem services delivery, paying particular attention to biodiversity maintenance and enhancement, and taking Sardinia as spatial regional context. The methodology consists of two steps: (i identifying the most suitable patches to be included in ECs on the basis of their connectivity, that is, on their negative attitude towards contributing to landscape fragmentation; (ii assessing, through a discrete-choice-model, the suitability of these ECs to be included in a regional GI, starting from the territorial taxonomy based on biodiversity characteristics related to N2Ss, habitat suitability, and recreational and landscape potentials.

  11. [Perception and attitude of rural community to the construction of Asian elephant conservation corridors in Xishuangbanna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng-Ling; Chen, Ming-Yong; Wu, Zhao-Lu; Wang, Qian; Dong, Yong-Hua

    2009-06-01

    By using contingent valuation method (CVM), an investigation was made from November 2007 to March 2008 on the perception and attitude of 196 households in 5 villages within 2 planned Asian elephant conservation corridors in Xishuangbanna to the construction of the corridors. 80.61% of the interviewees conditionally supported the corridors construction. The main factors affecting the interviewees' support willingness included their education level, per capita income, and perceptions to Asian elephant protection, human-elephant relations, and corridor utilization patterns and its beneficiaries, among which, the interviewees' awareness of Asian elephant conservation, corridor utilization patterns, and corridor beneficiaries had strong influence on the support willingness, with the correlation coefficient being 0.231, 0.236, and -0.304, respectively. The rural community holding the land tenure played a key role in the corridors construction. To effectively design and planning the construction of biological conservation corridor, it is necessary to have a deep understanding on the perceptions and attitudes of rural community to the construction of the corridor and to obtain their support and participation for this construction.

  12. The role of green corridors for wildlife conservation in urban landscape: A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, H A; Rasidi, M H

    2014-01-01

    Green corridors are an attempt to mitigate negative effects of the built environment of cities and towns. The corridors act as conservation for rapidly extreme intervention and development of the urban environment. Most importantly, it enables dispersal movement of animals within city areas. Issues relate to wildlife conservation in urban areas has been studied for many years and thus, the research makes a review for how the green corridors contribute to the conservation of urban wildlife. This study reviews groups of articles in disciplines of urban landscape planning and biology conservation to discuss the relationship between elements of green corridors and urban wildlife dispersal movement behaviour in Malaysian context. Accordingly, this research is purposely studied to give understanding on how green corridors contribute to the animals' ability of moving and dispersing within the built-up areas. In advance, it is found that there are three factors contribute to the capability of colonization among urban wildlife which are individual, physical and social factor. Green corridor has been defined as one of the physical factor that influence urban wildlife behaviour movement. Consequently, safety area indicating to animals species for traversing in any time such as at night can be defined as the primary potential corridor

  13. Identification of priority conservation areas and potential corridors for jaguars in the Caatinga biome, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; Ferraz, Katia Maria Paschoaletto Micchi de Barros; de Paula, Rogério Cunha; de Campos, Cláudia Bueno

    2014-01-01

    The jaguar, Panthera onca, is a top predator with the extant population found within the Brazilian Caatinga biome now known to be on the brink of extinction. Designing new conservation units and potential corridors are therefore crucial for the long-term survival of the species within the Caatinga biome. Thus, our aims were: 1) to recognize suitable areas for jaguar occurrence, 2) to delineate areas for jaguar conservation (PJCUs), 3) to design corridors among priority areas, and 4) to prioritize PJCUs. A total of 62 points records of jaguar occurrence and 10 potential predictors were analyzed in a GIS environment. A predictive distributional map was obtained using Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) as performed by the Maximum Entropy (Maxent) algorithm. Areas equal to or higher than the median suitability value of 0.595 were selected as of high suitability for jaguar occurrence and named as Priority Jaguar Conservation Units (PJCU). Ten PJCUs with sizes varying from 23.6 km2 to 4,311.0 km2 were identified. Afterwards, we combined the response curve, as generated by SDM, and expert opinions to create a permeability matrix and to identify least cost corridors and buffer zones between each PJCU pair. Connectivity corridors and buffer zone for jaguar movement included an area of 8.884,26 km2 and the total corridor length is about 160.94 km. Prioritizing criteria indicated the PJCU representing c.a. 68.61% of the total PJCU area (PJCU # 1) as of high priority for conservation and connectivity with others PJCUs (PJCUs # 4, 5 and 7) desirable for the long term survival of the species. In conclusion, by using the jaguar as a focal species and combining SDM and expert opinion we were able to create a valid framework for practical conservation actions at the Caatinga biome. The same approach could be used for the conservation of other carnivores.

  14. Identification of priority conservation areas and potential corridors for jaguars in the Caatinga biome, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Gonçalves Morato

    Full Text Available The jaguar, Panthera onca, is a top predator with the extant population found within the Brazilian Caatinga biome now known to be on the brink of extinction. Designing new conservation units and potential corridors are therefore crucial for the long-term survival of the species within the Caatinga biome. Thus, our aims were: 1 to recognize suitable areas for jaguar occurrence, 2 to delineate areas for jaguar conservation (PJCUs, 3 to design corridors among priority areas, and 4 to prioritize PJCUs. A total of 62 points records of jaguar occurrence and 10 potential predictors were analyzed in a GIS environment. A predictive distributional map was obtained using Species Distribution Modeling (SDM as performed by the Maximum Entropy (Maxent algorithm. Areas equal to or higher than the median suitability value of 0.595 were selected as of high suitability for jaguar occurrence and named as Priority Jaguar Conservation Units (PJCU. Ten PJCUs with sizes varying from 23.6 km2 to 4,311.0 km2 were identified. Afterwards, we combined the response curve, as generated by SDM, and expert opinions to create a permeability matrix and to identify least cost corridors and buffer zones between each PJCU pair. Connectivity corridors and buffer zone for jaguar movement included an area of 8.884,26 km2 and the total corridor length is about 160.94 km. Prioritizing criteria indicated the PJCU representing c.a. 68.61% of the total PJCU area (PJCU # 1 as of high priority for conservation and connectivity with others PJCUs (PJCUs # 4, 5 and 7 desirable for the long term survival of the species. In conclusion, by using the jaguar as a focal species and combining SDM and expert opinion we were able to create a valid framework for practical conservation actions at the Caatinga biome. The same approach could be used for the conservation of other carnivores.

  15. Camdeboo-Mountain Zebra National Park Corridor: Opportunities for conservation and socio-economic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Norval

    2015-01-01

    The Wilderness Foundation, in partnership with South African National Parks has initiated a two year project in the Karoo; The Mountain Zebra-Camdeboo Corridor Project. Through either voluntary Contractual National Park or Protected Environment agreements, the project aims to work with, rather than displace, current conservation-compatible land-use practices such as...

  16. Triage of means: options for conserving tiger corridors beyond designated protected lands in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indranil Mondal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The latest tiger census conducted in India during the year 2014 shows that it harbours 57% of the global tiger population in 7% of their historic global range. At the same time, India has 1.25 billion people growing at a rate of 1.7% per year. Protected tiger habitats in India are geographically isolated and collectively holds this tiger population under tremendous anthropogenic pressure. These protected lands are in itself not enough to sustain the growing tiger population, intensifying human-tiger conflict as dispersing individuals enter human occupied areas. These factors – isolation and inadequate size of the protected lands harbouring tiger meta-populations, highlight the need to connect tiger habitats and the importance of corridors beyond protected lands. It is imperative to conserve such corridors passing through private lands to safeguard the long-term survival of the tigers in India. The goal of long-term tiger conservation in India lies in smartly integrating tiger conservation concerns in various sectors where tiger conservation is not the priority. To effectively tap into all these resources, we propose a Triage of Means strategy. Here we do not prioritize species, populations or sites due to the non-availability of conservation resources. Instead, we aim to prioritize from available resources (means to achieve conservation from other sectors where tiger conservation is not the focus. We outline how to prioritise resources available from various sectors into conservation by prioritizing issues hampering tiger conservation beyond protected habitats.

  17. Northeast Asian Energy Corridor Initiative for Regional Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paik Hoon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For historical and political reasons, South Korea (hereafter Korea, Japan and China have not achieved much progress in regional energy cooperation for decades. However, the rising importance of Northeast Asia (NEA in the world energy sphere, especially in the global oil market, is providing an opportunity to create an integrated oil market in the region. This study suggests the Northeast Asian Energy Corridor (NEAEC Initiative as an effective conduit for raising the possibility of the Northeast Asian oil hub project. The NEAEC Initiative combines the model of Europe's Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Antwerp (ARA with Singapore's AsiaClear as a form of financial collaboration. The study suggests that an elFor historical and political reasons, South Korea (hereafter Korea, Japan and China have not achieved much progress in regional energy cooperation for decades. However, the rising importance of Northeast Asia (NEA in the world energy sphere, especially in the global oil market, is providing an opportunity to create an integrated oil market in the region. This study suggests the Northeast Asian Energy Corridor (NEAEC Initiative as an effective conduit for raising the possibility of the Northeast Asian oil hub project. The NEAEC Initiative combines the model of Europe's Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Antwerp (ARA with Singapore’s AsiaClear as a form of financial collaboration. The study suggests that an electronically integrated Over-the-Counter (OTC market clearing mechanism accompanied by other key financial instruments among Korea, Japan and China can be an effective means for promoting financial collaboration in the region.

  18. Louisiana Speaks Regional Vision Transit Corridors, UTM Zone 15N NAD 83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [louisiana_speaks_vision_transit_corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates the primary and secondary transit corridors included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision. This network accommodates a...

  19. Focal species and landscape "naturalness" corridor models offer complementary approaches for connectivity conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade Krosby; Ian Breckheimer; D. John Pierce; Peter H. Singleton; Sonia A. Hall; Karl C. Halupka; William L. Gaines; Robert A. Long; Brad H. McRae; Brian L. Cosentino; Joanne P. Schuett-Hames

    2015-01-01

    Context   The dual threats of habitat fragmentation and climate change have led to a proliferation of approaches for connectivity conservation planning. Corridor analyses have traditionally taken a focal species approach, but the landscape ‘‘naturalness’’ approach of modeling connectivity among areas of low human modification has gained popularity...

  20. Siliguri: A Geopolitical Manoeuvre Corridor in the Eastern Himalayan Region for China and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Yaser Malik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Siliguri Corridor being part of Indian West Bengal is a diplomatic manoeuvre place located between Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, India’s Seven Sister States and Chumbi Hills in the Eastern Himalayan Region. Being located at the crossroads and centrally situated between all the neighbouring countries the landlocked Siliguri has an especially economic and political value for the regional countries. The corridor being in close proximity to China and India’s Seven Sister States has added to the diplomatic mosaic of the Eastern Himalayan Region. The region consists of beautiful landscape, mountains and rivers which not only add to topographical diversity but also demographic mixture. Despite its geopolitical significance the area could not advance for not only being a northeastern border region but also for being a gateway to the Seven Sister States. Peripheral development of Siliguri Corridor is one of the reasons for illegal practices like smuggling and terrorism. In year 2002 Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh discussed a proposal to form a free trade corridor to simplify the goods transportation through Siliguri Corridor but no such pact could be concluded that would have avoided the activities like smuggling and terrorism mainly through economic and diplomatic ventures.

  1. Identifying Potential Conservation Corridors Along the Mongolia-Russia Border Using Resource Selection Functions: A Case Study on Argali Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buyanaa Chimeddorj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The disruption of animal movements is known to affect wildlife populations, particularly large bodied, free-ranging mammals that require large geographic ranges to survive. Corridors commonly connect fragmented wildlife populations and their habitats, yet identifying corridors rarely uses data on habitat selection and movements of target species. New technologies and analytical tools make it possible to better integrate landscape patterns with spatial behavioral data. We show how resource selection functions can describe habitat suitability using continuous and multivariate metrics to determine potential wildlife movement corridors. During 2005–2010, we studied movements of argali sheep ( Ovis ammon near the Mongolia-Russia border using radio-telemetry and modeled their spatial distribution in relation to landscape features to create a spatially explicit habitat suitability surface to identify potential transboundary conservation corridors. Argali sheep habitat selection in western Mongolia positively correlated with elevation, ruggedness index, and distance to border. In other words, argali were tended use areas with higher elevation, rugged topography, and distances farther from the international border. We suggest that these spatial modeling approaches offer ways to design and identify wildlife corridors more objectively and holistically, and can be applied to many other target species.

  2. A Green Corridor within the Øresund Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Sandrina; Jespersen, Per Homann

    2012-01-01

    The Øresund Region is the largest hub in Scandinavia for transport of goods and people by sea, road, air and railway. Efficient transportation is a key factor for regional growth but it also contributes to many negative external effects like CO2 emissions, pollution, congestion etc. This calls...

  3. Assessing Habitat Quality of Forest-Corridors through NDVI Analysis in Dry Tropical Forests of South India: Implications for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramesha Mallegowda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Most wildlife habitats and migratory routes are extremely threatened due to increasing demands on forestland and forest resources by burgeoning human population. Corridor landscape in Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve (BRT is one among them, subjected to various anthropogenic pressures. Human habitation, intensive farming, coffee plantations, ill-planned infrastructure developments and rapid spreading of invasive plant species Lantana camara, pose a serious threat to wildlife habitat and their migration. Aim of this work is to create detailed NDVI based land change maps and to use them to identify time-series trends in greening and browning in forest corridors in the study area and to identify the drivers that are influencing the observed changes. Over the four decades in BRT, NDVI increased in the core area of the forest and reduced in the fringe areas. The change analysis between 1973 and 2014 shows significant changes; browning due to anthropogenic activities as well as natural processes and greening due to Lantana spread. This indicates that the change processes are complex, involving multiple driving factors, such as socio-economic changes, high population growth, historical forest management practices and policies. Our study suggests that the use of updated and accurate change detection maps will be useful in taking appropriate site specific action-oriented conservation decisions to restore and manage the degraded critical wildlife corridors in human-dominated landscape.

  4. An assessment of the natural gas supply potential of the south energy corridor from the Caspian Region to the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrakis, Dimitrios; Thomaidis, Fotios; Ntroukas, Ioannis

    2006-01-01

    Security and diversification of EU energy supply underlines the importance of an energy corridor bridging the natural gas reserves of the broader Caspian Region with the EU consumption centers. This paper examines the supply potential of this corridor, the major natural gas fields and the already existing networks. An assessment of the supply cost up to the Turkish borders is carried out, while the case of Egypt as a future supplier is also investigated. Conclusions review the prospects for the construction of the considered energy corridor

  5. Evaluating the effectiveness of conservation and development investments in reducing deforestation and fires in Ankeniheny-Zahemena Corridor, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Karyn; Jones, Kelly W; Hewson, Jennifer; Rasolohery, Andriambolantsoa; Rambeloson, Andoniaina; Andrianjohaninarivo, Tokihenintsoa; Harvey, Celia A

    2017-01-01

    Forest conservation and REDD+ projects invest millions of dollars each year to reduce local communities' dependence on forests and prevent forest loss and degradation. However, to date, there is limited evidence on whether these investments are effective at delivering conservation outcomes. We explored the relationships between 600+ small-scale conservation and development investments that occurred from 2007 to 2014 and conservation outcomes (deforestation rates and fire detections) within Ankeniheny-Zahamena Corridor in Madagascar using linear fixed effects panel regressions. We derived annual changes in forest cover and fires from satellite remote sensing. We found a statistically significant correlation between presence of any investment and reduced deforestation rates in 2010 and 2011 -years with accelerated deforestation elsewhere in the study area. This result indicated investments abated deforestation rates during times of political instability and lack of governance following a 2009 coup in Madagascar. We also found a statistically significant relationship between presence of any investment and reduced fire detections in the study area, suggesting investments had an impact on reducing burning of forest for agriculture. For both outcomes (i.e., deforestation rates and fire detections), we found that more dollars invested led to greater conservation outcomes (i.e. fewer fires or less deforestation), particularly when funding was sustained for one to two years. Our findings suggest that conservation and development investments can reduce deforestation and fire incidence, but also highlight the many challenges and complexities in assessing relationships between investments and conservation outcomes in a dynamic landscape and a volatile political context.

  6. River Corridor Easements

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — A River Corridor Easement (RCE) is an area of conserved land adjacent to a river or stream that was conserved to permanently protect the lateral area the river needs...

  7. CHINA PAKISTAN ECONOMIC CORRIDOR (CPEC:PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES FOR REGIONAL INTEGERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akber Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a flagship of China’s One Belt One Road initiative, China Pakistan EconomicCorridor (CPEC is pivotal to China’s energy security owing to the growing rowin the region of South China Sea among China and other regional and globalplayers. The ongoing contestation between China and other countries in the AsiaPacific has compelled China to look for alternative pathways to meet itsincreasing energy needs in case of any blockade of the Strait of Malacca as aconsequence of any conflict between China and other countries. The CPEC couldalso bring economic avenues to Pakistan and can foster regional and crossregional economic and trade integration between South Asia, Central Asia, EastAsia and West Asia. However, it is also surrounded by some serious challengesranging from regional security environment, internal instability to politicaldiscontent among various political actors in the Pakistani polity.

  8. Evaluating the effectiveness of conservation and development investments in reducing deforestation and fires in Ankeniheny-Zahemena Corridor, Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelly W.; Hewson, Jennifer; Rasolohery, Andriambolantsoa; Rambeloson, Andoniaina; Andrianjohaninarivo, Tokihenintsoa; Harvey, Celia A.

    2017-01-01

    Forest conservation and REDD+ projects invest millions of dollars each year to reduce local communities’ dependence on forests and prevent forest loss and degradation. However, to date, there is limited evidence on whether these investments are effective at delivering conservation outcomes. We explored the relationships between 600+ small-scale conservation and development investments that occurred from 2007 to 2014 and conservation outcomes (deforestation rates and fire detections) within Ankeniheny-Zahamena Corridor in Madagascar using linear fixed effects panel regressions. We derived annual changes in forest cover and fires from satellite remote sensing. We found a statistically significant correlation between presence of any investment and reduced deforestation rates in 2010 and 2011 –years with accelerated deforestation elsewhere in the study area. This result indicated investments abated deforestation rates during times of political instability and lack of governance following a 2009 coup in Madagascar. We also found a statistically significant relationship between presence of any investment and reduced fire detections in the study area, suggesting investments had an impact on reducing burning of forest for agriculture. For both outcomes (i.e., deforestation rates and fire detections), we found that more dollars invested led to greater conservation outcomes (i.e. fewer fires or less deforestation), particularly when funding was sustained for one to two years. Our findings suggest that conservation and development investments can reduce deforestation and fire incidence, but also highlight the many challenges and complexities in assessing relationships between investments and conservation outcomes in a dynamic landscape and a volatile political context. PMID:29267356

  9. Territoriality by conservation in the Selous-Niassa corridor in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bluwstein, Jevgeniy; Lund, Jens Friis

    2018-01-01

    of consecutive projects through continuous acts of territorialization through mapping and boundary making ensured that conservation is beyond questioning despite failures in the processes of demarcating, controlling and managing conservation as a socio-spatial intervention. Whereas the failures produce conflicts...... inevitably remains partial and contingent, conservation is nonetheless a powerful and resilient project that transforms communal landscapes into conservation territories with little room for public debate....

  10. Transportation of Dangerous Goods in Green Transport Corridors - Conclusions from Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schröder Meike

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Green Corridor concept represents a cornerstone in the development and implementation of integrated and sustainable transport solutions based on trans-nationality, multi-modality and a high involvement of public and private stakeholders, including the political level. Despite the fact that the Green Transport Corridor (GTC concept is founded on the three dimensions of sustainability with a strong emphasis on environmental aspects, the corridor hubs as well as the whole transport corridors have to find ways to handle and transport dangerous goods by keeping the high sustainability standards.

  11. Transport corridors and settlements in a region. Linking settlements to public transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Šašek Divjak

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the article is conditioning settlement to public transport on the regional and urban level. Similar to occurrences in Western Europe even in Slovenia strong settlement pressures and issues tied to development of suburbanisation are emerging in wider hinterlands of larger cities. In regional centres, where strong transport flows with frequent congestion happen, public transport should be the backbone of the transport system. It is important for consolidation of larger gravitation areas, especially conurbations. We can nevertheless establish that parallel to increasing use of private cars, the use of public transport is decreasing. Thus the present condition demands improvements of transport systems and suitable settlement density in conjunction with development of public transport. This can be achieved only by synergetic linking of public transport development and physical planning in a sustainable settlement system. In the Ljubljana functional region we specifically dealt with links between settlement and the regional public transport system, above all the proposed regional light-railway and tram system in the strict urban area. The decentralised denser settlement model is presented. Based on the study concerning settlement development in the railway corridors we proposed potential possibilities for denser settlement in the immediate areas of suburban railway stations in the northern part of the region, from Črnuče to Kamnik.

  12. Applying circuit theory for corridor expansion and management at regional scales: tiling, pinch points, and omnidirectional connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pelletier

    Full Text Available Connectivity models are useful tools that improve the ability of researchers and managers to plan land use for conservation and preservation. Most connectivity models function in a point-to-point or patch-to-patch fashion, limiting their use for assessing connectivity over very large areas. In large or highly fragmented systems, there may be so many habitat patches of interest that assessing connectivity among all possible combinations is prohibitive. To overcome these conceptual and practical limitations, we hypothesized that minor adaptation of the Circuitscape model can allow the creation of omnidirectional connectivity maps illustrating flow paths and variations in the ease of travel across a large study area. We tested this hypothesis in a 24,300 km(2 study area centered on the Montérégie region near Montréal, Québec. We executed the circuit model in overlapping tiles covering the study region. Current was passed across the surface of each tile in orthogonal directions, and then the tiles were reassembled to create directional and omnidirectional maps of connectivity. The resulting mosaics provide a continuous view of connectivity in the entire study area at the full original resolution. We quantified differences between mosaics created using different tile and buffer sizes and developed a measure of the prominence of seams in mosaics formed with this approach. The mosaics clearly show variations in current flow driven by subtle aspects of landscape composition and configuration. Shown prominently in mosaics are pinch points, narrow corridors where organisms appear to be required to traverse when moving through the landscape. Using modest computational resources, these continuous, fine-scale maps of nearly unlimited size allow the identification of movement paths and barriers that affect connectivity. This effort develops a powerful new application of circuit models by pinpointing areas of importance for conservation, broadening the

  13. Quantifying geomorphic controls on riparian forest dynamics using a linked physical-biological model: implications for river corridor conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, J. C.; Harper, E. B.; Fremier, A. K.; Hayden, M. K.; Battles, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    In high-order alluvial river systems, physical factors of flooding and channel migration are particularly important drivers of riparian forest dynamics because they regulate habitat creation, resource fluxes of water, nutrients and light that are critical for growth, and mortality from fluvial disturbance. Predicting vegetation composition and dynamics at individual sites in this setting is challenging, both because of the stochastic nature of the flood regime and the spatial variability of flood events. Ecological models that correlate environmental factors with species’ occurrence and abundance (e.g., ’niche models’) often work well in infrequently-disturbed upland habitats, but are less useful in river corridors and other dynamic zones where environmental conditions fluctuate greatly and selection pressures on disturbance-adapted organisms are complex. In an effort to help conserve critical riparian forest habitat along the middle Sacramento River, CA, we are taking a mechanistic approach to quantify linkages between fluvial and biotic processes for Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii), a keystone pioneer tree in dryland rivers ecosystems of the U.S. Southwest. To predict the corridor-wide population effects of projected changes to the disturbance regime from flow regulation, climate change, and landscape modifications, we have coupled a physical model of channel meandering with a patch-based population model that incorporates the climatic, hydrologic, and topographic factors critical for tree recruitment and survival. We employed these linked simulations to study the relative influence of the two most critical habitat types--point bars and abandoned channels--in sustaining the corridor-wide cottonwood population over a 175-year period. The physical model uses discharge data and channel planform to predict the spatial distribution of new habitat patches; the population model runs on top of this physical template to track tree colonization and survival on

  14. Biodiversity losses and conservation trade-offs: Assessing future urban growth scenarios for a North American trade corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Miguel; Norman, Laura M.; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Boykin, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The Sonoran Desert and Apache Highlands ecoregions of North America are areas of exceptionally high plant and vertebrate biodiversity. However, much of the vertebrate biodiversity is supported by only a few vegetation types with limited distributions, some of which are increasingly threatened by changing land uses. We assessed the impacts of two future urban growth scenarios on biodiversity in a binational watershed in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. We quantified and mapped terrestrial vertebrate species richness using Wildlife Habitat Relation models and validated the results with data from National Park Service biological inventories. Future urban growth, based on historical trends, was projected to the year 2050 for 1) a “Current Trends” scenario and, 2) a “Megalopolis” scenario that represented a transnational growth corridor with open-space conservation attributes. Based on Current Trends, 45% of existing riparian woodland (267 of 451species), and 34% of semi-desert grasslands (215 of 451 species) will be lost, whereas, in the Megalopolis scenario, these types would decline by 44% and 24% respectively. Outcomes of the two models suggest a trade-off at the taxonomic class level: Current Trends would reduce and fragment mammal and herpetofauna habitat, while Megalopolis would result in loss of avian-rich riparian habitat.

  15. Heritage Conservation in River Corridor Cities. The Case of Tripoli, Lebanon.

    OpenAIRE

    Ginzarly, Manal; Teller, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    This article recognizes rivers as cultural heritage landscapes, as an integral component of cities common heritage and an element of collective memory and identity. It is based on the consideration that analysis of the socio-spatial relationship between the river and urban structure at different historical period can further lead to knowledge about the river contribution in forming the identity and sense of place of an urban area. This knowledge can be used to inform urban conservation as wel...

  16. The trans-regional implications of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and the One Belt and One Road Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Samra Sarfraz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an analytical examination of the geo-political implications of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and the One Belt and One Road Initiative. The paper examines the probable implications of the two mega projects for the regional, as well as, trans-regional actors. The paper debates on the likelihood for the creation of a new kind of relationship among China, Pakistan and Russia. It is also discussed how the prospects of reduced western influence in the region, in the backdrop of CPEC and the B&R Initiative, may result in the escalation of Russian and Chinese dominance on regional and trans-regional affairs.

  17. Effectiveness of conservation easements in agricultural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braza, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Conservation easements are a standard technique for preventing habitat loss, particularly in agricultural regions with extensive cropland cultivation, yet little is known about their effectiveness. I developed a spatial econometric approach to propensity-score matching and used the approach to estimate the amount of habitat loss prevented by a grassland conservation easement program of the U.S. federal government. I used a spatial autoregressive probit model to predict tract enrollment in the easement program as of 2001 based on tract agricultural suitability, habitat quality, and spatial interactions among neighboring tracts. Using the predicted values from the model, I matched enrolled tracts with similar unenrolled tracts to form a treatment group and a control group. To measure the program's impact on subsequent grassland loss, I estimated cropland cultivation rates for both groups in 2014 with a second spatial probit model. Between 2001 and 2014, approximately 14.9% of control tracts were cultivated and 0.3% of treated tracts were cultivated. Therefore, approximately 14.6% of the protected land would have been cultivated in the absence of the program. My results demonstrate that conservation easements can significantly reduce habitat loss in agricultural regions; however, the enrollment of tracts with low cropland suitability may constrain the amount of habitat loss they prevent. My results also show that spatial econometric models can improve the validity of control groups and thereby strengthen causal inferences about program effectiveness in situations when spatial interactions influence conservation decisions. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Geospatial and machine learning techniques for wicked social science problems: analysis of crash severity on a regional highway corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effati, Meysam; Thill, Jean-Claude; Shabani, Shahin

    2015-04-01

    The contention of this paper is that many social science research problems are too "wicked" to be suitably studied using conventional statistical and regression-based methods of data analysis. This paper argues that an integrated geospatial approach based on methods of machine learning is well suited to this purpose. Recognizing the intrinsic wickedness of traffic safety issues, such approach is used to unravel the complexity of traffic crash severity on highway corridors as an example of such problems. The support vector machine (SVM) and coactive neuro-fuzzy inference system (CANFIS) algorithms are tested as inferential engines to predict crash severity and uncover spatial and non-spatial factors that systematically relate to crash severity, while a sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the relative influence of crash severity factors. Different specifications of the two methods are implemented, trained, and evaluated against crash events recorded over a 4-year period on a regional highway corridor in Northern Iran. Overall, the SVM model outperforms CANFIS by a notable margin. The combined use of spatial analysis and artificial intelligence is effective at identifying leading factors of crash severity, while explicitly accounting for spatial dependence and spatial heterogeneity effects. Thanks to the demonstrated effectiveness of a sensitivity analysis, this approach produces comprehensive results that are consistent with existing traffic safety theories and supports the prioritization of effective safety measures that are geographically targeted and behaviorally sound on regional highway corridors.

  19. Lattice-work corridors for climate change: a conceptual framework for biodiversity conservation and social-ecological resilience in a tropical elevational gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Townsend

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid climate change poses complex challenges for conservation, especially in tropical developing countries where biodiversity is high while financial and technical resources are limited. The complexity is heightened by uncertainty in predicted effects, both for ecological systems and human communities that depend heavily on natural resource extraction and use. Effective conservation plans and measures must be inexpensive, fast-acting, and able to increase the resilience of both the ecosystem and the social-ecological system. We present conservation practitioners with a framework that strategically integrates climate change planning into connectivity measures for tropical mountain ecosystems in Costa Rica. We propose a strategy for doubling the amount of habitat currently protected in riparian corridors using measures that are relatively low cost and fast-acting, and will employ and expand human capital. We argue that habitat connectivity must be enhanced along latitudinal gradients, but also within the same elevational bands, via a lattice-work corridor system. This is needed to facilitate range shifts for mobile species and evolutionary adaptation for less mobile species. We think that conservation measures within the elevational bands must include conservation-friendly land uses that improve current and future human livelihoods under dynamic conditions. Key components include community involvement, habitat priority-setting, forest landscape restoration, and environmental services payments. Our approach is fundamentally adaptive in that the conservation measures employed are informed by on-the-ground successes and failures and modified accordingly, but are relatively low risk and fast-acting. Our proposal, if implemented, would satisfy tenets of climate-smart conservation, improve the resilience of human and ecological communities, and be a model for other locations facing similar challenges.

  20. Establishment of a National ecological network to conserve biodiversity. Pros and cons of ecological corridors Establishment of a National ecological network to conserve biodiversity. Pros and cons of ecological corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Bergès, Philip Roche and Catherine Avon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecological corridors are a fundamental element in the National ecological network approved by the Grenelle environmental agreement in order to reduce ecosystem damage caused by fragmentation of the natural habitat zones of species. How can their effectiveness be evaluated? This article sums up current knowledge on their pros and cons.Fragmentation of natural habitats is considered one of the main causes of biodiversity loss. One of the proposed solutions to limit the effects of fragmentation is to restore ecological connectivity by creating ecological corridors between zones containing natural habitats. The concept remains controversial among scientists, but now serves as the basis for one of the operational projects of the Grenelle environmental agreements in the form of the National ecological network. After examining the ecological concepts justifying the political goal and presenting the various ecological roles of corridors, we briefly discuss their overall advantages and disadvantages. Then, we look closely at the methodological difficulties in detecting a corridor effect. Finally, we recommend a close partnership between research and policy to design biodiversity monitoring and evaluation systems in the different land-management plans.

  1. Urban effects on regional climate: a case study in the Phoenix and Tucson ‘sun’ corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao Yang,; Francina Dominguez,; Hoshin Gupta,; Xubin Zeng,; Norman, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    Land use and land cover change (LULCC) due to urban expansion alter the surface albedo, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity of the surface. Consequently, the energy balance in urban regions is different from that of natural surfaces. To evaluate the changes in regional climate that could arise due to projected urbanization in the Phoenix-Tucson corridor, Arizona, we applied the coupled WRF-NOAH-UCM (which includes a detailed urban radiation scheme) to this region. Land cover changes were represented using land cover data for 2005 and projections to 2050, and historical North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data were used to specify the lateral boundary conditions. Results suggest that temperature changes will be well defined, reflecting the urban heat island (UHI) effect within areas experiencing LULCC. Changes in precipitation are less robust, but seem to indicate reductions in precipitation over the mountainous regions northeast of Phoenix and decreased evening precipitation over the newly-urbanized area.

  2. The research on regional conservation planning of urban historical and cultural areas based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shangli; Xu, Jian; Li, Qian

    2017-06-01

    With the rapid economic development and the growth of population happening in the urban historical and cultural areas, heritage and historical buildings along with their natural and artificial surrounding environments are suffering constructive destruction. Due to the lack of precise partition of protection region and construction control region in the local cultural relics protection law, traditional regional conservation planning cannot engaged with the urban controllability detailed planning very well. According to the several protection regulations about heritage and historical buildings from latest laws, we choose Baxian Temple area to study on the improvments of traditional regional conservation planning. The technical methods of this study mainly rely on GIS, which can complete the fundamental work of each stage. With the analytic hierarchy process(AHP), the comprehensive architectural value assessments can be calculated according to the investigation results. Based on the calculation results and visual corridor analysis, the precise range of protection region and construction control region can be decided and the specific protection measures can be formulated.

  3. Developing high-resolution spatial data of migration corridors for avian species of concern in regions of high potential wind development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzner, Todd [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-06-15

    The future of the US economy, our national security, and our environmental quality all depend on decreasing our reliance on foreign oil and on fossil fuels. An essential component of decreasing this reliance is the development of alternative energy sources. Wind power is among the most important alternative energy sources currently available, and the mid-Atlantic region is a primary focus for wind power development. In addition to being important to the development of wind power, the mid-Atlantic region holds a special responsibility for the conservation of the eastern North America's golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). This small population breeds in northeastern Canada, winters in the southern Appalachians, and nearly all of these birds pass through the mid-Atlantic region twice each year. Movement of these birds is not random and, particularly during spring and autumn, migrating golden eagles concentrate in a narrow 30-50 mile wide corridor in central Pennsylvania. Thus, because the fate of these rare birds may depend on responsible management of the habitat they use it is critical to use research to identify ways to mitigate prospective impacts on this and similar raptor species. The goal of this project was to develop high-resolution spatial risk maps showing migration corridors of and habitat use by eastern golden eagles in regions of high potential for wind development. To accomplish this, we first expanded existing models of raptor migration for the eastern USA to identify broad-scale migration patterns. We then used data from novel high-resolution tracking devices to discover routes of passage and detailed flight behavior of individual golden eagles throughout the eastern USA. Finally, we integrated these data and models to predict population-level migration patterns and individual eagle flight behavior on migration. We then used this information to build spatially explicit, probabilistic maps showing relative risk to birds from wind development. This

  4. Linkage disequilibrium of evolutionarily conserved regions in the human genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Todd A

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strong linkage disequilibrium (LD recently found in genic or exonic regions of the human genome demonstrated that LD can be increased by evolutionary mechanisms that select for functionally important loci. This suggests that LD might be stronger in regions conserved among species than in non-conserved regions, since regions exposed to natural selection tend to be conserved. To assess this hypothesis, we used genome-wide polymorphism data from the HapMap project and investigated LD within DNA sequences conserved between the human and mouse genomes. Results Unexpectedly, we observed that LD was significantly weaker in conserved regions than in non-conserved regions. To investigate why, we examined sequence features that may distort the relationship between LD and conserved regions. We found that interspersed repeats, and not other sequence features, were associated with the weak LD tendency in conserved regions. To appropriately understand the relationship between LD and conserved regions, we removed the effect of repetitive elements and found that the high degree of sequence conservation was strongly associated with strong LD in coding regions but not with that in non-coding regions. Conclusion Our work demonstrates that the degree of sequence conservation does not simply increase LD as predicted by the hypothesis. Rather, it implies that purifying selection changes the polymorphic patterns of coding sequences but has little influence on the patterns of functional units such as regulatory elements present in non-coding regions, since the former are generally restricted by the constraint of maintaining a functional protein product across multiple exons while the latter may exist more as individually isolated units.

  5. Carbon stock corridors to mitigate climate change and promote biodiversity in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantz, Patrick; Goetz, Scott; Laporte, Nadine

    2014-02-01

    A key issue in global conservation is how biodiversity co-benefits can be incorporated into land use and climate change mitigation activities, particularly those being negotiated under the United Nations to reduce emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Protected areas have been the dominant strategy for tropical forest conservation and they have increased substantially in recent decades. Avoiding deforestation by preserving carbon stored in vegetation between protected areas provides an opportunity to mitigate the effects of land use and climate change on biodiversity by maintaining habitat connectivity across landscapes. Here we use a high-resolution data set of vegetation carbon stock to map corridors traversing areas of highest biomass between protected areas in the tropics. The derived corridors contain 15% of the total unprotected aboveground carbon in the tropical region. A large number of corridors have carbon densities that approach or exceed those of the protected areas they connect, suggesting these are suitable areas for achieving both habitat connectivity and climate change mitigation benefits. To further illustrate how economic and biological information can be used for corridor prioritization on a regional scale, we conducted a multicriteria analysis of corridors in the Legal Amazon, identifying corridors with high carbon, high species richness and endemism, and low economic opportunity costs. We also assessed the vulnerability of corridors to future deforestation threat.

  6. How conserved are the conserved 16S-rRNA regions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Martinez-Porchas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The 16S rRNA gene has been used as master key for studying prokaryotic diversity in almost every environment. Despite the claim of several researchers to have the best universal primers, the reality is that no primer has been demonstrated to be truly universal. This suggests that conserved regions of the gene may not be as conserved as expected. The aim of this study was to evaluate the conservation degree of the so-called conserved regions flanking the hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Data contained in SILVA database (release 123 were used for the study. Primers reported as matches of each conserved region were assembled to form contigs; sequences sizing 12 nucleotides (12-mers were extracted from these contigs and searched into the entire set of SILVA sequences. Frequency analysis shown that extreme regions, 1 and 10, registered the lowest frequencies. 12-mer frequencies revealed segments of contigs that were not as conserved as expected (≤90%. Fragments corresponding to the primer contigs 3, 4, 5b and 6a were recovered from all sequences in SILVA database. Nucleotide frequency analysis in each consensus demonstrated that only a small fraction of these so-called conserved regions is truly conserved in non-redundant sequences. It could be concluded that conserved regions of the 16S rRNA gene exhibit considerable variation that has to be considered when using this gene as biomarker.

  7. Meso-Cenozoic tectonic evolution and uranium potential evaluations of basins in Beishan-Gansu corridor region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Qingyin; Chen Zuyi; Liu Hongxu; Yu Jinshui

    2006-01-01

    Beishan-Gansu Corridor region is located at the intersection of the plates of Tarim, North China, Kazakhstan, Siberia and Qaidam. During the Meso-Cenozoic, the region experienced movements of Indo-sinian, Yanshanian, Sichuanian, North China, Himalayan and Neotectonic, and over 20 medium-small size superimposed continental basins were formed. On the basis of analyzing the tectonic stress field, sediment-filling and structure-deformation; the general trending of tectonic evolution in the Meso-Cenozoic is summarized as three-time compressional uplifting and two-time extensional down-faulting. The different evolution of basins under the above mentioned setting can be divided into six stages according to characteristics of filled sediment. The sand bodies developed in down-faulted basins are favorable for uranium ore-formation as they are formed under humid paleoclimates, and rich in reducing matter. Therefore, the Lower-Middle Jurassic is selected as the main target horizon for sandstone-hosted uranium deposit, and the Lower Cretaceous as the minor one. Although the tectonic reactivation of the target horizon after its deposition was generally strong, the slopes formed in some basins could be favorable for the infiltration of uranium-and oxygen-bearing groundwater into sand bodies and form uranium deposits. According to the favorable sand bodies and tectonic reactivation, the northern parts of Chaoshui and Bayingobi basins are regarded as potential regions which are worthy of further exploration. (authors)

  8. Maximizing species conservation in continental Ecuador: a case of systematic conservation planning for biodiverse regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessmann, Janeth; Muñoz, Jesús; Bonaccorso, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Ecuador has the largest number of species by area worldwide, but also a low representation of species within its protected areas. Here, we applied systematic conservation planning to identify potential areas for conservation in continental Ecuador, with the aim of increasing the representation of terrestrial species diversity in the protected area network. We selected 809 terrestrial species (amphibians, birds, mammals, and plants), for which distributions were estimated via species distribution models (SDMs), using Maxent. For each species we established conservation goals based on conservation priorities, and estimated new potential protected areas using Marxan conservation planning software. For each selected area, we determined their conservation priority and feasibility of establishment, two important aspects in the decision-making processes. We found that according to our conservation goals, the current protected area network contains large conservation gaps. Potential areas for conservation almost double the surface area of currently protected areas. Most of the newly proposed areas are located in the Coast, a region with large conservation gaps and irreversible changes in land use. The most feasible areas for conservation were found in the Amazon and Andes regions, which encompass more undisturbed habitats, and already harbor most of the current reserves. Our study allows defining a viable strategy for preserving Ecuador's biodiversity, by combining SDMs, GIS-based decision-support software, and priority and feasibility assessments of the selected areas. This approach is useful for complementing protected area networks in countries with great biodiversity, insufficient biological information, and limited resources for conservation. PMID:25360277

  9. On the rail-based freight corridor between CE and SEE regions and the main obstacles on Romanian territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela POPA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The project “Freight and Logistics Advancement in Central/South-EastEurope - Validation of trade and transport processes, Implementation of improvementactions, Application of co-coordinated structures” (in short - FLAVIA is carried outunder the Central Europe – Cooperation for Success Programme, cofunded by theEuropean Regional Development Fund. One of the main objectives of FLAVIA project isto consolidate a logistic corridor from Central Europe (CE to the South-East Europe(SEE and the Black Sea Region, based on rail and inland waterways intermodaltransport. In this paper we discuss the partial outputs of FLAVIA project, mainly relatedto the identified actual status of rail-based intermodal transport and trade obstacles of thefreight flows on the Romanian territory and the used methodology. Several operationaland long-term measures to improve the trade and intermodal transport are listed,considering the advantages of the geo-strategic potential of Romania location, connectedwith the several improvement directions already considered into the new releasedintermodal strategy.

  10. Ferry traffic in the Baltic Sea Region in south – north corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Czermański

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available All countries form the Baltic Sea Region are strongly economically connected with each other. International trade inbound the Region is usually realized by shipping lines, especially ro-ro and ferry lines. Ferry traffic on the BSR shows specific features, which draw a distinctions between other regions. In this article was tried to analized quantity and directions of maritime traffic in the BSR in years 2006 – 2008. Those period was excellent time for market growing for all owners. And more over – the analysis was made for main directions in the Baltic Sea Region – between Norway, Sweden and Finland – versus polish and german Baltic sea ports.

  11. Water, land, climate change and agrarian livelihood in an arid region riparian corridor: Rayón, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R.; Scott, C. A.; Curl, K.; House-Peters, L.; Buechler, S.

    2012-12-01

    Results of recent fieldwork in Rayón, Sonora, Mexico (funded by NSF's "Strengthening Resilience of Arid Region Riparian Corridors") indicate that the coupled natural and human (CNH) system that has persisted since the town's founding in 1626 is being degraded and destabilised by a confluence of social and ecological pressures. System change or loss of key system services and products has important implications for ecological services and human economic activity in the riparian corridor. Less water quantity is the primary factor responsible for driving system degradation and change. Drought caused by climate change is widely perceived by agriculturists as responsible for reduced water quantity in the riparian area. Reductions in water quantity are so severe that the once perennial Rio San Miguel did not run during 2012's summer months for the first time in residents' memory. Ninety-percent of wells are dry. Fields irrigated by surface-water acequias were not planted. Starvation or dehydration has thinned herd sizes. Residents fear they will lose the ability to practice their traditional livelihoods: ranching, farming and cheese production. Drought conditions and resource management in response to climatic change have had a net negative impact on ecological services. Agriculturists have responded to less forage and pasture for cattle by clearing mesquite forests, putting land into production, and increasing water demand. From interviews it appears this process is cyclical: agriculturists widely believe access to more water or an end to the drought are the only ways to improve conditions. Interviews also reveal (a) agriculturists view technology, especially that which is able to improve water-use efficiency, as means to reduce stress in the CNH system and (b) a holistic view that couples natural well-being to human well-being is absent from the majority of respondents' worldviews. Technological and adoption of holistic perceptions are adaptations that may potentially

  12. Process for evaluating overweight truck corridors serving coastal port regions and border ports of entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Coastal and inland ports, regional mobility authorities, cities, and counties located near or along the Texas Gulf Coast, and along the border with Mexico, have been granted authority by the state legislature to establish permitted overweight truck c...

  13. A Regional Earth System Model of the Northeast Corridor: Analyzing 21st Century Climate and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorosmarty, C. J.; Duchin, F.; Melillo, J. M.; Wollheim, W. M.; Gonzalez, J.; Kicklighter, D. W.; Rosenzweig, B.; Yang, P.; Lengyel, F.; Fekete, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Northeast region (NE) exhibits many of the changes taking place across the Nation's landscapes and watersheds, yet also provides a unique lens through which to assess options for managing large-scale natural resource systems. We report here on a regional NSF-funded Earth System Modeling (EaSM) project, which has assembled an interdisciplinary research team from academia and government with expertise in physics, biogeochemistry, engineering, energy, economics, and policy engagement. The team is simultaneously studying the evolution of regional human-environment systems and seeking to improve the translation of research findings to the planning community. We hypothesize that there are regionally-significant consequences of human decisions on environmental systems of the NE, expressed through the action of both natural and engineered human systems that dictate the region's biogeophysical state, ecosystem services, energy and economic output. Our central goal is: To build a Northeast Regional Earth System Model (NE-RESM) that improves understanding and capacity to forecast the implications of planning decisions on the region's environment, ecosystem services, energy systems and economy through the 21st century. We are using scenario experiments to test our hypothesis and to make forecasts about the future. We see the proposed research as a major step forward in developing a capacity to diagnose and understand the state of large, interacting human-natural systems. Major foci include: the application of meso-scale atmospheric physics models to drive terrestrial-aquatic ecosystem models; a linked ecosystem services accounting tool; geospatial modeling of anthropogenic GHG emissions and biotic source/sinks at improved space/time resolutions; and meso-economic input-output model to evaluate the impacts of ecosystem services constraints on subregional economies. The presentation will report on recent progress across three strategic planning fronts, which are important to

  14. Developments in conservation tillage in rainfed regions of North China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.B.; Cai, D.X.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Oenema, O.; Perdok, U.D.

    2007-01-01

    Dryland regions in northern China account for over 50% of the nation's total area, where farming development is constrained by adverse weather, topography and water resource conditions, low fertility soils, and poor soil management. Conservation tillage research and application in dryland regions of

  15. Pavement, bridge, and safety cost evaluation tool for overweight truck corridors serving coastal port regions and border ports of entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    To address the need for a rational but fast method to determine costs and a proposed permit fee, the research team developed the Stage 1 Expedient Analysis Method. The method was used to evaluate potential oversize/overweight (OS/OW) freight corridor...

  16. Integration of Regional Mitigation Assessment and Conservation Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Thorne

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Government agencies that develop infrastructure such as roads, waterworks, and energy delivery often impact natural ecosystems, but they also have unique opportunities to contribute to the conservation of regional natural resources through compensatory mitigation. Infrastructure development requires a planning, funding, and implementation cycle that can frequently take a decade or longer, but biological mitigation is often planned and implemented late in this process, in a project-by-project piecemeal manner. By adopting early regional mitigation needs assessment and planning for habitat-level impacts from multiple infrastructure projects, agencies could secure time needed to proactively integrate these obligations into regional conservation objectives. Such practice can be financially and ecologically beneficial due to economies of scale, and because earlier mitigation implementation means potentially developable critical parcels may still be available for conservation. Here, we compare the integration of regional conservation designs, termed greenprints, with early multi-project mitigation assessment for two areas in California, USA. The expected spatial extent of habitat impacts and associated mitigation requirements from multiple projects were identified for each area. We used the reserve-selection algorithm MARXAN to identify a regional greenprint for each site and to seek mitigation solutions through parcel acquisition that would contribute to the greenprint, as well as meet agency obligations. The two areas differed in the amount of input data available, the types of conservation objectives identified, and local land-management capacity. They are representative of the range of conditions that conservation practitioners may encounter, so contrasting the two illustrates how regional advanced mitigation can be generalized for use in a wide variety of settings. Environmental organizations can benefit from this approach because it provides a

  17. Central Region Green Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This Green Infrastructure data is comprised of 3 similar ecological corridor data layers ? Metro Conservation Corridors, green infrastructure analysis in counties...

  18. Training plan : Dallas Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) is leading the US 75 Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) Demonstration Project for the Dallas region. Coordinated corridor operations and management is predicated on being able to share transportation information...

  19. Test report : Dallas Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) is leading the US 75 Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) : Demonstration Project for the Dallas region. Coordinated corridor operations and management is : predicated on being able to share transportation informa...

  20. Final report : Dallas Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) Demonstration Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) is leading the US-75 Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) Demonstration Project for the Dallas region. Coordinated corridor operations and management is predicated on being able to share transportation information...

  1. Endemic and threatened tetrapods in the restingas of the biodiversity corridors of Serra do Mar and of the Central da Mata Atlântica in eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C F D; Van Sluys, M; Bergallo, H G; Alves, M A S

    2005-02-01

    Biodiversity corridors comprise a mosaic of land uses connecting fragments of natural forest across a landscape. Two such corridors have been established along the eastern coast of Brazil: the Serra do Mar and the Central da Mata Atlântica corridors, along which most of the coastal plains are restinga areas. In this study, we analyze the present status of the endemic and endangered terrestrial vertebrates of both corridors. We sampled 10 restingas in both corridors, recording species of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Some restingas harbor a relatively large number of endemic species,and two main regions of endemism can be identified along the restingas of both corridors: the coastal restingas from northern Espirito Santo State to southern Bahia State (between Linhares, ES, and Tarancoso, BA), and the coastal region between the restingas of Maricá and Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro State. Six species of terrestrial vertebrates considered threatened with extinction are found in the restingas of Serra do Mar and Central da Mata Atlântica biodiversity corridors (Liolaemus lutzae, Formicivora littoralis, Mimus gilvus, Schistochlamys melanopis, and Trinomys eliasi). The region located between the restinga of Maricá and that of Jurubatiba is of special relevance for the conservation of vertebrate species of the restingas of the corridors because a considerable number of threatened species of terrestrial vertebrates are found there. We strongly recommend efforts to develop checklists of threatened faunas for the States of Espirito Santo and Bahia.

  2. Endemic and threatened tetrapods in the restingas of the biodiversity corridors of Serra do Mar and of the central da Mata Atlântica in Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. D Rocha

    Full Text Available Biodiversity corridors comprise a mosaic of land uses connecting fragments of natural forest across a landscape. Two such corridors have been established along the eastern coast of Brazil: the Serra do Mar and the Central da Mata Atlântica corridors, along which most of the coastal plains are restinga areas. In this study, we analyze the present status of the endemic and endangered terrestrial vertebrates of both corridors. We sampled 10 restingas in both corridors, recording species of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Some restingas harbor a relatively large number of endemic species, and two main regions of endemism can be identified along the restingas of both corridors: the coastal restingas from northern Espírito Santo State to southern Bahia State (between Linhares, ES, and Trancoso, BA, and the coastal region between the restingas of Maricá and Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro State. Six species of terrestrial vertebrates considered threatened with extinction are found in the restingas of Serra do Mar and Central da Mata Atlântica biodiversity corridors (Liolaemus lutzae, Formicivora littoralis, Mimus gilvus, Schistochlamys melanopis, and Trinomys eliasi. The region located between the restinga of Maricá and that of Jurubatiba is of special relevance for the conservation of vertebrate species of the restingas of the corridors because a considerable number of threatened species of terrestrial vertebrates are found there. We strongly recommend efforts to develop checklists of threatened faunas for the States of Espírito Santo and Bahia.

  3. Fungal conservation: Protected species of fungi in South Serbia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiković, D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Protection and conservation of fungi has only recently became an issue of concern. Main motives for increased attention are uncontrolled, mass collecting of edible wild mushrooms and environmental pollution which leads to the rapid decline of their natural habitats, some of which are rich with rare and endangered species. By Serbian Nature Conservation Law 2010. there are 38 strictly protected fungal species of which 17 species are recorded in this paper. 11 of those recorded species are on European and/or National Red List of endangered fungal species. All investigated territories were in South Serbia region. This study is a contribution to conservation of protected and threatened fungi and their respective habitats in Serbia.

  4. Green corridors basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2016-01-01

    SuperGreen project, which aimed at advancing the green corridor concept through a benchmarking exercise involving Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). The chapter discusses the available definitions of green corridors and identifies the characteristics that distinguish a green corridor from any other...... efficient surface transportation corridor. After providing examples of green corridor projects in Europe, it focuses on the KPIs that have been proposed by various projects for monitoring the performance of a freight corridor. Emphasis is given to the SuperGreen KPIs, covering the economic, technical...

  5. Lessons from Transportation Agency Participation In Regional Conservation Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Lederman, Jaimee

    2017-01-01

    Transportation agencies struggle to maximize the benefits of transportation infrastructure while minimizing environmental harm. This dissertation examines institutional collaborations that integrate capital investments (e.g. highway and rail projects) with regional Habitat Conservation Plans (RHCPs) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). It addresses ways of maintaining these collaborations over time. The ESA requires that public and private project developers mitigate any harm to endangered...

  6. CORAL: aligning conserved core regions across domain families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Jessica H; Marchler-Bauer, Aron

    2009-08-01

    Homologous protein families share highly conserved sequence and structure regions that are frequent targets for comparative analysis of related proteins and families. Many protein families, such as the curated domain families in the Conserved Domain Database (CDD), exhibit similar structural cores. To improve accuracy in aligning such protein families, we propose a profile-profile method CORAL that aligns individual core regions as gap-free units. CORAL computes optimal local alignment of two profiles with heuristics to preserve continuity within core regions. We benchmarked its performance on curated domains in CDD, which have pre-defined core regions, against COMPASS, HHalign and PSI-BLAST, using structure superpositions and comprehensive curator-optimized alignments as standards of truth. CORAL improves alignment accuracy on core regions over general profile methods, returning a balanced score of 0.57 for over 80% of all domain families in CDD, compared with the highest balanced score of 0.45 from other methods. Further, CORAL provides E-values to aid in detecting homologous protein families and, by respecting block boundaries, produces alignments with improved 'readability' that facilitate manual refinement. CORAL will be included in future versions of the NCBI Cn3D/CDTree software, which can be downloaded at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Structure/cdtree/cdtree.shtml. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  7. The Chaschuil region of like corridor of Goods, energy and information; pre hispanic Integration between Puna and the Boston de Flambala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratto, Norma; Pla, Rita; Orgaz, Martin; Fuente, Guillermo de la

    2001-01-01

    In this work the relevance of the chascuil region like corridor of goods of energy circulation are discussed, goods of information from times of the societies agroalfareras until the Inca presence in the region being constituted in one of the multiple roads or circulation routes that integrated the territories of the This with the West, of one and another side of the Andean mountain range of the southern sector of the South American knowledge The NAA is an analytic technique that gathers the basic requirements of sensibility, precision, accuracy and necessary selectivity for the discussion of archaeological problems of origin, contacts, trade exchange and pottery production like likewise to reconstruct the socieconomias Inter. and intra populations of the past

  8. The relevance of the Mediterranean Region to colonial waterbird conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.; Crivelli, Alain J.; Hafner, Heinz; Fasola, Mauro; Erwin, R. Michael; McCrimmon, Donald A.=

    1996-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is the largest partially enclosed sea in the world and provides habitat to more than 100 species of waterbirds from the Palearctic-North African-Middle Eastern regions. Even though the Mediterranean suffers from pollution, has little tidal influence, and is oligotrophic, more than half of the western Palearctic populations of numerous waterfowl species winter in the region. Thirty-three species of colonial waterbirds breed along the 46,000 km Mediterranean coastline with nine species considered threatened or endangered, mostly because of wetland loss and degradation. The long history of human activity and scientific investigations in the region has taught some valuable lessons. In the area of colonial waterbird biology and conservation, we have learned important lessons about the value of long-term monitoring and research on selected populations. From marking studies of Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus) and Little Egrets (Egretta garzetta) results have been used to derive useful information about metapopulation dynamics. Involvement of both African and European biologists allowed year-round Studies of these species that yielded valuable spin-offs for training in avian and wetland conservation. We have also learned the value of man-made wetlands as feeding and nesting sites for some colonial waterbirds. Careful evaluations of the habitat quality of different types of wetlands are required, as in contaminant levels such as lead shot and pesticides. Wetland conservationists have also learned from some instructive mistakes. Dam construction and agricultural incentive programs sponsored by the European Community, the World Bank, and others from the past have largely ignored impacts on wetlands and wildlife. In some areas, economic ventures such as aquaculture operations and salt mining have not involved waterbird habitat needs in their planning. Research and conservation needs include: (1) establishing regional monitoring programs and

  9. Energy corridors European Union and Neighbouring countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Hafner, Manfred; Vailati, Ricardo; Wietschel, Martin

    2007-08-01

    The ENCOURAGED (Energy corridor optimisation for European markets of gas, electricity and hydrogen) project has been launched in beginning 2005 to identify and assess the economically optimal energy corridors between European Union (EU) and neighbouring countries. The objectives of the project are to: Assess the economic optimal energy (electricity, gas and hydrogen) corridors and related network infrastructure for connecting the EU with its neighbouring countries and regions; Identify, quantify and evaluate the barriers to and potential benefits of building optimal energy corridors connecting the EU with its neighbours; Propose necessary policy measures to implement the recommended energy corridors with a focus on investment and the geopolitical framework; Organise stakeholder workshops and seminars to discuss the results and findings and reach consensus among scientists, stakeholders and non-governmental organizations and validate project results

  10. Evaluating landscape options for corridor restoration between giant panda reserves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    Full Text Available The establishment of corridors can offset the negative effects of habitat fragmentation by connecting isolated habitat patches. However, the practical value of corridor planning is minimal if corridor identification is not based on reliable quantitative information about species-environment relationships. An example of this need for quantitative information is planning for giant panda conservation. Although the species has been the focus of intense conservation efforts for decades, most corridor projects remain hypothetical due to the lack of reliable quantitative researches at an appropriate spatial scale. In this paper, we evaluated a framework for giant panda forest corridor planning. We linked our field survey data with satellite imagery, and conducted species occupancy modelling to examine the habitat use of giant panda within the potential corridor area. We then conducted least-cost and circuit models to identify potential paths of dispersal across the landscape, and compared the predicted cost under current conditions and alternative conservation management options considered during corridor planning. We found that due to giant panda's association with areas of low elevation and flat terrain, human infrastructures in the same area have resulted in corridor fragmentation. We then identified areas with high potential to function as movement corridors, and our analysis of alternative conservation scenarios showed that both forest/bamboo restoration and automobile tunnel construction would significantly improve the effectiveness of corridor, while residence relocation would not significantly improve corridor effectiveness in comparison with the current condition. The framework has general value in any conservation activities that anticipate improving habitat connectivity in human modified landscapes. Specifically, our study suggested that, in this landscape, automobile tunnels are the best means to remove current barriers to giant panda

  11. VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - corridor lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...

  12. Regional effects of agricultural conservation practices on nutrient transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna Maria Garcia; Richard B. Alexander; Jeffrey G. Arnold; Lee Norfleet; Mike White; Dale M. Robertson; Gregory Schwarz

    2016-01-01

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Program (CEAP), initiated by USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), has the goal of quantifying the environmental benefits of agricultural conservation practices. As part of this effort, detailed farmer surveyswere compiled to document the adoption of conservation practices. Survey data showed that up to 38...

  13. Effects of weighting schemes on the identification of wildlife corridors generated with least-cost methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Kevin S. McKelvey; Michael K. Schwartz

    2012-01-01

    The importance of movement corridors for maintaining connectivity within metapopulations of wild animals is a cornerstone of conservation. One common approach for determining corridor locations is least-cost corridor (LCC) modeling, which uses algorithms within a geographic information system to search for routes with the lowest cumulative resistance between target...

  14. Economic corridor of industrial development in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berawi, M. A.; Miraj, P.; Sidqi, H.

    2017-12-01

    Indonesia as an archipelago country categorize its regional development into six corridors from Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Bali-Nusa Tenggara and Papua-Maluku. Currently, industrial development becomes one of the highest contributing factors to the national economic growth. However, each region in the nation experience inequality of development mainly related to the infrastructure sector. Thus, the research aims to develop a sustainable economic corridor by considering the characteristics and its potential. The research uses a qualitative approach through a desk study, benchmarking and in-depth interview. Location Quotient is used for the method of the analysis tool. The results show each characteristic of every corridor in the country. Sumatera as national plantation and processing industry corridor, Java as cyber technology innovation and services center, Kalimantan as national energy reserves and processing, Sulawesi as national aquaculture and processing industry, Bali - Nusa Tenggara as national eco-tourism center, and Papua - Maluku as national ore mining and processing.

  15. Insular ecosystems of the southeastern United States—A regional synthesis to support biodiversity conservation in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Jennifer M.; Wolfe, William J.

    2016-08-11

    In the southeastern United States, insular ecosystems—such as rock outcrops, depression wetlands, high-elevation balds, flood-scoured riparian corridors, and insular prairies and barrens—occupy a small fraction of land area but constitute an important source of regional and global biodiversity, including concentrations of rare and endemic plant taxa. Maintenance of this biodiversity depends upon regimes of abiotic stress and disturbance, incorporating factors such as soil surface temperature, widely fluctuating hydrologic conditions, fires, flood scouring, and episodic droughts that may be subject to alteration by climate change. Over several decades, numerous localized, site-level investigations have yielded important information about the floristics, physical environments, and ecological dynamics of these insular ecosystems; however, the literature from these investigations has generally remained fragmented. This report consists of literature syntheses for eight categories of insular ecosystems of the southeastern United States, concerning (1) physical geography, (2) ecological determinants of community structures including vegetation dynamics and regimes of abiotic stress and disturbance, (3) contributions to regional and global biodiversity, (4) historical and current anthropogenic threats and conservation approaches, and (5) key knowledge gaps relevant to conservation, particularly in terms of climate-change effects on biodiversity. This regional synthesis was undertaken to discern patterns across ecosystems, identify knowledge gaps, and lay the groundwork for future analyses of climate-change vulnerability. Findings from this synthesis indicate that, despite their importance to regional and global biodiversity, insular ecosystems of the southeastern United States have been subjected to a variety of direct and indirect human alterations. In many cases, important questions remain concerning key determinants of ecosystem function. In particular, few

  16. Delineating and identifying long-term changes in the whooping crane (Grus americana) migration corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Rabbe, Matt; Juliusson, Lara M.; Bidwell, Mark T.; Craig-Moore, Lea; Brandt, David; Harrell, Wade C.

