WorldWideScience

Sample records for region ultra-steep spectrum

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: MRCR-SUMSS Ultra-steep-spectrum (USS) sample (Broderick+, 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, J. W.; Bryant, J. J.; Hunstead, R. W.; Sadler, E. M.; Murphy, T.

    2008-09-01

    This paper introduces a new program to find high-redshift radio galaxies in the Southern hemisphere through ultra-steep spectrum (USS) selection. We define a sample of 234 USS radio sources with spectral indices {alpha}843408=200mJy in a region of 0.35sr, chosen by cross-correlating the revised 408MHz Molonglo Reference Catalogue, the 843MHz Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey and the 1400MHz NRAO VLA Sky Survey in the overlap region -40{deg}

  2. First evidence of diffuse ultra-steep-spectrum radio emission surrounding the cool core of a cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, F.; Bonafede, A.; Brüggen, M.; van Weeren, R.; Brunetti, G.; Intema, H.; Botteon, A.; Shimwell, T.; Wilber, A.; Rafferty, D.; Giacintucci, S.; Cassano, R.; Cuciti, V.; de Gasperin, F.; Röttgering, H.; Hoeft, M.; White, G.

    2018-05-01

    Diffuse synchrotron radio emission from cosmic-ray electrons is observed at the center of a number of galaxy clusters. These sources can be classified either as giant radio halos, which occur in merging clusters, or as mini halos, which are found only in cool-core clusters. In this paper, we present the first discovery of a cool-core cluster with an associated mini halo that also shows ultra-steep-spectrum emission extending well beyond the core that resembles radio halo emission. The large-scale component is discovered thanks to LOFAR observations at 144 MHz. We also analyse GMRT observations at 610 MHz to characterise the spectrum of the radio emission. An X-ray analysis reveals that the cluster is slightly disturbed, and we suggest that the steep-spectrum radio emission outside the core could be produced by a minor merger that powers electron re-acceleration without disrupting the cool core. This discovery suggests that, under particular circumstances, both a mini and giant halo could co-exist in a single cluster, opening new perspectives for particle acceleration mechanisms in galaxy clusters.

  3. ULTRA STEEP SPECTRUM RADIO SOURCES IN THE LOCKMAN HOLE: SERVS IDENTIFICATIONS AND REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTION AT THE FAINTEST RADIO FLUXES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonso, J.; Bizzocchi, L.; Grossi, M.; Messias, H.; Fernandes, C. A. C. [Observatorio Astronomico de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-018 Lisbon (Portugal); Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Simpson, C. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Chapman, S.; Gonzalez-Solares, E. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Jarvis, M. J. [Centre for Astrophysics, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Rottgering, H. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Oort Gebouw, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Norris, R. P. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Dunlop, J.; Best, P. [SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Pforr, J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Vaccari, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Padova, vicolo Osservatorio 3, 35122 Padova (Italy); Seymour, N. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, UCL, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Farrah, D. [Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Huang, J.-S., E-mail: jafonso@oal.ul.pt [Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); and others

    2011-12-20

    Ultra steep spectrum (USS) radio sources have been successfully used to select powerful radio sources at high redshifts (z {approx}> 2). Typically restricted to large-sky surveys and relatively bright radio flux densities, it has gradually become possible to extend the USS search to sub-mJy levels, thanks to the recent appearance of sensitive low-frequency radio facilities. Here a first detailed analysis of the nature of the faintest USS sources is presented. By using Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope and Very Large Array radio observations of the Lockman Hole at 610 MHz and 1.4 GHz, a sample of 58 USS sources, with 610 MHz integrated fluxes above 100 {mu}Jy, is assembled. Deep infrared data at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m from the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS) are used to reliably identify counterparts for 48 (83%) of these sources, showing an average total magnitude of [3.6]{sub AB} = 19.8 mag. Spectroscopic redshifts for 14 USS sources, together with photometric redshift estimates, improved by the use of the deep SERVS data, for a further 19 objects, show redshifts ranging from z = 0.1 to z = 2.8, peaking at z {approx} 0.6 and tailing off at high redshifts. The remaining 25 USS sources, with no redshift estimate, include the faintest [3.6] magnitudes, with 10 sources undetected at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m (typically [3.6] {approx}> 22-23 mag from local measurements), which suggests the likely existence of higher redshifts among the sub-mJy USS population. The comparison with the Square Kilometre Array Design Studies Simulated Skies models indicates that Fanaroff-Riley type I radio sources and radio-quiet active galactic nuclei may constitute the bulk of the faintest USS population, and raises the possibility that the high efficiency of the USS technique for the selection of high-redshift sources remains even at the sub-mJy level.

  4. DISCOVERY OF ULTRA-STEEP SPECTRUM GIANT RADIO GALAXY WITH RECURRENT RADIO JET ACTIVITY IN ABELL 449

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunik, Dominika; Jamrozy, Marek

    2016-01-01

    We report a discovery of a 1.3 Mpc diffuse radio source with extremely steep spectrum fading radio structures in the vicinity of the Abell 449 cluster of galaxies. Its extended diffuse lobes are bright only at low radio frequencies and their synchrotron age is about 160 Myr. The parent galaxy of the extended relic structure, which is the dominant galaxy within the cluster, is starting a new jet activity. There are three weak X-rays sources in the vicinity of the cluster as found in the ROSAT survey, however it is not known if they are connected with this cluster of galaxies. Just a few radio galaxy relics are currently known in the literature, as finding them requires sensitive and high angular resolution low-frequency radio observations. Objects of this kind, which also are starting a new jet activity, are important for understanding the life cycle and evolution of active galactic nuclei. A new 613 MHz map as well as the archival radio data pertaining to this object are presented and analyzed

  5. A Bio-Realistic Analog CMOS Cochlea Filter With High Tunability and Ultra-Steep Roll-Off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiwei; Koickal, Thomas Jacob; Hamilton, Alister; Cheung, Rebecca; Smith, Leslie S

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the design and experimental results of a cochlea filter in analog very large scale integration (VLSI) which highly resembles physiologically measured response of the mammalian cochlea. The filter consists of three specialized sub-filter stages which respectively provide passive response in low frequencies, actively tunable response in mid-band frequencies and ultra-steep roll-off at transition frequencies from pass-band to stop-band. The sub-filters are implemented in balanced ladder topology using floating active inductors. Measured results from the fabricated chip show that wide range of mid-band tuning including gain tuning of over 20 dB, Q factor tuning from 2 to 19 as well as the bio-realistic center frequency shift are achieved by adjusting only one circuit parameter. Besides, the filter has an ultra-steep roll-off reaching over 300 dB/dec. By changing biasing currents, the filter can be configured to operate with center frequencies from 31 Hz to 8 kHz. The filter is 9th order, consumes 59.5 ∼ 90.0 μW power and occupies 0.9 mm2 chip area. A parallel bank of the proposed filter can be used as the front-end in hearing prosthesis devices, speech processors as well as other bio-inspired auditory systems owing to its bio-realistic behavior, low power consumption and small size.

  6. Quartz glass behavior at ultraviolet spectrum region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, A.F.B.; Barbosa, L.C.; Evora, C.A.P.D.

    1990-01-01

    Melted quartz ingots were produced from raw materials of different sources. Behavior studies of these three different quartz glass were made at the eletromagnetic spectrum ultraviolet region. The atomic absorption spectroscopy was used as an analysis technique of the alkaline, transition and aluminum metal traces. It was found that the alkaline, transition and aluminum metals impurities present a great influence on the melted quartz spectral behavior at the ultraviolet region. It was stated that measurments at this spectrum region constitute an important characterization technique to natural quartz as well as melted quartz. (author) [pt

  7. Intra-regional Diffusion of Spectrum License Allocation Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogrebnyakov, Nicolai; Maitland, Carleen F.

    2013-01-01

    -depth qualitative analyses to compare effects of various diffusion mechanisms; diffusion of spectrum license allocation policies at the regional level was more strongly driven by a policy’s likely effectiveness, as compared to potential payoffs for policymakers; and conversely, at the national level diffusion...... regions. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative comparative case method is used. Cases are developed from secondary data from the European Union and South America, and analyzed at the national and regional levels. Findings – The results suggest: the expected utility model can be used for in...... was driven by both payoffs for the policymakers and likely policy effectiveness. Originality/value – The two academic contributions of the paper are its expansion of a unified policy diffusion model to simultaneously account for regional and national levels of governance, as well as for technological change...

  8. γ-ray spectrum of the Galactic Center region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riegler, G.R.; Ling, J.C.; Mahoney, W.A.; Wheaton, W.A.; Jacobson, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    The HEAO-3 High Resolution γ-Ray Spectrometer observed the Galactic Center region in fall 1979 and in the spring of 1980. Variation of the positron annihilation line at 511 keV has been reported previously. The fall 1979 observations show a significant high-energy continuum at energies above 511 keV. The intensity of a possible positronium triplet-state continuum is found to be less than that expected for direct positron annihilation and positronium decay in an ionized, warm (T 5 K) plasma; depending on assumption for the shape of the high-energy continuum spectrum, positronium fractions between 0.0 and 0.75 (at 90% statistical confidence level) are consistent with the observations. 18 references

  9. Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgfeldt Hansen, Leif

    2016-01-01

    The publication functions as a proces description of the development and construction of an urban furniture SPECTRUM in the city of Gwangju, Republic of Korea. It is used as the cataloque for the exhibition of Spectrum.......The publication functions as a proces description of the development and construction of an urban furniture SPECTRUM in the city of Gwangju, Republic of Korea. It is used as the cataloque for the exhibition of Spectrum....

  10. Distortions in the Rayleigh-Jeans region of the cosmic background radiation spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zotti, G.

    1982-01-01

    The theory of the origin and evolution of distortions in the Rayleigh-Jeans region of the cosmic background radiation spectrum is reviewed. Some proposed experiments, designed to substantially improve our knowledge of that portion of the spectrum, are briefly described. (author)

  11. Internal Bremsstrahlung spectrum of 204TI in the X-ray region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavendra, M.K.; Ramaswamy, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    The internal Bremsstrahlung spectrum from 204 TI has been measured, using magnetic deflector method, in the X-ray region. The corrected spectral intensity is compared with the Coulomb-corrected KUB theory in the energy region of 10 to 30 keV. The good agreement between experiment and theory in this energy region, suggests that 'detour effects' are negligible in the low energy region. (author)

  12. The Spectrum of Glomerulonephritis in Adults in Madinah Munawarah Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernieh Bassam

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the patterns of glomerular diseases in the Madinah region in Saudi Arabia we reviewed 85 biopsies from native kidneys of adult patients presenting with clinical and or biological features suggestive of glomerular disease. Only light microscopy was used to evaluate these biopsies. There were 62 males and 23 females with age ranging from 12 to 80 years (mean 28 + 13.4 years. The main clinical presenting features were nephrotic syndrome in 68 patients (80%, renal insufficiency in 31 (36.5%, hypertension in 25 (24% and/or hematuria in 19 (22.4%. Histopathology revealed minimal change disease in 25 patients (29%, mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (GN in 13 (15.3%, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in 13 (15.3%, membranoproliferative GN in seven (8.2%, membranous GN in three (3.5%, diffuse proliferative GN in five (5.9%, crescentic GN in four (4.7%, lupus nephritis in 13 (15.3%, and amyloidosis in two (2.4%. In conclusion, Minimal change disease was the most common type of primary GN in our patients. The mean age for this group was 27.2 (range 13-43 years. Lupus nephritis was the commonest secondary GN in the Madinah region.

  13. Spectrum of small mutations in the dystrophin coding region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prior, T.W.; Bartolo, C.; Pearl, D.K. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD and BMD) are caused by defects in the dystrophin gene. About two-thirds of the affected patients have large deletions or duplications, which occur in the 5` and central portion of the gene. The nondeletion/duplication cases are most likely the result of smaller mutations that cannot be identified by current diagnostic screening strategies. We screened {approximately} 80% of the dystrophin coding sequence for small mutations in 158 patients without deletions or duplications and identified 29 mutations. The study indicates that many of the DMD and the majority of the BMD small mutations lie in noncoding regions of the gene. All of the mutations identified were unique to single patients, and most of the mutations resulted in protein truncation. We did not find a clustering of small mutations similar to the deletion distribution but found > 40% of the small mutations 3` of exon 55. The extent of protein truncation caused by the 3` mutations did not determine the phenotype, since even the exon 76 nonsense mutation resulted in the severe DMD phenotype. Our study confirms that the dystrophin gene is subject to a high rate of mutation in CpG sequences. As a consequence of not finding any hotspots or prevalent small mutations, we conclude that it is presently not possible to perform direct carrier and prenatal diagnostics for many families without deletions or duplications. 71 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Measurement and analysis of reaction rate distributions of cores with spectrum shifter region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Shigekazu; Shiroya, Seiji; Unesaki, Hironobu; Takeda, Toshikazu; Aizawa, Otohiko; Kanda, Keiji.

    1995-01-01

    A study for the neutronic characteristics of the spectrum-controlled neutron irradiation fields using various reflector materials was performed. Spectrum shifter regions were constructed in the upper reflector region of the solid moderated core (B-Core) of the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA). Beryllium, graphite and aluminum were selected as the loading materials for the spectrum shifter. Two tight-pitch lattice cores with different moderator-to-fuel volume ratio (V m /V f ) of 0.97 and 0.65 have been used. Axial reaction rate distributions of gold, nickel and indium wires were measured, and the spectrum index was defined as the Cd ratio of the gold wire and the ratio of gold reaction rate to nickel reaction rate. Using the conventional design calculation procedure, the experimental and calculated reaction rate and spectrum index show several disagreements. Detailed treatment of the neutron streaming effect, heterogeneous cell structure and depression factor are shown to be necessary for improving the agreement between experimental and calculated values. (author)

  15. Construction of Fine Particles Source Spectrum Bank in Typical Region and Empirical Research of Matching Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Sun, Wenliang; Guo, Min; Li, Minjiao; Li, Wan

    2018-01-01

    The research object of this paper is fine particles in typical region. The construction of component spectrum bank is based on the technology of online source apportionment, then the result of the apportionment is utilized to verify the effectiveness of fine particles component spectrum bank and which also act as the matching basis of online source apportionment receptor sample. On the next, the particle source of air pollution is carried through the matching diagnosis empirical research by utilizing online source apportionment technology, to provide technical support for the cause analysis and treatment of heavy pollution weather.

  16. Impaired eye region search accuracy in children with autistic spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Pruett

    Full Text Available To explore mechanisms underlying reduced fixation of eyes in autism, children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD and typically developing children were tested in five visual search experiments: simple color feature; color-shape conjunction; face in non-face objects; mouth region; and eye region. No group differences were found for reaction time profile shapes in any of the five experiments, suggesting intact basic search mechanics in children with ASD. Contrary to early reports in the literature, but consistent with other more recent findings, we observed no superiority for conjunction search in children with ASD. Importantly, children with ASD did show reduced accuracy for eye region search (p = .005, suggesting that eyes contribute less to high-level face representations in ASD or that there is an eye region-specific disruption to attentional processes engaged by search in ASD.

  17. Impaired eye region search accuracy in children with autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, John R; Hoertel, Sarah; Constantino, John N; Moll, Angela LaMacchia; McVey, Kelly; Squire, Emma; Feczko, Eric; Povinelli, Daniel J; Petersen, Steven E

    2013-01-01

    To explore mechanisms underlying reduced fixation of eyes in autism, children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and typically developing children were tested in five visual search experiments: simple color feature; color-shape conjunction; face in non-face objects; mouth region; and eye region. No group differences were found for reaction time profile shapes in any of the five experiments, suggesting intact basic search mechanics in children with ASD. Contrary to early reports in the literature, but consistent with other more recent findings, we observed no superiority for conjunction search in children with ASD. Importantly, children with ASD did show reduced accuracy for eye region search (p = .005), suggesting that eyes contribute less to high-level face representations in ASD or that there is an eye region-specific disruption to attentional processes engaged by search in ASD.

  18. Local region power spectrum-based unfocused ship detection method in synthetic aperture radar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiangfei; Wang, Xiaoqing; Chong, Jinsong

    2018-01-01

    Ships on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images will be severely defocused and their energy will disperse into numerous resolution cells under long SAR integration time. Therefore, the image intensity of ships is weak and sometimes even overwhelmed by sea clutter on SAR image. Consequently, it is hard to detect the ships from SAR intensity images. A ship detection method based on local region power spectrum of SAR complex image is proposed. Although the energies of the ships are dispersed on SAR intensity images, their spectral energies are rather concentrated or will cause the power spectra of local areas of SAR images to deviate from that of sea surface background. Therefore, the key idea of the proposed method is to detect ships via the power spectra distortion of local areas of SAR images. The local region power spectrum of a moving target on SAR image is analyzed and the way to obtain the detection threshold through the probability density function (pdf) of the power spectrum is illustrated. Numerical P- and L-band airborne SAR ocean data are utilized and the detection results are also illustrated. Results show that the proposed method can well detect the unfocused ships, with a detection rate of 93.6% and a false-alarm rate of 8.6%. Moreover, by comparing with some other algorithms, it indicates that the proposed method performs better under long SAR integration time. Finally, the applicability of the proposed method and the way of parameters selection are also discussed.

  19. Amplification of electromagnetic radiation in the exciton region of the spectrum of a semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerkararyan, Kh.V.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of amplification of electromagnetic radiation in the exciton region of the spectrum of a semiconductor was first discussed by Haken. The possibility of amplification of an electromagnetic wave under conditions of Bose condensation of biexcitons was considered in Ref. 2. However, the difficulties encountered in the creation of a Bose condensed state of biexcitons complicate greatly the performance of an experiment of this kind. The authors shall show that amplification is possible also in a gaseous mixture of excitons and biexcitons which is in thermal equilibrium and can be described by the Maxwellian distribution function of the velocities

  20. Redetermination of the X-ray spectrum of SN 1006 and excess diffuse emission from the Lupus region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Katsuji; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Becker, R H; Hughes, J P

    1987-01-01

    X-ray from SN 1006 and from the adjacent Lupus region were separately observed with the Tenma gas scintillation proportional counters. The spectrum of the local excess emission from the Lupus region can be consistently fitted with either a thin thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum with a temperature of 7.5 +- 2.6 keV or a power-law spectrum with a photon index of 2.1 +- 0.1. The x-ray emission from SN 1006, after subtraction of this local excess, has a spectrum which can be described as a power-law spectrum with a photon index of 3.3 +- 0.1 or a thin thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum with a temperature of 1.9 +- 0.1 keV which is much softer than the previously reported spectrum. No significant iron line emission was observed in the SN 1006 spectrum. The 90 % upper limit for the equivalent width of the iron line was reduced to 400 eV. The observed spectrum can also be interpreted in terms of a nonequilibrium ionization model of about 2-keV electron temperature.

  1. A redetermination of the X-ray spectrum of SN 1006 and excess diffuse emission from the Lupus region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Katsuji; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Becker, R.H.; Hughes, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray from SN 1006 and from the adjacent Lupus region were separately observed with the Tenma gas scintillation proportional counters. The spectrum of the local excess emission from the Lupus region can be consistently fitted with either a thin thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum with a temperature of 7.5 ± 2.6 keV or a power-law spectrum with a photon index of 2.1 ± 0.1. The x-ray emission from SN 1006, after subtraction of this local excess, has a spectrum which can be described as a power-law spectrum with a photon index of 3.3 ± 0.1 or a thin thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum with a temperature of 1.9 ± 0.1 keV which is much softer than the previously reported spectrum. No significant iron line emission was observed in the SN 1006 spectrum. The 90 % upper limit for the equivalent width of the iron line was reduced to 400 eV. The observed spectrum can also be interpreted in terms of a nonequilibrium ionization model of about 2-keV electron temperature. (author)

  2. DISCERNING THE GAMMA-RAY-EMITTING REGION IN THE FLAT SPECTRUM RADIO QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Y. G. [Department of Physics, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, 650092 (China); Yang, C. Y.; Wang, J. C. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Zhang, L., E-mail: ynzyg@ynu.edu.cn, E-mail: chyy@ynao.ac.cn [Department of Astronomy, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 (China)

    2017-01-01

    A model-dependent method is proposed to determine the location of the γ -ray-emitting region for a given flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ). In the model, the extra-relativistic electrons are injected at the base of the jet and non-thermal photons are produced by both synchrotron radiation and inverse-Compton (IC) scattering in the energy dissipation region. The target photons dominating IC scattering originate from both synchrotron photons and external ambient photon fields, and the energy density of external radiation field is a function of the distance between the position of the dissipation region and a central supermassive black hole, and their spectra are seen in the comoving frame. Moreover, the energy dissipation region could be determined by the model parameter through reproducing the γ -ray spectra. Such a model is applied to reproduce the quasi-simultaneous multi-wavelength observed data for 36 FSRQs. In order to define the width of the broad-line region (BLR) shell and dusty molecular torus (MT) shell, a simple numerical constraint is used to determine the outer boundary of the BLR and dusty MT. Our results show that (1) the γ -ray-emitting regions are located at the range from 0.1 to 10 pc; (2) the γ -ray-emitting regions are located outside the BLRs and within the dusty molecular tori; and (3) the γ -ray-emitting regions are located closer to the dusty MT ranges than the BLRs. Therefore, it may be concluded that direct evidence for the far site scenario could be obtained on the basis of the model results.

  3. Spectrum of phenotypic anomalies in four families with deletion of the SHOX enhancer region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Valentina; Palka, Chiara; Chiavaroli, Valentina; Franchi, Sara; Cannataro, Giovanni; Savastano, Massimo; Cotroneo, Antonio Raffaele; Chiarelli, Francesco; Mohn, Angelika; Stuppia, Liborio

    2014-07-23

    SHOX alterations have been reported in 67% of patients affected by Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD), with a larger prevalence of gene deletions than point mutations. It has been recently demonstrated that these deletions can involve the SHOX enhancer region, rather that the coding region, with variable phenotype of the affected patients.Here, we report a SHOX gene analysis carried out by MLPA in 14 LWD patients from 4 families with variable phenotype. All patients presented a SHOX enhancer deletion. In particular, a patient with a severe bilateral Madelung deformity without short stature showed a homozygous alteration identical to the recently described 47.5 kb PAR1 deletion. Moreover, we identified, for the first time, in three related patients with a severe bilateral Madelung deformity, a smaller deletion than the 47.5 kb PAR1 deletion encompassing the same enhancer region (ECR1/CNE7). Data reported in this study provide new information about the spectrum of phenotypic alterations showed by LWD patients with different deletions of the SHOX enhancer region.

  4. Expanding the spectrum of human ganglionic eminence region anomalies on fetal magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Righini, Andrea; Parazzini, Cecilia; Izzo, Giana [Children' s Hospital ' ' V. Buzzi' ' , Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Milan (Italy); Cesaretti, Claudia [Children' s Hospital ' ' V. Buzzi' ' , Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Milan (Italy); Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Medical Genetics Unit, Fondazione I.R.C.C.S. Ca' Granda, Milan (Italy); Conte, Giorgio [Children' s Hospital ' ' V. Buzzi' ' , Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Milan (Italy); University of Milan, Department of Health Sciences, Milan (Italy); Frassoni, Carolina; Inverardi, Francesca [Fondazione I.R.C.C.S. Istituto Neurologico ' ' C. Besta' ' , Clinical Epileptology and Experimental Neurophysiology Unit, Milan (Italy); Bulfamante, Gaetano; Avagliano, Laura [San Paolo Hospital, Division of Human Pathology, Milan (Italy); Rustico, Mariangela [Children' s Hospital ' ' V. Buzzi' ' , Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Prenatal Diagnosis, Milan (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Ganglionic eminence (GE) is a transient fetal brain structure that harvests a significant amount of precursors of cortical GABA-ergic interneurons. Prenatal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of GE anomalies (i.e., cavitations) have already been reported associated with severe micro-lissencephaly. The purpose of this report was to illustrate the MR imaging features of GE anomalies in conditions other than severe micro-lissencephalies. Among all the fetuses submitted to prenatal MR imaging at our center from 2005 to 2014, we collected eight cases with GE anomalies and only limited associated brain anomalies. The median gestational age at the time of MR imaging was 21 weeks ranging from 19 to 29 weeks. Two senior pediatric neuroradiologists categorized the anomalies of the GE region in two groups: group one showing cavitation in the GE region and group two showing enlarged GE region. For each fetal case, associated cranial anomalies were also reported. Five out of the eight cases were included in group one and three in group two. Besides the GE region abnormality, all eight cases had additional intracranial anomalies, such as mild partial callosal agenesis, vermian hypoplasia and rotation, cerebellar hypoplasia, ventriculomegaly, enlarged subarachnoid spaces, molar tooth malformation. Ultrasound generally detected most of the associated intracranial anomalies, prompting the MR investigation; on the contrary in none of the cases, GE anomalies had been detected by ultrasound. Our observation expands the spectrum of human GE anomalies, demonstrating that these may take place also without associated severe micro-lissencephalies. (orig.)

  5. Expanding the spectrum of human ganglionic eminence region anomalies on fetal magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Righini, Andrea; Parazzini, Cecilia; Izzo, Giana; Cesaretti, Claudia; Conte, Giorgio; Frassoni, Carolina; Inverardi, Francesca; Bulfamante, Gaetano; Avagliano, Laura; Rustico, Mariangela

    2016-01-01

    Ganglionic eminence (GE) is a transient fetal brain structure that harvests a significant amount of precursors of cortical GABA-ergic interneurons. Prenatal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of GE anomalies (i.e., cavitations) have already been reported associated with severe micro-lissencephaly. The purpose of this report was to illustrate the MR imaging features of GE anomalies in conditions other than severe micro-lissencephalies. Among all the fetuses submitted to prenatal MR imaging at our center from 2005 to 2014, we collected eight cases with GE anomalies and only limited associated brain anomalies. The median gestational age at the time of MR imaging was 21 weeks ranging from 19 to 29 weeks. Two senior pediatric neuroradiologists categorized the anomalies of the GE region in two groups: group one showing cavitation in the GE region and group two showing enlarged GE region. For each fetal case, associated cranial anomalies were also reported. Five out of the eight cases were included in group one and three in group two. Besides the GE region abnormality, all eight cases had additional intracranial anomalies, such as mild partial callosal agenesis, vermian hypoplasia and rotation, cerebellar hypoplasia, ventriculomegaly, enlarged subarachnoid spaces, molar tooth malformation. Ultrasound generally detected most of the associated intracranial anomalies, prompting the MR investigation; on the contrary in none of the cases, GE anomalies had been detected by ultrasound. Our observation expands the spectrum of human GE anomalies, demonstrating that these may take place also without associated severe micro-lissencephalies. (orig.)

  6. Regional homogeneity of fMRI time series in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Dinesh K; Keehn, Brandon; Müller, Ralph Axel

    2010-05-26

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) studies of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have suggested atypical patterns of activation and long-distance connectivity for diverse tasks and networks in ASD. We explored the regional homogeneity (ReHo) approach in ASD, which is analogous to conventional fcMRI, but focuses on local connectivity. FMRI data of 26 children with ASD and 29 typically developing (TD) children were acquired during continuous task performance (visual search). Effects of motion and task were removed and Kendall's coefficient of concordance (KCC) was computed, based on the correlation of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) time series for each voxel and its six nearest neighbors. ReHo was lower in the ASD than the TD group in superior parietal and anterior prefrontal regions. Inverse effects of greater ReHo in the ASD group were detected in lateral and medial temporal regions, predominantly in the right hemisphere. Our findings suggest that ReHo is a sensitive measure for detecting cortical abnormalities in autism. However, impact of methodological factors (such as spatial resolution) on ReHo require further investigation. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Response of neural reward regions to food cues in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cascio Carissa J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One hypothesis for the social deficits that characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASD is diminished neural reward response to social interaction and attachment. Prior research using established monetary reward paradigms as a test of non-social reward to compare with social reward may involve confounds in the ability of individuals with ASD to utilize symbolic representation of money and the abstraction required to interpret monetary gains. Thus, a useful addition to our understanding of neural reward circuitry in ASD includes a characterization of the neural response to primary rewards. Method We asked 17 children with ASD and 18 children without ASD to abstain from eating for at least four hours before an MRI scan in which they viewed images of high-calorie foods. We assessed the neural reward network for increases in the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD signal in response to the food images Results We found very similar patterns of increased BOLD signal to these images in the two groups; both groups showed increased BOLD signal in the bilateral amygdala, as well as in the nucleus accumbens, orbitofrontal cortex, and insula. Direct group comparisons revealed that the ASD group showed a stronger response to food cues in bilateral insula along the anterior-posterior gradient and in the anterior cingulate cortex than the control group, whereas there were no neural reward regions that showed higher activation for controls than for ASD. Conclusion These results suggest that neural response to primary rewards is not diminished but in fact shows an aberrant enhancement in children with ASD.

  8. High-fat diet-induced brain region-specific phenotypic spectrum of CNS resident microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baufeld, Caroline; Osterloh, Anja; Prokop, Stefan; Miller, Kelly R; Heppner, Frank L

    2016-09-01

    Diets high in fat (HFD) are known to cause an immune response in the periphery as well as the central nervous system. In peripheral adipose tissue, this immune response is primarily mediated by macrophages that are recruited to the tissue. Similarly, reactivity of microglia, the innate immune cells of the brain, has been shown to occur in the hypothalamus of mice fed a high-fat diet. To characterize the nature of the microglial response to diets high in fat in a temporal fashion, we studied the phenotypic spectrum of hypothalamic microglia of mice fed high-fat diet for 3 days and 8 weeks by assessing their tissue reaction and inflammatory signature. While we observed a significant increase in Iba1+ myeloid cells and a reaction of GFAP+ astrocytes in the hypothalamus after 8 weeks of HFD feeding, we found the hypothalamic myeloid cell reaction to be limited to endogenous microglia and not mediated by infiltrating myeloid cells. Moreover, obese humans were found to present with signs of hypothalamic gliosis and exacerbated microglia dystrophy, suggesting a targeted microglia response to diet in humans as well. Notably, the glial reaction occurring in the mouse hypothalamus was not accompanied by an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, but rather by an anti-inflammatory reaction. Gene expression analyses of isolated microglia not only confirmed this observation, but also revealed a downregulation of microglia genes important for sensing signals in the microenvironment. Finally, we demonstrate that long-term exposure of microglia to HFD in vivo does not impair the cell's ability to respond to additional stimuli, like lipopolysaccharide. Taken together, our findings support the notion that microglia react to diets high in fat in a region-specific manner in rodents as well as in humans; however, this response changes over time as it is not exclusively pro-inflammatory nor does exposure to HFD prime microglia in the hypothalamus.

  9. A Comparative Study between Codes of Spectrum for a Single Degree of Freedom (SDOF) System in Two Different Hazardous Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pour, P Moradi; Noorzaei, J [Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Karisiddappa [Vice Principal of Malnad College of Engineering, 573201 Hassan, Karnataka (India); Jaafar, M S, E-mail: jamal@eng.upm.edu.my [Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Since in structure and earthquake engineering design of structures using response spectrum method (RSM) is very important, this study has been performed for a single degree of freedom (SDOF) system. Firstly the concept and the way of construction of response spectrum has been briefly explained. Then the records of some strong earthquakes in USA and Iran as two hazardous regions have been plotted, after that selected response spectrums (RS) of each country has been compared with each other and finally with standard response code of its own country. It was concluded:1) For a given ground motion the response of a SDOF system only depends on its natural vibration period (T) and damping ratio({zeta}).2) When the effective damping ratio of a structure increases, its dynamic responses will decrease which demands the use of higher value of damping ratio in the structure. Also the FORTRAN computer programme for solving the Duhamel's Integral has been improved in this paper.

  10. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders in Algeria: A preliminary study in the region of Tizi Ouzou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoudi, Smail; Bouzar, Melissa

    2016-03-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a disabling inflammatory condition that targets astrocytes in the optic nerves and spinal cord. Recent advances led to the individualization of a set of conditions now referred as NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD). To describe the prevalence and characteristics of NMO SD in north Algeria. The present study is a retrospective and descriptive work which took place in Nedir Mohamed teaching hospital, Tizi-Ouzou, Algeria. 938 Medical files of patients with CNS inflammatory demyelinating diseases were reviewed then patients with optic neuritis and/or myelitis were preselected. Patients who met the 2015 neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders criteria were selected and analyzed 08 Patients (3.4%) met the 2015 criteria for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, 3/8 (37.5%) were positive to AQ4-IgG and 5/8 (62.5%) were negative. Mean age of onset was 29 years, female to male ratio was 3:1, cerebral MRI was normal in 75% of cases and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis was present in 75% of cases. 37/232 Patients (15.9%) were considered at high risk of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders The present study suggests that the spectrum of NMO disorders is a rare entity among patients with optic nerve and spinal cord demyelinating lesions in north Algeria. However, the lack of accurate AQ4-IgG test certainly underestimates its real prevalence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Prospective Study on the Clinical and Microbiological Spectrum of Endophthalmitis in a Specific Region in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solborg Bjerrum, Søren; Hamoudi, Hassan; Friis-Møller, Alice

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the clinical and microbiological spectrum of endophthalmitis with emphasis on clinical features, visual outcomes and risks of surgical complications. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted between 2012 and 2013 in a specific region in Denmark. Patients were...... clinically examined before, during and after surgical intervention for endophthalmitis. RESULTS: Fifty eyes with endophthalmitis were included. Endophthalmitis after cataract surgery (post-cataract), anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) intravitreal injections (post-injection) and cases...... of endogenous endophthalmitis were responsible for 40, 28 and 18% of all cases, respectively. There was no difference in the microbiological spectrum in post-cataract patients and post-injection patients, but patients with post-cataract endophthalmitis presented statistically significantly more frequently...

  12. Eta Carinae: Linelist for the Emission Spectrum of the Weigelt Blobs in the 1700-10400Angstrom Wavelength Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zethson, T.; Johansson, S.; Hartman, H.; Gull, T. R.

    2011-01-01

    Aims. We present line identifications in the 1700 to 10400A region for the Weigelt Blobs B and D, located 0.1 to 0.3" NNW of Eta Carinae. The aim of this work is to characterize the behavior of these luminous, dense gas condensations in response to the broad maximum and short minimum states of Eta Carinae during its 5.54-year spectroscopic period. Methods. The observations were carried out during March 1998, the minimum spectrum, and in February 1999, early maximum spectrum, with the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) from 1640 to 10400A using the 52"x0.1" aperture centered on Eta Carinae at position angle -28 degrees. Extractions of the reduced spectrum centered on Weigelt B and D, 0.28: in length along the slit, were used to identify the narrow, nebular emission lines, measure their wavelengths and estimate their fluxes. Results. A linelist of 1500 lines is presented for the maximum and minimum states of combined Weigelt blobs B and D. The spectra are dominated by emission lines from the iron-group elements, but include lines from lighter elements. They include parity permitted and forbidden lines. A number of lines are fluorescent lines pumped by H Ly alpha. Other lines show anomalous excitation.

  13. Are autism spectrum conditions more prevalent in an information-technology region? A school-based study of three regions in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, Martine T; Hoekstra, Rosa A; Allison, Carrie; Wheelwright, Sally; Brayne, Carol; Matthews, Fiona E; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-05-01

    We tested for differences in the prevalence of autism spectrum conditions (ASC) in school-aged children in three geographical regions in the Netherlands. Schools were asked to provide the number of children enrolled, the number having a clinical diagnosis of ASC and/or two control neurodevelopmental conditions. Prevalence was evaluated by negative binomial regression and adjustments were made for non-response and size of the schools. The prevalence estimates of ASC in Eindhoven was 229 per 10,000, significantly higher than in Haarlem (84 per 10,000) and Utrecht (57 per 10,000), whilst the prevalence for the control conditions were similar in all regions. Phase two is planned to validate school-reported cases using standardized diagnostic methods and to explore the possible causes for these differences.

  14. Laboratory and field response of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), to selected regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Damon J; Francese, Joseph A; Zylstra, Kelley E; Fraser, Ivich; Sawyer, Alan J; Bartels, David W; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C

    2009-12-01

    Retinal sensitivity of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) was examined with an aim to improve trap efficacy for the beetle. Electroretinogram (ERG) recordings from dark-adapted compound eyes of male and female were measured at different wavelengths across the spectrum ranging from 300 to 700 nm. The spectral sensitivity curves revealed peaks in the UV (340 nm), the violet/purple (420-430 nm), blue (460 nm), and green (540-560 nm) regions of the spectrum. Females were sensitive to red regions of the spectrum (640-670 nm), whereas males were not. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the wavelength and reflectance for ash foliage, purple corrugated plastic traps, as well as the elytra and abdomen of adult A. planipennis. Traps were painted using colors based on ERG and spectrophotometer measurements and compared with purple corrugated plastic traps currently used by the USDA-APHIS-PPQ-EAB National Survey. In a field assay conducted along the edges of several A. planipennis-infested ash stands, there were no significant differences in trap catch among green, red, or purple treatments. Dark blue traps caught significantly fewer A. planipennis than red, light green, or dark purple traps. In a second assay where purple and green treatments were placed in the mid canopy of ash trees (approximately 13 m in height), trap catch was significantly higher on green treatments. We hypothesize that when placed in the mid-canopy, green traps constitute a foliage-type stimulus that elicits food-seeking and/or host seeking behavior by A. planipennis.

  15. Perceptually Salient Regions of the Modulation Power Spectrum for Musical Instrument Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoret, Etienne; Depalle, Philippe; McAdams, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The ability of a listener to recognize sound sources, and in particular musical instruments from the sounds they produce, raises the question of determining the acoustical information used to achieve such a task. It is now well known that the shapes of the temporal and spectral envelopes are crucial to the recognition of a musical instrument. More recently, Modulation Power Spectra (MPS) have been shown to be a representation that potentially explains the perception of musical instrument sounds. Nevertheless, the question of which specific regions of this representation characterize a musical instrument is still open. An identification task was applied to two subsets of musical instruments: tuba, trombone, cello, saxophone, and clarinet on the one hand, and marimba, vibraphone, guitar, harp, and viola pizzicato on the other. The sounds were processed with filtered spectrotemporal modulations with 2D Gaussian windows. The most relevant regions of this representation for instrument identification were determined for each instrument and reveal the regions essential for their identification. The method used here is based on a "molecular approach," the so-called bubbles method. Globally, the instruments were correctly identified and the lower values of spectrotemporal modulations are the most important regions of the MPS for recognizing instruments. Interestingly, instruments that were confused with each other led to non-overlapping regions and were confused when they were filtered in the most salient region of the other instrument. These results suggest that musical instrument timbres are characterized by specific spectrotemporal modulations, information which could contribute to music information retrieval tasks such as automatic source recognition.

  16. On the cause of variability of the cosmic ray spectrum in the knee region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loznikov, V. M.; Erokhin, N. S.; Zol'nikova, N. N.; Mikhailovskaya, L. A.

    2017-09-01

    Cosmic ray (CR) energy spectra for H, He, Si, and Fe nuclei with energy-to-charge number ratios ℰ/ Z in the range from 10 to 5 × 107 GeV are studied using observational data obtained at different times in different energy ranges: AMS-02, CREAM, Tibet ASγ, Tibet (hybrid), GRAPES-3, KASCADE, and KASCADE-Grande. Comparison of the H and He CR fluxes according to the KASCADE and KASCADE-Grande data (for different models of deconvolving CR spectra) with the Tibet ASγ and Tibet (hybrid) data obtained at another time in the range of ℰ/ Z ˜ 3 × 106 GeV demonstrates space weather-caused variability of the CR flux. This feature of CR energy spectra in the Tibet ASγ data is most clearly observed in the spectra of heavier nuclei (Si and Fe) according to the KASCADE-Grande and GRAPES-3 data. The variability in the energy spectra of all CRs in the vicinity of the "knee" is shown in the data of Yakutsk EAS, CASA-BLANCA, and Tibet-III experiments. The variability of the CR flux on a time scale on the order of several years exists only if the source corresponding to the peak in the energy spectrum is situated at a distance of no more than 1 pc from the Sun. Rapid surfatron acceleration of CRs may result from colliding interstellar clouds nearest to the Sun (LIC and G). This acceleration mechanism allows one to explain the variability of the CR spectrum in the range 103 GeV < ℰ/ Z < 108 GeV. Conditions for the trapping of strongly relativistic Fe nuclei by an electromagnetic wave, the dynamics of the components of the particle velocity and momentum, and the dependence of the particle acceleration rate on the initial parameters of the problem are analyzed using numerical calculations. The structure of the phase plane of the accelerated Fe nuclei is examined. Optimal conditions for the implementation of ultrarelativistic surfatron acceleration of Fe nuclei by an electromagnetic wave are formulated.

  17. Fat intake in children with autism spectrum disorder in the Mediterranean region (Valencia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-González, Agustín; Zazpe, Itziar; Marí-Sanchis, Amelia; Suárez-Varela, María Morales

    2016-11-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been found to have alterations in dietary fat intake and fat quality. The fat intakes of the foods consumed by children with and without ASD were compared, and the deficiency and excess of these nutrients were examined. In a matched case-control study, 3-day food diaries were completed by 105 children with ASD and 495 typically developing (TD) 6- to 9-year-old children in Valencia (Spain). We used the probabilistic approach and estimated average requirement cut-point to evaluate the risk of inadequate nutrients intakes. These were compared between groups and with Spanish recommendations using linear and logistic regression, respectively. Groups did not differ significantly in age, total dietary intake, Healthy Eating Index, or food variety score. Children with ASD had lower saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) intakes, but their total PUFAs and (PUFAs + monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)/SFAs, PUFAs/SFAs intakes and ω-6/ω-3 ratios were higher than TD children. The total fat and cholesterol intakes of both groups were slightly above Spanish recommendations. Both groups had low ω-6 intakes, very low ω-3 intakes, and high ω-6/ω-3 ratios. Further research is required to clarify associations between ASD symptomatology, fat-eating patterns and health status.

  18. The pituitary gland under infrared light - in search of a representative spectrum for homogeneous regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, A; Banas, K; Furgal-Borzych, A; Kwiatek, W M; Pawlicki, B; Breese, M B H

    2015-04-07

    The pituitary gland is a small but vital organ in the human body. It is located at the base of the brain and is often described as the master gland due to its multiple functions. The pituitary gland secretes and stores hormones, such as the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (hGH), prolactin, gonadotropins, and luteinizing hormones, as well as the antidiuretic hormone (ADH). A proper diagnosis of pituitary disorders is of utmost importance as this organ participates in regulating a variety of body functions. Typical histopathological analysis provides much valuable information, but it gives no insight into the biochemical background of the changes that occur within the gland. One approach that could be used to evaluate the biochemistry of tissue sections obtained from pituitary disorders is Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectromicroscopy. In order to collect diagnostically valuable information large areas of tissue must be investigated. This work focuses on obtaining a unique and representative FTIR spectrum characteristic of one type of cell architecture within a sample. The idea presented is based on using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) for data evaluation to search for uniform patterns within samples from the perspective of FTIR spectra. The results obtained demonstrate that FTIR spectromicroscopy, combined with proper statistical evaluation, can be treated as a complementary method for histopathological analysis and ipso facto can increase the sensitivity and specificity for detecting various disorders not only for the pituitary gland, but also for other human tissues.

  19. RARE ISOTOPIC SPECIES OF SULFUR MONOXIDE: THE ROTATIONAL SPECTRUM IN THE THz REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lattanzi, Valerio; Cazzoli, Gabriele; Puzzarini, Cristina, E-mail: lattanzi@mpe.mpg.de [Dipartimento di Chimica “Giacomo Ciamician,” Università di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2015-11-01

    Many sulfur-bearing species have been detected in different astronomical environments and have allowed us to derive important information about the chemical and physical composition of interstellar regions. In particular, these species have also been shown to trace and probe hot-core environment time evolution. Among the most prominent sulfur-bearing molecules is SO, the sulfur monoxide radical, one of the more ubiquitous and abundant, which is also observed in its isotopic substituted species such as {sup 34}SO and S{sup 18}O. Due to the importance of this simple diatomic system, and in order to face the challenge of modern radioastronomical facilities, an extension to the THz range of the rare isotopologues of sulfur monoxide has been performed. High-resolution rotational molecular spectroscopy has been employed to extend the available data set of four isotopic species, SO, {sup 34}SO, S{sup 17}O, and S{sup 18}O, up to the 1.5 THz region. The frequency coverage and spectral resolution of our measurements allowed a better constraint of the molecular constants of the four species considered, specifically focusing on the two oxygen-substituted isotopologues. Our measurements were also employed in an isotopically invariant fit including all of the available pure rotational and ro-vibrational transitions for all of the SO isotopologues, thus enabling accurate predictions of the rotational transitions at higher frequencies. We also provide comparisons with recent works performed on the same system, demonstrating the quality of our experiment and the improvement of the data sets for all of the species considered. Transition frequencies for this system can now be used with confidence by the astronomical community well into the THz spectral region.

  20. The Cosmic Ray spectrum in the energy region between 1012 and 1016 eV measured by ARGO–YBJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montini Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ARGO-YBJ experiment has been in full and stable data taking at the Yangbajing cosmic ray observatory (Tibet, P.R. China, 4300 m a.s.l. for more than five years. The detector has been designed in order to explore the Cosmic Ray (CR spectrum in an energy range from few TeV up to several PeV. The high segmentation of the detector allows a detailed measurement of the lateral particle distribution which can be exploited on order to identify showers produced by primaries of different mass. The results of the measurement of the all-particle and proton plus helium energy spectra in the energy region between 1012 and 1016 eV are discussed.

  1. Long-term outcome of autistic spectrum disorder: a retrospective case study in a southern italian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operto, Francesca Felicia; Martino, Federica; Rinaldi, Annalisa; Cerracchio, Angelo; Salvati, Giovanni; Orza, Mariano; Lembo, Claudia; Panzarino, Gianvito; Di Paolantonio, Claudia; Verrotti, Alberto; Farello, Giovanni; Coppola, Giangennaro

    2017-09-20

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by impaired social communication and restricted and repetitive behaviours, as well as associated features including intellectual disability and impaired sensorimotor function. Despite a growing interest in this devastating disorder for families and young parents, there are no certainties as regards its aetiology, although a significant genetic background is considered to be important. Since there is little information about the social adaptation and quality of life of patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder, we decided to study and evaluate the long-term outcome and quality of life in a sample of children, adolescent and young adults. This is a case study of subjects diagnosed with ASD and followed by clinics and rehabilitation centers in Campania region, in the south of Italy. The study sample was composed by 110 patients (83 males, 27 females), aged between 8.1 and 28.0 years (mean 20.6; median 21.2; SD ± 4.85), recruited in 8 rehabilitation centers of Campania region. A follow-up interview was performed by means of a questionnaire administered to the parents/caregivers of patients at a mean age of their son/daughter of 20.6 years (median 21.2 years; range 8.1-28.0). Reports from parents or caregivers show an overall improvement with regard to social and adaptive abilities in a group of teen-agers and young adults with ASD. Major concerns on significant quality of life parameters such as independent living, work experiences, friendships and relationships, accommodation type, recreational activities and personal autonomy were persisting. The present study shows an overall improvement with regard to social and adaptive abilities in a large number of subjects. Considerable problems are related to autonomy, employment opportunities and social relationships of these patients. Parents need more recreational activities and continuous support with facilities for families.

  2. Faraday rotation measure variations in the Cygnus region and the spectrum of interstellar plasma turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, T. Joseph; Spangler, Steven R.; Cordes, James M.

    1990-01-01

    Linear polarization observations were made of eight double-lobed radio galaxies viewed through the galactic plane in the Cygnus region. These observations have been used to determine intra- and intersource rotation measure differences; in some cases, unambiguous rotation measures have been extracted. The rotation measures are dominated by foreground magnetoionic material. The differences in rotation measure between pairs of sources correlate with angular separation for separations from 10 arcsec to 1.5 deg. These rotation measure fluctuations are consistent with a model in which the electron density varies on roughly 0.1-200 pc scales. The amplitudes of these variations are, in turn, consistent with those electron density variations that cause diffractive interstellar scattering on scales less than 10 to the 11th cm.

  3. Spectrum of hemoglobin variants in the population of northern region of West Bengal: An ethnogenetic proposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidyut Krishna Goswami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The birth of transfusion-dependent states of hemoglobinopathies including thalassemias is preventable by population screening and genetic counseling. Magnitude is not addressed in the Northern Region of West Bengal where many ethnic variants inhabit. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the following study is to find out the burden of different entities of hemoglobinopathies, their correlation with ethnicity and the "at risk" groups. Subjects and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted from the Hematology Unit of North Bengal Medical College over 1 year on the subjects underwent screening for hemoglobinopathies for detection of abnormal hemoglobin (Hb variants by "cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography" principle along with other relevant tests. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed by frequency distribution and Chi-square test assuming P value as 95% of the level of significance using the SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. Result: Abnormal Hb variant was 47.5% among 1872. Hb E trait (34.4% was most common followed by Hb E disease (25.3% and others. Hb E disorders (92.7% were observed mostly among Rajbangsi population while E-β-thalassemias (40% in the Muslims and a heterogeneous pattern noted among tribal and mongoloid. Conclusion: Hb E hemoglobinopathies was high among Rajbangsi and Muslims with identification of some other hemoglobinopathies involving tribal and mongoloid.

  4. Ground level cosmic ray pulse height spectrum of a 7. 5 cm diameter spherical NaI(Tl) scintillation detector for energy region below 5 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Toshi; Saito, Kimiaki; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1988-09-01

    Ground level cosmic ray pulse height spectrum of a 7.5 cm diameter spherical NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was evaluated through stripping operation based on a pulse height spectrum measured on the sea and high precision response functions of the detector for U-series, Th-series and /sup 40/K. The exposure rate calculated from the determined cosmic ray pulse height spectrum was 0.21 R/h eq., which agreed well with that obtained from another method. The shape of the pulse height spectrum showed similarity to that measured at the altitude of 16,000 ft, especially in the energy region of 0 to 3 MeV. The principle of the adopted method is rather plain, however, the reliability of the spectrum is satisfactory. As the pulse height spectrum is a common information to any analytical method for environmental gamma ray using NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, it is expected to be used for simple and precise separation of cosmic ray component involved in the enviromental pulse height spectrum.

  5. Performance analysis of fusion nuclear-data benchmark experiments for light to heavy materials in MeV energy region with a neutron spectrum shifter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Isao; Ohta, Masayuki; Miyamaru, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Keitaro; Yoshida, Shigeo; Iida, Toshiyuki; Ochiai, Kentaro; Konno, Chikara

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear data are indispensable for development of fusion reactor candidate materials. However, benchmarking of the nuclear data in MeV energy region is not yet adequate. In the present study, benchmark performance in the MeV energy region was investigated theoretically for experiments by using a 14 MeV neutron source. We carried out a systematical analysis for light to heavy materials. As a result, the benchmark performance for the neutron spectrum was confirmed to be acceptable, while for gamma-rays it was not sufficiently accurate. Consequently, a spectrum shifter has to be applied. Beryllium had the best performance as a shifter. Moreover, a preliminary examination of whether it is really acceptable that only the spectrum before the last collision is considered in the benchmark performance analysis. It was pointed out that not only the last collision but also earlier collisions should be considered equally in the benchmark performance analysis.

  6. Molecular epidemiology over an 11-year period (2000 to 2010) of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli causing bacteremia in a centralized Canadian region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Peirano (G.); A.K. van der Bij (Akke); S. Gregson (Simon); J.D.D. Pitout (J. D D)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractA study was designed to assess the importance of sequence types among extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates causing bacteremia over an 11-year period (2000 to 2010) in a centralized Canadian region. A total of 197 patients with incident infections were

  7. EAS spectrum in the primary energy region above 10 to the 15th power eV by the Akeno and Yakutsk array data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilnikov, D. D.; Knurenko, S. P.; Krasilnikov, A. D.; Pavlov, V. N.; Sleptsov, I. Y.; Yegorova, V. P.

    1985-01-01

    The extensive air showers spectrum on scintillation desity Rko in primary energy region E sub approx. 10 to the 15th power - 10 to the 20th power eV on the Yakutsk array data and recent results of the Akeno is given.

  8. Epidemiology of Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamase-Producing E-coli and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in the Northern Dutch-German Cross-Border Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Xuewei; Garcia-Cobos, Silvia; Ruijs, Gijs J. H. M.; Kampinga, Greetje A.; Arends, Jan P.; Borst, Dirk M.; Moller, Lieke V.; Holman, Nicole D.; Schuurs, Theo A.; van Coppenraet, Lesla E. Bruijnesteijn; Weel, Jan F.; van Zeijl, Jan H.; Koeck, Robin; Rossen, John W. A.; Friedrich, Alexander W.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To reveal the prevalence and epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and/or plasmid AmpC (pAmpC)- and carbapenemase (CP) producing Enterobacteriaceae and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) across the Northern Dutch-German border region. Methods: A point-prevalence study

  9. Excitation of Molecular Hydrogen in the Orion Bar Photodissociation Region from a Deep Near-infrared IGRINS Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Kyle F.; Dinerstein, Harriet L.; Oh, Heeyoung; Mace, Gregory N.; Kim, Hwihyun; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Pavel, Michael D.; Lee, Sungho; Pak, Soojong; Park, Chan; Sok Oh, Jae; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2017-04-01

    We present a deep near-infrared spectrum of the Orion Bar Photodissociation Region (PDR) taken with the Immersion Grating INfrared Spectrometer (IGRINS) on the 2.7 m telescope at the McDonald Observatory. IGRINS has high spectral resolution (R˜ {{45,000}}) and instantaneous broad wavelength coverage (1.45-2.45 μm), enabling us to detect 87 emission lines from rovibrationally excited molecular hydrogen (H2) that arise from transitions out of 69 upper rovibration levels of the electronic ground state. These levels cover a large range of rotational and vibrational quantum numbers and excitation energies, making them excellent probes of the excitation mechanisms of H2 and physical conditions within the PDR. The Orion Bar PDR is thought to consist of cooler high density clumps or filaments (T=50{--}250 K, {n}H={10}5{--}{10}7 cm-3) embedded in a warmer lower density medium (T=250{--}1000 K, {n}H={10}4{--}{10}5 cm-3). We fit a grid of constant temperature and density Cloudy models, which recreate the observed H2 level populations well, to constrain the temperature to a range of 600-650 K and the density to {n}H=2.5× {10}3{--}{10}4 cm-3. The best-fit model gives T = 625 K and {n}H=5× {10}3 cm-3. This well-constrained warm temperature is consistent with kinetic temperatures found by other studies for the Orion Bar’s lower density medium. However, the range of densities well fit by the model grid is marginally lower than those reported by other studies. We could be observing lower density gas than the surrounding medium, or perhaps a density-sensitive parameter in our models is not properly estimated.

  10. Molecular characteristics of travel-related extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates from the Calgary Health Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitout, Johann D D; Campbell, Lorraine; Church, Deirdre L; Gregson, Daniel B; Laupland, Kevin B

    2009-06-01

    Extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli has recently emerged as a major risk factor for community-acquired, travel-related infections in the Calgary Health Region. Molecular characterization was done on isolates associated with infections in returning travelers using isoelectric focusing, PCR, and sequencing for bla(CTX-M)s, bla(TEM)s, bla(SHV)s, bla(OXA)s, and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants. Genetic relatedness was determined with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using XbaI and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 105 residents were identified; 6/105 (6%) presented with hospital-acquired infections, 9/105 (9%) with health care-associated community-onset infections, and 90/105 (86%) with community-acquired infections. Seventy-seven of 105 (73%) of the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were positive for bla(CTX-M) genes; 55 (58%) produced CTX-M-15, 13 (14%) CTX-M-14, six (6%) CTX-M-24, one (1%) CTX-M-2, one (1%) CTX-M-3, and one (1%) CTX-M-27, while 10 (10%) produced TEM-52, three (3%) TEM-26, 11 (11%) SHV-2, and four (4%) produced SHV-12. Thirty-one (30%) of the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were positive for aac(6')-Ib-cr, and one (1%) was positive for qnrS. The majority of the ESBL-producing isolates (n = 95 [90%]) were recovered from urine samples, and 83 (87%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin. The isolation of CTX-M-15 producers belonging to clone ST131 was associated with travel to the Indian subcontinent (India, Pakistan), Africa, the Middle East, and Europe, while clonally unrelated strains of CTX-M-14 and -24 were associated with travel to Asia. Our study suggested that clone ST131 coproducing CTX-M-15, OXA-1, TEM-1, and AAC(6')-Ib-cr and clonally unrelated CTX-M-14 producers have emerged as important causes of community-acquired, travel-related infections.

  11. Variation in mutation spectrum partly explains regional differences in the breast cancer risk of female BRCA mutation carriers in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Janet R; Teixeira, Natalia; van der Kolk, Dorina M; Mourits, Marian J E; Rookus, Matti A; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Collée, Margriet; van Asperen, Christi J; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Ausems, Margreet G E M; van Os, Theo A M; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; Gómez-Garcia, Encarna B; Vasen, Hans F; Brohet, Richard M; van der Hout, Annemarie H; Jansen, Liesbeth; Oosterwijk, Jan C; de Bock, Geertruida H

    2014-11-01

    We aimed to quantify previously observed relatively high cancer risks in BRCA2 mutation carriers (BRCA2 carriers) older than 60 in the Northern Netherlands, and to analyze whether these could be explained by mutation spectrum or population background risk. This consecutive cohort study included all known pathogenic BRCA1/2 carriers in the Northern Netherlands (N = 1,050). Carrier and general reference populations were: BRCA1/2 carriers in the rest of the Netherlands (N = 2,013) and the general population in both regions. Regional differences were assessed with HRs and ORs. HRs were adjusted for birth year and mutation spectrum. All BRCA1 carriers and BRCA2 carriers younger than 60 had a significantly lower breast cancer risk in the Northern Netherlands; HRs were 0.66 and 0.64, respectively. Above age 60, the breast cancer risk in BRCA2 carriers in the Northern Netherlands was higher than in the rest of the Netherlands [HR, 3.99; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-14.35]. Adjustment for mutational spectrum changed the HRs for BRCA1, BRCA2 <60, and BRCA2 ≥60 years by -3%, +32%, and +11% to 0.75, 0.50, and 2.61, respectively. There was no difference in background breast cancer incidence between the two regions (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.97-1.09). Differences in mutation spectrum only partly explain the regional differences in breast cancer risk in BRCA2 carriers, and for an even smaller part in BRCA1 carriers. The increased risk in BRCA2 carriers older than 60 may warrant extension of intensive breast screening beyond age 60. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Spectrophotometry of the Hα region in the spectrum of HR 1099 during the February 1978 radio flare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraquelli, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    Spectrophotometry of the Hα emission line in the spectrum of HR 1099 (=HD 22468=V711 Tauri) was obtained during the radio flare of February 1978. The profiles observed during the flare have higher peak intensities and larger equivalent widths than profiles obtained outside of the flare at approximately the same orbital phases. Both the general shapes of the profiles and the equivalent widths appear to correlate with the radio flux. A preflare profile exhibits a flare-type profile, suggesting that radio outbursts in RS CVn systems may be preceded by Hα enhancement

  13. MICROX-2: an improved two-region flux spectrum code for the efficient calculation of group cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, D.; Koch, P.

    1979-12-01

    The MICROX-2 code is an improved version of the MICROX code. The improvements allow MICROX-2 to be used for the efficient and rigorous preparation of broad group neutron cross sections for poorly moderated systems such as fast breeder reactors in addition to the well moderated thermal reactors for which MICROX was designed. MICROX-2 is an integral transport theory code which solves the neutron slowing down and thermalization equations on a detailed energy grid for two-region lattice cells. The fluxes in the two regions are coupled by transport corrected collision probabilities. The inner region may include two different types of grains (particles). Neutron leakage effects are treated by performing B 1 slowing down and P 0 plus DB 2 thermalization calculations in each region. Cell averaged diffusion coefficients are prepared with the Benoist cell homogenization prescription

  14. Random polyfluorene co-polymers designed for a better optical absorption coverage of the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Gedefaw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two alternating polyfluorenes (APFO15-F8BT and APFO3-F8BT with full absorption of the visible region of the electromagnetic radiation were designed and synthesized for bulk-heterojunction solar cell devices. The optical and electrochemical properties of the two polymers were studied. The two polymers exhibited strong absorption in the visible region with no significant valley over the visible region extending up to 650 nm. Deep HOMO and ideally situated LUMO energy levels were the characteristics of the two polymers as revealed from the square wave voltammogram study: desired properties for extracting high open circuit voltage and for a facile charge transfer to the acceptor component in devices to take place, respectively. Photovoltaic devices were fabricated by blending the two polymers with PCBM[70] and up to ~2% power conversion efficiency were obtained. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v28i1.14

  15. Studies of internal bremsstrahlung spectrum of 35S beta emitter in the photon energy region of 1–100 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Amrit; Dhaliwal, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    The internal bremsstrahlung (IB) spectral photon distribution, produced by soft beta particles of 35 S (W max =164 keV), in the photon energy region of 1–100 keV, is measured by using a Si(Li) detector, having high energy resolution and efficiency at low energy region. The measured spectral IB photon distribution is compared with KUB theory and Coulomb corrected IB theories given by Nilsson, and Lewis and Ford. After applying the necessary corrections, the experimental and theoretical IB spectral photon distributions are compared in terms of the number of IB photon of energy k per m o c 2 per unit photon yield. In the low energy region (below 10 keV), the experimental results are in agreement with all the theories. However, in photon energy region of 10–50 keV, experimental results are in agreement with Coulomb corrected Nilsson theory only, within the experimental errors. Further, beyond 50 keV, the Nilsson theory is more close to the experimental results than the KUB, and the Lewis and Ford theories. Hence, the Nilsson theory is more accurate than the other theories given by KUB and Lewis and Ford, particularly at a high energy end. The experimental results reported here with Si(Li) detector are free from number of ambiguities in earlier measurements reported with NaI(Tl) and HPGe detectors. The present results are indicating a relook into the theoretical considerations, given by different theories, while taking into account the Coulomb corrections for predicting the IB spectrum, particularly at high photon energy region. - Highlights: • The internal bremsstrahlung spectrum of 35 S beta emitter, in the photon energy region of 1–100 keV. • These measurement are taken by using a Si(Li) detector. • Theoretical and experimental results are reported in terms of number of photons of energy k per m 0 c 2 per unit photon yield. • The Nilsson theory for IB is more accurate than KUB and Lewis and Ford, particularly at high photon energy region

  16. Simultaneous determination of ordinary and extraordinary refractive index dispersions of nematic liquid crystals in the visible and near-infrared regions from an interference spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Ryotaro; Nishi, Koji; Kan, Takayuki; Kadowaki, Kazunori

    2016-10-01

    An improved interference method is proposed to determine ordinary and extraordinary refractive index dispersions of nematic liquid crystals (LCs). In this method, an LC cell coated with a thin metal layer is used as a Fabry-Perot interferometer, which shows us a sharp transmission fringe. To ensure high reliability, the wavelength dispersion of the refractive index of the metal is taken into account in fitting calculation. In spite of measuring ordinary and extraordinary components, the LC cell, polarizers, and other equipment are not rotated during the experiment. The index evaluation from a single spectrum avoids errors depending on the measurement position owing to non-uniformities of molecular orientation and cell thickness because we can obtain the two indices at exactly the same position. This system can adapt to a wide frequency range and does not require any specific wavelength light source or laser. We demonstrate the determination of ordinary and extraordinary refractive index dispersions of a nematic liquid crystal in the visible and near-infrared regions. Furthermore, we quantitatively reproduce the measured spectrum by calculation using the measured refractive indices.

  17. A comparison of families of children with autism spectrum disorders in family daily routines, service usage, and stress levels by regionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Tomomi; Vaz, Sharmila; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Cordier, Reinie

    2017-11-01

    To explore whether family routines, service usage, and stress levels in families of children with autism spectrum disorder differ as a function of regionality. Secondary analysis of data was undertaken from 535 surveys. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate differences between families living in densely populated (DP) areas and less densely populated (LDP) areas. Families living in LDP areas were found to: (1) have reduced employment hours (a two-parent household: Exp (B) = 3.48, p single-parent household: Exp (B) = 3.32, p = .011); (2) travel greater distance to access medical facilities (Exp (B) = 1.27, p = .006); and (3) report less severe stress levels (Exp (B) = 0.22, p = .014). There were no differences in family routines; however, flexible employment opportunities and travel distance to medical services need to be considered in families living in LDP areas.

  18. Circular intensity differential scattering (CIDS) measurements in the soft x-ray region of the spectrum (∼16 eV to 500 eV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maestre, M.F.; Bustamante, C.; Snyder, P.; Rowe, E.; Hansen, R.

    1991-03-01

    We propose the use of recently developed techniques of circular intensity differential scattering (CIDS), as extended to the soft x-ray region of the spectrum (16 eV to 500 eV), to study the higher order organization of the eukaryotic chromosome. CIDS is the difference in scattering power of an object when illuminated by right circularly polarized vs. left circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation of arbitrary wavelength. CIDS has been shown to be a very sensitive measure of the helical organization of the scattering object eg. the eukaryotic chromosome. Preliminary results of measurements of samples of bacteriophages and octopus sperm done at SRC, Wisconsin, show the technique to be very sensitive to the dimensional parameters of the particles interrogated by circularly polarized light. 7 refs., 5 figs

  19. THE HYPERFINE STRUCTURE OF THE ROTATIONAL SPECTRUM OF HDO AND ITS EXTENSION TO THE THz REGION: ACCURATE REST FREQUENCIES AND SPECTROSCOPIC PARAMETERS FOR ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzoli, Gabriele; Lattanzi, Valerio; Puzzarini, Cristina [Dipartimento di Chimica “Giacomo Ciamician”, Università di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Alonso, José Luis [Grupo de Espectroscopía Molecular (GEM), Unidad Asociada CSIC, Edificio Quifima, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Parque Científico UVa, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47005 Valladolid (Spain); Gauss, Jürgen, E-mail: cristina.puzzarini@unibo.it [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Universität Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2015-06-10

    The rotational spectrum of the mono-deuterated isotopologue of water, HD{sup 16}O, has been investigated in the millimeter- and submillimeter-wave frequency regions, up to 1.6 THz. The Lamb-dip technique has been exploited to obtain sub-Doppler resolution and to resolve the hyperfine (hf) structure due to the deuterium and hydrogen nuclei, thus enabling the accurate determination of the corresponding hf parameters. Their experimental determination has been supported by high-level quantum-chemical calculations. The Lamb-dip measurements have been supplemented by Doppler-limited measurements (weak high-J and high-frequency transitions) in order to extend the predictive capability of the available spectroscopic constants. The possibility of resolving hf splittings in astronomical spectra has been discussed.

  20. Mg IX emission lines in an active region spectrum obtained with the Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, F. P.; Thomas, R. J.; Neupert, W. M.; Conlon, E. S.

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical electron-temperature-sensitive Mg IX emission line ratios are presented for R(sub 1) = I(443.96 A)/I(368.06 A), R(sub 2) = I(439.17 A)/I(368.06 A), R(sub 3) = I(443.37 A)/I(368.06 A), R(sub 4) = I(441.22 A)/I(368.06 A), and R(sub 5) = I(448.28 A)/I(368.06 A). A comparison of these with observational data for a solar active region, obtained during a rocket flight by the Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS), reveals excellent agreement between theory and observation for R(sub 1) through R(sub 4), with discrepancies that average only 9%. This provides experimental support for the accuracy of the atomic data adopted in the line ratio calculations, and also resolves discrepancies found previously when the theoretical results were compared with solar data from the S082A instrument on board Skylab. However in the case of R(sub 5), the theoretical and observed ratios differ by almost a factor of 2. This may be due to the measured intensity of the 448.28 A line being seriously affected by instrumental effects, as it lies very close to the long wavelength edge of the SERTS spectral coverage (235.46-448.76 A).

  1. Improvement of photoneutron spectrum measurement produced by bombardment of 2 GeV electrons above giant dipole resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. S.; Park, J. S.; Choi, H. D.; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Shin, Kasuo; Ban, Syuichi

    2000-01-01

    Above the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) region, high energy photoneutron spectra produced by irradiation of 2.04 GeV electrons into Pb target were measured by Time-of-Flight (TOF) technique. The differential photoneutron yields were obtained at a fixed angle of 90 degrees to the electron beam direction. The TOF system consists of Pilot-U plastic scintillation detector, which has fast response time, and the high speed multiscaler or CAMAC TDC. In the improvement of experimental setup to extend the flight distance to 10.4 m lead to make the measurable energy to 500 MeV from 300 MeV. And using the TDC based electronics lead to use a veto counter. The results were compared with the calculated one by using EGS4 and Modified PICA95. The characteristics of this TOF system was introduced in this paper and the results for several measuring conditions, which are flight distance, TOF electronics, and type of neutron detector, were discussed to improve the accuracy of this measurement

  2. The absolute photoionization cross sections of helium, neon, argon and krypton in the extreme vacuum ultraviolet region of the spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.B.; Marr, G.V.

    1976-01-01

    An experiment has been set up at the Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Facility to make absolute absorption cross section measurements over a wide range of photon energies. New data are reported for helium, neon, argon and krypton over the range 340 to 40 A which are believed to be reliable to +- 5%. A critical evaluation of published cross section data has been carried out to produce best value data from the ionization thresholds throughout the vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray region. Agreement with theoretical calculations on helium is demonstrated to be within +- 2 to 3% from threshold down to the double ionization threshold at 79 eV. Comparison with recent calculations of photoionization cross sections has shown that the effect of electron correlations is significant for the heavier inert gases. Contrary to previous claims, the position of the M shell maximum in krypton is located at 184 +- 10 eV in good agreement with r.p.a.e. calculations. Oscillator strength sum rules have been examined and their moments calculated. Discrepancies developing towards the heavier inert gases suggests a decrease in polarizabilities and other atomic factors from those predicted by Hartree-Fock calculations. (author)

  3. Stability of the Light Output, Oral Cavity Tip Accessibility in Posterior Region and Emission Spectrum of Light-Curing Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, C B; Nima, G; Sebold, M; Giannini, M; Price, R B

    2018-04-09

    This study evaluated the light output from six light-emitting diode dental curing lights after 25 consecutive light exposures without recharging the battery, tip accessibility in the posterior region, and light beam spread from light-curing units. Irradiance, spectral peak, and radiant exposure were measured with the battery fully charged (Bluephase Style, ESPE Cordless, Elipar S10, Demi Ultra, Valo Cordless, and Radii-Cal) and monitored for 25 light exposures (each lasting 10 seconds). The tip diameter was measured to identify the beam size and the ability of the six light-curing units to irradiate all areas of the lower second molar in the standard output setting. Four curing lights delivered a single peak wavelength from 454 to 462 nm, and two (Bluephase Style and Valo Cordless) delivered multiple emission peaks (at 410 and 458 nm and 400, 450, and 460 nm, respectively). The irradiance and radiant exposure always decreased after 25 exposures by 2% to 8%, depending on the light unit; however, only ESPE Cordless, Valo Cordless, and Radii-Cal presented a statistical difference between the first and the last exposure. The tip diameter ranged from 6.77 mm to 9.40 mm. The Radii-Cal delivered the lowest radiant exposure and irradiance. This light was also unable to access all the teeth with the tip parallel to the occlusal surface of the tooth. Not all of the blue-emitting lights deliver the same emission spectra, and some curing lights delivered a lower irradiance (as much as 8% lower) after the 25th exposure.

  4. The clinical and molecular spectrum of galactosemia in patients from the Cape Town region of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Ruth

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to document the clinical, laboratory and genetic features of galactosemia in patients from the Cape Town metropolitan region. Methods Diagnoses were based on thin layer chromatography for galactosuria/galactosemia and assays of erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT and galactokinase activities. Patients were screened for the common S135L and Q188R transferase gene mutations, using PCR-based assays. Screening for the S135L mutation in black newborns was used to estimate the carrier rate for galactosemia in black South Africans. Results A positive diagnosis of galactosemia was made in 17 patients between the years 1980 to 2001. All had very low or absent galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT activity, and normal galactokinase levels. The mean age at diagnosis was 5.1 months (range 4 days to 6.5 months. A review of 9 patients showed that hepatomegaly (9/9, and splenomegaly, failure to thrive, developmental delay, bilateral cataracts (6/9 were the most frequent features at diagnosis. Six had conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Four experienced invasive E. coli infection before diagnosis. Ten patients were submitted to DNA analysis. All 4 black patients and 2 of mixed extraction were homozygous for the S135L allele, while all 3 white patients were homozygous for the Q188R allele. The remaining patient of mixed extraction was heterozygous for the Q188R allele. The estimated carrier frequency of the S135L mutation in 725 healthy black newborns was 1/60. Conclusions In the absence of newborn screening the delay in diagnosis is most often unacceptably long. Also, carrier frequency data predict a galactosemia incidence of approximately 1/14 400 for black newborns in the Cape Metropole, which is much higher than the current detection rate. It is thus likely that many patients go undetected.

  5. Mutations in B3GALT6, which encodes a glycosaminoglycan linker region enzyme, cause a spectrum of skeletal and connective tissue disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Masahiro; Mizumoto, Shuji; Miyake, Noriko; Kogawa, Ryo; Iida, Aritoshi; Ito, Hironori; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Aya; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Osamu; Kosaki, Rika; Horikawa, Reiko; Lai, Angeline; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Dupuis, Lucie; Chitayat, David; Howard, Andrew; Leal, Gabriela F; Cavalcanti, Denise; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Watanabe, Shigehiko; Lausch, Ekkehart; Unger, Sheila; Bonafé, Luisa; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Nishimura, Gen; Ikegawa, Shiro

    2013-06-06

    Proteoglycans (PGs) are a major component of the extracellular matrix in many tissues and function as structural and regulatory molecules. PGs are composed of core proteins and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains. The biosynthesis of GAGs starts with the linker region that consists of four sugar residues and is followed by repeating disaccharide units. By exome sequencing, we found that B3GALT6 encoding an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the GAG linker region is responsible for a severe skeletal dysplasia, spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity type 1 (SEMD-JL1). B3GALT6 loss-of-function mutations were found in individuals with SEMD-JL1 from seven families. In a subsequent candidate gene study based on the phenotypic similarity, we found that B3GALT6 is also responsible for a connective tissue disease, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (progeroid form). Recessive loss-of-function mutations in B3GALT6 result in a spectrum of disorders affecting a broad range of skeletal and connective tissues characterized by lax skin, muscle hypotonia, joint dislocation, and spinal deformity. The pleiotropic phenotypes of the disorders indicate that B3GALT6 plays a critical role in a wide range of biological processes in various tissues, including skin, bone, cartilage, tendon, and ligament. Copyright © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Internet use, eHealth literacy and attitudes toward computer/internet among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a cross-sectional study in two distant European regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasopoulou, Christina; Välimäki, Maritta; Koutra, Katerina; Löttyniemi, Eliisa; Bertsias, Antonios; Basta, Maria; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Lionis, Christos

    2017-09-20

    Individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders use the Internet for general and health-related purposes. Their ability to find, understand, and apply the health information they acquire online in order to make appropriate health decisions - known as eHealth literacy - has never been investigated. The European agenda strives to limit health inequalities and enhance mental health literacy. Nevertheless, each European member state varies in levels of Internet use and online health information-seeking. This study aimed to examine computer/Internet use for general and health-related purposes, eHealth literacy, and attitudes toward computer/Internet among adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders from two distant European regions. Data were collected from mental health services of psychiatric clinics in Finland (FI) and Greece (GR). A total of 229 patients (FI = 128, GR = 101) participated in the questionnaire survey. The data analysis included evaluation of frequencies and group comparisons with multiple linear and logistic regression models. The majority of Finnish participants were current Internet users (FI = 111, 87%, vs. GR = 33, 33%, P eHealth literacy of Internet users (previous and current Internet users) was found significantly higher in the Finnish group (FI: Mean = 27.05, SD 5.36; GR: Mean = 23.15, SD = 7.23, P eHealth literacy and Interest. The Finnish group of Internet users scored higher in eHealth literacy, while the Greek group of never Internet users had a higher Interest in computer/Internet. eHealth literacy is either moderate (Finnish group) or low (Greek group). Thus, exposure to ICT and eHealth skills training are needed for this population. Recommendations to improve the eHealth literacy and access to health information among these individuals are provided.

  7. Testing the excitation/inhibition imbalance hypothesis in a mouse model of the autism spectrum disorder: in vivo neurospectroscopy and molecular evidence for regional phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Joana; Violante, Inês R; Sereno, José; Leitão, Ricardo A; Cai, Ying; Abrunhosa, Antero; Silva, Ana Paula; Silva, Alcino J; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Excitation/inhibition (E/I) imbalance remains a widely discussed hypothesis in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The presence of such an imbalance may potentially define a therapeutic target for the treatment of cognitive disabilities related to this pathology. Consequently, the study of monogenic disorders related to autism, such as neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), represents a promising approach to isolate mechanisms underlying ASD-related cognitive disabilities. However, the NF1 mouse model showed increased γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission, whereas the human disease showed reduced cortical GABA levels. It is therefore important to clarify whether the E/I imbalance hypothesis holds true. We hypothesize that E/I may depend on distinct pre- and postsynaptic push-pull mechanisms that might be are region-dependent. In current study, we assessed two critical components of E/I regulation: the concentration of neurotransmitters and levels of GABA(A) receptors. Measurements were performed across the hippocampi, striatum, and prefrontal cortices by combined in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and molecular approaches in this ASD-related animal model, the Nf1 +/- mouse. Cortical and striatal GABA/glutamate ratios were increased. At the postsynaptic level, very high receptor GABA(A) receptor expression was found in hippocampus, disproportionately to the small reduction in GABA levels. Gabaergic tone (either by receptor levels change or GABA/glutamate ratios) seemed therefore to be enhanced in all regions, although by a different mechanism. Our data provides support for the hypothesis of E/I imbalance in NF1 while showing that pre- and postsynaptic changes are region-specific. All these findings are consistent with our previous physiological evidence of increased inhibitory tone. Such heterogeneity suggests that therapeutic approaches to address neurochemical imbalance in ASD may need to focus on targets where convergent physiological mechanisms can be

  8. Ground level cosmic ray pulse height spectrum of a 7.5 cm diameter spherical NaI(Tl) scintillation detector for energy region below 5 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Toshi; Saito, Kimiaki; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1988-01-01

    Ground level cosmic ray pulse height spectrum of a 7.5 cm diameter spherical NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was evaluated through stripping operation based on a pulse height spectrum measured on the sea and high precision response functions of the detector for U-series, Th-series and 40 K. The exposure rate calculated from the determined cosmic ray pulse height spectrum was 0.21 μR/h eq., which agreed well with that obtained from another method. The shape of the pulse height spectrum showed similarity to that measured at the altitude of 16,000 ft, especially in the energy region of 0 to 3 MeV. The principle of the adopted method is rather plain, however, the reliability of the spectrum is satisfactory. As the pulse height spectrum is a common information to any analytical method for environmental gamma ray using NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, it is expected to be used for simple and precise separation of cosmic ray component involved in the enviromental pulse height spectrum. (author)

  9. Using TV white space spectrum to practise telemedicine: A promising technology to enhance broadband internet connectivity within healthcare facilities in rural regions of developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Afton; Littman-Quinn, Ryan; Ndlovu, Kagiso; Kovarik, Carrie L

    2016-06-01

    The following correspondence provides an overview of TV White Space (TVWS) technology, regulations, and potential applications to the health care sector. This report also introduces "Project Kgolagano," a Botswana-based initiative representing the first endeavour to utilize TVWS internet connection for practising telemedicine. TV "white space" refers to the previously unused, wasted spectrum within TV radiofrequency channels that can now be leveraged to obtain broadband internet access. TVWS represents a less costly, faster, and farther-reaching internet connection that is a promising option for connecting the previously unconnected populations of remote and underserved areas. The Botswana-University of Pennsylvania Partnership, Microsoft, Botswana Innovation Hub, Vista Life Sciences, and Global Broadband Solutions have partnered together to bring TVWS wireless broadband access to healthcare facilities in poorly connected regions of Botswana (Lobatse, Francistown, Maun, Gaborone) in order to improve healthcare delivery and facilitate telemedicine in dermatology, cervical cancer screening, and family medicine (HIV/AIDS, TB, general adult and pediatric medicine). © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Influence of excessive iodine intake on the thyroid function and spectrum of thyroid abnormalities in population of Turinsk, Sverdlovsk Region, of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey V. Kiyaev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous surveys showed chronic iodine excess - median urinary iodine concentration (UIC over 500 mcg/l — supposedly due to water contamination in population of Turinsk, a town in Sverdlovsk Region of Russia. Aim. Conduct an assessment of the effects of chronic iodine excess on thyroid function and spectrum of thyroid abnormalities in schoolchildren and adults. Materials and methods. Assessment was conducted in 100 schoolchildren and 100 adults residing in Turinsk and 97 schoolchildren and 100 adults in the control site (city of Pervouralsk with optimal UIC. Assessment included thyroid ultrasonogrpahy, urinary iodine and dry spot TSH in schoolchildren and TSH and TPO-ab in adults. Iodine was also measured in random water samples from 10 households in Turinsk. Results. Median UIC in schoolchildren in Turinsk (719 mcg/l was significantly higher (129 mcg/l than in Pervouralsk resulting in higher prevalence of thyroid enlargement and TSH level. In adults TSH level as well as prevalence of sub-clinical hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis were higher in residents of Turinsk compared to control group from Pervouralsk. Conclusions. Iodine excess alters thyroid function in schoolchildren and adults increasing prevalence of thyroid enlargement in children and autoimmune thyroidis in adults.

  11. The marine diversity spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuman, Daniel C.; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts...... the form of the diversity spectrum', which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum...... is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope -0 center dot 5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between -0 center...

  12. Epidemiology of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing E. coli and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in the Northern Dutch-German Cross-Border Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuewei; García-Cobos, Silvia; Ruijs, Gijs J H M; Kampinga, Greetje A; Arends, Jan P; Borst, Dirk M; Möller, Lieke V; Holman, Nicole D; Schuurs, Theo A; Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, Lesla E; Weel, Jan F; van Zeijl, Jan H; Köck, Robin; Rossen, John W A; Friedrich, Alexander W

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To reveal the prevalence and epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and/or plasmid AmpC (pAmpC)- and carbapenemase (CP) producing Enterobacteriaceae and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) across the Northern Dutch-German border region. Methods: A point-prevalence study on ESBL/pAmpC/CP producing Enterobacteriaceae and VRE was carried out in hospitalized patients in the Northern Netherlands ( n = 445, 2012-2013) and Germany ( n = 242, 2012). Healthy individuals from the Dutch community ( n = 400, 2010-2012) were also screened. In addition, a genome-wide gene-by-gene approach was applied to study the epidemiology of ESBL- Escherichia coli and VRE. Results: A total of 34 isolates from 27 patients (6.1%) admitted to Dutch hospitals were ESBL/pAmpC positive and 29 ESBL- E. coli , three pAmpC- E. coli , one ESBL- Enterobacter cloacae , and one pAmpC- Proteus mirabilis were found. In the German hospital, 18 isolates (16 E. coli and 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae ) from 17 patients (7.7%) were ESBL positive. In isolates from the hospitalized patients CTX-M-15 was the most frequently detected ESBL-gene. In the Dutch community, 11 individuals (2.75%) were ESBL/pAmpC positive: 10 ESBL - E. coli (CTX-M-1 being the most prevalent gene) and one pAmpC E. coli . Six Dutch (1.3%) and four German (3.9%) hospitalized patients were colonized with VRE. Genetic relatedness by core genome multi-locus sequence typing (cgMLST) was found between two ESBL- E. coli isolates from Dutch and German cross-border hospitals and between VRE isolates from different hospitals within the same region. Conclusion: The prevalence of ESBL/pAmpC- Enterobacteriaceae was similar in hospitalized patients across the Dutch-German border region, whereas VRE prevalence was slightly higher on the German side. The overall prevalence of the studied pathogens was lower in the community than in hospitals in the Northern Netherlands. Cross-border transmission of ESBL- E. coli and VRE seems

  13. Epidemiology of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing E. coli and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in the Northern Dutch–German Cross-Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewei Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To reveal the prevalence and epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL- and/or plasmid AmpC (pAmpC- and carbapenemase (CP producing Enterobacteriaceae and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE across the Northern Dutch–German border region.Methods: A point-prevalence study on ESBL/pAmpC/CP producing Enterobacteriaceae and VRE was carried out in hospitalized patients in the Northern Netherlands (n = 445, 2012–2013 and Germany (n = 242, 2012. Healthy individuals from the Dutch community (n = 400, 2010–2012 were also screened. In addition, a genome-wide gene-by-gene approach was applied to study the epidemiology of ESBL-Escherichia coli and VRE.Results: A total of 34 isolates from 27 patients (6.1% admitted to Dutch hospitals were ESBL/pAmpC positive and 29 ESBL-E. coli, three pAmpC-E. coli, one ESBL-Enterobacter cloacae, and one pAmpC-Proteus mirabilis were found. In the German hospital, 18 isolates (16 E. coli and 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae from 17 patients (7.7% were ESBL positive. In isolates from the hospitalized patients CTX-M-15 was the most frequently detected ESBL-gene. In the Dutch community, 11 individuals (2.75% were ESBL/pAmpC positive: 10 ESBL-E. coli (CTX-M-1 being the most prevalent gene and one pAmpC E. coli. Six Dutch (1.3% and four German (3.9% hospitalized patients were colonized with VRE. Genetic relatedness by core genome multi-locus sequence typing (cgMLST was found between two ESBL-E. coli isolates from Dutch and German cross-border hospitals and between VRE isolates from different hospitals within the same region.Conclusion: The prevalence of ESBL/pAmpC-Enterobacteriaceae was similar in hospitalized patients across the Dutch–German border region, whereas VRE prevalence was slightly higher on the German side. The overall prevalence of the studied pathogens was lower in the community than in hospitals in the Northern Netherlands. Cross-border transmission of ESBL-E. coli and VRE seems unlikely

  14. Spectrum Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Describes several methods of executing lecture demonstrations involving the recombination of the spectrum. Groups the techniques into two general classes: bringing selected portions of the spectrum together using lenses or mirrors and blurring the colors by rapid movement or foreshortening. (JM)

  15. Regional cerebral blood flow in children with autism spectrum disorders: a quantitative 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT study with statistical parametric mapping evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wen-han; JING Jin; XIU Li-juan; CHENG Mu-hua; WANG Xin; BAO Peng; WANG Qing-xiong

    2011-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which include autism, asperger syndrome (AS) and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), are devastating neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood resulting in deficits in social interaction, repetitive patterns of behaviors, and restricted interests and activities. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a common technique used to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Several studies have measured rCBF in children with ASD using SPECT, however, findings are discordant. In addition, the majority of subjects used in these studies were autistic. In this study, we aimed to investigate changes in rCBF in children with ASD using SPECT.Methods A Technetium-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimmer (99mTc-ECD) brain SPECT study was performed on an ASD group consisting of 23 children (3 girls and 20 boys; mean age (7.2±3.0) years) who were diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-Ⅳ) criteria and an age-matched control group with 8children (1 girl and 7 boys, mean age (5.5±2.4) years). Image data were evaluated with Statistical Parametric Mapping,5th version (SPM5). A Student's t test for unpaired data was used to compare rCBF and asymmetry in the autism and corresponding control group. The covariance analysis, taking age as covariance, was performed between the ASD and control group.Results There was a significant reduction in rCBF in the bilateral frontal lobe (frontal poles, arcula frontal gyrus) and the bilateral basal ganglia in the autism group, and a reduction in the bilateral frontal, temporal, parietal, legumina nucleus and cerebellum in the AS group compared to the control. In addition, asymmetry of hemispheric hypoperfusion in the ASD group was observed. Inner-group comparison analysis revealed that rCBF decreased significantly in the bilateral frontal lobe (42.7%), basal nucleus (24.9%) and temporal lobe (22.8%) in the autism

  16. Spectrum of Radiological Findings in Leptospirosis on Chest Radiograph and Ultrasonography-Study during Epidemics in South Gujarat Region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Shastri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leptospirosis is an acute generalised infectious disease caused by any of the group of spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. The disease can involve many organs mainly liver, central nervous system, kidneys, skeletal muscle, and lungs. Diagnosis can be done on the basis of epidemiological, clinical and laboratory features. As the disease has varied manifestations, it is frequently misdiagnosed even in areas of high prevalence. A delay in diagnosis can leads to severe form of disease and development of its complications. Aim: To find out involvement of thoracic and abdominal organs in each and every patient with the help of chest radiographs and Ultrasonography (USG of abdomen and thorax. Also, to put together the radiological spectrum of pulmonary manifestations, and other system involvement in leptospirosis during epidemics in south Gujarat region and their role in early diagnosis and follow up of patients. Materials and Methods: Study was carried out for 3 years. Total 380 patients of suspected leptospirosis were referred during epidemic during months of July to October in year 2008, 2009 and 2010 for confirmation of diagnosis and management. Total 275 patients were confirmed for leptospirosis by serological test (ELISA during first and second week of illness which was included in our study. All 275 patients were evaluated with chest radiographs and ultrasound of chest and abdomen. Those patients which are clinically suspected for leptospirosis but were serologically negative were excluded. Results: Out of 275 confirmed patients of leptospirosis, 54 patients had signs of pulmonary haemorrhage on chest radiograph (19.65%. Out of these 54 patients 50 (which accounts 92% of pulmonary hemorrhage patients and 18% of total 275 patients died due to severe pulmonary haemorrhage and respiratory distress. Pleural effusion was diagnosed on X-ray chest in 10 patients but it was found in 68 patients on USG. Signs of acute renal disease were

  17. Zellweger Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... severe defect, resulting in essentially nonfunctional peroxisomes. This phenomenon produces the range of severity of the disorders. How is the Zellweger Spectrum Diagnosed? The distinctive shape of the head and face of a child born with one of the diseases of the ...

  18. Structures in the primary spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempa, J.; Knurenko, S.P.; Malecki, R.

    2009-01-01

    Structures in the energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays at the 'knee' region and for energies higher than 1 EeV are obtained through studying extensive air showers (EAS). The main problem of the research is the fact that we work in the ranges of highly fluctuating parameters used to obtain the primary energy spectrum. In this paper the log-normal distribution for the error function has been used in convolution with the power spectrum to explain the Yakutsk experimental data. Similar results have been obtained for the gamma distribution as the error function. Using the power law primary spectrum in the energy region around 10 19 eV we will argue that the primary Yakutsk spectrum is overestimated. In the best case this overestimation is not less than 42%.

  19. SpecNet: Spectrum Sensing Sans Frontieres

    OpenAIRE

    Iyer, Anand Padmanabha; Chintalapudi, Krishna; Navda, Vishnu; Ramjee, Ramachandran; Padmanabhan, Venkata N; Murthy, Chandra R

    2011-01-01

    While the under-utilization of licensed spectrum based on measurement studies conducted in a few developed countries has spurred lots of interest in opportunistic spectrum access, there exists no infrastructure today for measuring real-time spectrum occupancy across vast geographical regions. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of SpecNet, a first-of-its-kind platform that allows spectrum analyzers around the world to be networked and efficiently used in a coordinated manner...

  20. Mutations in B3GALT6, which Encodes a Glycosaminoglycan Linker Region Enzyme, Cause a Spectrum of Skeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nakajima, Masahiro; Mizumoto, Shuji; Miyake, Noriko; Kogawa, Ryo; Iida, Aritoshi; Ito, Hironori; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Aya; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Osamu; Kosaki, Rika; Horikawa, Reiko; Lai, Angeline; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Dupuis, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    Proteoglycans (PGs) are a major component of the extracellular matrix in many tissues and function as structural and regulatory molecules. PGs are composed of core proteins and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains. The biosynthesis of GAGs starts with the linker region that consists of four sugar residues and is followed by repeating disaccharide units. By exome sequencing, we found that B3GALT6 encoding an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the GAG linker region is responsible for a sever...

  1. Spectrum 101: An Introduction to Spectrum Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    produces a Joint Restricted Frequency List (JRFL). The JFRL consolidates and classifies the spectrum uses that are most critical to operations and to...Management Office JRFL Joint Restricted Frequency List JSC Joint Spectrum Center JSIR Joint Spectrum Interference Resolution JSME Joint Spectrum...Multifunctional Information Distribution System MILSATCOM Military Satellite Communications MOA Memorandum of Agreement MRFL Master Radio Frequency

  2. Tracing short connections of the temporo-parieto-occipital region in the human brain using diffusion spectrum imaging and fiber dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yupeng; Sun, Dandan; Wang, Yong; Wang, Yunjie; Wang, Yibao

    2016-09-01

    The temporo-parieto-occipital (TPO) junction plays a unique role in human high-level neurological functions. Long-range fibers from and to this area have been described in detail but little is known about short TPO tracts mediating local connectivity. In this study, we performed high angular diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) analyses to visualize the short TPO connections in the human brain. Fiber tracking was conducted on a subject-specific approach (10 subjects) and a template of 90 subjects (NTU-90 Atlas). Three tracts were identified: posterior segment of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF-V), connecting the posterior part of the middle and inferior temporal gyri with the angular gyrus and supramarginal gyrus, vertical occipital fasciculus (VOF), connecting the inferior parietal with the lower temporal and occipital lobe, and a novel temporo-parietal (TP) connection, interconnecting the inferior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus and fusiform gyrus, and inferior occipital lobe with the superior parietal lobe. These studies were complemented by fiber dissection techniques. It is the first study that demonstrated the trajectory and connectivity of the VOF using fiber dissection, as well as displayed the spatial relationship of the SLF-V with the cortex and the adjacent fiber bundles on one dissecting hemisphere. By providing a more accurate and detailed description of the local connectivity of the TPO junction, our findings help to develop new insights into its functional role in the human brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of the charge-exchange reactions of carbon in the photoionization models for spectrum-line emitting region in the quasi-stellar objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Pellegrini, P.S. de.

    1976-08-01

    The charge exchange reactions: C +2 + H sub(e) 0 → H +1 + C +1 and C +2 + H 0 → H +1 + C +1 were taken into account in the ionization equilibrium of Carbon in photoionization models for line emitting regions of quasi-stellar objects. The new ionization structure of Carbon was obtained and the intensities of the most important emission lines of this element usually observed in QSO's with large redshifts were calculated. The charge exchange with Hidrogen produces negligible effects while the importance of taking into account the charge exchange with Helium can be seen from the change of the ionization structure of Carbon in all considered models. The homogeneous optically thin model is shown not to be consistent with the observations. For non homogeneous optically thick models observable changes in line intensities occur when in the region where charge exhange is dominant the electron density is high enough to produce collisional excitation and consequent line emission. (Author)

  4. First observation of the decay $D^{0}\\rightarrow K^{-}\\pi^{+}\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ in the $\\rho^{0}$-$\\omega$ region of the dimuon mass spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adeva, Bernardo; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fohl, Klaus; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Pappenheimer, Cheryl; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefkova, Slavomira; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2016-06-10

    A study of the decay $D^{0}\\rightarrow K^{-}\\pi^{+}\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ is performed using data collected by the LHCb detector in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.0 fb$^{-1}$. Decay candidates with muon pairs that have an invariant mass in the range 675--875 MeV$/c^2$ are considered. This region is dominated by the $\\rho^{0}$ and $\\omega$ resonances. The branching fraction in this range is measured to be ${\\cal B}$($D^{0}\\rightarrow K^{-}\\pi^{+}\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ ) = $( 4.17 \\pm 0.12(stat) \\pm 0.40(syst) )\\times10^{-6}$. This is the first observation of the decay $D^{0}\\rightarrow K^{-}\\pi^{+}\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$. Its branching fraction is consistent with the value expected in the Standard Model.

  5. Spectrum and Frequency of the GJB2 Gene Pathogenic Variants in a Large Cohort of Patients with Hearing Impairment Living in a Subarctic Region of Russia (the Sakha Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay A Barashkov

    Full Text Available Pathogenic variants in the GJB2 gene, encoding connexin 26, are known to be a major cause of hearing impairment (HI. More than 300 allelic variants have been identified in the GJB2 gene. Spectrum and allelic frequencies of the GJB2 gene vary significantly among different ethnic groups worldwide. Until now, the spectrum and frequency of the pathogenic variants in exon 1, exon 2 and the flanking intronic regions of the GJB2 gene have not been described thoroughly in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia, which is located in a subarctic region in Russia. The complete sequencing of the non-coding and coding regions of the GJB2 gene was performed in 393 patients with HI (Yakuts-296, Russians-51, mixed and other ethnicities-46 and in 187 normal hearing individuals of Yakut (n = 107 and Russian (n = 80 populations. In the total sample (n = 580, we revealed 12 allelic variants of the GJB2 gene, 8 of which were recessive pathogenic variants. Ten genotypes with biallelic recessive pathogenic variants in the GJB2 gene (in a homozygous or a compound heterozygous state were found in 192 out of 393 patients (48.85%. We found that the most frequent GJB2 pathogenic variant in the Yakut patients was c.-23+1G>A (51.82% and that the second most frequent was c.109G>A (2.37%, followed by c.35delG (1.64%. Pathogenic variants с.35delG (22.34%, c.-23+1G>A (5.31%, and c.313_326del14 (2.12% were found to be the most frequent among the Russian patients. The carrier frequencies of the c.-23+1G>A and с.109G>A pathogenic variants in the Yakut control group were 10.20% and 2.80%, respectively. The carrier frequencies of с.35delG and c.101T>C were identical (2.5% in the Russian control group. We found that the contribution of the GJB2 gene pathogenic variants in HI in the population of the Sakha Republic (48.85% was the highest among all of the previously studied regions of Asia. We suggest that extensive accumulation of the c.-23+1G>A pathogenic variant in the indigenous Yakut

  6. Spectrum and Frequency of the GJB2 Gene Pathogenic Variants in a Large Cohort of Patients with Hearing Impairment Living in a Subarctic Region of Russia (the Sakha Republic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, Nikolay A; Pshennikova, Vera G; Posukh, Olga L; Teryutin, Fedor M; Solovyev, Aisen V; Klarov, Leonid A; Romanov, Georgii P; Gotovtsev, Nyurgun N; Kozhevnikov, Andrey A; Kirillina, Elena V; Sidorova, Oksana G; Vasilyevа, Lena M; Fedotova, Elvira E; Morozov, Igor V; Bondar, Alexander A; Solovyevа, Natalya A; Kononova, Sardana K; Rafailov, Adyum M; Sazonov, Nikolay N; Alekseev, Anatoliy N; Tomsky, Mikhail I; Dzhemileva, Lilya U; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Fedorova, Sardana A

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic variants in the GJB2 gene, encoding connexin 26, are known to be a major cause of hearing impairment (HI). More than 300 allelic variants have been identified in the GJB2 gene. Spectrum and allelic frequencies of the GJB2 gene vary significantly among different ethnic groups worldwide. Until now, the spectrum and frequency of the pathogenic variants in exon 1, exon 2 and the flanking intronic regions of the GJB2 gene have not been described thoroughly in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia), which is located in a subarctic region in Russia. The complete sequencing of the non-coding and coding regions of the GJB2 gene was performed in 393 patients with HI (Yakuts-296, Russians-51, mixed and other ethnicities-46) and in 187 normal hearing individuals of Yakut (n = 107) and Russian (n = 80) populations. In the total sample (n = 580), we revealed 12 allelic variants of the GJB2 gene, 8 of which were recessive pathogenic variants. Ten genotypes with biallelic recessive pathogenic variants in the GJB2 gene (in a homozygous or a compound heterozygous state) were found in 192 out of 393 patients (48.85%). We found that the most frequent GJB2 pathogenic variant in the Yakut patients was c.-23+1G>A (51.82%) and that the second most frequent was c.109G>A (2.37%), followed by c.35delG (1.64%). Pathogenic variants с.35delG (22.34%), c.-23+1G>A (5.31%), and c.313_326del14 (2.12%) were found to be the most frequent among the Russian patients. The carrier frequencies of the c.-23+1G>A and с.109G>A pathogenic variants in the Yakut control group were 10.20% and 2.80%, respectively. The carrier frequencies of с.35delG and c.101T>C were identical (2.5%) in the Russian control group. We found that the contribution of the GJB2 gene pathogenic variants in HI in the population of the Sakha Republic (48.85%) was the highest among all of the previously studied regions of Asia. We suggest that extensive accumulation of the c.-23+1G>A pathogenic variant in the indigenous Yakut

  7. Global analysis of the high temperature infrared emission spectrum of (12)CH4 in the dyad (ν2/ν4) region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyay, Badr; Louviot, Maud; Pirali, Olivier; Georges, Robert; Vander Auwera, Jean; Boudon, Vincent

    2016-01-14

    We report new assignments of vibration-rotation line positions of methane ((12)CH4) in the so-called dyad (ν2/ν4) region (1100-1500 cm(-1)), and the resulting update of the vibration-rotation effective model of methane, previously reported by Nikitin et al. [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 10071 (2013)], up to and including the tetradecad. High resolution (0.01 cm(-1)) emission spectra of methane have been recorded up to about 1400 K using the high-enthalpy source developed at Institut de Physique de Rennes associated with the Fourier transform spectrometer of the SOLEIL synchrotron facility (AILES beamline). Analysis of these spectra allowed extending rotational assignments in the well-known cold band (dyad-ground state (GS)) and related hot bands in the pentad-dyad system (3000 cm(-1)) up to Jmax = 30 and 29, respectively. In addition, 8512 new transitions belonging to the octad-pentad (up to J = 28) and tetradecad-octad (up to J = 21) hot band systems were successfully identified. As a result, the MeCaSDa database of methane was significantly improved. The line positions assigned in this work, together with the information available in the literature, were fitted using 1096 effective parameters with a dimensionless standard deviation σ = 2.09. The root mean square deviations dRMS are 3.60 × 10(-3) cm(-1) for dyad-GS cold band, 4.47 ×10(-3) cm(-1) for the pentad-dyad, 5.43 × 10(-3) cm(-1) for the octad-pentad, and 4.70 × 10(-3) cm(-1) for the tetradecad-octad hot bands. The resulting new line list will contribute to improve opacity and radiative transfer models for hot atmospheres, such as those of hot-Jupiter type exoplanets.