    2018-01-01

    Defining and identifying changes to seasonal ranges of migratory species is required for effective conservation. Historic sightings of migrating whooping cranes (Grus americana) have served as sole source of information to define a migration corridor in the Great Plains of North America (i.e., Canadian Prairies and United States Great Plains) for this endangered species. We updated this effort using past opportunistic sightings from 1942–2016 (n = 5,055) and more recent (2010–2016) location data from 58 telemetered birds (n = 4,423) to delineate migration corridors that included 50%, 75%, and 95% core areas. All migration corridors were well defined and relatively compact, with the 95% core corridor averaging 294 km wide, although it varied approximately ±40% in width from 170 km in central Texas to 407 km at the international border of the United States and Canada. Based on historic sightings and telemetry locations, we detected easterly movements in locations over time, primarily due to locations west of the median shifting east. This shift occurred from northern Oklahoma to central Saskatchewan at an average rate of 1.2 km/year (0.3–2.8 km/year). Associated with this directional shift was a decrease in distance of locations from the median in the same region averaging -0.7 km/year (-0.3–-1.3 km/year), suggesting a modest narrowing of the migration corridor. Changes in the corridor over the past 8 decades suggest that agencies and organizations interested in recovery of this species may need to modify where conservation and recovery actions occur. Whooping cranes showed apparent plasticity in their migratory behavior, which likely has been necessary for persistence of a wetland-dependent species migrating through the drought-prone Great Plains. Behavioral flexibility will be useful for whooping cranes to continue recovery in a future of uncertain climate and land use changes throughout their annual range.

  17. A preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor for protecting potential Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) habitat in Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Eduardo; Fuller, Trevon L; Thomassen, Henri A; Buermann, Wolfgang; Ramírez-Mejía, Diana; Smith, Thomas B

    2013-03-01

    Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) is one of the most emblematic mammals of Mesoamerica, but like other large-bodied animals, it is facing an increasing risk of extinction due primarily to habitat loss. Mexico's 'ortion of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor (MBC-M) is located in one of the main strongholds for Bairds tapir. To assess the MBC-M's effectiveness for tapir conservation, we estimated the distribution of the species' potential habitat by applying 2 modelling approaches (random forest and Maxent) to a set of uncorrelated environmental variables and a 157-point presence dataset. We calculated the extent of tapir habitat in within the MBC-M and modelled new corridors and conservation areas, which we compared to the MBC-M. Moreover, we assessed deforestation patterns in the region. Twenty-seven percent of highly suitable tapir habitat occurred in protected areas, 15% in corridors and 58.3% was outside the MBC-M and associated reserves. The spatial configuration of the MBC-M was partially concordant with the modelled set of conservation areas and corridors. The main dissimilarity was that the modelled corridors traversed forests in Belize and Guatemala to connect conservation areas. Analyses of deforestation since 1993 and human population density in the vicinity of the MBC-M indicated that future conservation efforts should give particular attention to the Montes Azules-El Triunfo Corridor due to greater habitat threat. The MBC-M has a great potential to play a prominent role in the conservation of tapir habitat but there is an urgent need to implement management plans that reinforce and complement this conservation initiative. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  18. Bird Conservation Planning and Implementation in Canada's Intermountain Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilia Hartasanchez; Krista De Groot; Andre Breault; Rob W. Butler

    2005-01-01

    Bird conservation planning in British Columbia and Yukon has been carried out by each of the major bird initiatives. The purpose of this paper is to provide a status report of planning activities and to discuss how integration of the initiatives is being accomplished for efficient and effective implementation of bird conservation actions.

  19. SPECIES DISTRIBUTIONS, SURROGACY, AND IMPORTANT CONSERVATION REGIONS IN CANADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation actions could be more efficient if there is congruence among taxa in the distribution of species. Patterns in the geographic distribution of species of six taxa were used to identify nationally important sites for conservation in Canada. Species richness and a meas...

  20. System acceptance test plan : Dallas Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) is leading the US 75 Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) : Demonstration Project for the Dallas region. Coordinated corridor operations and management is : predicated on being able to share transportation informa...

  1. Louisiana Speaks Transportation Option B Transit Corridors, UTM Zone 15N NAD 83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [louisiana_speaks_transportation_option_b_transit_corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates the regional, subregional, and local transit corridors included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan community growth option of...

  2. Louisiana Speaks Transportation Option C Transit Corridors, UTM Zone 15N NAD 83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [louisiana_speaks_transportation_option_c_transit_corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates the regional, subregional, and local transit corridors included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan community growth option of...

  3. Turning strategy into action: implementing a conservation action plan in the Cape Floristic Region

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gelderblom, CM

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available for conservation. These pressures are predicted to intensify, as the region acts as a magnet for settlement and development. This paper thus describes the development of a conservation action plan for the region, arising from the Cape Action Plan...

  4. Trade-offs and efficiencies in optimal budget-constrained multispecies corridor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistra Dilkina; Rachel Houtman; Carla P. Gomes; Claire A. Montgomery; Kevin S. McKelvey; Katherine Kendall; Tabitha A. Graves; Richard Bernstein; Michael K. Schwartz

    2016-01-01

    Conservation biologists recognize that a system of isolated protected areas will be necessary but insufficient to meet biodiversity objectives. Current approaches to connecting core conservation areas through corridors consider optimal corridor placement based on a single optimization goal: commonly, maximizing the movement for a target species across a...

  5. Project management plan : Dallas Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The Dallas Integrated Corridor Management System Demonstration Project is a multi-agency, de-centralized operation which will utilize a set of regional systems to integrate the operations of the corridor. The purpose of the Dallas ICM System is to im...

  6. The Mid-Atlantic Regional Wetland Conservation Effects Assessment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megan Lang; Greg McCarty; Mark Walbridge; Patrick Hunt; Tom Ducey; Clinton Church; Jarrod Miller; Laurel Kluber; Ali Sadeghi; Martin Rabenhorst; Amir Sharifi; In-Young Yeo; Andrew Baldwin; Margaret Palmer; Tom Fisher; Dan Fenstermaher; Sanchul Lee; Owen McDonough; Metthea Yepsen; Liza McFarland; Anne Gustafson; Rebecca Fox; Chris Palardy; William Effland; Mari-Vaughn Johnson; Judy Denver; Scott Ator; Joseph Mitchell; Dennis Whigham

    2016-01-01

    Wetlands impart many important ecosystem services, including maintenance of water quality, regulation of the climate and hydrological flows, and enhancement of biodiversity through the provision of food and habitat. The conversion of natural lands to agriculture has led to broad scale historic wetland loss, but current US Department of Agriculture conservation programs...

  7. River Corridors (Jan 2, 2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — River corridors are delineated to provide for the least erosive meandering and floodplain geometry toward which a river will evolve over time. River corridor maps...

  8. Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noteboom, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The IUCN/WWF Plants Conservation Programme 1984 — 1985. World Wildlife Fund chose plants to be the subject of their fund-raising campaign in the period 1984 — 1985. The objectives were to: 1. Use information techniques to achieve the conservation objectives of the Plants Programme – to save plants;

  9. Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  10. Variability or conservation of hepatitis C virus hypervariable region 1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    in an agammaglobulinemic patient; Gastroenterology 10. 1072–1075. Lesniewsky R R, Boardway K M, Casey J M, Desai S M,. Devare S G and Leung T K 1993 Hypervariable region 5′- terminus of hepatitis C virus E2/NS1 encodes antigenically distinct variants; J. Med. Virol. 40 150–156. Li C, Candotti D and Allain J-P ...

  11. Variability or conservation of hepatitis C virus hypervariable region 1?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of the E2 protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly heterogeneous in its primary sequence and is responsible for significant inter- and intra-individual variation of the infecting virus, which may represent an important pathogenetic mechanism leading to immune escape and persistent ...

  12. Towards conserving regional mammalian species diversity: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-03-03

    Mar 3, 1995 ... Species richness maps were derived for the Transvaal region from two different databases, namely a primary point database based on ... of biological diversity is internationally supported, there is no agreement on the ..... example is that of the Rodentia. where greatest species diver- sity. based on survey ...

  13. Regional effects of agricultural conservation practices on nutrient transport in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Maria.; Alexander, Richard B.; Arnold, Jeffrey G.; Norfleet, Lee; White, Michael J.; Robertson, Dale M.; Schwarz, Gregory E.

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress in the implementation of conservation practices, related improvements in water quality have been challenging to measure in larger river systems. In this paper we quantify these downstream effects by applying the empirical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality model SPARROW to investigate whether spatial differences in conservation intensity were statistically correlated with variations in nutrient loads. In contrast to other forms of water quality data analysis, the application of SPARROW controls for confounding factors such as hydrologic variability, multiple sources and environmental processes. A measure of conservation intensity was derived from the USDA-CEAP regional assessment of the Upper Mississippi River and used as an explanatory variable in a model of the Upper Midwest. The spatial pattern of conservation intensity was negatively correlated (p = 0.003) with the total nitrogen loads in streams in the basin. Total phosphorus loads were weakly negatively correlated with conservation (p = 0.25). Regional nitrogen reductions were estimated to range from 5 to 34% and phosphorus reductions from 1 to 10% in major river basins of the Upper Mississippi region. The statistical associations between conservation and nutrient loads are consistent with hydrological and biogeochemical processes such as denitrification. The results provide empirical evidence at the regional scale that conservation practices have had a larger statistically detectable effect on nitrogen than on phosphorus loadings in streams and rivers of the Upper Mississippi Basin.

  14. Regional Effects of Agricultural Conservation Practices on Nutrient Transport in the Upper Mississippi River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Ana María; Alexander, Richard B; Arnold, Jeffrey G; Norfleet, Lee; White, Michael J; Robertson, Dale M; Schwarz, Gregory

    2016-07-05

    Despite progress in the implementation of conservation practices, related improvements in water quality have been challenging to measure in larger river systems. In this paper we quantify these downstream effects by applying the empirical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality model SPARROW to investigate whether spatial differences in conservation intensity were statistically correlated with variations in nutrient loads. In contrast to other forms of water quality data analysis, the application of SPARROW controls for confounding factors such as hydrologic variability, multiple sources and environmental processes. A measure of conservation intensity was derived from the USDA-CEAP regional assessment of the Upper Mississippi River and used as an explanatory variable in a model of the Upper Midwest. The spatial pattern of conservation intensity was negatively correlated (p = 0.003) with the total nitrogen loads in streams in the basin. Total phosphorus loads were weakly negatively correlated with conservation (p = 0.25). Regional nitrogen reductions were estimated to range from 5 to 34% and phosphorus reductions from 1 to 10% in major river basins of the Upper Mississippi region. The statistical associations between conservation and nutrient loads are consistent with hydrological and biogeochemical processes such as denitrification. The results provide empirical evidence at the regional scale that conservation practices have had a larger statistically detectable effect on nitrogen than on phosphorus loadings in streams and rivers of the Upper Mississippi Basin.

  15. Developing guidelines for incorporating managing demand into WSDOT planning and programming: transportation demand management guidance for corridor planning studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) regional planning programs address current and forecasted deficiencies of State highways through the conduct of corridor studies. This Guidance for the conduct of corridor planning studies is ...

  16. A statistically rigorous sampling design to integrate avian monitoring and management within Bird Conservation Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlacky, David C; Lukacs, Paul M; Blakesley, Jennifer A; Skorkowsky, Robert C; Klute, David S; Hahn, Beth A; Dreitz, Victoria J; George, T Luke; Hanni, David J

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring is an essential component of wildlife management and conservation. However, the usefulness of monitoring data is often undermined by the lack of 1) coordination across organizations and regions, 2) meaningful management and conservation objectives, and 3) rigorous sampling designs. Although many improvements to avian monitoring have been discussed, the recommendations have been slow to emerge in large-scale programs. We introduce the Integrated Monitoring in Bird Conservation Regions (IMBCR) program designed to overcome the above limitations. Our objectives are to outline the development of a statistically defensible sampling design to increase the value of large-scale monitoring data and provide example applications to demonstrate the ability of the design to meet multiple conservation and management objectives. We outline the sampling process for the IMBCR program with a focus on the Badlands and Prairies Bird Conservation Region (BCR 17). We provide two examples for the Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri) in BCR 17 demonstrating the ability of the design to 1) determine hierarchical population responses to landscape change and 2) estimate hierarchical habitat relationships to predict the response of the Brewer's sparrow to conservation efforts at multiple spatial scales. The collaboration across organizations and regions provided economy of scale by leveraging a common data platform over large spatial scales to promote the efficient use of monitoring resources. We designed the IMBCR program to address the information needs and core conservation and management objectives of the participating partner organizations. Although it has been argued that probabilistic sampling designs are not practical for large-scale monitoring, the IMBCR program provides a precedent for implementing a statistically defensible sampling design from local to bioregional scales. We demonstrate that integrating conservation and management objectives with rigorous statistical

  17. A statistically rigorous sampling design to integrate avian monitoring and management within Bird Conservation Regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Pavlacky

    Full Text Available Monitoring is an essential component of wildlife management and conservation. However, the usefulness of monitoring data is often undermined by the lack of 1 coordination across organizations and regions, 2 meaningful management and conservation objectives, and 3 rigorous sampling designs. Although many improvements to avian monitoring have been discussed, the recommendations have been slow to emerge in large-scale programs. We introduce the Integrated Monitoring in Bird Conservation Regions (IMBCR program designed to overcome the above limitations. Our objectives are to outline the development of a statistically defensible sampling design to increase the value of large-scale monitoring data and provide example applications to demonstrate the ability of the design to meet multiple conservation and management objectives. We outline the sampling process for the IMBCR program with a focus on the Badlands and Prairies Bird Conservation Region (BCR 17. We provide two examples for the Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri in BCR 17 demonstrating the ability of the design to 1 determine hierarchical population responses to landscape change and 2 estimate hierarchical habitat relationships to predict the response of the Brewer's sparrow to conservation efforts at multiple spatial scales. The collaboration across organizations and regions provided economy of scale by leveraging a common data platform over large spatial scales to promote the efficient use of monitoring resources. We designed the IMBCR program to address the information needs and core conservation and management objectives of the participating partner organizations. Although it has been argued that probabilistic sampling designs are not practical for large-scale monitoring, the IMBCR program provides a precedent for implementing a statistically defensible sampling design from local to bioregional scales. We demonstrate that integrating conservation and management objectives with rigorous

  18. Species of conservation concern and environmental stressors: Local, regional and global effects [Chapter 6] (Executive Summary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven M. Ostoja; Matthew L. Brooks; Jeanne C. Chambers; Burton K. Pendleton

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada’s unique landscapes and landforms provide habitat for a diversity of plant and wildlife species of conservation concern including many locally and regionally endemic species. The high population density and urbanization of the Las Vegas metropolitan area is the source of many local and regional stressors that affect these species and their habitats:...

  19. Optimal portfolio design to reduce climate-related conservation uncertainty in the Prairie Pothole Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Amy W; Mallory, Mindy L

    2012-04-24

    Climate change is likely to alter the spatial distributions of species and habitat types but the nature of such change is uncertain. Thus, climate change makes it difficult to implement standard conservation planning paradigms. Previous work has suggested some approaches to cope with such uncertainty but has not harnessed all of the benefits of risk diversification. We adapt Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) to optimal spatial targeting of conservation activity, using wetland habitat conservation in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) as an example. This approach finds the allocations of conservation activity among subregions of the planning area that maximize the expected conservation returns for a given level of uncertainty or minimize uncertainty for a given expected level of returns. We find that using MPT instead of simple diversification in the PPR can achieve a value of the conservation objective per dollar spent that is 15% higher for the same level of risk. MPT-based portfolios can also have 21% less uncertainty over benefits or 6% greater expected benefits than the current portfolio of PPR conservation. Total benefits from conservation investment are higher if returns are defined in terms of benefit-cost ratios rather than benefits alone. MPT-guided diversification can work to reduce the climate-change-induced uncertainty of future ecosystem-service benefits from many land policy and investment initiatives, especially when outcomes are negatively correlated between subregions of a planning area.

  20. Optimal portfolio design to reduce climate-related conservation uncertainty in the Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Amy W.; Mallory, Mindy L.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is likely to alter the spatial distributions of species and habitat types but the nature of such change is uncertain. Thus, climate change makes it difficult to implement standard conservation planning paradigms. Previous work has suggested some approaches to cope with such uncertainty but has not harnessed all of the benefits of risk diversification. We adapt Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) to optimal spatial targeting of conservation activity, using wetland habitat conservation in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) as an example. This approach finds the allocations of conservation activity among subregions of the planning area that maximize the expected conservation returns for a given level of uncertainty or minimize uncertainty for a given expected level of returns. We find that using MPT instead of simple diversification in the PPR can achieve a value of the conservation objective per dollar spent that is 15% higher for the same level of risk. MPT-based portfolios can also have 21% less uncertainty over benefits or 6% greater expected benefits than the current portfolio of PPR conservation. Total benefits from conservation investment are higher if returns are defined in terms of benefit–cost ratios rather than benefits alone. MPT-guided diversification can work to reduce the climate-change–induced uncertainty of future ecosystem-service benefits from many land policy and investment initiatives, especially when outcomes are negatively correlated between subregions of a planning area. PMID:22451914

  1. Long Island Smart Energy Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mui, Ming [Long Island Power Authority, Uniondale, NY (United States)

    2015-02-04

    settings. Farmingdale State College held three international conferences on energy and sustainability and Smart Grid related technologies and policies. These conferences, in addition to public seminars increased understanding and acceptance of Smart Grid transformation by the general public, business, industry, and municipalities in the Long Island and greater New York region. - JOB CREATION: Provided training for the Smart Grid and clean energy jobs of the future at both Farmingdale and Stony Brook. Stony Brook focused its “Cradle to Fortune 500” suite of economic development resources on the opportunities emerging from the project, helping to create new technologies, new businesses, and new jobs. To achieve these features, LIPA and its sub-recipients, FSC and SBU, each have separate but complementary objectives. At LIPA, the Smart Energy Corridor (1) meant validating Smart Grid technologies; (2) quantifying Smart Grid costs and benefits; and (3) providing insights into how Smart Grid applications can be better implemented, readily adapted, and replicated in individual homes and businesses. LIPA installed 2,550 AMI meters (exceeding the 500 AMI meters in the original plan), created three “smart” substations serving the Corridor, and installed additional distribution automation elements including two-way communications and digital controls over various feeders and capacitor banks. It gathered and analyzed customer behavior information on how they responded to a new “smart” TOU rate and to various levels of information and analytical tools.

  2. Integrated risk management of safety and development on transportation corridors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thekdi, Shital A.; Lambert, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Prioritization of investments to protect safety and performance of multi-regional transportation networks from adjacent land development is a key concern for infrastructure agencies, land developers, and other stakeholders. Despite ample literature describing relationships between transportation and land use, no evidence-based methods exist for monitoring corridor needs on a large scale. Risk analysis is essential to the preservation of system safety and capacity, including avoidance of costly retrofits, regret, and belated action. This paper introduces the Corridor Trace Analysis (CTA) for prioritizing corridor segments that are vulnerable to adjacent land development. The method integrates several components: (i) estimation of likelihood of adjacent land development, using influence diagram and rule-based modeling, (ii) characterization of access point density using geospatial methods, and (iii) plural-model evaluation of corridors, monitoring indices of land development likelihood, access point densities, and traffic volumes. The results inform deployment of options that include closing access points, restricting development, and negotiation of agencies and developers. The CTA method is demonstrated on a region encompassing 6000 centerline miles (about 10,000 km) of transportation corridors. The method will be of interest to managers investing in safety and performance of infrastructure systems, balancing safety, financial, and other criteria of concern for diverse stakeholders. - Highlights: • The Corridor Trace Analysis (CTA) method for prioritizing transportation corridors. • The CTA method studies corridors vulnerable to adjacent land development. • The CTA method quantifies the influence of risk scenarios on agency priorities. • The CTA method is demonstrated on 6000 miles of critical transportation corridor

  3. Making the Most of World Natural Heritage—Linking Conservation and Sustainable Regional Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Conradin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, more than 1000 World Heritage (WH sites are inscribed on UNESCO’s list, 228 of which are natural and mixed heritage sites. Once focused primarily on conservation, World Natural Heritage (WNH sites are increasingly seen as promoters of sustainable regional development. Sustainability-oriented regions, it is assumed, are safeguards for conservation and positively influence local conservation goals. Within UNESCO, discussions regarding the integration of sustainable development in official policies have recently gained momentum. In this article, we investigate the extent to which WNH sites trigger sustainability-oriented approaches in surrounding regions, and how such approaches in turn influence the WNH site and its protection. The results of the study are on the one hand based on a global survey with more than 60% of the WNH sites listed in 2011, and on the other hand on a complementary literature research. Furthermore, we analyze the policy framework necessary to support WNH sites in this endeavor. We conclude that a regional approach to WNH management is necessary to ensure that WNH sites support sustainable regional development effectively, but that the core focus of WNH status must remain environmental conservation.

  4. Response of Wolves to Corridor Restoration and Human Use Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Shepherd

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Corridor restoration is increasingly being used to connect habitat in mountainous areas where rugged topography and increasing human activity fragment habitat. Wolves (Canis lupus are a conservation priority because they avoid areas with high levels of human use and are ecologically important predators. We examined how corridor restoration through a golf course changes the distribution of wolves and their prey in Jasper National Park, Alberta, Canada. We followed and recorded wolf paths in the snow both within the corridor and in the surrounding landscape before and after a corridor was re-established. Track transects were used to estimate prey abundance and snow depths, and trail counters measured human activity. We compared resources on wolf paths to available movement routes using conditional logistic regression and also compared resources used by wolves before and after restoration. We addressed potential confounding effects of prey abundance, snow depths, and levels of human use by testing for changes in these variables. Prior to restoration, wolves traveled around the golf course and used the mountainside to connect valley-bottom habitat. Conversely, elk (Cervus elaphus densities were highest in the golf course. After restoration, wolves shifted most of their movement to the golf course corridor, whereas elk dispersed along the corridor and mountainside. When traveling through the study area, wolves selected for areas with high prey abundance, low elevations, and low levels of human activity. Corridor restoration increased the area of high quality habitat available to wolves and increased their access to elk and deer at low elevations. Our results corroborate other studies suggesting that wolves and elk quickly adapt to landscape changes and that corridor restoration can improve habitat quality and reduce habitat fragmentation.

  5. China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, Tucker [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    International trade and related economic activities in Central and South Asia are increasing as developing economies, particularly India and Pakistan, grow. China continues to emerge as a major regional and global power and has embarked upon numerous regional economic and political initiatives . A major development is the China - Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), a host of infrastructure and trade projects worth over 40 billion American dollars . This report analyzes CPEC a nd its potential regional effects, including the trade security implications of the port and land infrastructure developments . As trade increase s in the reg ion and the major CPEC infrastructure projects are completed, there will be numerous implications on trade security and geopolitics within South Asia. CPEC projects uniquely intersect numerous regional situations, including territorial disputes in Kashmir, the Afghanistan/Pakistan border, and Chinese foreign policy a mbitions. A nuanced understanding of these effects can influence future policy adjustments in this region . The views expressed in this report are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the position of Sandia National Laboratories or the author's current and past institutions.

  6. Identifying Corridors among Large Protected Areas in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Travis Belote

    Full Text Available Conservation scientists emphasize the importance of maintaining a connected network of protected areas to prevent ecosystems and populations from becoming isolated, reduce the risk of extinction, and ultimately sustain biodiversity. Keeping protected areas connected in a network is increasingly recognized as a conservation priority in the current era of rapid climate change. Models that identify suitable linkages between core areas have been used to prioritize potentially important corridors for maintaining functional connectivity. Here, we identify the most "natural" (i.e., least human-modified corridors between large protected areas in the contiguous Unites States. We aggregated results from multiple connectivity models to develop a composite map of corridors reflecting agreement of models run under different assumptions about how human modification of land may influence connectivity. To identify which land units are most important for sustaining structural connectivity, we used the composite map of corridors to evaluate connectivity priorities in two ways: (1 among land units outside of our pool of large core protected areas and (2 among units administratively protected as Inventoried Roadless (IRAs or Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs. Corridor values varied substantially among classes of "unprotected" non-core land units, and land units of high connectivity value and priority represent diverse ownerships and existing levels of protections. We provide a ranking of IRAs and WSAs that should be prioritized for additional protection to maintain minimal human modification. Our results provide a coarse-scale assessment of connectivity priorities for maintaining a connected network of protected areas.

  7. Green corridors and network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the relation between the Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) and the green corridor concept. First, the need is established for a corridor governance structure that enables the close cooperation among the numerous stakeholders from both the public...

  8. Global conservation model for a mushy region over a moving substrate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselica, Juraj; Šimkanin, Ján

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 276, March (2018), s. 60-67 ISSN 0031-9201 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : solidification * binary alloy * mushy region * global conservation * boundary-layer flow Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.075, year: 2016

  9. Regional assessment of the status, distribution and conservation needs of cheetahs in southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Purchase, Gianetta; Marker, Laurie; Marnewick, Kelly; Klein, Rebecca; Williams, Samual

    2007-01-01

    A country by country assessment of the status, distribution and conservation needs for cheetah Acinonyx jubatus in the southern African region indicates that this area holds a significant proportion of the global population of cheetahs, at least 4 500 adults. The largest proportion of this regional population occurs in four range states, Namibia, Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe where it is under threat as a result of conflict with livestock and wildlife ranchers, removal of animals (both ...

  10. Green corridors in freight logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    of the performance of a green corridor in terms of pre-specified Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). The thesis builds on previous own work under the EUfinanced SuperGreen project and applies the new methodology on the GreCOR corridor extending from Oslo to Rotterdam. The scope of the two other objectives relates...... the rationale for a performance monitoring scheme has been established, the thesis critically reviews the SuperGreen methodology which consists of: (i) decomposing the corridor into transport chains, (ii) selecting a sample of typical chains, (iii) assessing these chains through a set of KPIs, and (iv......) aggregating the chain-level KPIs to corridor-level ones using proper weights. Unlike SuperGreen that suggests a study-based approach for constructing the corridor sample, the thesis proposes founding the selection of typical chains on the outcome of specialised transport models. The periodic collection...

  11. A trans-national monarch butterfly population model and implications for regional conservation priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhauser, Karen; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Diffendorfer, James E.; Semmens, Darius J.; Ries, Leslie; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Lopez-Hoffman, Laura; Semmens, Brice

    2017-01-01

    1. The monarch has undergone considerable population declines over the past decade, and the governments of Mexico, Canada, and the United States have agreed to work together to conserve the species.2. Given limited resources, understanding where to focus conservation action is key for widespread species like monarchs. To support planning for continental-scale monarch habitat restoration, we address the question of where restoration efforts are likely to have the largest impacts on monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus Linn.) population growth rates.3. We present a spatially explicit demographic model simulating the multi-generational annual cycle of the eastern monarch population, and use the model to examine management scenarios, some of which focus on particular regions of North America.4. Improving the monarch habitat in the north central or southern parts of the monarch range yields a slightly greater increase in the population growth rate than restoration in other regions. However, combining restoration efforts across multiple regions yields population growth rates above 1 with smaller simulated improvements in habitat per region than single-region strategies.5. Synthesis and applications: These findings suggest that conservation investment in projects across the full monarch range will be more effective than focusing on one or a few regions, and will require international cooperation across many land use categories.

  12. Value of semi-open corridors for simultaneously connecting open and wooded habitats: a case study with ground beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Britta; Matern, Andrea; Drees, Claudia; Eggers, Jan; Härdtle, Werner; Assmann, Thorsten

    2010-02-01

    To counteract habitat fragmentation, the connectivity of a landscape should be enhanced. Corridors are thought to facilitate movement between disconnected patches of habitat, and linear strips of habitat connecting isolated patches are a popular type of corridor. On the other hand, the creation of new corridors can lead to fragmentation of the surrounding habitat. For example, heathland corridors connect patches of heathland and alternatively hedgerows connect patches of woodland. Nevertheless, these corridors themselves also break up previously connected patches of their surrounding habitat and in so doing fragment another type of habitat (heathland corridors fragment woodlands and woodland strips or hedgerows fragment heathlands). To overcome this challenge we propose the use of semi-open habitats (a mixture of heathland and woodland vegetation) as conservation corridors to enable dispersal of both stenotopic heathland and woodland species. We used two semi-open corridors with a mosaic of heathland and woody vegetation to investigate the efficiency of semi-open corridors for species dispersal and to assess whether these corridors might be a suitable approach for nature conservation. We conducted a mark-recapture study on three stenotopic flightless carabid beetles of heathlands and woodlands and took an inventory of all the carabid species in two semi-open corridors. Both methodological approaches showed simultaneous immigration of woodland and heathland species in the semi-open corridor. Detrended correspondence analysis showed a clear separation of the given habitats and affirmed that semi-open corridors are a good strategy for connecting woodlands and heathlands. The best means of creating and preserving semi-open corridors is probably through extensive grazing.

  13. Fast discovery and visualization of conserved regions in DNA sequences using quasi-alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Anurag; Hahsler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing techniques are producing enormous amounts of biological sequence data and analysis becomes a major computational problem. Currently, most analysis, especially the identification of conserved regions, relies heavily on Multiple Sequence Alignment and its various heuristics such as progressive alignment, whose run time grows with the square of the number and the length of the aligned sequences and requires significant computational resources. In this work, we present a method to efficiently discover regions of high similarity across multiple sequences without performing expensive sequence alignment. The method is based on approximating edit distance between segments of sequences using p-mer frequency counts. Then, efficient high-throughput data stream clustering is used to group highly similar segments into so called quasi-alignments. Quasi-alignments have numerous applications such as identifying species and their taxonomic class from sequences, comparing sequences for similarities, and, as in this paper, discovering conserved regions across related sequences. In this paper, we show that quasi-alignments can be used to discover highly similar segments across multiple sequences from related or different genomes efficiently and accurately. Experiments on a large number of unaligned 16S rRNA sequences obtained from the Greengenes database show that the method is able to identify conserved regions which agree with known hypervariable regions in 16S rRNA. Furthermore, the experiments show that the proposed method scales well for large data sets with a run time that grows only linearly with the number and length of sequences, whereas for existing multiple sequence alignment heuristics the run time grows super-linearly. Quasi-alignment-based algorithms can detect highly similar regions and conserved areas across multiple sequences. Since the run time is linear and the sequences are converted into a compact clustering model, we are able to

  14. WeederH: an algorithm for finding conserved regulatory motifs and regions in homologous sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesole Graziano

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This work addresses the problem of detecting conserved transcription factor binding sites and in general regulatory regions through the analysis of sequences from homologous genes, an approach that is becoming more and more widely used given the ever increasing amount of genomic data available. Results We present an algorithm that identifies conserved transcription factor binding sites in a given sequence by comparing it to one or more homologs, adapting a framework we previously introduced for the discovery of sites in sequences from co-regulated genes. Differently from the most commonly used methods, the approach we present does not need or compute an alignment of the sequences investigated, nor resorts to descriptors of the binding specificity of known transcription factors. The main novel idea we introduce is a relative measure of conservation, assuming that true functional elements should present a higher level of conservation with respect to the rest of the sequence surrounding them. We present tests where we applied the algorithm to the identification of conserved annotated sites in homologous promoters, as well as in distal regions like enhancers. Conclusion Results of the tests show how the algorithm can provide fast and reliable predictions of conserved transcription factor binding sites regulating the transcription of a gene, with better performances than other available methods for the same task. We also show examples on how the algorithm can be successfully employed when promoter annotations of the genes investigated are missing, or when regulatory sites and regions are located far away from the genes.

  15. Energy Conservation and Development Plan. Southern Tier Central Region, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    A summary is presented of the work of 40 volunteers working with regional planners to imagine, assess, and prescribe for the development of local energy resources (wind, solar, biomass, and water) and for conservation of all forms of energy. The plan contains a brief summary of the process the citizens followed in formulating the plan, the plans themselves, and appendices which contain more detailed comments by citizens on the possible consequences of the development of each resource. The areas (Chemung, Steuben, and Schuyler counties) experienced severe natural gas curtailments during the winter of 1976-1977. The formulation of an emergency energy conservation plan is also presented.

  16. Regional Conservation Status of Scleractinian Coral Biodiversity in the Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Richards

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Preventing the loss of biodiversity is a major challenge in mega-diverse ecosystems such as coral reefs where there is a critical shortage of baseline demographic data. Threatened species assessments play a valuable role in guiding conservation action to manage and mitigate biodiversity loss, but they must be undertaken with precise information at an appropriate spatial scale to provide accurate classifications. Here we explore the regional conservation status of scleractinian corals on isolated Pacific Ocean atolls in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. We compile an integrated regional species list based upon new and historical records, and compare how well the regional threat classifications reflect species level priorities at a global scale. A similar proportion of the 240 species of hard coral recorded in the current survey are classified as Vulnerable at the regional scale as the global scale using the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red List criteria (23% and 20% respectively, however there are distinct differences in the composition of species. When local abundance data is taken into account, a far greater proportion of the regional diversity (up to 80% may face an elevated risk of local extinction. These results suggest coral communities on isolated Pacific coral reefs, which are often predicted to be at low risk, are still vulnerable due to the small and fragmented nature of their populations. This reinforces that to adequately protect biodiversity, ongoing threatened species monitoring and the documentation of species-level changes in abundance and distribution is imperative.

  17. Roles of the conserved cytoplasmic region and non-conserved carboxy-terminal region of SecE in Escherichia coli protein translocase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontinen, V P; Yamanaka, M; Nishiyama, K; Tokuda, H

    1996-06-01

    SecE, an essential membrane component of the Escherichia coli protein translocase, consists of 127 amino acid residues. Only a part of the second putative cytoplasmic region comprising some 13 residues is essential for the SecE function as long as the proper topological arrangement is retained. The Trp84 and Pro85 residues of this region are conserved in all eubacterial SecE homologues. The conservation of positively charged residues corresponding to Arg80 and Lys81 is also substantial. We deleted or replaced these residues to assess their roles in the SecE function. Deletion of the Arg80-Lys81 dipeptide did not abolish the SecE function whereas that of Trp84 or Pro85 caused a loss of the function. Strikingly, however, replacement of Pro85 with either Gly, Ser, or Ala, and that of Trp84 with Lys did not abolish the SecE function. These results indicate that the strong conservation of these residues does not reflect their obligatory requirement for the SecE function. A chimeric SecE possessing the cytoplasmic region of the E. coli SecE and the following region of the Bacillus subtilis SecE was able to form the translocation machinery together with SecA, SecY, and SecG. Although a Leu to Arg mutation at position 108 has been thought to cause a loss of signal recognition fidelity and thereby suppress a signal sequence defect, the same mutation at position 111 caused a complete loss of the function. The levels of SecY and SecG in the secEcsE501 mutant, which expresses SecE at a decreased level and is sensitive to low temperature, increased upon the expression of functional SecE derivatives, irrespective of the site of mutation, suggesting that the levels of SecY and SecG are co-operatively determined by the level of functional, but not non-functional, SecE. Based on these results, the SecE function in the translocase is discussed.

  18. Motor fuel taxation, energy conservation, and economic development: A regional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, Richard W.

    2007-01-01

    Combustion of motor fuels has a variety of environmental impacts on local, regional and global scales. Taxing motor fuels more heavily would mitigate those environmental impacts. However, many governments are reluctant to increase motor fuel taxes because they fear that the tax incidence will be regressive and that economic development will be impeded. Using data for the New England region of the United States, this paper argues that an oil-importing region can conserve energy, avoid regressive impacts and encourage economic development by taxing motor fuels more heavily and rebating the incremental revenues to owners of motor vehicles. (author)

  19. Conservation status of the American horseshoe crab, (Limulus polyphemus): A regional assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R.; Brockmann, H. Jane; Beekey, Mark A.; King, Timothy L.; Millard, Michael J.; Zaldívar-Rae, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Horseshoe crabs have persisted for more than 200 million years, and fossil forms date to 450 million years ago. The American horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus), one of four extant horseshoe crab species, is found along the Atlantic coastline of North America ranging from Alabama to Maine, USA with another distinct population on the coasts of Campeche, Yucatán and Quintana Roo in the Yucatán Peninsula, México. Although the American horseshoe crab tolerates broad environmental conditions, exploitation and habitat loss threaten the species. We assessed the conservation status of the American horseshoe crab by comprehensively reviewing available scientific information on its range, life history, genetic structure, population trends and analyses, major threats, and conservation. We structured the status assessment by six genetically-informed regions and accounted for sub-regional differences in environmental conditions, threats, and management. The transnational regions are Gulf of Maine (USA), Mid-Atlantic (USA), Southeast (USA), Florida Atlantic (USA), Northeast Gulf of México (USA), and Yucatán Peninsula (México). Our conclusion is that the American horseshoe crab species is vulnerable to local extirpation and that the degree and extent of risk vary among and within the regions. The risk is elevated in the Gulf of Maine region due to limited and fragmented habitat. The populations of horseshoe crabs in the Mid-Atlantic region are stable in the Delaware Bay area, and regulatory controls are in place, but the risk is elevated in the New England area as evidenced by continuing declines understood to be caused by over-harvest. The populations of horseshoe crabs in the Southeast region are stable or increasing. The populations of horseshoe crabs in the Florida Atlantic region show mixed trends among areas, and continuing population reductions at the embayment level have poorly understood causes. Within the Northeast Gulf of Mexico, causes of population trends are

  20. Exploring spatial patterns of vulnerability for diverse biodiversity descriptors in regional conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimal, Ruppert; Pluvinet, Pascal; Sacca, Céline; Mazagol, Pierre-Olivier; Etlicher, Bernard; Thompson, John D

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we developed a multi-criteria assessment of spatial variability of the vulnerability of three different biodiversity descriptors: sites of high conservation interest by virtue of the presence of rare or remarkable species, extensive areas of high ecological integrity, and landscape diversity in grid cells across an entire region. We assessed vulnerability in relation to (a) direct threats in and around sites to a distance of 2 km associated with intensive agriculture, building and road infrastructure and (b) indirect effects of human population density on a wider scale (50 km). The different combinations of biodiversity and threat indicators allowed us to set differential priorities for biodiversity conservation and assess their spatial variation. For example, with this method we identified sites and grid cells which combined high biodiversity with either high threat values or low threat values for the three different biodiversity indicators. In these two classes the priorities for conservation planning will be different, reduce threat values in the former and restrain any increase in the latter. We also identified low priority sites (low biodiversity with either high or low threats). This procedure thus allows for the integration of a spatial ranking of vulnerability into priority setting for regional conservation planning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of a landscape integrity model framework to support regional conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, Leroy J; Hartmann, Heidi M

    2018-01-01

    Land managers increasingly rely upon landscape assessments to understand the status of natural resources and identify conservation priorities. Many of these landscape planning efforts rely on geospatial models that characterize the ecological integrity of the landscape. These general models utilize measures of habitat disturbance and human activity to map indices of ecological integrity. We built upon these modeling frameworks by developing a Landscape Integrity Index (LII) model using geospatial datasets of the human footprint, as well as incorporation of other indicators of ecological integrity such as biodiversity and vegetation departure. Our LII model serves as a general indicator of ecological integrity in a regional context of human activity, biodiversity, and change in habitat composition. We also discuss the application of the LII framework in two related coarse-filter landscape conservation approaches to expand the size and connectedness of protected areas as regional mitigation for anticipated land-use changes.

  2. Global conservation model for a mushy region over a moving substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyselica, J.; Šimkanin, J.

    2018-03-01

    We study solidification over a cool substrate moving with a relative velocity with respect to the rest of the fluid. A mathematical model based on global conservation of solute is presented. The explicit solutions of the governing equations are found and analysed via the asymptotic methods. The assessment of how the boundary-layer flow influences the physical characteristics of the mushy region is given, together with the discussion of a possible connection with the solidification at the inner core boundary.

  3. Control Strategies for Corridor Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-28

    Integrated management of travel corridors comprising of freeways and adjacent arterial streets can potentially improve the performance of the highway facilities. However, several research gaps exist in data collection and performance measurement, ana...

  4. CO2 emissions reduction using energy conservation measures: EPA Region IV's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berish, C.; Day, R.; Sibold, K.; Tiller, J.

    1994-01-01

    EPA Region 4 concluded in a recent comparative environmental risk evaluation that global climate change could substantially impact the Southeast. To address this risk, Region 4 developed an action plan to promote cost-effective pollution prevention and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, The regional plan contains programs that aye specific to Region 4 as well as geographic components of the national Climate Change Action Plan. Sources of carbon dioxide emissions were targeted for pollution prevention based on an energy model that allows the user to create energy efficiency scenarios in four sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation. Activities were selected using the modeled information on sector reduction potentials and resource and cost-effectiveness criteria. Given the high level of uncertainty associated with climate change projections, the programs developed are all cost effective, prevent pollution and/or result in sound adaptation policies. Currently, policy makers at national, regional, and local levels are deciding on what types of energy efficiency programs to implement. The region's action plan is composed of several programs and approaches. The authors have developed implemented, and/or participated in the following: energy scenario model. EARTHWALK (residential energy conservation); energy conservation in affordable homes (new residences); Cool Communities Program (strategic tree planting and light colored surfaces); EPA's Green Lights Program; WAVE (water conservation), the Plant Protection Center; QUEST TO SAVE THE EARTH (outreach tools); energy and water use planning for the 1996 Olympic Games, and planning for sea-level rise. Reviewing the practices of the above programs will be the focus of this paper

  5. Rewilding the tropics, and other conservation translocations strategies in the tropical Asia-Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louys, Julien; Corlett, Richard T; Price, Gilbert J; Hawkins, Stuart; Piper, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Alarm over the prospects for survival of species in a rapidly changing world has encouraged discussion of translocation conservation strategies that move beyond the focus of ‘at-risk’ species. These approaches consider larger spatial and temporal scales than customary, with the aim of recreating functioning ecosystems through a combination of large-scale ecological restoration and species introductions. The term ‘rewilding’ has come to apply to this large-scale ecosystem restoration program. While reintroductions of species within their historical ranges have become standard conservation tools, introductions within known paleontological ranges—but outside historical ranges—are more controversial, as is the use of taxon substitutions for extinct species. Here, we consider possible conservation translocations for nine large-bodied taxa in tropical Asia-Pacific. We consider the entire spectrum of conservation translocation strategies as defined by the IUCN in addition to rewilding. The taxa considered are spread across diverse taxonomic and ecological spectra and all are listed as ‘endangered’ or ‘critically endangered’ by the IUCN in our region of study. They all have a written and fossil record that is sufficient to assess past changes in range, as well as ecological and environmental preferences, and the reasons for their decline, and they have all suffered massive range restrictions since the late Pleistocene. General principles, problems, and benefits of translocation strategies are reviewed as case studies. These allowed us to develop a conservation translocation matrix, with taxa scored for risk, benefit, and feasibility. Comparisons between taxa across this matrix indicated that orangutans, tapirs, Tasmanian devils, and perhaps tortoises are the most viable taxa for translocations. However, overall the case studies revealed a need for more data and research for all taxa, and their ecological and environmental needs. Rewilding the Asian

  6. Genes involved in complex adaptive processes tend to have highly conserved upstream regions in mammalian genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohane Isaac

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in genome sequencing suggest a remarkable conservation in gene content of mammalian organisms. The similarity in gene repertoire present in different organisms has increased interest in studying regulatory mechanisms of gene expression aimed at elucidating the differences in phenotypes. In particular, a proximal promoter region contains a large number of regulatory elements that control the expression of its downstream gene. Although many studies have focused on identification of these elements, a broader picture on the complexity of transcriptional regulation of different biological processes has not been addressed in mammals. The regulatory complexity may strongly correlate with gene function, as different evolutionary forces must act on the regulatory systems under different biological conditions. We investigate this hypothesis by comparing the conservation of promoters upstream of genes classified in different functional categories. Results By conducting a rank correlation analysis between functional annotation and upstream sequence alignment scores obtained by human-mouse and human-dog comparison, we found a significantly greater conservation of the upstream sequence of genes involved in development, cell communication, neural functions and signaling processes than those involved in more basic processes shared with unicellular organisms such as metabolism and ribosomal function. This observation persists after controlling for G+C content. Considering conservation as a functional signature, we hypothesize a higher density of cis-regulatory elements upstream of genes participating in complex and adaptive processes. Conclusion We identified a class of functions that are associated with either high or low promoter conservation in mammals. We detected a significant tendency that points to complex and adaptive processes were associated with higher promoter conservation, despite the fact that they have emerged

  7. Conservation in metropolitan regions: assessing trends and threats of urban development and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, J. H.; Santos, M. J.; Bjorkman, J.

    2011-12-01

    Two global challenges to successful conservation are urban expansion and climate change. Rapid urban growth threatens biodiversity and associated ecosystem services, while climate change may make currently protected areas unsuitable for species that exist within them. We examined three measures of landscape change for 8800 km2 of the San Francisco Bay metropolitan region over 80 years past and future: urban growth, protected area establishment, and natural vegetation type extents. The Bay Area is a good test bed for conservation assessment of the impacts of temporal and spatial of urban growth and land cover change. The region is geographically rather small, with over 40% of its lands already dedicated to protected park and open space lands, they are well-documented, and, the area has had extensive population growth in the past and is projected to continue to grow. The ten-county region within which our study area is a subset has grown from 1.78 million people in 1930, to 6.97 million in 2000 and is estimated to grow to 10.94 million by 2050. With such an influx of people into a small geographic area, it is imperative to both examine the past urban expansion and estimate how the future population will be accommodated into the landscape. We quantify these trends to assess conservation 'success' through time. We used historical and current landcover maps to assess trend, and a GIS-based urban modeling (UPlan) to assess future urban growth impacts in the region, under three policy scenarios- business as usual, smart growth, and urban redevelopment. Impacts are measured by the amount of open space targeted by conservation planners in the region that will be urbanized under each urban growth policy. Impacts are also measured by estimates of the energy consumption projected for each of the scenarios on household and business unit level. The 'business as usual' and 'smart growth' scenarios differed little in their impacts to targeted conservation lands, because so little

  8. An evolutionarily conserved intronic region controls the spatiotemporal expression of the transcription factor Sox10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan William J

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge lies in understanding the complexities of gene regulation. Mutation of the transcription factor SOX10 is associated with several human diseases. The disease phenotypes reflect the function of SOX10 in diverse tissues including the neural crest, central nervous system and otic vesicle. As expected, the SOX10 expression pattern is complex and highly dynamic, but little is known of the underlying mechanisms regulating its spatiotemporal pattern. SOX10 expression is highly conserved between all vertebrates characterised. Results We have combined in vivo testing of DNA fragments in zebrafish and computational comparative genomics to identify the first regulatory regions of the zebrafish sox10 gene. Both approaches converged on the 3' end of the conserved 1st intron as being critical for spatial patterning of sox10 in the embryo. Importantly, we have defined a minimal region crucial for this function. We show that this region contains numerous binding sites for transcription factors known to be essential in early neural crest induction, including Tcf/Lef, Sox and FoxD3. We show that the identity and relative position of these binding sites are conserved between zebrafish and mammals. A further region, partially required for oligodendrocyte expression, lies in the 5' region of the same intron and contains a putative CSL binding site, consistent with a role for Notch signalling in sox10 regulation. Furthermore, we show that β-catenin, Notch signalling and Sox9 can induce ectopic sox10 expression in early embryos, consistent with regulatory roles predicted from our transgenic and computational results. Conclusion We have thus identified two major sites of sox10 regulation in vertebrates and provided evidence supporting a role for at least three factors in driving sox10 expression in neural crest, otic epithelium and oligodendrocyte domains.

  9. Evolutionarily conserved regions of the human c-myc protein can be uncoupled from transforming activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarid, J.; Halazonetis, T.D.; Murphy, W.; Leder, P.

    1987-01-01

    The myc family of oncogenes contains coding sequences that have been preserved in different species for over 400 million years. This conservation (which implies functional selection) is broadly represented throughout the C-terminal portion of the human c-myc protein but is largely restricted to three cluster of amino acid sequences in the N-terminal region. The authors have examined the role that the latter three regions of the c-myc protein might play in the transforming function of the c-myc gene. Several mutations, deletions and frameshifts, were introduced into the c-myc gene, and these mutant genes were tested for their ability to collaborate with the EJ-ras oncogene to transform rat embryo fibroblasts. Complete elimination of the first two N-terminal conserved segments abolished transforming activity. In contrast, genes altered in a portion of the second or the entire third conserved segment retained their transforming activity. Thus, the latter two segments are not required for the transformation process, suggesting that they serve another function related only to the normal expression of the c-myc gene

  10. Plant diversity and conservation status of Himalayan Region Poonch Valley Azad Kashmir (Pakistan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Azam; Khan, Mir Ajab; Hussain, Mazhar; Mujtaba, Ghulam

    2014-09-01

    The plant diversity of Himalayan region has been reduced to greater extent due to environmental degradation and human exploitation. Anthropogenic disturbance was the major factor responsible for fragmentation of forest vegetation into small patches. Little research has been conducted in the Himalayan region of Poonch Valley of North eastern Pakistan with reference to plants biodiversity and its conservation. The present research was carried out to provide a checklist of vegetation for biodiversity conservation. A total of 430 vascular and 5 nonvascular plant species with 5 species of Bryophytes (5 families), 13 species of Pteridophytes (6 families), 4 species of Gymnosperms (1 family) and 413 species of angiosperms (95 families) were enumerated from the Poonch valley Azad Kashmir. The genera were classified into three categories according to the number of species. 25 plant communities with phytosociological parameters and diversity indices were reported. Present study revealed that there were 145 threatened, 30 endangered, 68 vulnerable and 47 rare species. It is recorded that extensive grazing, uprooting of plants and soil slope erosion intensify the environmental problems. Since there is maximum exploitation of vegetation, the valley showed a decline in plant diversity. The study was also indicated that the main threats to the biodiversity are expansion of settlement and army installations in the forest area of the valley. For sustainable use In-situ and Ex-situ conservation, controlled harvesting and afforestation may be the solution. Moreover, forest area should be declared prohibited for settlements and army installations.

  11. Building on IUCN regional red lists to produce lists of species of conservation priority: a model with Irish bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Una; Murray, Tomás E; Paxton, Robert J; Brown, Mark J F

    2007-10-01

    A World Conservation Union (IUCN) regional red list is an objective assessment of regional extinction risk and is not the same as a list of conservation priority species. Recent research reveals the widespread, but incorrect, assumption that IUCN Red List categories represent a hierarchical list of priorities for conservation action. We developed a simple eight-step priority-setting process and applied it to the conservation of bees in Ireland. Our model is based on the national red list but also considers the global significance of the national population; the conservation status at global, continental, and regional levels; key biological, economic, and societal factors; and is compatible with existing conservation agreements and legislation. Throughout Ireland, almost one-third of the bee fauna is threatened (30 of 100 species), but our methodology resulted in a reduced list of only 17 priority species. We did not use the priority species list to broadly categorize species to the conservation action required; instead, we indicated the individual action required for all threatened, near-threatened, and data-deficient species on the national red list based on the IUCN's conservation-actions template file. Priority species lists will strongly influence prioritization of conservation actions at national levels, but action should not be exclusive to listed species. In addition, all species on this list will not necessarily require immediate action. Our method is transparent, reproducible, and readily applicable to other taxa and regions.

  12. Characterization of chromosomal regions conserved in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and lost by Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouillot, Flavie; Fayolle, Corinne; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2008-10-01

    The transformation of the enteropathogenic bacterium Yersinia pseudotuberculosis into the plague bacillus, Yersinia pestis, has been accompanied by extensive genetic loss. This study focused on chromosomal regions conserved in Y. pseudotuberculosis and lost during its transformation into Y. pestis. An extensive PCR screening of 78 strains of the two species identified five regions (R1 to R5) and four open reading frames (ORFs; orf1 to orf4) that were conserved in Y. pseudotuberculosis and absent from Y. pestis. Their conservation in Y. pseudotuberculosis suggests a positive selective pressure and a role during the life cycle of this species. Attempts to delete two ORFs (orf3 and orf4) from the chromosome of strain IP32953 were unsuccessful, indicating that they are essential for its viability. The seven remaining loci were individually deleted from the IP32953 chromosome, and the ability of each mutant to grow in vitro and to kill mice upon intragastric infection was evaluated. Four loci (orf1, R2, R4, and R5) were not required for optimal growth or virulence of Y. pseudotuberculosis. In contrast, orf2, encoding a putative pseudouridylate synthase involved in RNA stability, was necessary for the optimal growth of IP32953 at 37 degrees C in a chemically defined medium (M63S). Deletion of R1, a region predicted to encode the methionine salvage pathway, altered the mutant pathogenicity, suggesting that the availability of free methionine is severely restricted in vivo. R3, a region composed mostly of genes of unknown functions, was necessary for both optimal growth of Y. pseudotuberculosis at 37 degrees C in M63S and for virulence. Therefore, despite their loss in Y. pestis, five of the nine Y. pseudotuberculosis-specific chromosomal loci studied play a role in the survival, growth, or virulence of this species.

  13. Conserved regions of ribonucleoprotein ribonuclease MRP are involved in interactions with its substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esakova, Olga; Perederina, Anna; Berezin, Igor; Krasilnikov, Andrey S

    2013-08-01

    Ribonuclease (RNase) MRP is a ubiquitous and essential site-specific eukaryotic endoribonuclease involved in the metabolism of a wide range of RNA molecules. RNase MRP is a ribonucleoprotein with a large catalytic RNA moiety that is closely related to the RNA component of RNase P, and multiple proteins, most of which are shared with RNase P. Here, we report the results of an ultraviolet-cross-linking analysis of interactions between a photoreactive RNase MRP substrate and the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNase MRP holoenzyme. The results show that the substrate interacts with phylogenetically conserved RNA elements universally found in all enzymes of the RNase P/MRP family, as well as with a phylogenetically conserved RNA region that is unique to RNase MRP, and demonstrate that four RNase MRP protein components, all shared with RNase P, interact with the substrate. Implications for the structural organization of RNase MRP and the roles of its components are discussed.

  14. The bioenergy potential of conservation areas and roadsides for biogas in an urbanized region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Meerbeek, Koenraad; Ottoy, Sam; De Meyer, Annelies; Van Schaeybroeck, Tom; Van Orshoven, Jos; Muys, Bart; Hermy, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We assessed the bioenergy potential of conservation areas and roadsides in Flanders. • An area of 31,055 ha produces 203 kton DM of herbaceous biomass annually. • The associated biomass supply chain was optimized with OPTIMASS in four scenarios. • The net energy balance of the studied systems was 7 GJ ha −1 in the 2020 scenarios. • We show that this biomass can play a role to meet the increased biomass demand in 2020. - Abstract: In many urbanized areas the roadside and nature conservation management offers a biomass-for-bioenergy resource potential which is barely valorized, because of the fragmented biomass production sites and the scarcity of accurate data on the spatial availability of the biomass. In this study, a GIS based assessment was performed to determine the regional non-woody biomass-for-bioenergy potential for biogas from conservation areas and roadsides in Flanders, Belgium. These systems, with an area of 31,055 ha, have an annual herbaceous biomass production of 203 kton dry matter. The full associated biomass-to-bioenergy supply chain was optimized in four scenarios to maximize the net energy output and the profit. The scenario analysis was performed with OPTIMASS, a recently developed GIS based strategic decision support system. The analysis showed that the energetic valorization of conservation and roadside biomass through anaerobic digestion had a positive net energy balance, although there is still much room for improvements. Economically, however, it is a less interesting biomass resource. Most likely, the economic picture would change when other ecosystem services delivered by the protected biodiversity would be taken into account. Future technical advances and governmental incentives, like green energy certificates, will be necessary to incorporate the biomass into the energy chain. By tackling the existing barriers and providing a detailed methodology for biomass potential assessments, this study tries to

  15. Movement patterns of Antillean manatees in Chetumal Bay (Mexico) and coastal Belize: A challenge for regional conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Padilla-Saldivar, J.; Hernández-Arana, Héctor Abuid; Slone, D.H.; Reid, J.P.; Morales-Vela, B.

    2013-01-01

    Information from 15 satellite-tracked Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) was analyzed in order to assess individual movements, home ranges, and high-use areas for conservation decisions. Manatees were captured in Chetumal Bay, Mexico, and tagged with Argos-monitored satellite transmitters. Location of the manatees and physical characteristics were assessed to describe habitat properties. Most manatees traveled to freshwater sources. The Maximum Area Size (MAS) for each manatee was determined using the observation-area method. Additional kernel densities of 95% home range and 50% Center of Activity (COA) were also calculated, with manatees having 1–3 COAs. Manatees exhibited two different movement patterns: remaining in Chetumal Bay, and long-distance (up to 240 km in 89 d). The residence time in Chetumal Bay was higher for females (89.6% of time) than for males (72.0%), but the daily travel rate (0.4–0.5 km/d) was similar for both sexes. Most of the COAs fell within Natural Protected Areas (NPA). However, manatees also travel for long distances into unprotected areas, where they face uncontrolled boat traffic, fishing activities, and habitat loss. Conservation of movement corridors may promote long-distance movements and facilitate genetic exchange.

  16. An evolutionary model for protein-coding regions with conserved RNA structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jakob Skou; Forsberg, Roald; Meyer, Irmtraud Margret

    2004-01-01

    in the RNA structure. The overlap of these fundamental dependencies is sufficient to cause "contagious" context dependencies which cascade across many nucleotide sites. Such large-scale dependencies challenge the use of traditional phylogenetic models in evolutionary inference because they explicitly assume...... components of traditional phylogenetic models. We applied this to a data set of full-genome sequences from the hepatitis C virus where five RNA structures are mapped within the coding region. This allowed us to partition the effects of selection on different structural elements and to test various hypotheses......Here we present a model of nucleotide substitution in protein-coding regions that also encode the formation of conserved RNA structures. In such regions, apparent evolutionary context dependencies exist, both between nucleotides occupying the same codon and between nucleotides forming a base pair...

  17. Challenges of transfrontier conservation areas: Natural resources nationalism, security and regionalism in the southern African development community region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswell Rusinga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs initiatives in the Southern African Development Community (SADC region offer hope for providing a mechanism for resolving political tensions and conflicts which are not only related to environmental issues but to security concerns as well. The geopolitical implications of TFCAs in the SADC region cannot be overemphasised with regard to international relations and regional integration. The SADS region is characterised by histories of contested military balance of power and geopolitical rivalries which have a potential to degenerate into military confrontation. Although there is a strong belief in multilateral co-operation among SADC member countries, most of them often engage the international community at the bilateral level. Moreover, there is disharmony in constitutional applications of the rule of law, respect of human rights and good governance. However, TFCAs initiatives in Southern Africa have been seen as offering an opportunity to heal the wounds of pre- and post-independence wars of destabilisation through the encouragement of inter-state collaboration and co-operation by giving governments an opportunity for mutual action on issues of common interest.

  18. Cooperative Business Structures for Green Transport Corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prause Gunnar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In its White Paper on “A Sustainable Future of Transport”, the European Commission promoted the idea of green transport corridors (GTCs by establishing trans-shipment routes with concentration of freight traffic between major hubs. GTCs reduce environmental and climate impact of the traffic on these relatively long distances of transport while increasing safety and efficiency with the application of sustainable logistics solutions. The Baltic Sea Region (BSR enjoys a vanguard position in the development and realisation of green transport concepts within Europe.

  19. [Preparation and characterization of mouse polyclonal antibody against conserved region of human FOXO3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Lyu, Dan

    2017-06-01

    Objective To purify the recombinant protein specific to conserved region of forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) and prepare mouse anti-human FOXO3 polyclonal antibody. Methods The DNA fragment (aa290-472) encoding conserved domain of FOXO3 was amplified by PCR, and subsequently cloned into pET28a vector. Following transformation into E.coli BL21, the soluble fusion protein His-FOXO3 was induced by IPTG and purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The purified protein was used to immunize BALB/c mice to generate polyclonal antibody. The characteristics of the polyclonal antibody were assessed by ELISA, Western blotting and immunoprecipitation assays. Results We successfully prepared the expression vector pET28a-FOXO3 (aa290-472) and expressed the purified fusion protein in a soluble form. By immunizing mice with the fusion protein, we obtained anti-human FOXO3 polyclonal antibody. ELISA and Western blotting showed that the mouse antibody could recognize specifically the endogenous FOXO3 protein. Conclusion The polyclonal antibody against conserved domain of FOXO3 can identify the endogenous FOXO3 protein. It can be used to analyze the endogenous FOXO3 expression level.

  20. Comprehensive highway corridor planning with sustainability indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    "The Maryland State Highway Administration (SHA) has initiated major planning efforts to improve transportation : efficiency, safety, and sustainability on critical highway corridors through its Comprehensive Highway Corridor : (CHC) program. This pr...

  1. Effective strategies for comprehensive corridor management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    Despite the increasing importance of comprehensive corridor management at the state and local government level, questions remain regarding effective methods for developing and implementing corridor management plans. Further insight is also needed int...

  2. Federal Conservation Units in Brazil: The Situation of Biomes and Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pacca Luna Mattar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Federal conservation units (FCU are areas legally established by the government, in order to meet the needs of protection and sustainable exploitation of biodiversity. A way to ensure the efficiency of public management is to systematize data. Therefore, the present study grouped and analyzed public data about FCU. Brazil has 309 federal conservation units, which represent 9.06% of the national territory and 45305 residents households. The Northern Region covers 84.80% of these families and 79.20% of its area belongs to FCU. The Amazônia biome has 14.57% of its territory occupied by FCU; on the other hand, Pantanal has only 0.98% of its area protected. There is a higher concentration of public agents in the FCU of the Southeastern region and in the Mata Atlântica biome. The analysis of this information reveals significant differences between the biomes and the federation units, a fact that reflects the importance of the organization of public data.

  3. Local knowledge of the flora of a region: implications in biodiversity conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Pereira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The flora of a region is important in aesthetic, environmental and economic terms. Academic degree holders are fundamental for the sustainable development of a geographically isolated region such as the Azores, the University of Azores (UAc contributing to that goal. We assessed the perception of the UAc students about the origin and the importance of the Azorean flora for conservation, culture and economy, by applying a questionnaire to 309 students in different scientific areas, addressing origin, symbolic importance, economic importance, and environmental functions. Students showed some knowledge about the concepts of endemic, native, introduced and invasive species, but often failed to connect those to specific plant taxa. Most species cited as symbolic were animals, and the plants mentioned were mainly exotic/invasive. Respondents had a sense of the most important crops and forest species, and attributed several functions related to biodiversity and environmental conservation to the flora. Despite the many actions already implemented, more initiatives are required to increase the connection between Azoreans and Azorean flora.