  8. Global analysis of the high temperature infrared emission spectrum of {sup 12}CH{sub 4} in the dyad (ν{sub 2}/ν{sub 4}) region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amyay, Badr, E-mail: badr.amyay@gmail.com, E-mail: vincent.boudon@u-bourgogne.fr; Louviot, Maud; Boudon, Vincent, E-mail: badr.amyay@gmail.com, E-mail: vincent.boudon@u-bourgogne.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 9 Avenue A. Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Pirali, Olivier [Ligne AILES, Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette, France and Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay (ISMO), CNRS, Université Paris Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91405 Orsay (France); Georges, Robert [Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR 6251, Campus de Beaulieu, Université de Rennes 1/CNRS, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Vander Auwera, Jean [Service de Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, C.P. 160/09, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 50 Avenue F. D. Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-01-14

    We report new assignments of vibration-rotation line positions of methane ({sup 12}CH{sub 4}) in the so-called dyad (ν{sub 2}/ν{sub 4}) region (1100–1500 cm{sup −1}), and the resulting update of the vibration-rotation effective model of methane, previously reported by Nikitin et al. [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 10071 (2013)], up to and including the tetradecad. High resolution (0.01 cm{sup −1}) emission spectra of methane have been recorded up to about 1400 K using the high-enthalpy source developed at Institut de Physique de Rennes associated with the Fourier transform spectrometer of the SOLEIL synchrotron facility (AILES beamline). Analysis of these spectra allowed extending rotational assignments in the well-known cold band (dyad-ground state (GS)) and related hot bands in the pentad–dyad system (3000 cm{sup −1}) up to J{sub max} = 30 and 29, respectively. In addition, 8512 new transitions belonging to the octad–pentad (up to J = 28) and tetradecad-octad (up to J = 21) hot band systems were successfully identified. As a result, the MeCaSDa database of methane was significantly improved. The line positions assigned in this work, together with the information available in the literature, were fitted using 1096 effective parameters with a dimensionless standard deviation σ = 2.09. The root mean square deviations d{sub RMS} are 3.60 × 10{sup −3} cm{sup −1} for dyad-GS cold band, 4.47 ×10{sup −3} cm{sup −1} for the pentad–dyad, 5.43 × 10{sup −3} cm{sup −1} for the octad–pentad, and 4.70 × 10{sup −3} cm{sup −1} for the tetradecad–octad hot bands. The resulting new line list will contribute to improve opacity and radiative transfer models for hot atmospheres, such as those of hot-Jupiter type exoplanets.

  9. Spectrum estimation method based on marginal spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jianhua; Hu Weiwen; Wang Xianchun

    2011-01-01

    FFT method can not meet the basic requirements of power spectrum for non-stationary signal and short signal. A new spectrum estimation method based on marginal spectrum from Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) was proposed. The procession of obtaining marginal spectrum in HHT method was given and the linear property of marginal spectrum was demonstrated. Compared with the FFT method, the physical meaning and the frequency resolution of marginal spectrum were further analyzed. Then the Hilbert spectrum estimation algorithm was discussed in detail, and the simulation results were given at last. The theory and simulation shows that under the condition of short data signal and non-stationary signal, the frequency resolution and estimation precision of HHT method is better than that of FFT method. (authors)

  10. The infrared spectrum of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, S. T.; Larson, H. P.; Fink, U.

    1976-01-01

    The principal characteristics of Jupiter's infrared spectrum are reviewed with emphasis on their significance for our understanding of the composition and temperature structure of the Jovian upper atmosphere. The spectral region from 1 to 40 microns divides naturally into three regimes: the reflecting region, thermal emission from below the cloud deck (5-micron hot spots), and thermal emission from above the clouds. Opaque parts of the Jovian atmosphere further subdivide these regions into windows, and each is discussed in the context of its past or potential contributions to our knowledge of the planet. Recent results are incorporated into a table of atmospheric composition and abundance which includes positively identified constituents as well as several which require verification. The limited available information about spatial variations of the infrared spectrum is presented

  11. Extended analysis of the high resolution FTIR spectrum of 32S16O2 in the region of the ν2 band: Line positions, strengths, and pressure broadening widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulenikov, O. N.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Gromova, O. V.; Quack, M.; Mellau, G. Ch.; Sydow, C.; Bauerecker, S.

    2018-05-01

    The high resolution infrared spectra of sulfur dioxide (32S16O2) were recorded with a Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (Zürich prototype ZP2001) in combination with a Ge:Cu detector and analyzed in the ν2 fundamental band region (400-650 cm-1 , ν0 ˜ = 517.8725691(77) cm-1). More than 4200 transitions were assigned in the experimental spectra to the ν2 band (the maximum values of the quantum numbers are Jmax. = 96 and Kamax. = 25). The subsequent weighted fit of experimentally assigned transitions was made with the Watson Hamiltonian. The 148 highly accurate MW transitions known from the literature have been also taken into account in the fit, resulting in a set of 33 parameters which reproduces the initial 1295 infrared ro-vibrational energy values from more than 4200 experimental line positions with a root mean square deviation drms = 1.5 ×10-4 cm-1. An analysis of 992 experimental ro-vibrational line intensities of the ν2 band was made, and a set of four effective dipole moment parameters was obtained which reproduces the initial experimental line intensities with a relative drms = 5.7 % . The half-widths of 146 ro-vibrational lines (Jmax. = 53 and Kamax. = 20) were analyzed from the multi-spectrum fit, and self-pressure broadening coefficients were determined.

  12. Solar spectrum from 1173 to 1324 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipman, E.; Bruner, E.C. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    We present some of the results of a rocket flight which obtained a high-resolution stigmatic spectrum of the Sun in the region 1173--1324 A. A list of 179 lines observed in this region is presented, with intensities, widths, and approximate excitation classes for each line. A reproduction and finding chart of the spectrum is included, along with discussion of some individual lines of special interest

  13. Distribution of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases, AmpC β-Lactamases, and Carbapenemases among Enterobacteriaceae Isolates Causing Intra-Abdominal Infections in the Asia-Pacific Region: Results of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Wang-Huei; Badal, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing trend of β-lactam resistance among Enterobacteriaceae is a worldwide threat. Enterobacteriaceae isolates causing intra-abdominal infections (IAI) from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) collected in 2008 and 2009 from the Asia-Pacific region were investigated. Detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenemases was performed by multiplex PCR. A total of 699 Enterobacteriaceae isolates with positive genotypic results, included Escherichia coli (n = 443), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 187), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 45), Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 9), Citrobacter freundii (n = 5), Proteus mirabilis (n = 3), Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 2), Morganella morganii (n = 2), and one each of Enterobacter asburiae, Proteus vulgaris, and Providencia rettgeri were analyzed. Nearly 20% of these β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates were from community-associated IAI. CTX-M (588 isolates, including 428 [72.8%] with CTX-M-15) was the most common ESBL, followed by SHV (n = 59) and TEM (n = 4). CMY (n = 110, including 102 [92.7%] with CMY-2) was the most common AmpC β-lactamase, followed by DHA (n = 46) and ACT/MIR (n = 40). NDM (n = 65, including 62 [95.4%] with NDM-1) was the most common carbapenemase, followed by IMP (n = 7) and OXA (n = 7). Isolates from hospital-associated IAI had more complicated β-lactamase combinations than isolates from the community. Carbapenemases were all exclusively detected in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from India, except that IMP β-lactamases were also detected in Philippines and Australia. CTX-M β-lactamases were the predominant ESBLs produced by Enterobacteriaceae causing IAI in the Asia-Pacific region. Emergence of CTX-M-15-, CMY-2-, and NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates is of major concern and highlights the need for further surveillance in this area. PMID:23587958

  14. Many channel spectrum unfolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najzer, M.; Glumac, B.; Pauko, M.

    1980-01-01

    The principle of the ITER unfolding code as used for the many channel spectrum unfolding is described. Its unfolding ability is tested on seven typical neutron spectra. The effect of the initial spectrum approximation upon the solution is discussed

  15. Pulsar Emission Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Gruzinov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Emission spectrum is calculated for a weak axisymmetric pulsar. Also calculated are the observed spectrum, efficiency, and the observed efficiency. The underlying flow of electrons and positrons turns out to be curiously intricate.

  16. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiver Education » Fact Sheets Autism Spectrum Disorder Fact Sheet What is autism spectrum disorder? What are some ... of mutations in individual genes but rather spontaneous coding mutations across many genes. De novo mutations may ...

  17. Evaluation of meat, fruit and vegetables from retail stores in five United Kingdom regions as sources of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, L P; Lodge, M P; Elviss, N C; Lemma, F L; Hopkins, K L; Teale, C J; Woodford, N

    2017-01-16

    We determined the prevalence and types of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli in raw retail beef, chicken, pork, fruit and vegetables in five UK regions in 2013-14. Raw meat (n=397), and fruit and vegetable samples (n=400) were purchased from retail stores in London, East Anglia, North West England, Scotland and Wales. Samples were tested for the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli by plating enriched samples on CHROMagar CTX and CHROMagar ESBL, for AmpC-type E. coli by plating on "CHROMagar FOX" (CHROMagar ECC+16mg/L cefoxitin), and for carbapenem-resistant E. coli by plating on CHROMagar KPC. Additionally, pre-enrichment counts were performed on the above agars, and on CHROMagar ECC. Isolates of interest were characterised by MALDI-ToF to confirm identification, by PCR for bla CIT, bla CTX-M, bla OXA , bla SHV and bla TEM genes; ESBL or bla CIT genes were sequenced. Only 1.9% and 2.5% of beef and pork samples, respectively were positive for ESBL-producing E. coli after enrichment compared with 65.4% of chicken samples. 85.6% positive samples from chicken meat carried bla CTX-M-1 ; bla CTX-M-15 was not detected. None of the fruits or vegetables yielded ESBL-producing E. coli and none of the meat, fruit or vegetable samples yielded carbapenem-resistant E. coli. Retail chicken was more frequently a source of ESBL-producing E. coli than were beef, pork, fruit or vegetables. None of the foodstuffs yielded E. coli with CTX-M-15 ESBL, which dominates in human clinical isolates in the UK, and none yielded carbapenem-resistant E. coli. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A simplified multisupport response spectrum method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jihong; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Xianming

    2012-03-01

    A simplified multisupport response spectrum method is presented. The structural response is a sum of two components of a structure with a first natural period less than 2 s. The first component is the pseudostatic response caused by the inconsistent motions of the structural supports, and the second is the structural dynamic response to ground motion accelerations. This method is formally consistent with the classical response spectrum method, and the effects of multisupport excitation are considered for any modal response spectrum or modal superposition. If the seismic inputs at each support are the same, the support displacements caused by the pseudostatic response become rigid body displacements. The response spectrum in the case of multisupport excitations then reduces to that for uniform excitations. In other words, this multisupport response spectrum method is a modification and extension of the existing response spectrum method under uniform excitation. Moreover, most of the coherency coefficients in this formulation are simplified by approximating the ground motion excitation as white noise. The results indicate that this simplification can reduce the calculation time while maintaining accuracy. Furthermore, the internal forces obtained by the multisupport response spectrum method are compared with those produced by the traditional response spectrum method in two case studies of existing long-span structures. Because the effects of inconsistent support displacements are not considered in the traditional response spectrum method, the values of internal forces near the supports are underestimated. These regions are important potential failure points and deserve special attention in the seismic design of reticulated structures.

  19. The role of the generalized Phillips' spectrum in wave turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, A.C.; Zakharov, V.E.

    2008-01-01

    We suggest the generalized Phillips' spectrum, which we define as that spectrum for which the statistical properties of wave turbulence inherit the symmetries of the original governing equations, is, in many circumstances, the spectrum which obtains in those regions of wavenumber space in which the Kolmogorov-Zakharov (KZ) spectra are no longer valid. This spectrum has many very special properties. We discuss its connection with the singularities which are associated with the whitecap events observed in windblown seas

  20. The threshold photoelectron spectrum of mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, H; Dawber, G; Gulley, N; King, G C; Bowring, N; Ward, R

    2013-01-01

    The threshold photoelectron spectrum of mercury has been recorded over the energy range (10–40 eV) which covers the region from the lowest state of the singly charged ion, 5d 10 6s( 2 S 1/2 ), to the double charged ionic state, 5d 9 ( 2 D 3/2 )6s( 1 D 2 ). Synchrotron radiation has been used in conjunction with the penetrating-field threshold-electron technique to obtain the spectrum with high resolution. The spectrum shows many more features than observed in previous photoemission measurements with many of these assigned to satellite states converging to the double ionization limit. (paper)

  1. Fast neutron spectrum measurement in the JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, K.; Mizuho, M.

    1980-01-01

    Fast neutron spectrum measurement at positions of K-10 (fuel region), J-11 (first beryllium reflector region) and I-12 (second beryllium reflector region) in the JMTRC has been performed with the threshold detectors such as 107 Ag(n,n')sup(107m)Ag, 103 Rh(n,n')sup(103m)Rh, 115 In(n,n')sup(115m)In and 238 U(n,f)F.P. above 0.1 MeV energy region. The activity data have been analyzed by the unfolding code SAND-II using ANISN spectrum for initial spectrum. An effective cross section of 54 Fe(n,p) 54 Mn is calculated with Fabry's cross section data and SAND-II spectrum for K-10, J-11 and I-12. They are 76.7 mb, 69.0 mb and 68.2 mb for K-10, J-11 and I-12 respectively. These values agree with the effective cross sections (calculated by Fabry's cross section data and ANISN spectrum) within +-6%

  2. 5G Spectrum Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Nekovee, Maziar; Rudd, Richard

    2017-01-01

    In this paper an overview is given of the current status of 5G industry standards, spectrum allocation and use cases, followed by initial investigations of new opportunities for spectrum sharing in 5G using cognitive radio techniques, considering both licensed and unlicensed scenarios. A particular attention is given to sharing millimeter-wave frequencies, which are of prominent importance for 5G.

  3. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that can cause ... work. Autism: What's New MMWR article: Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Data Community Report Press release: Autism Prevalence Slightly ...

  4. The Neutron Spectrum in a Uranium Tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, E.; Jonsson, E.; Lindberg, M.; Mednis, J.

    1963-10-01

    A series of experimental and theoretical investigations on neutron spectra in lattice cells has been started at the reactor R1. This report gives the results from the first one of these cells - one with a tube of natural -uranium surrounded by heavy water. In the measurements the cell was placed in the central, vertical channel of the reactor. The neutron spectrum from a lead scatterer in the uranium tube - outer diameter 49.2 mm, inner diameter 28.3 mm - was measured with a fast chopper in the energy region 0.01 to 100 eV. Subsidiary measurements indicated that the spectrum in the beam from the lead piece corresponds to the spectrum of the angular flux integrated over all angles. This correspondence is important for the interpretation of the experimental data. The thermal part of the spectrum was found to deviate significantly from a Maxwellian. However, the deviation is not very large, and one could use a Maxwellian, at least to give a rough idea of the hardness of the spectrum. For the present tube the temperature of this Maxwellian was estimated as 90 to 100 deg C above the moderator temperature (33 deg C). In the joining region the rise of the spectrum towards the thermal part is slower than for the cell boundary spectrum, measured earlier. In the epithermal region the limited resolution of the chopper has affected the measurements at the energies of the uranium resonances. However, the shape of the spectrum on the flanks of the first resonance in 238 U (6.68 eV) has been obtained accurately. In the theoretical treatment the THERMOS code with a free gas scattering model has been used. The energy region was 3.06 - 0.00025 eV. The agreement with the measurements is good for the thermal part - possibly the theoretical spectrum is a little softer than the experimental one. In the joining region the results from THERMOS are comparatively high - probably due to the scattering model used

  5. The Neutron Spectrum in a Uranium Tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, E; Jonsson, E; Lindberg, M; Mednis, J

    1963-10-15

    A series of experimental and theoretical investigations on neutron spectra in lattice cells has been started at the reactor R1. This report gives the results from the first one of these cells - one with a tube of natural -uranium surrounded by heavy water. In the measurements the cell was placed in the central, vertical channel of the reactor. The neutron spectrum from a lead scatterer in the uranium tube - outer diameter 49.2 mm, inner diameter 28.3 mm - was measured with a fast chopper in the energy region 0.01 to 100 eV. Subsidiary measurements indicated that the spectrum in the beam from the lead piece corresponds to the spectrum of the angular flux integrated over all angles. This correspondence is important for the interpretation of the experimental data. The thermal part of the spectrum was found to deviate significantly from a Maxwellian. However, the deviation is not very large, and one could use a Maxwellian, at least to give a rough idea of the hardness of the spectrum. For the present tube the temperature of this Maxwellian was estimated as 90 to 100 deg C above the moderator temperature (33 deg C). In the joining region the rise of the spectrum towards the thermal part is slower than for the cell boundary spectrum, measured earlier. In the epithermal region the limited resolution of the chopper has affected the measurements at the energies of the uranium resonances. However, the shape of the spectrum on the flanks of the first resonance in {sup 238}U (6.68 eV) has been obtained accurately. In the theoretical treatment the THERMOS code with a free gas scattering model has been used. The energy region was 3.06 - 0.00025 eV. The agreement with the measurements is good for the thermal part - possibly the theoretical spectrum is a little softer than the experimental one. In the joining region the results from THERMOS are comparatively high - probably due to the scattering model used.

  6. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a developmental disability that causes problems with social, communication, and behavioral skills. CDC estimates that one in 68 children has been identified as having ASD.

  7. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol can harm your baby at any stage during a pregnancy. That includes the earliest stages, before ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Children who are born with ...

  8. Fast Spectrum Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Donald; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Fast Spectrum Reactors presents a detailed overview of world-wide technology contributing to the development of fast spectrum reactors. With a unique focus on the capabilities of fast spectrum reactors to address nuclear waste transmutation issues, in addition to the well-known capabilities of breeding new fuel, this volume describes how fast spectrum reactors contribute to the wide application of nuclear power systems to serve the global nuclear renaissance while minimizing nuclear proliferation concerns. Readers will find an introduction to the sustainable development of nuclear energy and the role of fast reactors, in addition to an economic analysis of nuclear reactors. A section devoted to neutronics offers the current trends in nuclear design, such as performance parameters and the optimization of advanced power systems. The latest findings on fuel management, partitioning and transmutation include the physics, efficiency and strategies of transmutation, homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling, in addit...

  9. Gluonium spectrum in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, C.A.

    1987-02-01

    The scalar (0 ++ ) and the tensor (2 ++ ) gluonium spectrum is analyzed in the framework of QCD sum rules. Stable eigenvalue solutions, consistent with duality and low energy theorems, are obtained for the mass and width of these glueballs. (orig.)

  10. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  11. Spectrum and network measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Witte, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    This new edition of Spectrum and Network Measurements enables readers to understand the basic theory, relate it to measured results, and apply it when creating new designs. This comprehensive treatment of frequency domain measurements successfully consolidates all the pertinent theory into one text. It covers the theory and practice of spectrum and network measurements in electronic systems. It also provides thorough coverage of Fourier analysis, transmission lines, intermodulation distortion, signal-to-noise ratio and S-parameters.

  12. Default mode network in young male adults with autism spectrum disorder: Relationship with autism spectrum traits

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Minyoung; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Saito, Daisuke N; Ishitobi, Makoto; Morita, Tomoyo; Inohara, Keisuke; Asano, Mizuki; Arai, Sumiyoshi; Munesue, Toshio; Tomoda, Akemi; Wada, Yuji; Sadato, Norihiro; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Iidaka, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum traits are postulated to lie on a continuum that extends between individuals with autism and individuals with typical development (TD). Social cognition properties that are deeply associated with autism spectrum traits have been linked to functional connectivity between regions within the brain's default mode network (DMN). Previous studies have shown that the resting-state functional connectivities (rs-FCs) of DMN are low and show negative correlation with the lev...

  13. Epigenetics of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanen, N Carolyn

    2006-10-15

    The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comprise a complex group of behaviorally related disorders that are primarily genetic in origin. Involvement of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in the pathogenesis of ASD has been suggested by the occurrence of ASD in patients with disorders arising from epigenetic mutations (fragile X syndrome) or that involve key epigenetic regulatory factors (Rett syndrome). Moreover, the most common recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities in ASD involve maternally derived duplications of the imprinted domain on chromosome 15q11-13. Thus, parent of origin effects on sharing and linkage to imprinted regions on chromosomes 15q and 7q suggest that these regions warrant specific examination from an epigenetic perspective, particularly because epigenetic modifications do not change the primary genomic sequence, allowing risk epialleles to evade detection using standard screening strategies. This review examines the potential role of epigenetic factors in the etiology of ASD.

  14. Autism spectrum disorder - Asperger syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part of the larger developmental disorder category of autism spectrum disorder . ... American Psychiatric Association. Autism spectrum disorder. ... VA: American Psychiatric Publishing: 2013;50-59. Raviola GJ, ...

  15. Raman spectrum of predissociating H/sub 2/S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinermanns, K.; Suntz, R.; Schneider, R.

    1986-01-01

    Emission spectroscopy of photodissociating molecules provides interesting insights into the short-time dynamics of bond raptures. The authors report here a resolved H/sub 2/S photoemission spectrum after excitation at 193 nm, although its electronic spectrum in this wavelength region is diffuse. The electronic spectrum of H/sub 2/S between 250 and 170 nm is nearly continuous probably due to predissociation

  16. Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catani, Marco; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Budisavljevic, Sanja; Howells, Henrietta; Thiebaut De Schotten, Michel; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; D'Anna, Lucio; Thompson, Abigail; Sandrone, Stefano; Bullmore, Edward T.; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V.; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Lai, Meng Chuan; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Leemans, Alexander; Ecker, Christine; Craig, Michael C.; Murphy, Declan G M; Bailey, Anthony J.; Bolton, Patrick F.; Carrington, Sarah; Daly, Eileen M.; Deoni, Sean C.; Happé, Francesca; Henty, Julian; Jezzard, Peter; Johnston, Patrick; Jones, Derek K.; Madden, Anya; Mullins, Diane; Murphy, Clodagh M.; Murphy, Declan G M; Pasco, Greg; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Sadek, Susan A.; Spain, Debbie; Stewart, Rose; Williams, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an 'atypical connectivity' involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism

  17. An Application of the Direct Coulomb Electron Pair Production Process to the Energy Measurement of the "VH-Group" in the "Knee" Region of the "All-Particle" Energy Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrickson, J. H.; Wu, J.; Christl, M. J.; Fountain, W. F.; Parnell, T. A.

    1999-01-01

    The "all-particle" cosmic ray energy spectrum appears to be exhibiting a significant change in the spectral index just above approximately 3000 TeV. This could indicate (1) a change in the propagation of the cosmic rays in the galactic medium, and/or (2) the upper limit of the supernova shock wave acceleration mechanism, and/or (3) a new source of high-energy cosmic rays. Air shower and JACEE data indicate the spectral change is associated with a composition change to a heavier element mixture whereas DICE does not indicate this. A detector concept will be presented that utilizes the energy dependence of the production of direct Coulomb electron-positron pairs by energetic heavy ions. Monte Carlo simulations of a direct electron pair detector consisting of Pb target foils interleaved with planes of 1-mm square scintillating optical fibers will be discussed. The goal is to design a large area, non-saturating instrument to measure the energy spectrum of the individual cosmic ray elements in the "VH-group" for energies greater than 10 TeV/nucleon.

  18. Deep GMRT 150 MHz Observations of the DEEP2 Fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... High red-shift radio galaxies are best searched at low radio frequencies, due to its steep radio spectra. Here we present preliminary results from our programme to search for high red-shift radio galaxies to ∼ 10 to 100 times fainter than the known population till date. We have extracted ultra-steep spectrum ...

  19. Real time spectrum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blunden, A.; O'Prey, D.G.; Tait, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the separation of a composite pulse-height spectrum into its unresolved component parts, which belong to a set of measured library spectra. The method allows real-time estimation giving running estimates during acquisition of the spectrum, minimises computation space, especially for a number of parallel calculations, estimates in advance the rms errors, and produces a significance measure for the hypothesis that the composite contains only the library spectra. Least squares curve-fitting, and other methods, can be compared, with the formalism developed, allowing analytical comparison of the effect of detector energy resolution and detection efficiency. A rational basis for the choice between the various methods of spectrum analysis follows from the theory, minimising rms estimation errors. The method described is applicable for very low numbers of counts and poor resolution. (orig.)

  20. Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaishi, Tetsuya; Nakashima, Ichiro; Sato, Douglas Kazutoshi; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Fujihara, Kazuo

    2017-05-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is clinically characterized by severe optic neuritis and transverse myelitis, but recent studies with anti-aquaporin-4-antibody specific to NMO have revealed that the clinical spectrum is wider than previously thought. International consensus diagnostic criteria propose NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD) as the term to define the entire spectrum including typical NMO, optic neuritis, acute myelitis, brain syndrome, and their combinations. NMOSD is now divided into anti-aquaporin-4-antibody-seropositive NMOSD and -seronegative NMOSD (or unknown serostatus). MR imaging and optical coherence tomography are indispensable in the diagnosis and evaluation of NMOSD. This article reviews the clinical and MR imaging findings of anti-aquaporin-4-antibody-seropositive and anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-antibody-seropositive NMOSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bottomonium spectrum revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Segovia, Jorge; Entem, David R.; Fernández, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the bottomonium spectrum motivated by the recently exciting experimental progress in the observation of new bottomonium states, both conventional and unconventional. Our framework is a nonrelativistic constituent quark model which has been applied to a wide range of hadronic observables from the light to the heavy quark sector and thus the model parameters are completely constrained. Beyond the spectrum, we provide a large number of electromagnetic, strong and hadronic decays in order to discuss the quark content of the bottomonium states and give more insights about the better way to determine their properties experimentally.

  2. Reconstructing Neutrino Mass Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnov, A. Yu.

    1999-01-01

    Reconstruction of the neutrino mass spectrum and lepton mixing is one of the fundamental problems of particle physics. In this connection we consider two central topics: (i) the origin of large lepton mixing, (ii) possible existence of new (sterile) neutrino states. We discuss also possible relation between large mixing and existence of sterile neutrinos.

  3. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-02

    This podcast discusses autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a developmental disability that causes problems with social, communication, and behavioral skills. CDC estimates that one in 68 children has been identified as having ASD.  Created: 4/2/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 4/2/2014.

  4. Strategic Vision for Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    maneuverable, flexible , and tactically effective. In the last few years, the rapid adoption of commercial communication tech- nologies has taxed...Logistics. The foundation that supports the mobility, flexibility , and precision necessary to accomplish these goals is the electromagnetic spectrum. 2...eGovernment, Enterprise Knowledge, Enterprise Licensing, Information Assurance, Librarian of the Navy, Organizational eLearning , Planning and Measurement

  5. The solar spectrum from 1173 to 1324 A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipman, E.; Bruner, E. C., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    We present some of the results of a rocket flight which obtained a high-resolution stigmatic spectrum of the sun in the region 1173-1324 A. A list of 179 lines observed in this region is presented, with intensities, widths, and approximate excitation classes for each line. A reproduction and finding chart of the spectrum is included, along with discussion of some individual lines of special interest.

  6. Effect of discrete RF spectrum on fast wave current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Takashi; Yoshioka, Ken; Sugihara, Masayoshi

    1987-08-01

    Effect of discrete RF spectrum has been studied for the fast wave current drive with the ion cyclotron range of frequency. Driven current and power densities decrease in this spectrum than in the continuous spectrum. However, there is a possibility to have the mechanism which allows electrons outside the resonance region to interact with the fast wave, taking into account the electron trapping by discrete RF spectrum. In the case of neglecting the electron trapping effect, driven current and power densities decrease up to 0.6 - 0.8 of those which are obtained for the continuous spectrum for the FER (Fusion Experimental Reactor). However, their driven current and power densities can be almost doubled in their magnitude for the discrete spectrum by taking into account the trapping effect. (author)

  7. Missing baryonic resonances in the Hagedorn spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man Lo, Pok [University of Wroclaw, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland); GSI, Extreme Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); Marczenko, Michal; Sasaki, Chihiro [University of Wroclaw, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland); Redlich, Krzysztof [University of Wroclaw, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland); GSI, Extreme Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); Duke University, Department of Physics, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The hadronic medium of QCD is modeled as a gas of point-like hadrons, with its composition determined by the Hagedorn mass spectrum. The spectrum consists of a discrete and a continuous part. The former is determined by the experimentally confirmed resonances tabulated by the Particle Data Group (PDG), while the latter can be extracted from the existing lattice data. This formulation of the hadron resonance gas (HRG) provides a transparent framework to relate the fluctuation of conserved charges as calculated in the lattice QCD approach to the particle content of the medium. A comparison of the two approaches shows that the equation of state is well described by the standard HRG model, which includes only a discrete spectrum of known hadrons. The corresponding description in the strange sector, however, shows clear discrepancies, thus a continuous spectrum is added to incorporate the effect of missing resonances. We propose a method to extract the strange-baryon spectrum from the lattice data. The result is consistent with the trend set by the unconfirmed strange baryons resonances listed by the PDG, suggesting that most of the missing interaction strength for the strange baryons reside in the S = 1 sector. This scenario is also supported by recent lattice calculations, and might be important in the energy region covered by the NICA accelerator in Dubna, where in the heavy-ion collisions, baryons are the dominating degrees of freedom in the final state. (orig.)

  8. Adaptive spectrum decision framework for heterogeneous dynamic spectrum access networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, M

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Spectrum decision is the ability of a cognitive radio (CR) system to select the best available spectrum band to satisfy dynamic spectrum access network (DSAN) users¿ quality of service (QoS) requirements without causing harmful interference...

  9. Broadening the radiography spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waswa, L.; Mutwasi, O.; Kioko, J.

    2006-05-01

    The text discuses the mammography in breast screening and evaluation of breast cancer; Small parts ultrasounds at plaza imaging solutions; role of a Radiographer in mammography-new perspective; Medical imaging education in africa; Caring for the paediatric patient as to broaden radiotherapy spectrum; Problems and challenges in care for children undergoing radiotherapy; Paediatric radiotherapy, management and side effects; The principles of pattern recognition of skeletal structures; the place of distance learning education in broadening the radiography spectrum; the curriculum and budgeting image; sonographer's guide; Computed radiography- X-Ray with vision; digital Radiography in Kenya today; Particle Therapy at Ithemba Labs; The role of lung perfusion and ventilation study in the evaluation of the pulmonary embolism and lastly, an overview of Head and neck treatment at Kenyatta National hospital radiotherapy

  10. Raman spectrum of asphaltene

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Wael A.; Yang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Asphaltenes extracted from seven different crude oils representing different geological formations from around the globe were analyzed using the Raman spectroscopic technique. Each spectrum is fitted with four main peaks using the Gaussian function. On the basis of D1 and G bands of the Raman spectrum, asphaltene indicated an ordered structure with the presence of boundary defected edges. The average aromatic sheet size of the asphaltene molecules is estimated within the range of 1.52-1.88 nm, which represents approximately seven to eight aromatic fused rings. This estimation is based on the integrated intensity of D1 and G bands, as proposed by Tunistra and Koenig. The results here are in perfect agreement with so many other used techniques and indicate the potential applicability of Raman measurements to determine the average aromatic ring size and its boundary. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. Raman spectrum of asphaltene

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Wael A.

    2012-11-05

    Asphaltenes extracted from seven different crude oils representing different geological formations from around the globe were analyzed using the Raman spectroscopic technique. Each spectrum is fitted with four main peaks using the Gaussian function. On the basis of D1 and G bands of the Raman spectrum, asphaltene indicated an ordered structure with the presence of boundary defected edges. The average aromatic sheet size of the asphaltene molecules is estimated within the range of 1.52-1.88 nm, which represents approximately seven to eight aromatic fused rings. This estimation is based on the integrated intensity of D1 and G bands, as proposed by Tunistra and Koenig. The results here are in perfect agreement with so many other used techniques and indicate the potential applicability of Raman measurements to determine the average aromatic ring size and its boundary. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  12. Spread spectrum image steganography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, L M; Boncelet, C R; Retter, C T

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method of digital steganography, entitled spread spectrum image steganography (SSIS). Steganography, which means "covered writing" in Greek, is the science of communicating in a hidden manner. Following a discussion of steganographic communication theory and review of existing techniques, the new method, SSIS, is introduced. This system hides and recovers a message of substantial length within digital imagery while maintaining the original image size and dynamic range. The hidden message can be recovered using appropriate keys without any knowledge of the original image. Image restoration, error-control coding, and techniques similar to spread spectrum are described, and the performance of the system is illustrated. A message embedded by this method can be in the form of text, imagery, or any other digital signal. Applications for such a data-hiding scheme include in-band captioning, covert communication, image tamperproofing, authentication, embedded control, and revision tracking.

  13. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  14. Fast radio burst search: cross spectrum vs. auto spectrum method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zheng, Weimin; Yan, Zhen; Zhang, Juan

    2018-06-01

    The search for fast radio bursts (FRBs) is a hot topic in current radio astronomy studies. In this work, we carry out a single pulse search with a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) pulsar observation data set using both auto spectrum and cross spectrum search methods. The cross spectrum method, first proposed in Liu et al., maximizes the signal power by fully utilizing the fringe phase information of the baseline cross spectrum. The auto spectrum search method is based on the popular pulsar software package PRESTO, which extracts single pulses from the auto spectrum of each station. According to our comparison, the cross spectrum method is able to enhance the signal power and therefore extract single pulses from data contaminated by high levels of radio frequency interference (RFI), which makes it possible to carry out a search for FRBs in regular VLBI observations when RFI is present.

  15. Neuroimaging Endophenotypes in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Rajneesh; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that has a strong genetic basis, and is heterogeneous in its etiopathogenesis and clinical presentation. Neuroimaging studies, in concert with neuropathological and clinical research, have been instrumental in delineating trajectories of development in children with ASD. Structural neuroimaging has revealed ASD to be a disorder with general and regional brain enlargement, especially in the frontotemporal cortices, while functional neuroimaging studies have highlighted diminished connectivity, especially between frontal-posterior regions. The diverse and specific neuroimaging findings may represent potential neuroendophenotypes, and may offer opportunities to further understand the etiopathogenesis of ASD, predict treatment response and lead to the development of new therapies. PMID:26234701

  16. Spectrum of cosmic fireballs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallo, G [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Bologna (Italy). Lab. TESRE; Horstman, H M [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1981-03-01

    A progress report on cosmic fireballs is presented. The main new results are: (a) the phenomenon should be almost universal, and most explosive ..gamma..-ray sources should show the characteristic fireball spectrum; (b) even if the radiation density is insufficient, pair production in electron-proton or electron-electron scattering might start the fireball; (c) some computed fireball spectra are shown. They all have in common a 1/E low-energy behaviour, a 100 keV flattening, and a approx.0.5 MeV cut-off.

  17. Air shower density spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, M.R.; Foster, J.M.; Hodson, A.L.; Hazen, W.E.; Hendel, A.Z.; Bull, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of the differential local density spectrum have been made using a 1 m 2 discharge chamber mounted in the Leeds discharge chamber array. The results are fitted to a power law of the form h(δ)dδ = kδsup(-ν)dδ, where ν=2.47+-0.04; k=0.21 s - 1 , for 7 m - 2 - 2 ; ν=2.90+-0.22; k=2.18 s - 1 , for δ > 200 m - 2 . Details of the measurement techniques are given with particular reference to the treatment of closely-spaced discharges. A comparison of these results with previous experiments using different techniques is made

  18. A high signal-to-noise ratio composite quasar spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, P.J.; Hewett, P.C.; Foltz, C.B.; Chaffee, F.H.; Weymann, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    A very high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N of about 400) composite spectrum of the rest-frame ultraviolet and optical region of high luminosity quasars is presented. The spectrum is derived from 718 individual spectra obtained as part of the Large Bright Quasar Survey. The moderate resolution, 4A or less, and high signal-to-noise ratio allow numerous weak emission features to be identified. Of particular note is the large equivalent-width of the Fe II emission in the rest-frame ultraviolet and the blue continuum slope of the composite. The primary aim of this paper is to provide a reference spectrum for use in line identifications, and a series of large-scale representations of the composite spectrum are shown. A measure of the standard deviation of the individual quasar spectra from the composite spectrum is also presented. 12 refs

  19. Clinical spectrum of onchodermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, A.U.

    2007-01-01

    To describe the frequency and to see various dermatological presentations of onchocerciasis in black Africans of Sierra Leone. Local black patients of all age groups, attending dermatology outpatient department of Pak Field Hospital (established as a part of UN peacekeeping mission in Sierra Leone) with clinical diagnosis of onchodermatitis, based on symptomatology and morphological features of the disease, were included. UN troops were excluded. Laboratory investigations including blood complete picture and skin snips were carried out in all patients. Skin biopsy and nodule biopsy was performed in selected cases. Skin manifestations were recorded and categorized into various clinical patterns, i.e. acute, chronic, lichenified, onchocercoma, etc. Data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics in Instat. A total of 3011 patients, belonging to different local tribes, having a variety of skin disorders, were seen during the study period. One hundred and eighty-seven (6.2%) patients were found to have onchodermatitis. Patients were of all ages and both sexes, their ages ranging from 1 month to 73 years. Gender ratio was almost equal. A whole clinical spectrum of onchodermatitis was observed, chronic papular onchodermatitis being the most common pattern. Onchodermatitis with a large spectrum of clinical manifestations was seen in black Africans of the eastern part of Sierra Leone. (author)

  20. Supernovae anisotropy power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghodsi, Hoda; Baghram, Shant [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Habibi, Farhang, E-mail: h.ghodsi@mehr.sharif.ir, E-mail: baghram@sharif.edu, E-mail: habibi@lal.in2p3.fr [LAL-IN2P3/CNRS, BP 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2017-10-01

    We contribute another anisotropy study to this field of research using Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). In this work, we utilise the power spectrum calculation method and apply it to both the current SNe Ia data and simulation. Using the Union2.1 data set at all redshifts, we compare the spectrum of the residuals of the observed distance moduli to that expected from an isotropic universe affected by the Union2.1 observational uncertainties at low multipoles. Through this comparison we find a dipolar anisotropy with tension of less that 2σ towards l = 171° ± 21° and b = −26° ± 28° which is mainly induced by anisotropic spatial distribution of the SNe with z > 0.2 rather than being a cosmic effect. Furthermore, we find a tension of ∼ 4σ at ℓ = 4 between the two spectra. Our simulations are constructed with the characteristics of the upcoming surveys like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which shall bring us the largest SNe Ia collection to date. We make predictions for the amplitude of a possible dipolar anisotropy that would be detectable by future SNe Ia surveys.

  1. Spectrum of human tails: A report of six cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath Mukhopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human tail is a curiosity, a cosmetic stigma and presents as an appendage in the lumbosacral region. Six patients of tail in the lumbosacral region are presented here to discuss the spectrum of presentation of human tails. The embryology, pathology and treatment of this entity are discussed along with a brief review of the literature.

  2. Calculated LET Spectrum from Antiproton Beams Stopping in Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Holzscheiter, Michael

    2009-01-01

    significantly differ from unity, which seems to warrant closer inspection of the radiobiology in this region. Monte Carlo simulations using FLUKA were performed for calculating the entire particle spectrum of a beam of 126 MeV antiprotons hitting a water phantom. In the plateau region of the simulated...

  3. Selective optical contacting for solar spectrum management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianfeng; Chen, Weijian; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Zhilong; Huang, Shujuan; Shrestha, Santosh; Wen, Xiaoming; Patterson, Robert; Conibeer, Gavin

    2017-02-01

    Solar spectrum management using up/down conversion is an important method to improve the photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency. It asks for a monochromatic luminescence absorption at the band edge of the photovoltaic device to reduce both the sub-band-gap and over-band-gap energy losses. Here, we demonstrate an energy selective optical contacting concept to improve the luminescence transfer efficiency for spectrum management. By increasing both the luminescence emission and re-absorption ability through photonic resonance, an efficient photon transfer channel could be established between the luminescence emitter and the photovoltaic component in a near-field region. This concept is not only able to compensate the insufficient band edge absorption ability of the photovoltaic device, but also to break the far-field limitation of luminescence radiation. The energy selection on the optical spectrum naturally imposed by the mode resonance is also helpful to improve the monochromaticity of the luminescence yield. In this paper, a photonic crystal cavity is used to realize the optical contacting concept between a thin silicon film and spectrum converter. The optical power and photon flux transferred between different components are calculated analytically using the electromagnetic Green's function. The corresponding radiative dipole moment is estimated by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The example shows an over 80 times enhancement in the luminescence absorbance by the silicon layer, illustrating the great potential of this concept to be applied on nano-structured photovoltaic devices.

  4. Analysis of biological spectrum of Divčibare flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Ivana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential analyses which is performed during the floristic study of a region is the analysis of the biological spectrum. The analysis of the biological spectrum of the flora includes the determination of the type of life form for each taxon described in the flora of the study region. If it is considered that life form is a specific structural-functional response to the environmental effects and the result of the adaptation during the species evolution, it is clear that the basic characteristics of the site are more or less reflected in any life form. This fact is confirmed by the analysis of the biological spectrum of Divčibare flora. The study results are in correlation with the results of the analysis of the biological spectrum of the flora of Serbia and the Balkan Peninsula.

  5. Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, Marco; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Budisavljevic, Sanja; Howells, Henrietta; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; D'Anna, Lucio; Thompson, Abigail; Sandrone, Stefano; Bullmore, Edward T; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V; Wheelwright, Sally J; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Leemans, Alexander; Ecker, Christine; Consortium, Mrc Aims; Craig, Michael C; Murphy, Declan G M

    2016-02-01

    It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an 'atypical connectivity' involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism spectrum disorder and 61 neurotypical controls, using two complementary approaches to diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. First, we applied tract-based spatial statistics, a 'whole brain' non-hypothesis driven method, to identify differences in white matter networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Following this we used a tract-specific analysis, based on tractography, to carry out a more detailed analysis of individual tracts identified by tract-based spatial statistics. Finally, within the autism spectrum disorder group, we studied the relationship between diffusion measures and autistic symptom severity. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed that autism spectrum disorder was associated with significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in regions that included frontal lobe pathways. Tractography analysis of these specific pathways showed increased mean and perpendicular diffusivity, and reduced number of streamlines in the anterior and long segments of the arcuate fasciculus, cingulum and uncinate--predominantly in the left hemisphere. Abnormalities were also evident in the anterior portions of the corpus callosum connecting left and right frontal lobes. The degree of microstructural alteration of the arcuate and uncinate fasciculi was associated with severity of symptoms in language and social reciprocity in childhood. Our results indicated that autism spectrum disorder is a developmental condition associated with abnormal connectivity of the frontal lobes. Furthermore our findings showed that male adults with autism spectrum disorder have regional differences in brain anatomy, which correlate with specific aspects of autistic symptoms. Overall these

  6. Formation of a superhigh energy electron spectrum in the Galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agaronyan, F.A.; Ambartsumyan, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    The formation of superhigh energy electron spectrum in the disk of the galaxy and halo is considered. A different behaviour of the electron spectrum within the framework of capture models in disk or halo, in the energy region E> or approximately 10 5 GeV is revealed due to the account of relativistic corrections ir the energy losses of electrons during the inverse Compton scattering. A comparison with the existing experimental data is carried out

  7. Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Rosenberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a national online registry to examine variation in cumulative prevalence of community diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity in 4343 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models compared influence of individual, family, and geographic factors on cumulative prevalence of parent-reported anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention deficit disorder. Adjusted odds of community-assigned lifetime psychiatric comorbidity were significantly higher with each additional year of life, with increasing autism severity, and with Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder—not otherwise specified compared with autistic disorder. Overall, in this largest study of parent-reported community diagnoses of psychiatric comorbidity, gender, autistic regression, autism severity, and type of ASD all emerged as significant factors correlating with cumulative prevalence. These findings could suggest both underlying trends in actual comorbidity as well as variation in community interpretation and application of comorbid diagnoses in ASD.

  8. Electromagnetic spectrum management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seastrand, Douglas R.

    2017-01-31

    A system for transmitting a wireless countermeasure signal to disrupt third party communications is disclosed that include an antenna configured to receive wireless signals and transmit wireless counter measure signals such that the wireless countermeasure signals are responsive to the received wireless signals. A receiver processes the received wireless signals to create processed received signal data while a spectrum control module subtracts known source signal data from the processed received signal data to generate unknown source signal data. The unknown source signal data is based on unknown wireless signals, such as enemy signals. A transmitter is configured to process the unknown source signal data to create countermeasure signals and transmit a wireless countermeasure signal over the first antenna or a second antenna to thereby interfere with the unknown wireless signals.

  9. Rotational spectrum of tryptophan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, M. Eugenia, E-mail: maria.sanz@kcl.ac.uk; Cabezas, Carlos, E-mail: ccabezas@qf.uva.es; Mata, Santiago, E-mail: santiago.mata@uva.es; Alonso, Josè L., E-mail: jlalonso@qf.uva.es [Grupo de Espectroscopia Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Parque Científico Uva, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2014-05-28

    The rotational spectrum of the natural amino acid tryptophan has been observed for the first time using a combination of laser ablation, molecular beams, and Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Independent analysis of the rotational spectra of individual conformers has conducted to a definitive identification of two different conformers of tryptophan, with one of the observed conformers never reported before. The analysis of the {sup 14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants is of particular significance since it allows discrimination between structures, thus providing structural information on the orientation of the amino group. Both observed conformers are stabilized by an O–H···N hydrogen bond in the side chain and a N–H···π interaction forming a chain that reinforce the strength of hydrogen bonds through cooperative effects.

  10. Electromagnetic spectrum management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seastrand, Douglas R.

    2017-10-17

    A system for transmitting a wireless countermeasure signal to disrupt third party communications is disclosed that include an antenna configured to receive wireless signals and transmit wireless counter measure signals such that the wireless countermeasure signals are responsive to the received wireless signals. A receiver processes the received wireless signals to create processed received signal data while a spectrum control module subtracts known source signal data from the processed received signal data to generate unknown source signal data. The unknown source signal data is based on unknown wireless signals, such as enemy signals. A transmitter is configured to process the unknown source signal data to create countermeasure signals and transmit a wireless countermeasure signal over the first antenna or a second antenna to thereby interfere with the unknown wireless signals.

  11. Spectrum of physics comprehension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasiak, W; Godlewska, M; Rosiek, R; Wcislo, D

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research on the relationship between self-assessed comprehension of physics lectures and final grades of junior high school students (aged 13-15), high school students (aged 16-18) and physics students at the Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland (aged 21). Students' declared level of comprehension was measured during a physics lecture on a prearranged scale of 1-10 with the use of a personal response system designed for the purpose of this experiment. Through the use of this tool, we obtained about 2000 computer records of students' declared comprehension of a 45 min lecture, which we named ‘the spectrum of comprehension’. In this paper, we present and analyse the correlation between students' declared comprehension of the content presented in the lecture and their final learning results. (paper)

  12. Broad spectrum bioactive sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Sarruf, Fernanda Daud; Salgado-Santos, Idalina Maria Nunes; Haroutiounian-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Baby, André Rolim

    2008-11-03

    The development of sunscreens containing reduced concentration of chemical UV filters, even though, possessing broad spectrum effectiveness with the use of natural raw materials that improve and infer UV absorption is of great interest. Due to the structural similarities between polyphenolic compounds and organic UV filters, they might exert photoprotection activity. The objective of the present research work was to develop bioactive sunscreen delivery systems containing rutin, Passiflora incarnata L. and Plantago lanceolata extracts associated or not with organic and inorganic UV filters. UV transmission of the sunscreen delivery system films was performed by using diffuse transmittance measurements coupling to an integrating sphere. In vitro photoprotection efficacy was evaluated according to the following parameters: estimated sun protection factor (SPF); Boot's Star Rating category; UVA/UVB ratio; and critical wavelength (lambda(c)). Sunscreen delivery systems obtained SPF values ranging from 0.972+/-0.004 to 28.064+/-2.429 and bioactive compounds interacted with the UV filters positive and negatively. This behavior may be attributed to: the composition of the delivery system; the presence of inorganic UV filter and quantitative composition of the organic UV filters; and the phytochemical composition of the P. incarnata L. and P. lanceolata extracts. Among all associations of bioactive compounds and UV filters, we found that the broad spectrum sunscreen was accomplished when 1.68% (w/w) P. incarnata L. dry extract was in the presence of 7.0% (w/w) ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, 2.0% (w/w) benzophenone-3 and 2.0% (w/w) TiO(2). It was demonstrated that this association generated estimated SPF of 20.072+/-0.906 and it has improved the protective defense against UVA radiation accompanying augmentation of the UVA/UVB ratio from 0.49 to 0.52 and lambda(c) from 364 to 368.6nm.