  4. Rational sub-division of plant trypanosomes (Phytomonas spp.) based on minicircle conserved region analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Nancy R; Dollet, Michel; Lukes, Julius; Campbell, David A

    2007-09-01

    The sequences of minicircle conserved regions from various plant trypanosomatids have been determined and analyzed. The goal of this study was to add another tool to the arsenal of molecular probes for distinguishing between the different trypanosomatids occurring in plants: systemic trypanosomatids multiplying in the sap, those from the laticiferous tubes, and those developing in fruits, seeds or flowers but not in the plant itself and that are frequently considered as opportunistic insect trypanosomatids. As some plant intraphloemic trypanosomatids are the causative agents of important diseases, a clear definition of the different types of trypanosomatids is critical. The conserved region of the mitochondrial minicircle provides several specific features in a small sequence region containing three functionally elements required for minicircle replication. Trees generated from the analysis recapitulated trees drawn from analyses of isoenzymes, RAPD, and particular gene sequences, supporting the validity of the small region used in this work. Three groups of isolates were significant and in accordance with previous work. The peculiarity of phloem-restricted trypanosomatids associated with wilts of coconut and oil palm in Latin America - group H - is confirmed. In agreement with previous studies on their biological and serological properties the results highlighted this group called 'phloemicola'. It always differentiated from all other latex and fruit isolates or opportunistic trypanosomatids, like insect trypanosomatids. We can assert that phloemicola is the only well-defined taxon among all plant trypanosomatids. A group of non-pathogenic latex isolates from South American euphorbs (G), and a heterogenous group (A) including one fruit, one possible latex and one insect isolate are clearly distinct groups. The group of Mediterranean isolates from latex (D), even with a low boostrap, stood out well from other groups. The remainder of the isolates fell into a

  5. Developing transit-oriented corridors: insights from Tokyo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chorus, P.; Bertolini, L.

    2016-01-01

    Various studies have pointed out that a successful integration of public transport and land use requires plans covering the entire metropolitan region that are consistent over a long period of time. The proposition that is explored in this article is that railway corridors can offer an effective

  6. Database on Aims and Visions in the COINCO Corridor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    This database contains aims and visions regarding overall regional development as well as more specific aims and visions related to transport and infrastructure in the Corridor Oslo-Göteborg-Copenhagen-Berlin. The sources used for this database are the most essential planning documents from Denmark...

  7. Conservation status and regional habitat priorities for the Orinoco crocodile: Past, present, and future.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A Balaguera-Reina

    Full Text Available Conservation of large predator species has historically been a challenge because they often overlap in resource utilization with humans; furthermore, there is a general lack of in-depth knowledge of their ecology and natural history. We assessed the conservation status of the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius, defining regional habitat priorities/crocodile conservation units (RHP/CCU and regional research priorities (RRP for this species. We also estimated a species distribution model (SDM to define current suitable areas where the species might inhabit and/or that might be successfully colonized. The SDM area obtained with a suitable habitat probability ≥ 0.5 was 23,621 km2. Out of 2,562 km2 are included within protected areas in both Colombia (1,643 km2 and Venezuela (919 km2, which represents only 10.8% of C. intermedius' potential range. Areas such as Laguna de Chigüichigüe (flood plain lagoon exhibited an increase in population abundance. In contrast, localities such as the Cojedes and Manapire Rivers reported a significant reduction in relative abundance values. In Colombia, disparity in previous survey methods prevented accurate estimation of population trends. Only one study in this country described an increase over a 13 years span in the Ele, Lipa, and Cravo Norte River populations based on nest surveys. We defined 34 critical areas (16 in Colombia, 17 in Venezuela, and one covering both countries where we need to preserve/research/monitor and/or generate management actions, 10 RHP/CCU (six from Venezuela and four from Colombia and 24 RRP (11 from Venezuela, 12 from Colombia, and one in both countries. Caño Guaritico (Creek and the Capanaparo River in Venezuela and the Ele, Lipa, Cravo Norte River System and the Guayabero River in Colombia were defined as areas with the most optimal conditions for long-term preservation and maintenance of C. intermedius populations. We conclude that the conservation status of this species

  8. Conservation status and regional habitat priorities for the Orinoco crocodile: Past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Blanco, Ariel S.; Morales-Betancourt, Mónica A.; Seijas, Andrés E.; Lasso, Carlos A.; Antelo, Rafael; Densmore, Llewellyn D.

    2017-01-01

    Conservation of large predator species has historically been a challenge because they often overlap in resource utilization with humans; furthermore, there is a general lack of in-depth knowledge of their ecology and natural history. We assessed the conservation status of the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius), defining regional habitat priorities/crocodile conservation units (RHP/CCU) and regional research priorities (RRP) for this species. We also estimated a species distribution model (SDM) to define current suitable areas where the species might inhabit and/or that might be successfully colonized. The SDM area obtained with a suitable habitat probability ≥ 0.5 was 23,621 km2. Out of 2,562 km2 are included within protected areas in both Colombia (1,643 km2) and Venezuela (919 km2), which represents only 10.8% of C. intermedius’ potential range. Areas such as Laguna de Chigüichigüe (flood plain lagoon) exhibited an increase in population abundance. In contrast, localities such as the Cojedes and Manapire Rivers reported a significant reduction in relative abundance values. In Colombia, disparity in previous survey methods prevented accurate estimation of population trends. Only one study in this country described an increase over a 13 years span in the Ele, Lipa, and Cravo Norte River populations based on nest surveys. We defined 34 critical areas (16 in Colombia, 17 in Venezuela, and one covering both countries) where we need to preserve/research/monitor and/or generate management actions, 10 RHP/CCU (six from Venezuela and four from Colombia) and 24 RRP (11 from Venezuela, 12 from Colombia, and one in both countries). Caño Guaritico (Creek) and the Capanaparo River in Venezuela and the Ele, Lipa, Cravo Norte River System and the Guayabero River in Colombia were defined as areas with the most optimal conditions for long-term preservation and maintenance of C. intermedius populations. We conclude that the conservation status of this species is

  9. Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in Southern Brazil wetlands: implications for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Maltchik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (~280 000km², and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from differrent ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region.

  10. Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in Southern Brazil wetlands: implications for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltchik, Leonardo; Dalzochio, Marina Schmidt; Stenert, Cristina; Rolon, Ana Silvia

    2012-03-01

    The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (approximately 280 000km2), and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera) in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from different ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region.

  11. Conserving Prairie Pothole Region wetlands and surrounding grasslands: evaluating effects on amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Neau, Jordan L.

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of viable and genetically diverse populations of amphibians in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States depends on upland as well as wetland over-wintering and landscape level habitat features.Prairie pothole wetlands provide important amphibian breeding habitat while grasslands surrounding these wetlands provide foraging habitat for adults, overwintering habitat for some species, and important connectivity among breeding wetlands.Grasslands surrounding wetlands were found to be especially important for wood frogs and northern leopard frogs, while croplands dominated habitat utilized by Great Plains toads and Woodhouse’s toads.Habitat suitability mapping highlighted (1) the influence of deep-water overwintering wetlands on suitable habitat for four of five anuran species encountered; (2) the lack of overlap between areas of core habitat for both the northern leopard frog and wood frog compared to the core habitat for both toad species; and (3) the importance of conservation programs in providing grassland components of northern leopard frog and wood frog habitat.Currently, there are approximately 7.2 million acres (2.9 million hectares, ha) of habitat in the PPR identified as suitable for amphibians. WRP and CRP wetland and grassland habitats accounted for approximately 1.9 million acres (0.75 million ha) or 26 percent of this total area.Continued loss of amphibian habitat resulting from an ongoing trend of returning PPR conservation lands to crop production, will likely have significant negative effects on the region’s ability to maintain amphibian biodiversity. Conversely, increases in conservation wetlands and surrounding grasslands on the PPR landscape have great potential to positively influence the region’s amphibian populations.

  12. Evaluating the impact of water conservation on fate of outdoor water use: a study in an arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaiser, Kamal; Ahmad, Sajjad; Johnson, Walter; Batista, Jacimaria

    2011-08-01

    In this research, the impact of several water conservation policies and return flow credits on the fate of water used outdoors in an arid region is evaluated using system dynamics modeling approach. Return flow credits is a strategy where flow credits are obtained for treated wastewater returned to a water body, allowing for the withdrawal of additional water equal to the amount returned as treated wastewater. In the return credit strategy, treated wastewater becomes a resource. This strategy creates a conundrum in which conservation may lead to an apparent decrease in water supply because less wastewater is generated and returned to water body. The water system of the arid Las Vegas Valley in Nevada, USA is used as basis for the dynamic model. The model explores various conservation scenarios to attain the daily per capita demand target of 752 l by 2035: (i) status quo situation where conservation is not implemented, (ii) conserving water only on the outdoor side, (iii) conserving water 67% outdoor and 33% indoor, (iv) conserving equal water both in the indoor and outdoor use (v) conserving water only on the indoor side. The model is validated on data from 1993 to 2008 and future simulations are carried out up to 2035. The results show that a substantial portion of the water used outdoor either evapo-transpires (ET) or infiltrates to shallow groundwater (SGW). Sensitivity analysis indicated that seepage to groundwater is more susceptible to ET compared to any other variable. The all outdoor conservation scenario resulted in the highest return flow credits and the least ET and SGW. A major contribution of this paper is in addressing the water management issues that arise when wastewater is considered as a resource and developing appropriate conservation policies in this backdrop. The results obtained can be a guide in developing outdoor water conservation policies in arid regions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy Futures Synthesis for West-Wide Section 368 Energy Corridors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, Barbara L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagne, Douglas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cook, Jeffrey J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Greco, Tessa M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-05-01

    To comply with Section 368(a) of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the U.S. Forest Service designated 6,000 miles of energy corridors on public and national forest lands in the western United States in 2009. The corridors, commonly referred to as 'West-wide' or 'Section 368' energy corridors, are intended as preferred locations for future siting of electric transmission and distribution lines and for oil, gas, and hydrogen pipelines. In response to a lawsuit filed by several organizations over the corridor designations, the BLM, Forest Service, and the U.S. Department of Energy entered into a Settlement Agreement, directing the formation of the Section 368 Interagency Workgroup to periodically review the energy corridors on a regional basis. In conducting the reviews, the Workgroup identifies new, relevant, existing, publicly available information to make recommendations for revisions, deletions, and additions to the Section 368 energy corridors. This report synthesizes information in available contemporary transmission, pipeline, and energy future studies to inform the regional reviews by providing a snapshot of what the western energy and transmission system will look like generally 10-15 years in the future. After an overview of the western grid implications, the analysis narrows to Region 2 and Region 3 of the BLM Section 368 energy corridors and focuses on the implications of potential developments in the oil, natural gas, and electricity markets in Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and portions of Arizona and Nevada that could inform the current regional review. This analysis will help inform the Workgroup on potential development within existing corridors and the need for new corridors that have not yet been designated.

  14. Exploring Conservation Options in the Broad-Leaved Korean Pine Mixed Forest of the Changbai Mountain Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis mixed forest (BKPF is one of the most biodiverse zonal communities in the northern temperate zone. Changbai Mountain in northeastern China contains one of the largest BKPFs in the region. The government of China has established a network of 23 nature reserves to protect the BKPF and the species that depend on it for habitat, including the endangered Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica. This study used the conservation planning software C-Plan to calculate the irreplaceability value of each unit to assess how efficiently and comprehensively the existing conservation network supports biodiversity and to identify gap areas that, if integrated into the network, would expand its protection capability. Results show a number of high-conservation-value planning units concentrated along certain ridges. The existing conservation network is structured such that the habitats of only 24 species (out of a total of 75 achieve established conservation targets. Of the other 51 species, 20 achieve less than 50% of their conservation targets. However, expanding the network to include high-conservation-value gap areas could achieve conservation targets for 64 species and could provide different degrees of protection to the other 11 species. Using C-Plan software can guide decision-making to expand the conservation network in this most precious of mountainous ecological zones.

  15. How to maximally support local and regional biodiversity in applied conservation? Insights from pond management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Pieter; Mergeay, Joachim; De Bie, Tom; Van Wichelen, Jeroen; De Meester, Luc; Declerck, Steven A J

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity and nature values in anthropogenic landscapes often depend on land use practices and management. Evaluations of the association between management and biodiversity remain, however, comparatively scarce, especially in aquatic systems. Furthermore, studies also tend to focus on a limited set of organism groups at the local scale, whereas a multi-group approach at the landscape scale is to be preferred. This study aims to investigate the effect of pond management on the diversity of multiple aquatic organism groups (e.g. phytoplankton, zooplankton, several groups of macro-invertebrates, submerged and emergent macrophytes) at local and regional spatial scales. For this purpose, we performed a field study of 39 shallow man-made ponds representing five different management types. Our results indicate that fish stock management and periodic pond drainage are crucial drivers of pond biodiversity. Furthermore, this study provides insight in how the management of eutrophied ponds can contribute to aquatic biodiversity. A combination of regular draining of ponds with efforts to keep ponds free of fish seems to be highly beneficial for the biodiversity of many groups of aquatic organisms at local and regional scales. Regular draining combined with a stocking of fish at low biomass is also preferable to infrequent draining and lack of fish stock control. These insights are essential for the development of conservation programs that aim long-term maintenance of regional biodiversity in pond areas across Europe.

  16. Economic efficiency and cost implications of habitat conservation: An example in the context of the Edwards Aquifer region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillig, Dhazn; McCarl, Bruce A.; Jones, Lonnie L.; Boadu, Frederick

    2004-04-01

    Groundwater management in the Edwards Aquifer in Texas is in the process of moving away from a traditional right of capture economic regime toward a more environmentally sensitive scheme designed to preserve endangered species habitats. This study explores economic and environmental implications of proposed groundwater management and water development strategies under a proposed regional Habitat Conservation Plan. Results show that enhancing the habitat by augmenting water flow costs $109-1427 per acre-foot and that regional water development would be accelerated by the more extreme possibilities under the Habitat Conservation Plan. The findings also indicate that a water market would improve regional welfare and lower water development but worsen environmental attributes.

  17. Fire mosaics and reptile conservation in a fire-prone region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, D G; Kelly, L T; Spence-Bailey, L M; Watson, S J; Taylor, R S; Clarke, M F; Bennett, A F

    2013-04-01

    Fire influences the distribution of fauna in terrestrial biomes throughout the world. Use of fire to achieve a mosaic of vegetation in different stages of succession after burning (i.e., patch-mosaic burning) is a dominant conservation practice in many regions. Despite this, knowledge of how the spatial attributes of vegetation mosaics created by fire affect fauna is extremely scarce, and it is unclear what kind of mosaic land managers should aim to achieve. We selected 28 landscapes (each 12.6 km(2) ) that varied in the spatial extent and diversity of vegetation succession after fire in a 104,000 km(2) area in the semiarid region of southeastern Australia. We surveyed for reptiles at 280 sites nested within the 28 landscapes. The landscape-level occurrence of 9 of the 22 species modeled was associated with the spatial extent of vegetation age classes created by fire. Biogeographic context and the extent of a vegetation type influenced 7 and 4 species, respectively. No species were associated with the diversity of vegetation ages within a landscape. Negative relations between reptile occurrence and both extent of recently burned vegetation (≤10 years postfire, n = 6) and long unburned vegetation (>35 years postfire, n = 4) suggested that a coarse-grained mosaic of areas (e.g. >1000 ha) of midsuccessional vegetation (11-35 years postfire) may support the fire-sensitive reptile species we modeled. This age class coincides with a peak in spinifex cover, a keystone structure for reptiles in semiarid and arid Australia. Maintaining over the long term a coarse-grained mosaic of large areas of midsuccessional vegetation in mallee ecosystems will need to be balanced against the short-term negative effects of large fires on many reptile species and a documented preference by species from other taxonomic groups, particularly birds, for older vegetation. © 2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Importance of regional variation in conservation planning: A rangewide example of the Greater Sage-Grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Kevin E.; Evans, Jeffrey S.; Coates, Peter S.; Juliusson, Lara; Fedy, Bradley C.

    2016-01-01

    We developed rangewide population and habitat models for Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) that account for regional variation in habitat selection and relative densities of birds for use in conservation planning and risk assessments. We developed a probabilistic model of occupied breeding habitat by statistically linking habitat characteristics within 4 miles of an occupied lek using a nonlinear machine learning technique (Random Forests). Habitat characteristics used were quantified in GIS and represent standard abiotic and biotic variables related to sage-grouse biology. Statistical model fit was high (mean correctly classified = 82.0%, range = 75.4–88.0%) as were cross-validation statistics (mean = 80.9%, range = 75.1–85.8%). We also developed a spatially explicit model to quantify the relative density of breeding birds across each Greater Sage-Grouse management zone. The models demonstrate distinct clustering of relative abundance of sage-grouse populations across all management zones. On average, approximately half of the breeding population is predicted to be within 10% of the occupied range. We also found that 80% of sage-grouse populations were contained in 25–34% of the occupied range within each management zone. Our rangewide population and habitat models account for regional variation in habitat selection and the relative densities of birds, and thus, they can serve as a consistent and common currency to assess how sage-grouse habitat and populations overlap with conservation actions or threats over the entire sage-grouse range. We also quantified differences in functional habitat responses and disturbance thresholds across the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) management zones using statistical relationships identified during habitat modeling. Even for a species as specialized as Greater Sage-Grouse, our results show that ecological context matters in both the strength of habitat selection (i

  19. Seasonal hydroclimatic impacts of Sun Corridor expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, M; Mahalov, A; Moustaoui, M

    2012-01-01

    Conversion of natural to urban land forms imparts influence on local and regional hydroclimate via modification of the surface energy and water balance, and consideration of such effects due to rapidly expanding megapolitan areas is necessary in light of the growing global share of urban inhabitants. Based on a suite of ensemble-based, multi-year simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, we quantify seasonally varying hydroclimatic impacts of the most rapidly expanding megapolitan area in the US: Arizona’s Sun Corridor, centered upon the Greater Phoenix metropolitan area. Using a scenario-based urban expansion approach that accounts for the full range of Sun Corridor growth uncertainty through 2050, we show that built environment induced warming for the maximum development scenario is greatest during the summer season (regionally averaged warming over AZ exceeds 1 °C). Warming remains significant during the spring and fall seasons (regionally averaged warming over AZ approaches 0.9 °C during both seasons), and is least during the winter season (regionally averaged warming over AZ of 0.5 °C). Impacts from a minimum expansion scenario are reduced, with regionally averaged warming ranging between 0.1 and 0.3 °C for all seasons except winter, when no warming impacts are diagnosed. Integration of highly reflective cool roofs within the built environment, increasingly recognized as a cost-effective option intended to offset the warming influence of urban complexes, reduces urban-induced warming considerably. However, impacts on the hydrologic cycle are aggravated via enhanced evapotranspiration reduction, leading to a 4% total accumulated precipitation decrease relative to the non-adaptive maximum expansion scenario. Our results highlight potentially unintended consequences of this adaptation approach within rapidly expanding megapolitan areas, and emphasize the need for undeniably sustainable development paths that account for

  20. Western Energy Corridor -- Energy Resource Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Leslie; Hagood, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The world is facing significant growth in energy demand over the next several decades. Strategic in meeting this demand are the world-class energy resources concentrated along the Rocky Mountains and northern plains in Canada and the U.S., informally referred to as the Western Energy Corridor (WEC). The fossil energy resources in this region are rivaled only in a very few places in the world, and the proven uranium reserves are among the world's largest. Also concentrated in this region are renewable resources contributing to wind power, hydro power, bioenergy, geothermal energy, and solar energy. Substantial existing and planned energy infrastructure, including refineries, pipelines, electrical transmission lines, and rail lines provide access to these resources.

  1. Western Energy Corridor -- Energy Resource Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Roberts; Michael Hagood

    2011-06-01

    The world is facing significant growth in energy demand over the next several decades. Strategic in meeting this demand are the world-class energy resources concentrated along the Rocky Mountains and northern plains in Canada and the U.S., informally referred to as the Western Energy Corridor (WEC). The fossil energy resources in this region are rivaled only in a very few places in the world, and the proven uranium reserves are among the world's largest. Also concentrated in this region are renewable resources contributing to wind power, hydro power, bioenergy, geothermal energy, and solar energy. Substantial existing and planned energy infrastructure, including refineries, pipelines, electrical transmission lines, and rail lines provide access to these resources.

  2. 2nd East Africa Regional Workshop Report: Conservation Agriculture in AFRICA - Analysing and Foreseeing its Impact - Comprehending its Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Apina, T.; Mkomwa, S.; Mutai, W.; Njeri, A.

    2011-01-01

    This resource provides a summary of the 2nd East Africa Sub-regional workshop held in Nanyuki, Kenya, on 28-30 March 2011. Attendees included the African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT), Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Institute (TSBF/AFNET), Agricultural Research for Development (CIRAD), LEIBNIZ-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Agricultural Research Institute (ARI) UYOLE, SELIAN Agricultural Research Institute (SARI-MAFC), Conservation Agriculture for Sustainable Agr...

  3. Identification of conserved regions and residues within Hedgehog acyltransferase critical for palmitoylation of Sonic Hedgehog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Buglino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Sonic hedgehog (Shh is a palmitoylated protein that plays key roles in mammalian development and human cancers. Palmitoylation of Shh is required for effective long and short range Shh-mediated signaling. Attachment of palmitate to Shh is catalyzed by Hedgehog acyltransferase (Hhat, a member of the membrane bound O-acyl transferase (MBOAT family of multipass membrane proteins. The extremely hydrophobic composition of MBOAT proteins has limited their biochemical characterization. Except for mutagenesis of two conserved residues, there has been no structure-function analysis of Hhat, and the regions of the protein required for Shh palmitoylation are unknown.Here we undertake a systematic approach to identify residues within Hhat that are required for protein stability and/or enzymatic activity. We also identify a second, novel MBOAT homology region (residues 196-234 that is required for Hhat activity. In total, ten deletion mutants and eleven point mutants were generated and analyzed. Truncations at the N- and C-termini of Hhat yielded inactive proteins with reduced stability. Four Hhat mutants with deletions within predicted loop regions and five point mutants retained stability but lost palmitoylation activity. We purified two point mutants, W378A and H379A, with defective Hhat activity. Kinetic analyses revealed alterations in apparent K(m and V(max for Shh and/or palmitoyl CoA, changes that likely explain the catalytic defects observed for these mutants.This study has pinpointed specific regions and multiple residues that regulate Hhat stability and catalysis. Our findings should be applicable to other MBOAT proteins that mediate lipid modification of Wnt proteins and ghrelin, and should serve as a model for understanding how secreted morphogens are modified by palmitoyl acyltransferases.

  4. Conserving the Greater Sage-grouse: A social-ecological systems case study from the California-Nevada region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Alison L; Metcalf, Alexander L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2016-01-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) continues to serve as one of the most powerful and contested federal legislative mandates for conservation. In the midst of heated debates, researchers, policy makers, and conservation practitioners champion the importance of cooperative conservation and social-ecological systems approaches, which forge partnerships at multiple levels and scales to address complex ecosystem challenges. However, few real-world examples exist to demonstrate how multifaceted collaborations among stakeholders who share a common goal of conserving at-risk species may be nested within a systems framework to achieve social and ecological goals. Here, we present a case study of Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) conservation efforts in the “Bi-State” region of California and Nevada, United States. Using key-informant interviews, we explored dimensions and drivers of this landscape-scale conservation effort. Three themes emerged from the interviews, including 1) ESA action was transformed into opportunity for system-wide conservation; 2) a diverse, locally based partnership anchored collaboration and engagement across multiple levels and scales; and 3) best-available science combined with local knowledge led to “certainty of effectiveness and implementation”—the criteria used by the US Fish and Wildlife Service to evaluate conservation efforts when making listing decisions. Ultimately, collaborative conservation through multistakeholder engagement at various levels and scales led to proactive planning and implementation of conservation measures and precluded the need for an ESA listing of the Bi-State population of Greater Sage-grouse. This article presents a potent example of how a systems approach integrating policy, management, and learning can be used to successfully overcome the conflict-laden and “wicked” challenges that surround at-risk species conservation.

  5. Using niche-modelling and species-specific cost analyses to determine a multispecies corridor in a fragmented landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurano, Juan Pablo; Selleski, Nicole; Schneider, Rosio G.

    2017-01-01

    Misiones, Argentina, contains the largest remaining tract of Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest ecoregion; however, ~50% of native forest is unprotected and located in a mosaic of plantations, agriculture, and pastures. Existing protected areas are becoming increasingly isolated due to ongoing habitat modification. These factors, combined with lower than expected regional carnivore densities, emphasize the need to understand the effect of fragmentation on animal movement and connectivity between protected areas. Using detection dogs and genetic analyses of scat, we collected data on jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor), ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus), and bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) across habitats that varied in vegetation, disturbance, human proximity, and protective status. With MaxEnt we evaluated habitat use, habitat suitability, and potential species richness for the five carnivores across northern-central Misiones, Argentina. Through a multifaceted cost analysis that included unique requirements of each carnivore and varying degrees of overlap among them, we determined the optimal location for primary/secondary corridors that would link the northern-central zones of the Green Corridor in Misiones and identified areas within these corridors needing priority management. A secondary analysis, comparing these multispecies corridors with the jaguar’s unique requirements, demonstrated that this multispecies approach balanced the preferences of all five species and effectively captured areas required by this highly restricted and endangered carnivore. We emphasize the potential importance of expanding beyond a single umbrella or focal species when developing biological corridors that aim to capture the varied ecological requirements of coexisting species and ecological processes across the landscape. Detection dogs and genetic analyses of scat allow data on multiple species to be collected efficiently across multiple habitat

  6. Association between adjuvant regional radiotherapy and cognitive function in breast cancer patients treated with conservation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibayama, Osamu; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Eisho; Sugawara, Yuriko; Akechi, Tatsuo; Wada, Noriaki; Imoto, Shigeru; Murakami, Koji; Ogawa, Asao; Akabayashi, Akira; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2014-01-01

    Although protracted cognitive impairment has been reported to occur after radiotherapy even when such therapy is not directed to brain areas, the mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated whether breast cancer patients exposed to local radiotherapy showed lower cognitive function mediated by higher plasma interleukin (IL)-6 levels than those unexposed. We performed the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) and measured plasma IL-6 levels for 105 breast cancer surgical patients within 1 year after the initial therapy. The group differences in each of the indices of WMS-R were investigated between cancer patients exposed to adjuvant regional radiotherapy (n = 51) and those unexposed (n = 54) using analysis of covariance. We further investigated a mediation effect by plasma IL-6 levels on the relationship between radiotherapy and the indices of WMS-R using the bootstrapping method. The radiotherapy group showed significantly lower Immediate Verbal Memory Index and Delayed Recall Index (P = 0.001, P = 0.008, respectively). Radiotherapy exerted an indirect effect on the lower Delayed Recall Index of WMS-R through elevation of plasma IL-6 levels (bootstrap 95% confidence interval = −2.6626 to −0.0402). This study showed that breast cancer patients exposed to adjuvant regional radiotherapy in conservation therapy might have cognitive impairment even several months after their treatment. The relationship between the therapy and the cognitive impairment could be partially mediated by elevation of plasma IL-6 levels

  7. Conservation value of a native forest fragment in a region of extensive agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello

    2000-05-01

    A survey of mammals and birds was carried out in a semi-deciduous forest fragment of 150 ha located in a zone of intensive agriculture in Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, south-eastern Brazil. Line transect sampling was used to census mammals and birds during six days, totalling 27.8 km of trails and 27.8 hours of observation. Twenty mammal species were confirmed in the area (except bats and small mammals), including rare or endangered species, such as the mountain lion (Puma concolor), the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), and the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis). The brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) and the black-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix penicillata) were found frequently, suggesting high population density in the fragment. Regarding the avifauna, 49 bird species were recorded, most of them typical of open areas or forest edges. Some confirmed species, however, are becoming increasingly rare in the region, as for example the muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) and the toco toucan (Ramphastos toco). The results demonstrate that forest fragment of this size are refuges for native fauna in a region dominated almost exclusively by sugar-cane plantations. Besides faunal aspects, the conservation of these fragments is of great importance for the establishment of studies related to species preservation in the long term, including reintroduction and translocation projects, as well as studies related to genetic health of isolated populations.

  8. Persistent leatherback turtle migrations present opportunities for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George L Shillinger

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective transboundary conservation of highly migratory marine animals requires international management cooperation as well as clear scientific information about habitat use by these species. Populations of leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea in the eastern Pacific have declined by >90% during the past two decades, primarily due to unsustainable egg harvest and fisheries bycatch mortality. While research and conservation efforts on nesting beaches are ongoing, relatively little is known about this population of leatherbacks' oceanic habitat use and migration pathways. We present the largest multi-year (2004-2005, 2005-2006, and 2007 satellite tracking dataset (12,095 cumulative satellite tracking days collected for leatherback turtles. Forty-six females were electronically tagged during three field seasons at Playa Grande, Costa Rica, the largest extant nesting colony in the eastern Pacific. After completing nesting, the turtles headed southward, traversing the dynamic equatorial currents with rapid, directed movements. In contrast to the highly varied dispersal patterns seen in many other sea turtle populations, leatherbacks from Playa Grande traveled within a persistent migration corridor from Costa Rica, past the equator, and into the South Pacific Gyre, a vast, low-energy, low-productivity region. We describe the predictable effects of ocean currents on a leatherback migration corridor and characterize long-distance movements by the turtles in the eastern South Pacific. These data from high seas habitats will also elucidate potential areas for mitigating fisheries bycatch interactions. These findings directly inform existing multinational conservation frameworks and provide immediate regions in the migration corridor where conservation can be implemented. We identify high seas locations for focusing future conservation efforts within the leatherback dispersal zone in the South Pacific Gyre.

  9. Persistent Leatherback Turtle Migrations Present Opportunities for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillinger, George L; Palacios, Daniel M; Bailey, Helen; Bograd, Steven J; Swithenbank, Alan M; Gaspar, Philippe; Wallace, Bryan P; Spotila, James R; Paladino, Frank V; Piedra, Rotney; Eckert, Scott A; Block, Barbara A

    2008-01-01

    Effective transboundary conservation of highly migratory marine animals requires international management cooperation as well as clear scientific information about habitat use by these species. Populations of leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in the eastern Pacific have declined by >90% during the past two decades, primarily due to unsustainable egg harvest and fisheries bycatch mortality. While research and conservation efforts on nesting beaches are ongoing, relatively little is known about this population of leatherbacks' oceanic habitat use and migration pathways. We present the largest multi-year (2004–2005, 2005–2006, and 2007) satellite tracking dataset (12,095 cumulative satellite tracking days) collected for leatherback turtles. Forty-six females were electronically tagged during three field seasons at Playa Grande, Costa Rica, the largest extant nesting colony in the eastern Pacific. After completing nesting, the turtles headed southward, traversing the dynamic equatorial currents with rapid, directed movements. In contrast to the highly varied dispersal patterns seen in many other sea turtle populations, leatherbacks from Playa Grande traveled within a persistent migration corridor from Costa Rica, past the equator, and into the South Pacific Gyre, a vast, low-energy, low-productivity region. We describe the predictable effects of ocean currents on a leatherback migration corridor and characterize long-distance movements by the turtles in the eastern South Pacific. These data from high seas habitats will also elucidate potential areas for mitigating fisheries bycatch interactions. These findings directly inform existing multinational conservation frameworks and provide immediate regions in the migration corridor where conservation can be implemented. We identify high seas locations for focusing future conservation efforts within the leatherback dispersal zone in the South Pacific Gyre. PMID:18630987

  10. Conserved Binding Regions Provide the Clue for Peptide-Based Vaccine Development: A Chemical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Curtidor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic peptides have become invaluable biomedical research and medicinal chemistry tools for studying functional roles, i.e., binding or proteolytic activity, naturally-occurring regions’ immunogenicity in proteins and developing therapeutic agents and vaccines. Synthetic peptides can mimic protein sites; their structure and function can be easily modulated by specific amino acid replacement. They have major advantages, i.e., they are cheap, easily-produced and chemically stable, lack infectious and secondary adverse reactions and can induce immune responses via T- and B-cell epitopes. Our group has previously shown that using synthetic peptides and adopting a functional approach has led to identifying Plasmodium falciparum conserved regions binding to host cells. Conserved high activity binding peptides’ (cHABPs physicochemical, structural and immunological characteristics have been taken into account for properly modifying and converting them into highly immunogenic, protection-inducing peptides (mHABPs in the experimental Aotus monkey model. This article describes stereo–electron and topochemical characteristics regarding major histocompatibility complex (MHC-mHABP-T-cell receptor (TCR complex formation. Some mHABPs in this complex inducing long-lasting, protective immunity have been named immune protection-inducing protein structures (IMPIPS, forming the subunit components in chemically synthesized vaccines. This manuscript summarizes this particular field and adds our recent findings concerning intramolecular interactions (H-bonds or π-interactions enabling proper IMPIPS structure as well as the peripheral flanking residues (PFR to stabilize the MHCII-IMPIPS-TCR interaction, aimed at inducing long-lasting, protective immunological memory.

  11. Neutralizing activities of caprine antibodies towards conserved regions of the HCV envelope glycoprotein E2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shenawy Reem

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Anti HCV vaccine is not currently available and the present antiviral therapies fail to cure approximately half of the treated HCV patients. This study was designed to assess the immunogenic properties of genetically conserved peptides derived from the C-terminal region of HVR-1 and test their neutralizing activities in a step towards developing therapeutic and/or prophylactic immunogens against HCV infection. Antibodies were generated by vaccination of goats with synthetic peptides derived from HCV E2. Viral neutralizing capacity of the generated anti E2 antibodies was tested using in vitro assays. Goats immunized with E2 synthetic peptides termed p412 [a.a 412-419], p430 [a.a 430-447] and p517 [a.a 517-531] generated high titers of antibody responses 2 to 4.5 fold higher than comparable titers of antibodies to the same epitopes in chronic HCV patients. In post infection experiments of native HCV into cultured Huh7.5 cells anti p412 and anti p 517 were proven to be neutralizing to HCV genotype 4a from patients' sera (87.5% and 75% respectively. On the contrary anti p430 exhibited weak viral neutralization capacity on the same samples (31.25%. Furthermore Ab mixes containing anti p430 exhibited reduced viral neutralization properties. From these experiments one could predict that neutralization by Abs towards different E2-epitopes varies considerably and success in the enrichment of neutralization epitope-specific antibodies may be accompanied by favorable results in combating HCV infection. Also, E2 conserved peptides p517 and p412 represent potential components of a candidate peptide vaccine against HCV infection.

  12. [Geographic distribution of birds in the Sierra Madre Oriental of San Luis Potosi, Mexico: a regional analysis of conservation status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahagún Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Navarro, Jaime Castro; Reyes Hernández, Humberto

    2013-06-01

    The Sierra Madre Oriental region in the mexican state of San Luis Potosi is a relevant place for bird conservation at a country level. Therefore the main goal of this study was to analyze the geographic patterns of distribution and the conservation current state of the birds, to support the needs to expand the conservation areas in the future. Data was collected from various databases of zoological museums and collections, and field sampling methods conducted from January 2009 to May 2011. Potential distributions were modeled for 284 species using GARP software and then a map was developed to determine areas with favorable environmental characteristics for the distribution of species richness. Finally, the importance of conservation areas for the potential distribution of birds in the region was evaluated. A total of 359 species were recorded of which 71.4% are permanent residents, 19% are winter migrants and 4% are summer residents. From this total, 41 species were endemic, 47 were species at risk and 149 were neotropical migrants. The largest species richness correspond to oak forests, cloud forests, and tropical moist forests located at altitudes from 100m to 1 500m. Their potential distribution was concentrated towards the center and Southeast of the study area. Only 10% of areas with a high potential conservation was included in areas of priority for bird conservation (AICA) and just 3% of all potential areas were under some governmental category of protection. However, no conservation area has a management plan currently applied and monitored. The information generated is important for the development of management proposals for birds conservation in the region.

  13. HANFORD SITE RIVER CORRIDOR CLEANUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAZZELL, K.D.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the US Department of Energy (DOE) launched the third generation of closure contracts, including the River Corridor Closure (RCC) Contract at Hanford. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made on cleaning up the river shore that bordes Hanford. However, the most important cleanup challenges lie ahead. In March 2005, DOE awarded the Hanford River Corridor Closure Contract to Washington Closure Hanford (WCH), a limited liability company owned by Washington Group International, Bechtel National and CH2M HILL. It is a single-purpose company whose goal is to safely and efficiently accelerate cleanup in the 544 km 2 Hanford river corridor and reduce or eliminate future obligations to DOE for maintaining long-term stewardship over the site. The RCC Contract is a cost-plus-incentive-fee closure contract, which incentivizes the contractor to reduce cost and accelerate the schedule. At $1.9 billion and seven years, WCH has accelerated cleaning up Hanford's river corridor significantly compared to the $3.2 billion and 10 years originally estimated by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Predictable funding is one of the key features of the new contract, with funding set by contract at $183 million in fiscal year (FY) 2006 and peaking at $387 million in FY2012. Another feature of the contract allows for Washington Closure to perform up to 40% of the value of the contract and subcontract the balance. One of the major challenges in the next few years will be to identify and qualify sufficient subcontractors to meet the goal

  14. Passive seismic experiment in the Olduvai Gorge and Laetoli region (Ngorongoro Conservation Area), Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Laura; Lombardo, Luigi; Tang, Zheng; Mai, P. Martin

    2017-04-01

    The Olduvai Gorge and Laetoli basins, located within the Ngorogoro Conservation Area (NCA), are a cornerstone for understanding the evolution of early humans and are two paleo-antropological excavation sites of global importance. NCA is located at the boundary between the Tanzanian Craton and East African Rift (EAR), in the vicinity of Ngorongoro Crater and other major volcanic edifices. Thus, understanding the geology and tectonics of the NCA may shed light onto the question why early Hominins settled in this region. Environmental and geological conditions in the Olduvai and Laetoli region that promoted human settlement and development are still debated by geologists and paleo-anthropologists. Paleo-geographical reconstructions of the study area of the last 2 million years may take advantage of modern passive seismology. Therefore, we installed a dense seismic network covering a surface of approximately 30 x 40 km within the NCA to map the depth extent of known faults, and to identify seismically active faults that have no surface expression. Our ten seismic stations, equipped with Trillium Compact 120 s sensors, started to operate in June 2016 and will continue for a total of 2 years. At the end of the first year, other 5 stations will densify our network. Here we analyse data quality of the first four months of continuous recordings. Our network provides good quality 3-C waveforms in the frequency range of 0.7-50 Hz. Vertical component seismograms record frequencies reliably down to 8 mHz. Preliminary results of the seismicity obtained with standard location procedures show that NCA is characterised by frequent tectonic seismicity (not volcano-related) with Ml between 0.5 and 2.0. Seismic activity is more frequent in the South (Laetoli region) where major fault systems have not been recognised at the surface yet.

  15. Prioritizing tiger conservation through landscape genetics and habitat linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumnam, Bibek; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Qureshi, Qamar; Maldonado, Jesus E; Gopal, Rajesh; Saini, Swati; Srinivas, Y; Fleischer, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Even with global support for tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation their survival is threatened by poaching, habitat loss and isolation. Currently about 3,000 wild tigers persist in small fragmented populations within seven percent of their historic range. Identifying and securing habitat linkages that connect source populations for maintaining landscape-level gene flow is an important long-term conservation strategy for endangered carnivores. However, habitat corridors that link regional tiger populations are often lost to development projects due to lack of objective evidence on their importance. Here, we use individual based genetic analysis in combination with landscape permeability models to identify and prioritize movement corridors across seven tiger populations within the Central Indian Landscape. By using a panel of 11 microsatellites we identified 169 individual tigers from 587 scat and 17 tissue samples. We detected four genetic clusters within Central India with limited gene flow among three of them. Bayesian and likelihood analyses identified 17 tigers as having recent immigrant ancestry. Spatially explicit tiger occupancy obtained from extensive landscape-scale surveys across 76,913 km(2) of forest habitat was found to be only 21,290 km(2). After accounting for detection bias, the covariates that best explained tiger occupancy were large, remote, dense forest patches; large ungulate abundance, and low human footprint. We used tiger occupancy probability to parameterize habitat permeability for modeling habitat linkages using least-cost and circuit theory pathway analyses. Pairwise genetic differences (FST) between populations were better explained by modeled linkage costs (r>0.5, p<0.05) compared to Euclidean distances, which was in consonance with observed habitat fragmentation. The results of our study highlight that many corridors may still be functional as there is evidence of contemporary migration. Conservation efforts should provide legal status

  16. Prioritizing tiger conservation through landscape genetics and habitat linkages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibek Yumnam

    Full Text Available Even with global support for tiger (Panthera tigris conservation their survival is threatened by poaching, habitat loss and isolation. Currently about 3,000 wild tigers persist in small fragmented populations within seven percent of their historic range. Identifying and securing habitat linkages that connect source populations for maintaining landscape-level gene flow is an important long-term conservation strategy for endangered carnivores. However, habitat corridors that link regional tiger populations are often lost to development projects due to lack of objective evidence on their importance. Here, we use individual based genetic analysis in combination with landscape permeability models to identify and prioritize movement corridors across seven tiger populations within the Central Indian Landscape. By using a panel of 11 microsatellites we identified 169 individual tigers from 587 scat and 17 tissue samples. We detected four genetic clusters within Central India with limited gene flow among three of them. Bayesian and likelihood analyses identified 17 tigers as having recent immigrant ancestry. Spatially explicit tiger occupancy obtained from extensive landscape-scale surveys across 76,913 km(2 of forest habitat was found to be only 21,290 km(2. After accounting for detection bias, the covariates that best explained tiger occupancy were large, remote, dense forest patches; large ungulate abundance, and low human footprint. We used tiger occupancy probability to parameterize habitat permeability for modeling habitat linkages using least-cost and circuit theory pathway analyses. Pairwise genetic differences (FST between populations were better explained by modeled linkage costs (r>0.5, p<0.05 compared to Euclidean distances, which was in consonance with observed habitat fragmentation. The results of our study highlight that many corridors may still be functional as there is evidence of contemporary migration. Conservation efforts should

  17. Model-based corridor performance analysis – An application to a European case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2017-01-01

    to a number of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). It consists of decomposing the corridor into transport chains, selecting a sample of typical chains, assessing these chains through a set of KPIs, and then aggregating the chain-level KPIs to corridor-level ones using proper weights. A critical feature...... refinement and verification. The sample construction part of the methodology was tested on GreCOR, a green corridor project in the North Sea Region, using the Danish National Traffic Model as the principal source of information for both sample construction and KPI estimation. The results show that...

  18. A unique genomic sequence in the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome [WHS] region of humans is conserved in the great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarzami, S T; Kringstein, A M; Conte, R A; Verma, R S

    1996-10-01

    The Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is caused by a partial deletion in the short arm of chromosome 4 band 16.3 (4p 16.3). A unique-sequence human DNA probe (39 kb) localized within this region has been used to search for sequence homology in the apes' equivalent chromosome 3 by FISH-technique. The WHS loci are conserved in higher primates at the expected position. Nevertheless, a control probe, which detects alphoid sequences of the pericentromeric region of humans, is diverged in chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan. The conservation of WHS loci and divergence of DNA alphoid sequences have further added to the controversy concerning human descent.

  19. Research notes : are safety corridors really safe? Evaluation of the corridor safety improvement program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-26

    High accident frequencies on Oregons highway corridors are of concern to the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT). : ODOT adopted the Corridor Safety Improvement Program as part of an overall program of safety improvements using federal and ...

  20. Prey preferences of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia: regional diet specificity holds global significance for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Lyngdoh

    Full Text Available The endangered snow leopard is a large felid that is distributed over 1.83 million km(2 globally. Throughout its range it relies on a limited number of prey species in some of the most inhospitable landscapes on the planet where high rates of human persecution exist for both predator and prey. We reviewed 14 published and 11 unpublished studies pertaining to snow leopard diet throughout its range. We calculated prey consumption in terms of frequency of occurrence and biomass consumed based on 1696 analysed scats from throughout the snow leopard's range. Prey biomass consumed was calculated based on the Ackerman's linear correction factor. We identified four distinct physiographic and snow leopard prey type zones, using cluster analysis that had unique prey assemblages and had key prey characteristics which supported snow leopard occurrence there. Levin's index showed the snow leopard had a specialized dietary niche breadth. The main prey of the snow leopard were Siberian ibex (Capra sibrica, blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur, Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus, argali (Ovis ammon and marmots (Marmota spp. The significantly preferred prey species of snow leopard weighed 55±5 kg, while the preferred prey weight range of snow leopard was 36-76 kg with a significant preference for Siberian ibex and blue sheep. Our meta-analysis identified critical dietary resources for snow leopards throughout their distribution and illustrates the importance of understanding regional variation in species ecology; particularly prey species that have global implications for conservation.

  1. Prey preferences of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia): regional diet specificity holds global significance for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyngdoh, Salvador; Shrotriya, Shivam; Goyal, Surendra P; Clements, Hayley; Hayward, Matthew W; Habib, Bilal

    2014-01-01

    The endangered snow leopard is a large felid that is distributed over 1.83 million km(2) globally. Throughout its range it relies on a limited number of prey species in some of the most inhospitable landscapes on the planet where high rates of human persecution exist for both predator and prey. We reviewed 14 published and 11 unpublished studies pertaining to snow leopard diet throughout its range. We calculated prey consumption in terms of frequency of occurrence and biomass consumed based on 1696 analysed scats from throughout the snow leopard's range. Prey biomass consumed was calculated based on the Ackerman's linear correction factor. We identified four distinct physiographic and snow leopard prey type zones, using cluster analysis that had unique prey assemblages and had key prey characteristics which supported snow leopard occurrence there. Levin's index showed the snow leopard had a specialized dietary niche breadth. The main prey of the snow leopard were Siberian ibex (Capra sibrica), blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus), argali (Ovis ammon) and marmots (Marmota spp). The significantly preferred prey species of snow leopard weighed 55±5 kg, while the preferred prey weight range of snow leopard was 36-76 kg with a significant preference for Siberian ibex and blue sheep. Our meta-analysis identified critical dietary resources for snow leopards throughout their distribution and illustrates the importance of understanding regional variation in species ecology; particularly prey species that have global implications for conservation.

  2. Value and Resilience in the Case of 'Invasive' Tamarix in the Colorado River Riparian Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, P. A.; Gerlach, S.; Zamora, F.

    2009-12-01

    A common premise of science for conservation and sustainability is an assumption that despite any human definitions of value, there are ecological first principles, e.g., resilience, which must be understood if sustainability is to be possible. As I show here, however, pursuits such as restoration, conservation, and sustainability remain tangled in (and sometimes at odds with one another regarding) many value-laden decisions regarding the equity, justice, and morality of human-environment interactions. These include such important decisions as: what should be restored or sustained and for whom, how and by whom, and at what cost. This paper uses examples from the lower Colorado River Riparian Corridor, in particular the issue of the so-called ‘invasive’ saltcedar (Tamarix spp.), to illustrate some of the implicit value judgments common to the practice of managing ecosystems. There are many possible perspectives to be taken on a matter like Tamarix, each implicitly or explicitly representing different worldviews and agendas for the ecosystems in question. Resilience theory provides one such perspective, but as I show here, it proves incapable of producing recommendations for managing the corridor that are free of subjective valuations. I end with a case study of habitat and Tamarix management practices in the Mexican portion of the Colorado River Delta, highlighting the proven potential when up-front values are explicitly coupled to the practice of sustainability science, rather than left as details for 'good governance,' a realm presently imagined as separate from science, to sort out. Map of the Colorado River Delta. The Sonoran Institute manages projects in the Mexican portion of the Colorado River Delta region, along the Rio Hardy, the mainstem of the Colorado River in Baja California, MX and in the Cienega de Santa Clara wetlands, Sonora, MX. Map courtesy of Water Education Foundation. www.watereducation.org

  3. 76 FR 34139 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Meeting Postponement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    .... 2] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Meeting Postponement AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration... announced the first meeting of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee, a Federal Advisory Committee... future date. DATES: The meeting of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee scheduled to commence on...

  4. 77 FR 3326 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    .... 3] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Northeast Corridor Safety Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FRA announced the first meeting of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee, a Federal...

  5. 76 FR 32391 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    .... 1] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FRA announces the first meeting of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee, a...

  6. Identifying and prioritizing ungulate migration routes for landscape-level conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Hall; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Nielson, Ryan M.; Horne, Jon S.

    2009-01-01

    As habitat loss and fragmentation increase across ungulate ranges, identifying and prioritizing migration routes for conservation has taken on new urgency. Here we present a general framework using the Brownian bridge movement model (BBMM) that: (1) provides a probabilistic estimate of the migration routes of a sampled population, (2) distinguishes between route segments that function as stopover sites vs. those used primarily as movement corridors, and (3) prioritizes routes for conservation based upon the proportion of the sampled population that uses them. We applied this approach to a migratory mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) population in a pristine area of southwest Wyoming, USA, where 2000 gas wells and 1609 km of pipelines and roads have been proposed for development. Our analysis clearly delineated where migration routes occurred relative to proposed development and provided guidance for on-the-ground conservation efforts. Mule deer migration routes were characterized by a series of stopover sites where deer spent most of their time, connected by movement corridors through which deer moved quickly. Our findings suggest management strategies that differentiate between stopover sites and movement corridors may be warranted. Because some migration routes were used by more mule deer than others, proportional level of use may provide a reasonable metric by which routes can be prioritized for conservation. The methods we outline should be applicable to a wide range of species that inhabit regions where migration routes are threatened or poorly understood.

  7. Performance of 12 DIR algorithms in low-contrast regions for mass and density conserving deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, U. J.; Supple, J. R.; Franich, R. D.; Taylor, M. L.; Smith, R.; Kron, T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Deformable image registration (DIR) has become a key tool for adaptive radiotherapy to account for inter- and intrafraction organ deformation. Of contemporary interest, the application to deformable dose accumulation requires accurate deformation even in low contrast regions where dose gradients may exist within near-uniform tissues. One expects high-contrast features to generally be deformed more accurately by DIR algorithms. The authors systematically assess the accuracy of 12 DIR algorithms and quantitatively examine, in particular, low-contrast regions, where accuracy has not previously been established.Methods: This work investigates DIR algorithms in three dimensions using deformable gel (DEFGEL) [U. J. Yeo, M. L. Taylor, L. Dunn, R. L. Smith, T. Kron, and R. D. Franich, “A novel methodology for 3D deformable dosimetry,” Med. Phys. 39, 2203–2213 (2012)], for application to mass- and density-conserving deformations. CT images of DEFGEL phantoms with 16 fiducial markers (FMs) implanted were acquired in deformed and undeformed states for three different representative deformation geometries. Nonrigid image registration was performed using 12 common algorithms in the public domain. The optimum parameter setup was identified for each algorithm and each was tested for deformation accuracy in three scenarios: (I) original images of the DEFGEL with 16 FMs; (II) images with eight of the FMs mathematically erased; and (III) images with all FMs mathematically erased. The deformation vector fields obtained for scenarios II and III were then applied to the original images containing all 16 FMs. The locations of the FMs estimated by the algorithms were compared to actual locations determined by CT imaging. The accuracy of the algorithms was assessed by evaluation of three-dimensional vectors between true marker locations and predicted marker locations.Results: The mean magnitude of 16 error vectors per sample ranged from 0.3 to 3.7, 1.0 to 6.3, and 1.3 to 7

  8. Species of conservation concern and environmental stressors: Local regional and global effects [Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven M. Ostoja; Mathew L. Brooks; Jeanne C. Chambers; Burton K. Pendleton

    2013-01-01

    Species conservation has traditionally been based on individual species within the context of their requisite habitat, which is generally defined as the communities and ecosystems deemed necessary for their persistence. Conservation decisions are hampered by the fact that environmental stressors that potentially threaten the persistence of species can operate at...

  9. Intermodal Logistics Centres and Freight Corridors – Concepts and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Wagener

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available . Background: The development of international freight corridors, as the Trans European Network and new rail and inland shipping corridors in Asia and Africa, require efficient logistics centres along these corridors which serve as intermodal interfaces and provide a variety of different logistics service functions. The definition of the term logistics centre differs between countries and implies different functionalities. Locations are often selected randomly and business models are opportunity driven, especially in highly dynamic and less regulated new emerging economies. In particular Freight Villages as a special form of logistics centres have a high impact on regional development and serve as cargo generator for freight corridors. Consideration of general principles how to establish Freight Villages could improve the effectiveness of these logistics centres along freight corridors. Methods: Based on a literature review a comprehensive and hierarchical definition of logistics centres will be discussed and applied. From experiences in the development of logistics centres in several countries, especially in Germany and Lithuania, challenges and concepts concerning regulatory framework, determination of location and business and financing models are discussed. Results: Concerning the definition of logistics centres a hierarchical definition is applied which comprises different levels of logistics centres depending on the scope of the value adding and the functionality. As general principles for the development of Freight Villages the active role of the state, master planning, objective location finding, participation and co-operation of different stakeholders in the business model and a stepwise scheme for financing are introduced. Major trends for the future development of Freight Villages are the digitalization of supply chains, the application of new intermodal technologies and of innovative telematics systems, solutions for low emission and

  10. Designing conservation strategies to preserve the genetic diversity of Astragalus edulis Bunge, an endangered species from western Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Peñas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus edulis (Fabaceae is an endangered annual species from the western Mediterranean region that colonized the SE Iberian Peninsula, NE and SW Morocco, and the easternmost Macaronesian islands (Lanzarote and Fuerteventura. Although in Spain some conservation measures have been adopted, it is still necessary to develop an appropriate management plan to preserve genetic diversity across the entire distribution area of the species. Our main objective was to use population genetics as well as ecological and phylogeographic data to select Relevant Genetic Units for Conservation (RGUCs as the first step in designing conservation plans for A. edulis. We identified six RGUCs for in situ conservation, based on estimations of population genetic structure and probabilities of loss of rare alleles. Additionally, further population parameters, i.e. occupation area, population size, vulnerability, legal status of the population areas, and the historical haplotype distribution, were considered in order to establish which populations deserve conservation priority. Three populations from the Iberian Peninsula, two from Morocco, and one from the Canary Islands represent the total genetic diversity of the species and the rarest allelic variation. Ex situ conservation is recommended to complement the preservation of A. edulis, given that effective in situ population protection is not feasible in all cases. The consideration of complementary phylogeographic and ecological data is useful for management efforts to preserve the evolutionary potential of the species.

  11. Designing conservation strategies to preserve the genetic diversity of Astragalus edulis Bunge, an endangered species from western Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Julio; Barrios, Sara; Bobo-Pinilla, Javier; Lorite, Juan; Martínez-Ortega, M Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Astragalus edulis (Fabaceae) is an endangered annual species from the western Mediterranean region that colonized the SE Iberian Peninsula, NE and SW Morocco, and the easternmost Macaronesian islands (Lanzarote and Fuerteventura). Although in Spain some conservation measures have been adopted, it is still necessary to develop an appropriate management plan to preserve genetic diversity across the entire distribution area of the species. Our main objective was to use population genetics as well as ecological and phylogeographic data to select Relevant Genetic Units for Conservation (RGUCs) as the first step in designing conservation plans for A. edulis. We identified six RGUCs for in situ conservation, based on estimations of population genetic structure and probabilities of loss of rare alleles. Additionally, further population parameters, i.e. occupation area, population size, vulnerability, legal status of the population areas, and the historical haplotype distribution, were considered in order to establish which populations deserve conservation priority. Three populations from the Iberian Peninsula, two from Morocco, and one from the Canary Islands represent the total genetic diversity of the species and the rarest allelic variation. Ex situ conservation is recommended to complement the preservation of A. edulis, given that effective in situ population protection is not feasible in all cases. The consideration of complementary phylogeographic and ecological data is useful for management efforts to preserve the evolutionary potential of the species.

  12. Integrating occupancy modeling and interview data for corridor identification: A case study for jaguars in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, K.A.; Nijhawan, S.; Salom-Perez, R.; Potosme, S.H.; Hines, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Corridors are critical elements in the long-term conservation of wide-ranging species like the jaguar (Panthera onca). Jaguar corridors across the range of the species were initially identified using a GIS-based least-cost corridor model. However, due to inherent errors in remotely sensed data and model uncertainties, these corridors warrant field verification before conservation efforts can begin. We developed a novel corridor assessment protocol based on interview data and site occupancy modeling. We divided our pilot study area, in southeastern Nicaragua, into 71, 6. ??. 6 km sampling units and conducted 160 structured interviews with local residents. Interviews were designed to collect data on jaguar and seven prey species so that detection/non-detection matrices could be constructed for each sampling unit. Jaguars were reportedly detected in 57% of the sampling units and had a detection probability of 28%. With the exception of white-lipped peccary, prey species were reportedly detected in 82-100% of the sampling units. Though the use of interview data may violate some assumptions of the occupancy modeling approach for determining 'proportion of area occupied', we countered these shortcomings through study design and interpreting the occupancy parameter, psi, as 'probability of habitat used'. Probability of habitat use was modeled for each target species using single state or multistate models. A combination of the estimated probabilities of habitat use for jaguar and prey was selected to identify the final jaguar corridor. This protocol provides an efficient field methodology for identifying corridors for easily-identifiable species, across large study areas comprised of unprotected, private lands. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. The significance of the Danube ecological corridor in the proceedings of implementing ecological networks in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Dejan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the modern processes for exploiting land people have altered the original appearance of areas and created cultural environments. The remaining natural environments, whether protected or not, take up a relatively small portion of space and represent isolated islands which in itself can not be sufficient for the preservation of biodiversity or for the fulfillment of national, regional or international goals and commitments related to their preservation. In order to secure the preservation of biodiversity, the strengthening of integrity and the natural processes, such as animal migrations, succession of vegetation and evolution processes, the communication between natural habitats is imperative. Ecological corridors, as integral elements of ecological networks, ensure the preservation of vital ecological interactions by providing a connection between different habitats or areas. Depending on a range of factors, from the fulfillment of demands of different species to the connecting of regions, corridors of local, sub-regional, regional and international importance are identified. The Danube ecological corridor is one of the most significant corridors of international importance which encompasses a large number of habitats which are part of the natural watercourse of the corridor. There are numerous protected areas in the Danube coastal area on Serbia's territory which present themselves as central areas for forming the ecological network, such as: Gornje Podunavlje, Karađorđevo, Fruška Gora, Titelski Breg hill, Kovalski rit marsh, Dunavski loess bluffs, the Sava mouth, Labudovo okno, Deliblato sands, Đerdap and Mala Vrbica. The diverse and mosaic vegetation of the floodplain, as well as the consistency of the protected areas within the Danube corridor have a direct influence on the quality and functionality of this corridor. The goal of this paper is to show the significance of the Danube ecological corridor in the process of implementing

  14. RNA expression in a cartilaginous fish cell line reveals ancient 3′ noncoding regions highly conserved in vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, David; Nishikawa, Ryuhei; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Parton, Angela; Bayne, Christopher J.; Barnes, David W.

    2007-01-01

    We have established a cartilaginous fish cell line [Squalus acanthias embryo cell line (SAE)], a mesenchymal stem cell line derived from the embryo of an elasmobranch, the spiny dogfish shark S. acanthias. Elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) first appeared >400 million years ago, and existing species provide useful models for comparative vertebrate cell biology, physiology, and genomics. Comparative vertebrate genomics among evolutionarily distant organisms can provide sequence conservation information that facilitates identification of critical coding and noncoding regions. Although these genomic analyses are informative, experimental verification of functions of genomic sequences depends heavily on cell culture approaches. Using ESTs defining mRNAs derived from the SAE cell line, we identified lengthy and highly conserved gene-specific nucleotide sequences in the noncoding 3′ UTRs of eight genes involved in the regulation of cell growth and proliferation. Conserved noncoding 3′ mRNA regions detected by using the shark nucleotide sequences as a starting point were found in a range of other vertebrate orders, including bony fish, birds, amphibians, and mammals. Nucleotide identity of shark and human in these regions was remarkably well conserved. Our results indicate that highly conserved gene sequences dating from the appearance of jawed vertebrates and representing potential cis-regulatory elements can be identified through the use of cartilaginous fish as a baseline. Because the expression of genes in the SAE cell line was prerequisite for their identification, this cartilaginous fish culture system also provides a physiologically valid tool to test functional hypotheses on the role of these ancient conserved sequences in comparative cell biology. PMID:17227856

  15. War and wildlife: a post-conflict assessment of Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishra, C.; Fitzherbert, A.

    2004-01-01

    Prior to the last two decades of conflict, Afghanistan¿s Wakhan Corridor was considered an important area for conservation of the wildlife of high altitudes. We conducted an assessment of the status of large mammals in Wakhan after 22 years of conflict, and also made a preliminary assessment of

  16. Management of the Regional Lymph Nodes Following Breast-Conservation Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: An Evolving Paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Laura E.G. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Punglia, Rinaa S.; Wong, Julia S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bellon, Jennifer R., E-mail: jbellon@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Radiation therapy to the breast following breast conservation surgery has been the standard of care since randomized trials demonstrated equivalent survival compared to mastectomy and improved local control and survival compared to breast conservation surgery alone. Recent controversies regarding adjuvant radiation therapy have included the potential role of additional radiation to the regional lymph nodes. This review summarizes the evolution of regional nodal management focusing on 2 topics: first, the changing paradigm with regard to surgical evaluation of the axilla; second, the role for regional lymph node irradiation and optimal design of treatment fields. Contemporary data reaffirm prior studies showing that complete axillary dissection may not provide additional benefit relative to sentinel lymph node biopsy in select patient populations. Preliminary data also suggest that directed nodal radiation therapy to the supraclavicular and internal mammary lymph nodes may prove beneficial; publication of several studies are awaited to confirm these results and to help define subgroups with the greatest likelihood of benefit.

  17. National Borders and Transport corridors in Europe: Evidence of linkages in the Dublin-Belfast corridor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrov, Laura Oana; Williams, Brendan; Shahumyan, Harutyun

    2012-01-01

    Europe’s urban life focuses around a major network of cities, which exchange population, goods, and services of every kind both within regions and across borders. By their very nature, urban questions thus have a transnational dimension, and constitute a fruitful area of Euro-pean cooperation...... the population to benefit from essential facilities offered by functional urbanised areas which can include other cities. But, they often exacerbate urban sprawl into new urban areas. Visible impacts of motorway based urban sprawl are apparent in countries or regions with rapid economic growth and in the New....... The growth of urban areas is associated with acces-sibility to transportation routes, and has become the most important factor in landscape and land use change throughout Europe. Apart from providing links between cities, transport corridors are also exten-sions of cities' functionality which allow...

  18. DisoMCS: Accurately Predicting Protein Intrinsically Disordered Regions Using a Multi-Class Conservative Score Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiheng Wang

    Full Text Available The precise prediction of protein intrinsically disordered regions, which play a crucial role in biological procedures, is a necessary prerequisite to further the understanding of the principles and mechanisms of protein function. Here, we propose a novel predictor, DisoMCS, which is a more accurate predictor of protein intrinsically disordered regions. The DisoMCS bases on an original multi-class conservative score (MCS obtained by sequence-order/disorder alignment. Initially, near-disorder regions are defined on fragments located at both the terminus of an ordered region connecting a disordered region. Then the multi-class conservative score is generated by sequence alignment against a known structure database and represented as order, near-disorder and disorder conservative scores. The MCS of each amino acid has three elements: order, near-disorder and disorder profiles. Finally, the MCS is exploited as features to identify disordered regions in sequences. DisoMCS utilizes a non-redundant data set as the training set, MCS and predicted secondary structure as features, and a conditional random field as the classification algorithm. In predicted near-disorder regions a residue is determined as an order or a disorder according to the optimized decision threshold. DisoMCS was evaluated by cross-validation, large-scale prediction, independent tests and CASP (Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction tests. All results confirmed that DisoMCS was very competitive in terms of accuracy of prediction when compared with well-established publicly available disordered region predictors. It also indicated our approach was more accurate when a query has higher homologous with the knowledge database.The DisoMCS is available at http://cal.tongji.edu.cn/disorder/.

  19. Urban Power Line Corridors as Novel Habitats for Grassland and Alien Plant Species in South-Western Finland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Lampinen

    Full Text Available Regularly managed electric power line corridors may provide habitats for both early-successional grassland plant species and disturbance-dependent alien plant species. These habitats are especially important in urban areas, where they can help conserve native grassland species and communities in urban greenspace. However, they can also provide further footholds for potentially invasive alien species that already characterize urban areas. In order to implement power line corridors into urban conservation, it is important to understand which environmental conditions in the corridors favor grassland species and which alien species. Likewise it is important to know whether similar environmental factors in the corridors control the species composition of the two groups. We conducted a vegetation study in a 43 kilometer long urban power line corridor network in south-western Finland, and used generalized linear models and distance-based redundancy analysis to determine which environmental factors best predict the occurrence and composition of grassland and alien plant species in the corridors. The results imply that old corridors on dry soils and steep slopes characterized by a history as open areas and pastures are especially suitable for grassland species. Corridors suitable for alien species, in turn, are characterized by productive soils and abundant light and are surrounded by a dense urban fabric. Factors controlling species composition in the two groups are somewhat correlated, with the most important factors including light abundance, soil moisture, soil calcium concentration and soil productivity. The results have implications for grassland conservation and invasive alien species control in urban areas.

  20. Quantifying the National Significance of Local Areas for Regional Conservation Planning: North Carolina’s Mountain Treasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Travis Belote

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Conservation scientists recognize that additional protected areas are needed to maintain biological diversity and ecological processes. As regional conservation planners embark on recommending additional areas for protection in formal ecological reserves, it is important to evaluate candidate lands for their role in building a resilient protected areas system of the future. Here, we evaluate North Carolina’s Mountain Treasures with respect to their (1 ecological integrity, (2 role in connecting existing core protected areas, (3 potential to diversify the ecosystem representation of reserves, and (4 role in maintaining hotspots of biologically-rich areas that are not well protected. Mountain Treasures represent a citizen inventory of roadless areas and serve as candidates for elevated levels of conservation protection on U.S. federal lands. We compared Mountain Treasures to other candidate lands throughout the country to evaluate their potential national significance. While the Mountain Treasures tended to be more impacted by human modifications than other roadless areas, they are as important as other roadless areas with respect to their role in connecting existing protected areas and diversifying representation of ecosystems in conservation reserves. However, Mountain Treasures tended to have a much higher biodiversity priority index than other roadless areas leading to an overall higher composite score compared to other roadless areas. Our analysis serves as an example of how using broad-scale datasets can help conservation planners assess the national significance of local areas.

  1. A Regional Assessment of the Effects of Conservation Practices on In-stream Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A. M.; Alexander, R. B.; Arnold, J.; Norfleet, L.; Robertson, D. M.; White, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Program (CEAP), initiated by USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), has the goal of quantifying the environmental benefits of agricultural conservation practices. As part of this effort, detailed farmer surveys were compiled to document the adoption of conservation practices. Survey data showed that up to 38 percent of cropland in the Upper Mississippi River basin is managed to reduce sediment, nutrient and pesticide loads from agricultural activities. The broader effects of these practices on downstream water quality are challenging to quantify. The USDA-NRCS recently reported results of a study that combined farmer surveys with process-based models to deduce the effect of conservation practices on sediment and chemical loads in farm runoff and downstream waters. As a follow-up collaboration, USGS and USDA scientists conducted a semi-empirical assessment of the same suite of practices using the USGS SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes) modeling framework. SPARROW is a hybrid statistical and mechanistic stream water quality model of annual conditions that has been used extensively in studies of nutrient sources and delivery. In this assessment, the USDA simulations of the effects of conservation practices on loads in farm runoff were used as an explanatory variable (i.e., change in farm loads per unit area) in a component of an existing a SPARROW model of the Upper Midwest. The model was then re-calibrated and tested to determine whether the USDA estimate of conservation adoption intensity explained a statistically significant proportion of the spatial variability in stream nutrient loads in the Upper Mississippi River basin. The results showed that the suite of conservation practices that NRCS has catalogued as complete nutrient and sediment management are a statistically significant feature in the Midwestern landscape associated with phosphorous runoff and delivery to downstream waters

  2. Improving spatial prioritisation for remote marine regions: optimising biodiversity conservation and sustainable development trade-offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Cordelia H.; Radford, Ben T.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Heyward, Andrew J.; Stewart, Romola R.; Watts, Matthew E.; Prescott, Jim; Newman, Stephen J.; Harvey, Euan S.; Fisher, Rebecca; Bryce, Clay W.; Lowe, Ryan J.; Berry, Oliver; Espinosa-Gayosso, Alexis; Sporer, Errol; Saunders, Thor

    2016-08-01

    Creating large conservation zones in remote areas, with less intense stakeholder overlap and limited environmental information, requires periodic review to ensure zonation mitigates primary threats and fill gaps in representation, while achieving conservation targets. Follow-up reviews can utilise improved methods and data, potentially identifying new planning options yielding a desirable balance between stakeholder interests. This research explored a marine zoning system in north-west Australia-a biodiverse area with poorly documented biota. Although remote, it is economically significant (i.e. petroleum extraction and fishing). Stakeholder engagement was used to source the best available biodiversity and socio-economic data and advanced spatial analyses produced 765 high resolution data layers, including 674 species distributions representing 119 families. Gap analysis revealed the current proposed zoning system as inadequate, with 98.2% of species below the Convention on Biological Diversity 10% representation targets. A systematic conservation planning algorithm Maxan provided zoning options to meet representation targets while balancing this with industry interests. Resulting scenarios revealed that conservation targets could be met with minimal impacts on petroleum and fishing industries, with estimated losses of 4.9% and 7.2% respectively. The approach addressed important knowledge gaps and provided a powerful and transparent method to reconcile industry interests with marine conservation.

  3. AlignMiner: a Web-based tool for detection of divergent regions in multiple sequence alignments of conserved sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claros M Gonzalo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sequence alignments are used to study gene or protein function, phylogenetic relations, genome evolution hypotheses and even gene polymorphisms. Virtually without exception, all available tools focus on conserved segments or residues. Small divergent regions, however, are biologically important for specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction, genotyping, molecular markers and preparation of specific antibodies, and yet have received little attention. As a consequence, they must be selected empirically by the researcher. AlignMiner has been developed to fill this gap in bioinformatic analyses. Results AlignMiner is a Web-based application for detection of conserved and divergent regions in alignments of conserved sequences, focusing particularly on divergence. It accepts alignments (protein or nucleic acid obtained using any of a variety of algorithms, which does not appear to have a significant impact on the final results. AlignMiner uses different scoring methods for assessing conserved/divergent regions, Entropy being the method that provides the highest number of regions with the greatest length, and Weighted being the most restrictive. Conserved/divergent regions can be generated either with respect to the consensus sequence or to one master sequence. The resulting data are presented in a graphical interface developed in AJAX, which provides remarkable user interaction capabilities. Users do not need to wait until execution is complete and can.even inspect their results on a different computer. Data can be downloaded onto a user disk, in standard formats. In silico and experimental proof-of-concept cases have shown that AlignMiner can be successfully used to designing specific polymerase chain reaction primers as well as potential epitopes for antibodies. Primer design is assisted by a module that deploys several oligonucleotide parameters for designing primers "on the fly". Conclusions AlignMiner can be used

  4. Sacroiliac secure corridor: analysis for safe insertion of iliosacral screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Alves Cruz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Posterior pelvic lesions, especially of the sacral-iliac joint, have high mortality and morbidity risks. Definitive fixation is necessary for the joint stabilization, and one option is the sacral percutaneous pinning with screws. Proximity to important structures to this region brings risks to the fixation procedure; therefore, it is important to know the tridimensional anatomy of the pelvis posterior region. Deviations of the surgeon's hand of four degrees may target the screws to those structures; dimorphisms of the upper sacrum and a poor lesion reduction may redound in a screw malpositioning. This study is aimed to evaluate the dimensions of a safe surgical corridor for safe sacroiliac screw insertion and relations with age and sex of the patients. METHOD: One hundred randomly selected pelvis CTs of patients with no pelvic diseases, seen at a tertiary care teaching Hospital. Measurements were made by computer and the safest area for screw insertion was calculated by two methods. The results were expressed in mm (not in degrees, in order to be a further surgical reference. RESULTS: There was a significant size difference in the analyzed sacral vertebra, differing on a wider size in men than in women. There was no significant statistical difference between vertebral size and age. By both methods, a safe area for screw insertion could be defined. CONCLUSION: Age does not influence the width of the surgical corridor. The surgeon has a safe corridor considered narrower when inserting screws in a female pelvis than when in a male one. However, as the smallest vertebra found (feminine was considered for statics, it was concluded that this corridor is 20 mm wide in any direction, taking as a reference the centrum of the vertebra.

  5. Corridor Length and Patch Colonization by a Butterfly Junonia coenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Haddad

    2000-06-01

    Habitat corridors have been proposed to reduce patch isolation and increase population persistence in fragmented landscapes. This study tested whether patch colonization was increased by the presence and various length corridors. The specific butterfly species tested has been shown to use corridors, however, the results indicate that neither the distance between patches or the presence of a corridor influenced colonization.

  6. Structure-sequence based analysis for identification of conserved regions in proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemla, Adam T; Zhou, Carol E; Lam, Marisa W; Smith, Jason R; Pardes, Elizabeth

    2013-05-28

    Disclosed are computational methods, and associated hardware and software products for scoring conservation in a protein structure based on a computationally identified family or cluster of protein structures. A method of computationally identifying a family or cluster of protein structures in also disclosed herein.

  7. Aligning conservation goals: are patterns of species richness and endemism concordant at regional scales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricketts, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation strategies commonly target areas of high species richness and/or high endemism. However, the correlation between richness and endemism at scales relevant to conservation is unclear; these two common goals of conservation plans may therefore be in conflict. Here the spatial concordance between richness and endemism is tested using five taxa in North America: butterflies, birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles. This concordance is also tested using overall indices of richness and endemism (incorporating all five taxa. For all taxa except birds, richness and endemism were significantly correlated, with amphibians, reptiles, and the overall indices showing the highest correlations (rs = 0.527-0.676. However, 'priority sets' of ecoregions (i.e., the top 10% of ecoregions based on richness generally overlapped poorly with those based on endemism (< 50% overlap for all but reptiles. These results offer only limited support for the idea that richness and endemism are correlated at broad scales and indicate that land managers will need to balance these dual, and often conflicting, goals of biodiversity conservation.

  8. [Identification of ecological corridors for Tibetan antelope and assessment of their human disturbances in the alpine desert of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuge, Hai-jin; Lin, Dan-qi; Li, Xiao-wen

    2015-08-01

    The alpine desert of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) provides the largest habitats for those endangered ungulates (e.g., Tibetan antelope, Tibetan Kiang and wild yak) on the earth. However, human disturbance especially infrastructure constructions (e.g., railway & highway) has increasingly fragmented the habitats of those endangered ungulates by disturbing and interrupting their ecological corridors for their seasonal migration. Aiming at identifying the potential ecological corridors for Tibetan antelope, a GIS-based model-Linkage Mapper was used to model and detect the potential ecological corridors of Tibetan antelope based on the principle of least cost path. Three categories of ecological corridors, i. e., closed (inside reserves), linking (linking the reserves) and open (starting from reserve but ending outside) corridors were distinguished by their spatial interactions with existing major national nature reserves (i.e., Altun, Kekexili and Qiangtang NNRs) in the alpine desert of QTP, and their spatial patterns, conservation status associated with human disturbance were also examined. Although our research indicated a general ecological integration of both habitats and ecological corridors in the alpine desert ecosystem, increasing human disturbance should not be ignored, which particularly partially undermined the functioning of those ecological corridors linking the nature reserves. Considering disadvantages of prevailing separate administrative structure of nature reserve on the effective conservation of ecological corridors for those endangered ungulates, a coordinative conservation network among these major national nature reserves should be established to ensure the unified trans-boundary conservation efforts and to enhance its overall conservation efficacy by sharing information, knowledge and optimizing conservation resources.

  9. I-15 integrated corridor management : system requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This document is intended as a listing and discussion of the Requirements for the I-15 Integrated Corridor Management System : (ICMS) Demonstration Project in San Diego. This document describes what the system is to do (the functional requirements), ...

  10. VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - substation points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...

  11. Possible conservation units of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) in Sarawak based on variation of mtDNA control region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Manabu; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Ohtaishi, Noriyuki

    2006-11-01

    The mitochondrial DNA control region of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) was sequenced using 21 DNA samples collected from confiscated sun bears to identify conservation units, such as evolutionarily significant units and management units, in Sarawak, Borneo Island. A total of 10 haplotypes were observed, indicating the presence of at least two lineages in the sun bear population in Sarawak. Presumably, these two lineages could represent evolutionarily significant units. However, the geographical distributions of the two lineages remained unknown due to the lack of information regarding the exact capture locations of the confiscated sun bears. It is essential to elucidate the geographical distributions of these lineages in order to create a proper conservation plan for the sun bears in Sarawak. Therefore, further studies examining the haplotype distributions using DNA samples from known localities are essential.

  12. Freight corridor performance measurement system: A framework for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: On a national level, South Africa’s freight logistics industry is inefficient. The country ranks 36th out of 40 countries in terms of transport productivity (tonne kilometres as a ratio of gross domestic product, or GDP; the ratio of freight logistics costs to GDP measured 11.1% in 2013, compared to that of developed regions which measures in the order of 9%; and rail tonne-km market share on the two most dense long-distance corridors, namely, GautengDurban and Gauteng-Cape Town, is only 12.8% and 4.4%, respectively, whereas rail is globally acknowledged as a more efficient provider of long-distance freight solutions, given appropriate investments and service commitments. Objectives: A cornerstone of improved national freight logistics performance is the availability of reliable indicators to quantify the efficiency and capacity of the logistics network over the intermediate and long term, thereby enabling an evidence-based policy and investment environment. The objective of this article is to describe the foundation framework (i.e. phase 1 for South Africa’s freight corridor performance measurement system (CPMS. Once populated, the CPMS will be a key generator of indicators to facilitate the systemic management of corridors as a national production factor and thereby contributing to South Africa’s competitiveness. Method: The design of South Africa’s CPMS was informed by desktop research and refined through an extensive stakeholder consultation process. A distinction was made between South Africa’s dedicated bulk corridors and the multi-modal corridors. Results: Facilitating both stakeholder involvement and agreement on key indicators, as well as the eventual development of a system supporting the population, aggregation and dissemination of the CPMS are critical outcomes for the management of corridors as a national production factor. Three overarching corridor indicators were defined, relating to increased throughput

  13. The Neutron-Moisture Meter in Studies of the Effect of Fallow on Water Conservation in Arid Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezbek, Nurinnisa; Aksoy, Tevfik; Celebi, Gurkan [Radiophysiology and Soil Fertility Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ankara, Ankara (Turkey)

    1967-11-15

    For a long time it has been a common practice for the Central Anatolian farmers to leave half the land fallow the whole year in order to increase the amount of water conserved. The main object of these studies was to ascertain whether fallow has an effect on moisture conservation in soils of this region and if so what was its degree of efficiency on a yearly basis. In view of the intensity and distribution of rainfall Ankara, Konya and Eski$ehir were selected for moisture-measurement areas. Altogether 60 holes were dug and 60 access tubes were used for moisture measurements by a neutron- moisture meter, and they were placed at six different locations on either state farms or a dry-farming experimental station. In each location the first group of access tubes were placed in fallow soil, the second in a wheat field and the third in a wheat field after harvest. Each treatment had three replicates. In all holes the moisture measurements were made at five different depths at intervals of either 15 days or one month. At the beginning of the moisture measurements a separate calibration curve was prepared for each location and for each treatment. The measurements were begun in 1964 and are continuing, but with some variations in the sampling technique. Some physical properties of the soils that were sampled from measurement areas, such as texture, field capacity and wilting point, were determined. Some bulk-density measurements were also made by gamma-ray transmission. The results obtained are averaged and illustrated in tables and figures. Necessary calculations and comparisons were made to show the efficiency of the fallow system in the moisture conservation in this dry soil. The results can be summarized as follows: (1) The total amount of water conserved in the soil down to a depth of 1.80 cm was higher in fallow soil than in the other two cases. This was true for all locations over a period of two years. (2) The amounts of water conserved by the effect of fallow

  14. Molecular studies of Callithrix pygmaea (Primates, Platyrrhini based on transferrin intronic and ND1 regions: implications for taxonomy and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagliaro Claudia Helena

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional classifications of Platyrrhini monkeys, based mainly on morphological features, are being contested by recent molecular data. The subfamily Callitrichinae (Platyrrhini, Primates consists of a diverse group of species, many of them considered endangered. Our analysis of two DNA regions, a mtDNA gene (ND1 and a nuclear gene (intronic regions of the transferrin gene, suggests that Callithrix pygmaea may have sufficient variability to justify the existence of subspecies or even separate species. Phylogenetic dendrograms based on the ND1 region show that this species is more closely related to Amazonian than to Atlantic forest marmosets. These results reopen the discussion about diversity and conservation programs based exclusively on traditional classifications.

  15. A computational method for identification of vaccine targets from protein regions of conserved human leukocyte antigen binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lars Rønn; Simon, Christian; Kudahl, Ulrich J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Computational methods for T cell-based vaccine target discovery focus on selection of highly conserved peptides identified across pathogen variants, followed by prediction of their binding of human leukocyte antigen molecules. However, experimental studies have shown that T cells often...... target diverse regions in highly variable viral pathogens and this diversity may need to be addressed through redefinition of suitable peptide targets. Methods: We have developed a method for antigen assessment and target selection for polyvalent vaccines, with which we identified immune epitopes from...... variable regions, where all variants bind HLA. These regions, although variable, can thus be considered stable in terms of HLA binding and represent valuable vaccine targets. Results: We applied this method to predict CD8+ T-cell targets in influenza A H7N9 hemagglutinin and significantly increased...

  16. Marginal/peripheral populations of forest tree species and their conservation status: report for Atlantic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin T. Kelleher

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This report is a synthesis of information from the national reports, prepared as part of the COST Action FP1202 Strengthening conservation: a key issue for adaptation of marginal/peripheral populations of forest trees to climate change in Europe (MaPFGR. The individual national reports can be found as part of the supplemental data to the COST action. The data compiled in this report indicate that the Atlantic area has sufficient resources in terms of knowledge and capacity to assess the potential impact of climate change on marginal and peripheral (MaP sites within the area. Maps of vegetation, soil, climate and climatic predictions are publicly available for most countries and often are of high quality and resolution. These can be utilized to help identify MaP sites and populations in the Atlantic area. In addition, some species have been characterized genetically and the genetic data can also be utilized to identify and characterize sites. However, genetic data is not universally available and in particular may be absent for peripheral sites. There are many data sources for phenotypic traits, such as data from provenance trials but these have not been assessed for MaP populations. There may not be sufficient legislative capacity for the conservation of MaP populations in comparison to, for example, annex habitats of the EU Habitats Directive. Although some of the MaP sites lie within Natura 2000 boundaries, many are not in protected areas. If MaP populations are not characterized and conserved there is a risk of losing traits that may be of potential in adaptation to climate change. A detailed spatial analysis incorporating all of the data is needed to give a comprehensive assessment of the potential threats to MaP populations in this area.

  17. Mapping High Biomass Corridors for Climate and Biodiversity Co-Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantz, P.; Goetz, S. J.; Laporte, N. T.

    2013-12-01

    A key issue in global conservation is how climate mitigation activities can secure biodiversity co-benefits. Tropical deforestation releases significant amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere and results in widespread biodiversity loss. The dominant strategy for forest conservation has been protected area designation. However, maintaining biodiversity in protected areas requires ecological exchange with ecosystems in which they are embedded. At current funding levels, existing conservation strategies are unlikely to prevent further loss of connectivity between protected areas and surrounding landscapes. The emergence of REDD+, a mechanism for funding carbon emissions reductions from deforestation in developing countries, suggests an alignment of goals and financial resources for protecting forest carbon, maintaining biodiversity in protected areas, and minimizing loss of forest ecosystem services. Identifying, protecting and sustainably managing vegetation carbon stocks between protected areas can provide both climate mitigation benefits through avoided CO2 emissions from deforestation and biodiversity benefits through the targeted protection of forests that maintain connectivity between protected areas and surrounding ecosystems. We used a high resolution, pan-tropical map of vegetation carbon stocks derived from MODIS, GLAS lidar and field measurements to map corridors that traverse areas of highest aboveground biomass between protected areas. We mapped over 13,000 corridors containing 49 GtC, accounting for 14% of unprotected vegetation carbon stock in the tropics. In the majority of cases, carbon density in corridors was commensurate with that of the protected areas they connect, suggesting significant opportunities for achieving climate mitigation and biodiversity co-benefits. To further illustrate the utility of this approach, we conducted a multi-criteria analysis of corridors in the Brazilian Amazon, identifying high biodiversity, high vegetation carbon stock

  18. Conservation of Repeats at the Mammalian KCNQ1OT1-CDKN1C Region Suggests a Role in Genomic Imprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos De Donato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available KCNQ1OT1 is located in the region with the highest number of genes showing genomic imprinting, but the mechanisms controlling the genes under its influence have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we conducted a comparative analysis of the KCNQ1/KCNQ1OT1-CDKN1C region to study its conservation across the best assembled eutherian mammalian genomes sequenced to date and analyzed potential elements that may be implicated in the control of genomic imprinting in this region. The genomic features in these regions from human, mouse, cattle, and dog show a higher number of genes and CpG islands (detected using cpgplot from EMBOSS, but lower number of repetitive elements (including short interspersed nuclear elements and long interspersed nuclear elements, compared with their whole chromosomes (detected by RepeatMasker. The KCNQ1OT1-CDKN1C region contains the highest number of conserved noncoding sequences (CNS among mammals, where we found 16 regions containing about 38 different highly conserved repetitive elements (using mVista, such as LINE1 elements: L1M4, L1MB7, HAL1, L1M4a, L1Med, and an LTR element: MLT1H. From these elements, we found 74 CNS showing high sequence identity (>70% between human, cattle, and mouse, from which we identified 13 motifs (using Multiple Em for Motif Elicitation/Motif Alignment and Search Tool with a significant probability of occurrence, 3 of which were the most frequent and were used to find transcription factor–binding sites. We detected several transcription factors (using JASPAR suite from the families SOX, FOX, and GATA. A phylogenetic analysis of these CNS from human, marmoset, mouse, rat, cattle, dog, horse, and elephant shows branches with high levels of support and very similar phylogenetic relationships among these groups, confirming previous reports. Our results suggest that functional DNA elements identified by comparative genomics in a region densely populated with imprinted mammalian genes may be

  19. Using regional bird density distribution models to evaluate protected area networks and inform conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Alexander; Jaime L. Stephens; Sam Veloz; Leo Salas; Josée S. Rousseau; C. John Ralph; Daniel A. Sarr

    2017-01-01

    As data about populations of indicator species become available, proactive strategies that improve representation of biological diversity within protected area networks should consider finer-scaled evaluations, especially in regions identified as important through course-scale analyses. We use density distribution models derived from a robust regional bird...

  20. The non-conserved region of MRP is involved in the virulence of Streptococcus suis serotype 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quan; Fu, Yang; Ma, Caifeng; He, Yanan; Yu, Yanfei; Du, Dechao; Yao, Huochun; Lu, Chengping; Zhang, Wei

    2017-10-03

    Muramidase-released protein (MRP) of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is an important epidemic virulence marker with an unclear role in bacterial infection. To investigate the biologic functions of MRP, 3 mutants named Δmrp, Δmrp domain 1 (Δmrp-d1), and Δmrp domain 2 (Δmrp-d2) were constructed to assess the phenotypic changes between the parental strain and the mutant strains. The results indicated that MRP domain 1 (MRP-D1, the non-conserved region of MRP from a virulent strain, a.a. 242-596) played a critical role in adherence of SS2 to host cells, compared with MRP domain 1* (MRP-D1*, the non-conserved region of MRP from a low virulent strain, a.a. 239-598) or MRP domain 2 (MRP-D2, the conserved region of MRP, a.a. 848-1222). We found that MRP-D1 but not MRP-D2, could bind specifically to fibronectin (FN), factor H (FH), fibrinogen (FG), and immunoglobulin G (IgG). Additionally, we confirmed that mrp-d1 mutation significantly inhibited bacteremia and brain invasion in a mouse infection model. The mrp-d1 mutation also attenuated the intracellular survival of SS2 in RAW246.7 macrophages, shortened the growth ability in pig blood and decreased the virulence of SS2 in BALB/c mice. Furthermore, antiserum against MRP-D1 was found to dramatically impede SS2 survival in pig blood. Finally, immunization with recombinant MRP-D1 efficiently enhanced murine viability after SS2 challenge, indicating its potential use in vaccination strategies. Collectively, these results indicated that MRP-D1 is involved in SS2 virulence and eloquently demonstrate the function of MRP in pathogenesis of infection.

  1. Dispersal Ecology Informs Design of Large-Scale Wildlife Corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Robin A; Boyce, Mark S; Thurfjell, Henrik; Paton, Dale G; Musiani, Marco; Dormann, Carsten F; Ciuti, Simone

    Landscape connectivity describes how the movement of animals relates to landscape structure. The way in which movement among populations is affected by environmental conditions is important for predicting the effects of habitat fragmentation, and for defining conservation corridors. One approach has been to map resistance surfaces to characterize how environmental variables affect animal movement, and to use these surfaces to model connectivity. However, current connectivity modelling typically uses information on species location or habitat preference rather than movement, which unfortunately may not capture dispersal limitations. Here we emphasize the importance of implementing dispersal ecology into landscape connectivity, i.e., observing patterns of habitat selection by dispersers during different phases of new areas' colonization to infer habitat connectivity. Disperser animals undertake a complex sequence of movements concatenated over time and strictly dependent on species ecology. Using satellite telemetry, we investigated the movement ecology of 54 young male elk Cervus elaphus, which commonly disperse, to design a corridor network across the Northern Rocky Mountains. Winter residency period is often followed by a spring-summer movement phase, when young elk migrate with mothers' groups to summering areas, and by a further dispersal bout performed alone to a novel summer area. After another summer residency phase, dispersers usually undertake a final autumnal movement to reach novel wintering areas. We used resource selection functions to identify winter and summer habitats selected by elk during residency phases. We then extracted movements undertaken during spring to move from winter to summer areas, and during autumn to move from summer to winter areas, and modelled them using step selection functions. We built friction surfaces, merged the different movement phases, and eventually mapped least-cost corridors. We showed an application of this tool by

  2. Bactericidal activity of M protein conserved region antibodies against group A streptococcal isolates from the Northern Thai population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruksachatkunakorn Chulabhorn

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most group A streptococcal (GAS vaccine strategies have focused on the surface M protein, a major virulence factor of GAS. The amino-terminus of the M protein elicits antibodies, that are both opsonic and protective, but which are type specific. J14, a chimeric peptide that contains 14 amino acids from the M protein conserved C-region at the carboxy-terminus, offers the possibility of a vaccine which will elicit protective opsonic antibodies against multiple different GAS strains. In this study, we searched for J14 and J14-like sequences and the number of their repeats in the C-region of the M protein from GAS strains isolated from the Northern Thai population. Then, we examined the bactericidal activity of J14, J14.1, J14-R1 and J14-R2 antisera against multiple Thai GAS strains. Results The emm genes of GAS isolates were sequenced and grouped as 14 different J14-types. The most diversity of J14-types was found in the C1-repeat. The J14.1 type was the major sequence in the C2 and C3-repeats. We have shown that antisera raised against the M protein conserved C-repeat region peptides, J14, J14.1, J14-R1 and J14-R2, commonly found in GAS isolates from the Northern Thai population, are able to kill GAS of multiple different emm types derived from an endemic area. The mean percent of bactericidal activities for all J14 and J14-like peptide antisera against GAS isolates were more than 70%. The mean percent of bactericidal activity was highest for J14 antisera followed by J14-R2, J14.1 and J14-R1 antisera. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that antisera raised against the M protein conserved C-repeat region are able to kill multiple different strains of GAS isolated from the Northern Thai population. Therefore, the four conserved "J14" peptides have the potential to be used as GAS vaccine candidates to prevent streptococcal infections in an endemic area.

  3. Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in Southern Brazil wetlands: implications for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Maltchik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (~280 000km², and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from differrent ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region.La selección de áreas prioritarias es un enorme desafío para la conservación de la biodiversidad. Métodos biogeográficos se han utilizado para identificar áreas prioritarias para la conservación, como la panbiogeografía. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo el empleo de herramientas panbiogeográficas, para identificar los patrones de distribución de los géneros de insectos acuáticos, en los sistemas de humedales de una extensa área de la región Neotropical (~280 000km², y así comparar la distribución de las

  4. Northwest power gamble: Washington utilities go for broke on nuclear; region's citizens make conservation bid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brummer, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) is asking for a reactor construction moratorium in an effort to get fast relief from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), which is authorized to guarantee power purchases from new power plants. Supporters of nuclear power plants as well as those of the soft energy path are watching to see how BPA will handle its mandate against acquiring new thermal plants until conservation and renewable energy potentials are exhausted. BPA can subvert the Pacific Northwest Power Act with 20-year contracts based on conventional forecasts despite evidence that new plants are unneeded. There is also evidence that the public rejects the idea of a moral obligation to bail out nuclear power cost overruns at taxpayer expense. The negotiations involve not only WPPSS and BPA, but Moody's Investor Service and environmental groups

  5. Diversity, natural history and conservation of amphibians and reptiles from the San Vito Region, southwestern Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Barrera, Georgina; Pacheco, Jesus; Mendoza-Quijano, Fernando; Bolaños, Federico; Cháves, Gerardo; Daily, Gretchen C; Ehrlich, Paul R; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2008-06-01

    We present an inventory of the amphibians and reptiles of the San Vito de Coto Brus region, including the Las Cruces Biological Station, in southern Costa Rica, which is the result of a survey of the herpetofauna occurring in mountain forest fragments, pastures, coffee plantations, and other disturbed areas. We found 67 species, included 26 species of amphibians and of 41 of reptiles. We describe the distribution patterns of the community on the basis of the life zones, elevation, fragmentation, and degree of anthropogenic impact. We also provide some nouvelle data on the systematics of some select taxa, their geographical ranges, microhabitats, activity, and other relevant ecological and natural history features. Finally, we comment on the present conservation status of the herpetofauna in the region. Previous literature and collection records indicate a higher number of species occurring in this area, which suggests that some declines have occurred, especially of amphibians, in last decades.

  6. Conserved peptides within the E2 region of Hepatitis C virus induce humoral and cellular responses in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Shenawy Reem

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The reason(s why human antibodies raised against hepatitis C virus (HCV E2 epitopes do not offer protection against multiple viral infections may be related to either genetic variations among viral strains particularly within the hypervariable region-1 (HVR-1, low titers of anti E2 antibodies or interference of non neutralizing antibodies with the function of neutralizing antibodies. This study was designed to assess the immunogenic properties of genetically conserved peptides derived from the C-terminal region of HVR-1 as potential therapeutic and/or prophylactic vaccines against HCV infection. Goats immunized with E2-conserved synthetic peptides termed p36 (a.a 430–446, p37(a.a 517–531 and p38 (a.a 412–419 generated high titers of anti-p36, anti-p37 and anti-P38 antibody responses of which only anti- p37 and anti- p38 were neutralizing to HCV particles in sera from patients infected predominantly with genotype 4a. On the other hand anti-p36 exhibited weak viral neutralization capacity on the same samples. Animals super-immunized with single epitopes generated 2 to 4.5 fold higher titers than similar antibodies produced in chronic HCV patients. Also the studied peptides elicited approximately 3 fold increase in cell proliferation of specific antibody-secreting peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from immunized goats. These results indicate that, besides E1 derived peptide p35 (a.a 315–323 described previously by this laboratory, E2 conserved peptides p37 and p38 represent essential components of a candidate peptide vaccine against HCV infection.

  7. [Regional ecological planning and ecological network construction: a case study of "Ji Triangle" Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Han, Zeng-Lin; Tong, Lian-Jun

    2009-05-01

    By the methods of in situ investigation and regional ecological planning, the present ecological environment, ecosystem vulnerability, and ecological environment sensitivity in "Ji Triangle" Region were analyzed, and the ecological network of the study area was constructed. According to the ecological resources abundance degree, ecological recovery, farmland windbreak system, environmental carrying capacity, forestry foundation, and ecosystem integrity, the study area was classified into three regional ecological function ecosystems, i. e., east low hill ecosystem, middle plain ecosystem, and west plain wetland ecosystem. On the basis of marking regional ecological nodes, the regional ecological corridor (Haerbin-Dalian regional axis, Changchun-Jilin, Changchun-Songyuan, Jilin-Songyuan, Jilin-Siping, and Songyuan-Siping transportation corridor) and regional ecological network (one ring, three links, and three belts) were constructed. Taking the requests of regional ecological security into consideration, the ecological environment security system of "Ji Triangle" Region, including regional ecological conservation district, regional ecological restored district, and regional ecological management district, was built.

  8. Aspen in the Sierra Nevada: Regional conservation of a continental species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Rogers; Wayne D. Shepperd; Dale L. Bartos

    2007-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) a common species in North America, is a minor species in the Sierra Nevada of California. However, the limited coverage of aspen in this area appears to carry a disproportionate biodiversity load: numerous species are dependent on the unique components of aspen forests habitat. Land managers in the region...

  9. Analysing biodiversity and conservation knowledge products to support regional environmental assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Thomas M; Akçakaya, H Resit; Burgess, Neil D; Butchart, Stuart H M; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Hoffmann, Michael; Juffe-Bignoli, Diego; Kingston, Naomi; MacSharry, Brian; Parr, Mike; Perianin, Laurence; Regan, Eugenie C; Rodrigues, Ana S L; Rondinini, Carlo; Shennan-Farpon, Yara; Young, Bruce E

    2016-02-16

    Two processes for regional environmental assessment are currently underway: the Global Environment Outlook (GEO) and Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). Both face constraints of data, time, capacity, and resources. To support these assessments, we disaggregate three global knowledge products according to their regions and subregions. These products are: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Key Biodiversity Areas (specifically Important Bird &Biodiversity Areas [IBAs], and Alliance for Zero Extinction [AZE] sites), and Protected Planet. We present fourteen Data citations: numbers of species occurring and percentages threatened; numbers of endemics and percentages threatened; downscaled Red List Indices for mammals, birds, and amphibians; numbers, mean sizes, and percentage coverages of IBAs and AZE sites; percentage coverage of land and sea by protected areas; and trends in percentages of IBAs and AZE sites wholly covered by protected areas. These data will inform the regional/subregional assessment chapters on the status of biodiversity, drivers of its decline, and institutional responses, and greatly facilitate comparability and consistency between the different regional/subregional assessments.

  10. 75 FR 59143 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act; Regional Fishery Management Councils...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... collection-of-information requirements contained in this rule may be submitted to Alan Risenhoover, Director... basis for salary of Council executive directors be put on par with that of NMFS Regional Administrators... broadened and clarified to include any income, grant, or other monetary or in-kind remuneration received by...

  11. Analysing biodiversity and conservation knowledge products to support regional environmental assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Thomas M.; Akçakaya, H. Resit; Burgess, Neil D.; Butchart, Stuart H.M.; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Hoffmann, Michael; Juffe-Bignoli, Diego; Kingston, Naomi; MacSharry, Brian; Parr, Mike; Perianin, Laurence; Regan, Eugenie C.; Rodrigues, Ana S.L.; Rondinini, Carlo; Shennan-Farpon, Yara; Young, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    Two processes for regional environmental assessment are currently underway: the Global Environment Outlook (GEO) and Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). Both face constraints of data, time, capacity, and resources. To support these assessments, we disaggregate three global knowledge products according to their regions and subregions. These products are: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Key Biodiversity Areas (specifically Important Bird & Biodiversity Areas [IBAs], and Alliance for Zero Extinction [AZE] sites), and Protected Planet. We present fourteen Data citations: numbers of species occurring and percentages threatened; numbers of endemics and percentages threatened; downscaled Red List Indices for mammals, birds, and amphibians; numbers, mean sizes, and percentage coverages of IBAs and AZE sites; percentage coverage of land and sea by protected areas; and trends in percentages of IBAs and AZE sites wholly covered by protected areas. These data will inform the regional/subregional assessment chapters on the status of biodiversity, drivers of its decline, and institutional responses, and greatly facilitate comparability and consistency between the different regional/subregional assessments. PMID:26881749

  12. An overview of the floristic richness and conservation of the arid regions of northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura Arriaga; Elizabeth Moreno; Claudia Aguilar

    2005-01-01

    The arid and semiarid regions of Northern Mexico harbor diverse, highly endemic, and geographically complex ecosystems. These share topographic and biogeographic similarities that can be used as an analytical framework to assess biodiversity patterns. This study presents the current status of vascular plant inventories for Mexican Aridamerica. The spatial distribution...

  13. Analysing biodiversity and conservation knowledge products to support regional environmental assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Thomas M.; Akçakaya, H. Resit; Burgess, Neil D.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Hoffmann, Michael; Juffe-Bignoli, Diego; Kingston, Naomi; Macsharry, Brian; Parr, Mike; Perianin, Laurence; Regan, Eugenie C.; Rodrigues, Ana S. L.; Rondinini, Carlo; Shennan-Farpon, Yara; Young, Bruce E.

    2016-02-01

    Two processes for regional environmental assessment are currently underway: the Global Environment Outlook (GEO) and Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). Both face constraints of data, time, capacity, and resources. To support these assessments, we disaggregate three global knowledge products according to their regions and subregions. These products are: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Key Biodiversity Areas (specifically Important Bird & Biodiversity Areas [IBAs], and Alliance for Zero Extinction [AZE] sites), and Protected Planet. We present fourteen Data citations: numbers of species occurring and percentages threatened; numbers of endemics and percentages threatened; downscaled Red List Indices for mammals, birds, and amphibians; numbers, mean sizes, and percentage coverages of IBAs and AZE sites; percentage coverage of land and sea by protected areas; and trends in percentages of IBAs and AZE sites wholly covered by protected areas. These data will inform the regional/subregional assessment chapters on the status of biodiversity, drivers of its decline, and institutional responses, and greatly facilitate comparability and consistency between the different regional/subregional assessments.

  14. Conservation of indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants of Western Himalayan region Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sajjad; Murtaza, Ghulam; Mehmood, Ansar; Qureshi, Rizwana Aleem

    2017-05-01

    The aim of present was to document indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants traditionally used by inhabitants of Rawalakot Azad Kashmir and to screen selected medicinal plants for their antibacterial potential. Several field surveys were conducted to document indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants through interviews from local inhabitants during 2010-2013. During the study, 58 plant species, belonging to 37 families, were identified and their medicinal uses were recorded. Ethnobotanical data indicates that inhabitants of Rawalakot use medicinal plant mainly for the treatment of stomach, liver and sexual disorders. Usually fresh plant materials were used for medicinal preparations and administrated orally. Among all the species studied, three most frequently used medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Berberis lycium and Zanthoxylum armatum were screened for their antibacterial potential by using disc diffusion method. The crude aqueous, petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts were found to be very active against selected bacterial strains. The present study contributes significantly to the medicinal plant knowledge and shows that medicinal plant knowledge is deteriorating among younger generations. Therefore, further research is needed to document indigenous knowledge, to find conservation status of medicinal plant species and to find antimicrobial compounds for more sophisticated usage of medicinal plants in future.

  15. Comprehensive highway corridor planning with sustainability indicators : [research summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The Maryland State Highway Administration (SHA) has initiated major planning : efforts to improve transportation efficiency, safety and sustainability on critical : highway corridors through its Comprehensive Highway Corridor (CHC) program. : It is i...

  16. 78 FR 7477 - Multistate Corridor Operations and Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... in the Multistate Corridor Operations and Management Program authorized by the Safe, Accountable... projects to improve multimodal transportation system management and operations. This notice seeks... Multistate Corridor Operations and Management (MCOM) programs and projects. The purpose of these investments...

  17. 77 FR 73734 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    .... 5] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of a Northeast Corridor Safety... Committee is made up of stakeholders operating on the [[Page 73735

  18. 78 FR 23815 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    .... 6] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee (NECSC) Meeting. [[Page 23816

  19. Concept of operations : Dallas Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This concept of operations (Con Ops) for the US-75 Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) Program has been developed as part of the US : Department of Transportation Integrated Corridor Management Initiative, which is an innovative research initiative ...

  20. Integrated corridor management : implementation guide and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This implementation guide is intended for use by adopters of integrated corridor management (ICM) approaches and strategies to address congestion and travel time reliability issues within specific travel corridors. It introduces the topic of ICM and ...

  1. Final report: Prototyping a combustion corridor; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutland, Christopher J.; Leach, Joshua

    2001-01-01

    The Combustion Corridor is a concept in which researchers in combustion and thermal sciences have unimpeded access to large volumes of remote computational results. This will enable remote, collaborative analysis and visualization of state-of-the-art combustion science results. The Engine Research Center (ERC) at the University of Wisconsin - Madison partnered with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, and several other universities to build and test the first stages of a combustion corridor. The ERC served two important functions in this partnership. First, we work extensively with combustion simulations so we were able to provide real world research data sets for testing the Corridor concepts. Second, the ERC was part of an extension of the high bandwidth based DOE National Laboratory connections to universities

  2. California air transportation study: A transportation system for the California Corridor of the year 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    To define and solve the problems of transportation in the California Corrider in the year 2010, the 1989 California Polytechnic State University Aeronautical Engineering Senior Design class determined future corridor transportation needs and developed a system to meet the requirements. A market study, which included interpreting travel demand and gauging the future of regional and national air travel in and out of the corridor, allowed the goals of the project to be accurately refined. Comprehensive trade-off studies of several proposed transporation systems were conducted to determine which components would form the final proposed system. Preliminary design and further analysis were performed for each resulting component. The proposed system consists of three vehicles and a special hub or mode mixer, the Corridor Access Port (CAP). The vehicles are: (1) an electric powered aircraft to serve secondary airports and the CAP; (2) a high speed magnetic levitation train running through the CAP and the high population density areas of the corridor; and (3) a vertical takeoff and landing tilt rotor aircraft to serve both intercity and intrametropolitan travelers from the CAP and city vertiports. The CAP is a combination and an extension of the hub, mode mixer, and Wayport concepts. The CAP is an integrated part of the system which meets the travel demands in the corridor, and interfaces with interstate and international travel.

  3. Conservation of the primary structure, organization, and function of the human and mouse β-globin locus-activating regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, A.M.; Ley, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    DNA sequences located in a region 6-18 kilobases (kb) upstream from the human ε-globin gene are known as the locus-activating region (LAR) or dominant control region. This region is thought to play a key role in chromatin organization of the β-like globin gene cluster during erythroid development. Since the human β-globin LAR is functional in mice, the authors reasoned that critical LAR sequence elements might be conserved between mice and humans. They therefore cloned murine genomic sequences homologous to one portion of the human LAR. They found that this murine DNA fragment (mouse LAR site II) and sequences homologous to human LAR sites I and III are located upstream from the mouse β-like globin gene cluster and determined that their locations relative to the cluster are similar to that of their human counterparts. The homologous site II sequences are 70% identical between mice and humans over a stretch of ∼800 base pairs. These results suggest that primary structural elements endash and the spatial organization of these elements endash are important for function of the β-globin LAR

  4. Conserved regional patterns of GABA-related transcript expression in the neocortex of subjects with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takanori; Bazmi, H Holly; Mirnics, Karoly; Wu, Qiang; Sampson, Allan R; Lewis, David A

    2008-04-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit disturbances in a number of cognitive, affective, sensory, and motor functions that depend on the circuitry of different cortical areas. The cognitive deficits associated with dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex result, at least in part, from abnormalities in GABA neurotransmission, as reflected in a specific pattern of altered expression of GABA-related genes. Consequently, the authors sought to determine whether this pattern of altered gene expression is restricted to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or could also contribute to the dysfunction of other cortical areas in subjects with schizophrenia. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the levels of eight GABA-related transcripts in four cortical areas (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and primary motor and primary visual cortices) of subjects (N=12) with schizophrenia and matched normal comparison subjects. Expression levels of seven transcripts were lower in subjects with schizophrenia, with the magnitude of reduction for each transcript comparable across the four areas. The largest reductions were detected for mRNA encoding somatostatin and parvalbumin, followed by moderate decreases in mRNA expression for the 67-kilodalton isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase, the GABA membrane transporter GAT-1, and the alpha 1 and delta subunits of GABA(A) receptors. In contrast, the expression of calretinin mRNA did not differ between the subject groups in any of the four areas. Because the areas examined represent the major functional domains (e.g., association, limbic, motor, and sensory) of the cerebral cortex, our findings suggest that a conserved set of molecular alterations affecting GABA neurotransmission contribute to the pathophysiology of different clinical features of schizophrenia.

  5. Forest corridors maintain historical gene flow in a tiger metapopulation in the highlands of central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sandeep; Dutta, Trishna; Maldonado, Jesús E; Wood, Thomas C; Panwar, Hemendra Singh; Seidensticker, John

    2013-09-22

    Understanding the patterns of gene flow of an endangered species metapopulation occupying a fragmented habitat is crucial for landscape-level conservation planning and devising effective conservation strategies. Tigers (Panthera tigris) are globally endangered and their populations are highly fragmented and exist in a few isolated metapopulations across their range. We used multi-locus genotypic data from 273 individual tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) from four tiger populations of the Satpura-Maikal landscape of central India to determine whether the corridors in this landscape are functional. This 45 000 km(2) landscape contains 17% of India's tiger population and 12% of its tiger habitat. We applied Bayesian and coalescent-based analyses to estimate contemporary and historical gene flow among these populations and to infer their evolutionary history. We found that the tiger metapopulation in central India has high rates of historical and contemporary gene flow. The tests for population history reveal that tigers populated central India about 10 000 years ago. Their population subdivision began about 1000 years ago and accelerated about 200 years ago owing to habitat fragmentation, leading to four spatially separated populations. These four populations have been in migration-drift equilibrium maintained by high gene flow. We found the highest rates of contemporary gene flow in populations that are connected by forest corridors. This information is highly relevant to conservation practitioners and policy makers, because deforestation, road widening and mining are imminent threats to these corridors.

  6. 76 FR 72029 - Multistate Corridor Operations and Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... in the FHWA Multistate Corridor Operations and Management Program as authorized in 23 U.S.C. 511... Multistate Corridor Operations and Management Program as authorized in 23 U.S.C. 511. This notice clarifies... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Multistate Corridor Operations and...

  7. Habitat corridor utilization by the gray mouse lemur, Microcebus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For this, we trapped M. murinus in four forest fragments and mixed tree plantations between the fragments. One of the corridors was ... During four years of study, only one male M.murinus used the Melaleuca corridor, while several M. murinus were caught in the Eucalyptus and the Acacia corridor in 2013. The density of the ...

  8. 77 FR 20690 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    .... 4] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of the Northeast Corridor Safety... NECSC is made up of stakeholders operating on the Northeast Corridor (NEC), and the purpose of the...

  9. Role of forest conservation in lessening land degradation in a temperate region: the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo-Delgado, Lilia; López-García, José; Alcántara-Ayala, Irasema

    2014-06-01

    With international concern about the rates of deforestation worldwide, particular attention has been paid to Latin America. Forest conservation programmes in Mexico include Payment for Environmental Services (PES), a scheme that has been successfully introduced in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve. To seek further evidence of the role of PES in lessening land degradation processes in a temperate region, the conservation state of the Cerro Prieto ejido within the Reserve was assessed by an analysis of changes in vegetation cover and land-use between 1971 and 2013. There were no changes in the total forest surface area, but the relative proportions of the different classes of cover density had changed. In 1971, closed and semi-closed forest occupied 247.81 ha and 5.38 ha, 82.33% and 1.79% of the total area of the ejido, respectively. By 2013, closed forest had decreased to 230.38 ha (76.54% of the ejido), and semi-closed cover was 17.23 ha (5.72% of the ejido), suggesting that some semi-closed forest had achieved closed status. The final balance between forest losses and recovery was: 29.63 ha were lost, whereas 13.72 ha were recovered. Losses were mainly linked to a sanitation harvest programme to control the bark beetle Scolytus mundus. Ecotourism associated with forest conservation in the Cerro Prieto ejido has been considered by inhabitants as a focal alternative for economic development. Consequently, it is essential to develop a well-planned and solidly structured approach based on social cohesion to foster a community-led sustainable development at local level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Developing infrastructure for electric passenger-cars in the corridor between Southern Scandinavia and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement; Jespersen, Per Homann; Lohse, Sandrina

    2012-01-01

    and academic institutions. A strategy for the development of infrastructure for electric passenger-cars in the corridor was formed using the “Future Creating” methodology. The workshop was part of the SCANDRIA Action Programme and pointed towards ways for e-mobility in the region. The workshop also provided...

  11. Rice Cellulose SynthaseA8 Plant-Conserved Region Is a Coiled-Coil at the Catalytic Core Entrance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rushton, Phillip S.; Olek, Anna T.; Makowski, Lee; Badger, John; Steussy, C. Nicklaus; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Stauffacher, Cynthia V. (NEU); (Purdue)

    2016-11-22

    The crystallographic structure of a rice (Oryza sativa) cellulose synthase, OsCesA8, plant-conserved region (P-CR), one of two unique domains in the catalytic domain of plant CesAs, was solved to 2.4 Å resolution. Two antiparallel α-helices form a coiled-coil domain linked by a large extended connector loop containing a conserved trio of aromatic residues. The P-CR structure was fit into a molecular envelope for the P-CR domain derived from small-angle X-ray scattering data. The P-CR structure and molecular envelope, combined with a homology-based chain trace of the CesA8 catalytic core, were modeled into a previously determined CesA8 small-angle X-ray scattering molecular envelope to produce a detailed topological model of the CesA8 catalytic domain. The predicted position for the P-CR domain from the molecular docking models places the P-CR connector loop into a hydrophobic pocket of the catalytic core, with the coiled-coil aligned near the entrance of the substrate UDP-glucose into the active site. In this configuration, the P-CR coiled-coil alone is unlikely to regulate substrate access to the active site, but it could interact with other domains of CesA, accessory proteins, or other CesA catalytic domains to control substrate delivery.

  12. Mitigation and Compensation under EU Nature Conservation Law in the Flemish Region: Beyond the Deadlock for Development Projects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Schoukens

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available For years, the predicament of many of the European protected habitats and species in the Flemish Region, as in many other Member States, passed relatively unnoticed. The lack of proper rules and clear implementation rules fuelled the impression amongst project developers and planning authorities that the impacts of project developments on biodiversity did not really warrant closer assessment. However, in the past ten years, strict national case law has significantly altered this view. Faced with tighter judicial scrutiny, the Habitats and Birds Directives were seen as an important obstacle to project development. Hence mitigation and compensation have now come up as novel approaches to better align spatial aspirations with the conservation of nature. In reality, mitigation was often used as a cover-up for projects that would not fit the strict requirements enshrined in the derogatory clauses. Interestingly, the Belgian Council of State showed itself quite cautious in reasserting the lax view of some planning authorities on mitigation and compensation. In reviewing the legality of several new approaches to mitigation and compensation, the Belgian Council of State, which was initially very cautious in quashing decisions that would actually jeopardise major infrastructure developments, has rendered some compelling rulings on the specific application of mitigation and compensatory measures in a spatial planning context. By letting the objectives of EU nature conservation law prevail in the face of economic interests, the recent case law of the Belgian Council of State can be seen as a remarkable example of judicial environmental activism.

  13. Covalent protein modification with ISG15 via a conserved cysteine in the hinge region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika N Bade

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 (interferon-stimulated gene of 15 kDa is strongly induced by type I interferons and displays antiviral activity. As other ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubls, ISG15 is post-translationally conjugated to substrate proteins by an isopeptide bond between the C-terminal glycine of ISG15 and the side chains of lysine residues in the substrates (ISGylation. ISG15 consists of two ubiquitin-like domains that are separated by a hinge region. In many orthologs, this region contains a single highly reactive cysteine residue. Several hundred potential substrates for ISGylation have been identified but only a few of them have been rigorously verified. In order to investigate the modification of several ISG15 substrates, we have purified ISG15 conjugates from cell extracts by metal-chelate affinity purification and immunoprecipitations. We found that the levels of proteins modified by human ISG15 can be decreased by the addition of reducing agents. With the help of thiol blocking reagents, a mutational analysis and miRNA mediated knock-down of ISG15 expression, we revealed that this modification occurs in living cells via a disulphide bridge between the substrates and Cys78 in the hinge region of ISG15. While the ISG15 activating enzyme UBE1L is conjugated by ISG15 in the classical way, we show that the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme Ubc13 can either be classically conjugated by ISG15 or can form a disulphide bridge with ISG15 at the active site cysteine 87. The latter modification would interfere with its function as ubiquitin conjugating enzyme. However, we found no evidence for an ISG15 modification of the dynamin-like GTPases MxA and hGBP1. These findings indicate that the analysis of potential substrates for ISG15 conjugation must be performed with great care to distinguish between the two types of modification since many assays such as immunoprecipitation or metal-chelate affinity purification are performed with little or no

  14. Desalination as Groundwater Conservation: The Cost of Protecting Cultural and Environmental Resources in Chile's Region II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, E. C.; Cristi, O.; Libecap, G. D.

    2012-12-01

    of the empirical work, the theoretical development provides an important perspective into groundwater management and the important role of understanding the physical system in water marketing. Worldwide, subsidized and scarce water is allocated to farmers for social and political reasons. The losses from this type of allocation are often ignored or marginalized. The Chilean case demonstrates that the losses due to economically inefficient allocation are real, because the alternative is greater consumption of other resources (fossil fuels in this case), not conservation. The Chilean case also demonstrates the difficulty of adequately defining water rights for efficient markets due to the physical properties of hydrologic systems. Because groundwater and surface water systems are linked and water is partially recycled, water markets may over allocate water to consumptive users or those with preferable extraction locations. This paper provides a theoretical exposition of how water rights that fail incorporate important properties of the physical system may lead to inefficient water markets.

  15. New Comparative Experiments of Different Soil Types for Farmland Water Conservation in Arid Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiben Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated farmland is the main food source of desert areas, and moisture is the main limiting factor of desert farmland crop productivity. Study on the influence of irrigation on desert farmland soil moisture can guide the agricultural water resource utilization and agricultural production in those regions. At present, the efficiency of irrigation water usage in Northwest China is as low as approximately 40% of the irrigated water. To understand the response of farmland soil moisture in different soil types on irrigation in the Ulan Buh Desert of Inner Mongolia of China, this experimental study takes advantage of different infiltration characteristics and hydraulic conductivities of sand, clay, and loam to determine an optimized soil combination scheme with the purpose of establishing a hydraulic barrier that reduces infiltration. This study includes three comparative experiments with each consisting of a 100 cm thick of filled sand, or clay, or loam soil underneath a 50 cm plough soil, with a total thickness of 150 cm soil profile. A new type of lysimeter is installed below the above-mentioned 150 cm soil profile to continuously measure deep soil recharge (DSR, and the ECH2O-5 soil moisture sensors are installed at different depths over the 150 cm soil profile to simultaneously monitor the soil moisture above the lysimeter. The study analyzes the characteristics of soil moisture dynamics, the irrigation-related recharge on soil moisture, and the DSR characteristics before and after irrigation, during the early sowing period from 2 April to 2 May 2017. Research results show that: (1 Irrigation significantly influences the soil moisture of 0–150 cm depths. The soil moisture increase after the irrigation follows the order from high to low when it is in the order of loam, sand, and clay. (2 Irrigation-induced soil moisture recharge occurs on all three soil combinations at 0–150 cm layers, and the order of soil moisture recharge from high to low

  16. Swift fox survey along Heartland Expressway Corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The swift fox (Vulpes velox) is a small canid classified as endangered within the : state of Nebraska. Future construction of the Heartland Expressway Corridor (HEC), a : 300 km road expansion project in the panhandle of the state, may impact the res...

  17. Habitat-based conservation strategies cannot compensate for climate-change-induced range loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessely, Johannes; Hülber, Karl; Gattringer, Andreas; Kuttner, Michael; Moser, Dietmar; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Schindler, Stefan; Dullinger, Stefan; Essl, Franz

    2017-11-01

    Anthropogenic habitat fragmentation represents a major obstacle to species shifting their range in response to climate change. Conservation measures to increase the (meta-)population capacity and permeability of landscapes may help but the effectiveness of such measures in a warming climate has rarely been evaluated. Here, we simulate range dynamics of 51 species from three taxonomic groups (vascular plants, butterflies and grasshoppers) in Central Europe as driven by twenty-first-century climate scenarios and analyse how three habitat-based conservation strategies (establishing corridors, improving the landscape matrix, and protected area management) modify species' projected range size changes. These simulations suggest that the conservation strategies considered are unable to save species from regional extinction. For those persisting, they reduce the magnitude of range loss in lowland but not in alpine species. Protected area management and corridor establishment are more effective than matrix improvement. However, none of the conservation strategies evaluated could fully compensate the negative impact of climate change for vascular plants, butterflies or grasshoppers in central Europe.

  18. Transport Corridors in the Russian Integration Projects, the Case of the Eurasian Economic Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Podberezkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the political importance of transport corridors in terms of the development of integration projects in the post-Soviet space. The world is witnessing the formation of a single market and transport and communication infrastructure, which intensifies competition among regional and world leaders, both states and non-state actors, such as businesses, markets over the routes of transporting goods. In the medium and long term the value of the control over the transport routes will increase due to the dynamics of economic development in the Asia-Pacific region. Competition for the development of projects of international transport corridors (ITC between the leading countries in the region will increase, because the ITC entail the formation of a common political space, the reduction of tariff and customs barriers, which provides easy access to the markets of countries linked by ITCs and creates the preconditions for economic integration. The growing political importance of ITC is reflected in the fact that global leaders such as China, the US, the EU, are trying to create their own versions of international land transport corridors connecting Europe and Asia. China is trying to promote their transport project "Economic Belt Silk Road" European countries develop cooperation on ITC TRACECA with other countries of Eurasia. US also embody their interests through the implementation of the project by the ITC in Afghanistan. Transport corridors in Russia are seen as a way to integrate it into the global transportation system and logistics space. To do this, Russia needs to develop Eurasian transport corridors through its territory. As a result of the implementation of transport projects Russia will be able to ensure the transit of goods from China to Europe, which has a positive impact on the economic development of the regions through which they pass. Development of international transportation through Russia will unite many of the

  19. Energy conservation programs of Pemex exploration and production, south region; Programas de ahorro de energia en Pemex exploracion y produccion, region sur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Milla, Guillermo; Garcia Juarez, Francisco; Alarcon Aleman, Jose Mauricio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    The technological developments of energy economizing equipment constitute a powerful tool for the conservation and saving of the electric energy in new or existing installations. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) Exploration and Production initiated in 1997 a program for energy economizing in the South region, for which the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, through its Unit for the Use of Energy, collaborated performing energy assessments in 115 buildings of the above mentioned region. This paper describes the employed methodology to carry on the energy assessment, which consisted in an analysis of each building and different options for energy economizing were presented, which was accompanied with cost-benefit studies. The results obtained show that the air conditioning equipment and lighting represent the most important loads permanently connected, therefore the study was concentrated in these two loads [Espanol] Los desarrollos tecnologicos de equipos ahorradores de energia constituyen una poderosa herramienta para la conservacion y el ahorro de energia electrica en instalaciones nuevas o existentes. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) Exploracion y Produccion inicio en 1997 un programa para el ahorro de energia en la region sur, para lo cual el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, a traves de la Unidad de Uso de Energia, colaboro realizando diagnosticos energeticos en 115 edificios de dicha region. En este documento se describe la metodologia utilizada para realizar el diagnostico energetico, el cual consistio en un analisis de cada edificio y se presentaron diversas opciones para ahorrar energia, lo cual se acompano de estudios de costo-beneficio. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que los equipos de aire acondicionado e iluminacion representan la parte mas importante de las cargas conectadas permanentemente, por lo que el estudio se concentro en estas dos cargas

  20. Energy conservation programs of Pemex exploration and production, south region; Programas de ahorro de energia en Pemex exploracion y produccion, region sur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Milla, Guillermo; Garcia Juarez, Francisco; Alarcon Aleman, Jose Mauricio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The technological developments of energy economizing equipment constitute a powerful tool for the conservation and saving of the electric energy in new or existing installations. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) Exploration and Production initiated in 1997 a program for energy economizing in the South region, for which the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, through its Unit for the Use of Energy, collaborated performing energy assessments in 115 buildings of the above mentioned region. This paper describes the employed methodology to carry on the energy assessment, which consisted in an analysis of each building and different options for energy economizing were presented, which was accompanied with cost-benefit studies. The results obtained show that the air conditioning equipment and lighting represent the most important loads permanently connected, therefore the study was concentrated in these two loads [Espanol] Los desarrollos tecnologicos de equipos ahorradores de energia constituyen una poderosa herramienta para la conservacion y el ahorro de energia electrica en instalaciones nuevas o existentes. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) Exploracion y Produccion inicio en 1997 un programa para el ahorro de energia en la region sur, para lo cual el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, a traves de la Unidad de Uso de Energia, colaboro realizando diagnosticos energeticos en 115 edificios de dicha region. En este documento se describe la metodologia utilizada para realizar el diagnostico energetico, el cual consistio en un analisis de cada edificio y se presentaron diversas opciones para ahorrar energia, lo cual se acompano de estudios de costo-beneficio. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que los equipos de aire acondicionado e iluminacion representan la parte mas importante de las cargas conectadas permanentemente, por lo que el estudio se concentro en estas dos cargas

  1. Are women in the MENA region really that different from women in Europe? Globalization, conservative values and female labor market participation.