  13. Stoppage in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Therese Koops; Hansen, Stefan Nygaard; Nielsen, Svend V

    2015-01-01

    of bias in sibling recurrence risk estimation. This study investigated whether stoppage occurs in Danish families with a firstborn child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders, and if stoppage was differential. We found that stoppage occurs moderately in Danish families affected by autism spectrum...... disorders, and that stoppage is differential. However, differential stoppage is a minor source of estimation bias in Danish sibling recurrence risk studies of autism spectrum disorders....

  14. Regression in autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanatos, Gerry A

    2008-12-01

    A significant proportion of children diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder experience a developmental regression characterized by a loss of previously-acquired skills. This may involve a loss of speech or social responsitivity, but often entails both. This paper critically reviews the phenomena of regression in autistic spectrum disorders, highlighting the characteristics of regression, age of onset, temporal course, and long-term outcome. Important considerations for diagnosis are discussed and multiple etiological factors currently hypothesized to underlie the phenomenon are reviewed. It is argued that regressive autistic spectrum disorders can be conceptualized on a spectrum with other regressive disorders that may share common pathophysiological features. The implications of this viewpoint are discussed.

  15. Neutron spectrum measurement by TOF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Otohiko

    1982-01-01

    The TOF experiments by using various facilities are described. The steady neutron spectra in light water which contains non-1/V absorbing materials were measured by the TOF method at a LINAC facility. The results were compared with the calculations based on the Koppel-Haywood model and two others. The leakage neutron spectra from a heavy-water assembly were measured and compared with model calculations. The time-dependent energy spectra in a small graphite assembly were measured. For this measurement, a chopper system was also used. The two-region calculation explains the spectrum just after the neutron burst. The time-dependent spectra in a small Be assembly and in an assembly of coolant-moderator containing hydrogen were also measured. The calculations based on various models are in progress. The TOF experiments at the reactor-chopper facility were carried out for measuring the total cross sections of crystalline moderators, the thermal neutron total cross section of high temperature beryllium, the thermal neutron total cross sections of granular lead and high temperature liquid lead, and the angle-dependent scattering spectra. A pseudo-chopper was designed and constructed. The spectra of the neutron field for medical use were measured by the chopper-TOF system. The thermal neutron total cross sections of Fe, Zr, Nb and Mg were measured, and the results were compared with the calculations by THRUSH and UNCLE-TOM codes. The random-trigger TOF experiments were made by using Cf-252. (Kato, T.)

  16. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must be...

  17. SYNTH: A spectrum synthesizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensley, W.K.; McKinnon, A.D.; Miley, H.S.; Panisko, M.E.; Savard, R.M.

    1994-07-01

    A computer code has been written at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to synthesize the results of typical gamma-ray spectroscopy experiments. The code, dubbed SYNTH, allows a use r to specify physical characteristics of a gamma-ray source, the quantity of the nuclides producing the radiation, the source-to-detector distance and the type and thickness of absorbers, the size and composition of the detector (Ge or NaI), and the electronic set up used to gather the data. In the process of specifying the parameters needed to synthesize a spectrum, several interesting intermediate results are produced, including a photopeak transmission function vs energy, a detector efficiency curve, and a weighted list of gamma and x rays produced from a set of nuclides. All of these intermediate results are available for graphical inspection and for printing. SYNTH runs on personal computers. It is menu driven and can be customized to user specifications. SYNTH contains robust support for coaxial germanium detectors and some support for sodium iodide detectors. SYNTH is not a finished product. A number of additional developments are planned. However, the existing code has been compared carefully to spectra obtained from National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) certified standards with very favorable results. Examples of the use of SYNTH and several spectral results will be presented

  18. SYNTH: A spectrum synthesizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensley, W.K.; McKinnon, A.D.; Miley, H.S.; Panisko, M.E.; Savard, R.M.

    1993-10-01

    A computer code has been written at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to synthesize the results of typical gamma ray spectroscopy experiments. The code, dubbed SYNTH, allows a user to specify physical characteristics of a gamma ray source, the quantity of the nuclides producing the radiation, the source-to-detector distance and the presence of absorbers, the type and size of the detector, and the electronic set up used to gather the data. In the process of specifying the parameters needed to synthesize a spectrum, several interesting intermediate results are produced, including a photopeak transmission function versus energy, a detector efficiency curve, and a weighted list of gamma and x rays produced from a set of nuclides. All of these intermediate results are available for graphical inspection and for printing. SYNTH runs on personal computers. It is menu driven and can be customized to user specifications. SYNTH contains robust support for coaxial germanium detectors and some support for sodium iodide detectors. SYNTH is not a finished product. A number of additional developments are planned. However, the existing code has been compared carefully to spectra obtained from National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) certified standards with very favorable results. Examples of the use of SYNTH and several spectral results are presented

  19. PINS Spectrum Identification Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.J. Caffrey

    2012-03-01

    The Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy—PINS, for short—system identifies the chemicals inside munitions and containers without opening them, a decided safety advantage if the fill chemical is a hazardous substance like a chemical warfare agent or an explosive. The PINS Spectrum Identification Guide is intended as a reference for technical professionals responsible for the interpretation of PINS gamma-ray spectra. The guide is divided into two parts. The three chapters that constitute Part I cover the science and technology of PINS. Neutron activation analysis is the focus of Chapter 1. Chapter 2 explores PINS hardware, software, and related operational issues. Gamma-ray spectral analysis basics are introduced in Chapter 3. The six chapters of Part II cover the identification of PINS spectra in detail. Like the PINS decision tree logic, these chapters are organized by chemical element: phosphorus-based chemicals, chlorine-based chemicals, etc. These descriptions of hazardous, toxic, and/or explosive chemicals conclude with a chapter on the identification of the inert chemicals, e.g. sand, used to fill practice munitions.

  20. Comparison of RF spectrum prediction methods for dynamic spectrum access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarskiy, Jacob A.; Martone, Anthony F.; Gallagher, Kyle A.; Sherbondy, Kelly D.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2017-05-01

    Dynamic spectrum access (DSA) refers to the adaptive utilization of today's busy electromagnetic spectrum. Cognitive radio/radar technologies require DSA to intelligently transmit and receive information in changing environments. Predicting radio frequency (RF) activity reduces sensing time and energy consumption for identifying usable spectrum. Typical spectrum prediction methods involve modeling spectral statistics with Hidden Markov Models (HMM) or various neural network structures. HMMs describe the time-varying state probabilities of Markov processes as a dynamic Bayesian network. Neural Networks model biological brain neuron connections to perform a wide range of complex and often non-linear computations. This work compares HMM, Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), and Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) algorithms and their ability to perform RF channel state prediction. Monte Carlo simulations on both measured and simulated spectrum data evaluate the performance of these algorithms. Generalizing spectrum occupancy as an alternating renewal process allows Poisson random variables to generate simulated data while energy detection determines the occupancy state of measured RF spectrum data for testing. The results suggest that neural networks achieve better prediction accuracy and prove more adaptable to changing spectral statistics than HMMs given sufficient training data.

  1. Spectrum and service pricing for 802.22 networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefan, Andrei Lucian; Rota, Cyril; Pratas, Nuno

    2011-01-01

    of channels which have an impact on the demand, and thus on the spectrum pricing. The second part of the paper exemplifies how a Bertrand game model can solve the issue of service pricing for a Wireless Regional Area Network (WRAN) operator that is trying to deploy an 802.22 network in a region where...... a competitor already exists. In this work the service pricing was envisioned as a network preplanning step, one that would show the potential revenues for an operator by entering as inputs, among other, the competitor's coverage area and spectrum pricing. The case study has been conducted through CNPT1...

  2. Intermediate neutron spectrum problems and the intermediate neutron spectrum experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaegers, P.J.; Sanchez, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    Criticality benchmark data for intermediate energy spectrum systems does not exist. These systems are dominated by scattering and fission events induced by neutrons with energies between 1 eV and 1 MeV. Nuclear data uncertainties have been reported for such systems which can not be resolved without benchmark critical experiments. Intermediate energy spectrum systems have been proposed for the geological disposition of surplus fissile materials. Without the proper benchmarking of the nuclear data in the intermediate energy spectrum, adequate criticality safety margins can not be guaranteed. The Zeus critical experiment now under construction will provide this necessary benchmark data

  3. Phase diagram of the Dirac spectrum at nonzero chemical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, J. C.; Splittorff, K.; Verbaarschot, J. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The Dirac spectrum of QCD with dynamical fermions at nonzero chemical potential is characterized by three regions: a region with a constant eigenvalue density, a region where the eigenvalue density shows oscillations that grow exponentially with the volume and the remainder of the complex plane where the eigenvalue density is zero. In this paper we derive the phase diagram of the Dirac spectrum from a chiral Lagrangian. We show that the constant eigenvalue density corresponds to a pion condensed phase while the strongly oscillating region is given by a kaon condensed phase. The normal phase with nonzero chiral condensate but vanishing Bose condensates coincides with the region of the complex plane where there are no eigenvalues.

  4. Imaging spectrum of neurocysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Long Zhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system, and also one of the most common causes of seizures in endemic areas. Globalization has caused the disease to spread around the world beyond the endemic regions. With no specific clinical symptoms of the disease, medical imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis. Familiarity with these imaging findings may help greatly in early diagnosis, appropriate treatment decision, and follow-up of patients with neurocysticercosis.

  5. Velocity spectrum for the Iranian plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastami, Morteza; Soghrat, M. R.

    2018-01-01

    Peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration values have been proposed in most building codes/guidelines, unlike spectral velocity (SV) and peak ground velocity (PGV). Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of spectral velocity and peak ground velocity in the design of long period structures (e.g., pipelines, tunnels, tanks, and high-rise buildings) and evaluation of seismic vulnerability in underground structures. The current study was undertaken to develop a velocity spectrum and for estimation of PGV. In order to determine these parameters, 398 three-component accelerograms recorded by the Building and Housing Research Center (BHRC) were used. The moment magnitude (Mw) in the selected database was 4.1 to 7.3, and the events occurred after 1977. In the database, the average shear-wave velocity at 0 to 30 m in depth (Vs30) was available for only 217 records; thus, the site class for the remaining was estimated using empirical methods. Because of the importance of the velocity spectrum at low frequencies, the signal-to-noise ratio of 2 was chosen for determination of the low and high frequency to include a wider range of frequency content. This value can produce conservative results. After estimation of the shape of the velocity design spectrum, the PGV was also estimated for the region under study by finding the correlation between PGV and spectral acceleration at the period of 1 s.

  6. Adult Autism Subthreshold Spectrum (AdAS Spectrum): Validation of a questionnaire investigating subthreshold autism spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Osso, L; Gesi, C; Massimetti, E; Cremone, I M; Barbuti, M; Maccariello, G; Moroni, I; Barlati, S; Castellini, G; Luciano, M; Bossini, L; Rocchetti, M; Signorelli, M; Aguglia, E; Fagiolini, A; Politi, P; Ricca, V; Vita, A; Carmassi, C; Maj, M

    2017-02-01

    Increasing literature has shown the usefulness of a dimensional approach to autism. The present study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the Adult Autism Subthreshold Spectrum (AdAS Spectrum), a new questionnaire specifically tailored to assess subthreshold forms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in adulthood. 102 adults endorsing at least one DSM-5 symptom criterion for ASD (ASDc), 143 adults diagnosed with a feeding and eating disorder (FED), and 160 subjects with no mental disorders (CTL), were recruited from 7 Italian University Departments of Psychiatry and administered the following: SCID-5, Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale 14-item version (RAADS-14), and AdAS Spectrum. The AdAS Spectrum demonstrated excellent internal consistency for the total score (Kuder-Richardson's coefficient=.964) as well as for five out of seven domains (all coefficients>.80) and sound test-retest reliability (ICC=.976). The total and domain AdAS Spectrum scores showed a moderate to strong (>.50) positive correlation with one another and with the AQ and RAADS-14 total scores. ASDc subjects reported significantly higher AdAS Spectrum total scores than both FED (pcriteria (FED 0 ) and those with one ASD symptom criterion (FED 1 ) , a gradient of severity in AdAS Spectrum scores from CTL subjects to ASD patients, across FED 0 , ASD 1 , FED 1 was shown. The AdAS Spectrum showed excellent internal consistency and test-retest reliability and strong convergent validity with alternative dimensional measures of ASD. The questionnaire performed differently among the three diagnostic groups and enlightened some significant effects of gender in the expression of autistic traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Neutron spectrum unfolding: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matiullah; Wiyaja, D.S.; Berzonis, M.A.; Bondars, H.; Lapenas, A.A.; Kudo, K.; Majeed, A.; Durrani, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    In Part I of this paper, we described the use of the computer code SAIPS in neutron spectrum unfolding. Here in Part II, we present our experimental work carried out to study the shape of the neutron spectrum in different experimental channels of a 5 MW light-water cooled and moderated research reactor. The spectral neutron flux was determined using various fission foils (placed in close contact with mica track detectors) and activation detectors. From the measured activities, the neutron spectrum was unfolded by SAIPS. (author)

  8. Multiple Beta Spectrum Analysis Method Based on Spectrum Fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uk Jae; Jung, Yun Song; Kim, Hee Reyoung [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    When the sample of several mixed radioactive nuclides is measured, it is difficult to divide each nuclide due to the overlapping of spectrums. For this reason, simple mathematical analysis method for spectrum analysis of the mixed beta ray source has been studied. However, existing research was in need of more accurate spectral analysis method as it has a problem of accuracy. The study will describe the contents of the separation methods of the mixed beta ray source through the analysis of the beta spectrum slope based on the curve fitting to resolve the existing problem. The fitting methods including It was understood that sum of sine fitting method was the best one of such proposed methods as Fourier, polynomial, Gaussian and sum of sine to obtain equation for distribution of mixed beta spectrum. It was shown to be the most appropriate for the analysis of the spectrum with various ratios of mixed nuclides. It was thought that this method could be applied to rapid spectrum analysis of the mixed beta ray source.

  9. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Autism Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Diet Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Diet By Karen Ansel, MS, RDN, CDN Published April 2, 2018 nambitomo/iStock/Thinkstock Autism Spectrum Disorder, or ASD, is a complex developmental and neurological ...

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... only after another family member has been diagnosed. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome Fragile X syndrome is ... gene cause of ASD What Is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a behavioral diagnosis. The range ...

  11. Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Autism Spectrum Disorder Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Consumer Summary September 23, 2014 Download PDF 692. ... Web page Understanding Your Child's Condition What is autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? ASD includes a range of behavioral symptoms. ...

  12. Family Process - Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Slides for a talk about family process and the importance of parenting dimensions in adolescent development. The slides list findings to date, and propose research into the influence of family on outcomes for those diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder.

  13. Directional spectrum of ocean waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, A.A; Gouveia, A; Nagarajan, R.

    This paper describes a methodology for obtaining the directional spectrum of ocean waves from time series measurement of wave elevation at several gauges arranged in linear or polygonal arrays. Results of simulated studies using sinusoidal wave...

  14. Spectrum of a linear antenna in a cold magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldridge, O.; Kritz, A.H.

    1975-04-01

    The fields radiated by a linear antenna in a cold magnetized plasma are calculated. The principal results are expressed in the input impedance and power spectrum of the near field, expressed as a function of the wavenumber or index of refraction parallel to the field. For frequencies below the electron plasma frequency and above the lower hybrid frequency the spectrum shows a broad maximum for short parallel wavelengths. The parallel index of refraction at this maximum is approximately the ratio of free space wavelength to antenna length. A spectrum of this sort is required by the accessibility conditions for heating at the lower hybrid resonance from a wave launched in a region of lower density. The impedance of a short antenna in this region is capacitive and a few hundred ohms in magnitude. (U.S.)

  15. The rotational spectrum of IBr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiemann, E.; Moeller, T.

    1975-01-01

    The microwave spectrum of IBr was measured in the low rotational transition J = 3 → 2 in order to resolve the hyperfine structure as completely as possible. Rotational constants and quadrupole coupling constants were derived for both nuclei. The observation of the rotational spectrum in different vibrational states yields the vibrational dependence of the rotational constants as well as of the hyperfine parameters. The Dunham potential coefficients α 0 , α 1 , α 2 , α 3 are given. (orig.) [de

  16. Energy spectrum control for modulated proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsi, Wen C.; Moyers, Michael F.; Nichiporov, Dmitri; Anferov, Vladimir; Wolanski, Mark; Allgower, Chris E.; Farr, Jonathan B.; Mascia, Anthony E.; Schreuder, Andries N.

    2009-01-01

    In proton therapy delivered with range modulated beams, the energy spectrum of protons entering the delivery nozzle can affect the dose uniformity within the target region and the dose gradient around its periphery. For a cyclotron with a fixed extraction energy, a rangeshifter is used to change the energy but this produces increasing energy spreads for decreasing energies. This study investigated the magnitude of the effects of different energy spreads on dose uniformity and distal edge dose gradient and determined the limits for controlling the incident spectrum. A multilayer Faraday cup (MLFC) was calibrated against depth dose curves measured in water for nonmodulated beams with various incident spectra. Depth dose curves were measured in a water phantom and in a multilayer ionization chamber detector for modulated beams using different incident energy spreads. Some nozzle entrance energy spectra can produce unacceptable dose nonuniformities of up to ±21% over the modulated region. For modulated beams and small beam ranges, the width of the distal penumbra can vary by a factor of 2.5. When the energy spread was controlled within the defined limits, the dose nonuniformity was less than ±3%. To facilitate understanding of the results, the data were compared to the measured and Monte Carlo calculated data from a variable extraction energy synchrotron which has a narrow spectrum for all energies. Dose uniformity is only maintained within prescription limits when the energy spread is controlled. At low energies, a large spread can be beneficial for extending the energy range at which a single range modulator device can be used. An MLFC can be used as part of a feedback to provide specified energy spreads for different energies.

  17. Beyond the Spectrum: Rethinking Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The "spectrum" has become the dominant metaphor for conceptualizing autism, with fundamental consequences for notions of disability, diversity, and normality. In this article, we draw on ethnographic research with autistic communities to explore how the notion of the autism spectrum has become a focus of explicit identification, reflection, and contestation. To further this inquiry, we place these debates into conversation with earlier debates regarding another spectrum—the Kinsey Scale, a "spectrum" for conceptualizing sexual orientation that first appeared in 1948 but has been critiqued since the 1970s. How might responses to the Kinsey Scale (like the Klein Grid contribute to rethinking the autism spectrum? This is a question about the cultural and political implications of metaphors and conceptual models. It is of broad importance because the spectrum metaphor is being extended to a range of conditions beyond autism itself. Our goal is thus to build on insights from sexuality studies as well as the insights of autistic persons, advocates, and researchers who wish to forestall the naturalization of "the spectrum." In doing so, we seek to contribute to a discussion of what alternative frameworks might bring to questions of social justice, ability, and human flourishing.

  18. Autism spectrum disorder - childhood disintegrative disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part of the larger developmental disorder category of autism spectrum disorder . ... American Psychiatric Association. Autism spectrum disorder. ... VA: American Psychiatric Publishing: 2013;50-59. Raviola GJ, ...

  19. Atypical Laterality of Resting Gamma Oscillations in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Christina R.; Villalobos, Michele E.; Schultz, Robert T.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Kohls, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal brain oscillatory activity has been found in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and proposed as a potential biomarker. While several studies have investigated gamma oscillations in ASD, none have examined resting gamma power across multiple brain regions. This study investigated resting gamma power using EEG in 15 boys with ASD and 18 age…

  20. Characterization of radiation within the optical region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, H [Stuttgart Univ. (TH) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Physikalische Elektronik

    1977-04-01

    The notions which are used for the characterization of radiation within the optical region of the spectrum (quantities, units) and their temporal and geometric relations have been arranged synoptically. Quantities of the international system (SI-System) are emphasized.

  1. The Spectrum of the Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ryley; Masui, Kiyoshi W; Scott, Douglas

    2018-05-01

    Cosmic background (CB) radiation, encompassing the sum of emission from all sources outside our own Milky Way galaxy across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, is a fundamental phenomenon in observational cosmology. Many experiments have been conceived to measure it (or its constituents) since the extragalactic Universe was first discovered; in addition to estimating the bulk (cosmic monopole) spectrum, directional variations have also been detected over a wide range of wavelengths. Here we gather the most recent of these measurements and discuss the current status of our understanding of the CB from radio to γ-ray energies. Using available data in the literature, we piece together the sky-averaged intensity spectrum and discuss the emission processes responsible for what is observed. We examine the effect of perturbations to the continuum spectrum from atomic and molecular line processes and comment on the detectability of these signals. We also discuss how one could, in principle, obtain a complete census of the CB by measuring the full spectrum of each spherical harmonic expansion coefficient. This set of spectra of multipole moments effectively encodes the entire statistical history of nuclear, atomic, and molecular processes in the Universe.

  2. Prompt neutron energy spectrum for the spontaneous fission of Cf-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, M.V.; Boykov, G.S.; Vitenko, V.A.

    1985-06-01

    The prompt neutron spectrum for the spontaneous fission of Cf-252 has been measured in 0.01-10 MeV region by the time-of-flight technique using a fast ionization chamber with U-235 layers as the neutron detector. Numerical data for the spectrum are presented, with an error file. (author)

  3. Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain with reduced susceptibilities to extended-spectrum cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duylinh; Gose, Severin; Castro, Lina; Chung, Kathleen; Bernstein, Kyle; Samuel, Micheal; Bauer, Heidi; Pandori, Mark

    2014-07-01

    The spread of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains with reduced susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins is an increasing public health threat. Using Etest and multiantigen sequence typing, we detected sequence type 1407, which is associated with reduced susceptibilities to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, in 4 major populated regions in California, USA, in 2012.

  4. Can the tinnitus spectrum identify tinnitus subgroups?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijneman, Karin M.; de Kleine, Emile; Wiersinga-Post, Esther; van Dijk, Pim

    2013-01-01

    The tinnitus spectrum is a psycho-acoustic metric of tinnitus. Previous work found a tight relation between the spectrum and the tone audiogram. This suggests that the spectrum and the audiogram provide essentially the same information, and the added value of the spectrum is limited. In order to

  5. Spectrum Trading in India and 5G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tripathi, Purnendu; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    Currently radio spectrum is largely managed through Command and Control method. Public mobile services require spectrum below 3 GHz for providing cost effective services. The existing method has created artificial shortage of spectrum especially below 3 GHz. Spectrum trading is a new concept...

  6. Lymphangioma circumscriptum: clinicopathological spectrum of 29 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, S.; Uddin, N.; Idrees, R.; Minhas, K.; Ahmad, Z.; Ahmad, R.; Kayani, N.; Arif, M.

    2015-01-01

    To describe the clinicopathological spectrum of Lymphangioma Circumscriptum (LC). Study Design: Observational case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology and Microbiology, AKUH, Karachi, from 2002 to 2012. Methodology: All reported cases of LC were retrieved from medical record. Clinical and pathological features were noted. Frequency percentages were determined. Results: There were 29 cases of LC predominantly males (62%). The mean age was 27.17 ± 15.5 years. The commonest sites was anal/perianal region (24%) followed by extremities (17%) and tongue, (14%). Vulval LC was seen in 3 patients. Two cases were described on scrotum. The lesions were most commonly suspected as viral warts, mole or polyp (in anal region). Vesicles with erosions and bleeding and localized growth were the usual clinical presentations. Four of the patients presented with swelling since birth. All were treated with surgical excision. Microscopic examination revealed acanthotic squamous epithelium with papillomatosis. The subepithelial region had collections of lymphatic channels composed of ectatic dilated vessels with serum and inflammatory cells in their lumina. The lymphatic channels were seen in deeper layers along with lymphocytic aggregates. Conclusion: Lymphangioma circumscriptum is a malformation of abnormal lymphatic channels with feeding cisterns in subcutaneous tissue. It is a benign lesion usually occurring in anal/perianal region and confused with warts. Surgical excision is preferred mode of treatment. (author)

  7. Dynamic spectrum auction in wireless communication

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanjiao

    2015-01-01

    This brief explores current research on dynamic spectrum auctions, focusing on fundamental auction theory, characteristics of the spectrum market, spectrum auction architecture and possible auction mechanisms. The brief explains how dynamic spectrum auctions, which enable new users to gain spectrum access and existing spectrum owners to obtain financial benefits, can greatly improve spectrum efficiency by resolving the artificial spectrum shortage. It examines why operators and users face significant challenges due to specialty of the spectrum market and the related requirements imposed on the auction mechanism design. Concise and up-to-date, Dynamic Spectrum Auction in Wireless Communication is designed for researchers and professionals in computer science or electrical engineering. Students studying networking will also find this brief a valuable resource.

  8. Spectrum of PEX6 mutations in Zellweger syndrome spectrum patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebberink, Merel S.; Kofster, Janet; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Waterham, Hans R.

    2010-01-01

    The autosomal recessive Zellweger syndrome spectrum (ZSS) disorders comprise a main subgroup of the peroxisome biogenesis disorders. The ZSS disorders can be caused by mutations in any of 12 different currently identified PEX genes resulting in severe, often lethal, multi-systemic disorders. Defects

  9. A preliminary bending fatigue spectrum for steel monostrand cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the experimental study on the bending fatigue resistance of high-strength steel monostrand cables. From the conducted fatigue tests in the high-stress, low-cycle region, a preliminary bending fatigue spectrum is derived for the estimation of monostrand cable...... service life expectancy. The presented preliminary bending fatigue spectrum of high-strength monostrands is currently unavailable in the published literature. The presented results provide relevant information on the bending mechanism and fatigue characteristics of monostrand steel cables in tension...... and flexure and show that localized cable bending has a pronounced influence on the fatigue resistance of cables under dynamic excitations....

  10. Thermal-spectrum recriticality energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, K.N.

    1993-12-01

    Large computer codes have been created in the past to predict the energy release in hypothetical core disruptive accidents (CDA), postulated to occur in liquid metal reactors (LMR). These codes, such as SIMMER, are highly specific to LMR designs. More recent attention has focused on thermal-spectrum criticality accidents, such as for fuel storage basins and waste tanks containing fissile material. This paper resents results from recent one-dimensional kinetics simulations, performed for a recriticality accident in a thermal spectrum. Reactivity insertion rates generally are smaller than in LMR CDAs, and the energetics generally are more benign. Parametric variation of input was performed, including reactivity insertion and initial temperature

  11. Clinical neurogenetics: autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sunil Q; Golshani, Peyman

    2013-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in social interactions, communication, and repetitive or restricted interests. There is strong evidence that de novo or inherited genetic alterations play a critical role in causing Autism Spectrum Disorders, but non-genetic causes, such as in utero infections, may also play a role. Magnetic resonance imaging based and autopsy studies indicate that early rapid increase in brain size during infancy could underlie the deficits in a large subset of subjects. Clinical studies show benefits for both behavioral and pharmacological treatment strategies. Genotype-specific treatments have the potential for improving outcome in the future. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza MOHAMMADI; Maryam SALMANIAN; Shahin AKHONDZADEH

    2011-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Mohammadi MR, Salmanian M, Akhondzadeh Sh. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2011;5(4):1-9.ObjectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This article reviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMe...

  13. Design spectrums based on earthquakes recorded at tarbela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizwan, M.; Ilyas, M.; Masood, A.

    2008-01-01

    First Seismological Network in Pakistan was setup in early 1969 at Tarbela, which is the location of largest water reservoir of the country. The network consisted of Analog Accelerograms and Seismographs. Since the installation many seismic events of different magnitudes occurred and were recorded by the installed instruments. The analog form of recorded time histories has been digitized and data of twelve earthquakes, irrespective of the type of soil, has been used to derive elastic design spectrums for Tarbela, Pakistan. The PGA scaling factors, based on the risk analysis studies carried out for the region, for each component are also given. The design spectrums suggested will be very useful for carrying out new construction in the region and its surroundings. The digitized data of time histories will be useful for seismic response analysis of structures and seismic risk analysis of the region. (author)

  14. Priority and Negotiation Based Dynamic Spectrum Allocation Scheme for Multiple Radio Access Network Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoon; Hyon, Taein; Lee, Yeonwoo

    Most of previous works have presented the dynamic spectrum allocation (DSA) gain achieved by utilizing the time or regional variations in traffic demand between multi-network operators (NOs). In this paper, we introduce the functionalities required for the entities related with the spectrum sharing and allocation and propose a spectrum allocation algorithm while considering the long-term priority between NOs, the priority between multiple class services, and the urgent bandwidth request. To take into account the priorities among the NOs and the priorities of multiple class services, a spectrum sharing metric (SSM) is proposed, while a negotiation procedure is proposed to treat the urgent bandwidth request.

  15. Phytoplankton biovolume is independent from the slope of the size spectrum in the oligotrophic atlantic ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Moreno-Ostos, Enrique; Blanco, José Marí a; Agusti, Susana; Lubiá n, Luis M.; Rodrí guez, Valeriano; Palomino, Roberto L.; Llabré s, Moira; Rodrí guez, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    high phytoplankton biovolume in productive regions with flatter spectrum slope and the opposite in oligotrophic ecosystems. Rather than this, the relationship between high biovolume phytoplankton assemblages and flatter size-abundance spectra does

  16. Broadening the spectrum through curriculum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel-Hills P

    2006-01-01

    Radiography has experienced changes and challenges from a number of sources. The rapid technological changes in imaging an radiation treatment, changes in the professional context and social transformation have had an impact on the shape and structure of the radiography curriculum. It too must change to prepare graduates for the broadening radiography spectrum

  17. Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum and cerebral anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrander-Stumpel, C. T.; de Die-Smulders, C. E.; Hennekam, R. C.; Fryns, J. P.; Bouckaert, P. X.; Brouwer, O. F.; da Costa, J. J.; Lommen, E. J.; Maaswinkel-Mooy, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    We report on three Dutch children with a clinical diagnosis of oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS) and hydrocephalus. The clinical features are compared to 15 published cases of OAVS and hydrocephalus. Several other cerebral abnormalities were present in the whole group. About half of the cases

  18. Deafness and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, McCay; Rhodes, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    An orientation to autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), also known as autism, is provided, and the specific syndrome of autism and deafness is addressed. The two conditions have in common a major problem: communication. Case histories are provided, the development of treatment for autism is discussed, and the separate disorders that make up ASD are…

  19. Neurofeedback in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtmann, Martin; Steiner, Sabina; Hohmann, Sarah; Poustka, Luise; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bolte, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To review current studies on the effectiveness of neurofeedback as a method of treatment of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method: Studies were selected based on searches in PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, and CINAHL using combinations of the following keywords: "Neurofeedback" OR "EEG Biofeedback" OR "Neurotherapy"…

  20. Spectrum of pediatric neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotze, Timothy E; Northrop, Jennifer L; Hutton, George J; Ross, Benjamin; Schiffman, Jade S; Hunter, Jill V

    2008-11-01

    Our goal was to describe the spectrum of clinical phenotypes, laboratory and imaging features, and treatment in pediatric patients with neuromyelitis optica. The study consisted of a retrospective chart review of patients followed in a pediatric multiple sclerosis center with a diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Nine patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders were included, all of whom were female. There were 4 black children, 2 Latin American children, 2 white children, and 1 child of mixed Latin American/white heritage. Median age at initial attack was 14 years (range: 1.9-16 years). Median disease duration was 4 years (range: 0.6-9 years). Tests for neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G were positive for 7 patients. Eight patients had transverse myelitis and optic neuritis, and 1 patient had longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis without optic neuritis but had a positive neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G antibody titer. Cerebral involvement on MRI was found in all subjects, 5 of whom were symptomatic with encephalopathy, seizures, hemiparesis, aphasia, vomiting, or hiccups. Immunosuppressive therapy reduced attack frequency and progression of disability. Pediatric neuromyelitis optica has a diverse clinical presentation and may be difficult to distinguish from multiple sclerosis in the early stages of the disease. The recognition of the broad spectrum of this disease to include signs and symptoms of brain involvement is aided by the availability of a serum biomarker: neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G. Early diagnosis and immunosuppresive treatment may help to slow the accumulation of severe disability.

  1. [Autism spectrum disorders in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2008-01-01

    Early infantile autism' as defined by Kanner has grown into a spectrum of autistic disorders. The recognition of Asperger's disorder and of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), has led to increased demand for appropriate diagnostic assessment of autism in adults. The

  2. New criteria to identify spectrum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Fr. Bajers Vej 7G, DK-9220 Aalborg Ø, Denmark. ∗. Institute of ... one defines the corresponding parts of the spectrum to be those of the restricted operators. ... The relation comes from the representation of the time evolution operator e. −itH as.

  3. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafodatskaya, Daria; Chung, Brian; Szatmari, Peter; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Current research suggests that the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are multifactorial and include both genetic and environmental factors. Several lines of evidence suggest that epigenetics also plays an important role in ASD etiology and that it might, in fact, integrate genetic and environmental influences to dysregulate…

  4. The Organizational Communication Consulting Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Stewart L.

    Surveys of businesses and business managers indicate that developing communication skills within organizations is a priority. Communication consulting exists over a wide spectrum of activities that include guest speaking, conducting workshops, and conducting management training programs. These three processes can include a "canned program" that…

  5. Frequency-wavenumber spectrum for GATE phase I rainfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Shoichiro; Valdes, Juan B.; North, Gerald R.

    1990-01-01

    The oceanic rainfall frequency-wavenumber spectrum and its associated space-time correlation have been evaluated from subsets of GATE phase I data. The records, of a duration of four days, were sampled at 15 minutes intervals in 4 x 4 km grid boxes over a 400 km diameter hexagon. In the low frequencies-low wavenumber region the results coincide with those obtained by using the stochastic model proposed by North and Nakomoto (1989). From the derived spectrum the inherent time and space scales of the stochastic model were determined to be approximately 13 hours and 36 km. The formalism proposed by North and Nakamoto was taken together with the derived spectrum to compute the mean square sampling error due to intermittent visits of a spaceborne sensor.

  6. [Voxel-Based Morphometry in Autism Spectrum Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasue, Hidenori

    2017-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder shows deficits in social communication and interaction including nonverbal communicative behaviors (e.g., eye contact, gestures, voice prosody, and facial expressions) and restricted and repetitive behaviors as its core symptoms. These core symptoms are emerged as an atypical behavioral development in toddlers with the disorder. Atypical neural development is considered to be a neural underpinning of such behaviorally atypical development. A number of studies using voxel-based morphometry have already been conducted to compare regional brain volumes between individuals with autism spectrum disorder and those with typical development. Furthermore, more than ten papers employing meta-analyses of the comparisons using voxel based morphometry between individuals with autism spectrum disorder and those with typical development have already been published. The current review paper adds some brief discussions about potential factors contributing to the inconsistency observed in the previous findings such as difficulty in controlling the confounding effects of different developmental phases among study participants.

  7. Generalized eigenvalue based spectrum sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Spectrum sensing is one of the fundamental components in cognitive radio networks. In this chapter, a generalized spectrum sensing framework which is referred to as Generalized Mean Detector (GMD) has been introduced. In this context, we generalize the detectors based on the eigenvalues of the received signal covariance matrix and transform the eigenvalue based spectrum sensing detectors namely: (i) the Eigenvalue Ratio Detector (ERD) and two newly proposed detectors which are referred to as (ii) the GEometric Mean Detector (GEMD) and (iii) the ARithmetic Mean Detector (ARMD) into an unified framework of generalize spectrum sensing. The foundation of the proposed framework is based on the calculation of exact analytical moments of the random variables of the decision threshold of the respective detectors. The decision threshold has been calculated in a closed form which is based on the approximation of Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDFs) of the respective test statistics. In this context, we exchange the analytical moments of the two random variables of the respective test statistics with the moments of the Gaussian (or Gamma) distribution function. The performance of the eigenvalue based detectors is compared with the several traditional detectors including the energy detector (ED) to validate the importance of the eigenvalue based detectors and the performance of the GEMD and the ARMD particularly in realistic wireless cognitive radio network. Analytical and simulation results show that the newly proposed detectors yields considerable performance advantage in realistic spectrum sensing scenarios. Moreover, the presented results based on proposed approximation approaches are in perfect agreement with the empirical results. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  8. Neutron spectrum unfolding using computer code SAIPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, S.

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of this project was to study the neutron energy spectrum at rabbit station-1 in Pakistan Research Reactor (PARR-I). To do so, multiple foils activation method was used to get the saturated activities. The computer code SAIPS was used to unfold the neutron spectra from the measured reaction rates. Of the three built in codes in SAIPS, only SANDI and WINDOWS were used. Contribution of thermal part of the spectra was observed to be higher than the fast one. It was found that the WINDOWS gave smooth spectra while SANDII spectra have violet oscillations in the resonance region. The uncertainties in the WINDOWS results are higher than those of SANDII. The results show reasonable agreement with the published results. (author)

  9. Millimetre Wave Rotational Spectrum of Glycolic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Zbigniew; Pszczolkowski, Lech; Bialkowska-Jaworska, Ewa; Charnley, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    The pure rotational spectrum of glycolic acid, CH2OHCOOH, was studied in the region 115-318 GHz. For the most stable SSC conformer, transitions in all vibrational states up to 400 cm(exp -1) have been measured and their analysis is reported. The data sets for the ground state, v21 = 1, and v21 = 2 have been considerably extended. Immediately higher in vibrational energy are two triads of interacting vibrational states and their rotational transitions have been assigned and successfully fitted with coupled Hamiltonians accounting for Fermi and Coriolis resonances. The derived energy level spacings establish that the vibrational frequency of the v21 mode is close to 100 cm(exp -1). The existence of the less stable AAT conformer in the near 50 C sample used in our experiment was also confirmed and additional transitions have been measured.

  10. Bloch walls and the non-ideal bose gas spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitiello, S.A.S.

    1986-05-01

    The quasi-particle spectrum of non-ideal Bose gas with domain walls in the condensate is investigated. The existence of such a system is determined from solutions of Gross-Pitaevskii equation which represent many-soliton systems. The walls which make the condensate non-uniform are responsible for density and velocity fields ρ(x) and υ(x) repectively. In the laboratory, the Bogoliubov spectrum, supposed to be true for an uniform condensate at rest, is changed due to the velocity field to which the quasi-particles are submited. The spectrum in the laboratory frame is obtained by considering the Galileu invariance principle and the interaction energy between the quasi-particle and its medium. The importance in considering the last two facts is illustrated by the analyse of a constant density condensate which moves uniformly in the laboratory. The many-soliton spectrum configuration and structure function are studied by the Monte Carlo method. In an approximation that assumes the quasi-particle to be point like, the condensate can be treated as locally uniform. For each event the position x of a quasi-particle and its momentum in a frame with velocity υ(x) are determined. Thus, by a convenient Galileu transformation the energy spectrum in the laboratory an be obtained. The results show a phonon spectrum which splits in two branches in the high momenta region. In this region the lower energy branch exibiths a point of minimum. Analogies with the He II are explored. (author) [pt

  11. Joint opportunistic beam and spectrum selection schemes for spectrum sharing systems with limited feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Mostafa M.; Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Tourki, Kamel; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    Spectrum sharing systems have been introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing an unlicensed secondary user (SU) to share the spectrum with a licensed primary user (PU) under acceptable interference levels to the primary

  12. Modelling the TSZ power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Suman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shaw, Laurie D [YALE; Nagai, Daisuke [YALE

    2010-01-01

    The structure formation in university is a hierarchical process. As universe evolves, tiny density fluctuations that existed in the early universe grows under gravitational instability to form massive large scale structures. The galaxy clusters are the massive viralized objects that forms by accreting smaller clumps of mass until they collapse under their self-gravity. As such galaxy clusters are the youngest objects in the universe which makes their abundance as a function of mass and redshift, very sensitive to dark energy. Galaxy clusters can be detected by measuring the richness in optical waveband, by measuring the X-ray flux, and in the microwave sky using Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect has long been recognized as a powerful tool for detecting clusters and probing the physics of the intra-cluster medium. Ongoing and future experiments like Atacama Cosmology Telescope, the South Pole Telescope and Planck survey are currently surveying the microwave sky to develop large catalogs of galaxy clusters that are uniformly selected by the SZ flux. However one major systematic uncertainties that cluster abundance is prone to is the connection between the cluster mass and the SZ flux. As shown by several simulation studies, the scatter and bias in the SZ flux-mass relation can be a potential source of systematic error to using clusters as a cosmology probe. In this study they take a semi-analytic approach for modeling the intra-cluster medium in order to predict the tSZ power spectrum. The advantage of this approach is, being analytic, one can vary the parameters describing gas physics and cosmology simultaneously. The model can be calibrated against X-ray observations of massive, low-z clusters, and using the SZ power spectrum which is sourced by high-z lower mass galaxy groups. This approach allows us to include the uncertainty in gas physics, as dictated by the current observational uncertainties, while measuring the

  13. Regions Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Masciarelli, Francesca; Prencipe, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    capital at the regional level, with a large-scale data set of the innovative activities of a representative sample of 2,413 Italian manufacturing firms from 21 regions, and controlling for a large set of firm and regional characteristics, we find that being located in a region characterized by a high...

  14. Economic aspects of spectrum management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stibolt, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Problems associated with the allocation of the radio frequency spectrum are addressed. It is observed that the current method very likely does not allocate the resource to those most valuing its use. Ecomonic criteria by which the effectiveness of resource allocation schemes can be judged are set forth and some thoughts on traditional objections to implementation of market characteristics into frequency allocation are offered. The problem of dividing orbit and spectrum between two satellite services sharing the same band but having significantly different system characteristics is discussed. The problem is compounded by the likelihood that one service will commence operation much sooner than the other. Some alternative schemes are offered that, within proper international constraints, could achieve a desired flexibility in the division of orbit and frequency between the two services domestically over the next several years.

  15. Rigidity spectrum of Forbush decrease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakibara, S.; Munakata, K.; Nagashima, K.

    1985-01-01

    Using data from neutron monitors and muon telescopes at surface and underground stations, the average rigidity spectrum of Forbush decreases (Fds) during the period of 1978-1982 were obtained. Thirty eight Ed-events are classified into two groups, Hard Fd and Soft FD according to size of Fd at the Sakashita station. It is found that a spectral form of a fractional-power type (P to the-gamma sub 1 (P+P sub c) to the -gamma sub2) is more suitable than that of a power-exponential type or of a power type with an upper limiting rigidity. The best fitted spectrum of the fractional-power type is expressed by gamma sub1 = 0.37, gamma sub2 = 0.89 and P subc = 10 GV for Hard Fd and gamma sub1 = 0.77, gamma sub2 = 1.02 and P sub c - 14GV for Soft Fd

  16. Cross-spectrum symbol synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccallister, R. D.; Simon, M. K.

    1981-01-01

    A popular method of symbol synchronization exploits one aspect of generalized harmonic analysis, normally referred to as the cross-spectrum. Utilizing nonlinear techniques, the input symbol energy is effectively concentrated onto multiples of the symbol clock frequency, facilitating application of conventional phase lock synchronization techniques. A general treatment of the cross-spectrum technique is developed and shown to be applicable across a broad class of symbol modulation formats. An important specific symbol synchronization application is then treated, focusing the general development to provide both insight and quantitative measure of the performance impact associated with variation in these key synchronization parameters: symbol modulation format, symbol transition probability, symbol energy to noise density ratio, and symbol rate to filter bandwidth ratio.

  17. Spectrum of PG 1700 + 518

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wampler, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of PG 1700 + 518 show that this bright quasar has a very rich Fe II emission spectrum. In addition, there is a broad dip in spectral intensity to the blue of Mg II lambda 2800. It is argued that this dip is due to detached Mg II lambda 2800 absorption rather than to a gap between Fe II emission lines. Fe II transitions from 8 eV levels seem to be present in the spectrum. Also present are weak multiplets with the same upper levels as the strong optical multiplets 27 and 42. These observational data support the belief that the resonance lines of Fe II are optically thick and that the 8 eV levels are populated, presumably by fluorescence. Forbidden lines are very weak or absent in PG 1700 + 518. 11 references

  18. The W3 string spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, C.N.; Stelle, K.S.

    1991-08-01

    We study the spectrum of W 3 strings. In particular, we show that for appropriately chosen space-time signature, one of the scalar fields is singled out be the spin-3 constraint and is ''frozen'': no creation operators from it can appear in physical states and the corresponding momentum must assume a specific fixed value. The remaining theory is unitary and resembles an ordinary string theory in d contains 26 with anomalies cancelled by appropriate background charges. (author). 8 refs

  19. Infrared spectrum of arsenic pentafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, S.

    1967-01-01

    After a literature review about arsenic fluorides, we give several methods of obtaining very pure AsF 5 in order to ascertain the right spectrum of this compound. Our spectra fit well with Akers's observations, and we note that AsF 5 structure can be explained in terms of C 3v molecular symmetry, with the As-F bond stretching lying at 786 cm -1 and 811 cm -1 . (author) [fr

  20. Fast mixed spectrum reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouts, H.J.C.; Fischer, G.J.; Cerbone, R.J.

    1979-04-01

    The Fast Mixed Spectrum Reactor is a highly promising concept for a fast reactor with improved features of proliferation resistance, and excellent utilization of uranium resources. In technology, it can be considered to be a branch of fast breeder development, though its operation and implications are different from those of FBR'S in important respects. Successful development programs are required in several areas to bring FMSR to reality, but the payoff from a successful program can be high

  1. Hadron spectrum from the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.

    1989-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the last year in deriving the spectrum from QCD in the quenched approximation. I review these results and show that we are close to getting results with 10% errors for the proton to rho mass ratio. I give a status report on ACD calculations with dynamical fermions being done by various groups. While these calculations are still exploratory, we have reached the stage where realistic simulations can be contemplated. 20 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Management Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    promulgate command-specific policy and guidance for EMS use, the joint restricted frequency list (JRFL) process, the joint communications–electronics...joint communications–electronics operating instructions (JCEOI) and joint restricted frequency list (JRFL). Examples of FM include providing the...joint restricted frequency list Figure III-4. Joint Frequency Management Office Spectrum Management Process Chapter III III-10 JP 6-01 assignments

  3. Infrared spectrum of curium-244

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, J.G.; Blaise, J.; Verges, J.

    1974-09-01

    The spectrum of curium-244 has been observed on the high resolution Fourier-transform spectrometer at Laboratoire Aime Cotton. An electrodeless lamp containing 50 μg of CmI 3 was run for 12 hours and 800,000 points were taken. A total of 1743 lines have been ascribed to curium and 87 percent of the lines have been assigned to transitions between known energy levels

  4. Spectrum monitoring procedures and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    The first step towards operating an emitter on a test range is to contact the local frequency manager to establish a schedule. Since restricted radio frequency bands and operations are different at each test range location, most testing is accomplished by sharing the spectrum available with all range users. The telemetry bands in particular require spectrum activity scheduling. The objective is to resolve scheduling conflicts prior to operations. When two programs or projects request to use the same spectrum, their activity can be separated by quard bands, discrete frequencies, time, or operating locations (terrain masking). Priorities assigned to each program usually dictate which program will be scheduled first; however, use of priorities to schedule activities should be avoided and only considered as a last resort. When a scheduling conflict cannot be resolved using these techniques, it is brought to the attention of the responsible program managers. When scheduling activities involve other federal or nonfederal agencies, it is in the best interest of program managers to be as flexible as possible.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions ASD Autism spectrum disorder Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Autism spectrum disorder ( ASD ) is a condition that appears very early ...

  6. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Mitochondrial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... with a mitochondrial disease: may also have an autism spectrum disorder, may have some of the symptoms/signs of ...

  7. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Related Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Q: Do vaccines cause autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? A: Many studies that have looked at whether there is a relationship between vaccines and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To date, the studies continue to show ...

  8. Auction design for the wireless spectrum market

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Peng; Zhang, Qian

    2014-01-01

    This Brief introduces the wireless spectrum market and discusses the current research for spectrum auctions. It covers the unique properties of spectrum auction, such as interference relationship, reusability, divisibility, composite effect and marginal effect, while also proposing how to build economic incentives into the network architecture and protocols in order to optimize the efficiency of wireless systems.Three scenarios for designing new auctions are demonstrated. First, a truthful double auction scheme for spectrum trading considering both the heterogeneous propagation properties of c

  9. [Autism spectrum disorder and suicidality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, G; Contejean, Y; Doyen, C

    2015-09-01

    Most studies on suicide exclude subjects with autism spectrum disorders, yet there is a risk group. The purpose of this article is to present the data in the literature regarding the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of suicidality in subjects with autism spectrum disorders and to identify the factors that promote the transition to action. This review was carried out using the data set collected in Medline PubMed, items with "autism spectrum disorder", "pervasive developmental disorder", "Asperger's syndrome", "suicide", "suicide attempt", and "suicide behavior". In all subjects from our research on PubMed, 21.3% of subjects with autism spectrum disorder reported suicidal ideation, have attempted suicide or died by suicide (115 out of 539 subjects) and 7.7% of subjects supported for suicidal thoughts or attempted suicide exhibited an autism spectrum disorder (62 out of 806 subjects), all ages combined. Suicidal ideation and morbid preoccupation are particularly common in adolescents and young adults. Suicide attempts are accompanied by a willingness for death and can lead to suicide. They are more common in high-functioning autism and Asperger subjects. The methods used are often violent and potentially lethal or fatal in two cases published. Suicide risk depends on many factors that highlight the vulnerability of these subjects, following autistic and developmental symptoms. Vulnerability complicating the diagnosis of comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders are major factors associated with suicidality. Vulnerability but also directly related to suicidality, since the origin of physical and sexual abuse and victimization by peers assigning them the role of "scapegoat" are both responsible for acting out. Given the diversity of factors involved in the risk of suicide in this population, this does not validate "a" program of intervention, but the intervention of "customized programs". Their implementation should be as early as possible in order to treat

  10. Regional development and regional policy

    OpenAIRE

    Šabić, Dejan; Vujadinović, Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Economic polarization is a process that is present at global, national and regional level. Economic activity is extremely spatially concentrated. Cities and developed regions use the agglomeration effect to attract labor and capital, thus achieving more favorable economic conditions than the agrarian region. Scientific research and European experiences over the past decades have contributed to the discrepancy among theorists about the causes and consequences of regional inequalities. Regional...