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Justina AV; Aydıner-Avşar, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to compare women in the MENA region with women in Europe as to how globalization affects their conservative values and attitudes, and, thereby, their labor market participation. The authors define conservative values as both religious values and socio-political attitudes relating to family issues and leadership. Using micro data from the World Values Survey covering over 80 countries between 1981 and 2014, we employ three distinct indicators of globalization that reflect, fi...

  2. Building a Cultural Heritage Corridor Based on Geodesign Theory and Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chen

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Geodesign is a type of methodology that integrates dynamic environment modeling based on GIS with planning and design in order to support relevant decision making. It has substantially changed the dominant ways of thinking in planning and design, and has solved spatial issues relating to cultural and natural resources from a new perspective. Taking the Qionglai section of the Southern Silk Road as an example, the present study implemented geodesign theory and methods to investigate the technical approach to building a cultural heritage corridor based on GIS spatial analysis and overlay analysis.Firstly, we analyzed the various data layers of the cultural and natural features in the planning region. We organized all the data based on the principle of classification, organizing it into categories such as natural, cultural, and recreational data. Therefore, we defined the theme of the Southern Silk Road as a historical cultural heritage corridor. Secondly, based on the background, the heritage corridor boundary was defined according to its natural, cultural, and administrative spatial characteristics, with the three thematic boundaries overlaid in order to define a boundary location area covering about 852 square kilometers. Next, we divided all of the resources into three categories: natural heritage resources, cultural heritage resources, and intangible heritage resources and recreational spaces. The elements which could be used to build up the cultural heritage corridor were selected by evaluation and spatial analysis. In this way, we obtained some conclusive spatial information, such as element structures, the heritage density distribution, and the heritage number distribution. Finally, within the heritage boundary, we connected the tangible and intangible heritage resources to form various kinds of linear spaces, with the aim of obtaining the spatial pattern of the heritage corridor. KEYWORDS: Geodesign, heritage corridor, heritage

  3. Conserved region at the COOH terminus of human immunodeficiency virus gp120 envelope protein contains an immunodominant epitope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palker, T.J.; Matthews, T.J.; Clark, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    A highly immunogenic epitope from a conserved COOH-terminal region of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gp120 envelope protein has been identified with antisera from HIV-seropositive subjects and a synthetic peptide (SP-22) containing 15 amino acids from this region (Ala-Pro-Thr-Lys-Ala-Lys-Arg-Arg-Val-Val-Gln-Arg-Glu-Lys-Arg). Peptide SP-22 absorbed up to 100% of anti-gp120 antibody reactivity from select HIV + patient sera in immunoblot assays and up to 79% of serum anti-gp120 antibody reactivity in competition RIA. In RIA, 45% of HIV-seropositive subjects had antibodies that bound to peptide SP-22. Human anti-SP-22 antibodies that bound to and were eluted from an SP-22 affinity column reacted with gp120 in RIA and immunoblot assays but did not neutralize HIV or inhibit HIV-induced syncytium formation in vitro, even though these antibodies comprised 70% of all anti-gp120 antibodies in the test serum. In contrast, the remaining 30% of SP-22 nonreactive anti-gp120 antibodies did not react with gp120 in immunoblot assays but did react in RIA and neutralized HIV in vitro. Thus, ≅ 50% of HIV-seropositive patients make high titers of nonneutralizing antibodies to an immunodominant antigen on gp120 defined by SP-22. Moreover, the COOH terminus of gp120 contains the major antigen or antigens identified by human anti-gp120 antibodies in immunoblot assays

  4. Short Communication: An apospory-specific genomic region is conserved between Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) and Pennisetum squamulatum Fresen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche; Cong; Chen; Hanna; Gustine; Sherwood; Ozias-Akins

    1999-07-01

    Twelve molecular markers linked to pseudogamous apospory, a form of gametophytic apomixis, were previously isolated from Pennisetum squamulatum Fresen. No recombination between these markers was found in a segregating population of 397 individuals (Ozias-Akins et al. 1998, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 95, 5127-5132). The objective of the present study was to test if these markers were also linked to the aposporous mode of reproduction in two small segregating populations of Cenchrus ciliaris (= Pennisetum ciliare (L.)Link), another apomictic grass species. Among 12 markers (sequence characterized amplified regions, SCARs), six were scored as dominant markers between aposporous and sexual C. ciliaris genotypes (presence/absence, respectively). Five were always linked to apospory and one showed a low level of recombination in 84 progenies. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were observed between sexual and apomictic phenotypes for three of the six remaining SCARs from P. squamulatum when used as probes. No recombination was observed in the F1 progenies. Preliminary data from megabase DNA analysis and sequencing in both species indicate that an apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR) is highly conserved between the two species. Although C. ciliaris has a smaller genome size to P. squamulatum, a higher copy number for markers linked to apospory found in the former may impair the progress of positional cloning of gene(s) for apomixis in this species.

  5. Targeted reforestation could reverse declines in connectivity for understory birds in a tropical habitat corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Matthew E; DeFries, Ruth S; Sesnie, Steven E; Arroyo-Mora, J Pablo; Chazdon, Robin L

    2016-07-01

    Re-establishing connectivity between protected areas isolated by habitat clearing is a key conservation goal in the humid tropics. In northeastern Costa Rica, payments for environmental services (PES) and a government ban on deforestation have subsidized forest protection and reforestation in the San Juan-La Selva Biological Corridor (SJLSBC), resulting in a decline in mature forest loss and the expansion of tree plantations. We use field studies and graph models to assess how conservation efforts have altered functional connectivity over the last 25 years for four species of insectivorous understory birds. Field playback studies assessed how reforestation habitat quality affected the willingness of Myrmeciza exsul, Henicorhina leucosticta, Thamnophilus atrinucha, and Glyphorynchus spirurus to travel outside forest habitat for territorial defense. Observed travel distances were greatest in nonnative and native tree plantations with high understory stem density, regardless of overstory composition. In contrast, tree plantations with low stem density had travel responses comparable to open pasture for three of the four bird species. We modeled landscape connectivity for each species using graph models based on varying possible travel distances in tree plantations, gallery forests, and pastures. From 1986 to 2011, connectivity for all species declined in the SJLSBC landscape (5825 km 2 ) by 14% to 21% despite only a 4.9% net loss in forest area and the rapid expansion of tree plantations over 2% of the landscape. Plantation placement in the landscape limited their potential facilitation of connectivity because they were located either far from forest cover or within already contiguous forest areas. We mapped current connectivity bottlenecks and identified priority areas for future reforestation. We estimate that reforestation of priority areas could improve connectivity by 2% with only a 1% gain in forest cover, an impressive gain given the small area reforested

  6. Gendered Access and Control Over Land and Water Resources in the Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna N. Sikira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper assessed the gendered access and control over land and water, using the Ihemi cluster of the Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania (SAGCOT as a study area. Specifically, the paper answered the question on how decisions are made between men and women over land and water in the SAGCOT area, as well as how access and control over land and water is conducted. Data for this paper was drawn from the baseline study which was conducted for the project known as Laying Foundation for Effective Landscape-level Planning for Sustainable Development (LiFELand. A cross-sectional research design was used, whereby a questionnaire was administered to 167 women and 440 men. In addition, focus group discussions and key informant interviews were also conducted to complement and allow triangulation of data. Quantitative data was analyzed descriptively; while, qualitative data was analyzed using content analysis. In general, the results show that female headed households accounted for more than a quarter of the surveyed households; the number was slightly higher in the Njombe region. Results further show that women had no control over land and water as important productive resources in rural areas. The results also show that a larger proportion of both men and women had no right of occupancy over the land they owned hence their inability to use it as collateral in accessing loans from formal financial institutions. The paper therefore recommends efforts be made to empower women, hence enabling them to actively participate in decision-making, particularly regarding land and water. Equitable decision-making power can immensely enhance ecosystem conservation and sustainable utilization over land and water as women are the major actors in agriculture. To achieve gender equality there is a need for awareness creation for both men and women using gender sensitive programs that will allow not only equality in use but a sustainable utilization of Land

  7. From Caspian to Turkey: The Southern European Gas Corridor's Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebiere, Noemie

    2014-01-01

    With the growth of global energy demand and the raise of conflicts for the control of energy resources and supply routes, energy security is becoming a major issue for the European Union, but also for suppliers and transit countries. The recent crisis in Ukraine highlights the role of gas as a strategic weapon in the Russian external policy and reinforces the need of the European countries to diversify energy sources and supply routes. The southern European gas corridor, which carries hydrocarbons of the Caspian region to Europe through Turkey, is as a key project of E.U. and U.S. strategy to ensure the energy security of Europe. However, with the current instability in the Middle East and the difficulty to set-up an agreement in the Iranian nuclear negotiations, the issue of the ability of the southern gas corridor to be supplied with enough amount of resources remains hypothetical. In this respect, this approach analyses the deep interactions between energy issues, territorial security, political aims and economic interests

  8. Movements and corridors of African elephants in relation to protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas-Hamilton, I.; Krink, T.; Vollrath, F.

    2005-04-01

    Understanding how mammals satisfy their need for space in fragmenting ecosystems is crucial for ecosystem conservation. Using state-of-the-art global positioning system (GPS) technology we tracked 11 focal African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Kenya at 3-hourly fix intervals and collected between 34 and 406 days per individual. Our recordings gave a high spatio-temporal resolution compared to previous studies and allowed novel insights into range use. The actual ranges of the tracked elephants are smaller than usually represented. Moreover, the ranges in our sample were complex and not confined to officially designated protected areas, except where fenced. All the unfenced elephants in our sample had distinct `home sectors' linked by `travel' corridors. Within each home sector the elephants concentrated in favourite `core zones'. Such core zones tended to lie in protected areas whereas corridors typically crossed unprotected range. Elephants moved significantly faster along corridors than elsewhere in their range, which suggests awareness of danger outside the protected area. We conclude that understanding the complex use of an animal's range is crucial for conservation planning aiming to balance animal interests with those of human beings that co-habit in their range.

  9. [Ecological and economic harmony evaluation and spatial evolution of the Hexi corridor, northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-long; Shi, Pei-ji; Li, Sheng-mei; Tong, Hua-li; Nie, Xiao-ying; Wei, Wei

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between economic development and environment and the evolution characteristics of spatial pattern in Hexi Corridor of Northwest China were analyzed based on Landsat images in 1985, 1995, 2000 and 2011 with twenty counties in Hexi Corridor chosen as the basic research units. The ecological economic harmony during 1985-2011 was estimated according to ESV (ecosystem services value) and EEH (ecological and economic harmony) index with the ecosystem services value estimation methods. The results showed that the land type of the study area dramatically changed during the study period, the grassland decreased badly, and the construction land and cultivated land increased quickly. The ESV showed an overall downward trend, especially in the Shiyang River basin and the middle of Heihe River. The ESV in the Shule River basin in this period. After 2000, the economic growth speeded up visibly in the study area. The economic development concentrated in the resource-based cities and regional central cities, and declined from the center of corridor to the both sides. The ecological-economic relation in Hexi Corridor experienced a transformation of "preliminary deterioration--further deterioration--low grade coordination". The EEH had large changes in the Shiyang River basin and the middle of Heihe River, which experienced a transformation of "conflict--more conflicts--less conflicts", however, there was little change in Shule River basin. The development mode and the comprehensive reclamation of Shiyang River basin and Heihe River basin had a significant influence on the regional ecological and economic harmony.

  10. Past and predicted future effects of housing growth on open space conservation opportunity areas and habitat connectivity around National Wildlife Refuges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Christopher M.; Baumann, Matthias; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Helmers, David P.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2016-01-01

    ContextHousing growth can alter suitability of matrix habitats around protected areas, strongly affecting movements of organisms and, consequently, threatening connectivity of protected area networks.ObjectivesOur goal was to quantify distribution and growth of housing around the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wildlife Refuge System. This is important information for conservation planning, particularly given promotion of habitat connectivity as a climate change adaptation measure.MethodsWe quantified housing growth from 1940 to 2000 and projected future growth to 2030 within three distances from refuges, identifying very low housing density open space, “opportunity areas” (contiguous areas with habitat corridors within these opportunity areas in 2000.ResultsOur results indicated that the number and area of open space opportunity areas generally decreased with increasing distance from refuges and with the passage of time. Furthermore, total area in habitat corridors was much lower than in opportunity areas. In addition, the number of corridors sometimes exceeded number of opportunity areas as a result of habitat fragmentation, indicating corridors are likely vulnerable to land use change. Finally, regional differences were strong and indicated some refuges may have experienced so much housing growth already that they are effectively too isolated to adapt to climate change, while others may require extensive habitat restoration work.ConclusionsWildlife refuges are increasingly isolated by residential housing development, potentially constraining the movement of wildlife and, therefore, their ability to adapt to a changing climate.

  11. In Silico Design and Experimental Validation of siRNAs Targeting Conserved Regions of Multiple Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud ElHefnawi

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi is a post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism that mediates the sequence-specific degradation of targeted RNA and thus provides a tremendous opportunity for development of oligonucleotide-based drugs. Here, we report on the design and validation of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs targeting highly conserved regions of the hepatitis C virus (HCV genome. To aim for therapeutic applications by optimizing the RNAi efficacy and reducing potential side effects, we considered different factors such as target RNA variations, thermodynamics and accessibility of the siRNA and target RNA, and off-target effects. This aim was achieved using an in silico design and selection protocol complemented by an automated MysiRNA-Designer pipeline. The protocol included the design and filtration of siRNAs targeting highly conserved and accessible regions within the HCV internal ribosome entry site, and adjacent core sequences of the viral genome with high-ranking efficacy scores. Off-target analysis excluded siRNAs with potential binding to human mRNAs. Under this strict selection process, two siRNAs (HCV353 and HCV258 were selected based on their predicted high specificity and potency. These siRNAs were tested for antiviral efficacy in HCV genotype 1 and 2 replicon cell lines. Both in silico-designed siRNAs efficiently inhibited HCV RNA replication, even at low concentrations and for short exposure times (24h; they also exceeded the antiviral potencies of reference siRNAs targeting HCV. Furthermore, HCV353 and HCV258 siRNAs also inhibited replication of patient-derived HCV genotype 4 isolates in infected Huh-7 cells. Prolonged treatment of HCV replicon cells with HCV353 did not result in the appearance of escape mutant viruses. Taken together, these results reveal the accuracy and strength of our integrated siRNA design and selection protocols. These protocols could be used to design highly potent and specific RNAi-based therapeutic

  12. Reclaiming deserted corridors: Rights of way as common property resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.T.

    1993-01-01

    In Canada, power line transmission corridors are administered and maintained by provincial crown utilities. These corridors have fragmented natural habitats, destroyed biota, and disrupted geological and hydrologic systems. The practices used by utilities to maintain their rights-of-way tend to worsen the environmental and social context of the localities affected by the corridors. If the corridors are considered as common resources, and if co-management of these resources is undertaken involving the utilities and the communities affected by the corridors, public rights-of-way would be created which would have environmental benefits. These corridors would have a recreational potential and could be managed so as to reduce considerably the negative impacts presently generated by current right-of-way management practices. The use of local residents in this management process could ensure that the use of the corridors harmonizes with local needs. Among the obstacles to the co-management of these corridors are the badly defined policies of secondary land use, the restrictions on vegetation maintenance in utility corridors, lengthy approvals processes, and concerns about public liability. To make co-management of these corridors a reality, new policy structures and new procedures have to be developed in cooperation with the utilities and the affected communities. 14 refs., 1 fig

  13. Fallout radionuclide based techniques for assessing the effectiveness of soil conservation measures in different eroded regions of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hanqing; Li Yong; Liu Guoqiang; Li Junjie; Nguyen, M.L.; Funk, R.

    2012-01-01

    Using fallout radionuclide techniques (FRN), we investigated the extent of soil erosion and to quantify the beneficial effects of soil conservation measures at four sites (Xichang city in the Yangtze upriver, Yan'an in the Loess Plateau, Fengning in the wind erosion region of northern China, and Baiquan in black soil region of north-eastern China) extending from South West (SW) to North East (NE) China. At the Xichang site of SW-China, the combined use of FRN 137 Cs and 210 Pbex measurements demonstrated that the effectiveness of vegetation species in reducing soil erosion decreased in the following order: shrubs > trees with litter layer > grasses > trees without litter layer. At the Yan'an site of Loess Plateau, sediment production estimated by 137 Cs declined by 49% due to terracing and by 80% due to vegetated (with grass forest) compared to the cultivated hillslopes. Vegetated hillslope with grasses and forest increased soil organic matter (SOM) by 255%, soil available N (AN) by 198%, and soil available P (AP) by 18% while terracing increased SOM by 121%, soil AN by 103%, and soil AP by 162% compared with the entire cultivated hillslope. Both terracing and vegetating hillslopes were found to enhance soil porosity as shown by a decrease in soil bulk density (1.6% and 6.4%, respectively). At the Fengning site, data from 7 Be measurements indicated that four years of no tillage with high crop residues (50 ∼ 56 cm depth) reduced soil erosion by 44% and no tillage with low residues (25 cm depth) reduced soil erosion rates by 33% when compared with conventional tillage practices. At the Baiquan site in NE-China, soil loss as measured by 137 Cs tracer, decreased by 14% due to terracing and by 34% due to contoured tillage. Our results suggested that shrub cover and composite structure of forest and grass are the effective practices to control hillslope erosion in SW-China, while terracing forest-grass structure can greatly reduce soil erosion and improve soil quality

  14. A practical study for Treatment and Conservation a group of Silver Coins from Dhamar Regional Museum, Dhamar, Yemen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Megahed

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A big group of silver coins{35 coins} was discovered in Banawa excavation , Dhamar , season 2002, and now it is situated in Dhamar Regional Museum ,Yemen. They were covered with a thin grey and black corrosion layers that disfigured them and hid their figures and inscriptions , also Some coins miss parts and others lost their circular.The aims of this work are identified the metallic composition of the coins , investigate the nature of corrosion grown during the long-term burial and identify its products that will help us to understand the corrosive factors and the degradation mechanisms , cleaning the group of coins from the superficial dirt and the corrosion products in order to discover as much as possible the surface topography, and to reveal the surfaces details , finally to establish them against further deterioration .To achieve that samples from the coins were examined by Metallographic Microscope {ME} , Scanning Electron Microscope {SEM}, the corrosion products were analyzed by X-ray diffraction{XRD} , and X-ray fluorescence { XRF} was used to determine the coins metallic constituents. Chemical cleaning was chosen for treating the coins and they were isolated to preserve them against further attack. After treatment and conservation, the coins figures and inscriptions that could be identified showed that this group of coins dates back to Umayyad period , exactly the reign of caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan{ 65- 86 A.H}{685-705A.D} and his descendants till 106 A.H. 

  15. Osmostress induces autophosphorylation of Hog1 via a C-terminal regulatory region that is conserved in p38α.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inbal Maayan

    Full Text Available Many protein kinases require phosphorylation at their activation loop for induction of catalysis. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs are activated by a unique mode of phosphorylation, on neighboring Tyrosine and Threonine residues. Whereas many kinases obtain their activation via autophosphorylation, MAPKs are usually phosphorylated by specific, dedicated, MAPK kinases (MAP2Ks. Here we show however, that the yeast MAPK Hog1, known to be activated by the MAP2K Pbs2, is activated in pbs2Δ cells via an autophosphorylation activity that is induced by osmotic pressure. We mapped a novel domain at the Hog1 C-terminal region that inhibits this activity. Removal of this domain provides a Hog1 protein that is partially independent of MAP2K, namely, partially rescues osmostress sensitivity of pbs2Δ cells. We further mapped a short domain (7 amino acid residues long that is critical for induction of autophosphorylation. Its removal abolishes autophosphorylation, but maintains Pbs2-mediated phosphorylation. This 7 amino acids stretch is conserved in the human p38α. Similar to the case of Hog1, it's removal from p38α abolishes p38α's autophosphorylation capability, but maintains, although reduces, its activation by MKK6. This study joins a few recent reports to suggest that, like many protein kinases, MAPKs are also regulated via induced autoactivation.

  16. Osmostress induces autophosphorylation of Hog1 via a C-terminal regulatory region that is conserved in p38α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maayan, Inbal; Beenstock, Jonah; Marbach, Irit; Tabachnick, Shira; Livnah, Oded; Engelberg, David

    2012-01-01

    Many protein kinases require phosphorylation at their activation loop for induction of catalysis. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are activated by a unique mode of phosphorylation, on neighboring Tyrosine and Threonine residues. Whereas many kinases obtain their activation via autophosphorylation, MAPKs are usually phosphorylated by specific, dedicated, MAPK kinases (MAP2Ks). Here we show however, that the yeast MAPK Hog1, known to be activated by the MAP2K Pbs2, is activated in pbs2Δ cells via an autophosphorylation activity that is induced by osmotic pressure. We mapped a novel domain at the Hog1 C-terminal region that inhibits this activity. Removal of this domain provides a Hog1 protein that is partially independent of MAP2K, namely, partially rescues osmostress sensitivity of pbs2Δ cells. We further mapped a short domain (7 amino acid residues long) that is critical for induction of autophosphorylation. Its removal abolishes autophosphorylation, but maintains Pbs2-mediated phosphorylation. This 7 amino acids stretch is conserved in the human p38α. Similar to the case of Hog1, it's removal from p38α abolishes p38α's autophosphorylation capability, but maintains, although reduces, its activation by MKK6. This study joins a few recent reports to suggest that, like many protein kinases, MAPKs are also regulated via induced autoactivation.

  17. c-Abl phosphorylation of Yin Yang 1's conserved tyrosine 254 in the spacer region modulates its transcriptional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daraiseh, Susan I; Kassardjian, Ari; Alexander, Karen E; Rizkallah, Raed; Hurt, Myra M

    2018-05-25

    Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a multifunctional transcription factor that can activate or repress transcription depending on the promotor and/or the co-factors recruited. YY1 is phosphorylated in various signaling pathways and is critical for different biological functions including embryogenesis, apoptosis, proliferation, cell-cycle regulation and tumorigenesis. Here we report that YY1 is a substrate for c-Abl kinase phosphorylation at conserved residue Y254 in the spacer region. Pharmacological inhibition of c-Abl kinase by imatinib, nilotinib and GZD824, knock-down of c-Abl using siRNA, and the use of c-Abl kinase-dead drastically reduces tyrosine phosphorylation of YY1. Both radioactive and non-radioactive in vitro kinase assays, as well as co-immunoprecipitation in different cell lines, show that the target of c-Abl phosphorylation is tyrosine residue 254. c-Abl phosphorylation has little effect on YY1 DNA binding ability or cellular localization in asynchronous cells. However, functional studies reveal that c-Abl mediated phosphorylation of YY1 regulates YY1's transcriptional ability in vivo. In conclusion, we demonstrate the novel role of c-Abl kinase in regulation of YY1's transcriptional activity, linking YY1 regulation with c-Abl tyrosine kinase signaling pathways. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Regional management units for marine turtles: a novel framework for prioritizing conservation and research across multiple scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Bryan P; DiMatteo, Andrew D; Hurley, Brendan J; Finkbeiner, Elena M; Bolten, Alan B; Chaloupka, Milani Y; Hutchinson, Brian J; Abreu-Grobois, F Alberto; Amorocho, Diego; Bjorndal, Karen A; Bourjea, Jerome; Bowen, Brian W; Dueñas, Raquel Briseño; Casale, Paolo; Choudhury, B C; Costa, Alice; Dutton, Peter H; Fallabrino, Alejandro; Girard, Alexandre; Girondot, Marc; Godfrey, Matthew H; Hamann, Mark; López-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; Marcovaldi, Maria Angela; Mortimer, Jeanne A; Musick, John A; Nel, Ronel; Pilcher, Nicolas J; Seminoff, Jeffrey A; Troëng, Sebastian; Witherington, Blair; Mast, Roderic B

    2010-12-17

    Resolving threats to widely distributed marine megafauna requires definition of the geographic distributions of both the threats as well as the population unit(s) of interest. In turn, because individual threats can operate on varying spatial scales, their impacts can affect different segments of a population of the same species. Therefore, integration of multiple tools and techniques--including site-based monitoring, genetic analyses, mark-recapture studies and telemetry--can facilitate robust definitions of population segments at multiple biological and spatial scales to address different management and research challenges. To address these issues for marine turtles, we collated all available studies on marine turtle biogeography, including nesting sites, population abundances and trends, population genetics, and satellite telemetry. We georeferenced this information to generate separate layers for nesting sites, genetic stocks, and core distributions of population segments of all marine turtle species. We then spatially integrated this information from fine- to coarse-spatial scales to develop nested envelope models, or Regional Management Units (RMUs), for marine turtles globally. The RMU framework is a solution to the challenge of how to organize marine turtles into units of protection above the level of nesting populations, but below the level of species, within regional entities that might be on independent evolutionary trajectories. Among many potential applications, RMUs provide a framework for identifying data gaps, assessing high diversity areas for multiple species and genetic stocks, and evaluating conservation status of marine turtles. Furthermore, RMUs allow for identification of geographic barriers to gene flow, and can provide valuable guidance to marine spatial planning initiatives that integrate spatial distributions of protected species and human activities. In addition, the RMU framework--including maps and supporting metadata--will be an

  19. The conserved structures of the 5' nontranslated region of Citrus tristeza virus are involved in replication and virion assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowda, Siddarame; Satyanarayana, Tatineni; Ayllon, Maria A.; Moreno, Pedro; Flores, Ricardo; Dawson, William O.

    2003-01-01

    The genomic RNA of different isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) reveals an unusual pattern of sequence diversity: the 3' halves are highly conserved (homology >90%), while the 5' halves show much more dissimilarity, with the 5' nontranslated region (NTR) containing the highest diversity (homology as low as 42%). Yet, positive-sense sequences of the 5' NTR were predicted to fold into nearly identical structures consisting of two stem-loops (SL1 and SL2) separated by a short spacer region. The predicted most stable secondary structures of the negative-sense sequences were more variable. We introduced mutations into the 5' NTR of a CTV replicon to alter the sequence and/or the predicted secondary structures with or without additional compensatory changes designed to restore predicted secondary structures, and examined their effect on replication in transfected protoplasts. The results suggested that the predicted secondary structures of the 5' NTR were more important for replication than the primary structure. Most mutations that were predicted to disrupt the secondary structures fail to replicate, while compensatory mutations were allowed replication to resume. The 5' NTR mutations that were tolerated by the CTV replicon were examined in the full-length virus for effects on replication and production of the multiple subgenomic RNAs. Additionally, the ability of these mutants to produce virions was monitored by electron microscopy and by passaging the progeny nucleocapsids to another batch of protoplasts. Some of the mutants with compensatory sequence alterations predicted to rebuild similar secondary structures allowed replication at near wild-type levels but failed to passage, suggesting that the 5' NTR contains sequences required for both replication and virion assembly

  20. Regional Management Units for Marine Turtles: A Novel Framework for Prioritizing Conservation and Research across Multiple Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Bryan P.; DiMatteo, Andrew D.; Hurley, Brendan J.; Finkbeiner, Elena M.; Bolten, Alan B.; Chaloupka, Milani Y.; Hutchinson, Brian J.; Abreu-Grobois, F. Alberto; Amorocho, Diego; Bjorndal, Karen A.; Bourjea, Jerome; Bowen, Brian W.; Dueñas, Raquel Briseño; Casale, Paolo; Choudhury, B. C.; Costa, Alice; Dutton, Peter H.; Fallabrino, Alejandro; Girard, Alexandre; Girondot, Marc; Godfrey, Matthew H.; Hamann, Mark; López-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; Marcovaldi, Maria Angela; Mortimer, Jeanne A.; Musick, John A.; Nel, Ronel; Pilcher, Nicolas J.; Seminoff, Jeffrey A.; Troëng, Sebastian; Witherington, Blair; Mast, Roderic B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Resolving threats to widely distributed marine megafauna requires definition of the geographic distributions of both the threats as well as the population unit(s) of interest. In turn, because individual threats can operate on varying spatial scales, their impacts can affect different segments of a population of the same species. Therefore, integration of multiple tools and techniques — including site-based monitoring, genetic analyses, mark-recapture studies and telemetry — can facilitate robust definitions of population segments at multiple biological and spatial scales to address different management and research challenges. Methodology/Principal Findings To address these issues for marine turtles, we collated all available studies on marine turtle biogeography, including nesting sites, population abundances and trends, population genetics, and satellite telemetry. We georeferenced this information to generate separate layers for nesting sites, genetic stocks, and core distributions of population segments of all marine turtle species. We then spatially integrated this information from fine- to coarse-spatial scales to develop nested envelope models, or Regional Management Units (RMUs), for marine turtles globally. Conclusions/Significance The RMU framework is a solution to the challenge of how to organize marine turtles into units of protection above the level of nesting populations, but below the level of species, within regional entities that might be on independent evolutionary trajectories. Among many potential applications, RMUs provide a framework for identifying data gaps, assessing high diversity areas for multiple species and genetic stocks, and evaluating conservation status of marine turtles. Furthermore, RMUs allow for identification of geographic barriers to gene flow, and can provide valuable guidance to marine spatial planning initiatives that integrate spatial distributions of protected species and human activities. In addition

  1. Nitrogen retention in river corridors: European perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haycock, N [Dept. of Agriculture and Water Management, Silsoe College, Cranfield Institute of Technology (United Kingdom); Pinay, G [CERR/CNRS, Toulouse (France); Walker, Charles [SBEG, Inst. of Ecology, Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    1993-01-01

    The problem of nitrogen pollution in European surface- and groundwaters has become a focus of recent European and Scandinavian directives, with legislation calling for a 50% reduction of N losses by the years 1995 and 2000, respectively. This paper provides a conceptual framework upon which management strategies to reduce losses of diffuse nitrogen pollution to surface waters may be based. The control of nitrogen pollution may take place through an increase in the complexity of the landscape, not throughout the catchment area, but rather in specific zones, the river corridor in particular. Within river corridors, riparian areas have been recognized globally for their value as nutrient removal ''buffer systems''. Studies have identified vegetation uptake and microbial denitrification as the primary mechanisms responsible for N removal in these systems. For these processes to function optimally on an annual basis, both vegetation and water regime must be managed. The establishment and management of riparian buffer zones in suitable places within river corridors, will provide a stable and sustainable water-protection function. This will complement future nitrogen input control strategies, needed for both the long-term protection of groundwater and surface waters in Europe as a whole, and for the proposed 50% reduction in nitrogen loading to the Baltic and North Sea coastal waters by the turn of the century. 52 refs, 5 figs

  2. Salvage treatment for local or local-regional recurrence after initial breast conservation treatment with radiation for ductal carcinoma in situ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solin, Lawrence J.; Fourquet, Alain; Vicini, Frank A.; Taylor, Marie; Haffty, Bruce; Strom, Eric A.; Wai, Elaine; Pierce, Lori J.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Bartelink, Harry; Campana, Francois; McNeese, Marsha D.; Jhingran, Anuja; Olivotto, Ivo A.; Bijker, Nina; Hwang, Wei-Ting

    2005-01-01

    The present study evaluated the outcome of salvage treatment for women with local or local-regional recurrence after initial breast conservation treatment with radiation for mammographically detected ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS; intraductal carcinoma) of the breast. The study cohort consisted of

  3. Multiscale habitat suitability index models for priority landbirds in the Central Hardwoods and West Gulf Coastal Plain/Ouachitas Bird Conservation Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Tirpak; D. Todd Jones-Farrand; Frank R., III Thompson; Daniel J. Twedt; William B., III Uihlein

    2009-01-01

    Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models were developed to assess habitat quality for 40 priority bird species in the Central Hardwoods and West Gulf Coastal Plain/Ouachitas Bird Conservation Regions. The models incorporated both site and landscape environmental variables from one of six nationally consistent datasets. Potential habitat was first defined from unique...

  4. KPI Building Blocks For Successful Green Transport Corridor Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prause Gunnar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The green transport corridor concept represents a cornerstone in the development of integrated and sustainable transport solutions. Important properties of green corridors are their transnational character and their high involvement of large numbers of public and private stakeholders, including political level, requiring sophisticated approaches for implementation, management and governance. The current scientific discussion focusses on Key Performance Indicators (KPI for monitoring and management of green transport corridor performance emphasizing the operational aspects.

  5. Research on the quality of the wine grapes in corridor area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The corridor area of Gansu Province is one of the most important wine grape growing regions in China, and this strip of land results in a significant difference in terms of terroir between its regions. Chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of the main wine grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated in the corridor area of Gansu Province in northwest China were compared. Three regions (Zhangye, Wuwei, and Jiayuguan were selected to explain the influence of soil and climate conditions on the quality of wine grapes. This study aims to investigate the effect of different regions on berry composition and antioxidant capacity, providing a general evaluation of red and white wine grapes quality in the corridor area of China. The results showed that ‘Merlot’ grapes grown in Zhangye had the best quality among the different varieties in the three regions of Gansu evaluated. The moderate temperature and nitrogen deficiency were associated with improved fruit quality. It was identified that the most suitable grape variety from Zhangye is ‘Merlot’, and that ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Italian Resling’ are the most suitable varieties from Wuwei and Jiayuguan, respectively.

  6. Regional Extinctions and Quaternary Shifts in the Geographic Range of Lestodelphys halli, the Southernmost Living Marsupial: Clues for Its Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahí E Formoso

    Full Text Available The Patagonian opossum (Lestodelphys halli, the southernmost living marsupial, inhabits dry and open environments, mainly in the Patagonian steppe (between ~32 °S and ~49 °S. Its rich fossil record shows its occurrence further north in Central Argentina during the Quaternary. The paleoenvironmental meaning of the past distribution of L. halli has been mostly addressed in a subjective framework without an explicit connection with the climatic "space" currently occupied by this animal. Here, we assessed the potential distribution of this species and the changes occurred in its geographic range during late Pleistocene-Holocene times and linked the results obtained with conservation issues. To this end, we generated three potential distribution models with fossil records and three with current ones, using MaxEnt software. These models showed a decrease in the suitable habitat conditions for the species, highlighting a range shift from Central-Eastern to South-Western Argentina. Our results support that the presence of L. halli in the Pampean region during the Pleistocene-Holocene can be related to precipitation and temperature variables and that its current presence in Patagonia is more related to temperature and dominant soils. The models obtained suggest that the species has been experiencing a reduction in its geographic range since the middle Holocene, a process that is in accordance with a general increase in moisture and temperature in Central Argentina. Considering the findings of our work and the future scenario of global warming projected for Patagonia, we might expect a harsh impact on the distribution range of this opossum in the near future.

  7. Regional Extinctions and Quaternary Shifts in the Geographic Range of Lestodelphys halli, the Southernmost Living Marsupial: Clues for Its Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formoso, Anahí E.; Martin, Gabriel M.; Teta, Pablo; Carbajo, Aníbal E.; Sauthier, Daniel E. Udrizar; Pardiñas, Ulyses F. J.

    2015-01-01

    The Patagonian opossum (Lestodelphys halli), the southernmost living marsupial, inhabits dry and open environments, mainly in the Patagonian steppe (between ~32°S and ~49°S). Its rich fossil record shows its occurrence further north in Central Argentina during the Quaternary. The paleoenvironmental meaning of the past distribution of L. halli has been mostly addressed in a subjective framework without an explicit connection with the climatic “space” currently occupied by this animal. Here, we assessed the potential distribution of this species and the changes occurred in its geographic range during late Pleistocene-Holocene times and linked the results obtained with conservation issues. To this end, we generated three potential distribution models with fossil records and three with current ones, using MaxEnt software. These models showed a decrease in the suitable habitat conditions for the species, highlighting a range shift from Central-Eastern to South-Western Argentina. Our results support that the presence of L. halli in the Pampean region during the Pleistocene-Holocene can be related to precipitation and temperature variables and that its current presence in Patagonia is more related to temperature and dominant soils. The models obtained suggest that the species has been experiencing a reduction in its geographic range since the middle Holocene, a process that is in accordance with a general increase in moisture and temperature in Central Argentina. Considering the findings of our work and the future scenario of global warming projected for Patagonia, we might expect a harsh impact on the distribution range of this opossum in the near future. PMID:26203650

  8. [Analysis of soil respiration and influence factors in wheat farmland under conservation tillage in southwest hilly region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sai; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Long-Chang; Luo, Hai-Xiu; Zhou, Hang-Fei; Ma, Zhong-Lian; Zhang, Cui-Wei

    2013-07-01

    In order to investigate the effect of conservation tillage on soil respiration in dry cropping farmland in southwest purple hilly region, the LI6400-09 respiratory chamber was adopted in the experiment conducted in the experimental field in Southwest University in Beibei, Chongqing. The respiration and the hydrothermal and biotic factors of soil were measured and analyzed during the growth period of wheat in the triple intercropping system of wheat/maize/soybean. There were four treatments including T (traditional tillage), R (ridge tillage), TS (traditional tillage + straw mulching) and RS (ridge tillage + straw mulching), which were all in triplicates. The results indicated that the soil respiration rate changed in the range of 1.100-2.508 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1) during the reproductive growth stage of wheat. There were significant differences in soil respiration rate among different treatments, which could be ranked as RS > R > TS > T. The soil temperature in the 10cm layer was ranked as T > R > TS > RS. The relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature fitted well with an exponential function, in which the Q10 values were 1.25, 1.20, 1.31 and 1.26, respectively. The soil moisture in the 5cm layer was ranked as TS > RS > T > R. The best fitting model between soil moisture and soil respiration was a parabolic curve, indicating the presence of soil moisture with the strongest soil respiration. The response threshold of wheat to soil moisture was 14.80%-17.47% during the reproductive stage. The dominant groups of soil animals were Collembola and Acarina, which were correlated with soil respiration to some extent. The correlation was high in the treatments T and R, ranged from 0.669-0.921, whereas there was no remarkable correlation in the other treatments.

  9. Conservation of Sand Dune Vegetation in Coastal areas of the Valencian Region (Spain); Estado de conservacion de la vegetacion dunar en las costas de la comunidad Valenciana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertos, B.; San Miguel, E.; Draper, I.; Garilleti, R.; Lara, F.; Varela, J. M.

    2010-07-01

    The state of conservation of the coastal dune vegetation in Valencia region has been assessed within a survey of the vegetal communities present in these systems.The conservation status has been evaluated through a qualitative scale which integrates criteria such as dune extension, structure and diversity of the vegetal communities, level of ruderalization, presence of invasive species, and floristic rarity. Special attention has been paid to the usual aggressions to this type of ecosystem and the situation of the most aggressive invasive plants. (Author) 15 refs.

  10. The conserved 12-amino acid stretch in the inter-bromodomain region of BET family proteins functions as a nuclear localization signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukazawa, Hidesuke; Masumi, Atsuko

    2012-01-01

    The bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family is a group of chromatin-binding proteins characterized by two bromodomains, an extraterminal (ET) domain, and several other conserved regions of unknown function. In humans, the BET family consists of four members, BRD2, BRD3, BRD4 and BRDT, that all normally localize to the nucleus. We identified a 12-amino acid stretch in the inter-bromodomain region that is perfectly conserved among the BET family members. We deleted these residues and expressed the mutant proteins in HEK293T cells to investigate the function of this motif. We found that the deletion of this motif alters the localization of BET proteins. Mutated BRD3 and BRD4 were excluded from the nucleus, and BRDT was found to be diffused throughout the nucleus and cytoplasm. Although the mutant BRD2 remained predominantly in the nucleus, a punctate distribution was also observed in the cytosol. It has been reported that a conserved motif between the second bromodomain and the ET domain serves as a nuclear localization signal for BRD2. Nevertheless, BET mutants lacking the reported nuclear localization signal motif but retaining the 12-amino acid stretch resided in the nucleus. Furthermore, these mutants were diffused throughout the cytoplasm when the 12 residues were removed. These results indicate that the conserved amino acid stretch in the inter-bromodomain region of the BET family functions as a nuclear localization signal.

  11. Review of the Diversity, Ecology, and Conservation of Elasmobranchs in the Azores Region, Mid-North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diya Das

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A vulnerable species group, such as, the elasmobranchs, in a data-deficient context presents a complicated management problem. Evidence suggests that the Azores islands, a remote archipelago on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, serve essential functions in the life-history of species across taxa. The diversity of marine resources within its EEZ are exploited by local to international fleets, and the full extent of fishing pressure can often be underestimated. Although sharks and rays appear to be of minor importance in the fishery, the possibilities of illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing raises concerns about these threatened species. However, this group has failed to attract management attention, visible in the lack of regional studies focused on biodiversity, ecology, or threats of elasmobranchs. Our work attempts to review and update the information on elasmobranchs of the Azores and identify potential threats, mainly by the local fisheries. We aim to highlight knowledge gaps that require further research and conservation actions. We (1 update the annotated checklist of elasmobranch species, (2 compare species distribution across a biogeographically similar section of the North Atlantic, and (3 analyze the interaction of elasmobranch species with local fisheries. We confirm 61 chondrichthyan species for the Azores (39 sharks, 17 rays, and 5 chimaeras, adding 19 species to the previous annotated checklist of 1997. The Azores elasmobranch species assemblage most resembles Madeira, the neighboring Macaronesian archipelago. Biogeographic affinities between the chosen regions of the North Atlantic are reflected in the taxonomic structure of families. Although underestimated in the local fisheries, elasmobranchs constitute a regular but highly variable portion of total landings. Misreporting and misidentification is perhaps the greatest concern in the local fisheries records, further aggravated by few existing catch regulations for elasmobranchs

  12. Role of the future creative universities in the triple helix of science and technology corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj nabipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The science and technology corridor is a complex cluster containing universities, science parks, research centers, high-tech companies, venture capital, institutional and physical infrastructures, and human capital in a defined geography with its unique management and legal structure in association with the business space and knowledge-based products. In fact, the science and technology corridor reflects the concept of development based on the knowledge region (the especial region for science and technology. The knowledge region is clearly a triple helix phenomenon par excellence: universities, governments and businesses combine their efforts to construct a common advantage which they would not be able to offer on their own. The future creative universities in connection with the knowledge city-regions not only will deal with innovation and entrepreneurial training but also produce a competitive, vibrant environment with high indices for quality of life and full of green technologies. In this article, we will present functional interactions of the creative universities in the triple helix, particularly the missions for the Iranian universities of medical sciences. As a theoretical model, the complex interactions of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences and Health Services with Bushehr Science and Technology Corridor will be discussed.

  13. Spatial Analysis of Conservation Priorities Based on Ecosystem Services in the Atlantic Forest Region of Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L. Clark

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial pattern of ecosystem services is important for effective environmental policy and decision-making. In this study, we use a geospatial decision-support tool (Marxan to identify conservation priorities for habitat and a suite of ecosystem services (storage carbon, soil retention and water yield in the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest from Misiones, Argentina—an area of global conservation priority. Using these results, we then evaluate the efficiency of existing protected areas in conserving both habitat and ecosystem services. Selected areas for conserving habitat had an overlap of carbon and soil ecosystem services. Yet, selected areas for water yield did not have this overlap. Furthermore, selected areas with relatively high overlap of ecosystem services tended to be inside protected areas; however, other important areas for ecosystem services (i.e., central highlands do not have legal protection, revealing the importance of enforcing existing environmental regulations in these areas.

  14. Pavement and riparian forest shape the bird community along an urban river corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J.W. McClure

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of habitat use by animals within urban-riparian corridors during the breeding season is important for conservation, yet remains understudied. We examined the bird community along an urban-riparian corridor through metropolitan Boise, Idaho and predicted that occupancy of individual species and species richness would be greater in forested areas than in urbanized areas. We surveyed birds throughout the summers of 2009 and 2010 and quantified the m2 of each cover-type within 50-m, 100-m, and 200-m buffers surrounding each survey location using satellite imagery. Occupancy modeling revealed that eight of 14 species analyzed were positively associated with riparian forest, and no species avoided forest. Species richness was negatively associated with the amount of paved surface within 100 m of a survey site with richness declining by more than two species for every hectare of paved surface. Most associations with cover-types–especially riparian forest–were at ⩾100 m. Therefore, the riparian forest within 100 m of a given site along an urban-riparian corridor should be the most important for maintaining species richness.

  15. Red states, blue states, and divorce: understanding the impact of conservative Protestantism on regional variation in divorce rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Jennifer; Levchak, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Why do states with larger proportions of religious conservatives have higher divorce rates than states with lower proportions of religious conservatives? This project examines whether earlier transitions to marriage and parenthood among conservative Protestants (known risk factors for divorce) contribute to this paradox while attending to other plausible explanations. County-level demographic information from all 50 states is combined from a variety of public data sources and merged with individual records from the National Surveys of Family Growth to estimate both aggregated county and multilevel individual models of divorce. Results show that individual religious conservatism is positively related to individual divorce risk, solely through the earlier transitions to adulthood and lower incomes of conservative Protestants. However, the proportion of conservative Protestants in a county is also independently and positively associated with both the divorce rate in that county and an individual's likelihood of divorcing. The earlier family formation and lower levels of educational attainment and income in counties with a higher proportion of conservative Protestants can explain a substantial portion of this association. Little support is found for alternative explanations of the association between religious conservatism and divorce rates, including the relative popularity of marriage versus cohabitation across counties.

  16. Ranching and conservation in the Santa Cruz River Region, Sonora: Milpillas Case Study (Ganaderia y Conservacion en la Region del Rio Santa Cruz, Sonora: El Caso del Grupo Milpillas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joaquin Murrieta-Saldivar

    2006-01-01

    The Sonoran Institute (SI) is a non-profit organization working with people toward common conservation goals. Two objectives guide the work of the Sonoran Institute in the Santa Cruz River Region in Sonora, Mexico: to establish projects with community participation that can result in tangible and long-lasting benefits to the environment, and to ensure success by...

  17. Limits to benthic feeding by eiders in a vital Arctic migration corridor due to localized prey and changing sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovvorn, James R.; Rocha, Aariel R.; Jewett, Stephen C.; Dasher, Douglas; Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby

    2015-01-01

    Four species of threatened or declining eider ducks that nest in the Arctic migrate through the northeast Chukchi Sea, where anticipated industrial development may require prioritizing areas for conservation. In this nearshore corridor (10–40 m depth), the eiders’ access to benthic prey during the spring is restricted to variable areas of open water within sea ice. For the most abundant species, the king eider (Somateria spectabilis), stable isotopes in blood cells, muscle, and potential prey indicate that these eiders ate mainly bivalves when traversing this corridor. Bivalves there were much smaller than the same taxa in deeper areas of the northern Bering Sea, possibly due to higher mortality rates caused by ice scour in shallow water; future decrease in seasonal duration of fast ice may increase this effect. Computer simulations suggested that if these eiders forage for >15 h/day, they can feed profitably at bivalve densities >200 m−2 regardless of water depth or availability of ice for resting. Sampling in 2010–2012 showed that large areas of profitable prey densities occurred only in certain locations throughout the migration corridor. Satellite data in April–May over 13 years (2001–2013) indicated that access to major feeding areas through sea ice in different segments of the corridor can vary from 0% to 100% between months and years. In a warming and increasingly variable climate, unpredictability of access may be enhanced by greater effects of shifting winds on unconsolidated ice. Our results indicate the importance of having a range of potential feeding areas throughout the migration corridor to ensure prey availability in all years. Spatial planning of nearshore industrial development in the Arctic, including commercial shipping, pipeline construction, and the risk of released oil, should consider these effects of high environmental variability on the adequacy of habitats targeted for conservation.

  18. Planning of transport corridors by use of GIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbak, Jacob; Moshøj, Claus Rehfeld; Grevy, Bo

    1998-01-01

    The paper adresses principles for the application of geographical information systems (GIS) as a tool in the planning of transport corridors. Specifically, the paper describes the COPE (corridor planning and evaluation) model that has been developed within the EU 4th FP Strategic Transport projects...

  19. Site-occupany of bats in relation to forested corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris D Hein; Steven B Castleberry; Karl V. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Although use of corridors by some wildlife species has been extensively examined, use by bats is poorly understood. From 1 June to 31 August (2004~200S), we used Anabat II detectors to examine bat activity and species occupancy relative to forested corridors on an intensively managed forest landscape in southern South Carolina, USA. We...

  20. Variable input parameter influence on river corridor prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerfu, T.; Beevers, L.; Crosato, A.; Wright, N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the erodible river corridor, which is the area in which the main river channel is free to migrate over a period of time. Due to growing anthropogenic pressure, predicting the corridor width has become increasingly important for the planning of development along rivers. Several

  1. A cell-based study on pedestrian acceleration and overtaking in a transfer station corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiangfeng; Zhou, Xuemei; Ran, Bin

    2013-04-01

    Pedestrian speed in a transfer station corridor is faster than usual and sometimes running can be found among some of them. In this paper, pedestrians are divided into two categories. The first one is aggressive, and the other is conservative. Aggressive pedestrians weaving their way through crowd in the corridor are the study object of this paper. During recent decades, much attention has been paid to the pedestrians' behavior, such as overtaking (also deceleration) and collision avoidance, and that continues in this paper. After sufficiently analyzing the characteristics of pedestrian flow in transfer station corridor, a cell-based model is presented in this paper, including the acceleration (also deceleration) and overtaking analysis. Acceleration (also deceleration) in a corridor is fixed according to Newton's Law and then speed calculated with a kinematic formula is discretized into cells based on the fuzzy logic. After the speed is updated, overtaking is analyzed based on updated speed and force explicitly, compared to rule-based models, which herein we call implicit ones. During the analysis of overtaking, a threshold value to determine the overtaking direction is introduced. Actually, model in this paper is a two-step one. The first step is to update speed, which is the cells the pedestrian can move in one time interval and the other is to analyze the overtaking. Finally, a comparison between the rule-based cellular automata, the model in this paper and data in HCM 2000 is made to demonstrate our model can be used to achieve reasonable simulation of acceleration (also deceleration) and overtaking among pedestrians.

  2. War and wildlife: a post-conflict assessment of Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, C.; Fitzherbert, A.

    2004-01-01

    Prior to the last two decades of conflict, Afghanistan¿s Wakhan Corridor was considered an important area for conservation of the wildlife of high altitudes. We conducted an assessment of the status of large mammals in Wakhan after 22 years of conflict, and also made a preliminary assessment of wildlife trade in the markets of Kabul, Faizabad and Ishkashem. The survey confirmed the continued occurrence of at least eight species of large mammals in Wakhan, of which the snow leopard Uncia uncia...

  3. An experimental test of whether habitat corridors affect pollen transfer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Patricia A.; Levey, Douglas J.

    2005-02-01

    Abstract. Negative effects of habitat fragmentation are thought to be diminished when habitat patches are joined by a corridor. A key assumption is that corridors facilitate exchange rates of organisms between otherwise isolated patches. If the organisms are pollinators, corridors may be important for maintaining genetically viable populations of the plants that they pollinate. We tested the hypothesis that corridors increase the movement of insect pollinators into patches of habitat and thereby increase pollen transfer for two species of plants, one pollinated by butterflies (Lantana camara) and the other by bees and wasps (Rudbeckia hirta). We worked in an experimental landscape consisting of 40 greater than or equal to 1-ha patches of early-successional habitat in a matrix of forest. Within each of eight experimental units, two patches were connected by a corridor (150 X 25 m), and three were not. Patch shape varied to control for the area added by the presence of a corridor. Differences in patch shape also allowed us to test alternative hypotheses of how corridors might function. The Traditional Corridor Hypothesis posits that corridors increase immigration and emigration by functioning as movement conduits between patches. The Drift Fence Hypothesis posits that corridors function by ‘‘capturing’’ organisms dispersing through the matrix, redirecting them into associated habitat patches. Using fluorescent powder to track pollen, we found that pollen transfer by butterflies between patches connected by a corridor was significantly higher than between unconnected patches (all values mean plus or minus 1 SE: 59% plus or minus 9.2% vs. 25% plus or minus 5.2% of flowers receiving pollen). Likewise, pollen transfer by bees and wasps was significantly higher between connected patches than between unconnected patches (30% plus or minus 4.2% vs. 14.5% plus or minus 2.2%). These results support the Traditional Corridor Hypothesis. There was little support, however

  4. Developing infrastructure for electric passenger-cars in the corridor between Southern Scandinavia and Germany - Workshop Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement; Jespersen, Per Homann; Lohse, Sandrina

    2012-01-01

    and academic institutions. A strategy for the development of infrastructure for electric passenger-cars in the corridor was formed using the “Future Creating” methodology. The workshop was part of the SCANDRIA Action Programme and pointed towards ways for e-mobility in the region. The workshop also provided...

  5. The Malaysia-Indonesia Remittance Corridor : Making Formal Transfers the Best Option for Women and Undocumented Migrants

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Coss, Raúl; Brown, Gillian; Buchori, Chitrawati; Endo, Isaku; Todoroki, Emiko; Naovalitha, Tita; Noor, Wameek; Mar, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    The corridor between Malaysia and Indonesia is the second largest remittance outflow for Malaysia and the largest remittance inflow for Indonesia. In the East Asia and Pacific Region, Indonesia is the second largest supplier of labor migration with 680,000 overseas worker contracts concluded in 2006 alone. Since 2003, the number of contracts has more than doubled. Malaysia, in general, is ...

  6. Diversity, natural history and conservation of amphibians and reptiles from the San Vito Region, southwestern Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Santos-Barrera

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We present an inventory of the amphibians and reptiles of the San Vito de Coto Brus region, including the Las Cruces Biological Station, in southern Costa Rica, which is the result of a survey of the herpetofauna occurring in mountain forest fragments, pastures, coffee plantations, and other disturbed areas. We found 67 species, included 26 species of amphibians and of 41of reptiles. We describe the distribution patterns of the community on the basis of the life zones, elevation, fragmentation, and degree of anthropogenic impact. We also provide some nouvelle data on the systematics of some select taxa, their geographical ranges, microhabitats, activity, and other relevant ecological and natural history features. Finally, we comment on the present conservation status of the herpetofauna in the region. Previous literature and collection records indicate a higher number of species occurring in this area, which suggests that some declines have occurred, especially of amphibians, in last decades. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 755-778. Epub 2008 June 30.En este artículo se presenta un inventario de los anfibios y reptiles de la región de San Vito de Coto Brus incluyendo la Estación de Biología Las Cruces, en el sur de Costa Rica. Se llevó a cabo una evaluación de las poblaciones de anfibios y reptiles presentes en los parches de bosque, potreros, cafetales y otras áreas perturbadas de la región. Como resultado de esta evaluación se registraron 26 especies de anfibios y 41 de reptiles lo que suma un total de 67 especies. Asimismo se describen los patrones generales de distribución de las especies basándose en los tipos de vegetación así como en la altitud, fragmentación y grado de perturbación antrópica en el área. Se proporcionan algunos datos sobre la sistemática de las especies, su distribución geográfica, el microhábitat que ocupan, su actividad y otros datos ecológicos y biológicos relevantes. Finalmente, se presenta una breve

  7. A synthesis of hydrochemistry with an integrated conceptual model for groundwater in the Hexi Corridor, northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liheng; Dong, Yanhui; Xu, Zhifang

    2017-09-01

    Although many studies have investigated the recharge and evolution of groundwater in the Hexi Corridor, northwestern (NW) China, they describe individual sites such as Jinchang, Jiuquan, Dunhuang, and others. Considering the similarity of these sites, a systematic review of the entire Hexi Corridor is lacking. This paper compares and summarizes previous studies in the Hexi Corridor to provide a regional perspective of the isotopic characteristics and hydrochemical composition of groundwater. In unconfined aquifers, groundwater is recharged by snow and ice melt water from the Qilian Mountains; local precipitation can be neglected. Therefore, the groundwater belongs to a unique hydrological cycle model in the Hexi Corridor, referred to as snow and ice melt water-groundwater system. The dominant anion species changes from HCO3- in front of the mountains to SO42- in the middle basin and Cl- at the basin boundary along the groundwater flow direction, and TDS increases gradually owing to evaporation. A major hydrogeochemical process is the dissolution of minerals from the aquifer in the recharge area changing to cation exchange reactions in the discharge area. Confined groundwater was recharged mainly in the late Pleistocene and middle Holocene at colder temperatures than those of modern times; thus, it is non-renewable. In addition to dissolution, the hydrochemical composition of confined groundwater is also affected by cation exchange reactions. The hydrogeochemical categories of the confined groundwater are simple and stable. In the present study, a conceptual model is established on the basis of the analyses presented, which has important implications for water resource management in the Hexi Corridor. The inter-basin water allocation program should continue in order to achieve optimal utilization of water resources, but groundwater exploitation should be limited as much as possible. Additionally, on the basis of the review and integration of previous research, the

  8. Environmental conditions on the corridor of human migration between 40,000 and 14,000 a BP in the Balkan region. A multi-proxy approach on loess-paleosol profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina BÖSKEN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution focuses on two PhD projects, which are integrated within the collaborative research centre 806 “Our way to Europe” at the University of Cologne and the RWTH Aachen University (Germany. The main research focus is the migration of anatomical modern human (AMH to Europe. We concentrate on the paleoenvironmental conditions on the route through southeastern Europe. This links the region with the earliest fossils of Homo sapiens sapiens (so far known in the Middle East, Anatolia, the Northwestern Black Sea, the Balkans and the Pannonian Basin. One PhD topic deals with the sedimentological and geochemical approach mainly from loess and loess-like sediments to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental conditions; the other PhD topic places an emphasis on the exact timing of those sedimentary records via luminescence dating. In particular the investigation of loess-paleosol sequences plays a central role. Geoarchives in Hungary, Serbia and Romania are of main interest for the project. The investigations will focus mainly on the loess and loess like sediments. However, data will be compared to further geoarchives, such as lacustrine sediments, speleothemes and marine records, to get a complete insight into the climatic evolution. First analyses include the loess-paleosol sequences at Bodrogkereztúr (Hungary, east of Miskolz, Orlovat (Serbia, north of Belgrade, Ságvár (Hungary, southeast of Lake Balaton, and Stalać (Serbia, confluence of South and West Morava.

  9. Perceptions of transport corridors and intermodal transport - as ways to control the space of freight transport flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Gjesing

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents empirical findings and results from a study conducted as a part of an INTERREG IIIB project on intermodal transport solutions and corridors in the North Sea Region (SUTRANET - Sustainable Transport Research & Development Network in the North Sea Region (Hansen et.al., 2007......; Kristiansen et.al., 2005 and http://www.sutranet.org/ ). The aim of the study has been to explore possibilities and barriers for the development of intermodal transport solutions in selected corridors in the North Sea Region. The North Sea Region is one among several regions appointed by the EU......-Commission to exemplify the operationalisation of the concept Motorways of the Sea (European Commission, 2004). The policies of promoting Motorways of the Sea is aiming at revitalise the short-sea-shipping within Europe as a transport industry, but also to relieve the heavily congested road network in central regions...

  10. An evolutionary conserved region (ECR in the human dopamine receptor D4 gene supports reporter gene expression in primary cultures derived from the rat cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddley Kate

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detecting functional variants contributing to diversity of behaviour is crucial for dissecting genetics of complex behaviours. At a molecular level, characterisation of variation in exons has been studied as they are easily identified in the current genome annotation although the functional consequences are less well understood; however, it has been difficult to prioritise regions of non-coding DNA in which genetic variation could also have significant functional consequences. Comparison of multiple vertebrate genomes has allowed the identification of non-coding evolutionary conserved regions (ECRs, in which the degree of conservation can be comparable with exonic regions suggesting functional significance. Results We identified ECRs at the dopamine receptor D4 gene locus, an important gene for human behaviours. The most conserved non-coding ECR (D4ECR1 supported high reporter gene expression in primary cultures derived from neonate rat frontal cortex. Computer aided analysis of the sequence of the D4ECR1 indicated the potential transcription factors that could modulate its function. D4ECR1 contained multiple consensus sequences for binding the transcription factor Sp1, a factor previously implicated in DRD4 expression. Co-transfection experiments demonstrated that overexpression of Sp1 significantly decreased the activity of the D4ECR1 in vitro. Conclusion Bioinformatic analysis complemented by functional analysis of the DRD4 gene locus has identified a a strong enhancer that functions in neurons and b a transcription factor that may modulate the function of that enhancer.

  11. [Identification of new conserved and variable regions in the 16S rRNA gene of acetic acid bacteria and acetobacteraceae family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, S; Sarkar, S; Gachhui, R

    2015-01-01

    The Acetobacteraceae family of the class Alpha Proteobacteria is comprised of high sugar and acid tolerant bacteria. The Acetic Acid Bacteria are the economically most significant group of this family because of its association with food products like vinegar, wine etc. Acetobacteraceae are often hard to culture in laboratory conditions and they also maintain very low abundances in their natural habitats. Thus identification of the organisms in such environments is greatly dependent on modern tools of molecular biology which require a thorough knowledge of specific conserved gene sequences that may act as primers and or probes. Moreover unconserved domains in genes also become markers for differentiating closely related genera. In bacteria, the 16S rRNA gene is an ideal candidate for such conserved and variable domains. In order to study the conserved and variable domains of the 16S rRNA gene of Acetic Acid Bacteria and the Acetobacteraceae family, sequences from publicly available databases were aligned and compared. Near complete sequences of the gene were also obtained from Kombucha tea biofilm, a known Acetobacteraceae family habitat, in order to corroborate the domains obtained from the alignment studies. The study indicated that the degree of conservation in the gene is significantly higher among the Acetic Acid Bacteria than the whole Acetobacteraceae family. Moreover it was also observed that the previously described hypervariable regions V1, V3, V5, V6 and V7 were more or less conserved in the family and the spans of the variable regions are quite distinct as well.

  12. The Political Economy of Conservation at Mount Elgon, Uganda: Between Local Deprivation, Regional Sustainability, and Global Public Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vedeld

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study from Mount Elgon National Park, Uganda, examining and deepening an understanding of direct incomes and costs of conservation for local people close to protected areas. In the early 1990s, collaborative arrangements were introduced to Mount Elgon National Park to improve people-park relations and enhance rural livelihoods after a period of violent evictions and severe resource access restrictions. In areas with such arrangements – including resource access agreements, Taungya farming, and beekeeping schemes – we observe a marginal increase in annual incomes for involved households. Other incomes accrue from tourism revenue sharing schemes, a community revolving fund, and payments for carbon sequestration. However, these incomes are economically marginal (1.2% of household income, unevenly distributed and instrumentally used to reward compliance with park regulations. They do not necessarily accrue to those incurring costs due to eviction and exclusion, crop raiding, resource access restrictions and conflicts. By contrast, costs constitute at least 20.5 % of total household incomes, making it difficult to see how conservation, poverty alleviation and development can be locally reconciled if local populations continue to bear the economic brunt of conservation. We recommend a shift in policy towards donor and state responsibility for compensating costs on a relevant scale. Such a shift would be an important step towards a more substantive rights-based model of conservation, and would enhance the legitimacy of protected area management in the context of both extreme poverty and natural resource dependence.

  13. Habitat suitability and movement corridors of grey wolf (Canis lupus) in Northern Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Muhammad; Hameed, Shoaib; Ali, Hussain; Bosso, Luciano; Din, Jaffar Ud; Bischof, Richard; Redpath, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Habitat suitability models are useful to understand species distribution and to guide management and conservation strategies. The grey wolf (Canis lupus) has been extirpated from most of its historic range in Pakistan primarily due to its impact on livestock and livelihoods. We used non-invasive survey data from camera traps and genetic sampling to develop a habitat suitability model for C. lupus in northern Pakistan and to explore the extent of connectivity among populations. We detected suitable habitat of grey wolf using a maximum entropy approach (Maxent ver. 3.4.0) and identified suitable movement corridors using the Circuitscape 4.0 tool. Our model showed high levels of predictive performances, as seen from the values of area under curve (0.971±0.002) and true skill statistics (0.886±0.021). The main predictors for habitat suitability for C. lupus were distances to road, mean temperature of the wettest quarter and distance to river. The model predicted ca. 23,129 km2 of suitable areas for wolf in Pakistan, with much of suitable habitat in remote and inaccessible areas that appeared to be well connected through vulnerable movement corridors. These movement corridors suggest that potentially the wolf range can expand in Pakistan’s Northern Areas. However, managing protected areas with stringent restrictions is challenging in northern Pakistan, in part due to heavy dependence of people on natural resources. The habitat suitability map provided by this study can inform future management strategies by helping authorities to identify key conservation areas. PMID:29121089

  14. Culture Development Planning in the Special Region of Yogyakarta (Management Planning of Cultural Heritage in Kotagede District based on Community Empowerment Conservation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Suryanti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Special Region of Yogyakarta is a cultural rich city with excellent cultural resources. Yogyakarta should manage their assets with long-term planning to keep the sustainability. There is a very unique planning process due to a combination of political, technocratic, participatory, top down and bottom up approaches. This planning process is comprehensive or integrated because its involved many actor from multisectoral, multidisciplinary, multi regulatory, and multi planning documents, etc. Local wisdoms have been coloring the planning documents. This study describe and analyze the cultural development planning in Yogyakarta especially on the Management Planning in Kotagede Cultural Heritage District. We used qualitative descriptive approach methods and Miles and Huberman analysis methods. Participation of community and Non Governmental Organization (NGO in conservation planning of cultural heritage in this area is very significant in simplify the government task because people have been more literate in planning, have database of cultural assets, and capable of making their own decisions for the future of the region. Participatory rural appraisal (PRA dan Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA were integrated in the planning process of Kotagede Heritage District management, thus it becomes a model of cultural heritage with community empowerment-based conservation. Keywords: culture development planning, comprehensive planning, heritage cultural district, community empowerment-based conservation.

  15. Effects of Long-term Conservation Tillage on Soil Nutrients in Sloping Fields in Regions Characterized by Water and Wind Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chunjian; Cao, Xue; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Weiyu; Feng, Yongzhong; Qiao, Bo

    2015-12-01

    Conservation tillage is commonly used in regions affected by water and wind erosion. To understand the effects of conservation tillage on soil nutrients and yield, a long-term experiment was set up in a region affected by water and wind erosion on the Loess Plateau. The treatments used were traditional tillage (CK), no tillage (NT), straw mulching (SM), plastic-film mulching (PM), ridging and plastic-film mulching (RPM) and intercropping (In). Our results demonstrate that the available nutrients in soils subjected to non-traditional tillage treatments decreased during the first several years and then remained stable over the last several years of the experiment. The soil organic matter and total nitrogen content increased gradually over 6 years in all treatments except CK. The nutrient content of soils subjected to conservative tillage methods, such as NT and SM, were significantly higher than those in soils under the CK treatment. Straw mulching and film mulching effectively reduced an observed decrease in soybean yield. Over the final 6 years of the experiment, soybean yields followed the trend RPM > PM > SM > NT > CK > In. This trend has implications for controlling soil erosion and preventing non-point source pollution in sloping fields by sacrificing some food production.

  16. Bird diversity in the Serra do Aracá region, northwestern Brazilian Amazon: preliminary check-list with considerations on biogeography and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Henrique Borges

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We inventoried the birds from Serra do Aracá region, state of Amazonas. The region encompasses a high diversity of vegetation types, including white sand forests and campinas, terra firme and flooded forests, montane forests and tepuis. We recorded 416 bird taxa in 69 families through captures with mist nets, tape recording of bird voices, and collection of voucher specimens. A large proportion of them (61% were recorded in a single vegetation type. Qualitative estimates suggest that approximately 580 bird species occur in the region. The avifauna of the Aracá region has a mixed biogeographic composition, with species typical of both margins of the Rio Negro occurring sympatrically. Additionally, species whose distributions are restricted to three areas of endemism for Amazonian birds (Imeri, Guiana and Pantepui were recorded in the region. Rare landscapes in the Brazilian Amazon are found in the Serra do Aracá region. Additionally, we recorded endemic and rare birds, highlighting the value of the region for conservation. The Serra do Aracá State Park officially protects montane forests, terra firme forests and tepuis. We suggest that the large extension of white sand campinas and igapó forests at the southern portion of Serra do Aracá should be also preserved in order to improve the representation of the rich natural heritage of the region.

  17. Sequence analysis of the L protein of the Ebola 2014 outbreak: Insight into conserved regions and mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Gohar; Waheed, Yasir

    2016-06-01

    The 2014 Ebola outbreak was one of the largest that have occurred; it started in Guinea and spread to Nigeria, Liberia and Sierra Leone. Phylogenetic analysis of the current virus species indicated that this outbreak is the result of a divergent lineage of the Zaire ebolavirus. The L protein of Ebola virus (EBOV) is the catalytic subunit of the RNA‑dependent RNA polymerase complex, which, with VP35, is key for the replication and transcription of viral RNA. Earlier sequence analysis demonstrated that the L protein of all non‑segmented negative‑sense (NNS) RNA viruses consists of six domains containing conserved functional motifs. The aim of the present study was to analyze the presence of these motifs in 2014 EBOV isolates, highlight their function and how they may contribute to the overall pathogenicity of the isolates. For this purpose, 81 2014 EBOV L protein sequences were aligned with 475 other NNS RNA viruses, including Paramyxoviridae and Rhabdoviridae viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of all EBOV outbreak L protein sequences was also performed. Analysis of the amino acid substitutions in the 2014 EBOV outbreak was conducted using sequence analysis. The alignment demonstrated the presence of previously conserved motifs in the 2014 EBOV isolates and novel residues. Notably, all the mutations identified in the 2014 EBOV isolates were tolerant, they were pathogenic with certain examples occurring within previously determined functional conserved motifs, possibly altering viral pathogenicity, replication and virulence. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that all sequences with the exception of the 2014 EBOV sequences were clustered together. The 2014 EBOV outbreak has acquired a great number of mutations, which may explain the reasons behind this unprecedented outbreak. Certain residues critical to the function of the polymerase remain conserved and may be targets for the development of antiviral therapeutic agents.

  18. A computational method for identification of vaccine targets from protein regions of conserved human leukocyte antigen binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lars Rønn; Simon, Christian; Kudahl, Ulrich J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Computational methods for T cell-based vaccine target discovery focus on selection of highly conserved peptides identified across pathogen variants, followed by prediction of their binding of human leukocyte antigen molecules. However, experimental studies have shown that T cells ofte...... or proteome using human leukocyte antigen binding predictions and made a web-accessible software implementation freely available at http://met-hilab.cbs.dtu.dk/blockcons/....

  19. Influence of the freight transnational rail liner service on the train scheduling in case of major corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela POPA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss several consequences of the freight transnational rail liner service on the rail corridor capacity. The Northern part of the IVth TEN-T corridor on Romanian territory has specific feature related to the passenger flows connecting important Romanian demographic and economic clusters, on one side, and on the other side, to its diagonal crossing aspect, from the Western border to the Constanta port, connecting the Central Europe countries to the Black Sea regions, which means that there are a lot of expectation in terms of this corridor rail capacity: this corridor will, be for a long time further, the single and first completed continuous upgraded and modernised rail corridor. Its utilization will necessarily be heterogeneously planned (meaning for passengers rapid trains and freight rapid trains, from domestic/internal market, but especially for external market of Romania. In this paper, we consider a simple mathematical model for the calculus of capacity in two different cases: for a homogeneous utilization, meaning that all trains have the same running speeds and for heterogeneous utilization, when the passenger trains have the higher speed and hence, the higher priority over the freight trains, even if some of them are freight transnational liner service. Special feature of liner rail service has to be considered (fixed schedule, no stops for passenger train advance. We draw several useful possible solutions to be considered in order to preserve the active corridor capacity, and to assure a smooth flow for the transnational liner services, which ultimately will enhance the rail attractiveness.

  20. Requirements Definition for ORNL Trusted Corridors Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Randy M [ORNL; Hill, David E [ORNL; Smith, Cyrus M [ORNL; DeNap, Frank A [ORNL; White, James D [ORNL; Gross, Ian G [ORNL; Gorman, Bryan L [ORNL; Hively, Lee M [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL

    2008-02-01

    The ORNL Trusted Corridors Project has several other names: SensorNet Transportation Pilot; Identification and Monitoring of Radiation (in commerce) Shipments (IMR(ic)S); and Southeastern Transportation Corridor Pilot (SETCP). The project involves acquisition and analysis of transportation data at two mobile and three fixed inspection stations in five states (Kentucky, Mississippi, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Washington DC). Collaborators include the State Police organizations that are responsible for highway safety, law enforcement, and incident response. The three states with fixed weigh-station deployments (KY, SC, TN) are interested in coordination of this effort for highway safety, law enforcement, and sorting/targeting/interdiction of potentially non-compliant vehicles/persons/cargo. The Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is interested in these deployments, as a Pilot test (SETCP) to identify Improvised Nuclear Devices (INDs) in highway transport. However, the level of DNDO integration among these state deployments is presently uncertain. Moreover, DHS issues are considered secondary by the states, which perceive this work as an opportunity to leverage these (new) dual-use technologies for state needs. In addition, present experience shows that radiation detectors alone cannot detect DHS-identified IND threats. Continued SETCP success depends on the level of integration of current state/local police operations with the new DHS task of detecting IND threats, in addition to emergency preparedness and homeland security. This document describes the enabling components for continued SETCP development and success, including: sensors and their use at existing deployments (Section 1); personnel training (Section 2); concept of operations (Section 3); knowledge discovery from the copious data (Section 4); smart data collection, integration and database development, advanced algorithms for multiple sensors, and

  1. Requirements Definition for ORNL Trusted Corridors Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Randy M; Hill, David E; Smith, Cyrus M; DeNap, Frank A; White, James D; Gross, Ian G; Gorman, Bryan L; Hively, Lee M; Abercrombie, Robert K

    2008-01-01

    The ORNL Trusted Corridors Project has several other names: SensorNet Transportation Pilot; Identification and Monitoring of Radiation (in commerce) Shipments (IMR(ic)S); and Southeastern Transportation Corridor Pilot (SETCP). The project involves acquisition and analysis of transportation data at two mobile and three fixed inspection stations in five states (Kentucky, Mississippi, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Washington DC). Collaborators include the State Police organizations that are responsible for highway safety, law enforcement, and incident response. The three states with fixed weigh-station deployments (KY, SC, TN) are interested in coordination of this effort for highway safety, law enforcement, and sorting/targeting/interdiction of potentially non-compliant vehicles/persons/cargo. The Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is interested in these deployments, as a Pilot test (SETCP) to identify Improvised Nuclear Devices (INDs) in highway transport. However, the level of DNDO integration among these state deployments is presently uncertain. Moreover, DHS issues are considered secondary by the states, which perceive this work as an opportunity to leverage these (new) dual-use technologies for state needs. In addition, present experience shows that radiation detectors alone cannot detect DHS-identified IND threats. Continued SETCP success depends on the level of integration of current state/local police operations with the new DHS task of detecting IND threats, in addition to emergency preparedness and homeland security. This document describes the enabling components for continued SETCP development and success, including: sensors and their use at existing deployments (Section 1); personnel training (Section 2); concept of operations (Section 3); knowledge discovery from the copious data (Section 4); smart data collection, integration and database development, advanced algorithms for multiple sensors, and

  2. Connecting Asian Heritage Conservation to the Idea of Performative Regionalism: A Case of Community-Enhancing Design Interventions in the Historical Art District of Liulichang Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Thamrin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The active and sometimes ruthless modernisation in Asia has triggered an urgent need to secure the protection and continuation of its rich heritage and diverse regional attributes. However, as in the case of China, the Asian perspective of conservation is different from the West in terms of the nature or ways of design interventions produced and its purposes. This phenomenon has frequently triggered criticisms from heritage conservation professionals. Hence, the objective of this paper is to explore the interventions done on Asian heritage sites, taking the Liulichang Art District in Beijing as the case study, and analyze the positive influence they have brought. The paper starts by distinguishing the Asian concept and values of authenticity in conservation that differ from the West and how these principles have been applied in Liulichang, a famous ancient street known for the selling and practice of classical Chinese arts, mostly for Chinese painting. Using the phenomenological method of analysis, the paper further elaborates on the importance of community building in learning and appreciating the art of Chinese painting and discusses the positive impact made by the design interventions in Liulichang, particularly in terms of community engagement and creation of novel ways to accommodate traditional cultural practices of Chinese painting. Results reflect that the Asian perspective of conservation do not always follow the principle of minimum intervention favoured by the West, but how contemporary interventions could be merged into the heritage site to revive regional communities and cultural activities, connecting Asian architectural conservation with the design approach coined by Barbara Allen (2005 as Performative Regionalism, hence developing the idea and practice of this approach as a result of the discussion. Rather than merely following textual or scientific procedures like in the West, this approach requires a more experiential way of

  3. Common raven occurrence in relation to energy transmission line corridors transiting human-altered sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Howe, Kristy B.; Casazza, Michael L.; Delehanty, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Energy-related infrastructure and other human enterprises within sagebrush steppe of the American West often results in changes that promote common raven (Corvus corax; hereafter, raven) populations. Ravens, a generalist predator capable of behavioral innovation, present a threat to many species of conservation concern. We evaluate the effects of detailed features of an altered landscape on the probability of raven occurrence using extensive raven survey (n= 1045) and mapping data from southern Idaho, USA. We found nonlinear relationships between raven occurrence and distances to transmission lines, roads, and facilities. Most importantly, raven occurrence was greater with presence of transmission lines up to 2.2 km from the corridor.We further explain variation in raven occurrence along anthropogenic features based on the amount of non-native vegetation and cover type edge, such that ravens select fragmented sagebrush stands with patchy, exotic vegetative introgression. Raven occurrence also increased with greater length of edge formed by the contact of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate spp.) with non-native vegetation cover types. In consideration of increasing alteration of sagebrush steppe, these findings will be useful for planning energy transmission corridor placement and other management activities where conservation of sagebrush obligate species is a priority.

  4. Socioeconomic contexts of primate conservation: population, poverty, global economic demands, and sustainable land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Recent assessments by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) indicate the existence of about 612 recognized primate species and subspecies (IUCN RedList, 2012), but close to 50% of these taxa are at risk of extinction as a result of human action. In this article, I call attention to underlying regional and global socioeconomic contexts of primate conservation. Using information from FAO and UN databases and other sources, I examine, for the Neotropics, sub-Saharan Africa, and Southeast Asia, trends in forest loss and human demographics and social condition, discuss the impact of global market pressures upon primate habitats, and examine land-use patterns that may favor primate conservation. Between 1990 and 2010, an estimated 149 million ha of forest were lost in the three regions and additional losses are expected in the future. Global human population will increase from 7 billion in 2012 to 9 billion in 2050. Currently, 2 billion people live in the three primate range regions under high levels of poverty. Large-scale deforestation is related to global market demands, especially from developed and developing nations, for food (e.g., cattle), domestic animal feed (e.g., soybeans), biofuel-based crops (e.g., oil palm), and industrial round wood. The growth of protected areas in the three regions has been steady for several decades, but it is not enough to ensure long-term conservation of many primate taxa. Other conservations tools involving sustainable land use and biodiversity conservation corridors are required at the landscape level. The above assessment can easily be applied at the local level by primatologists, giving more precision to conservation initiatives. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Assessment of soil erosion and conservation on agricultural sloping lands using plot data in the semi-arid hilly loess region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.X. Zhu

    2014-11-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: The results revealed that runoff per unit area slightly increased with slope angle on SSP, but reached a maximum at 15° and then decreased with slope angle on LSP. Soil loss per unit area increased with slope angle on both SSP and LSP. An average of 36.4% less runoff but only 3.6% less soil loss per unit area was produced on LSP than on SSP. The S factor calculated using the slope factor equations in USLE/RUSLE was significantly greater than that estimated from the measured soil loss on the plots. Rainstorms with recurrence intervals greater than 2 years were responsible for more than two thirds of the total soil and water loss. The effectiveness in reducing surface runoff by five types of conservation practices was mixed. However, all the conservation practices yielded much less soil loss than cropland.

  6. Threats, conservation strategies, and prognosis for suckers (Catostomidae) in North America: insights from regional case studies of a diverse family of non-game fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Steven J.; Bunt, Christopher M.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Jennings, Cecil A.; Pearson, Micheal P.; Cooperman, Michael S.; Markle, Douglas F.

    2005-01-01

    Catostomid fishes are a diverse family of 76+ freshwater species that are distributed across North America in many different habitats. This group of fish is facing a variety of impacts and conservation issues that are somewhat unique relative to more economically valuable and heavily managed fish species. Here, we present a brief series of case studies to highlight the threats such as migration barriers, flow regulation, environmental contamination, habitat degradation, exploitation and impacts from introduced (non-native) species that are facing catostomids in different regions. Collectively, the case studies reveal that individual species usually are not threatened by a single, isolated factor. Instead, species in general face numerous stressors that threaten multiple stages of their life history. Several factors have retarded sucker conservation including widespread inabilities of field workers to distinguish some species, lack of basic natural history and ecological knowledge of life history, and the misconception that suckers are tolerant of degraded conditions and are of little social or ecological value. Without a specific constituent group lobbying for conservation of non-game fishes, all such species, including members of the catostomid family, will continue to face serious risks because of neglect, ignorance, and misunderstanding. We suggest that conservation strategies should incorporate research and education/outreach components. Other conservation strategies that would be effective for protecting suckers include freshwater protected areas for critical habitat, restoration of degraded habitat, and design of catostomid-friendly fish bypass facilities. We believe that the plight of the catostomids is representative of the threats facing many other non-game freshwater fishes with diverse life-history strategies globally.

  7. Comparing habitat suitability and connectivity modeling methods for conserving pronghorn migrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E Poor

    Full Text Available Terrestrial long-distance migrations are declining globally: in North America, nearly 75% have been lost. Yet there has been limited research comparing habitat suitability and connectivity models to identify migration corridors across increasingly fragmented landscapes. Here we use pronghorn (Antilocapra americana migrations in prairie habitat to compare two types of models that identify habitat suitability: maximum entropy (Maxent and expert-based (Analytic Hierarchy Process. We used distance to wells, distance to water, NDVI, land cover, distance to roads, terrain shape and fence presence to parameterize the models. We then used the output of these models as cost surfaces to compare two common connectivity models, least-cost modeling (LCM and circuit theory. Using pronghorn movement data from spring and fall migrations, we identified potential migration corridors by combining each habitat suitability model with each connectivity model. The best performing model combination was Maxent with LCM corridors across both seasons. Maxent out-performed expert-based habitat suitability models for both spring and fall migrations. However, expert-based corridors can perform relatively well and are a cost-effective alternative if species location data are unavailable. Corridors created using LCM out-performed circuit theory, as measured by the number of pronghorn GPS locations present within the corridors. We suggest the use of a tiered approach using different corridor widths for prioritizing conservation and mitigation actions, such as fence removal or conservation easements.

  8. Comparing habitat suitability and connectivity modeling methods for conserving pronghorn migrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor, Erin E; Loucks, Colby; Jakes, Andrew; Urban, Dean L

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial long-distance migrations are declining globally: in North America, nearly 75% have been lost. Yet there has been limited research comparing habitat suitability and connectivity models to identify migration corridors across increasingly fragmented landscapes. Here we use pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) migrations in prairie habitat to compare two types of models that identify habitat suitability: maximum entropy (Maxent) and expert-based (Analytic Hierarchy Process). We used distance to wells, distance to water, NDVI, land cover, distance to roads, terrain shape and fence presence to parameterize the models. We then used the output of these models as cost surfaces to compare two common connectivity models, least-cost modeling (LCM) and circuit theory. Using pronghorn movement data from spring and fall migrations, we identified potential migration corridors by combining each habitat suitability model with each connectivity model. The best performing model combination was Maxent with LCM corridors across both seasons. Maxent out-performed expert-based habitat suitability models for both spring and fall migrations. However, expert-based corridors can perform relatively well and are a cost-effective alternative if species location data are unavailable. Corridors created using LCM out-performed circuit theory, as measured by the number of pronghorn GPS locations present within the corridors. We suggest the use of a tiered approach using different corridor widths for prioritizing conservation and mitigation actions, such as fence removal or conservation easements.

  9. The Comoros Show the Earliest Austronesian Gene Flow into the Swahili Corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, Nicolas; Fernandes, Veronica; Mazières, Stéphane; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Cox, Murray P; Ng'ang'a, Joseph Wainaina; Omar, Mohammed; Simeone-Senelle, Marie-Claude; Frassati, Coralie; Alshamali, Farida; Fin, Bertrand; Boland, Anne; Deleuze, Jean-Francois; Stoneking, Mark; Adelaar, Alexander; Crowther, Alison; Boivin, Nicole; Pereira, Luisa; Bailly, Pascal; Chiaroni, Jacques; Ricaut, François-Xavier

    2018-01-04

    At the dawn of the second millennium, the expansion of the Indian Ocean trading network aligned with the emergence of an outward-oriented community along the East African coast to create a cosmopolitan cultural and trading zone known as the Swahili Corridor. On the basis of analyses of new genome-wide genotyping data and uniparental data in 276 individuals from coastal Kenya and the Comoros islands, along with large-scale genetic datasets from the Indian Ocean rim, we reconstruct historical population dynamics to show that the Swahili Corridor is largely an eastern Bantu genetic continuum. Limited gene flows from the Middle East can be seen in Swahili and Comorian populations at dates corresponding to historically documented contacts. However, the main admixture event in southern insular populations, particularly Comorian and Malagasy groups, occurred with individuals from Island Southeast Asia as early as the 8 th century, reflecting an earlier dispersal from this region. Remarkably, our results support recent archaeological and linguistic evidence-based suggestions that the Comoros archipelago was the earliest location of contact between Austronesian and African populations in the Swahili Corridor. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mapping urban porosity and roughness characteristics as a mean of defining urban ventilation corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicht, Marzena; Wicht, Andreas; Osińska-Skotak, Katarzyna

    2017-10-01

    Cities can be characterized with the roughest aerodynamic boundaries, which results in the enhanced turbulent motion and increased drag effect. This leads to reduced wind speeds and directly increases negative effects of living within urban areas. Urban Heat Island, decreased air quality or densely built-up residential/industrial areas occur in many cities, both in temperate and tropical regions, and are included in these negative effects. This case study investigates Warsaw, the capital of Poland, representing a dense, urban environment, located in the temperate zone. It suffers from immense air pollution levels, as well as Urban Heat Island, and the local government is seeking ways to resolve these issues. Among many mitigation techniques, air restoration and exchange system were suggested as appropriate measures, as they address many of the aforementioned issues. The essential elements of such system are ventilation corridors. This paper describes mapping these corridors utilizing the morphometric methods of urban roughness aided by remote sensing data. We focus especially on the terrain topology and texture of single elements, including high vegetation canopy layer. This study considers DSM and different porosity of obstacles, deriving a new outlook at the morphometric methods as a way to improve them. The mapped areas of low roughness characteristics might be appointed as ventilation corridors and play a crucial role in air restoration and exchange system. They may also be included in further planning processes by the local government as preservation areas.

  11. Conserved CPEs in the p53 3' untranslated region influence mRNA stability and protein synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstierne, Maiken W; Vinther, Jeppe; Mittler, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    CaT skin and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines were established. Quantitative PCR and an enzymatic assay were used to quantify the reporter mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Proteins binding to the CPEs were identified by RNA-immunoprecipitation (IP) and quantitative mass spectroscopy. RESULTS: The wild...... irradiation. Several proteins (including GAPDH, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) D and A/B) were identified from the MCF-7 cytoplasmic extracts that bound specifically to the CPEs. CONCLUSION: Two conserved CPEs in the p53 3'UTR regulate stability and translation of a reporter mRNA in non...

  12. Integrated corridor management (ICM) knowledge and technology transfer (KTT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The ICM approach involves aggressive, : proactive integration of infrastructure : along major corridors so that : transportation professionals can fully : leverage all existing modal choices : and assets. ICM helps transportation : leaders improve tr...

  13. Spirit of place of Merdeka corridor in Selatpanjang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldy, Pedia; Dharma, S. Mira

    2018-03-01

    Historical city area was developing by an accumulation of developmental stages which influenced by various factors. The factors are political, economic, social, cultural, and modernization. The research will discuss the spirit of place of Merdeka corridor in Selatpanjang city, Meranti Islands. The purpose is to identify the spirit of place of Merdeka corridor and to find out the tourism concept by characters that support urban tourism in Selatpanjang city. The research method used is qualitative research method with the rationalistic paradigm. Based on cultural history, physical building, and spatial pattern, Merdeka corridor has unique characteristic, and it persists if compared by another in Selatpanjang city. However, damage of corridor, physical changes, and functions can slowly happen due to modernization and cannot avoid.

  14. vegetation biomass prediction in the cattle corridor of uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    3Ministry of Water and Environment, Climate Change Unit, P. O. Box 2811, Kampala, Uganda ... (r=0.99). Precipitation has influenced vegetative biomass in the cattle corridor as there is a positive .... since they are cloud free (Campbell, 2006).

  15. Performance evaluation of concrete railroad ties on the northeast corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Simpson Gumpertz & Heger Inc. conducted an investigation into the factors that caused widespread failure in prestressed concrete : railroad ties on the Northeast Corridor. The problem was apparent in ties manufactured and installed circa 19941998....

  16. U.S.--Canada international mobility and trade corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    Public and private stakeholders in Washington State and British Columbia established the international mobility and trade corridor (IMTC) partnership. The IMTC is a coalition of over 60 U.S. and Canadian business and government entities whose mission...

  17. I-15 integrated corridor management system : project management plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The Project Management Plan (PMP) assists the San Diego ICM Team by defining a procedural framework for : management and control of the I-15 Integrated Corridor Management Demonstration Project, and development and : deployment of the ICM System. The...

  18. MOSAIC : Model of Sustainability and Integrated Corridors : [research summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In order to improve transportation, environmental, and livability : conditions for Maryland residents and visitors, the Maryland : State Highway Administration (SHA) initiated planning efforts to : improve critical highway corridors and promote susta...

  19. Statewide GIS mapping of recurring congestion corridors : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Recurring congestion occurs when travel demand reaches or exceeds the available roadway : capacity. This project developed an interactive geographic information system (GIS) map of the : recurring congestion corridors (labeled herein as hotspots) in ...

  20. A Strategic Market Analysis of the Open Market Corridor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clark

    2003-01-01

    ... and an overall marketing strategy for the Open Market Corridor. Through comprehensive literature review and information gathering a focused analysis of a specific potential customer Naval Supply Systems Command (NAVSUP...

  1. Palaeohydrological corridors for hominin dispersals in the Middle East ∼250-70,000 years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, Paul S.; Groucutt, Huw S.; Drake, Nick A.; White, Tom S.; Jennings, Richard P.; Petraglia, Michael D.

    2016-07-01

    The timing and extent of palaeoenvironmental connections between northeast Africa, the Levant and the Arabian Peninsula during the Middle and Late Pleistocene are critical to debates surrounding dispersals of hominins, including movements of Homo sapiens out of Africa. Although there is evidence that synchronous episodes of climatic amelioration during the late Middle and Late Pleistocene may have allowed connections to form between northern Africa and western Asia, a number of palaeoclimate models indicate the continued existence of an arid barrier between northern Arabia and the Levant. Here we evaluate the palaeoenvironmental setting for hominin dispersals between, and within, northeast Africa and southwest Asia during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 7-5 using reconstructions of surface freshwater availability as an environmental proxy. We use remotely sensed data to map palaeohydrological features (lakes, wetlands and rivers) across the presently hyper-arid areas of northern Arabia and surrounding regions, integrating these results with palaeoclimate models, palaeoenvironmental proxy data and absolute dating to determine when these features were active. Our analyses suggest limited potential for dispersals during MIS 7 and 6, but indicate the formation of a palaeohydrological corridor (the 'Tabuk Corridor') between the Levant and the Arabian interior during the MIS 6-5e glacial-interglacial transition and during MIS 5e. A recurrence of this corridor, following a slightly different route, also occurred during MIS 5a. These palaeohydrological and terrestrial data can be used to establish when proposed routes for hominin dispersals became viable. Furthermore, the distribution of Arabian archaeological sites with affinities to Levantine assemblages, some of which are associated with Homo sapiens fossils, and the relative density of Middle Palaeolithic assemblages within the Tabuk Corridor, are consistent with it being utilised for dispersals at various times.

  2. Constraining the compressed spectrum of the top squark and chargino along the W corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Li, Lingfeng; Qin, Qin

    2018-03-01

    Studying superpartner production together with a hard initial state radiation jet has been a useful strategy for searches of supersymmetry with a compressed spectrum at the LHC. In the case of the top squark (stop), the ratio of the missing transverse momentum from the lightest neutralinos and the initial state radiation momentum, defined as R¯M, turns out to be an effective variable to distinguish the signal from the backgrounds. It has helped to exclude the stop mass below 590 GeV along the top corridor where mt ˜-mχ˜1 0≈mt . On the other hand, the current experimental limit is still rather weak in the W corridor where mt ˜-mχ˜10≈mW+mb. In this work, we extend this strategy to the parameter region around the W corridor by considering the one lepton final state. In this case, the kinematic constraints are insufficient to completely determine the neutrino momentum, which is required to calculate R¯M. However, the minimum value of R¯M consistent with the kinematic constraints still provides a useful discriminating variable, allowing the exclusion reach of the stop mass to be extended to ˜550 GeV based on the current 36 fb-1 LHC data. The same method can also be applied to the chargino search with mχ˜1±-mχ˜10≈mW because the analysis does not rely on b jets. If no excess is present in the current data, a chargino mass of 300 GeV along the W corridor can be excluded, beyond the limit obtained from the multilepton search.

  3. Molecular dissection of a contiguous gene syndrome: Frequent submicroscopic deletions, evolutionarily conserved sequences, and a hypomethylated island in the Miller-Dieker chromosome region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, D.H.; Ledbetter, S.A.; vanTuinen, P.

    1989-01-01

    The Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS), composed of characteristic facial abnormalities and a severe neuronal migration disorder affecting the cerebral cortex, is caused by visible or submicroscopic deletions of chromosome band 17p13. Twelve anonymous DNA markers were tested against a panel of somatic cell hybrids containing 17p deletions from seven MDS patients. All patients, including three with normal karyotypes, are deleted for a variable set of 5-12 markers. Two highly polymorphic VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats) probes, YNZ22 and YNH37, are codeleted in all patients tested and make molecular diagnosis for this disorder feasible. By pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, YNZ22 and YNH37 were shown to be within 30 kilobases (kb) of each other. Cosmid clones containing both VNTR sequences were identified, and restriction mapping showed them to be 100 kb were completely deleted in all patients, providing a minimum estimate of the size of the MDS critical region. A hypomethylated island and evolutionarily conserved sequences were identified within this 100-kb region, indications of the presence of one or more expressed sequences potentially involved in the pathophysiology of this disorder. The conserved sequences were mapped to mouse chromosome 11 by using mouse-rat somatic cell hybrids, extending the remarkable homology between human chromosome 17 and mouse chromosome 11 by 30 centimorgans, into the 17p telomere region

  4. ADAPTIF CONSERVATION (ACM MODEL IN INCREASING FAMILY SUPPORT AND COMPLIANCE TREATMENT IN PATIENT WITH PULONARY TUBERCULOSIS IN SURABAYA CITY REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nur Kholifah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB in Indonesia is still health problem and the prevalence rate is high. Discontinuing medication and lack of family support are the causalities. Numbers of strategies to overcome are seemingly not succeeded. Roles and responsibilities of family nursing are crucial to improve participation, motivation of individual, family and community in prevention, including pulmonary tuberculosis. Unfortunately, models of pulmonary tuberculosis currently unavailable. The combination of adaptation and conservation in complementarily improving family support and compliance in medication is introduced in this study. Method: This research intended to analyze Adaptive Conservation Model (ACM in extending family support and treatment compliance. Modeling steps including model analysis, expert validation, field trial, implementation and recommending the output model. Research subject involves 15 families who implement family Assistance and supervision in Medication (ASM and other 15 families with ACM. Result: The study revealed ACM is better than ASM on the case of family support and medication compliances. It supports the role of environment as influential factor on individual health belief, values and decision making. Therefore, it is advised to apply ACM in enhancing family support and compliance of pulmonary TB patients. Discussion: Social and family supports to ACM group obtained by developing interaction through communication. Family interaction necessary to improve family support to pulmonary tuberculosis patients. And social support plays as motivator to maintain compliance on medication

  5. Lithospheric controls on crustal reactivation and intraplate mountain building in the Gobi Corridor, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, D.

    2017-12-01

    This talk will review the Permian-Recent tectonic history of the Gobi Corridor region which includes the actively deforming Gobi Altai-Altai, Eastern Tien Shan, Beishan and North Tibetan foreland. Since terrane amalgamation in the Permian, Gobi Corridor crust has been repeatedly reactivated by Triassic-Jurassic contraction/transpression, Late Cretaceous extension and Late Cenozoic transpression. The tectonic history of the region suggests the following basic principle for intraplate continental regions: non-cratonized continental interior terrane collages are susceptible to repeated intraplate reactivation events, driven by either post-orogenic collapse and/or compressional stresses derived from distant plate boundary convergence. Thus, important related questions are: 1) what lithospheric pre-conditions favor intraplate crustal reactivation in the Gobi Corridor (simple answer: crustal thinning, thermal weakening, strong buttressing cratons), 2) what are the controls on the kinematics of deformation and style of mountain building in the Gobi-Altai-Altai, Beishan and North Tibetan margin (simple answer: many factors, but especially angular relationship between SHmax and `crustal grain'), 3) how does knowledge of the array of Quaternary faults and the historical earthquake record influence our understanding of modern earthquake hazards in continental intraplate regions (answer: extrapolation of derived fault slip rates and recurrence interval determinations are problematic), 4) what important lessons can we learn from the Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic history of Central Asia that is applicable to the tectonic evolution of all intraplate continental regions (simple answer: ancient intraplate deformation events may be subtly expressed in the rock record and only revealed by low-temperature thermochronometers, preserved orogen-derived sedimentary sequences, fault zone evidence for younger brittle reactivation, and recognition of a younger class of cross-cutting tectonic

  6. Madagascar Conservation & Development - Vol 6, No 1 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of sight but no longer out of mind: A climate of change for marine conservation in Madagascar · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Dynamique institutionnelle des transferts de gestion dans le corridor Fandriana - Vondrozo · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  7. Cytoplasmic protein binding to highly conserved sequences in the 3' untranslated region of mouse protamine 2 mRNA, a translationally regulated transcript of male germ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Y.K.; Hecht, N.B.

    1991-01-01

    The expression of the protamines, the predominant nuclear proteins of mammalian spermatozoa, is regulated translationally during male germ-cell development. The 3' untranslated region (UTR) of protamine 1 mRNA has been reported to control its time of translation. To understand the mechanisms controlling translation of the protamine mRNAs, we have sought to identify cis elements of the 3' UTR of protamine 2 mRNA that are recognized by cytoplasmic factors. From gel retardation assays, two sequence elements are shown to form specific RNA-protein complexes. Protein binding sites of the two complexes were determined by RNase T1 mapping, by blocking the putative binding sites with antisense oligonucleotides, and by competition assays. The sequences of these elements, located between nucleotides + 537 and + 572 in protamine 2 mRNA, are highly conserved among postmeiotic translationally regulated nuclear proteins of the mammalian testis. Two closely linked protein binding sites were detected. UV-crosslinking studies revealed that a protein of about 18 kDa binds to one of the conserved sequences. These data demonstrate specific protein binding to a highly conserved 3' UTR of translationally regulated testicular mRNA

  8. I-880 Integrated Corridor Management Concept of Operation : Final Submittal: Concept of Operations for the I-880 Corridor in Oakland, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-31

    This report describes the draft Concept of Operations that has been developed for the Integrated Corridor Mobility (ICM) program by the I-880 corridor team. The I-880 corridor team has defined this Concept of Operations (ConOps) based on two primary ...

  9. Conservation potential of agricultural water conservation subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, Ray

    2008-07-01

    A current policy subsidizes farmers to invest in improved on-farm irrigation efficiency, expecting water to be conserved off farm. Contrary to expectation, water has been increasingly depleted in some regions after such improvements. This paper investigates the policy's failure to conserve water consistently by (1) formulating an economic model of irrigated crop production to determine a profit-maximizing irrigator's range of responses to a subsidy and (2) embedding these responses into hypothetical streamflow diagrams to ascertain their potential to conserve water under various hydrologic regimes. Testable hypotheses are developed to predict the conservation potential of a subsidy in real-world application.

  10. Renewable Energy Zones for the Africa Clean Energy Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Grace C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Deshmukh, Ranjit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe [International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Radojicic, Tijana [International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Reilly, Jessica [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Multi-criteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) is a study approach developed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with the support of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). The approach combines geospatial, statistical, energy engineering, and economic methods to comprehensively identify and value high-quality wind, solar PV, and solar CSP resources for grid integration based on techno-economic criteria, generation profiles (for wind), and socio-environmental impacts. The Renewable Energy Zones for the Africa Clean Energy Corridor study sought to identify and comprehensively value high-quality wind, solar photovoltaic (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) resources in 21 countries in the East and Southern Africa Power Pools to support the prioritization of areas for development through a multi-criteria planning process. These countries include Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Djibouti, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Libya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The study includes the methodology and the key results including renewable energy potential for each region.

  11. [Three regions of Rpb10 mini-subunit of nuclear RNA polymerases are strictly conserved in all eukaryotes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpakovskiĭ, G V; Lebedenko, E N

    1996-12-01

    The rpb10+ cDNA from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe was cloned using two independent approaches (PCR and genetic suppression). The cloned cDNA encoded the Rpb10 subunit common for all three RNA polymerases. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the Sz. pombe Rbp10 subunit (71 amino acid residues) with those of the homologous subunits of RNA polymerases I, II, and III from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Home sapiens revealed that heptapeptides RCFT/SCGK (residues 6-12), RYCCRRM (residues 43-49), and HVDLIEK (residues 53-59) were evolutionarily the most conserved structural motifs of these subunits. It is shown that the Rbp10 subunit from Sz. pombe can substitute its homolog (ABC10 beta) in the baker's yeast S. cerevisiae.

  12. Assessment of Sustainable Use of Coastal Resources of Regional Waters Conservation Area Biak Numfor Regency, Papua Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutaman Sutaman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to exploit fish resources optimally, continuous and sustainable is an urgent demand for the greatest prosperity of the people, especially to improve the welfare of fishermen and fish farmers. The level of sustainable use of coastal resources in water conservation is very important, so that the utilization does not exceed the carrying capacity of the environment. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of sustainable use of coastal resources Biak Numfor, associated with the utilization of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism. The study was conducted in June to December 2015 and October to November 2016. The primary data obtained by interview and direct discussion through Focus Group Disscution (FGD with fishermen community, tourist and tourist entrepreneurs as well as related officials in the Office of Fisheries and Marine Affairs, and Tourism Office of Biak Numfor Regency. Methods of data analysis approach sustainability analysis conducted by the method of MDS (Multi-Dimensional Scaling with the help of software Rapfish. Based on the survey results revealed that the value of fisheries ordinated to achieve 57.66%, 44.80% aquaculture, and tourism 46.25%. With these achievements ordinated value, it can be concluded that the use of sustainable capture fisheries are still classified by the lever sustainability attributes include; the type of fishing gear, vessel types used and the catch per unit effort (CPUE. Meanwhile the relatively less sustainable aquaculture with the sustainability lever attributes include; cultivation technology, the number of business units with different types and species of fish. For tourism utilization is still considered less sustainable with levers sustainability attributes include the number of tourists, the type and number of amenities and facilities and infrastructure   Keywords: Sustainability, utilization, waters conservation area (KKPD, MDS-Rapfish

  13. Conserved microstructure of the Brassica B Genome of Brassica nigra in relation to homologous regions of Arabidopsis thaliana, B. rapa and B. oleracea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Brassica B genome is known to carry several important traits, yet there has been limited analyses of its underlying genome structure, especially in comparison to the closely related A and C genomes. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of Brassica nigra was developed and screened with 17 genes from a 222 kb region of A. thaliana that had been well characterised in both the Brassica A and C genomes. Results Fingerprinting of 483 apparently non-redundant clones defined physical contigs for the corresponding regions in B. nigra. The target region is duplicated in A. thaliana and six homologous contigs were found in B. nigra resulting from the whole genome triplication event shared by the Brassiceae tribe. BACs representative of each region were sequenced to elucidate the level of microscale rearrangements across the Brassica species divide. Conclusions Although the B genome species separated from the A/C lineage some 6 Mya, comparisons between the three paleopolyploid Brassica genomes revealed extensive conservation of gene content and sequence identity. The level of fractionation or gene loss varied across genomes and genomic regions; however, the greatest loss of genes was observed to be common to all three genomes. One large-scale chromosomal rearrangement differentiated the B genome suggesting such events could contribute to the lack of recombination observed between B genome species and those of the closely related A/C lineage. PMID:23586706

  14. Wood and Sediment Dynamics in River Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, E.; Scott, D.

    2015-12-01

    Large wood along rivers influences entrainment, transport, and storage of mineral sediment and particulate organic matter. We review how wood alters sediment dynamics and explore patterns among volumes of instream wood, sediment storage, and residual pools for dispersed pieces of wood, logjams, and beaver dams. We hypothesized that: volume of sediment per unit area of channel stored in association with wood is inversely proportional to drainage area; the form of sediment storage changes downstream; sediment storage correlates most strongly with wood load; and volume of sediment stored behind beaver dams correlates with pond area. Lack of data from larger drainage areas limits tests of these hypotheses, but analyses suggest a negative correlation between sediment volume and drainage area and a positive correlation between wood and sediment volume. The form of sediment storage in relation to wood changes downstream, with wedges of sediment upstream from jammed steps most prevalent in small, steep channels and more dispersed sediment storage in lower gradient channels. Use of a published relation between sediment volume, channel width, and gradient predicted about half of the variation in sediment stored upstream from jammed steps. Sediment volume correlates well with beaver pond area. Historically more abundant instream wood and beaver populations likely equated to greater sediment storage within river corridors. This review of the existing literature on wood and sediment dynamics highlights the lack of studies on larger rivers.

  15. RIVER CORRIDOR BUILDINGS 324 and 327 CLEANUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAZZELL, K.D.; SMITH, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    A major challenge in the recently awarded River Corridor Closure (RCC) Contract at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is decontaminating and demolishing (D and D) facilities in the 300 Area. Located along the banks of the Columbia River about one mile north of Richland, Washington, the 2.5 km 2 (1 mi 2 )300 Area comprises only a small part of the 1517 km 2 (586 mi 2 ) Hanford Site. However, with more than 300 facilities ranging from clean to highly contaminated, D and D of those facilities represents a major challenge for Washington Closure Hanford (WCH), which manages the new RCC Project for DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL). A complicating factor for this work is the continued use of nearly a dozen facilities by the DOE's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Most of the buildings will not be released to WCH until at least 2009--four years into the seven-year, $1.9 billion RCC Contract. The challenge will be to deactivate, decommission, decontaminate and demolish (D4) highly contaminated buildings, such as 324 and 327, without interrupting PNNL's operations in adjacent facilities. This paper focuses on the challenges associated with the D4 of the 324 Building and the 327 Building

  16. Utilization of manual therapy to the lumbar spine in conjunction with traditional conservative care for individuals with bilateral lower extremity complex regional pain syndrome: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, Zachary; Hernandez, Luis; Yake, Dale

    2018-06-06

    Conservative therapies for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) have traditionally focused on exercise and desensitization techniques targeted at the involved extremity. The primary purpose of this case series is to report on the potential benefit of utilizing manual therapy to the lumbar spine in conjunction with traditional conservative care when treating patients with lower extremity CRPS. Two patients with the diagnosis of lower extremity CRPS were treated with manual therapy to the lumbar spine in conjunction with education, exercise, desensitization, and soft tissue techniques for the extremity. Patient 1 received 13 sessions over 6 weeks resulting in a 34-point improvement in oswestry disability index (ODI) and 35-point improvement in lower extremity functional scale (LEFS). Patient 2 received 21 sessions over 12 weeks resulting in a 28-point improvement in ODI and a 41-point improvement in LEFS. Both patients exhibited reductions in pain and clinically meaningful improvements in function. Manual therapies when applied to the lumbar spine in these patients as part of a comprehensive treatment plan resulted in improved spinal mobility, decreased pain, and reduction is distal referred symptoms. Although one cannot infer a cause and effect relationship from a case series, this report identifies meaningful clinical outcomes potentially associated with manual physical therapy to the lumbar spine for two patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1.

  17. Results of the global conservation assessment of the freshwater crabs (Brachyura, Pseudothelphusidae and Trichodactylidae: The Neotropical region, with an update on diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Cumberlidge

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater crabs of the Neotropics comprise 311 species in two families (Pseudothelphusidae and Trichodactylidae and one or both of these families are found in all of the countries in the Neotropical region (except for Chile and some of the Caribbean islands. Colombia (102 species, 81% endemic and Mexico (67 species, 95% endemic are the biodiversity hotspots of freshwater crab species richness and country-level endemism for this region. The results of the IUCN Red List conservation assessments show that 34% of pseudothelphusids and 10% of trichodactylids have an elevated risk of extinction, 29% of pseudothelphusids and 75% of trichodactylids are not at-risk (Least Concern, and although none are actually extinct, 56% of pseudothelphusids and 17% of trichodactylids are too poorly known to assess (Data Deficient. Colombia (14 species, Venezuela (7 species, Mexico (6 species, and Ecuador (5 species are the countries with the highest number of threatened species of Neotropical freshwater crabs. The majority of threatened species are restricted-range semiterrestrial endemics living in habitats subjected to deforestation, alteration of drainage patterns, and pollution. This underlines the need to prioritize and develop conservation measures before species decline to levels from which they cannot recover. These results represent a baseline that can be used to design strategies to save threatened Neotropical species of freshwater crabs.

  18. Coupled social and ecological outcomes of land use change and agricultural intensification in Costa Rica and the future of biodiversity conservation in tropical agricultural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfiorenzo, A. R.; Shaver, I.; Chain Guadarrama, A.; Cleary, K.; Santiago-Garcia, R.; Finegan, B.; Hormel, L.; Sibelet, N.; Vierling, L. A.; Bosque-Perez, N.; DeClerck, F.; Fagan, M. E.; Waits, L.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical ecosystem conversion to agriculture has caused widespread habitat loss and created fragmented landscapes composed of remnant forest patches embedded in a matrix of agricultural land uses. Non- traditional agricultural export (NTAE) crops such as pineapple are rapidly replacing multiuse landscapes characterized by a diverse matrix of pasture and smallholder crops with intensive, large-scale, monoculture plantations. Using an interdisciplinary approach, we conduct a case study to examine the coupled social and ecological implications of LUCC and agricultural intensification in this region, with larger application to regions experiencing similar patterns. Guided by frameworks from both political and landscape ecology, we: (1) describe the social and economic implications of pineapple expansion, specifically the concentration of land, labor and financial resources, (2) quantify pineapple cultivation's spatial characteristics, and (3) assess the effects of pineapple expansion on surrounding forest ecosystems, on the agricultural matrix and on biodiversity conservation. Our results indicate that pineapple production concentrates land, labor, and financial resources, which has a homogenizing effect on the agricultural economy in the study region. This constrains farm-based livelihoods, with larger implications for food security and agricultural diversity. Landscape ecology analyses further reveal how pineapple production simplifies and homogenizes the agricultural matrix between forest patches, which is likely to have a negative effect on biodiversity. To offset the effects of pineapple expansion on social and environmental systems, we recommend developing landscape level land use planning capacity. Furthermore, agricultural and conservation policy reform is needed to promote landscape heterogeneity and economic diversity within the agricultural sector. Our interdisciplinary research provides a detailed examination of the social and ecological impacts of

  19. The TEN-T core network and the Fehmarnbelt region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas

    This note is a snapshot picture, taken in early 2014, that places the Green STRING corridor project within the context of the TEN-T strategy and gives a summarized overview on the impact of this strategy in the region. Chapter 1 contains a summary of the TEN-T strategy today, chapter 2 presents...... the sources used for this note, chapter 3 presents all the relevant EU regulations with direct impact on the development of TEN-T corridors, chapter 4 gives practical examples of the challenges for the development of TEN-T corridors, chapter 5 pre-sents the national initiatives related to the TEN-T corridor...

  20. Current knowledge and future research directions to link soil health and water conservation in the Ogallala Aquifer region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ogallala Aquifer is one of the largest freshwater aquifers in the world. It acts as a valuable resource in agriculture, animal production, and public water supplies across eight Great Plains states. However, with high irrigation demand, low recharge rates across most of the region, and extreme c...

  1. Regional estimates of ecological services derived from U.S. Department of Agriculture conservation programs in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Stephen P.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Waddle, Hardin; Keeland, Bobby D.; Walls, Susan C.; James, Dale; Moorman, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV) is the Nation?s largest floodplain and this once predominantly forested ecosystem provided significant habitat for a diverse flora and fauna, sequestered carbon in trees and soil, and stored floodwater, sediments, and nutrients within the floodplain. This landscape has been substantially altered by the conversion of nearly 75% of the riparian forests, predominantly to agricultural cropland, with significant loss and degradation of important ecosystem services. Large-scale efforts have been employed to restore the forest and wetland resources and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) represent some of the most extensive restoration programs in the MAV. The objective of the WRP is to restore and protect the functions and values of wetlands in agricultural landscapes with an emphasis on habitat for migratory birds and wetland-dependent wildlife, protection and improvement of water quality, flood attenuation, ground water recharge, protection of native flora and fauna, and educational and scientific scholarship.

  2. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the STAS Domains of Rat Prestin and Human Pendrin Reveal Conformational Motions in Conserved Flexible Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok K. Sharma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Molecular dynamics (MD simulations provide valuable information on the conformational changes that accompany time-dependent motions in proteins. The reported crystal structure of rat prestin (PDB 3LLO is remarkable for an α1-α2 inter-helical angle that differs substantially from those observed in bacterial STAS domains of SulP anion transporters and anti-sigma factor antagonists. However, NMR data on the rat prestin STAS domain in solution suggests dynamic features at or near the α1-α2 helical region (Pasqualetto et al JMB, 2010. We therefore performed a 100 ns 300K MD simulation study comparing the STAS domains of rat prestin and (modeled human pendrin, to explore possible conformational flexibility in the region of the α1 and α2 helices. Methods: The conformation of the loop missing in the crystal structure of rat prestin STAS (11 amino acids between helix α1 and strand β3 was built using Modeller. MD simulations were performed with GROMACSv4.6 using GROMOS96 53a6 all-atom force field. Results: A subset of secondary structured elements of the STAS domains exhibits significant conformational changes during the simulation time course. The conformationally perturbed segments include the majority of loop regions, as well as the α1 and α2 helices. A significant decrease in the α1-α2 inter-helical angle observed across the simulation trajectory leads to closer helical packing at their C-termini. The end-simulation conformations of the prestin and pendrin STAS domains, including their decreased α1-α2 inter-helical angles, resemble more closely the packing of corresponding helices in the STAS structures of bacterial SulP transporters Rv1739c and ychM, as well as those of the anti-sigma factor antagonists. Several structural segments of the modeled human pendrin STAS domain exhibit larger atomic motions and greater conformational deviations than the corresponding regions of rat prestin, predicting that the human pendrin STAS

  3. High conservation level of CD8(+) T cell immunogenic regions within an unusual H1N2 human influenza variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komadina, Naomi; Quiñones-Parra, Sergio M; Kedzierska, Katherine; McCaw, James M; Kelso, Anne; Leder, Karin; McVernon, Jodie

    2016-10-01

    Current seasonal influenza vaccines require regular updates due to antigenic drift causing loss of effectiveness and therefore providing little or no protection against novel influenza A subtypes. Next generation vaccines capable of eliciting CD8(+) T cell (CTL) mediated cross-protective immunity may offer a long-term alternative strategy. However, measuring pre- and existing levels of CTL cross-protection in humans is confounded by differences in infection histories across individuals. During 2000-2003, H1N2 viruses circulated persistently in the human population for the first time and we hypothesized that the viral nucleoprotein (NP) contained novel CTL epitopes that may have contributed to the survival of the viruses. This study describes the immunogenic NP peptides of H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 influenza viruses isolated from humans over the past century, 1918-2003, by comparing this historical dataset to reference NP peptides from H1N2 that circulated in humans during 2000-2003. Observed peptides sequences ranged from highly conserved (15%) to highly variable (12%), with variation unrelated to reported immunodominance. No unique NP peptides which were exclusive to the H1N2 viruses were noted. However, the virus had inherited the NP from a recently emerged H3N2 variant containing novel peptides, which may have assisted its persistence. Any advantage due to this novelty was subsequently lost with emergence of a newer H3N2 variant in 2003. Our approach has potential to provide insight into the population context in which influenza viruses emerge, and may help to inform immunogenic peptide selection for CTL-inducing influenza vaccines. J. Med. Virol. 88:1725-1732, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Widespread Shortening of 3' Untranslated Regions and Increased Exon Inclusion Are Evolutionarily Conserved Features of Innate Immune Responses to Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athma A Pai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of pre-mRNA processing mechanisms to the regulation of immune responses remains poorly studied despite emerging examples of their role as regulators of immune defenses. We sought to investigate the role of mRNA processing in the cellular responses of human macrophages to live bacterial infections. Here, we used mRNA sequencing to quantify gene expression and isoform abundances in primary macrophages from 60 individuals, before and after infection with Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium. In response to both bacteria we identified thousands of genes that significantly change isoform usage in response to infection, characterized by an overall increase in isoform diversity after infection. In response to both bacteria, we found global shifts towards (i the inclusion of cassette exons and (ii shorter 3' UTRs, with near-universal shifts towards usage of more upstream polyadenylation sites. Using complementary data collected in non-human primates, we show that these features are evolutionarily conserved among primates. Following infection, we identify candidate RNA processing factors whose expression is associated with individual-specific variation in isoform abundance. Finally, by profiling microRNA levels, we show that 3' UTRs with reduced abundance after infection are significantly enriched for target sites for particular miRNAs. These results suggest that the pervasive usage of shorter 3' UTRs is a mechanism for particular genes to evade repression by immune-activated miRNAs. Collectively, our results suggest that dynamic changes in RNA processing may play key roles in the regulation of innate immune responses.

  5. Alternative corridors in the northeastern part of the Municipality of Medellin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa Grajales, Ana Maria; Escobar, John Fernando

    2012-01-01

    This work was carried in order to establish an alternative of ecological corridor for structural connection in the districts 1, 2, 3 and 4, north-eastern area of Medellin, aimed to protect existing green land and to decision making or the generation of new soil, using landscape metrics and geoinformatics tools. An area of 400 m 2w as used as a Minimal Mappable Unit (UMC). There were found 296 ha (19.4%) of green areas on the 1,527 ha of study area, 95.4 with predominantly grass cover; while the wooded area, with an area of 26.1 ha, shows the highest isolation (99.1 m), tall scrub, up to 48.7 ha, had the highest aggregation (16.4 m). Priority for conservation was given to eight (8) fragments, selected through the quality index of the fragment (ICF), totaling 26 ha. The corridor was established with a width of 80 m, giving a total area of 73.2 ha, mostly associated with withdrawals from streams.

  6. Interactive effects of climate change with nutrients, mercury, and freshwater acidification on key taxa in the North Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkney, Alfred E.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Evers, David C.; Hooper, Michael J.; Horan, Jeffrey; Jones, Jess W.; Lazarus, Rebecca S.; Marshall, Harold G.; Milliken, Andrew; Rattner, Barnett A.; Schmerfeld, John J.; Sparling, Donald W.

    2015-01-01

    The North Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative LCC (NA LCC) is a public–private partnership that provides information to support conservation decisions that may be affected by global climate change (GCC) and other threats. The NA LCC region extends from southeast Virginia to the Canadian Maritime Provinces. Within this region, the US National Climate Assessment documented increases in air temperature, total precipitation, frequency of heavy precipitation events, and rising sea level, and predicted more drastic changes. Here, we synthesize literature on the effects of GCC interacting with selected contaminant, nutrient, and environmental processes to adversely affect natural resources within this region. Using a case study approach, we focused on 3 stressors with sufficient NA LCC region-specific information for an informed discussion. We describe GCC interactions with a contaminant (Hg) and 2 complex environmental phenomena—freshwater acidification and eutrophication. We also prepared taxa case studies on GCC- and GCC-contaminant/nutrient/process effects on amphibians and freshwater mussels. Several avian species of high conservation concern have blood Hg concentrations that have been associated with reduced nesting success. Freshwater acidification has adversely affected terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the Adirondacks and other areas of the region that are slowly recovering due to decreased emissions of N and sulfur oxides. Eutrophication in many estuaries within the region is projected to increase from greater storm runoff and less denitrification in riparian wetlands. Estuarine hypoxia may be exacerbated by increased stratification. Elevated water temperature favors algal species that produce harmful algal blooms (HABs). In several of the region's estuaries, HABs have been associated with bird die-offs. In the NA LCC region, amphibian populations appear to be declining. Some species may be adversely affected by GCC through higher temperatures

  7. ERA Ranger tailings corridor review. Supervising Scientist report 154

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    Sinclair Knight Merz (SKM) were commissioned by the Office of the Supervising Scientist on 25 May 2000 to undertake a review and complete a report on the tailings corridor at the ERA Ranger Mine. The objective of the study was to undertake an 'as is' and to some extent historic and look ahead, review of the corridor system sufficient to: assess the current suitability of key aspects of the design; assess the suitability of current operating, maintenance and system development regimes and responsibilities; and record any recommended actions or further investigations arising out of the review; in order to ensure the adequacy of the design, operation and maintenance. The scope of the study report was limited to the corridor itself, its associated sump and sump contents discharge and the branch corridors carrying pipelines to Pit 1. A representative report contents was discussed and agreed with the Office of the Supervising Scientist prior to commencement of the study and this is included as appendix A to this report. The originally agreed content is, with only minor amendment, reflected in this report. The study methodology comprised a review and assessment by SKM of the design of the existing system and current operations documentation and information obtained from investigations on site and discussions with ERA site personnel. Whilst, a number of modifications affecting the corridor are recommended for further consideration, the main findings of the report relate to operating and maintenance practices which should be adopted for the remainder of the mine/mill life

  8. Corridor X in Serbia: Approach to spatial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijić Saša

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available For the infrastructural corridor's area, of the national importance, is predicted making spatial plans of area of special use, as the most complex instruments for the developing and arranging management of these areas. These plans should have an integrative and problem-oriented approach towards development planning and arrangement of such an area, and it is obliged to include: a complex evaluation of state and function of infrastructural system in the corridor; an analysis of infrastructural corridor influence on the development of the planning area and its surrounding; an alternative conception of long-term protection, improvement, organization and use of the planning area; a choice of the priorities and assumption of the realization phases; instructions for the implementation of the plan etc. The approach in making of this category of plans, as well as, experiences in planning, arrangement and use of multimodal corridors, have been considered on the example of Spatial plan of the infrastructural corridor E-75 section Belgrade-Nis area.

  9. Identification of Common Epitopes on a Conserved Region of NSs Proteins Among Tospoviruses of Watermelon silver mottle virus Serogroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsung-Chi; Huang, Ching-Wen; Kuo, Yan-Wen; Liu, Fang-Lin; Yuan, Chao-Hsiu Hsuan; Hsu, Hei-Ti; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2006-12-01

    ABSTRACT The NSs protein of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) was expressed by a Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) vector in squash. The expressed NSs protein with a histidine tag and an additional NIa protease cleavage sequence was isolated by Ni(2+)-NTA resins as a free-form protein and further eluted after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for production of rabbit antiserum and mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). The rabbit antiserum strongly reacted with the NSs crude antigen of WSMoV and weakly reacted with that of a high-temperature-recovered gloxinia isolate (HT-1) of Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV), but not with that of Calla lily chlorotic spot virus (CCSV). In contrast, the MAbs reacted strongly with all crude NSs antigens of WSMoV, CaCV, and CCSV. Various deletions of the NSs open reading frame were constructed and expressed by ZYMV vector. Results indicate that all three MAbs target the 89- to 125-amino-acid (aa) region of WSMoV NSs protein. Two indispensable residues of cysteine and lysine were essential for MAbs recognition. Sequence comparison of the deduced MAbs-recognized region with the reported tospoviral NSs proteins revealed the presence of a consensus sequence VRKPGVKNTGCKFTMHNQIFNPN (denoted WNSscon), at the 98- to 120-aa position of NSs proteins, sharing 86 to 100% identities among those of WSMoV, CaCV, CCSV, and Peanut bud necrosis virus. A synthetic WNSscon peptide reacted with the MAbs and verified that the epitopes are present in the 98- to 120-aa region of WSMoV NSs protein. The WSMoV sero-group-specific NSs MAbs provide a means for reliable identification of tospoviruses in this large serogroup.

  10. A practical study for Treatment and Conservation a group of Silver Coins from Dhamar Regional Museum, Dhamar, Yemen.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed M. Megahed

    2014-01-01

    A big group of silver coins{35 coins} was discovered in Banawa excavation , Dhamar , season 2002, and now it is situated in Dhamar Regional Museum ,Yemen. They were covered with a thin grey and black corrosion layers that disfigured them and hid their figures and inscriptions , also Some coins miss parts and others lost their circular.The aims of this work are identified the metallic composition of the coins , investigate the nature of corrosion grown during the long-term burial and identify ...