  11. Experimental study of modification of neutron spectrum using filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Matsubayashi, M.; Brenizer, J.S. Jr.; Lindsay, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    Filter effects for continuum thermal neutron beams were experimentally studied by means of an effective energy. Be, Bi and Pb were used as filter materials to examine the energy shift of the spectrum. It was found that the effective energy of a thermal neutron beam is easily lowered into a sub-thermal region (down to 10 meV) by use of a filter system without any cooling system. The effectiveness and its applicability will be discussed in this study. (orig.)

  12. Toroidal coupling and frequency spectrum of tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edery, D.; Samain, A.

    1989-05-01

    The frequency spectrum of tearing modes is analyzed with the help of a mode coupling model including toroidal effects in the MHD regions and various non linear effects in the resonant layers. In particular it is shown that the sudden damping of the mode rotation and the simultaneous enhancement of the growth rate observed in tokamak, could be explained as a bifurcating solution of the dispersion equation

  13. Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and Alterations in Brain and Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Guerri, Consuelo; Bazinet, Alissa; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    The term ‘Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD)’ refers to the range of disabilities that may result from prenatal alcohol exposure. This article reviews the effects of ethanol on the developing brain and its long-term structural and neurobehavioural consequences. Brain imaging, neurobehavioural and experimental studies demonstrate the devastating consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing central nervous system (CNS), identifying specific brain regions affected, the range...

  14. The e− Spectrum and e+ Spectrum from AMS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Precision measurements by AMS on the ISS of the primary cosmic-ray electron flux in the range 0.5 to 700 GeV and the positron flux in the range 0.5 to 500 GeV are presented. The electron flux and the positron flux each require a description beyond a single power-law spectrum. Both the electron flux and the positron flux change their behavior at ∼30 GeV but the fluxes are significantly different in their magnitude and energy dependence. Between 20 and 200 GeV the positron spectral index is significantly harder than the electron spectral index.

  15. The effect of correction factors on internal bremsstrahlung spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    Correction factors affecting the experimental spectrum of internal bremsstrahlung (IB) accompanying B-decay have been studied. A wide survey of previous experimental studies, show a discrepancy between experimental results and the available theories of IB production especially for heavy nuclides and forbidden B-transitions, with some agreement in bounded regions in IB spectrum. This is due to the uncertainity in evaluating correction factors and neglecting others. The experimental distributions of IB from 147 Pm, 204 Tl and 90 Y are measured by using two different crystals of NaI(Tl) scintillators (2''x2'' and 3'''x3'') with suitable geometrical arrangements designed to minimize the effect of several factors. The present study covers overlapped ranges of energy from 0.05 to 2.2 MeV to observe the effect of these factors along this wide region of energy. The experimental probabilities are compared with theories. It agrees fairly well with Lewis and Ford theory in case of 14 '7Pm, 204 Tl, and with detour transitions theory in the intermediate region of energies of IB spectrum from 90 Y. Deviation of our results from theories is less than all previous experimental work. 20 tabs.; 43 figs.; 84 refs.; 5 apps

  16. Coalition Formation and Spectrum Sharing of Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhensheng Jiang; Wei Yuan; Leung, Henry; Xinge You; Qi Zheng

    2017-05-01

    In cognitive radio networks, self-interested secondary users (SUs) desire to maximize their own throughput. They compete with each other for transmit time once the absence of primary users (PUs) is detected. To satisfy the requirement of PU protection, on the other hand, they have to form some coalitions and cooperate to conduct spectrum sensing. Such dilemma of SUs between competition and cooperation motivates us to study two interesting issues: 1) how to appropriately form some coalitions for cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) and 2) how to share transmit time among SUs. We jointly consider these two issues, and propose a noncooperative game model with 2-D strategies. The first dimension determines coalition formation, and the second indicates transmit time allocation. Considering the complexity of solving this game, we decompose the game into two more tractable ones: one deals with the formation of CSS coalitions, and the other focuses on the allocation of transmit time. We characterize the Nash equilibria (NEs) of both games, and show that the combination of these two NEs corresponds to the NE of the original game. We also develop a distributed algorithm to achieve a desirable NE of the original game. When this NE is achieved, the SUs obtain a Dhp-stable coalition structure and a fair transmit time allocation. Numerical results verify our analyses, and demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm.

  17. Structural region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Structural region. The two groups had 4 substitutions similar to Yawat strain. The Yawat strain had 5 unique mutations. 3 in the E2 region and 2 in the E1 region. The mutation, I702V (E2), though different from all the recent Indian and Reunion sequences was similar ...

  18. ATW neutron spectrum measurements at LAMPF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, G.W.; Littleton, P.E.; Morgan, G.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) is a proposal to use a high flux of accelerator-produced thermalized neutrons to transmute both fission product and higher actinide commercial nuclear waste into stable or short-lived radioactive species in order to avoid long-term storage of nuclear waste. At LAMPF the authors recently performed experiments that were designed to measure the spectrum of neutrons produced per incident proton for full-scale proposed ATW targets of lead and lithium. The neutrons produced in such targets have a spectrum of energies that extends up to the energy of the incident proton beam, but the distribution peaks between 1 and 5 MeV. Transmutation reactions and fission of actinides are most efficient when the neutron energy is below a few eV, so the target must be surrounded by a non-absorbing material (blanket) to produce additional neutrons and reduce the energy of high energy neutrons without loss. The experiments with the lead target, 25 cm diameter by 40 cm long, were conducted with 800 MeV protons, while those with the lithium target, 25 cm diameter by 175 cm long, were conducted with 400 MeV protons. The blanket in both sets of experiments was a 60 cm diameter by 200 cm long annulus of lead that surrounded the target. Surrounding the blanket was a steel water tank with dimensions of 250 cm diameter by 300 cm long that simulated the transmutation region. A small sample pipe penetrated the length of the lead blanket and other sample pipes penetrated the length of the water tank at different radii from the beam axis so that the neutron spectra at different locations could be measured by foil activation. After irradiation the activated foil sets were extracted and counted with calibrated high resolution germanium gamma ray detectors at the Los Alamos nuclear chemistry counting facility.

  19. The Spectrum of Renal Allograft Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Chand

    Full Text Available Causes of "true" late kidney allograft failure remain unclear as study selection bias and limited follow-up risk incomplete representation of the spectrum.We evaluated all unselected graft failures from 2008-2014 (n = 171; 0-36 years post-transplantation by contemporary classification of indication biopsies "proximate" to failure, DSA assessment, clinical and biochemical data.The spectrum of graft failure changed markedly depending on the timing of allograft failure. Failures within the first year were most commonly attributed to technical failure, acute rejection (with T-cell mediated rejection [TCMR] dominating antibody-mediated rejection [ABMR]. Failures beyond a year were increasingly dominated by ABMR and 'interstitial fibrosis with tubular atrophy' without rejection, infection or recurrent disease ("IFTA". Cases of IFTA associated with inflammation in non-scarred areas (compared with no inflammation or inflammation solely within scarred regions were more commonly associated with episodes of prior rejection, late rejection and nonadherence, pointing to an alloimmune aetiology. Nonadherence and late rejection were common in ABMR and TCMR, particularly Acute Active ABMR. Acute Active ABMR and nonadherence were associated with younger age, faster functional decline, and less hyalinosis on biopsy. Chronic and Chronic Active ABMR were more commonly associated with Class II DSA. C1q-binding DSA, detected in 33% of ABMR episodes, were associated with shorter time to graft failure. Most non-biopsied patients were DSA-negative (16/21; 76.1%. Finally, twelve losses to recurrent disease were seen (16%.This data from an unselected population identifies IFTA alongside ABMR as a very important cause of true late graft failure, with nonadherence-associated TCMR as a phenomenon in some patients. It highlights clinical and immunological characteristics of ABMR subgroups, and should inform clinical practice and individualised patient care.

  20. Bizarre spectrum of SS 433

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margon, B.

    1980-01-01

    SS 433 is an emission-line star, a radio source, and an x-ray source centered in a supernova remnant, W50. Through observations and spectroscopic studies much has been learned of this object. The spectrum of SS 433 is characterized by Doppler-shifted emission lines of hydrogen and helium. This implies the presence of a gas. The wavelengths of these lines vary. Some of the moving lines of the spectrum are red-shifted and some are blue-shifted. Since the wavelengths of the Doppler-shifted features change rapidly with time, the velocity of both approaching gas and receding gas is changing. On any given night the average velocity is 12,000 km/sec. Also, the variations in velocity are periodic, with a 164-day period. These characteristics of the spectrum of SS 433 are explained by assuming the following hypothetical model. The object responsible for ejecting two jets in opposite directions is thought to be part of a binary system, consisting of a comparatively normal star bound in close orbit to a neutron star, which is in the process of pulling material away from the companion by virtue of its strong gravitational field. The gas streaming from the normal star forms a rotating accretion disk around the neutron star, and it is from the faces of this disk that the two jets are ejected in opposite directions. Precession of the plane of the disk is presumably what causes the axis of the jets to rotate, hence the 164-day period

  1. Opportunistic spectrum utilization in vehicular communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Nan

    2016-01-01

    This brief examines current research on improving Vehicular Networks (VANETs), examining spectrum scarcity due to the dramatic growth of mobile data traffic and the limited bandwidth of dedicated vehicular communication bands and the use of opportunistic spectrum bands to mitigate congestion. It reviews existing literature on the use of opportunistic spectrum bands for VANETs, including licensed and unlicensed spectrum bands and a variety of related technologies, such as cognitive radio, WiFi and device-to-device communications. Focused on analyzing spectrum characteristics, designing efficient spectrum exploitation schemes, and evaluating the date delivery performance when utilizing different opportunistic spectrum bands, the results presented in this brief provide valuable insights on improving the design and deployment of future VANETs.

  2. Angle independent velocity spectrum determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    An ultrasound imaging system (100) includes a transducer array (102) that emits an ultrasound beam and produces at least one transverse pulse-echo field that oscillates in a direction transverse to the emitted ultrasound beam and that receive echoes produced in response thereto and a spectral vel...... velocity estimator (110) that determines a velocity spectrum for flowing structure, which flows at an angle of 90 degrees and flows at angles less than 90 degrees with respect to the emitted ultrasound beam, based on the received echoes....

  3. Dynamic Spectrum Sharing among Femtocells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Costa, Gustavo Wagner Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    deployment of femtocells in an uncoordinated way will create difficult interference scenarios. For these reasons, this PhD thesis investigates how each femtocell can autonomously select portions of the spectrum in order to achieve more spectral efficiency and fairness. The solutions also strive...... for scalability to a large number of cells, stability and limited complexity. The work represents an evolution towards future cognitive femtocells. The issue of inter-cell interference among femtocells is thoroughly analyzed with game theory, graph theory and system-level simulations. These analyses show...

  4. Spectrum and Structure of Spiropyran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, J

    1994-01-01

    .... Both quantum mechanical and classical methods were used. Irradiation of spiropyran by UV light causes molecular rearrangement, thus yielding merocyanine whose absorption band lies in the visible region...

  5. Was The Electromagnetic Spectrum A Blackbody Spectrum In The Early Universe?

    OpenAIRE

    Opher, Merav; Opher, Reuven

    1997-01-01

    It is assumed, in general, that the electromagnetic spectrum in the Primordial Universe was a blackbody spectrum in vacuum. We derive the electromagnetic spectrum, based on the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem that describes the electromagnetic fluctuations in a plasma. Our description includes thermal and collisional effects in a plasma. The electromagnetic spectrum obtained differs from the blackbody spectrum in vacuum at low frequencies. In particular, concentrating on the primordial nucleo...

  6. Achievable capacity of a spectrum sharing system over hyper fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ekin, Sabit

    2009-11-01

    Cognitive radio with spectrum sharing feature is a promising technique to address the spectrum under-utilization problem in dynamically changing environments. In this paper, achievable capacity gain of spectrum sharing systems over dynamic fading environments is studied. For the analysis, a theoretical fading model called hyper fading model that is suitable to the dynamic nature of cognitive radio channel is proposed. Closed-form expression of probability density function (PDF) and cumulative density function (CDF) of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for secondary users in spectrum sharing systems are derived. In addition, the capacity gains achievable with spectrum sharing systems in high and low power regions are obtained. Numerical simulations are performed to study the effects of different fading figures, average powers, interference temperature, and number of secondary users on the achievable capacity.

  7. The VEGA Assembly Spectrum Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.

    1997-01-01

    The VEGA is assembly spectrum code, developed as a design tool for producing a few-group averaged cross section data for a wide range of reactor types including both thermal and fast reactors. It belongs to a class of codes, which may be characterized by the separate stages for micro group, spectrum and macro group assembly calculations. The theoretical foundation for the development of the VEGA code was integral transport theory in the first-flight collision probability formulation. Two versions of VEGA are now in use, VEGA-1 established on standard equivalence theory and VEGA-2 based on new subgroup method applicable for any geometry for which a flux solution is possible. This paper describes a features which are unique to the VEGA codes with concentration on the basic principles and algorithms used in the proposed subgroup method. Presented validation of this method, comprise the results for a homogenous uranium-plutonium mixture and a PWR cell containing a recycled uranium-plutonium oxide. Example application for a realistic fuel dissolver benchmark problem , which was extensive analyzed in the international calculations, is also included. (author)

  8. Millimeter wave spectrum of nitromethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyushin, Vadim

    2018-03-01

    A new study of the millimeter wave spectrum of nitromethane, CH3NO2, is reported. The new measurements covering the frequency range from 49 GHz to 237 GHz have been carried out using the spectrometer in IRA NASU (Ukraine). Transitions belonging to the |m| ≤ 8 torsional states have been analyzed using the Rho-axis-method and the RAM36 program, which has been modified for this study to take into account the quadrupole hyperfine structure due to presence of the nitrogen atom. A data set consisting of 5925 microwave line frequencies and including transitions with J up to 55 was fit using a model consisting of 97 parameters, and a weighted root-mean-square deviation of 0.84 was achieved. The analysis of the spectrum covers the m torsional states lying below the lowest small amplitude vibration in nitromethane molecule, which is the NO2 in plane rock at 475 cm-1. It serves as a preparatory step in further studies of intervibrational interactions in this molecule.

  9. Spectrum stabilizer; Stabilisateur de spectres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detourne, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Departement d' electronique generale, Service d' instrumentation nucleaire

    1967-05-01

    A spectrum stabilizer is a control mechanism which renders an analytical chain reliable. It can detect a drift in the amplification and in the base of the energy scale, and can modify the characteristics of this chain. The results of a theoretical study make it possible to calculate the width and the abscissae of the peaks of a stabilized spectrum as a function of the drifts. The SPECTROSTAB is a numerical stabilizer of a continuous type; it provides the artificial reference peak at low energies. Experimental results give the performances obtained on a reference peak provided by a semi-conductor detector, in the field of gamma spectroscopy. (author) [French] Un stabilisateur de spectres est un asservissement qui permet de rendre fidele une cha e d'analyse. Il detecte les derives du gain et de l'origine de l'echelle des energies et reagit sur les caracteristiques de cette cha e. Les resultats d'une etude theorique permettent le calcul des elargissements et des abscisses des pics d'un spectre stabilise, en fonction des derives. Le SPECTROSTAB est un stabilisateur numerique du genre continu; il fournit le pic de reference artificiel aux basses energies. Des resultats experimentaux donnent les performances obtenues sur un pic de reference fourni par un detecteur a semi-conducteur, dans le domaine de la spectrometrie gamma. (auteur)

  10. Application of a neural network for reflectance spectrum classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gefei; Gartley, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Traditional reflectance spectrum classification algorithms are based on comparing spectrum across the electromagnetic spectrum anywhere from the ultra-violet to the thermal infrared regions. These methods analyze reflectance on a pixel by pixel basis. Inspired by high performance that Convolution Neural Networks (CNN) have demonstrated in image classification, we applied a neural network to analyze directional reflectance pattern images. By using the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) data, we can reformulate the 4-dimensional into 2 dimensions, namely incident direction × reflected direction × channels. Meanwhile, RIT's micro-DIRSIG model is utilized to simulate additional training samples for improving the robustness of the neural networks training. Unlike traditional classification by using hand-designed feature extraction with a trainable classifier, neural networks create several layers to learn a feature hierarchy from pixels to classifier and all layers are trained jointly. Hence, the our approach of utilizing the angular features are different to traditional methods utilizing spatial features. Although training processing typically has a large computational cost, simple classifiers work well when subsequently using neural network generated features. Currently, most popular neural networks such as VGG, GoogLeNet and AlexNet are trained based on RGB spatial image data. Our approach aims to build a directional reflectance spectrum based neural network to help us to understand from another perspective. At the end of this paper, we compare the difference among several classifiers and analyze the trade-off among neural networks parameters.

  11. H and K (Ca II) emissions as observed in coronal spectrum in the July 20, 1963 solar eclipse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallini, F.; Righini, A.

    1975-01-01

    From a detailed analysis of a coronal spectrum taken from a DC-8 jet airplane during the Eclipse of 20 July, 1963 a rough model of a coronal cold region (T approximately 10 5 K) has been obtained. The model explains the presence of the abnormal H and K (Ca II) emissions and the large amount of F corona present in the spectrum. (Auth.)

  12. Direct measurements of the spectrum of the near-millimeter cosmic background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, P.L.

    1980-01-01

    The spectrum of the cosmic background radiation peaks at 6 cm -1 and falls rapidly at higher frequencies. The experimental determination of this simple but important fact has had a long and troubled history. It remained in doubt long after the nature of the Rayleigh-Jeans region of the spectrum was firmly established. In this review the author describes the experimental difficulties which have plagued cosmic background measurements at and beyond the peak in the spectrum. A critical evaluation of the present status of the field is then given. (Auth.)

  13. Ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.T.; Schramm, D.N.

    1985-01-01

    We analyze the evolution of the ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray spectrum upon traversing the 2.7 0 K microwave background with respect to pion photoproduction, pair-production reactions, and cosmological effects. Our approach employs exact transport equations which manifestly conserve nucleon number and embody the laboratory details of these reactions. A spectrum enhancement appears around 6 x 10 19 eV due to the ''pile-up'' of energy-degraded nucleons, and a ''dip'' occurs around 10 19 eV due to combined effects. Both of these features appear in the observational spectrum. We analyze the resulting neutrino spectrum and the effects of cosmological source distributions. We present a complete model of the ultrahigh-energy spectrum and anisotropy in reasonable agreement with observation and which predicts an observable electron-neutrino spectrum

  14. Epigenetics of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Michelle T; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), one of the most common childhood neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), is diagnosed in 1 of every 68 children. ASD is incredibly heterogeneous both clinically and aetiologically. The etiopathogenesis of ASD is known to be complex, including genetic, environmental and epigenetic factors. Normal epigenetic marks modifiable by both genetics and environmental exposures can result in epigenetic alterations that disrupt the regulation of gene expression, negatively impacting biological pathways important for brain development. In this chapter we aim to summarize some of the important literature that supports a role for epigenetics in the underlying molecular mechanism of ASD. We provide evidence from work in genetics, from environmental exposures and finally from more recent studies aimed at directly determining ASD-specific epigenetic patterns, focusing mainly on DNA methylation (DNAm). Finally, we briefly discuss some of the implications of current research on potential epigenetic targets for therapeutics and novel avenues for future work.

  15. The Spectrum of Learning Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Kortemeyer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available "Learning Analytics" became a buzzword during the hype surrounding the advent of "big data" MOOCs, however, the concept has been around for over two decades. When the first online courses became available it was used as a tool to increase student success in particular courses, frequently combined with the hope of conducting educational research. In recent years, the same term started to be used on the institutional level to increase retention and decrease time-to-degree. These two applications, within particular courses on the one hand and at the institutional level on the other, are at the two extremes of the spectrum of Learning Analytics – and they frequently appear to be worlds apart. The survey describes affordances, theories and approaches in these two categories.

  16. The APOLLO assembly spectrum code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavenoky, A.; Sanchez, R.

    1987-04-01

    The APOLLO code was originally developed as a design tool for HTR's, later it was aimed at the calculation of PWR lattices. APOLLO is a general purpose assembly spectrum code based on the multigroup integral transport equation; refined collision probability modules allow the computation of 1D geometries with linearly anisotropic scattering and two term flux expansion. In 2D geometries modules based on the substructure method provide fast and accurate design calculations and a module based on a direct discretization is devoted to reference calculations. The SPH homogenization technique provides corrected cross sections performing an equivalence between coarse and refined calculations. The post processing module of APOLLO generate either APOLLIB to be used by APOLLO or NEPLIB for reactor diffusion calculation. The cross section library of APOLLO contains data and self-shielding data for more than 400 isotopes. APOLLO is able to compute the depletion of any medium accounting for any heavy isotope or fission product chain. 21 refs

  17. Compact Microwave Fourier Spectrum Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2009-01-01

    A compact photonic microwave Fourier spectrum analyzer [a Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer, (FTMWS)] with no moving parts has been proposed for use in remote sensing of weak, natural microwave emissions from the surfaces and atmospheres of planets to enable remote analysis and determination of chemical composition and abundances of critical molecular constituents in space. The instrument is based on a Bessel beam (light modes with non-zero angular momenta) fiber-optic elements. It features low power consumption, low mass, and high resolution, without a need for any cryogenics, beyond what is achievable by the current state-of-the-art in space instruments. The instrument can also be used in a wide-band scatterometer mode in active radar systems.

  18. Was The Electromagnetic Spectrum A Blackbody Spectrum In The Early Universe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opher, M.; Opher, R.

    1997-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the electromagnetic spectrum in the primordial universe was a blackbody spectrum in vacuum. We derive the electromagnetic spectrum based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem that describes the electromagnetic fluctuations in a plasma. Our description includes thermal and collisional effects in a plasma. The electromagnetic spectrum obtained differs from a blackbody spectrum in vacuum at low frequencies. In particular, concentrating on the primordial nucleosynthesis era, it has more energy than the blackbody spectrum for frequencies less than 3ω pe to 6ω pe , where ω pe is the electron plasma frequency. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  19. On the Ice Nucleation Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, D.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a novel formulation of the ice nucleation spectrum, i.e. the function relating the ice crystal concentration to cloud formation conditions and aerosol properties. The new formulation is physically-based and explicitly accounts for the dependency of the ice crystal concentration on temperature, supersaturation, cooling rate, and particle size, surface area and composition. This is achieved by introducing the concepts of ice nucleation coefficient (the number of ice germs present in a particle) and nucleation probability dispersion function (the distribution of ice nucleation coefficients within the aerosol population). The new formulation is used to generate ice nucleation parameterizations for the homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets and the heterogeneous deposition ice nucleation on dust and soot ice nuclei. For homogeneous freezing, it was found that by increasing the dispersion in the droplet volume distribution the fraction of supercooled droplets in the population increases. For heterogeneous ice nucleation the new formulation consistently describes singular and stochastic behavior within a single framework. Using a fundamentally stochastic approach, both cooling rate independence and constancy of the ice nucleation fraction over time, features typically associated with singular behavior, were reproduced. Analysis of the temporal dependency of the ice nucleation spectrum suggested that experimental methods that measure the ice nucleation fraction over few seconds would tend to underestimate the ice nuclei concentration. It is shown that inferring the aerosol heterogeneous ice nucleation properties from measurements of the onset supersaturation and temperature may carry significant error as the variability in ice nucleation properties within the aerosol population is not accounted for. This work provides a simple and rigorous ice nucleation framework where theoretical predictions, laboratory measurements and field campaign data can be

  20. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  1. Fingerprint extraction from interference destruction terahertz spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Shen, Jingling

    2010-10-11

    In this paper, periodic peaks in a terahertz absorption spectrum are confirmed to be induced from interference effects. Theoretically, we explained the periodic peaks and calculated the locations of them. Accordingly, a technique was suggested, with which the interference peaks in a terahertz spectrum can be eliminated and therefore a real terahertz absorption spectrum can be obtained. Experimentally, a sample, Methamphetamine, was investigated and its terahertz fingerprint was successfully extracted from its interference destruction spectrum. This technique is useful in getting samples' terahertz fingerprint spectra, and furthermore provides a fast nondestructive testing method using a large size terahertz beam to identify materials.

  2. The frequency spectrum crisis - Issues and answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armes, G. L.

    The frequency spectrum represents a unique resource which can be overtaxed. In the present investigation, it is attempted to evalute the demand for satellite and microwave services. Dimensions of increased demand are discussed, taking into account developments related to the introduction of the personal computer, the activities of the computer and communications industries in preparation for the office of the future, and electronic publishing. Attention is given to common carrier spectrum congestion, common carrier microwave, satellite communications, teleports, international implications, satellite frequency bands, satellite spectrum implications, alternatives regarding the utilization of microwave frequency bands, U.S. Government spectrum utilization, and the impact at C-band.

  3. Imaging atoms from resonance fluorescence spectrum beyond the diffraction limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zeyang; Al-Amri, Mohammad; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2014-03-01

    We calculate the resonance fluorescence spectrum of a linear chain of two-level atoms driven by a gradient coherent laser field. The result shows that we can determine the positions of atoms from the spectrum even when the atoms locate within subwavelength range and the dipole-dipole interaction is significant. This far-field resonance fluorescence localization microscopy method does not require point-by-point scanning and it may be more time-efficient. We also give a possible scheme to extract the position information in an extended region without requiring more peak power of laser. We also briefly discuss how to do a 2D imaging based on our scheme. This work is supported by grants from the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) and the Qatar National Research Fund (QNRF) under the NPRP project.

  4. The precipitation synthesis of broad-spectrum UV absorber nanoceria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurhasanah, Iis; Sutanto, Heri; Puspaningrum, Nurul Wahyu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of nanoceria as broad-spectrum UV absorber was evaluated. Nanoceria were synthesized by precipitation process from cerium nitrate solution and ammonium hydroxide as precipitant agent. Isopropanol was mixed with water as solvent to prevent hard agglomeration. The structure of resulting nanoceria was characterized by x-ray diffractometer (XRD). The transparency in the visible light and efficiency of protection in UV A region were studied using ultraviolet-visible (UV - Vis) spectrophotometer. The results show that nanoceria possess good tranparency in visible light and high UV light absorption. The critical absorption wavelenght of 368 nm was obtained which is desirable for excellent broad-spectrum protection absorbers. Moreover, analysis of photodegradation nanoceria to methylene blue solution shows poor photocatalytic activity. It indicates that nanoceria suitable for used as UV absorber in personal care products

  5. An adaptive tensor voting algorithm combined with texture spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Su, Qing-tang; Lü, Gao-huan; Zhang, Xiao-feng; Liu, Yu-huan; He, An-zhi

    2015-01-01

    An adaptive tensor voting algorithm combined with texture spectrum is proposed. The image texture spectrum is used to get the adaptive scale parameter of voting field. Then the texture information modifies both the attenuation coefficient and the attenuation field so that we can use this algorithm to create more significant and correct structures in the original image according to the human visual perception. At the same time, the proposed method can improve the edge extraction quality, which includes decreasing the flocculent region efficiently and making image clear. In the experiment for extracting pavement cracks, the original pavement image is processed by the proposed method which is combined with the significant curve feature threshold procedure, and the resulted image displays the faint crack signals submerged in the complicated background efficiently and clearly.

  6. Normalized noise power spectrum of full field digital mammography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norriza Mohd Isa; Wan Muhamad Saridan Wan Hassan

    2009-01-01

    A method to measure noise power spectrum of a full field digital mammography system is presented. The effect of X-ray radiation dose, size and configuration of region of interest on normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) was investigated. Flat field images were acquired using RQA-M2 beam quality technique (Mo/Mo anode-filter, 28 kV, 2 mm Al) with different clinical radiation doses. The images were cropped at about 4 cm from the edge of the breast wall and then divided into different size of non-overlapping or overlapping segments. NNPS was determined through detrending, 2-D fast Fourier transformation and normalization. Our measurement shows that high radiation dose gave lower NNPS at a specific beam quality. (Author)

  7. Normalized Noise Power Spectrum of Full Field Digital Mammography System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isa, Norriza Mohd; Wan Hassan, Wan Muhamad Saridan

    2010-01-01

    A method to measure noise power spectrum of a full field digital mammography system is presented. The effect of X-ray radiation dose, size and configuration of region of interest on normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) was investigated. Flat field images were acquired using RQA-M2 beam quality technique (Mo/Mo anode-filter, 28 kV, 2 mm Al) with different clinical radiation doses. The images were cropped at about 4 cm from the edge of the breast wall and then divided into different size of non-overlapping or overlapping segments. NNPS was determined through detrending, 2-D fast Fourier transformation and normalization. Our measurement shows that high radiation dose gave lower NNPS at a specific beam quality.

  8. Spectrum database as a service (SDaaS) for broadband innovation and efficient spectrum utilization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mfupe, L

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Broadband innovations for future wireless networks involves rapid sharing of radio frequency (RF) spectrum resources by means of dynamic spectrum access techniques (DSA) to satisfy immediate portfolio of heterogeneous demands of wireless IP services...

  9. Understanding the Spectrum Environment: Data and Monitoring to Improve Spectrum Utilization

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The Wireless Spectrum Research and Development Senior Steering Group (WSRD SSG) Workshop V titled: Understanding the Spectrum Environment: Data and Monitoring to...

  10. Antidepressant exposure in pregnancy and risk of autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen MJ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Merete Juul Sørensen,1 Therese Koops Grønborg,2 Jakob Christensen,3,4 Erik Thorlund Parner,2 Mogens Vestergaard,5,6 Diana Schendel,7 Lars Henning Pedersen8,9 1Regional Centre of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Aarhus University Hospital, Risskov, Denmark; 2Department of Public Health, Section of Biostatistics, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; 3Department of Neurology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 4Department of Clinical Pharmacology, 5Department of Public Health, Section of General Practice, 6Research unit for General Practice, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; 7Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 8Danish Epidemiological Science Centre, Institute of Public Health, 9Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Background: Both the use of antidepressant medication during pregnancy and the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder have increased during recent years. A causal link has recently been suggested, but the association may be confounded by the underlying indication for antidepressant use. We investigated the association between maternal use of antidepressant medication in pregnancy and autism, controlling for potential confounding factors. Methods: We identified all children born alive in Denmark 1996–2006 (n=668,468 and their parents in the Danish Civil Registration System. We obtained information on the mother's prescriptions filled during pregnancy from the Danish National Prescription Registry, and on diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders in the children and diagnoses of psychiatric disorders in the parents from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. In a cohort analysis, we estimated hazard ratios of autism spectrum disorders in children exposed to antidepressant medication during pregnancy compared with children who were not exposed, using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Furthermore, we estimated the risk

  11. Spectrum Utilisation and Management in Cognitive Radio Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Kishor P.

    have confirmed this by showing that the considerable amount of radio spectrum is underutilized. Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) and the spectrum refarming are the two viable solutions for the problem of spectrum scarcity. In DSA, unlicensed user opportunistically uses the vacant licensed spectrum...... of licensed spectrum provides efficient use of spectrum. Spectrum refarming means the recovery of spectrum from its existing users for the purpose of re-assignment, either for new uses, or for the introduction of new spectrally efficient technologies. Spectrum refarming is a spectrum management tool that can......In recent years, the demand for radio spectrum for wireless communication is growing due to increase in number of users and popularity of data and multimedia services. This has been observed in the recent auctions completed word wide for the vestige of radio spectrum. The radio spectrum has been...

  12. Lobular patterns of cerebellar resting-state connectivity in adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivito, Giusy; Lupo, Michela; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Clausi, Silvia; Baiocco, Roberto; Cercignani, Mara; Bozzali, Marco; Leggio, Maria

    2018-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by core deficits in social functioning. Core autistics traits refer to poor social and imagination skills, poor attention-switching/strong focus of attention, exceptional attention to detail, as expressed by the autism-spectrum quotient. Over the years, the importance of the cerebellum in the aetiology of autism spectrum disorder has been acknowledged. Neuroimaging studies have provided a strong support to this view, showing both structural and functional connectivity alterations to affect the cerebellum in autism spectrum disorder. According to the underconnectivity theory, disrupted connectivity within cerebello-cerebral networks has been specifically implicated in the aetiology of autism spectrum disorder. However, inconsistent results have been generated across studies. In this study, an integrated approach has been used in a selected population of adults with autism spectrum disorder to analyse both cerebellar morphometry and functional connectivity. In individuals with autism spectrum disorder, a decreased cerebellar grey matter volume affected the right Crus II, a region showing extensive connections with cerebral areas related to social functions. This grey matter reduction correlates with the degree of autistic traits as measured by autism-spectrum quotient. Interestingly, altered functional connectivity was found between the reduced cerebellar Crus II and contralateral cerebral regions, such as frontal and temporal areas. Overall, the present data suggest that adults with autism spectrum disorder present with specific cerebellar structural alterations that may affect functional connectivity within cerebello-cerebral modules relevant to social processing and account for core autistics traits. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Analysis of the sixth spectrum of copper (Cu VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raassen, A.J.J.; Kleef, A.M. van

    1981-01-01

    The emission spectrum of copper has been observed in the regions 210-310 Angstroem and 950-1330 Angstroem. In the low-wavelength region 862 lines belonging to transitions between the 3d 5 4p and 3d 6 configurations in Cu VI have been classified while in the upper region 59 lines could be assigned to transitions from 3d 5 4p to 3d 5 4s. Of the 34 levels of the 3d 6 ground configuration 33 have been determined, while 208 of the 214 levels in the 3d 5 4p configuration and 13 of the 74 3d 5 4s levels have been established. For the 3d 6 and 3d 5 4p configurations parametric fits have been performed. The parameter values obtained for these configurations are compared to Hartree-Fock predictions. (orig.)

  14. Analysis of the sixth spectrum of nickel (Ni VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raassen, A.J.J.

    1980-01-01

    The emission spectrum of nickel has been observed in the regions 220-335 Angstroem and 890-1325 Angstroem using a sliding spark light source. In the lower wavelength region 861 lines, belonging to transitions from 3d 4 4p to 3d 5 have been classified, while 403 lines belonging to transitions from 3d 4 4p to 3d 4 4s have been identified in the upper region. All levels of the 3d 5 configuration have been found. Of the 180 levels belonging to 3d 4 4p 179 levels have been determined, while 57 of the 63 levels belonging to 3d 4 4s have been established. Parametric fits to the three configurations are presented and the eigenvector compositions of the levels are reported. The parameter values are compared to Hartree-Fock predictions. (orig.)

  15. Cadmium depletion impacts on hardening neutron spectrum for advanced fuel testing in ATR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Gray S.

    2011-01-01

    For transmuting long-lived isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products effectively is in a fast neutron spectrum reactor. In the absence of a fast spectrum test reactor in the United States of America (USA), initial irradiation testing of candidate fuels can be performed in a thermal test reactor that has been modified to produce a test region with a hardened neutron spectrum. A test region is achieved with a Cadmium (Cd) filter which can harden the neutron spectrum to a spectrum similar (although still somewhat softer) to that of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). A fuel test loop with a Cd-filter has been installed within the East Flux Trap (EFT) of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A detailed comparison analyses between the cadmium (Cd) filter hardened neutron spectrum in the ATR and the LMFBR fast neutron spectrum have been performed using MCWO. MCWO is a set of scripting tools that are used to couple the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the isotope depletion and buildup code ORIGEN-2.2. The MCWO-calculated results indicate that the Cd-filter can effectively flatten the Rim-Effect and reduce the linear heat rate (LHGR) to meet the advanced fuel testing project requirements at the beginning of irradiation (BOI). However, the filtering characteristics of Cd as a strong absorber quickly depletes over time, and the Cd-filter must be replaced for every two typical operating cycles within the EFT of the ATR. The designed Cd-filter can effectively depress the LHGR in experimental fuels and harden the neutron spectrum enough to adequately flatten the Rim-Effect in the test region. (author)

  16. Study of U235 neutron fission spectrum by the knowledge of cross sections average over that spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    A literature search of cross sections averaged over the fission neutron spectrum confirms inconsistencies between calculated and experimental values for high threshold reactions. Since, in this case, calculated averaged cross sections are systematically lower than measured values, it is concluded that the representations used to carry out these calculations underestimate the number of neutrons in the high energy region of the spectrum. A careful measurement of the averaged cross section for the 45 Sc(n,2n) 44g Sc and 45 Sc(n,2n) 44m Sc high threshold reactions had been performed in the RA-6 Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory after carefully checking that the neutron flux at the core position where the samples were being irradiated was indeed an undisturbed fission spectrum. The experimental values are greater than those calculated with either, Watt type representations or the one based on the Madland and Nix model for the prompt fission spectrum. In many areas of nuclear engineering, like validation of nuclear data, reactor calculations, applied nuclear physics, shielding design, etc., it is of great practical importance to have a representation for the neutron flux that can be expressed in a closed analytical form and that agrees with experimental results, specially for the most widely fissile nuclide, 235 U. The results of the calculations mentioned above lead us to propose an analytical form for the 235 U fission neutron spectrum that better agrees with experimental results in the whole energy spectrum. We propose two different forms; both are a modification of the Watt-type form that has been adopted within the ENDF/B-V files. One of the new analytical representations is defined in two regions: below 9.5 MeV it is exactly the same formula as that used within the ENDF/B-V files, above this energy the parameters of this formula are changed. The other proposed analytical representation is expressed by a single formula in the whole energy range. These two new

  17. Calculated LET spectrum from antiproton beams stopping in water

    CERN Document Server

    Bassler, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Antiprotons have been proposed as a potential modality for radiotherapy because the annihilation at the end of range leads to roughly a doubling of physical dose in the Bragg peak region. So far it has been anticipated that the radiobiology of antiproton beams is similar to that of protons in the entry region of the beam, but very different in the annihilation region, due to the expected high-LET components resulting from the annihilation. On closer inspection we find that calculations of dose averaged LET in the entry region may suggest that the RBE of antiprotons in the plateau region could significantly differ from unity, which seems to warrant closer inspection of the radiobiology in this region. Materials and Methods. Monte Carlo simulations using FLUKA were performed for calculating the entire particle spectrum of a beam of 126 MeV antiprotons hitting a water phantom. Results and Discussion. In the plateau region of the simulated antiproton beam we observe a dose-averaged unrestrict...

  18. Perturbation of operators and approximation of spectrum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    outside the bounds of essential spectrum of A(x) can be approximated ... some perturbed discrete Schrödinger operators treating them as block ...... particular, one may think of estimating the spectrum and spectral gaps of Schrödinger.

  19. The infrared spectrum of asteroid 433 Eros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, H. P.; Fink, U.; Treffers, R. R.; Gautier, T. N., III

    1976-01-01

    The mineralogical composition of asteroid Eros has been determined from its infrared spectrum (0.9-2.7 micrometers; 28/cm resolution). Major minerals include metallic Ni-Fe and pyroxene; no spectroscopic evidence for olivine or plagioclase feldspar was found. The IR spectrum of Eros is most consistent with a stony-iron composition.

  20. Dominant Taylor Spectrum and Invariant Subspaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ambrozie, Calin-Grigore; Müller, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 1 (2009), s. 101-111 ISSN 0379-4024 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/06/0128 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Taylor spectrum * Scott-Brown technique * dominant spectrum Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.580, year: 2009

  1. 78 FR 50399 - Spectrum Monitoring Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... 130809703-3703-01] RIN 0660-XC007 Spectrum Monitoring Pilot Program AGENCY: National Telecommunications and... National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) to design and conduct a pilot program to... investment for a two-year pilot program to determine the benefits of an automated spectrum measurement and...

  2. TVWS devices spectrum mask test and analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lamola, MM

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) plays a vital role in opportunistic access to spectrum. A key component of DSA is preventing interference to the incumbent (primary) user from the secondary user. We present the results of an experiment to analyze...

  3. Spectrum pooling in MnWave Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccardi, Federico; Shokri-Ghadikolaei, Hossein; Fodor, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the specific characteristics of mmWave technologies, we discuss the possibility of an authorization regime that allows spectrum sharing between multiple operators, also referred to as spectrum pooling. In particular, considering user rate as the performance measure, we assess...

  4. Psychomotor, Cognitive, and Social Development Spectrum Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Alex; Byra, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the Spectrum Teaching Styles can help physical educators develop an instructional environment that allows learners to meet the national content standards for physical education while providing learners with a quality educational experience. The paper discusses the development and use of the Spectrum and the development of…

  5. The spectrum of axisymmetric torsional Alfven waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sy, W.N.

    1977-03-01

    The spectrum of axisymmetric torsional Alfven waves propagating in a cylindrical, non-uniform, resistive plasma waveguide has been analysed by a method of singular perturbations. A simple condition has been derived which predicts whether the spectrum is continuous or discrete under given physical conditions. Application of this result to resolve an apparent discrepancy in experimental observations is briefly discussed. (Author)

  6. Project Spectrum: An Innovative Assessment Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krechevsky, Mara

    1991-01-01

    Project Spectrum attempts to reconceptualize the traditional linguistic and logical/mathematical bases of intelligence. Spectrum blurs the line between curriculum and assessment, embeds assessment in meaningful, real-world activities, uses "intelligence-fair" measures, emphasizes children's strengths, and recognizes the stylistic…

  7. Test Review: Autism Spectrum Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simek, Amber N.; Wahlberg, Andrea C.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews Autism Spectrum Rating Scales (ASRS) which are designed to measure behaviors in children between the ages of 2 and 18 that are associated with disorders on the autism spectrum as rated by parents/caregivers and/or teachers. The rating scales include items related to behaviors associated with Autism, Asperger's Disorder, and…

  8. Energy spectrum of buoyancy-driven turbulence

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Abhishek; Chatterjee, Anando G.; Verma, Mahendra K.

    2014-01-01

    Using high-resolution direct numerical simulation and arguments based on the kinetic energy flux Πu, we demonstrate that, for stably stratified flows, the kinetic energy spectrum Eu(k)∼k-11/5, the potential energy spectrum Eθ(k)∼k-7/5, and Πu(k)∼k-4

  9. Autism spectrum disorder: seeing is not understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecteau, Shirley; Lepage, Jean-François; Théoret, Hugo

    2006-02-21

    Impairments in social and emotional skills are a defining feature of autism spectrum disorder. Recent research shows that structural and functional abnormalities within the neural system that matches observation and execution of actions--the mirror neuron system--may explain the social aspects of the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder.

  10. Building Bridges across the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroson, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Among the many challenges that students with autism spectrum disorder bring into the learning environment, teachers report one particular difficulty: working with students' parents. As both an autism educator and parent of a child on the spectrum, Barbara Boroson explores some common complexities in parent-teacher relationships. She also offers…

  11. Molecular Imaging in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, H.C.; Doorduin, J.; van Berckel, B.N.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we aim to shed light on the schizophrenia spectrum disorders using molecular imaging. Schizophrenia spectrum disorders consist primarily of the disorders with full-blown psychosis in their course and are grouped in the DSM-IV category of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.

  12. Maternal Depressive Symptoms following Autism Spectrum Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Warren, Zachary E.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined depressive symptoms, concerning the week following autism spectrum diagnosis and an average of 1.4 years later, in mothers (n = 75) of young children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Over three-quarters of mothers (78.7%) provided retrospective reports of clinically significant depressive symptoms…

  13. Developing Undergraduate Coursework in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Tracy Loye; Dimitriou, Francine; Turko, Kristine; McPartland, James

    2014-01-01

    With rates of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) continuing to rise alongside improvements in early identification and treatment, service providers are in great demand. Providing undergraduate students with opportunities for education and applied experiences with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can help fill a valuable niche in the autism community.…

  14. Resource Distribution Approaches in Spectrum Sharing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich K. Jondral

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly difficult to satisfy growing demands for spectrum with the conventional policy of fixed spectrum allocation. To overcome this problem, flexible/dynamic spectrum sharing methods that can significantly improve spectrum utilization of the spectrum have gained increasing interest recently. This paper presents two dynamic spectrum sharing approaches, a centralized and a decentralized one. The centralized approach is based on hierarchical trading. Each level of hierarchy is composed of “markets” that are associated with a certain spatial area and trading occurrence frequency, whereas area size and trading occurrence frequency depend on the hierarchy level. The decentralized approach is based on game-theory. There, it is assumed that the operators are averse to unequal payoffs and act unselfishly, enabling a stable and sustainable community. Numerical results show that, in the observed scenario, both proposals outperform the reference case of fixed resource allocation significantly in terms of utilized bandwidth. Whereas, negotiation costs for spectrum brokerage appear in the centralized approach, nonnegligible amounts of spectrum are lost in the decentralized approach due to collisions. Thus, a hybrid of centralized and decentralized approach that exploits the benefits of both is also considered.

  15. [Autism Spectrum Disorder and DSM-5: Spectrum or Cluster?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Xaver; Freiberger, Verena; Greulich, Heide; Blank, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Within the new DSM-5, the currently differentiated subgroups of "Autistic Disorder" (299.0), "Asperger's Disorder" (299.80) and "Pervasive Developmental Disorder" (299.80) are replaced by the more general "Autism Spectrum Disorder". With regard to a patient-oriented and expedient advising therapy planning, however, the issue of an empirically reproducible and clinically feasible differentiation into subgroups must still be raised. Based on two Autism-rating-scales (ASDS and FSK), an exploratory two-step cluster analysis was conducted with N=103 children (age: 5-18) seen in our social-pediatric health care centre to examine potentially autistic symptoms. In the two-cluster solution of both rating scales, mainly the problems in social communication grouped the children into a cluster "with communication problems" (51 % and 41 %), and a cluster "without communication problems". Within the three-cluster solution of the ASDS, sensory hypersensitivity, cleaving to routines and social-communicative problems generated an "autistic" subgroup (22%). The children of the second cluster ("communication problems", 35%) were only described by social-communicative problems, and the third group did not show any problems (38%). In the three-cluster solution of the FSK, the "autistic cluster" of the two-cluster solution differentiated in a subgroup with mainly social-communicative problems (cluster 1) and a second subgroup described by restrictive, repetitive behavior. The different cluster solutions will be discussed with a view to the new DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, for following studies a further specification of some of the ASDS and FSK items could be helpful.

  16. Nonlinear Single Spin Spectrum Analayzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee

    2014-05-01

    Qubits are excellent probes of their environment. When operating in the linear regime, they can be used as linear spectrum analyzers of the noise processes surrounding them. These methods fail for strong non-Gaussian noise where the qubit response is no longer linear. Here we solve the problem of nonlinear spectral analysis, required for strongly coupled environments. Our non-perturbative analytic model shows a nonlinear signal dependence on noise power, resulting in a spectral resolution beyond the Fourier limit as well as frequency mixing. We developed a noise characterization scheme adapted to this non-linearity. We then applied it using a single trapped 88Sr+ ion as the a sensitive probe of strong, non-Gaussian, discrete magnetic field noise. With this method, we attained a ten fold improvement over the standard Fourier limit. Finally, we experimentally compared the performance of equidistant vs. Uhrig modulation schemes for spectral analysis. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 110503 (2013), Synopsis at http://physics.aps.org/synopsis-for/10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.110503 Current position: National Institute of Standards and Tehcnology, Boulder, CO.

  17. THE SPECTRUM OF Fe II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nave, Gillian [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8422 (United States); Johansson, Sveneric, E-mail: gillian.nave@nist.gov [Lund Observatory, University of Lund, Box 43, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2013-01-15

    The spectrum of singly ionized iron (Fe II) has been recorded using high-resolution Fourier transform (FT) and grating spectroscopy over the wavelength range 900 A to 5.5 {mu}m. The spectra were observed in high-current continuous and pulsed hollow cathode discharges using FT spectrometers at the Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ and Imperial College, London and with the 10.7 m Normal Incidence Spectrograph at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Roughly 12,900 lines were classified using 1027 energy levels of Fe II that were optimized to measured wavenumbers. The wavenumber uncertainties of lines in the FT spectra range from 10{sup -4} cm{sup -1} for strong lines around 4 {mu}m to 0.05 cm{sup -1} for weaker lines around 1500 A. The wavelength uncertainty of lines in the grating spectra is 0.005 A. The ionization energy of (130,655.4 {+-} 0.4) cm{sup -1} was estimated from the 3d{sup 6}({sup 5}D)5g and 3d{sup 6}({sup 5}D)6h levels.

  18. Clinical Spectrum of Propionic Acidaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rafique

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the clinical features, physical findings, diagnosis, and laboratory parameters of the patients with propionic acidaemia (PA. Methods. The records of diagnosed cases of propionic acidaemia were reviewed, retrospectively. Results. Twenty-six patients with PA had 133 admissions. The majority (85% of the patients exhibited clinical manifestations in the 1st week of life. Regarding clinical features, lethargy, fever, poor feeding, vomiting, dehydration, muscular hypotonia, respiratory symptoms, encephalopathy, disturbance of tone and reflexes, and malnutrition were observed in 51–92% admissions. Metabolic crises, respiratory diseases, hyperammonaemia, metabolic acidosis, hypoalbuminaemia, and hypocalcaemia were observed in 30–96% admissions. Pancytopenia, ketonuria, hypoproteinemia, hypoglycaemia, and mildly disturbed liver enzymes were found in 12–41% admissions. Generalised brain oedema was detected in 17% and cerebral atrophy in 25% admissions. Gender-wise odd ratio analysis showed value of 1.9 for lethargy, 1.99 for respiratory diseases, 0.55 for anaemia, and 1.82 for hypocalcaemia. Conclusion. Propionic acidaemia usually presents with wide spectrum of clinical features and disturbances of laboratory parameters in early neonatal age. It is associated with significant complications which deteriorate the patients’ quality of life. Perhaps with early diagnosis of the disease and in time intervention, these may be preventable.

  19. Olfaction in the autism spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, Sara A; Courchesne, Valérie; Mottron, Laurent; Frasnelli, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The autism spectrum (AS) is characterised by enhanced perception in vision and audition, described by the enhanced perceptual functioning (EPF) model. This model predicts enhanced low-level (discrimination of psychophysical dimensions), and mid- and high-level (pattern detection and identification) perception. The EPF model is here tested for olfaction by investigating olfactory function in autistic and Asperger participants. Experiment 1 targeted higher-order olfactory processing by assessing olfactory identification in nine Asperger, ten autistic, and eleven typically developed individuals. Experiment 2 focused on low-level olfactory processing; we assessed odour detection thresholds and odour discrimination in five Asperger, five autistic, and five typically developed males. Olfactory identification was impaired in autistic participants relative to control and Asperger participants. Typical performance in low-level olfactory processing suggests that neural mechanisms involved in the perceptual phenotype of AS do not affect structures implicated in olfactory processing. Reduced olfactory identification is limited to autistic participants who displayed speech delay and may be due to a reduced facility to use verbal labels. The apparent absence of enhanced olfactory perception of AS participants distinguishes the olfactory system from the other sensory modalities and might be caused by the absence of an obligatory thalamic relay.

  20. Adjustment of the 235U Fission Spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRIFFIN, PATRICK J.; WILLIAMS, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    The latest nuclear data are used to examine the sensitivity of the least squares adjustment of the 235 U fission spectrum to the measured reaction rates, dosimetry cross sections, and prior spectrum covariance matrix. All of these parameters were found to be very important in the spectrum adjustment. The most significant deficiency in the nuclear data is the absence of a good prior covariance matrix. Covariance matrices generated from analytic models of the fission spectra have been used in the past. This analysis reveals some unusual features in the covariance matrix produced with this approach. Specific needs are identified for improved nuclear data to better determine the 235 U spectrum. An improved 235 U covariance matrix and adjusted spectrum are recommended for use in radiation transport sensitivity analyses

  1. Remote sensing with laser spectrum radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianhe; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Xiaodong

    2016-10-01

    The unmanned airborne (UAV) laser spectrum radar has played a leading role in remote sensing because the transmitter and the receiver are together at laser spectrum radar. The advantages of the integrated transceiver laser spectrum radar is that it can be used in the oil and gas pipeline leak detection patrol line which needs the non-contact reflective detection. The UAV laser spectrum radar can patrol the line and specially detect the swept the area are now in no man's land because most of the oil and gas pipelines are in no man's land. It can save labor costs compared to the manned aircraft and ensure the safety of the pilots. The UAV laser spectrum radar can be also applied in the post disaster relief which detects the gas composition before the firefighters entering the scene of the rescue.

  2. Spectrum of resistivity gradient driven turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, P.W.; Diamond, P.H.; Shaing, K.C.; Garcia, L.; Carreras, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    The resistivity fluctuation correlation function and electrostatic potential spectrum of resistivity gradient driven turbulence are calculated analytically and compared to the results of three dimensional numerical calculations. Resistivity gradient driven turbulence is characterized by effective Reynolds' numbers of order unity. Steady-state solution of the renormalized spectrum equations yields an electrostatic potential spectrum (circumflex phi 2 )/sub ktheta/ approx. k/sub theta//sup -3.25/. Agreement of the analytically calculated potential spectrum and mean-square radial velocity with the results of multiple helicity numerical calculations is excellent. This comparison constitutes a quantitative test of the analytical turbulence theory used. The spectrum of magnetic fluctuations is also calculated, and agrees well with that obtained from the numerical computations. 13 refs., 8 figs

  3. Analysis of a gamma-ray spectrum by using a standard spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, Kanji

    1975-06-01

    The standard spectrum method has been extended to take into account the energy dependence of a standard spectrum. The method analyses the observed gamma-ray spectrum by the least-square method, using an interpolated standard spectrum for expressing the line shape and a linear function for the background continuum. The interpolated standard spectrum is defined for each fitting interval by interpolating several standard spectra, which are derived directly from the observed spectra of single photopeaks each corresponding to the incident monochromatic gamma-rays by subtracting the background and smoothing the data. (author)

  4. The spectrum of singly ionized scandium, Sc II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, S.; Litzen, U.

    1980-01-01

    The Sc II spectrum, emitted from a pulsed hollow-cathode discharge, has been studied in the region 1100-11 000 A, where 777 lines have been classified. 168 levels are now known, belonging to configurations of the types 3dnl, 4snl and 4p 2 . Parametric studies have been made for a number of configurations. A determination of the ionization limit from the configurations 3d4f, 5f and 5g gives the value 103 237.1+-2 cm -1 . (Auth.)

  5. The photoionization spectrum of neutral aluminium, Al I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of Al I has been studied for the wavelength range 1160 to 2000 A by the flash pyrolysis technique. Wavelengths and derived energy levels are reported for 70 new lines converging on the 3s3p(3)P(0) limits of Al II. The autoionization parameters of the 3p(2)P(0)-3p(2)(2)S doublet have been measured. Good agreement is obtained with the experiment of Kohl and Parkinson and the recent calculation of Le Dourneuf et al. The relative photoionization cross section has been measured in the wavelength region 1200 A to 2000 A.

  6. Pediatric lymphangiectasia: an imaging spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Ladonna J; Fenton, Laura Z; Weinman, Jason P; Anagnost, Miran R; Browne, Lorna P

    2015-04-01

    Lymphangiectasia is a rarely encountered lymphatic dysplasia characterized by lymphatic dilation without proliferation. Although it can occur anywhere, the most common locations are the central conducting lymphatics and the pulmonary and intestinal lymphatic networks. Recent advances in lymphatic interventions have resulted in an increased reliance on imaging to characterize patterns of disease. To describe the patient populations, underlying conditions, and imaging features of lymphangiectasia encountered at a tertiary pediatric institution over a 10-year period and correlate these with pathology and patient outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed the pathology database from 2002 to 2012 to identify patients with pathologically or surgically proven lymphangiectasia who had undergone cross-sectional imaging. Medical records were reviewed for patient demographics, underlying conditions, treatment and outcome. Thirteen children were identified, ranging in age from 1 month to 16 years. Five had pulmonary lymphangiectasia, four intestinal and four diffuse involvement. Pulmonary imaging findings include diffuse or segmental interlobular septal thickening, pleural effusions and dilated mediastinal lymphatics. Intestinal imaging findings include focal or diffuse bowel wall thickening with central lymphatic dilation. Diffuse involvement included dilation of the central lymphatics and involvement of more than one organ system. Children with infantile presentation and diffuse pulmonary, intestinal or diffuse lymphatic abnormalities had a high mortality rate. Children with later presentations and segmental involvement demonstrated clinical improvement with occasional regression of disease. Three children with dilated central lymphatics on imaging underwent successful lymphatic duct ligation procedures with improved clinical course. Lymphangiectasia is a complex disorder with a spectrum of presentations, imaging appearances, treatments and outcomes. Cross-sectional imaging

  7. Pediatric lymphangiectasia: an imaging spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, Ladonna J.; Fenton, Laura Z.; Weinman, Jason P.; Browne, Lorna P.; Anagnost, Miran R.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphangiectasia is a rarely encountered lymphatic dysplasia characterized by lymphatic dilation without proliferation. Although it can occur anywhere, the most common locations are the central conducting lymphatics and the pulmonary and intestinal lymphatic networks. Recent advances in lymphatic interventions have resulted in an increased reliance on imaging to characterize patterns of disease. To describe the patient populations, underlying conditions, and imaging features of lymphangiectasia encountered at a tertiary pediatric institution over a 10-year period and correlate these with pathology and patient outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed the pathology database from 2002 to 2012 to identify patients with pathologically or surgically proven lymphangiectasia who had undergone cross-sectional imaging. Medical records were reviewed for patient demographics, underlying conditions, treatment and outcome. Thirteen children were identified, ranging in age from 1 month to 16 years. Five had pulmonary lymphangiectasia, four intestinal and four diffuse involvement. Pulmonary imaging findings include diffuse or segmental interlobular septal thickening, pleural effusions and dilated mediastinal lymphatics. Intestinal imaging findings include focal or diffuse bowel wall thickening with central lymphatic dilation. Diffuse involvement included dilation of the central lymphatics and involvement of more than one organ system. Children with infantile presentation and diffuse pulmonary, intestinal or diffuse lymphatic abnormalities had a high mortality rate. Children with later presentations and segmental involvement demonstrated clinical improvement with occasional regression of disease. Three children with dilated central lymphatics on imaging underwent successful lymphatic duct ligation procedures with improved clinical course. Lymphangiectasia is a complex disorder with a spectrum of presentations, imaging appearances, treatments and outcomes. Cross-sectional imaging

  8. Pediatric lymphangiectasia: an imaging spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, Ladonna J.; Fenton, Laura Z.; Weinman, Jason P.; Browne, Lorna P. [Children' s Hospital Colorado, Department of Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Anagnost, Miran R. [Children' s Hospital Colorado, Department of Pathology, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Lymphangiectasia is a rarely encountered lymphatic dysplasia characterized by lymphatic dilation without proliferation. Although it can occur anywhere, the most common locations are the central conducting lymphatics and the pulmonary and intestinal lymphatic networks. Recent advances in lymphatic interventions have resulted in an increased reliance on imaging to characterize patterns of disease. To describe the patient populations, underlying conditions, and imaging features of lymphangiectasia encountered at a tertiary pediatric institution over a 10-year period and correlate these with pathology and patient outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed the pathology database from 2002 to 2012 to identify patients with pathologically or surgically proven lymphangiectasia who had undergone cross-sectional imaging. Medical records were reviewed for patient demographics, underlying conditions, treatment and outcome. Thirteen children were identified, ranging in age from 1 month to 16 years. Five had pulmonary lymphangiectasia, four intestinal and four diffuse involvement. Pulmonary imaging findings include diffuse or segmental interlobular septal thickening, pleural effusions and dilated mediastinal lymphatics. Intestinal imaging findings include focal or diffuse bowel wall thickening with central lymphatic dilation. Diffuse involvement included dilation of the central lymphatics and involvement of more than one organ system. Children with infantile presentation and diffuse pulmonary, intestinal or diffuse lymphatic abnormalities had a high mortality rate. Children with later presentations and segmental involvement demonstrated clinical improvement with occasional regression of disease. Three children with dilated central lymphatics on imaging underwent successful lymphatic duct ligation procedures with improved clinical course. Lymphangiectasia is a complex disorder with a spectrum of presentations, imaging appearances, treatments and outcomes. Cross-sectional imaging

  9. Electromagnetic spectrum survey of the environment in a locality in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abood, Wafa Ali; Din, Norashidah Md; Ismail, Aiman; Mohamad, Hafizal

    2013-01-01

    The electromagnetic spectrum in the environment is becoming a scarce resource with the emergence of a high number of wireless communications services Cognitive radio (CR) is viewed as a possible solution to the spectrum bottleneck which work in a premise that at an any given time and spatial region there are frequency bands that has no signal occupancy. The CR technique utilizes a temporarily unoccupied licensed band by allowing secondary users to exploit opportunistically the underutilized spectrum licensed to primary users without any harmful interference. Before investigating the technical and political implications of CR, it is necessary to know to what extent the licensed bands are temporally unoccupied. In this paper a spectrum occupancy measurements is conducted to study the utilization of RF spectrum in an environment. The measurements are performed on UHF TV, GSM900 and GSM1800 frequency bands in an urban area in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The evaluation made is based on the power detection principle. From the measurements, the spectrum holes are identified. The obtained results show that the spectral usage is 7.37% for UHF TV band, 12.8% for GSM900 and 5.3% for GSM1800 band leading to the conclusion that a significant amount of spectrum is available for deployment of cognitive radio.

  10. Electromagnetic spectrum survey of the environment in a locality in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abood, Wafa Ali; Din, Norashidah Md; Ismail, Aiman; Mohamad, Hafizal

    2013-06-01

    The electromagnetic spectrum in the environment is becoming a scarce resource with the emergence of a high number of wireless communications services Cognitive radio (CR) is viewed as a possible solution to the spectrum bottleneck which work in a premise that at an any given time and spatial region there are frequency bands that has no signal occupancy. The CR technique utilizes a temporarily unoccupied licensed band by allowing secondary users to exploit opportunistically the underutilized spectrum licensed to primary users without any harmful interference. Before investigating the technical and political implications of CR, it is necessary to know to what extent the licensed bands are temporally unoccupied. In this paper a spectrum occupancy measurements is conducted to study the utilization of RF spectrum in an environment. The measurements are performed on UHF TV, GSM900 and GSM1800 frequency bands in an urban area in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The evaluation made is based on the power detection principle. From the measurements, the spectrum holes are identified. The obtained results show that the spectral usage is 7.37% for UHF TV band, 12.8% for GSM900 and 5.3% for GSM1800 band leading to the conclusion that a significant amount of spectrum is available for deployment of cognitive radio.

  11. Discrete Ramanujan transform for distinguishing the protein coding regions from other regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wei; Wang, Jiasong; Zhao, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Based on the study of Ramanujan sum and Ramanujan coefficient, this paper suggests the concepts of discrete Ramanujan transform and spectrum. Using Voss numerical representation, one maps a symbolic DNA strand as a numerical DNA sequence, and deduces the discrete Ramanujan spectrum of the numerical DNA sequence. It is well known that of discrete Fourier power spectrum of protein coding sequence has an important feature of 3-base periodicity, which is widely used for DNA sequence analysis by the technique of discrete Fourier transform. It is performed by testing the signal-to-noise ratio at frequency N/3 as a criterion for the analysis, where N is the length of the sequence. The results presented in this paper show that the property of 3-base periodicity can be only identified as a prominent spike of the discrete Ramanujan spectrum at period 3 for the protein coding regions. The signal-to-noise ratio for discrete Ramanujan spectrum is defined for numerical measurement. Therefore, the discrete Ramanujan spectrum and the signal-to-noise ratio of a DNA sequence can be used for distinguishing the protein coding regions from the noncoding regions. All the exon and intron sequences in whole chromosomes 1, 2, 3 and 4 of Caenorhabditis elegans have been tested and the histograms and tables from the computational results illustrate the reliability of our method. In addition, we have analyzed theoretically and gotten the conclusion that the algorithm for calculating discrete Ramanujan spectrum owns the lower computational complexity and higher computational accuracy. The computational experiments show that the technique by using discrete Ramanujan spectrum for classifying different DNA sequences is a fast and effective method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Extended analysis of fifth spectrum of bromine: Br V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyaz, A.; Tauheed, A.; Rahimullah, K.

    2014-11-01

    The fifth spectrum of bromine (Br V) has been studied in the 200-2400 Å wavelength region. The spectrum was photographed on a 3-m normal incidence vacuum spectrograph at the St. Francis Xavier University, Antigonish (Canada) and 6.65-m grazing incidence spectrograph at the Zeeman laboratory (Amsterdam). The light sources used were a triggered spark and sliding spark. The ground configuration of Br V is 4s24p. The excited configurations 4s4p2+4s2(4d+5d+5s+6s+7s+5g+6g)+4s4p(5p+4f)+4p24d in the even parity system and the 4p3+4s2(5p+6p+7p+4f)+4s4p4d+4s4p5s configurations in the odd parity system have been studied. Relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) and least squares fitted (LSF) parametric calculations have been used to interpret the observed spectrum. 99 levels of Br V have now been established, 43 being new. Among 394 classified spectral lines, 181 are newly classified. The level 4s27s 2S1/2 is revised. We estimate the accuracy of our measured wavelengths for sharp and unblended lines to be±0.005 Å. The ionization limit is determined as 479,657±200 cm-1 (59.470±0.025 eV).

  13. Higher-Order Spectrum in Understanding Nonlinearity in EEG Rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cauchy Pradhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental nature of the brain's electrical activities recorded as electroencephalogram (EEG remains unknown. Linear stochastic models and spectral estimates are the most common methods for the analysis of EEG because of their robustness, simplicity of interpretation, and apparent association with rhythmic behavioral patterns in nature. In this paper, we extend the use of higher-order spectrum in order to indicate the hidden characteristics of EEG signals that simply do not arise from random processes. The higher-order spectrum is an extension Fourier spectrum that uses higher moments for spectral estimates. This essentially nullifies all Gaussian random effects, therefore, can reveal non-Gaussian and nonlinear characteristics in the complex patterns of EEG time series. The paper demonstrates the distinguishing features of bispectral analysis for chaotic systems, filtered noises, and normal background EEG activity. The bispectrum analysis detects nonlinear interactions; however, it does not quantify the coupling strength. The squared bicoherence in the nonredundant region has been estimated to demonstrate nonlinear coupling. The bicoherence values are minimal for white Gaussian noises (WGNs and filtered noises. Higher bicoherence values in chaotic time series and normal background EEG activities are indicative of nonlinear coupling in these systems. The paper shows utility of bispectral methods as an analytical tool in understanding neural process underlying human EEG patterns.

  14. South Africa heading for dynamic spectrum management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, Albert A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available  Africa heading for dynamic spectrum management — PolicyTracker: the spectrum management newsletter https://www.policytracker.com/headlines/south­africa­heading­for­dynamic­spectrum­management/?searchterm=lysko 1/2 South Africa heading for dynamic spectrum management Sep 26, 2016 by Albert Lysko South... characteristic of rural areas, which traditionally lag behind more commercially attractive urban areas. The technology is a bridge towards fully dynamic spectrum management and 5G. The ability to manage spectrum dynamically should significantly improve the utilization and availability of spectrum, especially in rural areas, as well as...

  15. Measured and Predicted Variations in Fast Neutron Spectrum when Penetrating Laminated Fe-D2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalto, E.; Sandlin, R.; Fraeki, R.

    1965-09-01

    Variations of the fast neutron spectrum in thin regions of alternating Fe and D O have been studied using threshold detectors (ln(n, n' ), S(n, p), Al(n, α)). The results have been compared to those calculated by two shielding codes (NRN and RASH D) of multigroup removal-diffusion type. The absolute fast spectrum calculated in our rather complicated configurations was found to agree with measurements within the same accuracy (a factor of two) as did the thermal flux. The calculated spectrum is slightly harder than the measured one, but the detailed variations (covering the range 1:5) in the form of the spectrum when penetrating Fe agree with observations to within 15-20 %. In and Al activities were found to be proportional to the integrated flux over 1 MeV throughout the whole configuration, while S showed the least proportionality

  16. Spectrum of reflected light by self-focusing of light in a laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunov, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    The spectrum of the radiation reflected by a laser-produced plasma is considered. In this situation, self-focusing occurs and a region of low density (caviton) is formed. It is shown that the process leads to a considerable broadening of the spectrum on the ''red'' side, and to the appearance of a line structure in the spectrum. The results can explain data for the reflected light spectrum [L. M. Gorbunov et al., FIAN Preprint No. 126 (1979)] as being due to the nonstationary self-focusing of light in a laser-produced plasma that has recently been observed [V. L. Artsimovich et al., FIAN Preprint No. 252 (1981); Sov. Phys. Doklady 27, 618 (1982)

  17. On Properties of Impurity Spectrum in the Disordered Exactly Solvable Model

    CERN Document Server

    Grinshpun, V

    2006-01-01

    The random point interaction Hamiltonian (H) is considered on L^2(R^d), d=2, or d=3. Existence and certain bounds of the non-empty pure point component and exponential decay of the corresponding eigenfunctions with probability 1, within region of impurity spectrum of H, are rigorously established. In order to prove the localization result, the structure of the generalized eigenfunctions of H is explicitly described, and the relation between its spectral properties, and the properties of spectra of finite-difference infinite-order operators on l^2(Z^d), is established. The multiscale analysis scheme is applied to investigate the point spectrum of finite-difference operators. In addition, the generalized spectral theorem, and absolute continuity of the integrated density of states of H at the negative (impurity) part of the spectrum, rigorously proved. Applications of the new approximation scheme include straightforward analysis of absolutely continuous conductivity spectrum, subject to a possible separate publ...

  18. Primordial power spectrum features and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, G.

    2014-03-01

    The present Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropy data is consistent with not only a power law scalar primordial power spectrum (PPS) with a small running but also with the scalar PPS having very sharp features. This has motivated inflationary models with such sharp features. Recently, even the possibility of having nulls in the power spectrum (at certain scales) has been considered. The existence of these nulls has been shown in linear perturbation theory. What shall be the effect of higher order corrections on such nulls? Inspired by this question, we have attempted to calculate quantum radiative corrections to the Fourier transform of the 2-point function in a toy field theory and address the issue of how these corrections to the power spectrum behave in models in which the tree-level power spectrum has a sharp dip (but not a null). In particular, we have considered the possibility of the relative enhancement of radiative corrections in a model in which the tree-level spectrum goes through a dip in power at a certain scale. The mode functions of the field (whose power spectrum is to be evaluated) are chosen such that they undergo the kind of dynamics that leads to a sharp dip in the tree level power spectrum. Next, we have considered the situation in which this field has quartic self interactions, and found one loop correction in a suitably chosen renormalization scheme. Thus, we have attempted to answer the following key question in the context of this toy model (which is as important in the realistic case): In the chosen renormalization scheme, can quantum radiative corrections be enhanced relative to tree-level power spectrum at scales, at which sharp dips appear in the tree-level spectrum?

  19. Microwave spectrum of 2,6-dimethylcyclohexanone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Heesu; Shim, Jae-Seol; Oh, Jung Jin

    2017-07-01

    The rotational spectrum of 2,6-dimethylcyclohexanone (DMCHO) was measured in the frequency region from 6 to 12 GHz. Among three possible conformational isomers, two conformers were identified where two methyl groups are aligned in the equatorial/equatorial (ee) and the equatorial/axial (ea) positions. Both b-type and c-type transitions for (e,e)-2,6-DMCHO, and a-type, b-type, and c-type transitions for (e,a)-2,6-DMCHO were assigned to determine the rotational constants and quartic centrifugal distortion constants based on the Watson-A reduction Hamiltonian: (ee) A = 2150.95789(48) MHz, B = 1578.76212(40) MHz, C = 990.19141(45) MHz, ΔJ = 0.086(11) kHz, ΔJK = -0.134(20) kHz, ΔK = 0.298(15) kHz, δJ = 23.4(24) Hz, and δK = 101.4(77) Hz; and (ea) A = 2082.62538(83) MHz, B = 1566.59564(59) MHz, C = 1113.90153(75) MHz, ΔJ = 0.066(23) kHz. In addition, dipole moment components of the two isomers were determined by Stark effect measurements: (ee) μb = 2.6673(12) D, μc = 1.0379(11) D, μtotal = 2.8621(12) D; and (ea) μa = 1.385(253) D, μb = 2.358(104) D, μc = 1.172(21) D, μtotal = 2.975(144) D. Ab initio calculations for all three isomers were compared with each other and with experimental results.

  20. AMHARA REGION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the contribution of school curriculum committee in facilitating and coordinating ... schools of Amhara Region' ln undertaking the study the descriptive survey method was used. .... pupil and the teacher are available. ... prepared for each level and grade has ..... the principals have the opinion that the.

  1. Atlantic Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elands, B.H.M.; Bell, S.; Blok, J.

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 2 explores recreation and tourism practices in forest areas in the Atlantic region, which refers to the geographical area close to the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The Atlantic countries described in this section are Belgium (Flanders and Wallonia), Denmark, Iceland, Ireland, the

  2. Absorption spectrum of Iodine around 5915 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The iodine absorption spectrum around 5915 A is of interest for many authors especially the hyperfine structure of the iodine line. Lodine absorption spectrum was obtained due to the interaction of iodine vapour with dye laser [(R6G) (0.5A) scanning range around 5915 A] which is pumped by(Ar + )laser absorption spectrum. The decrease in the peak of the transmission line around 5915 A shows the signal futher decreased by heating the iodine cell. This analysis has been done using a monochromator

  3. Subsampling for graph power spectrum estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar; Leus, Geert

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we focus on subsampling stationary random signals that reside on the vertices of undirected graphs. Second-order stationary graph signals are obtained by filtering white noise and they admit a well-defined power spectrum. Estimating the graph power spectrum forms a central component of stationary graph signal processing and related inference tasks. We show that by sampling a significantly smaller subset of vertices and using simple least squares, we can reconstruct the power spectrum of the graph signal from the subsampled observations, without any spectral priors. In addition, a near-optimal greedy algorithm is developed to design the subsampling scheme.

  4. Subsampling for graph power spectrum estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar

    2016-10-06

    In this paper we focus on subsampling stationary random signals that reside on the vertices of undirected graphs. Second-order stationary graph signals are obtained by filtering white noise and they admit a well-defined power spectrum. Estimating the graph power spectrum forms a central component of stationary graph signal processing and related inference tasks. We show that by sampling a significantly smaller subset of vertices and using simple least squares, we can reconstruct the power spectrum of the graph signal from the subsampled observations, without any spectral priors. In addition, a near-optimal greedy algorithm is developed to design the subsampling scheme.

  5. Mutation Spectrum of β-Thalassemia and Other Hemoglobinopathies in Chittagong, Southeast Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Tridip; Chakravarty, Amit; Chakravarty, Sudipa; Chowdhury, Mahmood Ahmed; Sultana, Razia

    2015-01-01

    Thalassemia is one of the most common autosomal recessive blood disorders in the world. It shows a variety of clinical expression, starting from asymptomatic to severe blood transfusion dependence. More than 500 alleles have been characterized in or around the β-globin region. Moreover, most geographical regions have their own characteristics, frequency and availability of these alleles, predominantly circulating within the communities present in that particular region. In this study, we explored the spectrum of β-thalassemia (β-thal) alleles present in Chittagong, Southeast Bangladesh. This study comprises β-thal and Hb E (HBB: c.79 G > A) patients from in and around the area of Chittagong. Not only exploring the complete β-globin mutation spectrum of the area, but we also tried to look at the origin of the mutated alleles. The β-thal mutations of Bangladesh show a relatively wide spectrum of alleles, which further demonstrates the heterogeneity of the disease in this country. Although our study showed that the majority of the mutations have their origin in neighboring countries such as India, countries of Southeast Asia, Pakistan, etc., some unusual alleles do not originate in neighboring countries and put a little more diversity in the overall spectrum of β-thal-specific alleles. Overall, this study demonstrates the mutation spectrum related to β-thal in Chittagong, Southeast Bangladesh.

  6. Extended analysis of fifth spectrum of bromine: Br V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riyaz, A.; Tauheed, A.; Rahimullah, K.

    2014-01-01

    The fifth spectrum of bromine (Br V) has been studied in the 200–2400 Å wavelength region. The spectrum was photographed on a 3-m normal incidence vacuum spectrograph at the St. Francis Xavier University, Antigonish (Canada) and 6.65-m grazing incidence spectrograph at the Zeeman laboratory (Amsterdam). The light sources used were a triggered spark and sliding spark. The ground configuration of Br V is 4s 2 4p. The excited configurations 4s4p 2 +4s 2 (4d+5d+5s+6s+7s+5g+6g)+4s4p(5p+4f)+4p 2 4d in the even parity system and the 4p 3 +4s 2 (5p+6p+7p+4f)+4s4p4d+4s4p5s configurations in the odd parity system have been studied. Relativistic Hartree–Fock (HFR) and least squares fitted (LSF) parametric calculations have been used to interpret the observed spectrum. 99 levels of Br V have now been established, 43 being new. Among 394 classified spectral lines, 181 are newly classified. The level 4s 2 7s 2 S 1/2 is revised. We estimate the accuracy of our measured wavelengths for sharp and unblended lines to be±0.005 Å. The ionization limit is determined as 479,657±200 cm −1 (59.470±0.025 eV). - Highlights: • The spectrum of Br was recorded on a 3-m spectrograph with triggered spark source. • Atomic transitions for Br V were identified to established new energy levels. • CI calculations with relativistic corrections were made for theoretical predictions. • Weighted oscillator strength (gf) and transition probabilities (gA) were calculated. • Ionization potential of Br V was determined experimentally

  7. 76 FR 61672 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... advice to the Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management... Communications and Information on needed reforms to domestic spectrum policies and management in order to... Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information...

  8. 77 FR 69597 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... advice to the Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management... Communications and Information on needed reforms to domestic spectrum policies and management in order to... Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information...

  9. 77 FR 35941 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... advice to the Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management... Communications and Information on needed reforms to domestic spectrum policies and management in order to... Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information...

  10. 78 FR 35260 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... advice to the Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management... Communications and Information on needed reforms to domestic spectrum policies and management in order to... Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information...

  11. 76 FR 23796 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... advice to the Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management... Communications and Information on needed reforms to domestic spectrum policies and management in order to... Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information...

  12. 78 FR 49260 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... advice to the Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management... Communications and Information on needed reforms to domestic spectrum policies and management in order to... Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information...

  13. 77 FR 48968 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... advice to the Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management... Communications and Information on needed reforms to domestic spectrum policies and management in order to... Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information...

  14. 78 FR 7758 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... advice to the Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management... Communications and Information on needed reforms to domestic spectrum policies and management in order to... Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information...

  15. 78 FR 23541 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... advice to the Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management... Communications and Information on needed reforms to domestic spectrum policies and management in order to... Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information...

  16. 77 FR 5494 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... advice to the Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management... Communications and Information on needed reforms to domestic spectrum policies and management in order to... Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information...

  17. 78 FR 57370 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... advice to the Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management... Communications and Information on needed reforms to domestic spectrum policies and management in order to... Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information...

  18. Cloud based spectrum manager for future wireless regulatory environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The regulatory environment in radio frequency spectrum management lags the advancement of wireless technologies, especially in the area of cognitive radio and dynamic spectrum access. In this paper we argue that the solution towards spectrum Pareto...

  19. An experimental study of the ion chemistry and thermal balance in the E- and F-regions above Wallops Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brace, L. H.; Mayr, H. G.; Pharo, M. W., III; Scott, L. R.; Taylor, H. A., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    E and F region positive ion composition, electron concentration and thermal balance vertical profile, discussing ionizing radiation spectrum, plasma cooling, primary chemical reaction rates and ionospheric formation

  20. WCGM. A gamma-spectrum analysis program rewritten in Windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szekely, G.

    2009-01-01

    side mouse button. By activating 'Process|Fit selected spectrum region' menu item, the code starts to fit the peak shape shown on the logo screen (fig.1) at the selected peak positions together with a background function. The parameter settings determining the theoretical functions to be fitted can be edited by the 'Edit' menu items. The results of the fit can be saved in a text file and the graphical screen of the code can be also captured and saved. Graphical manipulations. To determine the spectrum region to be displayed one can move the cursor to the required start position, push the left mouse button and pull the cursor to the required end point. To shift the current region left or right, contract or expand it, or go back to the whole spectrum region - all these functions are solved by a 4-arrow cross with an inner circle - like the one on the map navigation sites. In addition the 'View' menu items give a selection for the spectrum displaying modes. Software environment. The code was developed in C++ and compiled with gcc under DevC++ system. These are free softwares which make it possible to produce executable code in 32-bit Windows systems like XP, Vista or Windows7. The main component that makes the system routines callable for the application code is the Windows API (msvcrt.dll) which is part of the Windows system since the Windows 2000 version. Content of the code's webpage. The mathematical models of the fitting functions for the calibrations, background and peak shapes can be found in the copy of the original article. A FAQ will be also available as the experiences grow. The most important is that the executable code and the online help file are there and ready to download. An example spectrum file and the corresponding control data file are also included. The readme.txt file contains the description of the installation of the code and running it with the given example. It also contains the e-mail address of the author, where all the suggestions and

  1. PREVALENCE OF EXTENDED SPECTRUM β-LACTAMASES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. Confirmed variants of enterobacteriaceae isolated from 143 patients that attended Murtala. Mohammed Specialist Hospital Kano, were screened for extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) production using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoint. Suspected ESBLs producers were ...

  2. Decision Analysis of Dynamic Spectrum Access Rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan D. Deaton; Luiz A. DaSilva; Christian Wernz

    2011-12-01

    A current trend in spectrum regulation is to incorporate spectrum sharing through the design of spectrum access rules that support Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA). This paper develops a decision-theoretic framework for regulators to assess the impacts of different decision rules on both primary and secondary operators. We analyze access rules based on sensing and exclusion areas, which in practice can be enforced through geolocation databases. Our results show that receiver-only sensing provides insufficient protection for primary and co-existing secondary users and overall low social welfare. On the other hand, using sensing information between the transmitter and receiver of a communication link, provides dramatic increases in system performance. The performance of using these link end points is relatively close to that of using many cooperative sensing nodes associated to the same access point and large link exclusion areas. These results are useful to regulators and network developers in understanding in developing rules for future DSA regulation.

  3. Interference management using direct sequence spread spectrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interference management using direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) technique ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... Keywords: DSSS, LTE network; Wi-Fi network; SINR; interference management and interference power.

  4. Encoded Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Produced

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    26.1 % Klebsiella spp were positive for extended spectrum beta-lactamases ... issue, and TEM, OXA and SHV type ESBL were the most common genotypes. ... mechanism of action. ..... and Multiplex PCR Screening of AmpC Genes from.

  5. Comparison of spectrum normalization techniques for univariate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy; univariate study; normalization models; stainless steel; standard error of prediction. Abstract. Analytical performance of six different spectrum normalization techniques, namelyinternal normalization, normalization with total light, normalization with background along with their ...

  6. Using activation method to measure neutron spectrum in an irradiation chamber of a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xuemei; Liu Guimin; Wang Xiaohe; Li Da; Meng Lingjie

    2014-01-01

    Neutron spectrum should be measured before test samples are irradiated. Neutron spectrum in an irradiation chamber of a research reactor was measured by using activation method when the reactor is in normal operation under 2 MW. Sixteen kinds of non-fission foils (19 reaction channels) were selected, of which 10 were sensitive to thermal and intermediate energy regions, while the others were of different threshold energy and sensitive to fast energy regions. By measuring the foil radioactivity, the neutron spectrum was unfolded with the iterative methods SAND-II and MSIT. Finally, shielding corrections of group cross-section and main factors affecting the calculation accuracy were studied and the uncertainty of solution was analyzed using the Monte Carlo method in the process of SAND-II. (authors)

  7. Unfolding measurement of the atmospheric muon neutrino spectrum using IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerner, Mathis; Ruhe, Tim; Meier, Maximilian; Schlunder, Philipp; Menne, Thorben; Fuchs, Tomasz [Dept. of Physics, Technical University of Dortmund, 44227 Dortmund (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    IceCube is a cubic kilometer neutrino observatory located at the geographic South Pole. With its huge volume, the detector is well suited for measurements of the atmospheric muon neutrino energy spectrum. Over the last years, several unfolding analyses for single years were able to provide model independent measurements for the northern hemisphere in an energy region between 200 GeV and 3.2 PeV. In this talk, the extension of the analyses to four additional years of data is presented. With this significant enlargement of the data basis, it is possible to reanalyze the full northern hemisphere with smaller statistical errors. Moreover, the spectrum can be unfolded in several small zenith bands. Measurements of the energy spectrum for different zenith regions provide further information on the composition and the shape of the flux.

  8. Analysis of the biological spectrum of vascular flora of Ravni Srem flood forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurišić Branislav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential analyses performed during the floristic study of a region is the analysis of the biological spectrum. The analysis of the biological spectrum of the flora includes the determination of the type of life form for each taxon described in the flora of the study region. If it is considered that life form is a specific structural-functional response to the environmental effects and the result of the adaptation during the species evolution, it is clear that the basic characteristics of the site are more or less reflected in any life form. This fact is confirmed by the analysis of the biological spectrum of the flora of Ravni Srem. The analysis of the Ravni Srem flora shows the domination of the hemicryptophytes and the subdomination of the phanerophytes with a considerable participation of the therophytes.

  9. Natural gamma ray spectrum analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, P.; Seeman, B.

    1976-01-01

    In accordance with an illustrative embodiment of the present invention, a method and apparatus is disclosed for determining the presence of a selected number of naturally radioactive materials in an earth formation from the spectrum of natural gamma radiation emitted by the materials in the formation by deriving representations of portions of the detected gamma radiation spectrum and combining the representations to determine therefrom the presence of the selected materials

  10. Radar spectrum opportunities for cognitive communications transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, L; McGeehan, JP; Williams, C; Doufexi, A

    2008-01-01

    In relation to opportunistic access to radar spectrum, the impact of the radar on a communication system is investigated in this paper. This paper illustrates that by exploring the spatial and temporal opportunities in the radar spectrum and therefore improving the tolerance level to radar interference, a substantial increase on the throughput of a communication system is possible. Results are presented regarding the impact of swept radars on a WiMAX system. The results show the impact of SIR...

  11. Impurity effect on spectrum of nanoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, W; Garcia, L F; Mikhailov, I D, E-mail: willigun@gmail.co [Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Colombia A.A. 678 (Colombia)

    2009-05-01

    The effect of the donor position on the energy levels and far-infrared spectrum of a finite-barrier toroidal-shaped quantum ring in the presence of the external magnetic field applied along the axis is studied. It is shown that the displacement of the donor from the centre toward the ring produces a localization of the low lying states, quenching of the Aharonov- Bohm oscillations of the corresponding levels and a drastic modification of the far-infrared spectrum.

  12. Regional insertion: an emergent approach; Insercao regional: uma abordagem emergente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, M T.F.; Nascimento Teixeira, P do [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Meio Ambiente

    1990-12-31

    The Brazilian Electrical Sector incorporates new variables that expressing the extensive spectrum of environmental impacts in the take of decisions, referring to the viability of realizing a electrical undertaking, attends the several restrictions that are important by the sector and by the society in the environment area and promotes the adequate generation of liquid benefits, consequential of the electrical undertaking. Due to these factors, the Electrical Sector is improving the concept of regional insertion, with the sectorial expansion in long-dated and the created demand in the environmental and social area, focalizing the solution for these questions. (C.G.C.). 1 fig, 2 tabs.

  13. The Spectrum of Wind Power Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandi, Mahesh

    2016-11-01

    Wind is a variable energy source whose fluctuations threaten electrical grid stability and complicate dynamical load balancing. The power generated by a wind turbine fluctuates due to the variable wind speed that blows past the turbine. Indeed, the spectrum of wind power fluctuations is widely believed to reflect the Kolmogorov spectrum; both vary with frequency f as f - 5 / 3. This variability decreases when aggregate power fluctuations from geographically distributed wind farms are averaged at the grid via a mechanism known as geographic smoothing. Neither the f - 5 / 3 wind power fluctuation spectrum nor the mechanism of geographic smoothing are understood. In this work, we explain the wind power fluctuation spectrum from the turbine through grid scales. The f - 5 / 3 wind power fluctuation spectrum results from the largest length scales of atmospheric turbulence of order 200 km influencing the small scales where individual turbines operate. This long-range influence spatially couples geographically distributed wind farms and synchronizes farm outputs over a range of frequencies and decreases with increasing inter-farm distance. Consequently, aggregate grid-scale power fluctuations remain correlated, and are smoothed until they reach a limiting f - 7 / 3 spectrum. This work was funded by the Collective Interactions Unit, OIST Graduate University, Japan.

  14. Ambiguities in the deduction of rest frame fluctuation spectrums from spectrums computed in moving frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredericks, R.W.; Coroniti, F.V.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of interpretation of power spectrums computed by Fourier analysis of data time series taken in frames moving with respect to the medium containing the fluctuations is examined. It is found that no unique connection exists between the rest frame power spectrum as a function of scale length and the derived power spectrum as a function 'frequency' computed from the time series data taken in the moving frame. This caused by a complex Doppler-shifting phenomenon that leads to a basically aliased frequency spectrum in the moving frame. Examples of nonuniqueness are given for various types of rest frame density or wave turbulence that lead to the same frequency dependence of the power spectrum computed in the moving frame. This has implications for the past interpretations of power spectrums of density or magnetic field fluctuations from satellites or interplanetary probes

  15. Consideration of vertical seismic response spectrum in nuclear safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zaozhan; Huang Bingchen

    2011-01-01

    The basic requirements for civil nuclear installation are introduced in the article. Starting from the basic concept of seismic response spectrum, the authors analyze the site seismic response spectrum and the design seismic response spectrum that desire much consideration. By distinguishing the absolute seismic response spectrum and relative seismic response spectrum, the authors analyze the difference and relationship between the vertical seismic response spectrum and horizontal seismic response spectrum. The authors also bring forward some suggestions for determining the site vertical seismic response spectrum by considering the fact in our country. (authors)

  16. Probing dark energy using convergence power spectrum and bi-spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinda, Bikash R., E-mail: bikash@ctp-jamia.res.in [Centre for Theoretical Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025 (India)

    2017-09-01

    Weak lensing convergence statistics is a powerful tool to probe dark energy. Dark energy plays an important role to the structure formation and the effects can be detected through the convergence power spectrum, bi-spectrum etc. One of the most promising and simplest dark energy model is the ΛCDM . However, it is worth investigating different dark energy models with evolving equation of state of the dark energy. In this work, detectability of different dark energy models from ΛCDM model has been explored through convergence power spectrum and bi-spectrum.

  17. The Prevalence of Autistic Spectrum Disorders in People Using a Community Learning Disabilities Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Dougal Julian; Chapman, Melanie; Fraser, Janelle; Gore, Sarah; Burton, Mark

    2003-01-01

    A survey of service providers for people with learning disabilities in the Manchester (England) region identified a total of 174 people with either a confirmed or a suspected autistic spectrum disorder. Discussion of current and historical factors in estimating incidence suggests that the usual 10% of service users represents the lowest estimate…

  18. Excess of non-verbal cases of autism spectrum disorders presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Africa are not known because of unavailability of large-scale epidemiological studies in this region. This review explored the age at first presentation to orthodox clinical practice of African children with ASDs and their expressive language ability ...

  19. The asymptotic hadron spectrum, anti-nuclei, hyper-nuclei and quark phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1978-01-01

    The only hope of determining the hadronic spectrum in the high mass region is through a study of matter produced in very high energy nuclear collisions. Along the way, exotic nuclei, i.e., anti-nuclei and hyper-nuclei may be produced in appreciable numbers, and the detection of a quark phase may be possible. (orig.) [de

  20. Cortical Serotonin Type-2 Receptor Density in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Jeremy; Anderson, George M.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Hall, Geoffrey B. C.; Nahmias, Claude; Thompson, Ann; Szatmari, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Parents (N = 19) of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and adult controls (N = 17) underwent positron emission tomography (PET) using [[superscript 18]F]setoperone to image cortical serotonin type-2 (5-HT2) receptors. The 5-HT2 binding potentials (BPs) were calculated by ratioing [[superscript 18]F]setoperone intensity in regions of…

  1. Regional insertion: an emergent approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, M.T.F.; Nascimento Teixeira, P. do

    1989-01-01

    The Brazilian Electrical Sector incorporates new variables that expressing the extensive spectrum of environmental impacts in the take of decisions, referring to the viability of realizing a electrical undertaking, attends the several restrictions that are important by the sector and by the society in the environment area and promotes the adequate generation of liquid benefits, consequential of the electrical undertaking. Due to these factors, the Electrical Sector is improving the concept of regional insertion, with the sectorial expansion in long-dated and the created demand in the environmental and social area, focalizing the solution for these questions. (C.G.C.). 1 fig, 2 tabs

  2. Interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The Interaction Region Group addressed the basic questions of how to collide the SLC beams, how to maximize and monitor the luminosity, and how to minimize the detector backgrounds at the interaction region. In practice, five subgroups evolved to study these questions. The final focus group provided three alternative designs to acheive the 1 to 2 micron beam spot size required by the SLC, as well as studying other problems including: eta, eta' matching from the collider arcs, the implementation of soft bends near the interaction region, beam emittance growth, and magnet tolerances in the final focus. The beam position monitor group proposed two devices, a strip line monitor, and a beamstrahlung monitor, to bring the beams into collision. The luminosity monitor group reviewed the possible QED processes that would be insensitive to weak interaction (Z 0 ) effects. The beam dumping group proposed locations for kicker and septum magnets in the final focus that would achieve a high dumping efficiency and would meet the desired beam tolerances at the Moller scattering target in the beam dump line. Working with the Polarization Group, the Moller experiment was designed into the beam dump beam line. A beam dump was proposed that would maintain radiation backgrounds (penetrating muons) at acceptible levels. The detector backgrounds group proposed soft-bend and masking configurations to shield the detector from synchrotron radiation from the hard/soft bends and from the final focus quadrupoles and evaluated the effectiveness of these designs for the three final focus optics designs. Backgrounds were also estimated from: large angle synchrotron radiation, local and distant beam-gas interactions, 2-photon interactions, and from neutrons and backscattered photons from the beamstrahlung dump

  3. Spectrum of care: Current management of childhood autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabrew, Hiran; Eggleston, Matthew

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare the current status of assessment and intervention for New Zealand children and adolescents who have autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with recommendations outlined in the 2008 New Zealand ASD Guideline. ASD coordinators and New Zealand District Health Board (DHB) staff working with children and adolescents who have ASD were electronically surveyed. Responses were received from 32 staff in 17 (85%) surveyed DHBs. Positive findings included the presence of ASD coordinators in 85% of DHBs, clear pathways for management in 73.1% of DHBs and good communications between paediatric, psychiatric and educational teams in some DHBs regions. Areas for improvement included wait times to assessment, access to longer-term support and intervention for families, and training for staff in ASD and cultural issues. Since the launch of the NZ ASD Guidelines, significant progress has been made. However, further work is needed to ensure services for children and adolescents with ASD are accessible, well-coordinated and focussed on both assessment and intervention.

  4. A high-resolution atlas of the infrared spectrum of the Sun and the Earth atmosphere from space: A compilation of ATMOS spectra of the region from 650 to 4800 cm (2.3 to 16 micron). Volume 1: The Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Crofton B.; Norton, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    During the period April 29 through May 2, 1985, the Atmospheric Trace Molecular Spectroscopy experiment was operated as part of the Spacelab-3 payload of the shuttle Challenger. The instrument, a modified Michelson Interferometer covering the frequency range from 600 to 5000/cm, at a spectral resolution of 0.01/cm, recorded infrared spectra of the Sun and of the Earth's atmosphere at times close to entry into and exit from occultation by the Earth's limb as seen from the shuttle orbit of 360 km. Spectra were obtained that are free from absorptions due to constituents of the atmosphere (i.e., solar pure spectra), as well as spectra of the atmosphere itself, covering line-of-sight tangent altitudes that span the range from the lower thermosphere to the bottom of the troposphere. This atlas, believed to be the first record of observations of the continuous high resolution infrared spectrum of the Sun and the Earth's atmosphere from space, provides a compilation of these spectra arranged in a hardcopy format suitable for quick-look reference purposes; the data are also available in digital form.

  5. Transition region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, C.

    1977-01-01

    The Glossary is designed to be a technical dictionary that will provide solar workers of various specialties, students, other astronomers and theoreticians with concise information on the nature and the properties of phenomena of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. Each term, or group of related terms, is given a concise phenomenological and quantitative description, including the relationship to other phenomena and an interpretation in terms of physical processes. The references are intended to lead the non-specialist reader into the literature. This section deals with: transition region; di-electronic recombination; intersystem or intercombination lines; satellite lines; grazing-incidence optics; and crystal spectrometers. (B.R.H.)

  6. Structural and functional brain abnormalities place phenocopy frontotemporal dementia (FTD in the FTD spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M.E. Steketee

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: PhFTD and bvFTD show overlapping cortical structural abnormalities indicating a continuum of changes especially in the frontotemporal regions. Together with functional changes suggestive of a compensatory response to incipient pathology in the left prefrontal regions, these findings are the first to support a possible neuropathological etiology of phFTD and suggest that phFTD may be a neurodegenerative disease on the FTD spectrum.

  7. GUMAP: A GUPIXWIN-compatible code for extracting regional spectra from nuclear microbeam list mode files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, John L.; Campbell, John L.; Boyd, Nicholas I.; Dias, Johnny F.

    2018-02-01

    The newly developed GUMAP software creates element maps from OMDAQ list mode files, displays these maps individually or collectively, and facilitates on-screen definitions of specified regions from which a PIXE spectrum can be built. These include a free-hand region defined by moving the cursor. The regional charge is entered automatically into the spectrum file in a new GUPIXWIN-compatible format, enabling a GUPIXWIN analysis of the spectrum. The code defaults to the OMDAQ dead time treatment but also facilitates two other methods for dead time correction in sample regions with count rates different from the average.

  8. Spectrum Handoffs Based on Preemptive Repeat Priority Queue in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Yang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio can significantly improve the spectrum efficiency, and spectrum handoff is considered as an important functionality to guarantee the quality of service (QoS of primary users (PUs and the continuity of data transmission of secondary users (SUs. In this paper, we propose an analytical framework based on a preemptive repeat identical (PRI M/G/1 queuing network model to characterize spectrum handoff behaviors with general service time distribution of both primary and secondary connections, multiple interruptions and transmission delay resulting from the appearance of primary connections. Then, we derive the close-expression of the extended data delivery and the system sojourn time in both staying and changing scenarios. In addition, based on analysis of spectrum handoff behaviors resulting from multiple interruptions caused by the appearance of the primary connections, we investigate the traffic-adaptive policy, by which the considered SU will optimally adjust its handoff spectrum policy. Moreover, we investigate the admissible region and provide the reference for designing the admission control rule for the arriving secondary connection requests. Finally, simulation results verify that our proposed analytical framework is reasonable and can provide the reference for executing the optimal spectrum handoff strategy and designing the admission control rule for the SU in cognitive radio networks.

  9. Study on pattern recognition of Raman spectrum based on fuzzy neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiangxiang; Lv, Xiaoyi; Mo, Jiaqing

    2017-10-01

    Hydatid disease is a serious parasitic disease in many regions worldwide, especially in Xinjiang, China. Raman spectrum of the serum of patients with echinococcosis was selected as the research object in this paper. The Raman spectrum of blood samples from healthy people and patients with echinococcosis are measured, of which the spectrum characteristics are analyzed. The fuzzy neural network not only has the ability of fuzzy logic to deal with uncertain information, but also has the ability to store knowledge of neural network, so it is combined with the Raman spectrum on the disease diagnosis problem based on Raman spectrum. Firstly, principal component analysis (PCA) is used to extract the principal components of the Raman spectrum, reducing the network input and accelerating the prediction speed and accuracy of Network based on remaining the original data. Then, the information of the extracted principal component is used as the input of the neural network, the hidden layer of the network is the generation of rules and the inference process, and the output layer of the network is fuzzy classification output. Finally, a part of samples are randomly selected for the use of training network, then the trained network is used for predicting the rest of the samples, and the predicted results are compared with general BP neural network to illustrate the feasibility and advantages of fuzzy neural network. Success in this endeavor would be helpful for the research work of spectroscopic diagnosis of disease and it can be applied in practice in many other spectral analysis technique fields.