  11. Groundwater conservation and monitoring activities in the middle Brenta River plain (Veneto Region, Northern Italy: preliminary results about aquifer recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sottani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the middle Brenta River plain there is a unconfined aquifer that represents an important groundwater resource in Veneto region. In this area the main groundwater recharge factor is related to the stream seepage: the water dispersion from the Brenta river is active with variable intensity from the foothill to the alignment Nove di Bassano - Cartigliano (Province of Vicenza. In order to mitigate the expected groundwater effects, due to future important waterworks withdrawals provided by the regional water resources management plans, an experimental project of Managed Aquifer Recharge has started, by means of the realization of some river transversal ramps. The construction of pilot works, partially completed, were preceded by a specific hydrogeological monitoring program, aimed to the evaluation of the effectiveness of the MAR actions in terms of comparison between pre-and post-operam conditions. Thanks to the development of a site-specific methodology, aimed to the quantification of the artificial infiltration rate, and after some years of monitoring controls of the hydrological and hydrogeological regimes, it is now possible to evaluate the extent and the rate of the recharge effects in groundwater due to ramps realization. The monitoring plan will be continued in the medium-long term. Some innovative approaches, based for example on the use of groundwater temperature measurements as recharge tracer, will help to validate the preliminary results.

  12. 75 FR 70962 - California Green Trade Corridor Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery (TIGER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket Number 2010-0103] California Green Trade Corridor Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery (TIGER) AGENCY: Department of... California Green Trade Corridor Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery (TIGER) grant. An...

  13. 78 FR 73559 - Moose-Wilson Corridor Comprehensive Management Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Grand Teton...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ...-Wilson Corridor Comprehensive Management Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Grand Teton National Park... is preparing a Comprehensive Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Moose...; (2) distinguish the corridor's fundamental and other important resources and values; (3) clearly...

  14. New York in the new world economy : the I-90 corridor study : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    The I-90 Corridor in upstate New York is a classic example of the de-industrialization of the Northeastern United States. With few exceptions, all counties along the corridor have experienced marked declined in manufacturing employment over the past ...

  15. US-75 ICM system as-built design : Dallas Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This As-Built document for the US-75 Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) Program has been developed as part of the US Department of Transportation Integrated Corridor Management Initiative. The basic premise behind the ICM initiative is that indepen...

  16. Transportation policy and governance in the northeast corridor : an overview of major public agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    One of the most consistent topics of discussion about the Northeast Corridor (hereafter : NEC or the Corridor), particularly the central portion between Boston and Washington, : D.C., is the viability and efficiency of its transportation ...

  17. Integrated corridor management : implementation guide and lessons learned (final report version 2.0).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This implementation guide is intended for use by adopters of integrated corridor management (ICM) approaches and strategies to address congestion and travel time reliability issues within specific travel corridors. It introduces the topic of ICM and ...

  18. High-speed surface transportation corridor : a conceptual framework, final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-08

    Efficient transportation is indispensable for economic growth and prosperity. In this study we propose the development of a high-speed surface corridor and compatible vehicles. We present a conceptual framework for this corridor and vehicle. This pro...

  19. Conserved cis-regulatory regions in a large genomic landscape control SHH and BMP-regulated Gremlin1 expression in mouse limb buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuniga Aimée

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mouse limb bud is a prime model to study the regulatory interactions that control vertebrate organogenesis. Major aspects of limb bud development are controlled by feedback loops that define a self-regulatory signalling system. The SHH/GREM1/AER-FGF feedback loop forms the core of this signalling system that operates between the posterior mesenchymal organiser and the ectodermal signalling centre. The BMP antagonist Gremlin1 (GREM1 is a critical node in this system, whose dynamic expression is controlled by BMP, SHH, and FGF signalling and key to normal progression of limb bud development. Previous analysis identified a distant cis-regulatory landscape within the neighbouring Formin1 (Fmn1 locus that is required for Grem1 expression, reminiscent of the genomic landscapes controlling HoxD and Shh expression in limb buds. Results Three highly conserved regions (HMCO1-3 were identified within the previously defined critical genomic region and tested for their ability to regulate Grem1 expression in mouse limb buds. Using a combination of BAC and conventional transgenic approaches, a 9 kb region located ~70 kb downstream of the Grem1 transcription unit was identified. This region, termed Grem1 Regulatory Sequence 1 (GRS1, is able to recapitulate major aspects of Grem1 expression, as it drives expression of a LacZ reporter into the posterior and, to a lesser extent, in the distal-anterior mesenchyme. Crossing the GRS1 transgene into embryos with alterations in the SHH and BMP pathways established that GRS1 depends on SHH and is modulated by BMP signalling, i.e. integrates inputs from these pathways. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed interaction of endogenous GLI3 proteins with the core cis-regulatory elements in the GRS1 region. As GLI3 is a mediator of SHH signal transduction, these results indicated that SHH directly controls Grem1 expression through the GRS1 region. Finally, all cis-regulatory regions within the Grem1

  20. Geodynamical Evolution of the En echelon Basins in the Hexi Corridor: Implications From 3-D Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Shi, Y.; Zhang, H.; Cheng, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Hexi Corridor, located between the Alax block and the Caledon fold belt in the North Qilian Mountains, is the forefront area of northward thrust of the Tibet Plateau. Most notably, this active tectonic region consists of a series of faults and western-northwest trending Cenozoic basins. Therefore, it's a pivotal part in terms of recording tectonic pattern of the Tibet Plateau and also demonstrating the northward growth of Tibetan Plateau. In order to explain the mechanism of formation and evolution of the paired basins in the Hexi Corridor and based on the visco-elasticity-plasticity constitutive relation, we construct a 3-D finite element numerical model, including the Altun Tagh fault zone, the northern Qilian Shan-Hexi corridor faults system and the Haiyuan fault zone in northeast of the Tibet Plateau.The boundary conditions are constrained by GPS observations and fault slip rate provided by field geology, with steady rate of deformation of north-south compression and lateral shear along the approximately east-west strike fault zones.In our numerical model, different blocks are given different mechanical features and major fault zones are assumed mechanical weak zones. The long-term (5Ma) accumulation of lithospheric stress, displacement and fault dislocation of the Hexi Corridor and its adjacent regions are calculated in different models for comparison. Meanwhile, we analyze analyzed how the crustal heterogeneity affecting the tectonic deformations in this region. Comparisons between the numerical results and the geological observations indicate that under compression-shear boundary conditions, heterogeneous blocks of various scales may lead to the development of en echelon faults and basins in the Hexi corridor. And the ectonic deformation of Alax and the North Qilian Mountains are almost simultaneous, which may be earlier than the initiation of en echelon basins in the Hexi Corridor and the faults between the en echelon basins. Calculated horizontal and

  1. Divergent migration within lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) populations: Multiple distinct patterns exist across an unrestricted migration corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Steven T.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Holbrook, Christopher; Boase, James C.; Chiotti, Justin A.; Thomas, Michael V.; Wills, Todd C.; Roseman, Edward; Drouin, Richard; Krueger, Charles C.

    2018-01-01

    Population structure, distribution, abundance, and dispersal arguably underpin the entire field of animal ecology, with consequences for regional species persistence, and provision of ecosystem services. Divergent migration behaviours among individuals or among populations is an important aspect of the ecology of highly-mobile animals, allowing populations to exploit spatially- or temporally-distributed food and space resources.This study investigated the spatial ecology of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) within the barrier free Huron-Erie Corridor (HEC), which connects Lake Huron and Lake Erie of the North American Laurentian Great Lakes.Over six years (2011 – 2016), movements of 268 lake sturgeon in the HEC were continuously monitored across the Great Lakes using acoustic telemetry (10 yr battery life acoustic transmitters). Five distinct migration behaviours were identified with hierarchical cluster analysis, based on the phenology and duration of river and lake use.Lake sturgeon in the HEC were found to contain a high level of intraspecific divergent migration, including partial migration with the existence of residents. Specific behaviours included year-round river residency and multiple lake-migrant behaviours that involved movements between lakes and rivers. Over 85% of individuals were assign to migration behaviours as movements were consistently repeated over the study, which suggested migration behaviours were consistent and persistent in lake sturgeon. Differential use of specific rivers or lakes by acoustic-tagged lake sturgeon further subdivided individuals into 14 “contingents” (spatiotemporally segregated subgroups).Contingents associated with one river (Detroit or St. Clair) were rarely detected in the other river, which confirmed that lake sturgeon in the Detroit and St. Clair represent two semi-independent populations that could require separate management consideration for their conservation. The distribution of migration behaviours

  2. Untranslatable tospoviral NSs fragment coupled with L conserved region enhances transgenic resistance against the homologous virus and a serologically unrelated tospovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazhisai, Uthaman; Rajagopalan, Prem Anand; Raja, Joseph A J; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2015-08-01

    Tospoviruses cause severe damages to important crops worldwide. In this study, Nicotiana benthamiana transgenic lines carrying individual untranslatable constructs comprised of the conserved region of the L gene (denoted as L), the 5' half of NSs coding sequence (NSs) or the antisense fragment of whole N coding sequence (N) of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV), individually or in combination, were generated. A total of 15-17 transgenic N. benthamiana lines carrying individual transgenes were evaluated against WSMoV and the serologically unrelated Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Among lines carrying single or chimeric transgenes, the level of resistance ranged from susceptible to completely resistant against WSMoV. From the lines carrying individual transgenes and highly resistant to WSMoV (56-63% of lines assayed), 30% of the L lines (3/10 lines assayed) and 11% of NSs lines (1/9 lines assayed) were highly resistant against TSWV. The chimeric transgenes provided higher degrees of resistance against WSMoV (80-88%), and the NSs fragment showed an additive effect to enhance the resistance to TSWV. Particularly, the chimeric transgenes with the triple combination of fragments, namely L/NSs/N or HpL/NSs/N (a hairpin construct), provided a higher degree of resistance (both 50%, with 7/14 lines assayed) against TSWV. Our results indicate that the untranslatable NSs fragment is able to enhance the transgenic resistance conferred by the L conserved region. The better performance of L/NSs/N and HpL/NSs/N in transgenic N. benthamiana lines suggests their potential usefulness in generating high levels of enhanced transgenic resistance against serologically unrelated tospoviruses in agronomic crops.

  3. Adenovirus delivered short hairpin RNA targeting a conserved site in the 5' non-translated region inhibits all four serotypes of dengue viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Babu Korrapati

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease caused by four closely related serotypes of Dengue viruses (DENVs. This disease whose symptoms range from mild fever to potentially fatal haemorrhagic fever and hypovolemic shock, threatens nearly half the global population. There is neither a preventive vaccine nor an effective antiviral therapy against dengue disease. The difference between severe and mild disease appears to be dependent on the viral load. Early diagnosis may enable timely therapeutic intervention to blunt disease severity by reducing the viral load. Harnessing the therapeutic potential of RNA interference (RNAi to attenuate DENV replication may offer one approach to dengue therapy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened the non-translated regions (NTRs of the RNA genomes of representative members of the four DENV serotypes for putative siRNA targets mapping to known transcription/translation regulatory elements. We identified a target site in the 5' NTR that maps to the 5' upstream AUG region, a highly conserved cis-acting element essential for viral replication. We used a replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (AdV5 vector to deliver a short-hairpin RNA (shRNA targeting this site into cells. We show that this shRNA matures to the cognate siRNA and is able to inhibit effectively antigen secretion, viral RNA replication and infectious virus production by all four DENV serotypes. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The data demonstrate the feasibility of using AdV5-mediated delivery of shRNAs targeting conserved sites in the viral genome to achieve inhibition of all four DENV serotypes. This paves the way towards exploration of RNAi as a possible therapeutic strategy to curtail DENV infection.

  4. Coupled social and ecological outcomes of agricultural intensification in Costa Rica and the future of biodiversity conservation in tropical agricultural regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfiorenzo, A. R.; Waits, L.; Finegan, B.; Shaver, I.; Chain Guadarrama, A.; Cleary, K.; Santiago-Garcia, R.; Hormel, L.; Vierling, L. A.; Bosque-Perez, N.; DeClerck, F.; Fagan, M. E.; Sibelet, N.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical ecosystem conversion to agriculture has caused widespread habitat loss and created fragmented landscapes composed of remnant forest patches embedded in a matrix of agricultural land uses. Non-traditional agricultural export (NTAE) crops such as pineapple are rapidly replacing multiuse landscapes characterized by a diverse matrix of pasture and smallholder crops with intensive, large-scale, monoculture plantations. Using an interdisciplinary approach, we examine the coupled social and ecological implications of agricultural intensification Guided by frameworks from political economy, landscape ecology and landscape genetics we: (1) describe the social and economic implications of pineapple expansion, specifically the concentration of land, labor and financial resources, (2) quantify pineapple cultivation's spatial characteristics, and (3) assess the effects of pineapple expansion on surrounding forest ecosystems, on the agricultural matrix and on biodiversity conservation. Our results indicate that pineapple production concentrates land, labor, and financial resources, which has a homogenizing effect on the agricultural economy in the study region. This constrains farm-based livelihoods, with larger implications for food security and agricultural diversity. Landscape ecology and genetics analyses further reveal how pineapple production simplifies and homogenizes the agricultural matrix between forest patches, which increase the genetic structure and reduce the genetic diversity of Symphonia globulifera a forest understory tree species. To offset the effects of agricultural intensification on social and environmental systems, we recommend developing landscape level land use planning capacity. Furthermore, agricultural and conservation policy reform is needed to promote landscape heterogeneity and economic diversity within the agricultural sector. Our interdisciplinary research provides a detailed examination of the social and ecological impacts of

  5. China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC): Benefits For Pakistan And Comparison With Suez And Panama Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    ECONOMIC CORRIDOR (CPEC): BENEFITS FOR PAKISTAN AND COMPARISON WITH SUEZ AND PANAMA CANALS by Hanif Ullah Khan December 2017 Thesis...DATE December 2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CHINA PAKISTAN ECONOMIC CORRIDOR (CPEC): BENEFITS FOR...The China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is part of China’s “One Belt, One Road” initiative and joins two major economic corridors: The Silk Road

  6. Delta-associated molluscan life and death assemblages in the northern Adriatic Sea: Implications for paleoecology, regional diversity and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Kristina; Zuschin, Martin

    2013-01-15

    Life-death (LD) studies of shelly macrofauna are important to evaluate how well a fossil assemblage can reflect the original living community, but can also serve as a proxy for recent ecological shifts in marine habitats and in practice this has to be distinguished using taphonomic preservation pattern and estimates of time-averaging. It remains to be rigorously evaluated, however, how to distinguish between sources of LD disagreement. In addition, death assemblages (DAs) also preserve important information on regional diversity which is not available from single censuses of the life assemblages (LAs). The northern Adriatic Sea is an ecosystem under anthropogenic pressure, and we studied the distribution and abundance of living and dead bivalve and gastropod species in the physically stressful environments (tidal flat and shallow sublittoral soft bottoms) associated with the delta of the Isonzo River (Gulf of Trieste). Specifically we evaluated the fidelity of richness, evenness, abundance, habitat discrimination and beta diversity. A total of 10,740 molluscs from fifteen tidal flat and fourteen sublittoral sites were analyzed for species composition and distribution of living and dead molluscs. Of 78 recorded species, only eleven were numerically abundant. There were many more dead than living individuals and rarefied species richness in the DA was higher at all spatial scales, but the differences are lower in habitats and in the region than at individual stations. Evenness was always higher in death assemblages, and probably due to temporally more variable LAs the differences are stronger in the sublittoral habitats. Distinct assemblages characterized intertidal and sublittoral habitats, and the distribution and abundance of empty shells generally corresponded to that of the living species. Death assemblages have lower beta diversity than life assemblages, but empty shells capture compositional differences between habitats to a higher degree than living shells

  7. Attractive Mobile Corridors - The Power of Light Rail Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Light rail is a popular tool in urban development strategies in many European cities. One argument for choosing a rail-based solution is that it signals stability to investors and will attract development and investments in the corridor. The choice of corridor in the various light rail cities...... and redistributes urban space. Furthermore light rail is not only a physical infrastructure but also an infrastructure of power that is carefully planned and designed creating both mental and physical patterns of mobilities and immobilities. Hence it is important to underline that mobility systems, such as light...

  8. How green are the TEN-T core network corridors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    defining this concept, identified the characteristics that distinguish a green corridor from an otherwise efficient one. The main thesis of this paper is that the „core network corridors‟ of the new TEN-T guidelines exhibit all these qualities and the vision of a green corridor network in Europe is close...... to reality. To support this thesis, and in continuation of the work of SuperGreen, the paper examines the proposed new „guidelines‟ for the development of the TEN-T after presenting a brief history of transport network development in Europe....

  9. CORRIDOR-TYPE BAFFLED MIXING BASIN WITH CROSS POROUS BARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Epoyan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper hightlights the increase in operational efficiency of corridor-type baffled mixing basin by installing of cross porous barriers made of gravel (or other materials and epoxy resin, grade ED-20 (ED-16 with the hardener polyethylenepolyamine (PEPA, approved by Ukrainian Ministry of Health in systems of utility and drinking water supply. Methodology. The first stage of the experiments was performed on the model of the proposed mixer in scale 1:4 in order to determine the local resistance of the porous barrier, which is made of gravel with a size of 10-15 mm (average diameter 12.5 mm and thickness of 50 mm. The local resistance of the barrier was measured using piezometers installed before and after the porous barrier. The velocity of water motion in the corridor of the mixer was determined depending on the water consumption, incoming on the mixer accordingly to the water meter and by the volumetric method. Findings. In accordance with researches when the water flows at a velocity of 0.1 m/s in the corridor of the mixer, the head losses in the porous barrier is 17 cm (0.17 m, and at a velocity of 0.2 m/s–0.68 m. The resistance coefficient (ξ, which is equal to 333.2 for the investigated barrier, was determined experimentally. It allows determining the head losses in the porous barrier at other velocities of water motion. When the velocity of water motion in the corridors of the mixer is from 0.7 up to 0.5 m/s, head losses increase almost fourfold. The conducted researches allowed to develop a calculation methodology for corridor-type baffled mixing basin with porous polymer-concrete barriers. Originality. Authors developed and investigated the corridor-type baffled mixing basin with porous polymer-concrete barriers. These barriers allow increasing and regulating the intensity and time of reagents mixing with the initial water exactly in the barriers, improving the distribution of the flow through the section of the mixer

  10. Multi-scale connectivity and graph theory highlight critical areas for conservation under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilts, Thomas E.; Weisberg, Peter J.; Leitner, Phillip; Matocq, Marjorie D.; Inman, Richard D.; Nussear, Ken E.; Esque, Todd C.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation planning and biodiversity management require information on landscape connectivity across a range of spatial scales from individual home ranges to large regions. Reduction in landscape connectivity due changes in land-use or development is expected to act synergistically with alterations to habitat mosaic configuration arising from climate change. We illustrate a multi-scale connectivity framework to aid habitat conservation prioritization in the context of changing land use and climate. Our approach, which builds upon the strengths of multiple landscape connectivity methods including graph theory, circuit theory and least-cost path analysis, is here applied to the conservation planning requirements of the Mohave ground squirrel. The distribution of this California threatened species, as for numerous other desert species, overlaps with the proposed placement of several utility-scale renewable energy developments in the American Southwest. Our approach uses information derived at three spatial scales to forecast potential changes in habitat connectivity under various scenarios of energy development and climate change. By disentangling the potential effects of habitat loss and fragmentation across multiple scales, we identify priority conservation areas for both core habitat and critical corridor or stepping stone habitats. This approach is a first step toward applying graph theory to analyze habitat connectivity for species with continuously-distributed habitat, and should be applicable across a broad range of taxa.

  11. Multiscale connectivity and graph theory highlight critical areas for conservation under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilt, Thomas E; Weisberg, Peter J; Leitner, Philip; Matocq, Marjorie D; Inman, Richard D; Nussear, Kenneth E; Esque, Todd C

    2016-06-01

    Conservation planning and biodiversity management require information on landscape connectivity across a range of spatial scales from individual home ranges to large regions. Reduction in landscape connectivity due changes in land use or development is expected to act synergistically with alterations to habitat mosaic configuration arising from climate change. We illustrate a multiscale connectivity framework to aid habitat conservation prioritization in the context of changing land use and climate. Our approach, which builds upon the strengths of multiple landscape connectivity methods, including graph theory, circuit theory, and least-cost path analysis, is here applied to the conservation planning requirements of the Mohave ground squirrel. The distribution of this threatened Californian species, as for numerous other desert species, overlaps with the proposed placement of several utility-scale renewable energy developments in the American southwest. Our approach uses information derived at three spatial scales to forecast potential changes in habitat connectivity under various scenarios of energy development and climate change. By disentangling the potential effects of habitat loss and fragmentation across multiple scales, we identify priority conservation areas for both core habitat and critical corridor or stepping stone habitats. This approach is a first step toward applying graph theory to analyze habitat connectivity for species with continuously distributed habitat and should be applicable across a broad range of taxa.

  12. 76 FR 29290 - Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 64 Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel Corridor, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ...: Interstate 64 Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel Corridor, Virginia AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA... Interstate 64 Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel (HRBT) corridor in Virginia. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Interstate 64 Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel (HRBT) corridor in Virginia. The approximate limits of the study...

  13. Workshop Protocol 5.1 “Developing infrastructure for electric passenger-cars in the corridor between Southern Scandinavia and Germany”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas

    and academic institutions. A strategy for the development of infrastructure for electric passenger-cars in the corridor was formed using the “Future Creating” methodology. The workshop was part of the SCANDRIA Action Programme and pointed towards ways for e-mobility in the region. The workshop also provided...

  14. GIS-BASED ANALYSIS FOR ASSESSING LANDSLIDE AND DROUGHT HAZARD IN THE CORRIDOR OF MT. MERAPI AND MT. MERBABU NATIONAL PARK, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hero Marhaento

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A corridor is an area located between two or more protected areas that are important to support the sustainability of the protected areas. This study is aimed at assessing landslide and drought hazard in the corridor area between Mt. Merapi National Park (MMNP and Mt. Merbabu National Park (MMbNP as a part of the corridor management strategy. The corridor area of MMNP and MMbNP comprises four sub-districts in Central Java Province, namely, Sawangan, Selo, Ampel, and Cepogo. A spatial analysis of ArcGIS 10.1 software was used to assess landslide hazard map and the Thorntwaite-Matter Water Balance approach was used to assess drought hazard map. The results have shown that three villages in Cepogo Sub-district and all villages in Selo Sub-district are highly prone to landslide hazard. Furthermore, two villages in Cepogo Sub-district and four villages in Selo Sub-district are prone to drought hazard. This study suggests that these villages should initiate a program called conservation village model based on disaster mitigation for mitigating future landslide and drought disasters.

  15. High-resolution satellite imagery is an important yet underutilized resource in conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Sarah A; Kennedy, Christina M; Torres, Julio; Colman, Karen; Pérez-Estigarribia, Pastor E; de la Sancha, Noé U

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances and increasing availability of high-resolution satellite imagery offer the potential for more accurate land cover classifications and pattern analyses, which could greatly improve the detection and quantification of land cover change for conservation. Such remotely-sensed products, however, are often expensive and difficult to acquire, which prohibits or reduces their use. We tested whether imagery of high spatial resolution (≤5 m) differs from lower-resolution imagery (≥30 m) in performance and extent of use for conservation applications. To assess performance, we classified land cover in a heterogeneous region of Interior Atlantic Forest in Paraguay, which has undergone recent and dramatic human-induced habitat loss and fragmentation. We used 4 m multispectral IKONOS and 30 m multispectral Landsat imagery and determined the extent to which resolution influenced the delineation of land cover classes and patch-level metrics. Higher-resolution imagery more accurately delineated cover classes, identified smaller patches, retained patch shape, and detected narrower, linear patches. To assess extent of use, we surveyed three conservation journals (Biological Conservation, Biotropica, Conservation Biology) and found limited application of high-resolution imagery in research, with only 26.8% of land cover studies analyzing satellite imagery, and of these studies only 10.4% used imagery ≤5 m resolution. Our results suggest that high-resolution imagery is warranted yet under-utilized in conservation research, but is needed to adequately monitor and evaluate forest loss and conversion, and to delineate potentially important stepping-stone fragments that may serve as corridors in a human-modified landscape. Greater access to low-cost, multiband, high-resolution satellite imagery would therefore greatly facilitate conservation management and decision-making.

  16. The Central Conserved Region (CCR) of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) G Protein Modulates Host miRNA Expression and Alters the Cellular Response to Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakre, Abhijeet A; Harcourt, Jennifer L; Haynes, Lia M; Anderson, Larry J; Tripp, Ralph A

    2017-07-03

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infects respiratory epithelial cells and deregulates host gene expression by many mechanisms including expression of RSV G protein (RSV G). RSV G protein encodes a central conserved region (CCR) containing a CX3C motif that functions as a fractalkine mimic. Disruption of the CX3C motif (a.a. 182-186) located in the CCR of the G protein has been shown to affect G protein function in vitro and the severity of RSV disease pathogenesis in vivo. We show that infection of polarized Calu3 respiratory cells with recombinant RSV having point mutations in Cys173 and 176 (C173/176S) (rA2-GC12), or Cys186 (C186S) (rA2-GC4) is associated with a decline in the integrity of polarized Calu-3 cultures and decreased virus production. This is accompanied with downregulation of miRNAs let-7f and miR-24 and upregulation of interferon lambda (IFNλ), a primary antiviral cytokine for RSV in rA2-GC12/rA2-GC4 infected cells. These results suggest that residues in the cysteine noose region of RSV G protein can modulate IFN λ expression accompanied by downregulation of miRNAs, and are important for RSV G protein function and targeting.

  17. The Participatory Construction of Agro-Ecological Knowledge As A Soil Conservation Strategy In The Mountain Region of Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Assis Renato Linhares

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture in the mountain region of Rio de Janeiro State is characterized by intensive soil use and input. Such mountainous environments are vulnerable to climate events; thus, the current article presents a report on methods applied to exchange academic and traditional knowledge. The aim is to expand farmers’ perception about the need of implementing agro-ecological practices, mainly soil management practices, which are important for agricultural sustainability in mountainous environments. The study was conducted in a Nova Friburgo family production unit, in the mountain region of Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil. It consisted of implementing three observation and soil organic-matter management units. The idea was to reduce the incidence of clubroot of crucifers disease caused by Plasmidiophora brassicae. The soil fauna was discussed with local farmers, with emphasis on the association between ecological processes and soil management. The present study improved the discussion with farmers and the need of introducing other innovative conservation practices such as no-tillage system and participatory research based on agro-ecological propositions.

  18. Mobile Robot Navigation in a Corridor Using Visual Odometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayramoglu, Enis; Andersen, Nils Axel; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2009-01-01

    Incorporation of computer vision into mobile robot localization is studied in this work. It includes the generation of localization information from raw images and its fusion with the odometric pose estimation. The technique is then implemented on a small mobile robot operating at a corridor...

  19. Dynamique institutionnelle des transferts de gestion dans le corridor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten years after their creation, the operation of the community-based natural resource management policy named 'transfert de gestion' – the 1996 GELOSE law (applied to any kind of natural resources), and the 2001 GCF decree (only applied to forests) - remains little understood. The forest corridor linking Ranomafana and ...

  20. 76 FR 65561 - Multistate Corridor Operations and Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... participation in the Multistate Corridor Operations and Management (MCOM) Program authorized by the Safe... transportation system management and operations. This notice seeks applications for available fiscal year (FY... system management and operations. Since the MCOM program is funded by the DOT Intelligent Transportation...

  1. Atmospheric ventilation corridors and coefficients for pollution plume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents a comparative investigation of atmospheric ventilation corridors and coefficients for gaseous pollution plume released from an isolated industrial facility into the ambient air of the host community in Ile-Ife suburb, southwest Nigeria. For the months of September to December in the year 2012 and 2013, ...

  2. Safe corridors for K-wiring in phalangeal fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Rex

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: K-wiring through the safe corridor has proved to yield the best clinical results because of least tethering of soft tissues as evidenced by performing "on-table active finger movement test" at the time of surgery. We strongly recommend K-wiring through safe portals in all phalangeal fractures.

  3. Introduction: translocal development, development corridors and development chains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoomers, E.B.; Westen, A.C.M. van

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers an introduction to this Special Issue of International Development Planning Review. It uses the concepts of translocal development, development corridors and development chains to secure a better grasp of what development means in the context of globalisation and how ‘local

  4. Delivery of workshops on corridor management and preservation in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes the delivery and outcome of a series of workshops conducted at 23 Texas : Department of Transportation (TxDOT) districts across the state on corridor management and preservation : in Texas. The workshops served as follow-up imp...

  5. Inability to induce consistent T-cell responses recognizing conserved regions within HIIV-1 antigens: a potential mechanism for lack of vaccine efficacy in the step study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korber, Bette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Szinger, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    T cell based vaccines are based upon the induction of CD8+ T cell memory responses that would be effective in inhibiting infection and subsequent replication of an infecting HIV-1 strain, a process that requires a high probability of matching the epitope induced by vaccination with the infecting viral strain. We compared the frequency and specificity of the CTL epitopes elicited by the replication defective AdS gag/pol/nef vaccine used in the STEP trial with the likelihood of encountering those epitopes among recently sequenced Clade B isolates of HIV-1. On average vaccination elicited only one epitope per gene. Importantly, the highly conserved epitopes in gag, pol, and nef (> 80% of strains in the current collection of the Los Alamos database [www.hiv.lanl.gov]) were rarely elicited by vaccination. Moreover there was a statistically significant skewing of the T cell response to relative variable epitopes of each gene; only 20% of persons possessed > 3 T cell responses to epitopes likely to be found in circulating strains in the CladeB populations in which the Step trial was conducted. This inability to elicit T cell responses likely to be found in circulating viral strains is a likely factor in the lack of efficacy of the vaccine utilized in the STEP trial. Modeling of the epitope specific responses elicited by vaccination, we project that a median of 8-10 CD8+ T cell epitopes are required to provide >80% likelihood of eliciting at least 3 CD8+ T cell epitopes that would be found on a circulating population of viruses. Development of vaccine regimens which elicit either a greater breadth of responses or elicit responses to conserved regions of the HIV-1 genome are needed to fully evaluate the concept of whether induction of T cell immunity can alter HIV-1 in vivo.

  6. The highly conserved 5' untranslated region as an effective target towards the inhibition of Enterovirus 71 replication by unmodified and appropriate 2'-modified siRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Jun-Xia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is a highly infectious agent that plays an etiological role in hand, foot, and mouth disease. It is associated with severe neurological complications and has caused significant mortalities in recent large-scale outbreaks. Currently, no effective vaccine or specific clinical therapy is available against EV71. Methods Unmodified 21 nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs and classic 2′-modified (2′-O-methylation or 2′-fluoro modification siRNAs were designed to target highly conserved 5′ untranslated region (UTR of the EV71 genome and employed as anti-EV71 agents. Real-time TaqMan RT-PCR, western blot analysis and plaque assays were carried out to evaluate specific viral inhibition by the siRNAs. Results Transfection of rhabdomyosarcoma (RD cells with siRNAs targeting the EV71 genomic 5′ UTR significantly delayed and alleviated the cytopathic effects of EV71 infection, increased cell viability in EV71-infected RD cells. The inhibitory effect on EV71 replication was sequence-specific and dosage-dependent, with significant corresponding decreases in viral RNA, VP1 protein and viral titer. Appropriate 2′-modified siRNAs exhibited similar RNA interference (RNAi activity with dramatically increased serum stability in comparison with unmodified counterparts. Conclusion Sequences were identified within the highly conserved 5′ UTR that can be targeted to effectively inhibit EV71 replication through RNAi strategies. Appropriate 2′-modified siRNAs provide a promising approach to optimizing siRNAs to overcome barriers on RNAi-based antiviral therapies for broader administration.

  7. Substitutions in conserved regions preceding and within the linker affect activity and flexibility of tRNase ZL, the long form of tRNase Z.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makenzie Saoura

    Full Text Available The enzyme tRNase Z, a member of the metallo-β-lactamase family, endonucleolytically removes 3' trailers from precursor tRNAs, preparing them for CCA addition and aminoacylation. The short form of tRNase Z, tRNase ZS, functions as a homodimer and is found in all prokaryotes and some eukaryotes. The long form, tRNase ZL, related to tRNase ZS through tandem duplication and found only in eukaryotes, possesses ~2,000-fold greater catalytic efficiency than tRNase ZS. tRNase ZL consists of related but diverged amino and carboxy domains connected by a flexible linker (also referred to as a flexible tether and functions as a monomer. The amino domain retains the flexible arm responsible for substrate recognition and binding while the carboxy domain retains the active site. The linker region was explored by Ala-scanning through two conserved regions of D. melanogaster tRNase Z: NdomTprox, located at the carboxy end of the amino domain proximal to the linker, and Tflex, a flexible site in the linker. Periodic substitutions in a hydrophobic patch (F329 and L332 at the carboxy end of NdomTprox show 2,700 and 670-fold impairment relative to wild type, respectively, accompanied by reduced linker flexibility at N-T inside the Ndom- linker boundary. The Ala substitution for N378 in the Tflex region has 10-fold higher catalytic efficiency than wild type and locally decreased flexibility, while the Ala substitution at R382 reduces catalytic efficiency ~50-fold. These changes in pre-tRNA processing kinetics and protein flexibility are interpreted in light of a recent crystal structure for S. cerevisiae tRNase Z, suggesting transmission of local changes in hydrophobicity into the skeleton of the amino domain.

  8. GEOMETRIC CONTEXT AND ORIENTATION MAP COMBINATION FOR INDOOR CORRIDOR MODELING USING A SINGLE IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Jahromi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since people spend most of their time indoors, their indoor activities and related issues in health, security and energy consumption have to be understood. Hence, gathering and representing spatial information of indoor spaces in form of 3D models become very important. Considering the available data gathering techniques with respect to the sensors cost and data processing time, single images proved to be one of the reliable sources. Many of the current single image based indoor space modeling methods are defining the scene as a single box primitive. This domain-specific knowledge is usually not applicable in various cases where multiple corridors are joined at one scene. Here, we addressed this issue by hypothesizing-verifying multiple box primitives which represents the indoor corridor layout. Middle-level perceptual organization is the foundation of the proposed method, which relies on finding corridor layout boundaries using both detected line segments and virtual rays created by orthogonal vanishing points. Due to the presence of objects, shadows and occlusions, a comprehensive interpretation of the edge relations is often concealed. This necessitates the utilization of virtual rays to create a physically valid layout hypothesis. Many of the former methods used Orientation Map or Geometric Context to evaluate their proposed layout hypotheses. Orientation map is a map that reveals the local belief of region orientations computed from line segments, and in a segmented image geometric context uses color, texture, edge, and vanishing point cues to estimate the likelihood of each possible label for all super-pixels. Here, the created layout hypotheses are evaluated by an objective function which considers the fusion of orientation map and geometric context with respect to the horizontal viewing angle at each image pixel. Finally, the best indoor corridor layout hypothesis which gets the highest score from the scoring function will be selected

  9. Use of linkage mapping and centrality analysis across habitat gradients to conserve connectivity of gray wolf populations in western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Carlos; McRae, Brad H; Brookes, Allen

    2012-02-01

    Centrality metrics evaluate paths between all possible pairwise combinations of sites on a landscape to rank the contribution of each site to facilitating ecological flows across the network of sites. Computational advances now allow application of centrality metrics to landscapes represented as continuous gradients of habitat quality. This avoids the binary classification of landscapes into patch and matrix required by patch-based graph analyses of connectivity. It also avoids the focus on delineating paths between individual pairs of core areas characteristic of most corridor- or linkage-mapping methods of connectivity analysis. Conservation of regional habitat connectivity has the potential to facilitate recovery of the gray wolf (Canis lupus), a species currently recolonizing portions of its historic range in the western United States. We applied 3 contrasting linkage-mapping methods (shortest path, current flow, and minimum-cost-maximum-flow) to spatial data representing wolf habitat to analyze connectivity between wolf populations in central Idaho and Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming). We then applied 3 analogous betweenness centrality metrics to analyze connectivity of wolf habitat throughout the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada to determine where it might be possible to facilitate range expansion and interpopulation dispersal. We developed software to facilitate application of centrality metrics. Shortest-path betweenness centrality identified a minimal network of linkages analogous to those identified by least-cost-path corridor mapping. Current flow and minimum-cost-maximum-flow betweenness centrality identified diffuse networks that included alternative linkages, which will allow greater flexibility in planning. Minimum-cost-maximum-flow betweenness centrality, by integrating both land cost and habitat capacity, allows connectivity to be considered within planning processes that seek to maximize species protection at minimum cost

  10. Hydroclimatological Processes in the Central American Dry Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, H. G.; Duran-Quesada, A. M.; Amador, J. A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Mora, G.

    2015-12-01

    This work studies the hydroclimatological variability and the climatic precursors of drought in the Central American Dry Corridor (CADC), a subregion located in the Pacific coast of Southern Mexico and Central America. Droughts are frequent in the CADC, which is featured by a higher climatological aridity compared to the highlands and Caribbean coast of Central America. The CADC region presents large social vulnerability to hydroclimatological impacts originated from dry conditions, as there is a large part of population that depends on subsistance agriculture. The influence of large-scale climatic precursors such as ENSO, the Caribbean Low-Level Jet (CLLJ), low frequency signals from the Pacific and Caribbean and some intra-seasonal signals such as the MJO are evaluated. Previous work by the authors identified a connection between the CLLJ and CADC precipitation. This connection is more complex than a simple rain-shadow effect, and instead it was suggested that convection at the exit of the jet in the Costa-Rica and Nicaragua Caribbean coasts and consequent subsidence in the Pacific could be playing a role in this connection. During summer, when the CLLJ is stronger than normal, the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (located mainly in the Pacific) displaces to a more southern position, and vice-versa, suggesting a connection between these two processes that has not been fully explained yet. The role of the Western Hemisphere Warm Pool also needs more research. All this is important, as it suggest a working hypothesis that during summer, the effect of the Caribbean wind strength may be responsible for the dry climate of the CADC. Another previous analysis by the authors was based on downscaled precipitation and temperature from GCMs and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. The data was later used in a hydrological model. Results showed a negative trend in reanalysis' runoff for 1980-2012 in San José (Costa Rica) and Tegucigalpa (Honduras). This highly significant drying trend

  11. Incorporating evolutionary history into conservation planning in biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerki, Sven; Callmander, Martin W; Bachman, Steven; Moat, Justin; Labat, Jean-Noël; Forest, Félix

    2015-02-19

    There is increased evidence that incorporating evolutionary history directly in conservation actions is beneficial, particularly given the likelihood that extinction is not random and that phylogenetic diversity (PD) is lost at higher rates than species diversity. This evidence is even more compelling in biodiversity hotspots, such as Madagascar, where less than 10% of the original vegetation remains. Here, we use the Leguminosae, an ecologically and economically important plant family, and a combination of phylogenetics and species distribution modelling, to assess biodiversity patterns and identify regions, coevolutionary processes and ecological factors that are important in shaping this diversity, especially during the Quaternary. We show evidence that species distribution and community PD are predicted by watershed boundaries, which enable the identification of a network of refugia and dispersal corridors that were perhaps important for maintaining community integrity during past climate change. Phylogenetically clustered communities are found in the southwest of the island at low elevation and share a suite of morphological characters (especially fruit morphology) indicative of coevolution with their main dispersers, the extinct and extant lemurs. Phylogenetically over-dispersed communities are found along the eastern coast at sea level and may have resulted from many independent dispersal events from the drier and more seasonal regions of Madagascar. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. How to improve the comfort of Kesawan Heritage Corridor, Medan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegar; Ginting, Nurlisa; Suwantoro, H.

    2018-03-01

    Comfort is indispensable to make a friendly neighborhood or city. Especially the comfort of the infrastructure in the corridor. People must be able to feel comfortable to act rationally in their physical environment. Existing infrastructure must able to support Kesawan as a historic district. Kesawan is an area that is filled with so many unique buildings. Without comfort, how good the existing buildings’ architecture cannot be enjoyed. It will also affect the identity of a region or city. The aim of this research is to re-design the public facilities from Kesawan corridor’s comfort aspect: orientation, traffic calming, vegetation, signage, public facilities (toilet, seating place, bus station, bins), information center, parking and pedestrian path. It will translate the design concept in the form of design criteria. This research uses qualitative methods. Some facilities in this corridor are unsuitable even some of them are not available. So, we need some improvements and additions to the existing facilities. It is expected that by upgrading the existing facilities, visitors who come to Kesawan will be able to enjoy more and able to make Medan city more friendly.

  13. Anthropogenic influences on macro-level mammal occupancy in the Appalachian Trail corridor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L Erb

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic effects on wildlife are typically assessed at the local level, but it is often difficult to extrapolate to larger spatial extents. Macro-level occupancy studies are one way to assess impacts of multiple disturbance factors that might vary over different geographic extents. Here we assess anthropogenic effects on occupancy and distribution for several mammal species within the Appalachian Trail (AT, a forest corridor that extends across a broad section of the eastern United States. Utilizing camera traps and a large volunteer network of citizen scientists, we were able to sample 447 sites along a 1024 km section of the AT to assess the effects of available habitat, hunting, recreation, and roads on eight mammal species. Occupancy modeling revealed the importance of available forest to all species except opossums (Didelphis virginiana and coyotes (Canis latrans. Hunting on adjoining lands was the second strongest predictor of occupancy for three mammal species, negatively influencing black bears (Ursus americanus and bobcats (Lynx rufus, while positively influencing raccoons (Procyon lotor. Modeling also indicated an avoidance of high trail use areas by bears and proclivity towards high use areas by red fox (Vulpes vulpes. Roads had the lowest predictive power on species occupancy within the corridor and were only significant for deer. The occupancy models stress the importance of compounding direct and indirect anthropogenic influences operating at the regional level. Scientists and managers should consider these human impacts and their potential combined influence on wildlife persistence when assessing optimal habitat or considering management actions.

  14. Age remains the first prognostic factor for loco-regional breast cancer recurrence in young (<40 years) women treated with breast conserving surgery first

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollet, Marc A.; Sigal-Zafrani, Brigitte; Mazeau, Valerie; Savignoni, Alexia; Rochefordiere, Anne de la; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Salmon, Remy; Campana, Francois; Kirova, Youlia M.; Dendale, Remi; Fourquet, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To ascertain the loco-regional recurrence (LRR) rate and its major prognostic factors in patients younger than 40 and to determine the influence of age on the features of breast cancer and its treatment in two age groups: ≤35 years and [36-39] years. Methods and materials: Between 1985 and 1995, 209 premenopausal women, younger than 40, were treated for early breast cancers with primary breast conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy ± chemotherapy. Median age was 37 years with 66 patients (32%) ≤35 years and 143 older (68%). Median follow-up was 12 years. Tumours' characteristics were: cT1 in 75%, pN0 in 60%. Results: LRR rate was 38% at 10 years, contralateral breast cancer rate 12%. Age was the only prognostic factor for LRR. The relative risk of LRR increased by 7% for every decreasing year of age. The annual risk of local recurrence peaked between 2 and 3 years after the initial diagnosis and returned to the level of contra-lateral breast cancer at 10 years. The younger population had infiltrating carcinomas that were significantly more commonly ductal, less commonly lobular, and of higher grade - they received chemotherapy more often. Conclusion: Using conventional methods we could find no explanation as to why age remained the most important prognostic factor for breast cancer LRR. Known prognostic factors such as involved surgical margins seemed erased by adequate radiotherapy doses

  15. Conservation and genetic characterisation of common bean landraces from Cilento region (southern Italy): high differentiation in spite of low genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Daniele; Cennamo, Paola; Del Guacchio, Emanuele; Di Novella, Riccardo; Caputo, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    Since its introduction from Central-South America to Italy almost 500 years ago, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was largely cultivated across the peninsula in hundreds of different landraces. However, globalisation and technological modernisation of agricultural practices in the last decades promoted the cultivation of few varieties at the expense of traditional and local agro-ecotypes, which have been confined to local markets or have completely disappeared. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity and differentiation in 12 common bean landraces once largely cultivated in the Cilento region (Campania region, southern Italy), and now the object of a recovery program to save them from extinction. The analysis conducted using 13 nuclear microsatellite loci in 140 individuals revealed a high degree of homozygosity within each landrace and a strong genetic differentiation that was reflected in the success in assigning individuals to the source landrace. On the contrary, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, analysed in one individual per landrace, were highly similar among common bean landraces but allowed the identification of a cowpea variety (Vigna unguiculata Walp.), a crop largely cultivated in the Old World before the arrival of common bean from Americas. In conclusion, our study highlighted that conservation of landraces is important not only for the cultural and socio-economic value that they have for local communities, but also because the time and conditions in which they have been selected have led to that genetic distinctiveness that is at the basis of many potential agronomical applications and dietary benefits.

  16. Levels of trace elements, methylmercury and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in foraging green turtles in the South China region and their conservation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Connie Ka Yan; Lam, James Chung Wah; Zhang, Xiao Hua; Gu, He Xiang; Li, Tsung Hsien; Ye, Min Bin; Xia, Zhong Rong; Zhang, Fei Yan; Duan, Jin Xia; Wang, Wen Xiong; Lam, Isaac Kam Sum; Balazs, George H; Lam, Paul K S; Murphy, Margaret B

    2018-03-01

    Sea turtles are globally endangered and face daily anthropogenic threats, including pollution. However, there is a lack of ecotoxicological information on sea turtles, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. This study aims to determine pollutant levels of foraging green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in South China, including Hong Kong, Guangdong and Taiwan, as a basis for their conservation. Scute, liver and muscle tissues of stranded green turtles were analysed for levels of 17 trace elements and methylmercury (MeHg) (n = 86 for scute and n = 14 for liver) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (n = 11 for muscle and n = 13 for liver). Ten-fold higher levels of Pb, Ba, V and Tl and 40-fold greater Cd levels were measured in green turtle livers in South China relative to other studies conducted over 10 years ago. Measured PBDE levels were also 27-fold and 50-fold greater than those reported in Australia and Japan. These results warrant further investigation of potential toxicological risks to green turtles in South China and their source rookeries in Malaysia, Micronesia, Indonesia, Marshall Islands, Japan and Taiwan. Research should target monitoring pollutant levels in sea turtles within the West Pacific/Southeast Asia regional management unit spanning East Asia to Southeast Asia to fill in knowledge gaps, in particular in areas such as Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines where less or no data is available and where foraging grounds of sea turtles have been identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of new TSGA10 transcript variants in human testis with conserved regulatory RNA elements in 5'untranslated region and distinct expression in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehipour, Pouya; Nematzadeh, Mahsa; Mobasheri, Maryam Beigom; Afsharpad, Mandana; Mansouri, Kamran; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-09-01

    Testis specific gene antigen 10 (TSGA10) is a cancer testis antigen involved in the process of spermatogenesis. TSGA10 could also play an important role in the inhibition of angiogenesis by preventing nuclear localization of HIF-1α. Although it has been shown that TSGA10 messenger RNA (mRNA) is mainly expressed in testis and some tumors, the transcription pattern and regulatory mechanisms of this gene remain largely unknown. Here, we report that human TSGA10 comprises at least 22 exons and generates four different transcript variants. It was identified that using two distinct promoters and splicing of exons 4 and 7 produced these transcript variants, which have the same coding sequence, but the sequence of 5'untanslated region (5'UTR) is different between them. This is significant because conserved regulatory RNA elements like upstream open reading frame (uORF) and putative internal ribosome entry site (IRES) were found in this region which have different combinations in each transcript variant and it may influence translational efficiency of them in normal or unusual environmental conditions like hypoxia. To indicate the transcription pattern of TSGA10 in breast cancer, expression of identified transcript variants was analyzed in 62 breast cancer samples. We found that TSGA10 tends to express variants with shorter 5'UTR and fewer uORF elements in breast cancer tissues. Our study demonstrates for the first time the expression of different TSGA10 transcript variants in testis and breast cancer tissues and provides a first clue to a role of TSGA10 5'UTR in regulation of translation in unusual environmental conditions like hypoxia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The Western Energy Corridor Initiative: Unconventional Fuel Development Issues, Impacts, and Management Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberg, A.; Hagood, M.; Pasqualini, D.; Wood, T.; Wilson, C.; Witkowski, M.; Levitt, D.; Pawar, R.; Keating, G.; Ziock, H.

    2008-12-01

    The United States is increasingly dependent on imported oil and gas; commodities for which other nations are competing and for which future supply may be inadequate to support our transportation fuel needs. Therefore, a renewed interest in 'harder-to-get' unconventional fuels has emerged in both industry and government with directed focus on world class hydrocarbon resources within a corridor extending from Canada southward through the Rocky Mountain States. Within this Western Energy Corridor, co-located with significant conventional hydrocarbon and renewable energy resources, lie some of the world's richest unconventional hydrocarbon resources in oil shales, oil sands and coal for coal-to-liquid conversion. However, development of these resources poses substantial environmental concerns as well as increasing competition for limited resources of water and habitat. With large-scale energy development in the predominantly rural region, local communities, infrastructures, and economies will face increasing demands for roads, electricity, law enforcement, labor, and other support services. The Western Energy Corridor Initiative (WECI) seeks to develop an integrated assessment of the impacts of unconventional fuel development, the interrelationships of planned energy developments in different basins, and the resultant demands placed on the region. This initial WECI study focuses on two of the most important current issues for industry, regulators, and stakeholders -- the assessment of carbon and water resources issues, impacts, and management strategies. Through scenario analyses using coupled systems and process level models, this study investigates the viability of integrated development of multiple energy resources in a carbon neutral and environmentally acceptable manner, and the interrelationships of various energy resource development plans. The modeling framework is designed to extend to include infrastructure, employment, training, fiscal and economic demands

  19. [Impact of rural land market on farm household's behavior of soil & water conservation and its regional difference: A case study of Xingguo, Shangrao, and Yujiang County in Jiangxi province ecologically vulnerable districts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Tai-Yang; Huang, Xian-jin

    2006-02-01

    The paper analyzed the farm households' decision-making progress of soil & water conservation and its two-stage conceptual model. It also discussed the impacts of rural land market on the farm households' behavior of soil & water conservation. Given that, the article established models for the relations between the land market and soil & water conservation, and the models' parameters were estimated with Heckman's two-stage approach by using the farm household questionnaires in Xingguo, Shangrao and Yujiang counties of Jiangxi province. The paper analyzed the impact o f rural land market on farm household's behavior of soil & water conservation and its regional difference with the result of model estimation. The results show that the perception of soil & water loss and the tax & fee on the farm land have significant influence upon the soil and water conservation from the view of the population; however, because of different social and economic condition, and soil & water loss, there are differences of the influence among the three sample counties. These differences go as follows in detail: In Xingguo County, the rent-in land area and its cost have remarkable effect on the farm households' soil & water conservation behavior; In Yujiang County, the rent-in land area, rent-in cost and rent-out land area remarkably influence the farm households' behavior of soil and water conservation, with the influence of the rent-in land area being greater than Xingguo County; In Shangrao County, only rent-out land area has significant influence on the behaviors of soil & water conservation; In all samples, Xingguo County and Yujiang County samples, the rent-out income has no significant influence on the farm household's decision-making behavior soil and water conservation. Finally, the paper put forward some suggestions on how to bring the soil & water loss under control and use land resource in sustainable ways.

  20. Quantifying Km-scale Hydrological Exchange Flows under Dynamic Flows and Their Influences on River Corridor Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Song, X.; Shuai, P.; Hammond, G. E.; Ren, H.; Zachara, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrologic exchange flows (HEFs) in rivers play vital roles in watershed ecological and biogeochemical functions due to their strong capacity to attenuate contaminants and process significant quantities of carbon and nutrients. While most of existing HEF studies focus on headwater systems with the assumption of steady-state flow, there is lack of understanding of large-scale HEFs in high-order regulated rivers that experience high-frequency stage fluctuations. The large variability of HEFs is a result of interactions between spatial heterogeneity in hydrogeologic properties and temporal variation in river discharge induced by natural or anthropogenic perturbations. Our 9-year spatially distributed dataset (water elevation, specific conductance, and temperature) combined with mechanistic hydrobiogeochemical simulations have revealed complex spatial and temporal dynamics in km-scale HEFs and their significant impacts on contaminant plume mobility and hyporheic biogeochemical processes along the Hanford Reach. Extended multidirectional flow behaviors of unconfined, river corridor groundwater were observed hundreds of meters inland from the river shore resulting from discharge-dependent HEFs. An appropriately sized modeling domain to capture the impact of regional groundwater flow as well as knowledge of subsurface structures controlling intra-aquifer hydrologic connectivity were essential to realistically model transient storage in this large-scale river corridor. This work showed that both river water and mobile groundwater contaminants could serve as effective tracers of HEFs, thus providing valuable information for evaluating and validating the HEF models. Multimodal residence time distributions with long tails were resulted from the mixture of long and short exchange pathways, which consequently impact the carbon and nutrient cycling within the river corridor. Improved understanding of HEFs using integrated observational and modeling approaches sheds light on

  1. Landscape change and conservation priorities: Mexican herpetofaunal perspectives at local and regional scales Cambios en el paisaje y prioridades de conservación: una perspectiva herpetofaunística mexicana a escalas local y regional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jesús Sigala-Rodríguez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have demonstrated historical human impact on biodiversity at local and regional scales, largely due to lack of baseline information and long term monitoring for most taxa. In 1958 and 1959 researchers from the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ visited the Mexican state of Aguascalientes and increased its documented amphibian and reptile fauna from 21 to 30 species. Using MVZ collections, field notes, and landscape photographs taken during that expedition, we resurveyed those same localities in 2004 to document herpetofaunal changes coincident with greatly increased human activities. Despite its small area, Aguascalientes encompasses several biogeographic regions and the threat of local extinction at species' distributional limits has broader implications for regional biotas. New discoveries raise to 71 the number of species known for that state, but our comparisons suggest a gloomy future for amphibians and reptiles in Aguascalientes. Paradoxically, human impact is managed primarily at state and municipal levels, often devoid of locally relevant context. Our findings illustrate the conservation value of intensive small-scale studies, focused on the natural history of particular species and localities, as complements to large-scale biodiversity assessments on country wide and continental scales.Pocos estudios han demostrado el impacto humano histórico en la biodiversidad a escalas local y regional debido a la carencia de monitoreo para la mayoría de los grupos taxonómicos. En 1958 y 1959 investigadores del Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ visitaron Aguascalientes, México y elevaron de 21 hasta 30 el número de especies de anfibios y reptiles para el estado. Usando la colección, notas de campo y fotografías de paisaje tomadas durante esas expediciones, visitamos esas localidades en 2004 para documentar cambios en la herpetofauna asociados con el incremento en actividades humanas. En Aguascalientes se encuentran varias regiones

  2. Landscape structure in the northern coast of Paraná state, a hotspot for the brazilian Atlantic Forest conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Emed Kauano

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The "Serra do Mar" region comprises the largest remnant of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The coast of the Paraná State is part of the core area of the "Serra do Mar" corridor and where actions for biodiversity conservation must be planned. In this study we aimed at characterizing the landscape structure in the APA-Guaraqueçaba, the largest protected area in this region, in order to assist environmental policies of this region. Based on a supervised classification of a mosaic of LANDSAT-5-TM satellite images (from March 2009, we developed a map (1:75,000 scale with seven classes of land use and land cover and analyzed the relative quantities of forests and modified areas in slopes and lowlands. The APA-Guaraqueçaba is comprised mainly by the Dense Ombrophilous Forest (68.6% of total area and secondary forests (9.1%, indicating a forested landscape matrix; anthropogenic and bare soil areas (0.8% and the Pasture/Grasslands class (4.2% were less representative. Slopes were less fragmented and more preserved (96.3% of Dense Ombrophilous Forest and secondary forest than lowlands (71.3%, suggesting that restoration initiatives in the lowlands must be stimulated in this region. We concluded that most of the region sustains well-conserved ecosystems, highlighting the importance of Paraná northern coast for the biodiversity maintenance of the Atlantic Forest.

  3. Regional development via high-speed rail : A study of the Stockholm-Mälaren region and possibilities for Melbourne-regional Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Bayley, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine, based on a study of the regional high-speed corridors in the Stockholm-Mälaren Region, the possibilities for regional high-speed rail in Melbourne-regional Victoria (Australia) to improve accessibility, and achieve regional development and balanced growth between the capital and its surrounding regions. It deals with the concept of 'regional' high-speed rail, a variant of classic high-speed rail that serves centres along regional corridors stemming fr...

  4. Reducing the impact of speed dispersion on subway corridor flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jing; Sun, Lishan; Liu, Xiaoming; Rong, Jian

    2017-11-01

    The rapid increase in the volume of subway passengers in Beijing has necessitated higher requirements for the safety and efficiency of subway corridors. Speed dispersion is an important factor that affects safety and efficiency. This paper aims to analyze the management control methods for reducing pedestrian speed dispersion in subways. The characteristics of the speed dispersion of pedestrian flow were analyzed according to field videos. The control measurements which were conducted by placing traffic signs, yellow marking, and guardrail were proposed to alleviate speed dispersion. The results showed that the methods of placing traffic signs, yellow marking, and a guardrail improved safety and efficiency for all four volumes of pedestrian traffic flow, and the best-performing control measurement was guardrails. Furthermore, guardrails' optimal position and design measurements were explored. The research findings provide a rationale for subway managers in optimizing pedestrian traffic flow in subway corridors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Analysis of Potential Energy Corridors Proposed by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, James A.; Cantwell, Brian J.; Hlava, Kevin J.; Moore, H Robert; Orr, Andrew B.; Zvolanek, Emily A.

    2014-02-24

    This report, Analysis of Potential Energy Corridors Proposed by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). The intent of WECC’s work was to identify planning-level energy corridors that the Department of Energy (DOE) and its affiliates could study in greater detail. Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the WECC Proposed Energy Corridors in five topic areas for use in reviewing and revising existing corridors, as well as designating additional energy corridors in the 11 western states. In compliance with Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), the Secretaries of Energy, Agriculture, and the Interior (Secretaries) published a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement in 2008 to address the proposed designation of energy transport corridors on federal lands in the 11 western states. Subsequently, Records of Decision designating the corridors were issued in 2009 by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the U.S. Forest Service (USFS). The 2012 settlement of a lawsuit, brought by The Wilderness Society and others against the United States, which identified environmental concerns for many of the corridors requires, among other things, periodic reviews of the corridors to assess the need for revisions, deletions, or additions. A 2013 Presidential Memorandum requires the Secretaries to undertake a continuing effort to identify and designate energy corridors. The WECC Proposed Energy Corridors and their analyses in this report provide key information for reviewing and revising existing corridors, as well as designating additional energy corridors in the 11 western states. Load centers and generation hubs identified in the WECC analysis, particularly as they reflect renewable energy development, would be useful in reviewing and potentially updating the designated Section 368 corridor network. Argonne used Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to

  6. Conservation Value

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the significance of the concept of conservation value and discusses ways in which it is determined paying attention to views stemming from utilitarian ethics and from deontological ethics. The importance of user costs in relation to economic decisions about the conservation and use of natural resources is emphasised. Particular attention is given to competing views about the importance of conserving natural resources in order to achieve economic sustainability. This then l...

  7. 2011 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, W. J.; Lucas, J. G.; Gano, K. A.

    2011-11-14

    This report documents the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report contains the vegetation monitoring data that was collected in the spring and summer of 2011 from the River Corridor Closure Contractor’s revegetation and mitigation areas on the Hanford Site.

  8. 2010 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. T. Lindsey, A. L. Johnson

    2010-09-30

    This report documents eh status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with CERLA cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report contains vegetation monitoring data that were collected in the spring and summer of 2010 from the River Corridor Closure Contract’s revegetation and mitigation areas on the Hanford Site.

  9. Methodology for Mode Selection in Corridor Analysis of Freight Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Kanafani, Adib

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of tins report is to outline a methodology for the analysis of mode selection in freight transportation. This methodology is intended to partake of transportation corridor analysts, a component of demand analysis that is part of a national transportation process. The methodological framework presented here provides a basis on which specific models and calculation procedures might be developed. It also provides a basis for the development of a data management system suitable for co...

  10. Comparing the efficiency of transport routes and corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Gabriel GHIŢULEASA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the broader context of the importance granted to accessibility by the European spatial planning policies, comparing the efficiency of European and national transportation routes and corridors constitutes an issue of particular relevance for Romania. In order to resolve it, this paper proposes a methodology based on potential accessibility, determined by the total population served, and the efficiency of the path, by analogy with the least squares method. Both approaches were applied to internal and European routes.

  11. Early environmental planning: A process for power line corridor selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haagenstad, T.; Bare, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) conducted an environmental planning study in the fall of 1997 to help determine the best alternative for upgrading the Laboratory's electrical power system. Alternatives considered included an on-site power generation facility and two corridors for a 10-mile-long 115-kV power line. This planning process was conducted prior to the formal National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review. The goals were to help select the best proposed action, to recommend modifications and mitigation measures for each alternative for a more environmentally sound project, and to avoid potential delays once the formal Department of Energy review process began. Significant constraints existed from a planning perspective, including operational issues such as existing outdoor high explosives testing areas, as well as environmental issues including threatened and endangered species habitats, multiple archeological sites, contaminated areas, and aesthetics. The study had to be completed within 45 days to meet project schedule needs. The process resulted in a number of important recommendations. While the construction and operation of the on-site power generation facility could have minimal environmental impacts, the need for a new air quality permit would create severe cost and schedule constraints for the project. From an environmental perspective, construction and operation of a power line within either corridor was concluded to be a viable alternative. However, impacts with either corridor would have to be reduced through specific recommended alignment modifications and mitigation measures

  12. Indirect Validation of Probe Speed Data on Arterial Corridors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshragh, Sepideh [Center for Advanced Transportation Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, 5000 College Avenue, Suite 2206, College Park, MD 20742; Young, Stanley E. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, CO 80401; Sharifi, Elham [Center for Advanced Transportation Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, 5000 College Avenue, Suite 2206, College Park, MD 20742; Hamedi, Masoud [Center for Advanced Transportation Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, 5000 College Avenue, Suite 2206, College Park, MD 20742; Sadabadi, Kaveh Farokhi [Center for Advanced Transportation Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, 5000 College Avenue, Suite 2206, College Park, MD 20742

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the accuracy of probe speed data on arterial corridors on the basis of roadway geometric attributes and functional classification. It was assumed that functional class (medium and low) along with other road characteristics (such as weighted average of the annual average daily traffic, average signal density, average access point density, and average speed) were available as correlation factors to estimate the accuracy of probe traffic data. This study tested these factors as predictors of the fidelity of probe traffic data by using the results of an extensive validation exercise. This study showed strong correlations between these geometric attributes and the accuracy of probe data when they were assessed by using average absolute speed error. Linear models were regressed to existing data to estimate appropriate models for medium- and low-type arterial corridors. The proposed models for medium- and low-type arterials were validated further on the basis of the results of a slowdown analysis. These models can be used to predict the accuracy of probe data indirectly in medium and low types of arterial corridors.