  10. Doppler shift measurement of Balmer-alpha line spectrum emission from a plasma in a negative hydrogen ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.; Doi, K.; Kisaki, M.; Nakano, H.; Tsumori, K.; Nishiura, M.

    2015-01-01

    Balmer-α light emission from the extraction region of the LHD one-third ion source has shown a characteristic Doppler broadening in the wavelength spectrum detected by a high resolution spectrometer. The spectrum resembles Gaussian distribution near the wavelength of the intensity peak, while it has an additional component of a broader foot. The measured broadening near the wavelength of the intensity peak corresponds to 0.6 eV hydrogen atom temperature. The spectrum exhibits a larger expansion in the blue wing which becomes smaller when the line of sight is tilted toward the driver region from the original observation axis parallel to the plasma grid. A surface collision simulation model predicts the possibility of hydrogen reflection at the plasma grid surface to form a broad Balmer-α light emission spectrum

  11. Doppler shift measurement of Balmer-alpha line spectrum emission from a plasma in a negative hydrogen ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, M., E-mail: mwada@mail.doshisha.ac.jp; Doi, K. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 Japan (Japan); Kisaki, M.; Nakano, H.; Tsumori, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Nishiura, M. [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The Universtiy of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)

    2015-04-08

    Balmer-α light emission from the extraction region of the LHD one-third ion source has shown a characteristic Doppler broadening in the wavelength spectrum detected by a high resolution spectrometer. The spectrum resembles Gaussian distribution near the wavelength of the intensity peak, while it has an additional component of a broader foot. The measured broadening near the wavelength of the intensity peak corresponds to 0.6 eV hydrogen atom temperature. The spectrum exhibits a larger expansion in the blue wing which becomes smaller when the line of sight is tilted toward the driver region from the original observation axis parallel to the plasma grid. A surface collision simulation model predicts the possibility of hydrogen reflection at the plasma grid surface to form a broad Balmer-α light emission spectrum.

  12. Spectrum of Glomerulonephritis in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barsoum Rashad

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the profile of glomerular disease in a particular geographical region is of fundamental academic, clinical and epidemiological importance. It helps in the recognition of specific risk factors and subsequent planning for adequate prevention. In the present study, 1234 consecutive renal biopsies referred to the nephropathology team of Cairo University over two years were retrospectively analyzed. The main indications for biopsy included nephrotic syndrome, persistent sub-nephrotic proteinuria, recurrent hematuria, suspected secondary hypertension, lupus nephritis and acute and chronic renal failure of undetermined etiology. Proliferative forms of glomerulonephritis [GN] (32.1% and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis [FSGS] were the most prevalent lesions among patients with the nephrotic syndrome (22.6%. In subjects with sub-nephrotic proteinuria, FSGS was the principal lesion followed by proliferative lesions. Although all forms of GN were encountered in those presenting with recurrent hematuria, mesangioproliferative GN and FSGS were significantly more frequent. IgA glomerular deposits were detected in 9.8% of all GNs and 15% of those presenting with hematuria. One half of the biopsies obtained for the assessment of suspected secondary hypertension showed only changes compatible with the effect of hypertension per se, i.e. nephroangiosclerosis. On the other hand, a parenchymal renal lesion was found in 52.9% of biopsies. The common glomerular pathologies in patients with lupus nephritis were Classes III and IV. Among patients with chronic renal failure, the predominant lesion was chronic interstitial nephritis (32.6%. An acute interstitial inflammatory element was also detected in 8.4% of cases. About one third of the biopsies obtained for acute renal failure showed acute tubular (11% or cortical (13.2% necrosis. Another third showed vasculitis (17.6% or acute interstitial nephritis (14.3%, and the remaining showed chronic

  13. Quantum game application to spectrum scarcity problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabaleta, O. G.; Barrangú, J. P.; Arizmendi, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Recent spectrum-sharing research has produced a strategy to address spectrum scarcity problems. This novel idea, named cognitive radio, considers that secondary users can opportunistically exploit spectrum holes left temporarily unused by primary users. This presents a competitive scenario among cognitive users, making it suitable for game theory treatment. In this work, we show that the spectrum-sharing benefits of cognitive radio can be increased by designing a medium access control based on quantum game theory. In this context, we propose a model to manage spectrum fairly and effectively, based on a multiple-users multiple-choice quantum minority game. By taking advantage of quantum entanglement and quantum interference, it is possible to reduce the probability of collision problems commonly associated with classic algorithms. Collision avoidance is an essential property for classic and quantum communications systems. In our model, two different scenarios are considered, to meet the requirements of different user strategies. The first considers sensor networks where the rational use of energy is a cornerstone; the second focuses on installations where the quality of service of the entire network is a priority.

  14. Earth's transmission spectrum from lunar eclipse observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallé, Enric; Osorio, María Rosa Zapatero; Barrena, Rafael; Montañés-Rodríguez, Pilar; Martín, Eduardo L

    2009-06-11

    Of the 342 planets so far discovered orbiting other stars, 58 'transit' the stellar disk, meaning that they can be detected through a periodic decrease in the flux of starlight. The light from the star passes through the atmosphere of the planet, and in a few cases the basic atmospheric composition of the planet can be estimated. As we get closer to finding analogues of Earth, an important consideration for the characterization of extrasolar planetary atmospheres is what the transmission spectrum of our planet looks like. Here we report the optical and near-infrared transmission spectrum of the Earth, obtained during a lunar eclipse. Some biologically relevant atmospheric features that are weak in the reflection spectrum (such as ozone, molecular oxygen, water, carbon dioxide and methane) are much stronger in the transmission spectrum, and indeed stronger than predicted by modelling. We also find the 'fingerprints' of the Earth's ionosphere and of the major atmospheric constituent, molecular nitrogen (N(2)), which are missing in the reflection spectrum.

  15. Raman spectrum of natural and synthetic stishovite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemley, R.J.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Chao, E.C.T.

    1986-01-01

    Raman spectra of natural and synthetic samples of stishovite have been measured with a micro-optical spectrometer system. These spectra have a pattern that is characteristic of rutile-structured oxides. The spectrum of synthetic stishovite is characterized by well-resolved bands at 231, 589, 753, and 967 cm-1, which are assigned as the B1g, Eg, A1g, and B2g fundamentals, respectively, of the first-order Raman spectrum of the ideal, ordered structure. Natural stishovite obtained from Meteor Crater, Arizona has a first-order Raman spectrum that is fully consistent with that of the synthetic material. The observed spectrum of the natural sample, however, is weaker and has bands in addition to those identified as fundamentals in the spectrum of the synthetic material. A broad band at ???475 cm-1 may be indicative of glass or contaminants derived from the extraction procedure. Alternatively, this band may arise from multiphonon scattering that is enhanced by poor crystallinity or structural disorder in the natural shocked sample. ?? 1986 Springer-Verlag.

  16. The interior transmission spectrum in one dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickmann, Kyle S

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks conditions on acoustic profiles c(x) and b(x) which imply the existence of intervals free of transmission eigenvalues. The existence of intervals free of transmission eigenvalues has important implications in the question of unique recovery of the acoustic profile for inverse acoustic scattering theory using the linear sampling method and for the inverse source problem in thermoacoustic tomography. We examine the interior transmission spectrum relative to two acoustic profiles on the unit interval. This research includes the case when the difference of the two acoustic profiles changes sign and is, to the author's knowledge, the only work to date on the interior transmission spectrum allowing this behavior. It is shown that for a large class of acoustic profiles the transmission spectrum is asymptotically sparse. The spectrum exhibits three distinct types of behavior dependent on the relation of the two acoustic profiles. Numerical examples of each type of behavior are given which show how the transmission eigenvalues are distributed depending on the relation between c(x) and b(x). Our method of study is to reduce the interior transmission problem on [0, 1] to a problem of finding roots of a determinant of fundamental solutions to a Sturm–Liouville problem. The asymptotic expansion of solutions of the Sturm–Liouville problem then allows us to analyze properties of the transmission spectrum for large values of the wavenumber. (paper)

  17. The Unusual Moessbauer Spectrum of Beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, R. R.; Costa, G. M. da; Grave, E. de; Evangelista, H. J.; Stern, W. B.

    2001-01-01

    The Moessbauer spectra of several aquamarine samples have been obtained in the temperature range of 4.2-500 K. A common feature observed in all room-temperature spectra is the presence of an asymmetric Fe 2+ doublet (ΔE Q ∼2.7 mm/s, δ∼1.1 mm/s), with a very broad low-velocity peak. This asymmetry is not caused by preferred orientation since the spectrum collected under the magic angle did not show any difference in the line intensities, nor is it caused by the superposition of a Fe 3+ doublet. At 4.2 K the spectrum of a deep-blue beryl could be well fitted with three symmetrical doublets, with the major Fe 2+ doublet accounting for 87% of the total spectral area. At 14 K the symmetry remains, but at 30 K the low-velocity peak is again broad. Surprisingly, the spectrum at 500 K also shows a broad, but symmetrical doublet, with a clear splitting of the lines indicating the presence of at least two Fe 2+ components. The room-temperature spectrum obtained after the 500 K run shows the same features as before the heating. A meaningful fit for the room-temperature spectrum, as well as an explanation for the temperature dependence of the Moessbauer spectra, are discussed

  18. Joint switched multi-spectrum and transmit antenna diversity for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Mostafa M.; Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    . In this paper, we consider a secondary network comprised of a secondary transmitter (SU-Tx) equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna secondary receiver (SU-Rx) sharing the same spectrum with multiple primary users (PUs), each with a distinct spectrum

  19. Simulating the spectrum and the polarization characteristics of coherent radiation from ultrarelativistic electrons in a diamond crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truten', V.I.

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of a computer simulation, it is shown that, in the spectrum of radiation from ultrarelativistic electrons in oriented crystals, new maxima can appear in the low-frequency region in addition to ordinary coherent maxima. This effect is due to the influence of high-index planes on the radiation in question. The aforementioned new maxima manifest themselves not only in the spectrum but also in the polarization characteristics of the radiation

  20. Fine structure of the stimulated Raman spectrum in compressed hydrogen. The relaxation-oscillation mode of backscattered Stokes emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bespalov, V.G.; Efimov, Yu.N.; Staselko, D.I.

    1992-01-01

    This paper studies the emission spectra of backscattered stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in compressed hydrogen in the relaxation-oscillation mode and the compression SRS mode for the minimum width of the spontaneous scattering spectrum (in the region of the Dicke dip). It is shown that the generation of a train of Stokes-emission subpulses results in the appearance of fine structure in the backscattered SRS spectrum. The influence of the temporal structure of reflected Stokes pulses on this spectrum and on the appearance of fine structure in it is analyzed. The conditions for generating spectrally limited (without phase modulation), extremely coherent Stokes pulses are explained. 18 refs., 3 figs

  1. Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum with radial anomaly in child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksande, Amar; Vilhekar, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome is a wide spectrum of congenital anomalies that involves structures arising from the first and second branchial arches. It is characterized by a wide spectrum of symptoms and physical features. These abnormalities mainly involve the cheekbones, jaws, mouth, ears, eyes, or vertebrae. Other conditions with ear and/or radial involvement, such as, the Nager syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome, Radial-renal syndrome, facioauriculoradial dysplasia, Fanconi anemia, and Vertebral, Anal atresia, Cardiac, Trachea, Esophageal, Renal, and Limb (VACTERL) association should be considered for differential diagnosis. Here we report a child who had facial asymmetry, microsomia, microtia, congenital facial nerve palsy, conductive hearing loss, skin tags, iris coloboma, and preaxial polydactyly.

  2. Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum with radial anomaly in child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Taksande

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS or Goldenhar syndrome is a wide spectrum of congenital anomalies that involves structures arising from the first and second branchial arches. It is characterized by a wide spectrum of symptoms and physical features. These abnormalities mainly involve the cheekbones, jaws, mouth, ears, eyes, or vertebrae. Other conditions with ear and/or radial involvement, such as, the Nager syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome, Radial-renal syndrome, facioauriculoradial dysplasia, Fanconi anemia, and Vertebral, Anal atresia, Cardiac, Trachea, Esophageal, Renal, and Limb (VACTERL association should be considered for differential diagnosis. Here we report a child who had facial asymmetry, microsomia, microtia, congenital facial nerve palsy, conductive hearing loss, skin tags, iris coloboma, and preaxial polydactyly.

  3. Analytical energy spectrum for hybrid mechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Honghua; Xie, Qiongtao; Lee, Chaohong; Guan, Xiwen; Gao, Kelin; Batchelor, Murray T

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the energy spectrum for hybrid mechanical systems described by non-parity-symmetric quantum Rabi models. A set of analytical solutions in terms of the confluent Heun functions and their analytical energy spectrum is obtained. The analytical energy spectrum includes regular and exceptional parts, which are both confirmed by direct numerical simulation. The regular part is determined by the zeros of the Wronskian for a pair of analytical solutions. The exceptional part is relevant to the isolated exact solutions and its energy eigenvalues are obtained by analyzing the truncation conditions for the confluent Heun functions. By analyzing the energy eigenvalues for exceptional points, we obtain the analytical conditions for the energy-level crossings, which correspond to two-fold energy degeneracy. (paper)

  4. Premorbid neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Parnas, Josef

    2006-01-01

    in adolescence, the aim of the present prospective study was to examine whether low scores on Coding is associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The 12 subtests of the WISC were administered to 311 children and adolescents with a mean age of 15.1 years (range: 8 to 20 years...... was 0.97 (95% CI 0.94-1.00) (p = .022), and the risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder decreased by 3% (95% CI 6 to 0%). The Coding deficit on the WISC may indicate deficits in perceptual motor speed or in working memory processing speed in young individuals who later develop schizophrenia, schizotypal...... personality disorder, or other disorders within the schizophrenia spectrum....

  5. Premorbid neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, E.L.; Parnas, Josef

    2006-01-01

    in WISC IQ. Logistic regression analysis controlling for age at examination, gender, and social status yielded a significant, but relatively weak, association between low Coding test score and risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder. For each unit increase in the Coding raw score, the adjusted odds ratio...... in adolescence, the aim of the present prospective study was to examine whether low scores on Coding is associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The 12 subtests of the WISC were administered to 311 children and adolescents with a mean age of 15.1 years (range: 8 to 20 years......), and the diagnostic assessment (DSM-IIIR) was conducted by senior clinicians 25 years later. The group with schizophrenia spectrum disorder consisted of 84 individuals, and this group obtained significantly lower scores on Coding than nonschizophrenic controls. This difference could not be explained by differences...

  6. Sparse random matrices: The eigenvalue spectrum revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerjian, Guilhem; Cugliandolo, Leticia F.

    2003-08-01

    We revisit the derivation of the density of states of sparse random matrices. We derive a recursion relation that allows one to compute the spectrum of the matrix of incidence for finite trees that determines completely the low concentration limit. Using the iterative scheme introduced by Biroli and Monasson [J. Phys. A 32, L255 (1999)] we find an approximate expression for the density of states expected to hold exactly in the opposite limit of large but finite concentration. The combination of the two methods yields a very simple geometric interpretation of the tails of the spectrum. We test the analytic results with numerical simulations and we suggest an indirect numerical method to explore the tails of the spectrum. (author)

  7. Sound spectrum of a pulsating optical discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grachev, G N; Smirnov, A L; Tishchenko, V N [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Dmitriev, A K; Miroshnichenko, I B [Novosibirsk State Technical University (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-28

    A spectrum of sound of an optical discharge generated by a repetitively pulsed (RP) laser radiation has been investigated. The parameters of laser radiation are determined at which the spectrum of sound may contains either many lines, or the main line at the pulse repetition rate and several weaker overtones, or a single line. The spectrum of sound produced by trains of RP radiation comprises the line (and overtones) at the repetition rate of train sequences and the line at the repetition rate of pulses in trains. A CO{sub 2} laser with the pulse repetition rate of f ≈ 3 – 180 kHz and the average power of up to 2 W was used in the experiments. (optical discharges)

  8. Concise expression of a classical radiation spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we present a concise expression of the classical electromagnetic radiation spectrum of a moving charge. It is shown to be equivalent to the often used and much more complicated form derived from the Lienard-Wiechert potentials when the observation distance R satisfies the condition R much-gt γλ. The expression reveals a relationship between the radiation spectrum and the motion of the radiation source. It also forms the basis of an efficient computing approach, which is of practical value in numerical calculations of the spectral output of accelerated charges. The advantages of this approach for analytical and numerical applications are discussed and the bending-magnet synchrotron radiation spectrum is calculated according to the approach

  9. A novel method of spectrum stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, N.P.S.

    1978-01-01

    A new type of spectrum stabilizer for a scintillation spectrometer is described. A pulse light source DM 160 is used to introduce an artificial peak in the spectrum at a convenient energy. The centroid of pulse spectrum corresponding to artificial peak is compared with that of suitable reference pulses obtained from the DM 160 driver circuit. Any drift in artificial peak produces a d.c. voltage at the output of centroid comparator and this voltage is used to control the gain of variable gain amplifier to counter the drift. With suitable adjustment the effect of any variation in pulse height of DM 160 driving pulse can be compensated so that the spectrometer gain is independent of any variation, drift etc. in the height of pulse driving DM 160 tube. This circuit is simple and gives improved performance compared to 2 channel method of obtaining the control voltage for variable gain amplifier. (author)

  10. Learning spectrum's selection in OLAM network for analysis cement samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ning; Wang Peng; Tang Daiquan; Hu Renlan

    2010-01-01

    It uses OLAM artificial neural network to analyze the samples of cement raw material. Two kinds of spectrums are used for network learning: pure-element spectrum and mix-element spectrum. The output of pure-element method can be used to construct a simulate spectrum, which can be compared with the original spectrum and judge the shift of spectrum; the mix-element method can store more message and correct the matrix effect, but the multicollinearity among spectrums can cause some side effect to the results. (authors)

  11. Combined fit of spectrum and composition data as measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; Allekotte, I.; Almela, A.; Castillo, J. Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Anastasi, G.A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrada, B.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.

    2017-01-01

    We present a combined fit of a simple astrophysical model of UHECR sources to both the energy spectrum and mass composition data measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory. The fit has been performed for energies above $5 \\cdot 10^{18}$ eV, i.e.~the region of the all-particle spectrum above the so-called "ankle" feature. The astrophysical model we adopted consists of identical sources uniformly distributed in a comoving volume, where nuclei are accelerated through a rigidity-dependent mechanism...

  12. Control of generation spectrum of gyrotron with external reflection in mode of several longitudinal modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozental', R.M.; Ginzburg, N.S.; Zajtsev, N.I.; Ilyakov, E.V.; Kulagin, I.S.

    2006-01-01

    One studies possibility to control the spectrum of multiparticle generation in a gyrotron due to application of external reflections. It is shown that in self-modulation regimes of generation the radiation spectrum lines may be close to the resonance frequencies throughout electrodynamic system covering a part of output waveguide restricted by a reflector. Under the mentioned conditions variation of distance between mode frequencies and, respectively, period of self-modulation may be reached due to varying of position of the reflector. The theory deductions are supported by the results of experimental investigation into 30 GHz region relativistic gyrotron with external reflections [ru

  13. Variability in fluence and spectrum of high-energy photon bursts produced by lightning leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Celestin , Sebastien; Xu , Wei; Pasko , Victor P.

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we model the production and acceleration of thermal runaway electrons during negative corona flash stages of stepping lightning leaders and the corresponding terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) or negative cloud-to-ground (−CG) lightning-produced X-ray bursts in a unified fashion. We show how the source photon spectrum and fluence depend on the potential drop formed in the lightning leader tip region during corona flash and how the X-ray burst spectrum ...

  14. Energy spectrum of Compton scattering of laser photons on relativistic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Hiroaki; Yoneda, Yasuharu

    1976-01-01

    The high energy photons in gamma-ray region are obtainable by the Compton scattering of laser photons on relativistic electrons. But the motion of the electrons in the storage ring is not necessarily uniform. In the study of the uneven effect, the energy distribution of scattered photons is derived from the assumed momentum distribution of incident electrons. It is generally impossible to derive the momentum distribution of incident electrons from the energy spectrum of scattered photons. The additional conditions which make this possible in a special case are considered. A calculational method is examined for deriving the energy spectrum of scattered photons from the assumed momentum distribution of incident electrons. (Mori, K.)

  15. PHAST- a spectrum stabilising PC-MCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, P.K.; Satish, P.; Shrivastava, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    Model PHAST, a PC-card with programmable features, incorporates a 100 MHz Wilkinson ADC with conversion gain of 8K. It also provides SCA mode MCS operation. The card caters to the needs of precision nuclear spectroscopy at low to moderate count rates. Spectrum drift may be eliminated by spectrum stabilisation. Proper dead time correction is achieved by Gedcke-Hale or pulse generator based schemes. Multiple cards may be operated together in a single PC in independent operating modes. These cards have onboard histogram memory and updating mechanism. Hence they will usually continue to acquire data in the event of a system crash. (author)

  16. Effective spectrum width of the synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, V. G., E-mail: bagrov@phys.tsu.ru [Department of Physics, Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Institute of High Current Electronics, SB RAS, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Gitman, D. M., E-mail: gitman@if.usp.br [Department of Physics, Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Levin, A. D., E-mail: alevin@if.usp.br [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Loginov, A. S.; Saprykin, A. D. [Department of Physics, Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-25

    For an exact quantitative description of spectral properties of synchrotron radiation (SR), the concept of effective width of the spectrum is introduced. In the most interesting case, which corresponds to the ultrarelativistic limit of SR, the effective width of the spectrum is calculated for the polarization components, and new physically important quantitative information on the structure of spectral distributions is obtained. For the first time, the spectral distribution for the circular polarization component of the SR for the upper half-space is obtained within classical theory.

  17. Effective spectrum width of the synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagrov, V. G.; Gitman, D. M.; Levin, A. D.; Loginov, A. S.; Saprykin, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    For an exact quantitative description of spectral properties of synchrotron radiation (SR), the concept of effective width of the spectrum is introduced. In the most interesting case, which corresponds to the ultrarelativistic limit of SR, the effective width of the spectrum is calculated for the polarization components, and new physically important quantitative information on the structure of spectral distributions is obtained. For the first time, the spectral distribution for the circular polarization component of the SR for the upper half-space is obtained within classical theory

  18. Effective spectrum width of the synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, V.G. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); SB RAS, Institute of High Current Electronics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Gitman, D.M. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Levin, A.D. [University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Loginov, A.S.; Saprykin, A.D. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    For an exact quantitative description of spectral properties of synchrotron radiation (SR), the concept of effective width of the spectrum is introduced. In the most interesting case, which corresponds to the ultrarelativistic limit of SR, the effective width of the spectrum is calculated for the polarization components, and new physically important quantitative information on the structure of spectral distributions is obtained. For the first time, the spectral distribution for the circular polarization component of the SR for the upper half-space is obtained within classical theory. (orig.)

  19. Radio resource allocation and dynamic spectrum access

    CERN Document Server

    Benmammar , Badr

    2013-01-01

    We are currently witnessing an increase in telecommunications norms and standards given the recent advances in this field. The increasing number of normalized standards paves the way for an increase in the range of services available for each consumer. Moreover, the majority of available radio frequencies have already been allocated. This explains the emergence of cognitive radio (CR) - the sharing of the spectrum between a primary user and a secondary user.In this book, we will present the state of the art of the different techniques for spectrum access using cooperation and competit

  20. Game theoretic approaches for spectrum redistribution

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    This brief examines issues of spectrum allocation for the limited resources of radio spectrum. It uses a game-theoretic perspective, in which the nodes in the wireless network are rational and always pursue their own objectives. It provides a systematic study of the approaches that can guarantee the system's convergence at an equilibrium state, in which the system performance is optimal or sub-optimal. The author provides a short tutorial on game theory, explains game-theoretic channel allocation in clique and in multi-hop wireless networks and explores challenges in designing game-theoretic m

  1. Gamma-Ray Spectrum Analysis Software GDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanabongse, P.

    1998-01-01

    The developmental work on computer software for gamma-ray spectrum analysis has been completed as a software package version 1.02 named GDA, which is an acronym for Gamma-spectrum Deconvolution and Analysis. The software package consists of three 3.5-inch diskettes for setup and a user's manual. GDA software can be installed for using on a personal computer with Windows 95 or Windows NT 4.0 operating system. A computer maybe the type of 80486 CPU with 8 megabytes of memory

  2. Simultaneous neutron and gamma spectrum adjustment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remec, I.

    1996-01-01

    The spectrum adjustment procedure was extended to simultaneous neutron and gamma spectrum adjustment, and the feasibility of this technique is demonstrated in the analysis of HFIR dosimetry experiments. Conditions in which gamma rays may contribute considerably to radiation damage in steels are discussed. Beryllium helium accumulation fluence monitors (HAFMs) were found to be good monitors in gamma fields of intensities high enough to contribute to steel embrittlement. Use of 237 Np, 238 U, and 9 Be HAFM as gamma dosimeters is proposed for high-dose irradiations in high-energy, high-intensity gamma fields

  3. Dijet invariant mass spectrum at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incagli, M.

    1992-11-01

    A summary of QCD results obtained using the dijet invariant mass spectrum dσ/dM jj is presented. The spectrum is compared with QCD Leader Order and with the recently published Next to Leading Order calculations. A limit on the scale of an eventual quark compositness can be set at Λ=1300 GeV. Limits on the production of new particles, decaying hadronically, are presented, too. Axigluons are ruled out in the mass range [240, 640] GeV, for a theory with N=10 strong interacting fermions, and in the two windows [260, 280] GeV and [450, 550] GeV, for N=20

  4. Power spectrum, correlation function, and tests for luminosity bias in the CfA redshift survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changbom; Vogeley, Michael S.; Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.

    1994-01-01

    50% of galaxies in volume-limited samples that have M(sub lim) greater than M*. This bias in the power spectrum is independent of scale, consistent with the peaks-bias paradigm for galaxy formation. Second, the distribution of local density around galaxies shows that regions of moderate and high density contain both very bright (M less than M* = -19.2 + 5 log h) and fainter galaxies, but that voids preferentially harbor fainter galaxies (approximately 2 sigma significance level).

  5. New method of interpretation of the solar spectrum lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnik, G.F.

    1975-01-01

    Close triplet lines, which appear from a common low level or from low sublevels with small energy difference are used. It is supposed that for such lines both the function of the source in line and the frequency dependence of the selective coefficient of absorption are the same over any depth of the region of line production in the atmosphere and change with the depth equally. The residual intensities of some lines of the triplet, which are measured for every line at a number of profile points (at the same distance from its center and at different distances from the solar limb center), serve as initial material. The intensities are expressed in terms of the intensity of the continuous spectrum in the center of the solar limb for the average wave length of the triplet interval. Such observations avoid the usual assumption about the source function constancy in line inside the line. On the contrary, the frequency dependence of this function is clarified by the use of this method. Calculations make it possible to determine the source function in line and its long-wave dependence inside the line; to derive a solar atmosphere model and to determine the source function in the continuous spectrum in accordance with observations at profile points in its middle part and in the wing; to find the relation between the selective and continuous absorption coefficients in the dependence on the optical depth in the continuous spectrum; and to find the long-wave dependences of coefficients for both the selective absorption and the selective emission at different optical depths

  6. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Potential Role of Endocannabinoids Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balapal S. Basavarajappa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the unique features of prenatal alcohol exposure in humans is impaired cognitive and behavioral function resulting from damage to the central nervous system (CNS, which leads to a spectrum of impairments referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD. Human FASD phenotypes can be reproduced in the rodent CNS following prenatal ethanol exposure. Several mechanisms are expected to contribute to the detrimental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing fetus, particularly in the developing CNS. These mechanisms may act simultaneously or consecutively and differ among a variety of cell types at specific developmental stages in particular brain regions. Studies have identified numerous potential mechanisms through which alcohol can act on the fetus. Among these mechanisms are increased oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, interference with the activity of growth factors, glia cells, cell adhesion molecules, gene expression during CNS development and impaired function of signaling molecules involved in neuronal communication and circuit formation. These alcohol-induced deficits result in long-lasting abnormalities in neuronal plasticity and learning and memory and can explain many of the neurobehavioral abnormalities found in FASD. In this review, the author discusses the mechanisms that are associated with FASD and provides a current status on the endocannabinoid system in the development of FASD.

  7. On the spectrum of the Kadomtsev-Pogutse linearized equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patudin, V.M.; Sagalakov, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    A spectrum of small Alfven perturbations of an inhomogeneous plasma cylinder with a current in a strong longitudinal magnetic field is investigated. Four groups of modes: near-the-axial, internal, boundary and surface, are separated in the spectrum of damping Alfven oscillating perturbations. Existence of near-the-axial, boundary perturbations is due to plasma and magnetic field in homogeneity. When the magnetic Reynolds number increases, the phase velocities of near-the-axial and boundary perturbations approach their limits coinciding correspondingly with the Alfven velocity at the axis and plasma boundary. Near-the axial and boundary perturbations with the azimuthal wave number m>1 is localized with the magnetic Reynolds number growth in the plasma near-the-axial and boundary region. If there is a resonance surface inside the plasma filament then new modes-internal Alfven waves, occur. The phase velocity of such waves, when the magnetic Reynolds number increases, tends to zero. There is a special group of oscillating screw modes - surface Alfven waves, in the plasma with a free boundary. These modes are responsible considerable desturbance of the plasma boundary and due to this differ essentially from boundary modes being in the plasma with a fixed boundary

  8. Assumptions of the primordial spectrum and cosmological parameter estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafieloo, Arman; Souradeep, Tarun

    2011-01-01

    The observables of the perturbed universe, cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy and large structures depend on a set of cosmological parameters, as well as the assumed nature of primordial perturbations. In particular, the shape of the primordial power spectrum (PPS) is, at best, a well-motivated assumption. It is known that the assumed functional form of the PPS in cosmological parameter estimation can affect the best-fit-parameters and their relative confidence limits. In this paper, we demonstrate that a specific assumed form actually drives the best-fit parameters into distinct basins of likelihood in the space of cosmological parameters where the likelihood resists improvement via modifications to the PPS. The regions where considerably better likelihoods are obtained allowing free-form PPS lie outside these basins. In the absence of a preferred model of inflation, this raises a concern that current cosmological parameter estimates are strongly prejudiced by the assumed form of PPS. Our results strongly motivate approaches toward simultaneous estimation of the cosmological parameters and the shape of the primordial spectrum from upcoming cosmological data. It is equally important for theorists to keep an open mind towards early universe scenarios that produce features in the PPS. (paper)

  9. Expanding the mutation and clinical spectrum of Roberts syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Hanan H; Abdel-Salam, Ghada M H; Eid, Maha M; Tosson, Angie M S; Shousha, Wafaa Gh; Abdel Azeem, Amira A; Farag, Mona K; Mehrez, Mennat I; Gaber, Khaled R

    2016-07-01

    Roberts syndrome and SC phocomelia syndrome are rare autosomal recessive genetic disorders representing the extremes of the spectrum of severity of the same condition, caused by mutations in ESCO2 gene. We report three new patients with Roberts syndrome from three unrelated consanguineous Egyptian families. All patients presented with growth retardation, mesomelic shortening of the limbs more in the upper than in the lower limbs and microcephaly. Patients were subjected to clinical, cytogenetic and radiologic examinations. Cytogenetic analysis showed the characteristic premature separation of centromeres and puffing of heterochromatic regions. Further, sequencing of the ESCO2 gene identified a novel mutation c.244_245dupCT (p.T83Pfs*20) in one family besides two previously reported mutations c.760_761insA (p.T254Nfs*27) and c.764_765delTT (p.F255Cfs*25). All mutations were in homozygous state, in exon 3. The severity of the mesomelic shortening of the limbs and craniofacial anomalies showed variability among patients. Interestingly, patient 1 had abnormal skin hypopigmentation. Serial fetal ultrasound examinations and measurements of long bones diagnosed two affected fetuses in two of the studied families. A literature review and case comparison was performed. In conclusion, we report a novel ESCO2 mutation and expand the clinical spectrum of Roberts syndrome. © 2015 Japanese Teratology Society.

  10. A transient, flat spectrum radio pulsar near the Galactic Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, J.; Degenaar, N.; Kerr, M.; Deller, A.; Deneva, J.; Lazarus, P.; Kramer, M.; Champion, D.; Karuppusamy, R.

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies have shown possible connections between highly magnetized neutron stars ('magnetars'), whose X-ray emission is too bright to be powered by rotational energy, and ordinary radio pulsars. In addition to the magnetar SGR J1745-2900, one of the radio pulsars in the Galactic Centre (GC) region, PSR J1746-2850, had timing properties implying a large magnetic field strength and young age, as well as a flat spectrum. All characteristics are similar to those of rare, transient, radio-loud magnetars. Using several deep non-detections from the literature and two new detections, we show that this pulsar is also transient in the radio. Both the flat spectrum and large amplitude variability are inconsistent with the light curves and spectral indices of three radio pulsars with high magnetic field strengths. We further use frequent, deep archival imaging observations of the GC in the past 15 yr to rule out a possible X-ray outburst with a luminosity exceeding the rotational spin-down rate. This source, either a transient magnetar without any detected X-ray counterpart or a young, strongly magnetized radio pulsar producing magnetar-like radio emission, further blurs the line between the two categories. We discuss the implications of this object for the radio emission mechanism in magnetars and for star and compact object formation in the GC.

  11. Interpretation of the spectrum of the Red Rectangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstein, J.L.; Oke, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    The strong infrared source centered on HD 44179 has been observed with the multichannel spectrophotometer from 0.35μ to 1.1μ. The stellar spectrum is anomalous. If we fit a model atmosphere suitable for a late B giant it must have a circumstellar shell. If it is a low-gravity F bright giant its reported slit spectrum suggests unusual composition. The total luminosity is high, from the far infrared fluxes. The nebula, the Red Rectangle, has been observed without stellar contamination. Largely of the reflection type, it is unusual in being considerably redder than the star. The surface brightness is interpreted from the first-order and exact theory of scattering by grains in an optically thick nebula, with the star in front. The color is ascribed to the variation of the albedo with frequency. An unusual feature is a broad upward rise in brightness of the nebula, centered at 6600 A, requiring a four-fold increase in albedo over a region 1700 A wide (full width at half maximum). The albedo is so high that the most favorable geometry must be assumed; otherwise the red maximum might require fluorescence. If the high reflectivity in the red is a feature of the dust grains, they have composition quite different from other reflection nebulae, meteorites, or planets

  12. Uncovering the Terahertz Spectrum of Copper Sulfate Pentahydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Michael T; Korter, Timothy M

    2016-01-21

    Terahertz vibrational spectroscopy has evolved into a powerful tool for the detection and characterization of transition metal sulfate compounds, specifically for its ability to differentiate between various hydrated forms with high specificity. Copper(II) sulfate is one such system where multiple crystalline hydrates have had their terahertz spectra fully assigned, and the unique spectral fingerprints of the forms allows for characterization of multicomponent systems with relative ease. Yet the most commonly occurring form, copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4·5H2O), has proven elusive due to the presence of a broad absorption across much of the terahertz region, making the unambiguous identification of its spectral signature difficult. Here, it is shown that the sub-100 cm(-1) spectrum of CuSO4·5H2O is obscured by absorption from adsorbed water and that controlled drying reveals sharp underlying features. The crystalline composition of the samples was monitored in parallel by X-ray diffraction as a function of drying time, supporting the spectroscopic results. Finally, the terahertz spectrum of CuSO4·5H2O was fully assigned using solid-state density functional theory simulations, helping attribute the additional absorptions that appear after excessive drying to formation of CuSO4·3H2O.

  13. Synthesis of artificial spectrum-compatible seismic accelerograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrochidou, E; Alvanitopoulos, P F; Andreadis, I; Mallousi, K; Elenas, A

    2014-01-01

    The Hilbert–Huang transform is used to generate artificial seismic signals compatible with the acceleration spectra of natural seismic records. Artificial spectrum-compatible accelerograms are utilized instead of natural earthquake records for the dynamic response analysis of many critical structures such as hospitals, bridges, and power plants. The realistic estimation of the seismic response of structures involves nonlinear dynamic analysis. Moreover, it requires seismic accelerograms representative of the actual ground acceleration time histories expected at the site of interest. Unfortunately, not many actual records of different seismic intensities are available for many regions. In addition, a large number of seismic accelerograms are required to perform a series of nonlinear dynamic analyses for a reliable statistical investigation of the structural behavior under earthquake excitation. These are the main motivations for generating artificial spectrum-compatible seismic accelerograms and could be useful in earthquake engineering for dynamic analysis and design of buildings. According to the proposed method, a single natural earthquake record is deconstructed into amplitude and frequency components using the Hilbert–Huang transform. The proposed method is illustrated by studying 20 natural seismic records with different characteristics such as different frequency content, amplitude, and duration. Experimental results reveal the efficiency of the proposed method in comparison with well-established and industrial methods in the literature. (paper)

  14. The far-infrared spectrum of the OH radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. M.; Schubert, J. E.; Evenson, K. M.; Radford, H. E.

    1982-01-01

    It is thought likely that the study of spectral lines in the far-infrared might provide at least as much information about the physics and chemistry of the interstellar environment as radioastronomy. However, by comparison with the microwave region, the far-infrared is largely unexplored. There is a pressing need for good laboratory data to aid searches and assignments of spectra from the interstellar clouds and nebulae. Brown et al. (1981) have conducted a study of the laser magnetic resonance (LMR) spectrum of the OH radical in its ground state at far-infrared wavelengths. The present investigation is concerned with the computation of the frequencies of individual hyperfine transitions involving all rotational levels up to J = 4 1/2. The results of the calculation are presented in a table. The results are summarized in a diagram which shows the low-lying energy levels of OH. The frequencies of transitions between levels studied directly in the LMR spectrum are quite reliable.

  15. Random-matrix physics: spectrum and strength fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brody, T.A.; Flores, J.; French, J.B.; Mello, P.A.; Pandey, A.; Wong, S.S.M.

    1981-01-01

    It now appears that the general nature of the deviations from uniformity in the spectrum of a complicated nucleus is essentially the same in all regions of the spectrum and over the entire Periodic Table. This behavior, moreover, is describable in terms of standard Hamiltonian ensembles which could be generated on the basis of simple information-theory concepts, and which give also a good account of fluctuation phenomena of other kinds and, apparently, in other many-body systems besides nuclei. The main departures from simple behavior are ascribable to the moderation of the level repulsion by effects due to symmetries and collectivities, for the description of which more complicated ensembles are called for. One purpose of this review is to give a self-contained account of the theory, using methods: sometimes approximate: which are consonant with the usual theory of stochastic processes. Another purpose is to give a proper foundation for the use of ensemble theory, to make clear the origin of the simplicities in the observable fluctuations, and to derive other general fluctuation results. In comparing theory and experiment, the authors give an analysis of much of the nuclear-energy-level data, as well as an extended discussion of observable effects in nuclear transitions and reactions and in the low-temperature thermodynamics of aggregates of small metallic particles

  16. Autoimmune AQP4 channelopathies and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Shannon R; Lennon, Vanda A; Pittock, Sean J

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorders (SD) represent an evolving group of central nervous system (CNS)-inflammatory autoimmune demyelinating diseases unified by a pathogenic autoantibody specific for the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel. It was historically misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis (MS), which lacks a distinguishing biomarker. The discovery of AQP4-IgG moved the focus of CNS demyelinating disease research from emphasis on the oligodendrocyte and myelin to the astrocyte. NMO is recognized today as a relapsing disease, extending beyond the optic nerves and spinal cord to include brain (especially in children) and skeletal muscle. Brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities, identifiable in 60% of patients at the second attack, are consistent with MS in 10% of cases. NMOSD-typical lesions (another 10%) occur in AQP4-enriched regions: circumventricular organs (causing intractable nausea and vomiting) and the diencephalon (causing sleep disorders, endocrinopathies, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis). Advances in understanding the immunobiology of AQP4 autoimmunity have necessitated continuing revision of NMOSD clinical diagnostic criteria. Assays that selectively detect pathogenic AQP4-IgG targeting extracellular epitopes of AQP4 are promising prognostically. When referring to AQP4 autoimmunity, we suggest substituting the term "autoimmune aquaporin-4 channelopathy" for the term "NMO spectrum disorders." Randomized clinical trials are currently assessing the efficacy and safety of newer immunotherapies. Increasing therapeutic options based on understanding the molecular pathogenesis is anticipated to improve the outcome for patients with AQP4 channelopathy. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Least-squares adjustment of a 'known' neutron spectrum: The importance of the covariance matrix of the input spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannhart, W.

    1986-01-01

    Based on the responses of 25 different neutron activation detectors, the neutron spectrum of Cf-252 hs been adjusted with least-squares methods. For a fixed input neutron spectrum, the covariance matrix of this spectrum has been systematically varied to investigate the influence of this matrix on the final result. The investigation showed that the adjusted neutron spectrum is rather sensitive to the structure of the covariance matrix for the input spectrum. (author)

  18. Investigation of influence of electronic irradiation on photoluminescence spectrum and ir-spectrum of porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daineko, E.A.; Dihanbayev, K.K.; Akhtar, P.; Hussain, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we study the influence of 2-Mev electron irradiation on porous silicon (PS). Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum and IR-spectrum have been done on both newly-prepared PS samples and samples prepared a year ago after the irradiation. We analyzed PL spectrum for both types of PS samples. The experimental results suggest that the peak position in PL spectrum decreases for newly-prepared PS samples. The size of the nanocrystals calculated by the method of singling out of spectrum components was equal to 3.0-3.2 nm. Porosity of the samples was 60-75%. From IR-spectrum of newly-prepared PS samples wide absorption band was observed at 1100 cm/sup -1/ (Si-O-Si bond). Another peak of Si-O-Si group was observed at 850 cm/sub -1/. Also hydrogen absorption bands were appearing from 2000 to 2200 cm/sup -1/, corresponding to vibration modes SiH, SiH/sub 2/, SiH/sub 3/. As a result of electron irradiation the PL intensity of newly-prepared PS samples decreases abruptly by a factor of 30 without peak shifting. As for the samples prepared a year ago we observed a decrease in the PL intensity by 25-30%. From IR-spectrum of PS samples prepared a year ago it was shown that the intensity of bridge bonds corresponding to absorption band 850 cm/sup -1/, decreases gradually. Our experimental data shows that PS samples stored for longer time have better radiation resistant properties than the newly-prepared PS samples due to the replacement of Si-H bonds with more resistant Si-O bonds. Porous silicon, electrochemical anodizing, photoluminescence spectrum, IR-spectrum, electronic irradiation. (author)

  19. Thermal neutron spectrum distribution in TRIGA fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui Ah Auu; Harasawa, Susumu; An, Shigehiro

    1989-01-01

    The dependence of thermal neutron spectrum in TRIGA fuel cell on fuel temperature and TRIGA fuel types were studied using LIBP and THERMOS codes. Some characteristics of the TRIGA fuel including its prompt negative temperature coefficient of reactivity were explained using the results of the study. (author)

  20. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Implications for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echaniz, Crystal; Cronin, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), possible causes of ASD, current demographic information, the effects on the individual with ASD and the family, as well as diversity and multicultural issues related to autism. Additionally, the paper provides pertinent information about students with ASD for both general…

  1. Korean Culture and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Grinker, Roy R.; Mandell, David S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on early child development among Koreans, with a focus on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature review of 951 abstracts in English, 101 abstracts in Korean and 27 full articles published from 1994 to 2011 was performed to understand the presentation of and response to ASD in Korean culture. Based on…

  2. Comparison of neutron spectrum unfolding codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijp, W.

    1979-02-01

    This final report contains a set of four ECN-reports. The first is dealing with the comparison of the neutron spectrum unfolding codes CRYSTAL BALL, RFSP-JUL, SAND II and STAY'SL. The other three present the results of calculations about the influence of statistical weights in CRYSTAL BALL, SAND II and RFSP-JUL

  3. Singular continuous spectrum for palindromic Schroedinger operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hof, A.; Knill, O.; Simon, B.

    1995-01-01

    We give new examples of discrete Schroedinger operators with potentials taking finitely many values that have purely singular continuous spectrum. If the hull X of the potential is strictly ergodic, then the existence of just one potential x in X for which the operator has no eigenvalues implies that there is a generic set in X for which the operator has purely singular continuous spectrum. A sufficient condition for the existence of such an x is that there is a z element of X that contains arbitrarily long palindromes. Thus we can define a large class of primitive substitutions for which the operators are purely singularly continuous for a generic subset in X. The class includes well-known substitutions like Fibonacci, Thue-Morse, Period Doubling, binary non-Pisot and ternary non-Pisot. We also show that the operator has no absolutely continuous spectrum for all x element of X if X derives from a primitive substitution. For potentials defined by circle maps, x n =l J (θ 0 +nα), we show that the operator has purely singular continuous spectrum for a generic subset in X for all irrational α and every half-open interval J. (orig.)

  4. Orientation identification of the power spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudnaya, M.; Mattheij, R.M.M.; Maubach, J.M.L.

    2010-01-01

    The image Fourier transform is widely used for defocus and astigmatism correction in electron microscopy. The shape of a power spectrum (the square of a modulus of image Fourier transform) is directly related to the three microscope’s controls, namely defocus and two-fold (two-parameter)

  5. Diagnosing autism spectrum disorders in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Niekerk, Maarten E. H.; Groen, Wouter; Vissers, Constance Th. W. M.; van Driel-de Jong, Dorine; Kan, Cees C.; Voshaar, Richard C. Oude

    Background: As autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have largely been neglected in old-age psychiatry, the objective of the present paper is to describe the diagnostic process in elderly patients. Methods: A systematic review of the literature on ASD in older age was undertaken and illustrated by a case

  6. Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Extended Spectrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of various bacterial pathogens including extended spectrum betalactamase (ESBL) producers in Kano, Nigeria. Method: A total of 604 consecutive clinical samples obtained from Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH), Kano between January and July 2010 were ...

  7. Adaptive, full-spectrum solar energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.

    2003-08-05

    An adaptive full spectrum solar energy system having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one hybrid luminaire, at least one hybrid photobioreactor, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator, each hybrid luminaire, and each hybrid photobioreactor. A lighting control system operates each component.

  8. School Nurses' Knowledge of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine school nurses' working knowledge of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The current knowledge of school nurses was investigated by means of a mixed-method exploratory descriptive pilot study. Instrumentation included a scale that measured the knowledge of school nurses in regard to ASD, including medication…

  9. Atypical Saccadic Scanning in Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Valerie; Piper, Jenna; Fletcher-Watson, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Saccadic scanning was examined for typically developing (TD) adults and those with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) during inspection of the "Repin" picture (Yarbus, A. (1967). "Eye movements and vision". New York: Plenum) under two different viewing instructions: (A) material instructions ("Estimate the material circumstances of the family"); and…

  10. The autistic spectrum: subgroups, boundaries, and treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, S.H.N.

    2002-01-01

    There is consensus about the disorders that comprise the autistic spectrum, with autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, and PDD-NOS as the most typical examples and Rett's disorder and disintegrative disorder as the other components. Important controversies regarding the precise definitions of

  11. Facial Feedback Mechanisms in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stel, Marielle; van den Heuvel, Claudia; Smeets, Raymond C.

    2008-01-01

    Facial feedback mechanisms of adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were investigated utilizing three studies. Facial expressions, which became activated via automatic (Studies 1 and 2) or intentional (Study 2) mimicry, or via holding a pen between the teeth (Study 3), influenced corresponding emotions for controls, while individuals…

  12. Novel Treatments for Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Susan E.; Hyman, Susan L.

    2005-01-01

    In no area of developmental pediatric practice is there more controversy regarding the choice of treatment than related to children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). Complementary and alternative medical therapies (CAM) are often elected because they are perceived as treating the cause of symptoms rather than the symptoms themselves. CAM…

  13. UMTS signal measurements with digital spectrum analysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licitra, G.; Palazzuoli, D.; Ricci, A. S.; Silvi, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    The launch of the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UNITS), the most recent mobile telecommunications standard has imposed the requirement of updating measurement instrumentation and methodologies. In order to define the most reliable measurement procedure, which is aimed at assessing the exposure to electromagnetic fields, modern spectrum analysers' features for correct signal characterisation has been reviewed. (authors)

  14. Deaf Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Christen A.; Brice, Patrick J.; Lam, Kay H.; Hotto, Sue A.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies investigating the prevalence of autism have increased in recent years, within the United States and abroad. However, statistics as to how many of those children may also have a comorbid hearing loss is lacking. The prevalence of school-administrator reported diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (clinical diagnosis…

  15. The hyperfine spectrum of hydrogen dimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verberne, J.F.C.

    1979-01-01

    The authors' aim was to obtain the level scheme for the hydrogen dimers and to investigate the angle dependent interactions by analyzing the zero magnetic field hyperfine spectrum of the ortho-ortho and ortho-para species. The results were tested by several recent semi-empirical and ab initio potentials. (Auth.)

  16. Energy spectrum of lightning gamma emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubenko, A.P. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Karashtin, A.N. [Research Radiophysics Institute, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Ryabov, V.A., E-mail: ryabov@x4u.lebedev.r [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shepetov, A.L. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Antonova, V.P.; Kryukov, S.V. [Ionosphere Institute, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Mitko, G.G.; Naumov, A.S.; Pavljuchenko, L.V. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ptitsyn, M.O., E-mail: ptitsyn@lpi.r [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shalamova, S.Ya. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shlyugaev, Yu.V. [Research Radiophysics Institute, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Vildanova, L.I. [Tien-Shan Mountain Cosmic Ray Station, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Zybin, K.P. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gurevich, A.V., E-mail: alex@lpi.r [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-10

    The results of gamma emission observations obtained during thunderstorms at Tien-Shan Mountain Cosmic Ray Station are presented. The energy spectrum radiation of the stepped leader gamma radiation is measured. The total energy of stepped leader emitted in gamma rays is estimated as 10{sup -3}-10{sup -2} J. The experimental results are in an agreement with the runaway breakdown mechanism.

  17. Energy spectrum of lightning gamma emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubenko, A.P.; Karashtin, A.N.; Ryabov, V.A.; Shepetov, A.L.; Antonova, V.P.; Kryukov, S.V.; Mitko, G.G.; Naumov, A.S.; Pavljuchenko, L.V.; Ptitsyn, M.O.; Shalamova, S.Ya.; Shlyugaev, Yu.V.; Vildanova, L.I.; Zybin, K.P.; Gurevich, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    The results of gamma emission observations obtained during thunderstorms at Tien-Shan Mountain Cosmic Ray Station are presented. The energy spectrum radiation of the stepped leader gamma radiation is measured. The total energy of stepped leader emitted in gamma rays is estimated as 10 -3 -10 -2 J. The experimental results are in an agreement with the runaway breakdown mechanism.

  18. Preserved Proactive Interference in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Joana C.; Duarte, Elsa; Pinho, Sandra; Filipe, Carlos N.; Marques, J. Frederico

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate further the functioning and structuring of the semantic system in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We analyzed the performance of 19 high-functioning young adults with ASD and a group of 20 age-, verbal IQ- and education-matched individuals with the Proactive Interference (PI) Paradigm to evaluate semantic…

  19. 66Ga ground state β spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severin, Gregory; Knutson, L. D.; Voytas, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    The ground state branch of the β decay of 66Ga is an allowed Fermi (0+ → 0+) transition with a relatively high f t value. The large f t and the isospin-forbidden nature of the transition indicates that the shape of the β spectrum of this branch may be sensitive to higher order contributions...... to the decay. Two previous measurements of the shape have revealed deviations from an allowed spectrum but disagree about whether the shape factor has a positive or negative slope. As a test of a new iron-free superconducting β spectrometer, we have measured the shape of the ground state branch of the 66Ga β...... spectrum above a positron energy of 1.9 MeV. The spectrum is consistent with an allowed shape, with the slope of the shape factor being zero to within ±3 × 10−3 per MeV. We have also determined the endpoint energy for the ground state branch to be 4.1535 ± 0.0003 (stat.) ±0.0007 (syst.) MeV, in good...

  20. Traumatic Childhood Events and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Connor Morrow; Newschaffer, Craig J.; Berkowitz, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic childhood events are associated with a wide range of negative physical, psychological and adaptive outcomes over the life course and are one of the few identifiable causes of psychiatric illness. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be at increased risk for both encountering traumatic events and developing traumatic sequelae;…

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorders Associated with Chromosomal Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo-Castro, Adriana; Benvenuto, Arianna; Galasso, Cinzia; Porfirio, Cristina; Curatolo, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) constitute a class of severe neurodevelopmental conditions with complex multifactorial and heterogeneous etiology. Despite high estimates of heritability, genetic causes of ASDs remain elusive, due to a high degree of genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. So far, several "monogenic" forms of autism have been…

  2. Spectrum of a Dilated Honeycomb Network

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Exner, Pavel; Turek, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 4 (2015), s. 535-557 ISSN 0378-620X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum graphs * Hexagon lattice * Laplace operator * Vertex delta-coupling * spectrum Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.956, year: 2015

  3. Fundamental Movement Skills and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Kerri L.; Reid, Greg

    2010-01-01

    Delays and deficits may both contribute to atypical development of movement skills by children with ASD. Fundamental movement skills of 25 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (ages 9-12 years) were compared to three typically developing groups using the "Test of Gross Motor Development" ("TGMD-2"). The group matched on chronological age…

  4. Supporting University Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Ashleigh; Goldstein, Jody; Murphy, Deirdra; Trietsch, Rhoda; Keeves, Jacqueline; Mendes, Eva; Queenan, Alexa

    2018-01-01

    Increasing numbers of students with autism spectrum disorder are entering higher education. Their success can be jeopardized by organizational, social/emotional, and academic challenges if appropriate supports are not in place. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a support group model for university students with autism spectrum…

  5. Mars' radio spectrum and the flying dust.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos-Serote, M.; Stam, D.M.; Fender, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    Mars' radio spectrum at centimeter wavelengths is produced by thermal radiation from the surface and sub-surface. Observations at 2.8 cm made in the 1975 and 1978 show variations of its radio brightness as a function of longitude on the planet (Doherty et al. , ApJ 233, 1979). In addition, an

  6. Spectrum access games for cognitive radio networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available received a wide acceptance in next generation and intelligent wireless communication systems. In this paper the authors make use of game theory approach to model and analyze cognitive radio networks in order to allow dynamic spectrum access in broadband...

  7. Bottomonia: open bottom strong decays and spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santopinto E.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present our results for the bottomonium spectrum with self energy corrections. The bare masses used in the calculation are computed within Godfrey and Isgur’s relativized quark model. We also discuss our results for the open bottom strong decay widths of higher bottomonia in the 3P0 pair-creation model.

  8. Bullying Among Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrooten, I.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Didden, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Students with disabilities and/or autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are particularly vulnerable to be involved in bullying compared to their peers without ASD. Studies have found that students with ASD are at higher risk to be involved in bullying as a bully (i.e., perpetrator of bullying), a victim

  9. Genetics Home Reference: epilepsy-aphasia spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Szepetowski P, Scheffer IE, Mefford HC. GRIN2A mutations cause epilepsy-aphasia spectrum disorders. Nat Genet. 2013 Sep;45( ... Neubauer BA, Biskup S, von Spiczak S. Mutations in GRIN2A cause idiopathic focal epilepsy with rolandic spikes. Nat Genet. 2013 Sep;45( ...

  10. Spectrum of the extragalactic background light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruzual A, G [Centro de Investigacion de Astronomia, Merida (Venezuela)

    1981-01-01

    The observed spectrum of the extragalactic background light in the range from ultraviolet to optical wavelengths is compared with a model prediction. The model uses the locally observed luminosity function of galaxies as well as evolutionary models for galaxy spectral energy distributions. The predicition is too faint by a factor of about 10.

  11. Unbroken Mirror Neurons in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yang-Teng; Decety, Jean; Yang, Chia-Yen; Liu, Ji-Lin; Cheng, Yawei

    2010-01-01

    Background: The "broken mirror" theory of autism, which proposes that a dysfunction of the human mirror neuron system (MNS) is responsible for the core social and cognitive deficits in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), has received considerable attention despite weak empirical evidence. Methods: In this electroencephalographic…

  12. Gestational Age and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atladóttir, H Ó; Schendel, D.E.; Henriksen, T B

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a serious neurodevelopmental disorder. Several previous studies have identified pre-term birth as a risk factor for ASD but none has studied whether the association between gestational age and ASD has changed over time. This is a Danish population-based follow...

  13. Uncertainty analysis of dosimetry spectrum unfolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perey, F.G.

    1977-01-01

    The propagation of uncertainties in the input data is analyzed for the usual dosimetry unfolding solution. A new formulation of the dosimetry unfolding problem is proposed in which the most likely value of the spectrum is obtained. The relationship of this solution to the usual one is discussed

  14. Olfactory dysfunction in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.J.; Zhao, N.; Fu, Y.; Zhang, D.Q.; Wang, J.; Qin, W.; Zhang, N.N.N.; Wood, K.; Liu, Y.; Yu, C.S.; Shi, F.D.; Yang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Few data were available for the understanding of olfactory function in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs). The aims of our study were to investigate the incidence of olfactory dysfunction and characterize olfactory structures, using MRI, in patients with NMOSDs. Olfactory function was

  15. Expanding CEP290 mutational spectrum in ciliopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travaglini, Lorena; Brancati, Francesco; Attie-Bitach, Tania; Audollent, Sophie; Bertini, Enrico; Kaplan, Josseline; Perrault, Isabelle; Iannicelli, Miriam; Mancuso, Brunella; Rigoli, Luciana; Rozet, Jean-Michel; Swistun, Dominika; Tolentino, Jerlyn; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Gleeson, Joseph G.; Valente, Enza Maria; Zankl, A.; Leventer, R.; Grattan-Smith, P.; Janecke, A.; D'Hooghe, M.; Sznajer, Y.; van Coster, R.; Demerleir, L.; Dias, K.; Moco, C.; Moreira, A.; Kim, C. Ae; Maegawa, G.; Petkovic, D.; Abdel-Salam, G. M. H.; Abdel-Aleem, A.; Zaki, M. S.; Marti, I.; Quijano-Roy, S.; Sigaudy, S.; de Lonlay, P.; Romano, S.; Touraine, R.; Koenig, M.; Lagier-Tourenne, C.; Messer, J.; Collignon, P.; Wolf, N.; Philippi, H.; Kitsiou Tzeli, S.; Halldorsson, S.; Johannsdottir, J.; Ludvigsson, P.; Phadke, S. R.; Udani, V.; Stuart, B.; Magee, A.; Lev, D.; Michelson, M.; Ben-Zeev, B.; Fischetto, R.; Benedicenti, F.; Stanzial, F.; Borgatti, R.; Accorsi, P.; Battaglia, S.; Fazzi, E.; Giordano, L.; Pinelli, L.; Boccone, L.; Bigoni, S.; Ferlini, A.; Donati, M. A.; Caridi, G.; Divizia, M. T.; Faravelli, F.; Ghiggeri, G.; Pessagno, A.; Briguglio, M.; Briuglia, S.; Salpietro, C. D.; Tortorella, G.; Adami, A.; Castorina, P.; Lalatta, F.; Marra, G.; Riva, D.; Scelsa, B.; Spaccini, L.; Uziel, G.; del Giudice, E.; Laverda, A. M.; Ludwig, K.; Permunian, A.; Suppiej, A.; Signorini, S.; Uggetti, C.; Battini, R.; Di Giacomo, M.; Cilio, M. R.; Di Sabato, M. L.; Leuzzi, V.; Parisi, P.; Pollazzon, M.; Silengo, M.; de Vescovi, R.; Greco, D.; Romano, C.; Cazzagon, M.; Simonati, A.; Al-Tawari, A. A.; Bastaki, L.; Mégarbané, A.; Sabolic Avramovska, V.; de Jong, M. M.; Stromme, P.; Koul, R.; Rajab, A.; Azam, M.; Barbot, C.; Martorell Sampol, L.; Rodriguez, B.; Pascual-Castroviejo, I.; Teber, S.; Anlar, B.; Comu, S.; Karaca, E.; Kayserili, H.; Yüksel, A.; Akcakus, M.; Al Gazali, L.; Sztriha, L.; Nicholl, D.; Woods, C. G.; Bennett, C.; Hurst, J.; Sheridan, E.; Barnicoat, A.; Hennekam, R.; Lees, M.; Blair, E.; Bernes, S.; Sanchez, H.; Clark, A. E.; DeMarco, E.; Donahue, C.; Sherr, E.; Hahn, J.; Sanger, T. D.; Gallager, T. E.; Dobyns, W. B.; Daugherty, C.; Krishnamoorthy, K. S.; Sarco, D.; Walsh, C. A.; McKanna, T.; Milisa, J.; Chung, W. K.; de Vivo, D. C.; Raynes, H.; Schubert, R.; Seward, A.; Brooks, D. G.; Goldstein, A.; Caldwell, J.; Finsecke, E.; Maria, B. L.; Holden, K.; Cruse, R. P.; Swoboda, K. J.; Viskochil, D.

    2009-01-01

    Ciliopathies are an expanding group of rare conditions characterized by multiorgan involvement, that are caused by mutations in genes encoding for proteins of the primary cilium or its apparatus. Among these genes, CEP290 bears an intriguing allelic spectrum, being commonly mutated in Joubert

  16. Autism Spectrum Disorder: Primary Care Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchack, Kristian E; Thomas, Craig A

    2016-12-15

    Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by difficulty with social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interest, or activities. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed., created an umbrella diagnosis that includes several previously separate conditions: autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for autism spectrum disorder in children 18 to 30 months of age in whom the disorder is not suspected; however, there is a growing body of evidence that early intensive behavioral intervention based on applied behavior analysis improves cognitive ability, language, and adaptive skills. Therefore, early identification of autism spectrum disorder is important, and experts recommend the use of a validated screening tool at 18- and 24-month well-child visits. Medications can be used as adjunctive treatment for maladaptive behaviors and comorbid psychiatric conditions, but there is no single medical therapy that is effective for all symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. Prognosis is heavily affected by the severity of diagnosis and the presence of intellectual disability. Children with optimal outcomes receive earlier, more intensive behavioral interventions and less pharmacologic treatment.

  17. [Recognition of autism spectrum disorders in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, M.W.; Londen, L. van; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2008-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder was diagnosed in three adults. The first patient, a married man aged 41, was referred to a psychiatrist with 'impending burn-out'. The second was a 32-year-old male student with schizophrenia and a depressive disorder who was referred to a centre for autism because a friend

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorders (Pervasive Developmental Disorders)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    This booklet focuses on classic autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome, with brief descriptions of Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder. The booklet describes possible indicators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), their diagnosis, available aids, treatment options, adults…

  19. Evaluation of Spectrum Usage for GSM band in Indoor and Outdoor Scenario for Dynamic Spectrum Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Kishor P.; Barge, Snehal; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2013-01-01

    , and transmit power. Several measurements have shown that the current spectrum is inefficiently utilized. The inefficient utilization problem can be solved with the help of Dynamic Spectrum Access. This paper describes the GSM band measurement conducted at different locations. In this paper, we report detailed...... measurement results of GSM band including statistical as well as spectral occupancy details obtained from measurement campaign conducted in Pune, India for indoor and outdoor scenarios. The results can be further used as an input for spectrum regulator for considering Cognitive Radio (CR) operation in GSM...

  20. Observation of vibronic emission spectrum of jet-cooled 3,5-difluorobenzyl radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Woon; Yoon, Young Wook; Lee, Sang Kuk

    2010-09-02

    We applied the technique of corona-excited supersonic expansion using a pinhole-type glass nozzle to observe the vibronic emission spectrum of jet-cooled benzyl-type radicals from the corona discharge of precursor 3,5-difluorotoluene seeded in a large amount of inert helium carrier gas. The vibronically well-resolved emission spectrum was recorded with a long-path monochromator in the visible region. After subtracting the vibronic bands originating from isomeric difluorobenzyl radicals from the observed spectrum, we identified for the first time the bands belonging to the 3,5-difluorobenzyl radical, from which the electronic energy and vibrational mode frequencies of the 3,5-difluorobenzyl radical were accurately determined in the ground electronic state by comparison with those of the precursor and with those from an ab initio calculation.

  1. Wind tunnel study of the power output spectrum in a micro wind farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossuyt, Juliaan; Meyers, Johan; Howland, Michael F.; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Instrumented small-scale porous disk models are used to study the spectrum of a surrogate for the power output in a micro wind farm with 100 models of wind turbines. The power spectra of individual porous disk models in the first row of the wind farm show the expected -5/3 power law at higher frequencies. Downstream models measure an increased variance due to wake effects. Conversely, the power spectrum of the sum of the power over the entire wind farm shows a peak at the turbine-to-turbine travel frequency between the model turbines, and a near -5/3 power law region at a much wider range of lower frequencies, confirming previous LES results. Comparison with the spectrum that would result when assuming that the signals are uncorrelated, highlights the strong effects of correlations and anti-correlations in the fluctuations at various frequencies. (paper)

  2. The cosmic ray muon spectrum and charge ratio in CosmoALEPH

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, D; Kotaidis, V; Luitz, S; Mailov, A; Müller, A S; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Sander, H G; Schmeling, S; Schmelling, M; Wachsmuth, H W; Tcaciuc, R; Ziegler, T; Zuber, K

    2004-01-01

    The ALEPH experiment at the LEP e**+e**- storage ring at CERN has been used to measure the momentum spectrum of cosmic ray muons. ALEPH is located at a vertical depth of 320 m.w.e. underground close to the Jura mountains. The high resolution of the time projection chamber (TPC) of ALEPH allows to reconstruct muon tracks with momenta up to the TeV region. The measured muon momentum spectrum and the charge ratio in the range from 80 to 2500 GeV are presented. After corrections for energy loss in the overburden the sea level muon spectrum at nearly vertical incidence is obtained. The experimental data are compared to theoretical expectations and results from other experiments.

  3. Resource management for energy and spectrum harvesting sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Deyu; Zhou, Haibo; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2017-01-01

    This SpringerBrief offers a comprehensive review and in-depth discussion of the current research on resource management. The authors explain how to best utilize harvested energy and temporally available licensed spectrum. Throughout the brief, the primary focus is energy and spectrum harvesting sensor networks (ESHNs) including energy harvesting (EH)-powered spectrum sensing and dynamic spectrum access. To efficiently collect data through the available licensed spectrum, this brief examines the joint management of energy and spectrum. An EH-powered spectrum sensing and management scheme for Heterogeneous Spectrum Harvesting Sensor Networks (HSHSNs) is presented in this brief. The scheme dynamically schedules the data sensing and spectrum access of sensors in ESHSNs to optimize the network utility, while considering the stochastic nature of EH process, PU activities and channel conditions. This brief also provides useful insights for the practical resource management scheme design for ESHSNs and motivates a ne...

  4. [Brain imaging in autism spectrum disorders. A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziobek, I; Köhne, S

    2011-05-01

    In the past two decades, an increasing number of functional and structural brain imaging studies has provided insights into the neurobiological basis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This article summarizes pertinent functional brain imaging studies addressing the neuronal underpinnings of ASD symptomatology (impairments in social interaction and communication, repetitive and restrictive behavior) and associated neuropsychological deficits (theory of mind, executive functions, central coherence), complemented by relevant structural imaging findings. The results of these studies show that although cognitive functions in ASD are generally mediated by the same brain regions as in typically developed individuals, the degree and especially the patterns of brain activation often differ. Therefore, a hypothesis of aberrant network connectivity has increasingly been favored over one of focal brain dysfunction.

  5. The Organization of Narrative Discourse in Lewy Body Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Sharon; McMillan, Corey; Gross, Rachel G.; Cook, Philip; Morgan, Brianna; Boller, Ashley; Dreyfuss, Michael; Siderowf, Andrew; Grossman, Murray

    2011-01-01

    Narrative discourse is an essential component of day-to-day communication, but little is known about narrative in Lewy Body spectrum disorder (LBSD), including Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We performed a detailed analysis of a semi-structured speech sample in 32 non-aphasic patients with LBSD, and we related their narrative impairments to gray matter (GM) atrophy using voxel-based morphometry. We found that patients with PDD and DLB have significant difficulty organizing their narrative speech. This was correlated with deficits on measures of executive functioning and speech fluency. Regression analyses associated this deficit with reduced cortical volume in inferior frontal and anterior cingulate regions. These findings are consistent with a model of narrative discourse that includes executive as well as language components and with an impairment of the organizational component of narrative discourse in patients with PDD and DLB. PMID:21689852

  6. Laboratory spectrum of the PS radical and related astronomical search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohishi, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Saito, S.; Kawaguchi, K.; Suzuki, H.

    1988-01-01

    The millimeter-wave rotational spectrum of the PS radical (X 2Pi r) was observed in the laboratory for the first time in the frequency region of 79-293 GHz by discharging the mixture of PSCl3 and He. Some 44 lines were measured, and the rotational constant, the centrifugal distortion constant, the centrifugal distortion term of the spin-orbit coupling constant, the Lambda-type doubling constants, and the hyperfine coupling constants were determined. Based on the measured and calculated frequencies, an astronomical search for the interstellar and circumstellar PS radical was made without success in Orion KL, Sgr B2, L134N,IRC + 10216, VY CMa, and OH 231.8 + 4.2. 29 references

  7. Imaging Spectrum of Hydatid Disease: Usual and Unusual Locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, Maskal Revanna; Deepashri, Basavalingu; Lakshmeesha, Mogenahalli Thimmaiah

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a parasitic infection caused by Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis. It is common in endemic regions and can demonstrate a variety of imaging features that differ according to the affected organ and the stage of the disease. Liver and lungs are the most commonly affected organs. The classic features of hepatic hydatid disease are well known. However, diagnosing hydatid disease at unusual locations may be challenging because of myriad imaging features in each of these locations. Knowledge of the imaging spectrum in systemic hydatidoses in various organs is very valuable in improving the accuracy of radiological interpretation. The purpose of this article is to review the imaging features of hydatid disease at its varied locations

  8. Analysis of raw AIS spectrum recordings from a LEO satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Mortensen, Hans Peter

    2014-01-01

    The AAUSAT3 satellite is a 1U cubesat, which has been developed by students at Aalborg University, Denmark in collaboration with the Danish Maritime Authority. The satellite was launched in February 2013 on a mission to monitor ships from space using their AIS broadcast signals as an indication...... of position. The SDR receiver developed to listen for these AIS signals also allows for sampling and storing of the raw intermediate frequency spectrum, which has been used in order to map channel utilization over the areas of interest for the mission, which is mainly the arctic regions. The SDR based...... receiver used onboard the satellite is using a single chip front-end solution, which down converts the AIS signal located around 162 MHz into an intermediate frequency, with a up to 200 kHz bandwidth. This I/F signal is sampled with a 750 kSPS A/D converter and further processed by an Analog Devices DSP...

  9. Patterns of EEG Activity in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukova M.A.,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews most recent findings on neural activity in children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Most of the studies demonstrate decreased connectivity in cortical regions, excitatory/inhibitory imbalance and atypical processing of language in people with ASD. It is argued that difficulties in semantic integration are connected to selective insensitivity to language, which is manifested in atypical N400 ERP component. In the article we analyze the data suggesting a strong relationship between ASD and epilepsy and argue that the comorbidity is more prevalent among individuals who have cognitive dysfunction. The EEG profile of people with ASD suggests U-shaped alterations with excess in high- and low-frequency EEG bands. We critically analyze the “broken mirror” hypothesis of ASD and demonstrate findings which challenge this theory.

  10. Multichannel singular spectrum analysis of the axial atmospheric angular momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Zotov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Earth's variable rotation is mainly produced by the variability of the AAM (atmospheric angular momentum. In particular, the axial AAM component χ3, which undergoes especially strong variations, induces changes in the Earth's rotation rate. In this study we analysed maps of regional input into the effective axial AAM from 1948 through 2011 from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Global zonal circulation patterns related to the LOD (length of day were described. We applied MSSA (Multichannel Singular Spectrum Analysis jointly to the mass and motion components of AAM, which allowed us to extract annual, semiannual, 4-month, quasi-biennial, 5-year, and low-frequency oscillations. PCs (Principal components strongly related to ENSO (El Nino southern oscillation were released. They can be used to study ENSO-induced changes in pressure and wind fields and their coupling to LOD. The PCs describing the trends have captured slow atmospheric circulation changes possibly related to climate variability.

  11. Interactive social neuroscience to study autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolison, Max J; Naples, Adam J; McPartland, James C

    2015-03-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate difficulty with social interactions and relationships, but the neural mechanisms underlying these difficulties remain largely unknown. While social difficulties in ASD are most apparent in the context of interactions with other people, most neuroscience research investigating ASD have provided limited insight into the complex dynamics of these interactions. The development of novel, innovative "interactive social neuroscience" methods to study the brain in contexts with two interacting humans is a necessary advance for ASD research. Studies applying an interactive neuroscience approach to study two brains engaging with one another have revealed significant differences in neural processes during interaction compared to observation in brain regions that are implicated in the neuropathology of ASD. Interactive social neuroscience methods are crucial in clarifying the mechanisms underlying the social and communication deficits that characterize ASD.

  12. The ultraviolet spectrum of OCS from first principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johan Albrecht; Johnson, Matthew Stanley; McBane, G.C.

    2012-01-01

    Global three dimensional potential energy surfaces and transition dipole moment functions are calculated for the lowest singlet and triplet states of carbonyl sulfide at the multireference configuration interaction level of theory. The first ultraviolet absorption band is then studied by means...... of quantum mechanical wave packet propagation. Excitation of the repulsive 2 (1)A' state gives the main contribution to the cross section. Excitation of the repulsive 1 (1)A" state is about a factor of 20 weaker at the absorption peak (E(ph) ˜ 45,000 cm(-1)) but becomes comparable to the 2 (1)A' state...... degenerate with the 2 (1)A' state in the Franck-Condon region. The structure observed in the low energy tail of the spectrum is caused by excitation of quasi-bound bending vibrational states of the 2 (1)A' and 1 (1)A" electronic states. The absorption cross sections agree well with experimental data...

  13. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of autism spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichter, Gabriel S.

    2012-01-01

    This review presents an overview of functional magnetic resonance imaging findings in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), Although there is considerable heterogeneity with respect to results across studies, common themes have emerged, including: (i) hypoactivation in nodes of the “social brain” during social processing tasks, including regions within the prefrontal cortex, the posterior superior temporal sulcus, the amygdala, and the fusiform gyrus; (ii) aberrant frontostriatal activation during cognitive control tasks relevant to restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests, including regions within the dorsal prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia; (iii) differential lateralization and activation of language processing and production regions during communication tasks; (iv) anomalous mesolimbic responses to social and nonsocial rewards; (v) task-based long-range functional hypoconnectivity and short-range hyper-connectivity; and (vi) decreased anterior-posterior functional connectivity during resting states. These findings provide mechanistic accounts of ASD pathophysiology and suggest directions for future research aimed at elucidating etiologic models and developing rationally derived and targeted treatments. PMID:23226956

  14. Longitudinal decline in speech production in Parkinson's disease spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Sharon; Jester, Charles; York, Collin; Kofman, Olga L; Langey, Rachel; Halpin, Amy; Firn, Kim; Dominguez Perez, Sophia; Chahine, Lama; Spindler, Meredith; Dahodwala, Nabila; Irwin, David J; McMillan, Corey; Weintraub, Daniel; Grossman, Murray

    2017-08-01

    We examined narrative speech production longitudinally in non-demented (n=15) and mildly demented (n=8) patients with Parkinson's disease spectrum disorder (PDSD), and we related increasing impairment to structural brain changes in specific language and motor regions. Patients provided semi-structured speech samples, describing a standardized picture at two time points (mean±SD interval=38±24months). The recorded speech samples were analyzed for fluency, grammar, and informativeness. PDSD patients with dementia exhibited significant decline in their speech, unrelated to changes in overall cognitive or motor functioning. Regression analysis in a subset of patients with MRI scans (n=11) revealed that impaired language performance at Time 2 was associated with reduced gray matter (GM) volume at Time 1 in regions of interest important for language functioning but not with reduced GM volume in motor brain areas. These results dissociate language and motor systems and highlight the importance of non-motor brain regions for declining language in PDSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Amazing COS FUV (1320 - 1460 A) Spectrum of (lambda) Vel (K4Ib-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The FUV spectrum (1320-1460 A) of the K4 lb-11 supergiant (lambda) Vel was observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on HST, as part of the Ayres and Redfield Cycle 17 SNAP program "SNAPing Coronal Iron". This spectrum covers a region not previously recorded in (lambda) Vel at high resolution and, in a mere 20 minutes of exposure, reveals a treasure trove of information. It shows a wide variety of strong emission lines, superposed on a bright continuum, with contributions from both atomic and molecular species. Multiple absorptions, including numerous Ni II and Fe II lines, are visible over this continuum, which is likely generated in the chromosphere of the star. Evidence of the stellar wind is seen in the P Cygni profiles of the CII lines near 1335 A and the results of fluorescence processes are visible throughout the region. The spectrum has remarkable similarities to that of (alpha) Boo (K1.5 III), but significant differences as well, including substantial FUV continuum emission, reminiscent of the M2 Iab supergiant (alpha) Ori, but minus the CO fundamental absorption bands seen in the spectrum of the latter star. However, fluoresced CO emission is present, as in the K-giant stars (alpha) Boo and (alpha) Tau (K5 III). The presence of hot plasma in the atmosphere of the star, indicated by previous GHRS observations of Si III] and C III] lines near 1900 A and FUSE observations of O VI 1032 A, is further confirmed by the detection in this COS spectrum of the Si IV UV 1 lines near 1400 A, though both lines are contaminated by overlying fluorescent H2 emission. We present the details of this spectrum, in comparison with stars of similar temperature or luminosity and discuss the implications for the structure of, and the radiative processes active in, the outer atmospheres of these stars.

  16. A synthetic method of solar spectrum based on LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-qiang; Su, Shi; Zhang, Guo-yu; Zhang, Jian

    2017-10-01

    A synthetic method of solar spectrum which based on the spectral characteristics of the solar spectrum and LED, and the principle of arbitrary spectral synthesis was studied by using 14 kinds of LED with different central wavelengths.The LED and solar spectrum data were selected by Origin Software firstly, then calculated the total number of LED for each center band by the transformation relation between brightness and illumination and Least Squares Curve Fit in Matlab.Finally, the spectrum curve of AM1.5 standard solar spectrum was obtained. The results met the technical indexes of the solar spectrum matching with ±20% and the solar constant with >0.5.

  17. Capacity limits of spectrum-sharing systems over hyper-fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ekin, Sabit

    2011-01-20

    Cognitive radio (CR) with spectrum-sharing feature is a promising technique to address the spectrum under-utilization problem in dynamically changing environments. In this paper, the achievable capacity gain of spectrum-sharing systems over dynamic fading environments is studied. To perform a general analysis, a theoretical fading model called hyper-fading model that is suitable to the dynamic nature of CR channel is proposed. Closed-form expressions of probability density function (PDF) and cumulative density function (CDF) of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for secondary users (SUs) in spectrum-sharing systems are derived. In addition, the capacity gains achievable with spectrum-sharing systems in high and low power regions are obtained. The effects of different fading figures, average fading powers, interference temperatures, peak powers of secondary transmitters, and numbers of SUs on the achievable capacity are investigated. The analytical and simulation results show that the fading figure of the channel between SUs and primary base-station (PBS), which describes the diversity of the channel, does not contribute significantly to the system performance gain. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Model independent foreground power spectrum estimation using WMAP 5-year data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Tuhin; Souradeep, Tarun; Saha, Rajib; Jain, Pankaj

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and implement on WMAP 5 yr data a model independent approach of foreground power spectrum estimation for multifrequency observations of the CMB experiments. Recently, a model independent approach of CMB power spectrum estimation was proposed by Saha et al. 2006. This methodology demonstrates that the CMB power spectrum can be reliably estimated solely from WMAP data without assuming any template models for the foreground components. In the current paper, we extend this work to estimate the galactic foreground power spectrum using the WMAP 5 yr maps following a self-contained analysis. We apply the model independent method in harmonic basis to estimate the foreground power spectrum and frequency dependence of combined foregrounds. We also study the behavior of synchrotron spectral index variation over different regions of the sky. We use the full sky Haslam map as an external template to increase the degrees of freedom, while computing the synchrotron spectral index over the frequency range from 408 MHz to 94 GHz. We compare our results with those obtained from maximum entropy method foreground maps, which are formed in pixel space. We find that relative to our model independent estimates maximum entropy method maps overestimate the foreground power close to galactic plane and underestimates it at high latitudes.

  19. XUV spectrum of C I observed from Skylab during a solar flare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, U.; Brown, C.M.; Doschek, G.A.; Moore, C.E.; Rosenberg, F.D.

    1976-01-01

    An intense spectrum of C I in the wavelength region from 1100 to 2000 A has been recorded by the Naval Research Laboratory normal incidence spectrograph flown on Skylab. The source of the spectrum was a large solar flare. The spectral resolution was about 20 000 at 1200 A. We have identified 69 new lines of C I, and determined 63 new energy levels. The new lines arise from transitions from upper levels of high principal quantum number n where n approximately-greater-than 6. A list of 193 C I lines observed in the spectrum between 1140 and 1931 A is presented, as well as calculated wavelengths for an additional 109 transitions between the new levels and the 2s 2 2p 2 3 P 0 , 1 , 2 levels. The calculated lines fall between 1102 and 1140 A and were not observed in the solar flare spectrum due to low instrumental efficiency at these wavelengths. The relative wavelength accuracy of most of the observed and calculated lines is about +- 0.004 A. The intensities of the C I lines are qualitatively compared with corresponding intensities in the laboratory spectrum

  20. Capacity limits of spectrum-sharing systems over hyper-fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ekin, Sabit; Yilmaz, Ferkan; Ç elebi, Hasari Burak; Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Serpedin, Erchin

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) with spectrum-sharing feature is a promising technique to address the spectrum under-utilization problem in dynamically changing environments. In this paper, the achievable capacity gain of spectrum-sharing systems over dynamic fading environments is studied. To perform a general analysis, a theoretical fading model called hyper-fading model that is suitable to the dynamic nature of CR channel is proposed. Closed-form expressions of probability density function (PDF) and cumulative density function (CDF) of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for secondary users (SUs) in spectrum-sharing systems are derived. In addition, the capacity gains achievable with spectrum-sharing systems in high and low power regions are obtained. The effects of different fading figures, average fading powers, interference temperatures, peak powers of secondary transmitters, and numbers of SUs on the achievable capacity are investigated. The analytical and simulation results show that the fading figure of the channel between SUs and primary base-station (PBS), which describes the diversity of the channel, does not contribute significantly to the system performance gain. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Gamma-ray pulse height spectrum analysis on systems with multiple Ge detectors using spectrum summing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killian, E.W. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    A technique has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to sum high resolution gamma-ray pulse spectra from systems with multiple Ge detectors. Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company operates a multi-detector spectrometer configuration at the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant facility which is used to characterize the radionuclide contents in waste drums destined for shipment to Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This summing technique was developed to increase the sensitivity of the system, reduce the count times required to properly quantify the radio-nuclides and provide a more consistent methodology for combining data collected from multiple detectors. In spectrometer systems with multiple detectors looking at non homogeneous waste forms it is often difficult to combine individual spectrum analysis results from each detector to obtain a meaningful result for the total waste container. This is particularly true when the counting statistics in each individual spectrum are poor. The spectrum summing technique adds the spectra collected by each detector into a single spectrum which has better counting statistics than each individual spectrum. A normal spectral analysis program can then be used to analyze the sum spectrum to obtain radio-nuclide values which have smaller errors and do not have to be further manipulated to obtain results for the total waste container. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Model Atmosphere Spectrum Fit to the Soft X-Ray Outburst Spectrum of SS Cyg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Suleimanov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The X-ray spectrum of SS Cyg in outburst has a very soft component that can be interpreted as the fast-rotating optically thick boundary layer on the white dwarf surface. This component was carefully investigated by Mauche (2004 using the Chandra LETG spectrum of this object in outburst. The spectrum shows broad ( ≈5 °A spectral features that have been interpreted as a large number of absorption lines on a blackbody continuum with a temperature of ≈250 kK. Because the spectrum resembles the photospheric spectra of super-soft X-ray sources, we tried to fit it with high gravity hot LTE stellar model atmospheres with solar chemical composition, specially computed for this purpose. We obtained a reasonably good fit to the 60–125 °A spectrum with the following parameters: Teff = 190 kK, log g = 6.2, and NH = 8 · 1019 cm−2, although at shorter wavelengths the observed spectrum has a much higher flux. The reasons for this are discussed. The hypothesis of a fast rotating boundary layer is supported by the derived low surface gravity.

  3. Research on the correlation between corona current spectrum and audible noise spectrum of HVDC transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingyi; Zhou, Lijuan; Liu, Yuanqing; Yuan, Haiwen; Ji, Liang

    2017-11-01

    Audible noise is closely related to corona current on a high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line. In this paper, we measured a large amount of audible noise and corona current waveforms simultaneously based on the largest outdoor HVDC corona cage all over the world. By analyzing the experimental data, the related statistical regularities between a corona current spectrum and an audible noise spectrum were obtained. Furthermore, the generation mechanism of audible noise was analyzed theoretically, and the related mathematical expression between the audible noise spectrum and the corona current spectrum, which is suitable for all of these measuring points in the space, has been established based on the electro-acoustic conversion theory. Finally, combined with the obtained mathematical relation, the internal reasons for these statistical regularities appearing in measured corona current and audible noise data were explained. The results of this paper not only present the statistical association regularities between the corona current spectrum and the audible noise spectrum on a HVDC transmission line, but also reveal the inherent reasons of these associated rules.

  4. A VLT spectroscopic study of the ultracompact HII region G29.96-0.02

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Hernandez, NL; Bik, A; Kaper, L; Tielens, AGGM; Hanson, MM

    A high quality, medium-resolution K-band spectrum has been obtained of the ultracompact H II region G29.96-0.02 with the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The slit was positioned along the symmetry axis of the cometary shaped nebula. Besides the spectrum of the embedded ionizing O star, the long-slit

  5. The role of the amygdala in naturalistic mentalising in typical development and in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblau, Gabriela; Kliemann, Dorit; Lemme, Benjamin; Walter, Henrik; Heekeren, Hauke R; Dziobek, Isabel

    2016-06-01

    The substantial discrepancy between mentalising in experimental settings v. real-life social interactions hinders the understanding of the neural basis of real-life social cognition and of social impairments in psychiatric disorders. To determine the neural mechanisms underlying naturalistic mentalising in individuals with and without autism spectrum disorder. We investigated mentalising with a new video-based functional magnetic resonance imaging task in 20 individuals with autism spectrum disorder and 22 matched healthy controls. Naturalistic mentalising implicated regions of the traditional mentalising network (medial prefrontal cortex, temporoparietal junction), and additionally the insula and amygdala. Moreover, amygdala activity predicted implicit mentalising performance on an independent behavioural task. Compared with controls, the autism spectrum disorder group did not show differences in neural activity within classical mentalising regions. They did, however, show reduced amygdala activity and a reduced correlation between amygdala activity and mentalising accuracy on the behavioural task, compared with controls. These findings highlight the crucial role of the amygdala in making accurate implicit mental state inferences in typical development and in the social cognitive impairments of individuals with autism spectrum disorder. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  6. Hybrid Model of Inhomogeneous Solar Wind Plasma Heating by Alfven Wave Spectrum: Parametric Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofman, L.

    2010-01-01

    Observations of the solar wind plasma at 0.3 AU and beyond show that a turbulent spectrum of magnetic fluctuations is present. Remote sensing observations of the corona indicate that heavy ions are hotter than protons and their temperature is anisotropic (T(sub perpindicular / T(sub parallel) >> 1). We study the heating and the acceleration of multi-ion plasma in the solar wind by a turbulent spectrum of Alfvenic fluctuations using a 2-D hybrid numerical model. In the hybrid model the protons and heavy ions are treated kinetically as particles, while the electrons are included as neutralizing background fluid. This is the first two-dimensional hybrid parametric study of the solar wind plasma that includes an input turbulent wave spectrum guided by observation with inhomogeneous background density. We also investigate the effects of He++ ion beams in the inhomogeneous background plasma density on the heating of the solar wind plasma. The 2-D hybrid model treats parallel and oblique waves, together with cross-field inhomogeneity, self-consistently. We investigate the parametric dependence of the perpendicular heating, and the temperature anisotropy in the H+-He++ solar wind plasma. It was found that the scaling of the magnetic fluctuations power spectrum steepens in the higher-density regions, and the heating is channeled to these regions from the surrounding lower-density plasma due to wave refraction. The model parameters are applicable to the expected solar wind conditions at about 10 solar radii.

  7. Structure and Spectrum of Dust Coulomb Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, F.M.H.; Ford, C.; Barkby, S.; Samarian, A.A.; Vladimirov, S.V.

    2005-01-01

    In our study, the dynamics of Coulomb cluster systems were simulated for different number of particles. The spectra of energy states of dust Coulomb clusters corresponding to various packing sequences were obtained. The broadening of the spectrum due to inter-ring twist was discovered. It was found that the inter-ring twist will lead to a change in the energy spectrum of Coulomb cluster. This change was accompanied by a distortion of stable shells such that particles are able to compensate for any additional Coulomb energy (owing to the inter-ring twist) by further reducing their radial distance as much as possible. The overall effect is a change in the shape of the outer-shell from circular to elliptical

  8. Hγ Line Spectrum of Intermediate Polars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggi Kim

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Kim & Beuermann (1995, 1996 have developed a model for the propagation of X-rays from the accreting white dwarf through the infalling material and the re-emission of the energy deposited by photo-absorption in the optical (and UV spectral range. By using this model, we calculate the profiles of the Hγ emission-line spectrum of intermediate polars. Photoabsorption of X-rays by the infalling material is the dominant process in forming the observed energy-dependent rotational modulation of the X-ray flux. X-ray and optical modulations are sensitive to model parameters in different ways. In principle, these dependencies allow us to obtain improved insight into the accretion geometry of the intermediate polars. We present results of our calculations and compare them with the Hβ line spectrum (Kim & Beuermann 1996.

  9. Vertical Footbridge Vibrations: The Response Spectrum Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakis, Christos; Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a novel, accurate and readily codifiable methodology for the prediction of vertical footbridge response is presented. The methodology is based on the well-established response spectrum approach used in the majority of the world’s current seismic design codes of practice. The concept...... of a universally applicable reference response spectrum is introduced, from which the pedestrian-induced vertical response of any footbridge may be determined, based on a defined “event” and the probability of occurrence of that event. A series of Monte Carlo simulations are undertaken for the development...... period is introduced and its implication on the calculation of footbridge response is discussed. Finally, a brief comparison is made between the theoretically predicted pedestrian-induced vertical response of an 80m long RC footbridge (as an example) and actual field measurements. The comparison shows...

  10. Frequency spectrum of Calder Hall reactor noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, J.D.

    1960-01-01

    The frequency spectrum of the noise power of Calder Hall reactor No. 1 has been obtained by analysing a tape recording of the backed off power. The root mean square noise power due to all frequencies above 0.001 cycles per second was found to be 0.13%. The noise power for this reactor, is due mainly to modulations of the power level by reactivity variations caused in turn by gas temperature changes. These gas temperature changes are caused by a Cyclic variation in the feedwater regulator to the heat exchanger. The apparatus and method used to determine the noise power are described in this memorandum. It is shown that for frequencies in the range 0.001 to 0.030 cycles per second the noise spectrum falls at 60 decibels per decade of frequency. (author)

  11. Full spectrum analysis in environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, Sascha; Hartmann, Soeren; Pimpl, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In the environmental monitoring spectroscopic gamma detectors are frequently used. The motivation to use spectroscopic gamma detectors is the higher sensitivity and specific spectral information. For the analysis often the photo peaks of the gamma spectrum are used to identify the nuclide. These methods are very reliable, robust and well developed but using only the photo peak means also to use only a fraction of the available information. Doing a full spectrum analysis based on principle components obtained from NASVD for description of the radiation background and adjustment calculations are a possible analysis method which may provide advantages compared to a peak based analysis when used for a continuous environmental monitoring. An analysis example is shown and discussed with a measured time series of gamma spectra obtained from a spectroscopic gamma detector SARA IGS710 with a NaI(Tl) scintillator as it is used in the environmental monitoring.

  12. FACT. Energy spectrum of the Crab Nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temme, Fabian; Einecke, Sabrina; Buss, Jens [TU Dortmund, Experimental Physics 5, Otto-Hahn-Str.4, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Collaboration: FACT-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope is the first Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescope which uses silicon photon detectors (G-APDs aka SiPM) as photo sensors. With more than four years of operation, FACT proved an application of SiPMs is suitable for the field of ground-based gamma-ray astronomy. Due to the stable flux at TeV energies, the Crab Nebula is handled as a ''standard candle'' in Cherenkov astronomy. The analysis of its energy spectrum and comparison with other experiments, allows to evaluate the performance of FACT. A modern analysis chain, based on data stream handling and multivariate analysis methods was developed in close cooperation with the department of computer science at the TU Dortmund. In this talk, this analysis chain and its application are presented. Further to this, results, including the energy spectrum of the Crab Nebula, measured with FACT, are shown.

  13. Self-disorders and the Schizophrenia Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordgaard, Julie; Parnas, Josef

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Self-disorders (SD) have been described as a core feature of schizophrenia both in classical and recent psychopathological literature. However, the specificity of SD for the schizophrenia spectrum disorders has never been demonstrated in a diagnostically heterogeneous sample, nor has...... the concurrent validity of SD been examined. AIM: (1) To examine the specificity of Examination of Anomalous Self-Experiences (EASE) measured SD to the schizophrenia spectrum disorder in first contact inpatients, (2) to explore the internal consistency and factorial structure of the EASE, (3) to assess...... the concurrent validity of SD by exploring correlations between SD and the canonical psychopathological dimensions of schizophrenia, (4) to explore relations of SD to intelligence, sociodemographic, and extrinsic illness characteristics. METHODS: A total of 100 consecutive first admission patients underwent...

  14. Electronic spectrum of 9-methylanthracenium radical cation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Connor, Gerard D.; Schmidt, Timothy W., E-mail: timothy.schmidt@unsw.edu.au [School of Chemistry, UNSW Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Sanelli, Julian A.; Dryza, Vik; Bieske, Evan J. [School of Chemistry, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2016-04-21

    The predissociation spectrum of the cold, argon-tagged, 9-methylanthracenium radical cation is reported from 8000 cm{sup −1} to 44 500 cm{sup −1}. The reported spectrum contains bands corresponding to at least eight electronic transitions ranging from the near infrared to the ultraviolet. These electronic transitions are assigned through comparison with ab initio energies and intensities. The infrared D{sub 1}←D{sub 0} transitions exhibit significant vibronic activity, which is assigned through comparison with TD-B3LYP excited state frequencies and intensities, as well as modelled vibronic interactions. Dissociation of 9-methylanthracenium is also observed at high visible-photon energies, resulting in the loss of either CH{sub 2} or CH{sub 3}. The relevance of these spectra, and the spectra of other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon radical cations, to the largely unassigned diffuse interstellar bands, is discussed.

  15. Beryllium phonon spectrum from cold neutron measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulat, I.A.

    1979-01-01

    The inelastic coherent scattering of neutrons with the initial energy E 0 =4.65 MeV on the spectrometer according to the time of flight is studied in polycrystalline beryllium. The measurements are made for the scattering angles THETA=15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 deg at 293 K. The phonon spectrum of beryllium, i-e. g(w) is reestablished from the experimental data. The data obtained are compared with the data of model calculations. It is pointed out that the phonon spectrum of beryllium has a bit excessive state density in the energy range from 10 to 30 MeV. It is caused by the insufficient statistical accuracy of the experiment at low energy transfer

  16. Full spectrum analysis in environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinahrdt, S.; Hartmann, S.; Pimpl, R.

    2014-01-01

    In the environmental monitoring spectroscopic gamma detectors are frequently used. The motivation to use spectroscopic gamma detectors is the higher sensitivity and specific spectral information. For the analysis often the photo peaks of the gamma spectrum are used to identify the nuclide. These methods are very reliable, robust and well developed but using only the photo peak means also to use only a fraction of the available information. Doing a full spectrum analysis based on principal components obtained from NASVD for description of the radiation background and adjustment calculations are a possible analysis method, which may provide advantages compared to a peak based analysis when used for a continuous environmental monitoring. An analysis example is shown and discussed with a measured time series of gamma spectra obtained from a spectroscopic gamma detector SARA IGS710 with a NaI(Tl) scintillator as it is used in the environmental monitoring. (authors)

  17. Inertial-range spectrum of whistler turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Narita

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We develop a theoretical model of an inertial-range energy spectrum for homogeneous whistler turbulence. The theory is a generalization of the Iroshnikov-Kraichnan concept of the inertial-range magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. In the model the dispersion relation is used to derive scaling laws for whistler waves at highly oblique propagation with respect to the mean magnetic field. The model predicts an energy spectrum for such whistler waves with a spectral index −2.5 in the perpendicular component of the wave vector and thus provides an interpretation about recent discoveries of the second inertial-range of magnetic energy spectra at high frequencies in the solar wind.

  18. Current Noise Spectrum of a Quantum Shuttle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flindt, Christian; Novotny, T.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2005-01-01

    We present a method for calculating the full current noise spectrum S(omega) for the class of nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) that can be described by a Markovian generalized master equation. As a specific example we apply the method to a quantum shuttle. The noise spectrum of the shuttle has...... peaks at integer multiples of the mechanical frequency, which is slightly renormalized. The renormalization explains a previously observed small deviation of the shuttle Current compared to the expected value given by the product of the natural mechanical frequency and the electron charge. For a certain...... parameter range the quantum shuttle exhibits a coexistence regime, where the charges are transported by two different mechanisms: Shuttling and sequential tunneling. In our previous studies we showed that characteristic features in the zero-frequency noise could be quantitatively understood as a slow...

  19. Tuberculin skin testing: Spectrum of adverse reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Ramar; Bahuguna, Amit; Dhadwal, Bhumesh Singh

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculin skin testing (TST) is one of the primary diagnostic modalities recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) study conducted in the United Kingdom (UK) for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB). Even after acceptance as a diagnostic modality and stern standardization, TST has its own flaws that include a spectrum of adverse reactions. We report a series of cases with a spectrum of adverse reactions occurring with a higher frequency than present in the available evidence. The study has some demerits such as being a retrospective one with interobserver variation and lack of histopathological confirmation. The observation is presented to accentuate the fact that adverse reactions are not a rarity and that further studies are required to establish the cause and exact incidence of the same.

  20. Quantifying creativity: can measures span the spectrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2012-03-01

    Because the cognitive neuroscientists have become increasingly interested in the phenomenon of creativity, the issue arises of how creativity is to be optimally measured. Unlike intelligence, which can be assessed across the full range of intellectual ability creativity measures tend to concentrate on different sections of the overall spectrum. After first defining creativity in terms of the three criteria of novelty, usefulness, and surprise, this article provides an overview of the available measures. Not only do these instruments vary according to whether they focus on the creative process, person, or product, but they differ regarding whether they tap into "little-c" versus "Big-C" creativity; only productivity and eminence measures reach into genius-level manifestations of the phenomenon. The article closes by discussing whether various alternative assessment techniques can be integrated into a single measure that quantifies creativity across the full spectrum.