  13. Aggregate supply and demand modeling using GIS methods for the front range urban corridor, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, Ahmet; Turner, Keith

    2004-07-01

    The combined use of allocation modeling and geographical information system (GIS) technologies for providing quantitative assessments of aggregate supply and demand is evaluated using representative data for the Front Range Urban Corridor (FRUC) in Colorado. The FRUC extends from the Colorado-Wyoming border to south of Colorado Springs, and includes Denver and the major urban growth regions of Colorado. In this area, aggregate demand is high and is increasing in response to population growth. Neighborhood opposition to the establishment of new pits and quarries and the depletion of many deposits are limiting aggregate supplies. Many sources are already covered by urban development or eliminated from production by zoning. Transport of aggregate by rail from distant resources may be required in the future. Two allocation-modeling procedures are tested in this study. Network analysis procedures provided within the ARC/INFO software, are unsatisfactory. Further aggregate allocation modeling used a model specifically designed for this task; a modified version of an existing Colorado School of Mines allocation model allows for more realistic market analyses. This study evaluated four scenarios. The entire region was evaluated with a scenario reflecting the current market and by a second scenario in which some existing suppliers were closed down and new potential suppliers were activated. The conditions within the Denver metropolitan area were studied before and after the introduction of three possible rail-to-truck aggregate distribution centers. GIS techniques are helpful in developing the required database to describe the Front Range Urban Corridor aggregate market conditions. GIS methods allow the digital representation of the regional road network, and the development of a distance matrix relating all suppliers and purchasers.

  14. Housing growth in and near United States protected areas limits their conservation value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker. C. Radeloff; Susan I. Stewart; Todd J. Hawbaker; Urs Gimmi; Anna M. Pidgeon; Curtis H. Flather; Roger. B. Hammer; David P. Helmers

    2010-01-01

    Protected areas are crucial for biodiversity conservation because they provide safe havens for species threatened by land-use change and resulting habitat loss. However, protected areas are only effective when they stop habitat loss within their boundaries, and are connected via corridors to other wild areas. The effectiveness of protected areas is threatened by...

  15. Flora of the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area, Cochise County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth Makings

    2005-01-01

    The flora of the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (SPRNCA) consists of 618 taxa from 92 families, including a new species of Eriogonum and four new State records. The vegetation communities include Chihuahuan Desertscrub, cottonwood-willow riparian corridors, mesquite terraces, sacaton grasslands, rocky outcrops, and cienegas. Species...

  16. Application of geoinformatics for landscape assessment and conserving forest biodiversity in northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish Kumar; Bruce G. Marcot; Gautam Talukdar; P.S. Roy

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we summarize our work, within forest ecosystems of Garo Hills in northeast India, on mapping vegetation and land cover conditions, delineating wildlife habitat corridors among protected areas, evaluating forest conservation values of influence zones bordering protected areas, analyzing dispersion patterns of native forests, and determining potential effects of...

  17. Landsat classification of surface-water presence during multiple years to assess response of playa wetlands to climatic variability across the Great Plains Landscape Conservation Cooperative region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manier, Daniel J.; Rover, Jennifer R.

    2018-02-15

    To improve understanding of the distribution of ecologically important, ephemeral wetland habitats across the Great Plains, the occurrence and distribution of surface water in playa wetland complexes were documented for four different years across the Great Plains Landscape Conservation Cooperative (GPLCC) region. This information is important because it informs land and wildlife managers about the timing and location of habitat availability. Data with an accurate timestamp that indicate the presence of water, the percent of the area inundated with water, and the spatial distribution of playa wetlands with water are needed for a host of resource inventory, monitoring, and research applications. For example, the distribution of inundated wetlands forms the spatial pattern of available habitat for resident shorebirds and water birds, stop-over habitats for migratory birds, connectivity and clustering of wetland habitats, and surface waters that recharge the Ogallala aquifer; there is considerable variability in the distribution of playa wetlands holding water through time. Documentation of these spatially and temporally intricate processes, here, provides data required to assess connections between inundation and multiple environmental drivers, such as climate, land use, soil, and topography. Climate drivers are understood to interact with land cover, land use and soil attributes in determining the amount of water that flows overland into playa wetlands. Results indicated significant spatial variability represented by differences in the percent of playas inundated among States within the GPLCC. Further, analysis-of-variance comparison of differences in inundation between years showed significant differences in all cases. Although some connections with seasonal moisture patterns may be observed, the complex spatial-temporal gradients of precipitation, temperature, soils, and land use need to be combined as covariates in multivariate models to effectively account for

  18. Effects of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three small mammal species.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabry, Karen, E.; Barrett, Gary, W.

    2002-04-30

    Mabry, K.E., and G.W. Barrett. 2002. Effects of corridors on home range sizes and interpatch movements of three small mammal species. Landscape Ecol. 17:629-636. Corridors are predicted to benefit populations in patchy habitats by promoting movement, which should increase population densities, gene flow, and recolonization of extinct patch populations. However, few investigators have considered use of the total landscape, particularly the possibility of interpatch movement through matrix habitat, by small mammals. This study compares home range sizes of 3 species of small mammals, the cotton mouse, old field mouse and cotton rat between patches with and without corridors. Corridor presence did not have a statistically significant influence on average home range size. Habitat specialization and sex influenced the probability of an individual moving between 2 patches without corridors. The results of this study suggest that small mammals may be more capable of interpatch movement without corridors than is frequently assumed.

  19. Identification of functional corridors with movement characteristics of brown bears on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, T.A.; Farley, S.; Goldstein, M.I.; Servheen, C.

    2007-01-01

    We identified primary habitat and functional corridors across a landscape using Global Positioning System (GPS) collar locations of brown bears (Ursus arctos). After deriving density, speed, and angular deviation of movement, we classified landscape function for a group of animals with a cluster analysis. We described areas with high amounts of sinuous movement as primary habitat patches and areas with high amounts of very directional, fast movement as highly functional bear corridors. The time between bear locations and scale of analysis influenced the number and size of corridors identified. Bear locations should be collected at intervals ???6 h to correctly identify travel corridors. Our corridor identification technique will help managers move beyond the theoretical discussion of corridors and linkage zones to active management of landscape features that will preserve connectivity. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  20. Factors affecting marsh vegetation at the Liberty Island Conservation Bank in the Cache Slough region of the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, James L.; Drexler, Judith Z.

    2017-07-07

    The Liberty Island Conservation Bank (LICB) is a tidal freshwater marsh restored for the purpose of mitigating adverse effects on sensitive fish populations elsewhere in the region. The LICB was completed in 2012 and is in the northern Cache Slough region of the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta. The wetland vegetation at the LICB is stunted and yellow-green in color (chlorotic) compared to nearby wetlands. A study was done to investigate three potential causes of the stunted and chlorotic vegetation: (1) improper grading of the marsh plain, (2) pesticide contamination from agricultural and urban inputs upstream from the site, (3) nitrogen-deficient soil, or some combination of these. Water samples were collected from channels at five sites, and soil samples were collected from four wetlands, including the LICB, during the summer of 2015. Real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS) elevation surveys were completed at the LICB and north Little Holland Tract, a closely situated natural marsh that has similar hydrodynamics as the LICB, but contains healthy marsh vegetation.The results showed no significant differences in carbon or nitrogen content in the surface soils or in pesticides in water among the sites. The elevation survey indicated that the mean elevation of the LICB was about 26 centimeters higher than that of the north Little Holland Tract marsh. Because marsh plain elevation largely determines the hydroperiod of a marsh, these results indicated that the LICB has a hydroperiod that differs from that of neighboring north Little Holland Tract marsh. This difference in hydroperiod contributed to the lower stature and decreased vigor of wetland vegetation at the LICB. Although the LICB cannot be regraded without great expense, it could be possible to reduce the sharp angle of the marsh edge to facilitate deeper and more frequent tidal flooding along the marsh periphery. Establishing optimal elevations for restored wetlands is necessary for obtaining

  1. Conservation businesses and conservation planning in a biological diversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Macmillan, Douglas Craig; Goodman, Peter Styan; Escott, Boyd; Slotow, Rob; Moilanen, Atte

    2013-08-01

    The allocation of land to biological diversity conservation competes with other land uses and the needs of society for development, food, and extraction of natural resources. Trade-offs between biological diversity conservation and alternative land uses are unavoidable, given the realities of limited conservation resources and the competing demands of society. We developed a conservation-planning assessment for the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biological diversity hotspot. Our objective was to enhance biological diversity protection while promoting sustainable development and providing spatial guidance in the resolution of potential policy conflicts over priority areas for conservation at risk of transformation. The conservation-planning assessment combined spatial-distribution models for 646 conservation features, spatial economic-return models for 28 alternative land uses, and spatial maps for 4 threats. Nature-based tourism businesses were competitive with other land uses and could provide revenues of >US$60 million/year to local stakeholders and simultaneously help meeting conservation goals for almost half the conservation features in the planning region. Accounting for opportunity costs substantially decreased conflicts between biological diversity, agricultural use, commercial forestry, and mining. Accounting for economic benefits arising from conservation and reducing potential policy conflicts with alternative plans for development can provide opportunities for successful strategies that combine conservation and sustainable development and facilitate conservation action. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Analysis of Precipitation and Drought Data in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyang Yu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation data from nine meteorological stations in arid oases of Hexi Corridor, northwest China during 1970–2012 were analyzed to detect trends in precipitation and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI at multiple time scales using linear regression, Mann–Kendall and Spearman’s Rho tests. The results found that annual precipitation in the observed stations was rare and fell into the arid region category according to the aridity index analysis. The monthly analysis of precipitation found that three stations showed significant increasing trends in different months, while on the annual level, only Yongchang station had a significant increasing trend. The analysis of SPI-12 found three main drought intervals, i.e., 1984–1987, 1991–1992 and 2008–2011, and an extremely dry year among the stations was recorded in 1986; the southeast and middle portions of the study area are expected to have more precipitation and less dry conditions.

  3. A Geophysical Characterization & Monitoring Strategy for Determining Hydrologic Processes in the Hyporheic Corridor at the Hanford 300-Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, Lee; Day-Lewis, Frederick; Lane, John; Versteeg, Roelof; Ward, Anderson; Binley, Andrew; Johnson, Timothy; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios

    2011-08-31

    variability in the depth to the Hanford-Ringold inland over a critical region where borehole information is absent, identifying evidence for a continuous depression in the H-R contact between the IFRC and the river corridor. Strong natural contrasts in temperature and specific conductance of river water compared to groundwater at this site, along with periodic river stage fluctuations driven by dam operations, were exploited to yield new insights into the dynamics of groundwater-surface water interaction. Whereas FO-DTS datasets have provided meter-scale measurements of focused groundwater discharge at the riverbed along the corridor, continuous resistivity monitoring has non-invasively imaged spatiotemporal variation in the resistivity inland driven by river stage fluctuations. Time series and time-frequency analysis of FO-DTS and 3D resistivity datasets has provided insights into the role of forcing variables, primarily daily dam operations, in regulating the occurrence of focused exchange at the riverbed and its extension inland. High amplitudes in the DTS and 3D resistivity signals for long periods that dominate the stage time series identify regions along the corridor where stage-driven exchange is preferentially focused. Our work has demonstrated how time-series analysis of both time-lapse resistivity and DTS datasets, in conjunction with resistivity/IP imaging of lithology, can improve understanding of groundwater-surface water exchange along river corridors, offering unique opportunities to connect stage-driven groundwater discharge observed with DTS on the riverbed to stage-driven groundwater and solute fluctuations captured with resistivity inland.

  4. An attitude assessment of human-elephant conflict in a critical wildlife corridor within the Terai Arc Landscape, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biba Jasmine

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study entails an attitude assessment of the local people living at Mankanthpur Village, one of the bottlenecks in the Bailparao-Kotabagh corridor, Terai West Forest Division, on the issue of elephant conservation, human-(wildlife elephant conflict, and the measures to mitigate it.  Data was collected through a questionnaire survey and several group discussions among the villagers.  The frequency of crop raids and group size of elephants were calculated.  Sixty-two crop raids took place during the study period (February–April 2010, and a mean sighting of 1.08 elephants per day was recorded.  Data from the survey reflects that about 3.53ha of crop land was damaged by the elephants during the survey period.  The people residing on the fringes of the park and in the villages along the Bailparao-Kotabagh Corridor were surveyed about the conflict impact.  Survey results indicate that the most effective management measures used were a combination of loud noise and scaring away elephants using fire.  Local peoples’ views regarding the current status of elephant raids and conservation were also documented.  Peoples’ reaction to compensation schemes was studied; 89% of the respondents feel an effective approach to compensation is a way to reduce sufferings due to conflict with wildlife.  Attempts to reduce the conflict by forming local elephant control teams and enclosing the affected village with a tall cemented wall are under trial.  The underlying assumption in this study is that if damage severely affects the livelihood of local communities, getting their active support, which is essential for conservation, will be difficult. 

  5. Even at the uttermost ends of the Earth: how seabirds telecouple the Beagle Channel with regional and global processes that affect environmental conservation and social-ecological sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea N. Raya Rey

    2017-12-01

    places, ironically we found few linkages between Argentina and Chile, despite both countries sharing political sovereignty over this single biogeographical unit. Recognizing and studying the telecouplings identified in this study would help multilateral efforts to incorporate the spillover systems (especially with Chile and sending systems (i.e., transnational tourists' countries of origin into extant regional policies (e.g., state protected areas and global initiatives (e.g., the United Nations' sustainable development goals. It would also enable more informed decisions regarding specific proposals based on market-based incentives (e.g., payment for ecosystem services, certification schemes (e.g., Distintivo Onashaga and participatory approaches (e.g., comanagement of natural resources with local communities. Integrating these scales into the management of the BC would help ensure that humans continue to enjoy meaningful relationships with this unique and charismatic wildlife and at the same time reinforce responsible tourism as a local-global strategy for sustainable development and global conservation.

  6. GIS (Geographic Information Systems) based automatic tool for selection of gas pipeline corridors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Denise F.; Menezes, Paulo Cesar P.; Paz, Luciana R.L.; Garcia, Katia C.; Cruz, Cristiane B.; Pires, Silvia H.M.; Damazio, Jorge M.; Medeiros, Alexandre M.

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes a methodology developed to build total accumulated surfaces in order to better select gas pipelines corridor alternatives. The methodology is based on the minimization of negative impacts and the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), allowing an automatic method of construction, evaluation and selection of alternatives, that will contribute to the decision making process. It is important to emphasize that this paper follows the assumptions presented on the research reports of a project sponsored by the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME) and elaborated at the Electric Power Research Center (CEPEL), called 'Development of a Geographic Information System to Oil and Gas Sectors in Brazil', and also the studies d GTW Project (Gas to Wire). Gas pipelines, as for their linear characteristic, may cross a variety of habitats and settlements, increasing the complexity of their environmental management. Considering this reality, this paper presents a methodology that takes into account different environmental criteria (layers), according to the area impacted. From the synthesis of the criteria it is presented the total accumulated surface. It is showed an example of a hypothetical gas pipeline connection between two points using the total accumulated surface. To select the 'impact scores' of the features, the gas pipeline was considered as a linear feature, but the result is a region, formed by pixels, each pixel with an accumulated impact score lower than some arbitrary measure. This region is called 'corridor', and it is the final result obtained using the proposed methodology. (author)

  7. Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 2 CD4+-T-cell epitopes are evenly distributed in conserved and hypervariable regions (HVR), whereas linear B-cell epitopes are predominantly located in the HVR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Jeffrey R; Palmer, Guy H; Howard, Chris J; Hope, Jayne C; Brown, Wendy C

    2004-12-01

    Organisms in the genus Anaplasma express an immunodominant major surface protein 2 (MSP2), composed of a central hypervariable region (HVR) flanked by highly conserved regions. Throughout Anaplasma marginale infection, recombination results in the sequential appearance of novel MSP2 variants and subsequent control of rickettsemia by the immune response, leading to persistent infection. To determine whether immune evasion and selection for variant organisms is associated with a predominant response against HVR epitopes, T-cell and linear B-cell epitopes were localized by measuring peripheral blood gamma interferon-secreting cells, proliferation, and antibody binding to 27 overlapping peptides spanning MSP2 in 16 cattle. Similar numbers of MSP2-specific CD4(+) T-cell epitopes eliciting responses of similar magnitude were found in conserved and hypervariable regions. T-cell epitope clusters recognized by the majority of animals were identified in the HVR (amino acids [aa] 171 to 229) and conserved regions (aa 101 to 170 and 272 to 361). In contrast, linear B-cell epitopes were concentrated in the HVR, residing within hydrophilic sequences. The pattern of recognition of epitope clusters by T cells and of HVR epitopes by B cells is consistent with the influence of protein structure on epitope recognition.

  8. Are conservation organizations configured for effective adaptation to global change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armsworth, Paul R.; Larson, Eric R.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Sax, Dov F.; Simonin, Paul W.; Blossey, Bernd; Green, Nancy; Lester, Liza; Klein, Mary L.; Ricketts, Taylor H.; Runge, Michael C.; Shaw, M. Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Conservation organizations must adapt to respond to the ecological impacts of global change. Numerous changes to conservation actions (eg facilitated ecological transitions, managed relocations, or increased corridor development) have been recommended, but some institutional restructuring within organizations may also be needed. Here we discuss the capacity of conservation organizations to adapt to changing environmental conditions, focusing primarily on public agencies and nonprofits active in land protection and management in the US. After first reviewing how these organizations anticipate and detect impacts affecting target species and ecosystems, we then discuss whether they are sufficiently flexible to prepare and respond by reallocating funding, staff, or other resources. We raise new hypotheses about how the configuration of different organizations enables them to protect particular conservation targets and manage for particular biophysical changes that require coordinated management actions over different spatial and temporal scales. Finally, we provide a discussion resource to help conservation organizations assess their capacity to adapt.

  9. The Another Assimilation System for WRF-Chem (AAS4WRF): a new mass-conserving emissions pre-processor for WRF-Chem regional modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vara Vela, A. L.; Muñoz, A.; Lomas, A., Sr.; González, C. M.; Calderon, M. G.; Andrade, M. D. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) community model have been widely used for the study of pollutants transport, formation of secondary pollutants, as well as for the assessment of air quality policies implementation. A key factor to improve the WRF-Chem air quality simulations over urban areas is the representation of anthropogenic emission sources. There are several tools that are available to assist users in creating their own emissions based on global emissions information (e.g. anthro_emiss, prep_chem_src); however, there is no single tool that will construct local emissions input datasets for any particular domain at this time. Because the official emissions pre-processor (emiss_v03) is designed to work with domains located over North America, this work presents the Another Assimilation System for WRF-Chem (AAS4WRF), a ncl based mass-conserving emissions pre-processor designed to create WRF-Chem ready emissions files from local inventories on a lat/lon projection. AAS4WRF is appropriate to scale emission rates from both surface and elevated sources, providing the users an alternative way to assimilate their emissions to WRF-Chem. Since it was successfully tested for the first time for the city of Lima, Peru in 2014 (managed by SENAMHI, the National Weather Service of the country), several studies on air quality modelling have applied this utility to convert their emissions to those required for WRF-Chem. Two case studies performed in the metropolitan areas of Sao Paulo and Manizales in Brazil and Colombia, respectively, are here presented in order to analyse the influence of using local or global emission inventories in the representation of regulated air pollutants such as O3 and PM2.5. Although AAS4WRF works with local emissions information at the moment, further work is being conducted to make it compatible with global/regional emissions data file format. The tool is freely available upon request to the corresponding author.

  10. Influence of Conservation Tillage on some Soil Physical Properties and Crop Yield in Vetch-Wheat Rotation in Dryland Cold Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Eskandari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Winter wheat is an important, well-adapted grain crop under dryland condition of the northwest of Iran. Soil water is the most limiting resource for crop growth in dryland areas. Therefore, farmers need to use crop residues and minimum tillage to control the soil erosion and effectively store and to use the limited precipitation received for crop production. Crop rotation and tillage system could affect crop yield due to their effects on water conservation and soil chemical and physical properties. Galantini et al., (2000 studied the effect of crop rotation on wheat productivity in the Pampean semi-arid region of Argentina and found that a wheat–vetch (Vicia sativa L. rotation resulted in higher yield and protein content, and greater yield components than the other rotations.Payne et al. (2000 stated that where precipitation amount is marginal (400 mm, dry field pea offers a potential alternative to summer fallowing. The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal tillage system for increasing crop productivity in a vetch–wheat rotation in dryland farming of the northwest of Iran. Materials and Methods The field experiment was carried out from 2010 to 2014 at the Dryland Agricultural Research Station (latitude37° 12´N; longitude 46◦20´E; 1730 m a.s.l., 25 km east of Maragheh, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. The long-term (10 years average precipitation, temperature and relative humidity of the station are 336.5 mm, 9.4 ◦C and 47.5%, respectively. The soil (Fine Mixed, Mesic, Vertic Calcixerepts, USDA system; Calcisols, FAO system at the study site had a clay loam texture in the 0–15 cm surface layer and a clay texture in the 15–80 cm depth. This study was conducted in vetch (Vicia pannonica- wheat (Triticum aestivum L. rotation. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The tillage treatments consisted of (1 conventional tillage: moldboard plowing followed by one

  11. Divergent migration within lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) populations: Multiple distinct patterns exist across an unrestricted migration corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Steven T; Hondorp, Darryl W; Holbrook, Christopher M; Boase, James C; Chiotti, Justin A; Thomas, Michael V; Wills, Todd C; Roseman, Edward F; Drouin, Richard; Krueger, Charles C

    2018-01-01

    Population structure, distribution, abundance and dispersal arguably underpin the entire field of animal ecology, with consequences for regional species persistence, and provision of ecosystem services. Divergent migration behaviours among individuals or among populations are an important aspect of the ecology of highly mobile animals, allowing populations to exploit spatially or temporally distributed food and space resources. This study investigated the spatial ecology of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) within the barrier free Huron-Erie Corridor (HEC), which connects Lake Huron and Lake Erie of the North American Laurentian Great Lakes. Over 6 years (2011-2016), movements of 268 lake sturgeon in the HEC were continuously monitored across the Great Lakes using acoustic telemetry (10 years battery life acoustic transmitters). Five distinct migration behaviours were identified with hierarchical cluster analysis, based on the phenology and duration of river and lake use. Lake sturgeon in the HEC were found to contain a high level of intraspecific divergent migration, including partial migration with the existence of residents. Specific behaviours included year-round river residency and multiple lake-migrant behaviours that involved movements between lakes and rivers. Over 85% of individuals were assigned to migration behaviours as movements were consistently repeated over the study, which suggested migration behaviours were consistent and persistent in lake sturgeon. Differential use of specific rivers or lakes by acoustic-tagged lake sturgeon further subdivided individuals into 14 "contingents" (spatiotemporally segregated subgroups). Contingents associated with one river (Detroit or St. Clair) were rarely detected in the other river, which confirmed that lake sturgeon in the Detroit and St. Clair represent two semi-independent populations that could require separate management consideration for their conservation. The distribution of migration behaviours

  12. Unravelling biodiversity, evolution and threats to conservation in the Sahara-Sahel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, José C; Godinho, Raquel; Martínez-Freiría, Fernando; Pleguezuelos, Juan M; Rebelo, Hugo; Santos, Xavier; Vale, Cândida G; Velo-Antón, Guillermo; Boratyński, Zbyszek; Carvalho, Sílvia B; Ferreira, Sónia; Gonçalves, Duarte V; Silva, Teresa L; Tarroso, Pedro; Campos, João C; Leite, João V; Nogueira, Joana; Alvares, Francisco; Sillero, Neftalí; Sow, Andack S; Fahd, Soumia; Crochet, Pierre-André; Carranza, Salvador

    2014-02-01

    Deserts and arid regions are generally perceived as bare and rather homogeneous areas of low diversity. The Sahara is the largest warm desert in the world and together with the arid Sahel displays high topographical and climatic heterogeneity, and has experienced recent and strong climatic oscillations that have greatly shifted biodiversity distribution and community composition. The large size, remoteness and long-term political instability of the Sahara-Sahel, have limited knowledge on its biodiversity. However, over the last decade, there have been an increasing number of published scientific studies based on modern geomatic and molecular tools, and broad sampling of taxa of these regions. This review tracks trends in knowledge about biodiversity patterns, processes and threats across the Sahara-Sahel, and anticipates needs for biodiversity research and conservation. Recent studies are changing completely the perception of regional biodiversity patterns. Instead of relatively low species diversity with distribution covering most of the region, studies now suggest a high rate of endemism and larger number of species, with much narrower and fragmented ranges, frequently limited to micro-hotspots of biodiversity. Molecular-based studies are also unravelling cryptic diversity associated with mountains, which together with recent distribution atlases, allows identifying integrative biogeographic patterns in biodiversity distribution. Mapping of multivariate environmental variation (at 1 km × 1 km resolution) of the region illustrates main biogeographical features of the Sahara-Sahel and supports recently hypothesised dispersal corridors and refugia. Micro-scale water-features present mostly in mountains have been associated with local biodiversity hotspots. However, the distribution of available data on vertebrates highlights current knowledge gaps that still apply to a large proportion of the Sahara-Sahel. Current research is providing insights into key

  13. The Conundrum of the Southern Gas Corridor: What are the Risks for Europe and Azerbaijan? The viewpoint of an insider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livanios, Anthony

    2013-04-01

    Russian President Vladimir Putin. Gazprom is aiming to construct first the South Stream, and sign new gas supply contracts with the South Eastern (S.E.) European countries, in order to weaken both commercially and geo-politically the pipelines under design, namely Nabucco West, Trans Adriatic Pipeline (TAP) and Trans Anatolian Pipeline (TANAP2). Third, the worsening of the Eurozone crisis, with the potential of further political and economic instability, is a major risk for the opening of the Southern Corridor, as it makes the construction of the gas infrastructure more expensive and also weakens the political will. In particular, in the context of the Greek debt crisis and its effect on the Eurozone, an additional risk is linked to the privatization of the Greek gas industry DEPA and DESFA. Gazprom is the front runner in winning the bid for the Greek privatization, and if the Russian gas monopoly was to acquire the gas industry of Greece, which has a crucial geostrategic position being one of the only two entry points for the Azerbaijan gas to EU via an onshore pipeline, then the Southern Gas Corridor would meet an additional strategic (geo)political obstacle. The future challenge for the Southern gas Corridor lies in its efficient opening with the Shah Deniz gas supplies and with the completion of a credible gas infrastructure that will deliver future gas supplies to the EU from the Caspian region. This requires strong leadership and unwavering will from the governments, the oil majors and the gas pipeline consortia. We are at the most critical stage of this project. Which pipeline will deliver the Shah Deniz gas to the European Union (EY): Nabucco West or Trans Adriatic Pipeline (TAP)? What is the role of Trans Anatolian Pipeline (TANAP)? A decision made today will enable the EU to build its own margins of maneuver and secure its long-term security of gas supply. (author)

  14. Potential corridors and barriers for plague spread in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Plague (Yersinia pestis infection) is a vector-borne disease which caused millions of human deaths in the Middle Ages. The hosts of plague are mostly rodents, and the disease is spread by the fleas that feed on them. Currently, the disease still circulates amongst sylvatic rodent populations all over the world, including great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus) populations in Central Asia. Great gerbils are social desert rodents that live in family groups in burrows, which are visible on satellite images. In great gerbil populations an abundance threshold exists, above which plague can spread causing epizootics. The spatial distribution of the host species is thought to influence the plague dynamics, such as the direction of plague spread, however no detailed analysis exists on the possible functional or structural corridors and barriers that are present in this population and landscape. This study aims to fill that gap. Methods Three 20 by 20 km areas with known great gerbil burrow distributions were used to analyse the spatial distribution of the burrows. Object-based image analysis was used to map the landscape at several scales, and was linked to the burrow maps. A novel object-based method was developed – the mean neighbour absolute burrow density difference (MNABDD) – to identify the optimal scale and evaluate the efficacy of using landscape objects as opposed to square cells. Multiple regression using raster maps was used to identify the landscape-ecological variables that explain burrow density best. Functional corridors and barriers were mapped using burrow density thresholds. Cumulative resistance of the burrow distribution to potential disease spread was evaluated using cost distance analysis. A 46-year plague surveillance dataset was used to evaluate whether plague spread was radially symmetric. Results The burrow distribution was found to be non-random and negatively correlated with Greenness, especially in the floodplain areas. Corridors and

  15. Winter Responses of Forest Birds to Habitat Corridors and Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Cassady St. Clair

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and habitat loss may disrupt the movement or dispersal of forest-dwelling birds. Despite much interest in the severity of these effects and ways of mitigating them, little is known about actual movement patterns in different habitat types. We studied the movement of wintering resident birds, lured by playbacks of mobbing calls, to compare the willingness of forest birds to travel various distances in continuous forest, along narrow corridors (fencerows, and across gaps in forest cover. We also quantified the willingness of Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus to cross gaps when alternative forested detour routes were available. All species were less likely to respond to the calls as distance increased to 200 m, although White-breasted Nuthatches (Sitta carolinensis and Hairy Woodpeckers (Picoides villosus were generally less likely to respond than chickadees and Downy Woodpeckers (P. pubescens. Chickadees were as likely to travel in corridors as in continuous forest, but were less likely to cross gaps as the gap distance increased. The other species were less willing to travel in corridors and gaps relative to forest, and the differences among habitats also increased with distance. For chickadees, gap-crossing decisions in the presence of forested detours varied over the range of distances that we tested, and were primarily influenced by detour efficiency (the length of the shortcut relative to the available detour. Over short distances, birds used forested detours, regardless of their efficiency. As absolute distances increased, birds tended to employ larger shortcuts in the open when detour efficiency was low or initial distance in the open was high, but they limited their distance from the nearest forest edge to 25 m. Thus, chickadees were unwilling to cross gaps of > 50 m when they had forested alternatives, yet they sometimes crossed gaps as large as 200 m when no such choice existed. Our results suggest that

  16. Privatization contractor transfer/feed line corridor obstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    One of the issues that came out of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Interface Control Document (ICD) effort was the need to identify below grade obstructions that exist where the TWRS Privatization Phase 1 transfer/feed corridors pass through the former Grout complex (ICD Issue 9C). Due to the numerous phases of construction at the complex, and the lack of consolidated facility configuration drawings, as-built (or as-recorded) information on the area is difficult to find, let alone decipher. To resolve the issue, this study was commissioned to identify and consolidate the as-recorded information available (drawings and Engineering Change Notices, ECNS)

  17. MOSAIC : Model Of Sustainability And Integrated Corridors, phase 3 : comprehensive model calibration and validation and additional model enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Maryland State Highway Administration (SHA) has initiated major planning efforts to improve transportation : efficiency, safety, and sustainability on critical highway corridors through its Comprehensive Highway Corridor : (CHC) program. This pro...

  18. Characteristics of human - sloth bear (Melursus ursinus) encounters and the resulting human casualties in the Kanha-Pench corridor, Madhya Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Dhamorikar, Aniruddha H.; Mehta, Prakash; Bargali, Harendra; Gore, Kedar

    2017-01-01

    Sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) caused the highest number of human deaths between 2001 and 2015 and ranked second compared to other wild animals in causing human casualties in the Kanha-Pench corridor area. We studied the patterns of sloth bear attacks in the region to understand the reasons for conflict. We interviewed 166 victims of sloth bear attacks which occurred between 2004 and 2016 and found that most attacks occurred in forests (81%), with the greatest number of those (42%) occurring ...

  19. Species of conservation concern and environmental stressors: local regional and global effects: Chapter 6 in The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership science and research synthesis: science to support land management in southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoja, Steven M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pendleton, Burton

    2013-01-01

    Species conservation has traditionally been based on individual species within the context of their requisite habitat, which is generally defined as the communities and ecosystems deemed necessary for their presence. Conservation decisions are hampered by the fact that environmental stressors that poetically threaten the persistence of species can operate at organizational levels larger than the habitat or home range of a focal species. Resource managers must therefore simultaneously consider local, regional, and/or global scale stressors for effective conservation and management of species of concern. The wide ranging effects associated with global stressors such as climate change may exceed or exacerbate the effects of local or regional stressors, they still need to understand the direct and interactive effects of global stressors and ultimately how they affect the lands they manage. Conservation of species in southern Nevada is further complication by the fact that the region includes one of the largest and fastest growing urban centers in North America. To accomplish the goal of species conservation, resource managers must identify actionable management options that mitigate the effects of local and regional stressor in the context of the effects of global stressors that are beyond their control. Species conservation is typically focused on a subset often referred to as species of conservation concern that have either demonstrated considerable decline or are naturally rare or have limited distributions. Stressors can directly and indirectly impact species in a variety of ways and through a diversity of mechanisms. Some stressors have been more intense in the past (e.g., livestock grazing) whereas other are now only emerging as new stressors (e.g., solar energy development, climate change). The primary stressors affecting southern Nevada ecosystems are listed in table 2.1 and reviewed in detail in Chapter 2. This chapter addresses Dub-goal 1.4 in the SNAP

  20. Conserving the stage: climate change and the geophysical underpinnings of species diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark G Anderson

    Full Text Available Conservationists have proposed methods for adapting to climate change that assume species distributions are primarily explained by climate variables. The key idea is to use the understanding of species-climate relationships to map corridors and to identify regions of faunal stability or high species turnover. An alternative approach is to adopt an evolutionary timescale and ask ultimately what factors control total diversity, so that over the long run the major drivers of total species richness can be protected. Within a single climatic region, the temperate area encompassing all of the Northeastern U.S. and Maritime Canada, we hypothesized that geologic factors may take precedence over climate in explaining diversity patterns. If geophysical diversity does drive regional diversity, then conserving geophysical settings may offer an approach to conservation that protects diversity under both current and future climates. Here we tested how well geology predicts the species diversity of 14 US states and three Canadian provinces, using a comprehensive new spatial dataset. Results of linear regressions of species diversity on all possible combinations of 23 geophysical and climatic variables indicated that four geophysical factors; the number of geological classes, latitude, elevation range and the amount of calcareous bedrock, predicted species diversity with certainty (adj. R(2 = 0.94. To confirm the species-geology relationships we ran an independent test using 18,700 location points for 885 rare species and found that 40% of the species were restricted to a single geology. Moreover, each geology class supported 5-95 endemic species and chi-square tests confirmed that calcareous bedrock and extreme elevations had significantly more rare species than expected by chance (P<0.0001, strongly corroborating the regression model. Our results suggest that protecting geophysical settings will conserve the stage for current and future biodiversity and may

  1. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Mesoamerican Jaguars (Panthera onca): Implications for Conservation and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wultsch, Claudia; Caragiulo, Anthony; Dias-Freedman, Isabela; Quigley, Howard; Rabinowitz, Salisa; Amato, George

    2016-01-01

    Mesoamerican jaguars (Panthera onca) have been extirpated from over 77% of their historic range, inhabiting fragmented landscapes at potentially reduced population sizes. Maintaining and restoring genetic diversity and connectivity across human-altered landscapes has become a major conservation priority; nonetheless large-scale genetic monitoring of natural populations is rare. This is the first regional conservation genetic study of jaguars to primarily use fecal samples collected in the wild across five Mesoamerican countries: Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico. We genotyped 445 jaguar fecal samples and examined patterns of genetic diversity and connectivity among 115 individual jaguars using data from 12 microsatellite loci. Overall, moderate levels of genetic variation were detected (NA = 4.50 ± 1.05, AR = 3.43 ± 0.22, HE = 0.59 ± 0.04), with Mexico having the lowest genetic diversity, followed by Honduras, Guatemala, Belize, and Costa Rica. Population-based gene flow measures (FST = 0.09 to 0.15, Dest = 0.09 to 0.21), principal component analysis, and Bayesian clustering applied in a hierarchical framework revealed significant genetic structure in Mesoamerican jaguars, roughly grouping individuals into four genetic clusters with varying levels of admixture. Gene flow was highest among Selva Maya jaguars (northern Guatemala and central Belize), whereas genetic differentiation among all other sampling sites was moderate. Genetic subdivision was most pronounced between Selva Maya and Honduran jaguars, suggesting limited jaguar movement between these close geographic regions and ultimately refuting the hypothesis of contemporary panmixia. To maintain a critical linkage for jaguars dispersing through the Mesoamerican landscape and ensure long-term viability of this near threatened species, we recommend continued management and maintenance of jaguar corridors. The baseline genetic data provided by this study underscores the importance of

  2. Integrated corridor management : phase I, concept development and foundational research. Task 3.4, identify integrated corridor management institutional strategies and administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-12

    Task 3 involves overall foundational research to further the understanding of various aspects of Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) and to identify integration issues needed to evaluate the feasibility of the ICM initiative. The focus of Task 3.4 a...

  3. River corridor science: Hydrologic exchange and ecological consequences from bedforms to basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judson; Gooseff, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Previously regarded as the passive drains of watersheds, over the past 50 years, rivers have progressively been recognized as being actively connected with off-channel environments. These connections prolong physical storage and enhance reactive processing to alter water chemistry and downstream transport of materials and energy. Here we propose river corridor science as a concept that integrates downstream transport with lateral and vertical exchange across interfaces. Thus, the river corridor, rather than the wetted river channel itself, is an increasingly common unit of study. Main channel exchange with recirculating marginal waters, hyporheic exchange, bank storage, and overbank flow onto floodplains are all included under a broad continuum of interactions known as “hydrologic exchange flows.” Hydrologists, geomorphologists, geochemists, and aquatic and terrestrial ecologists are cooperating in studies that reveal the dynamic interactions among hydrologic exchange flows and consequences for water quality improvement, modulation of river metabolism, habitat provision for vegetation, fish, and wildlife, and other valued ecosystem services. The need for better integration of science and management is keenly felt, from testing effectiveness of stream restoration and riparian buffers all the way to reevaluating the definition of the waters of the United States to clarify the regulatory authority under the Clean Water Act. A major challenge for scientists is linking the small-scale physical drivers with their larger-scale fluvial and geomorphic context and ecological consequences. Although the fine scales of field and laboratory studies are best suited to identifying the fundamental physical and biological processes, that understanding must be successfully linked to cumulative effects at watershed to regional and continental scales.

  4. Public issues associated with planning a large diameter pipeline in a multi-use urban corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buszynski, M. [SENES Consultants Ltd., Richmond Hill, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The demand for natural gas in a downtown area of Toronto is expected to increase significantly due to the proposed construction of two new generation stations. However, there are few opportunities to locate the pipelines in large urban centers because of the lack of foresight by municipalities and others in preserving corridors for utilities. Enbridge Gas conducted a system planning study to determine the best methods for overcoming public issues that were encountered while planning the route for a NPS 36 inch diameter natural gas pipeline in this urban region. In Ontario, distribution pipelines are regulated by the Ontario Energy Board, whose environmental guidelines for the location, construction and operation of hydrocarbon pipelines require the identification of indirectly affected landowners and detailed analysis of public issues and how they can be resolved. Issues include noise, vibration, dust and traffic. Secondary use of the electric transmission rights-of-way resulted in the identification of several other issues, including aesthetics of the right-of-way and loss of privacy for adjacent residential properties. It was determined that the optimal solution was to parallel a section of existing NPS 30 pipeline running in a north-south right-of-way located east of the Don Valley Parkway. The techniques used to address public issues identified 180 directly affected and 3,200 indirectly affected landowners. The Enbridge study revealed that it is possible to plan a right-of-way through an urban corridor in a manner that is compatible with existing development and that satisfies the general public. 6 figs.

  5. Long-term results of the corridor operation for atrial fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemel, N. M.; Defauw, J. J.; Kingma, J. H.; Jaarsma, W.; Vermeulen, F. E.; de Bakker, J. M.; Guiraudon, G. M.

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the long-term results of the corridor operation in the treatment of symptomatic atrial fibrillation refractory to drug treatment. The corridor operation is designed to isolate from the left and right atrium a conduit of atrial tissue connecting the sinus node area with the

  6. 76 FR 56471 - Meeting of the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ...] Meeting of the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission AGENCY: National Heritage Corridor Commission, John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley, National Park Service... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix, that the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National...

  7. Positive impacts in soil and water conservation in an Andean region of South America: Case scenarios from a USAID multidisciplinary cooperative project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USAID-SANREM-Virginia Polytechnic Institute project has made and continues to make an excellent impact, specifically showcasing the positive results of soil and water conservation (Barrera et al. 2010a; 2010b). This project has strong international cooperation between the USA, Ecuador and Bolivi...

  8. Conserving forest biodiversity across multiple land ownerships: lessons from the Northwest Forest Plan and the Southeast Queensland Regional Forests Agreement (Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.A. McAlpine; T.A. Spies; P. Norman; A. Peterson

    2007-01-01

    As the area of the world's forests shrinks, the management of production forests is becoming increasingly paramount for biodiversity conservation. In the United States and Australia, public debate and controversy about the management of production forests during the later decades of the 20th century resulted in governments adopting sweeping top-down changes to...

  9. Bridging the gap between bird conservation and sustainable development : perceptions and participation of rural people in Burkina Faso’s Sahel region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergh, van den M.

    2016-01-01

    The links between conservation and livelihood concerns remain much debated, and there is no agreement about the degree to which these concerns are linked, and how they should be tackled together. The main objectives of this study are to uncover the local values of birds, the environment and

  10. Site Outcomes Baseline Multi Year Work Plan Volume 1, River Corridor Restoration Baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintczak, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    The River Corridor Restoration volume is a compilation of Hanford Site scope, which excludes the approximately 194 km 2 Central Plateau. The River Corridor scope is currently contractually assigned to Fluor Hanford, Bechtel Hanford, inc., DynCorp, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and others. The purpose of this project specification is to provide an overall scoping document for the River Corridor Restoration volume, and to provide a link with the overall Hanford Site River Corridor scope. Additionally, this specification provides an integrated and consolidated source of information for the various scopes, by current contract, for the River Corridor Restoration Baseline. It identifies the vision, mission, and goals, as well as the operational history of the Hanford Site, along with environmental setting and hazards

  11. Green Infrastructure Design Based on Spatial Conservation Prioritization and Modeling of Biodiversity Features and Ecosystem Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snäll, Tord; Lehtomäki, Joona; Arponen, Anni; Elith, Jane; Moilanen, Atte

    2016-02-01

    There is high-level political support for the use of green infrastructure (GI) across Europe, to maintain viable populations and to provide ecosystem services (ES). Even though GI is inherently a spatial concept, the modern tools for spatial planning have not been recognized, such as in the recent European Environment Agency (EEA) report. We outline a toolbox of methods useful for GI design that explicitly accounts for biodiversity and ES. Data on species occurrence, habitats, and environmental variables are increasingly available via open-access internet platforms. Such data can be synthesized by statistical species distribution modeling, producing maps of biodiversity features. These, together with maps of ES, can form the basis for GI design. We argue that spatial conservation prioritization (SCP) methods are effective tools for GI design, as the overall SCP goal is cost-effective allocation of conservation efforts. Corridors are currently promoted by the EEA as the means for implementing GI design, but they typically target the needs of only a subset of the regional species pool. SCP methods would help to ensure that GI provides a balanced solution for the requirements of many biodiversity features (e.g., species, habitat types) and ES simultaneously in a cost-effective manner. Such tools are necessary to make GI into an operational concept for combating biodiversity loss and promoting ES.

  12. Conservation endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen; Romero, L. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Endocrinologists can make significant contributions to conservation biology by helping to understand the mechanisms by which organisms cope with changing environments. Field endocrine techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years and can provide substantial information on the growth, stress, and reproductive status of individual animals, thereby providing insight into current and future responses of populations to changes in the environment. Environmental stressors and reproductive status can be detected nonlethally by measuring a number of endocrine-related endpoints, including steroids in plasma, living and nonliving tissue, urine, and feces. Information on the environmental or endocrine requirements of individual species for normal growth, development, and reproduction will provide critical information for species and ecosystem conservation. For many taxa, basic information on endocrinology is lacking, and advances in conservation endocrinology will require approaches that are both “basic” and “applied” and include integration of laboratory and field approaches.

  13. River-corridor habitat dynamics, Lower Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Intensive management of the Missouri River for navigation, flood control, and power generation has resulted in substantial physical changes to the river corridor. Historically, the Missouri River was characterized by a shifting, multithread channel and abundant unvegetated sandbars. The shifting channel provided a wide variety of hydraulic environments and large areas of connected and unconnected off-channel water bodies.Beginning in the early 1800s and continuing to the present, the channel of the Lower Missouri River (downstream from Sioux City, Iowa) has been trained into a fast, deep, single-thread channel to stabilize banks and maintain commercial navigation. Wing dikes now concentrate the flow, and revetments and levees keep the channel in place and disconnect it from the flood plain. In addition, reservoir regulation of the Missouri River upstream of Yankton, South Dakota, has substantially changed the annual hydrograph, sediment loads, temperature regime, and nutrient budgets.While changes to the Missouri River have resulted in broad social and economic benefits, they have also been associated with loss of river-corridor habitats and diminished populations of native fish and wildlife species. Today, Missouri River stakeholders are seeking ways to restore some natural ecosystem benefits of the Lower Missouri River without compromising traditional economic uses of the river and flood plain.

  14. The feasibility of BRT corridor VI shelters in Semarang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, Andi; Setiawan, Moch Fathoni

    2018-03-01

    Like other big cities in Indonesia, Semarang City as the capital of Central Java Province also has various city problems, one of them is the transportation problem. Transportation problems arise due to increased mobility of society that is not in balanced with the public transportation facilities and infrastructure availability. In order to create a better transportation system, the local government of Semarang City held Trans Semarang bus rapid transit (BRT) which began operating in 2010. This study aims to analyze the feasibility of BRT Trans Semarang corridor VI shelters. This research uses descriptive critique technique. The results are expected to be considered in determining the right policy in creating a better transportation system. Based on observations made, the majority of BRT Trans Semarang corridor VI uses non-permanent shelters and is less feasible to be a BRT shelter. Thus, the local government is expected to improve the feasibility of BRT Trans Semarang shelter so that the sense of security and comfort can be obtained by users of BRT. In addition, the local government is also expected to maintain the quality of services provided. These services include ticket service, the condition of buses, speed and waiting time, as well as the placement and condition of shelters.

  15. Aeolian process of the dried-up riverbeds of the Hexi Corridor, China: a wind tunnel experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caixia; Wang, Xunming; Dong, Zhibao; Hua, Ting

    2017-08-01

    Wind tunnel studies, which remain limited, are an important tool to understand the aeolian processes of dried-up riverbeds. The particle size, chemical composition, and the mineral contents of sediments arising from the dried river beds are poorly understood. Dried-up riverbeds cover a wide area in the Hexi Corridor, China, and comprise a complex synthesis of different land surfaces, including aeolian deposits, pavement surfaces, and Takyr crust. The results of the present wind tunnel experiment suggest that aeolian transport from the dried-up riverbeds of the Hexi Corridor ranges from 0 to 177.04 g/m 2 /min and that dry riverbeds could be one of the main sources of dust emissions in this region. As soon as the wind velocity reaches 16 m/s and assuming that there are abundant source materials available, aeolian transport intensity increases rapidly. The dried-up riverbed sediment and the associated aeolian transported material were composed mainly of fine and medium sands. However, the transported samples were coarser than the bed samples, because of the sorting effect of the aeolian processes on the sediment. The aeolian processes also led to regional elemental migration and mineral composition variations.

  16. [Avifauna in silvopastoral systems in the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, Tabasco, México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Valdivia, Noel; Barba-Macías, Everardo; Hernández-Daumás, Salvador; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana

    2014-09-01

    Silvopastoral systems support local ecological and economical features as they enhance conservation of floral and faunal communities. As other animal communities, avifauna may be a good representative of habitat alterations, both as the species and functional levels. In order to attend the initiative of Mesoamerican Biological Corridor initiative (CBM) in the state of Tabasco, we studied the diversity of birds in two silvopastoral systems: scattered trees in pastures (ADP), and trees in boundary-hedgerows (AL). For this, we applied the fixed radius counting point method in three priority sites in Tabasco's CBM during the dry and wet season of 2011, and a total of 56, 60 and 62 points were evaluated in Huimanguillo, Tenosique and Tacotalpa, respectively. We observed 2 084 individuals of 154 species (79-89% of expected diversity) and 36 bird families. We detected 92, 87 and 85 species in Huimanguillo, Tenosique and Tacotalpa, respectively, including 35 protected species, of which 23, 19 and 16 in each locality, respectively. All sites showed high diversity (H' ≥ 3.20), low species dominance (D ≥ 0.08) and high equitability (J ≥ 0.77). Species composition showed differences between sites, being most similar Tacotalpa and Tenosique. Ten species were considered characteristic for sites. Although the silvopastoral system did contain protected species, the low diversity and the early successional character of the arboreal components were not attractive to frugivorous bird species. Diversification with native trees can improve the systems to create a complementary habitat and to increase landscape connectivity. The management of silvopastoral practices on cattle dominated landscapes in Tabasco could improve its ecological quality, and thus achieve the CBM's objectives ofbiodiversity conservation combined with human economic activities.

  17. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  18. Creative conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentham, Roelof J.

    1968-01-01

    The increasing exploitation of our natural resources, the unlimited occupation of ever more new areas, and the intensification of land-use, make it necessary for us to expand the concept of conservation. But we also need to reconsider that concept itself. For the changing conditions in the

  19. Reshaping conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Mikkel; Danielsen, Finn; Ngaga, Yonika

    2013-01-01

    members strengthen the monitoring practices to their advantage, and to some extent move them beyond the reach of government agencies and conservation and development practitioners. This has led to outcomes that are of greater social and strategic value to communities than the original 'planned' benefits...

  20. A contingent valuation study of buriti ( Mauritia flexuosa L.f. in the main region of production in Brazil: is environmental conservation a collective responsibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irlaine R. Vieira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The immature leaves of the buriti palm (Mauritia flexuosa are widely harvested in the municipality of Barreirinhas, Maranhão, for the production of handicrafts, which are sold to locals and tourists. The increasing demand for these artisanal goods is stimulating the emergence of an informal market for immature buriti leaves, leading to an intensification of their extraction and resulting in negative effects on local buriti palm populations and the ecosystem. Thus, the objective of the present study was to assess the environmental value of the buriti palm tree based on the maximum willingness to pay (WTP for its conservation, using the contingent valuation method. Among the respondents, 99.74% reported that the palm species should be protected and the majority of them (65.75% agreed to pay for its conservation (annual WTP R$ 179.49 ± 222.05. Multivariate analysis revealed that the WTP was not influenced by the socio-economic profile of the respondents. The main reasons for non-WTP are related to dissatisfaction with the government and the belief that financial contributions would not solve problems of environmental damage. Overall, the evaluated population believes that environmental conservation is not an obligation of the government or that of the population, but is a collective responsibility.

  1. Assessing Accessibility and Transport Infrastructure Inequities in Administrative Units in Serbia’s Danube Corridor Based on Multi-Criteria Analysis and Gis Mapping Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana VULEVIC

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Danube Regions, especially the sub-national units of governance, must be ready to play an active role in spatial development policies. A precondition for this is good accessibility and the coordinated development of all transport systems in the Danube corridor. The main contribution of this paper is to provide a multi-criteria model for potential decision making related to the evaluation of transportation accessibility in Serbia’s Danube Corridor. Geographic Information Systems (GIS, based on maps, indicate the existing counties’ transport infrastructures inequities (between well-connected and isolated counties in terms of accessibility to central places. Through the research, relevant indicators have been identifi ed. This provides an outline of transportation perspectives regarding the development achieved and also fosters the increase of transportation accessibility in some peripheral Serbian Danube administrative units – counties (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics level 3 – NUTS 3.

  2. Conservation physiology of animal migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  3. ORNL Trusted Corridors Project: Watts Bar Dam Inland Waterway Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Randy M.; Gross, Ian G.; Smith, Cyrus M.; Hill, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation has existed everywhere in the environment since the Earth's formation - in rocks, soil, water, and plants. The mining and processing of naturally occurring radioactive materials for use in medicine, power generation, consumer products, and industry inevitably generate emissions and waste. Radiological measuring devices have been used by industry for years to measure for radiation in undesired locations or simply identify radioactive materials. Since the terrorist attacks on the United States on 9-11-01 these radiation measuring devices have proliferated in many places in our nation's commerce system. DOE, TVA, the Army Corps and ORNL collaborated to test the usefulness of these devices in our nation's waterway system on this project. The purpose of the Watts Bar Dam ORNL Trusted Corridors project was to investigate the security, safety and enforcement needs of local, state and federal government entities for state-of-the-art sensor monitoring in regards to illegal cargo including utilization of the existing infrastructure. TVA's inland waterways lock system is a recognized and accepted infrastructure by the commercial carrier industry. Safety Monitoring activities included tow boat operators, commercial barges and vessels, recreational watercraft and their cargo, identification of unsafe vessels and carriers, and, monitoring of domestic and foreign commercial vessels and cargo identification. Safety Enforcement activities included cargo safety, tracking, identification of hazardous materials, waterway safety regulations, and hazardous materials regulations. Homeland Security and Law Enforcement Applications included Radiological Dispersive Devices (RDD) identification, identification of unsafe or illicit transport of hazardous materials including chemicals and radiological materials, and screening for shipments of illicit drugs. In the Fall of 2005 the SensorNet funding for the project expired. After several unsuccessful attempts to find a Federal sponsor

  4. ORNL Trusted Corridors Project: Watts Bar Dam Inland Waterway Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Randy M [ORNL; Gross, Ian G [ORNL; Smith, Cyrus M [ORNL; Hill, David E [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    Radiation has existed everywhere in the environment since the Earth's formation - in rocks, soil, water, and plants. The mining and processing of naturally occurring radioactive materials for use in medicine, power generation, consumer products, and industry inevitably generate emissions and waste. Radiological measuring devices have been used by industry for years to measure for radiation in undesired locations or simply identify radioactive materials. Since the terrorist attacks on the United States on 9-11-01 these radiation measuring devices have proliferated in many places in our nation's commerce system. DOE, TVA, the Army Corps and ORNL collaborated to test the usefulness of these devices in our nation's waterway system on this project. The purpose of the Watts Bar Dam ORNL Trusted Corridors project was to investigate the security, safety and enforcement needs of local, state and federal government entities for state-of-the-art sensor monitoring in regards to illegal cargo including utilization of the existing infrastructure. TVA's inland waterways lock system is a recognized and accepted infrastructure by the commercial carrier industry. Safety Monitoring activities included tow boat operators, commercial barges and vessels, recreational watercraft and their cargo, identification of unsafe vessels and carriers, and, monitoring of domestic and foreign commercial vessels and cargo identification. Safety Enforcement activities included cargo safety, tracking, identification of hazardous materials, waterway safety regulations, and hazardous materials regulations. Homeland Security and Law Enforcement Applications included Radiological Dispersive Devices (RDD) identification, identification of unsafe or illicit transport of hazardous materials including chemicals and radiological materials, and screening for shipments of illicit drugs. In the Fall of 2005 the SensorNet funding for the project expired. After several unsuccessful attempts to

  5. Maxillary arch width and buccal corridor changes with Damon and conventional brackets: A retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, Corey; Kim, Sohyon Michelle; Burnheimer, John

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of Damon self-ligating and conventional bracket systems on buccal corridor widths and areas. A retrospective sample of consecutively treated patients using either conventional (CG, n  =  45) or Damon self-ligating (SL, n  =  39) brackets was analyzed to determine any differences in buccal corridor widths and areas both within and between groups. Pretreatment and posttreatment frontal photographs were transferred to Photoshop CC, standardized using intercanthal width, and linear and area measurements were performed with tools in Photoshop CC. Ratios were then calculated for statistical analysis. Relationships between arch widths and buccal corridors were also examined. There were no significant differences in the posttreatment intercanine or intermolar widths either within or between the CG and SL groups. There were no significant differences in any buccal corridor width or area measurement either within or between the CG and SL groups. There were strong correlations with the intercanine width and the corresponding buccal corridor smile width measurements. There was an inverse correlation with the buccal corridor area in relation to the canine and the total smile width. It is likely that posttreatment increases in arch width can be seen in patients treated with either a conventional bracket system or the Damon system. It is highly unlikely that there is any significant difference in buccal corridor width or area in patients treated with the Damon self-ligating system or a conventional bracket system.

  6. Grizzly bears and calving caribou: What is the relation with river corridors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Donald D.; McCabe, Thomas R.

    1998-01-01

    Researchers have debated the effect of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline (TAP) and associated developments to caribou (Rangifer tarandus) of the central Arctic herd (CAH) since the 1970s. Several studies have demonstrated that cows and calves of the CAH avoided the TAP corridor because of disturbance associated with the pipeline, whereas others have indicated that female caribou of the CAH avoided riparian habitats closely associated with the pipeline. This avoidance was explained as a predator-avoidance strategy. We investigated the relation between female caribou and grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) use of river corridors on the yet undisturbed calving grounds of the Porcupine caribou herd (PCH) in northeastern Alaska. On the coastal plain, caribou were closer to river corridors than expected (P = 0.038), but bear use of river corridors did not differ from expected (P = 0.740). In the foothills, caribou use of river corridors did not differ from expected (P = 0.520), but bears were farther from rivers than expected (P = 0.001). Our results did not suggest an avoidance of river corridors by calving caribou or a propensity for bears to be associated with riparian habitats, presumably for stalking or ambush cover. We propose that PCH caribou reduce the risks of predation to neonates by migrating to a common calving grounds, where predator swamping is the operational antipredator strategy. Consequently, we hypothesize that nutritional demands, not predator avoidance strategies, ultimately regulate habitat use patterns (e.g., use of river corridors) of calving PCH caribou.

  7. Conservation of Charge and Conservation of Current

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of current and conservation of charge are nearly the same thing: when enough is known about charge movement, conservation of current can be derived from conservation of charge, in ideal dielectrics, for example. Conservation of current is enforced implicitly in ideal dielectrics by theories that conserve charge. But charge movement in real materials like semiconductors or ionic solutions is never ideal. We present an apparently universal derivation of conservation of current and ...

  8. Multi-Season Regional Analysis of Multi-Species Occupancy: Implications for Bird Conservation in Agricultural Lands in East-Central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goijman, Andrea Paula; Conroy, Michael. J.; Bernardos, Jaime Nicolás; Zaccagnini, María Elena

    2015-01-01

    Rapid expansion and intensification of agriculture create challenges for the conservation of biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. In Argentina, the total row crop planted area has increased in recent decades with the expansion of soybean cultivation, homogenizing the landscape. In 2003 we started the first long-term, large-scale bird monitoring program in agroecosystems of central Argentina, in portions of the Pampas and Espinal ecoregions. Using data from this program, we evaluated the effect of land use and cover extent on birds between 2003-2012, accounting for imperfect detection probabilities using a Bayesian hierarchical, multi-species and multi-season occupancy model. We tested predictions that species diversity is positively related to habitat heterogeneity, which in intensified agroecosystems is thought to be mediated by food availability; thus the extent of land use and cover is predicted to affect foraging guilds differently. We also infer about ecosystem services provisioning and inform management recommendations for conservation of birds. Overall our results support the predictions. Although many species within each guild responded differently to land use and native forest cover, we identified generalities for most trophic guilds. For example, granivorous gleaners, ground insectivores and omnivores responded negatively to high proportions of soybean, while insectivore gleaners and aerial foragers seemed more tolerant. Habitat heterogeneity would likely benefit most species in an intensified agroecosystem, and can be achieved with a diversity of crops, pastures, and natural areas within the landscape. Although most studied species are insectivores, potentially beneficial for pest control, some guilds such as ground insectivores are poorly represented, suggesting that agricultural intensification reduces ecological functions, which may be recovered through management. Continuation of the bird monitoring program will allow us to continue to

  9. Multi-Season Regional Analysis of Multi-Species Occupancy: Implications for Bird Conservation in Agricultural Lands in East-Central Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Paula Goijman

    Full Text Available Rapid expansion and intensification of agriculture create challenges for the conservation of biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. In Argentina, the total row crop planted area has increased in recent decades with the expansion of soybean cultivation, homogenizing the landscape. In 2003 we started the first long-term, large-scale bird monitoring program in agroecosystems of central Argentina, in portions of the Pampas and Espinal ecoregions. Using data from this program, we evaluated the effect of land use and cover extent on birds between 2003-2012, accounting for imperfect detection probabilities using a Bayesian hierarchical, multi-species and multi-season occupancy model. We tested predictions that species diversity is positively related to habitat heterogeneity, which in intensified agroecosystems is thought to be mediated by food availability; thus the extent of land use and cover is predicted to affect foraging guilds differently. We also infer about ecosystem services provisioning and inform management recommendations for conservation of birds. Overall our results support the predictions. Although many species within each guild responded differently to land use and native forest cover, we identified generalities for most trophic guilds. For example, granivorous gleaners, ground insectivores and omnivores responded negatively to high proportions of soybean, while insectivore gleaners and aerial foragers seemed more tolerant. Habitat heterogeneity would likely benefit most species in an intensified agroecosystem, and can be achieved with a diversity of crops, pastures, and natural areas within the landscape. Although most studied species are insectivores, potentially beneficial for pest control, some guilds such as ground insectivores are poorly represented, suggesting that agricultural intensification reduces ecological functions, which may be recovered through management. Continuation of the bird monitoring program will allow

  10. Surficial geology and land classification, Mackenzie Valley Transportation Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, O L; Pilon, J; Veilette, J

    1974-01-01

    The objective of this project, continued from 1971 and 1972 is to provide an inventory of surficial geology and permafrost distribution data pertinent to pipeline construction, road building, and other land use activities that might take place in the Mackenzie Valley Transportation Corridor. Hughes together with N.W. Rutter devoted one month to reconnaissance examination of the area encompassed by this project and Project 710047 (see this report). A primary objective was to insure uniform usage of map-units throughout the 2 areas. Construction on the Mackenzie Highway was examined in order to evaluate terrain performance of various map-units crossed by the highway. Limited geological studies, including shallow borings and measurement of sections, were conducted to supplement field work of 1971 and 1972. J. Veillette conducted diamond drilling in permanently frozen surficial deposits during the period mid-March to mid-April.

  11. Strategy for the Identification of an INL Comprehensive Utility Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Reisenauer

    2011-05-01

    This report documents the strategy developed to identify a comprehensive uti