WorldWideScience

Sample records for region soils contained

  1. Evaporation From Soil Containers With Irregular Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouline, Shmuel; Narkis, Kfir

    2017-11-01

    Evaporation from bare soils under laboratory conditions is generally studied using containers of regular shapes where the vertical edges are parallel to the flow lines in the drying domain. The main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of irregular container shapes, for which the flow lines either converge or diverge toward the surface. Evaporation from initially saturated sand and sandy loam soils packed in cones and inverted cones was compared to evaporation from corresponding cylindrical columns. The initial evaporation rate was higher in the cones, and close to potential evaporation. At the end of the experiment, the cumulative evaporation depth in the sand cone was equal to that in the column but higher than in the inverted cone, while in the sandy loam, the order was cone > column > inverted cone. By comparison to the column, stage 1 evaporation was longer in the cones, and practically similar in the inverted cones. Stage 2 evaporation rate decreased with the increase of the evaporating surface area. These results were more pronounced in the sandy loam. For the sand column, the transition between stage 1 and stage 2 evaporation occurred when the depth of the saturation front was approximately equal to the characteristic length of the soil. However, for the cone and the inverted cone, it occurred for a shallower depth of the saturation front. It seems therefore that the concept of the characteristic length derived from the soil hydraulic properties is related to drying systems of regular shapes.

  2. Radionuclide containment in soil by phosphate treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Francis, C.W.; Timpson, M.E.; Elless, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    Radionuclide transport from a contaminant source to groundwater and surface water is a common problem faced by most US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Containment of the radionuclide plume, including strontium-90 and uranium, is possible using phosphate treatment as a chemical stabilizer. Such a chemical process occurs in soils under natural environmental conditions. Therefore, the concept of phosphate amendment for radiostrontium and uranium immobilization is already a proven principle. In this presentation, results of bench-scale experiments and the concept of a field-scale demonstration are discussed. The phosphate treatment is possible at the source or near the advancing contaminant plume. Cleanup is still the ideal concept; however, containment through stabilization is a more practical and costeffective concept that should be examined by DOE Environmental Restoration programs

  3. Soil Organic Carbon dynamics in agricultural soils of Veneto Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampa, F. B.; Morari, F. M.; Hiederer, R. H.; Toth, G. T.; Giandon, P. G.; Vinci, I. V.; Montanarella, L. M.; Nocita, M.

    2012-04-01

    One of the eight soil threats expressed in the European Commission's Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection (COM (2006)231 final) it's the decline in Soil Organic Matter (SOM). His preservation is recognized as with the objective to ensure that the soils of Europe remain healthy and capable of supporting human activities and ecosystems. One of the key goals of the strategy is to maintain and improve Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) levels. As climate change is identified as a common element in many of the soil threats, the European Commission (EC) intends to assess the actual contribution of the soil protection to climate change mitigation and the effects of climate change on the possible depletion of SOM. A substantial proportion of European land is occupied by agriculture, and consequently plays a crucial role in maintaining natural resources. Organic carbon preservation and sequestration in the EU's agricultural soils could have some potential to mitigate the effects of climate change, particularly linked to preventing certain land use changes and maintaining SOC stocks. The objective of this study is to assess the SOC dynamics in agricultural soils (cropland and grassland) at regional scale, focusing on changes due to land use. A sub-objective would be the evaluation of the most used land management practices and their effect on SOC content. This assessment aims to determine the geographical distribution of the potential GHG mitigation options, focusing on hot spots in the EU, where mitigation actions would be particularly efficient and is linked with the on-going work in the JRC SOIL Action. The pilot area is Veneto Region. The data available are coming from different sources, timing and involve different variables as: soil texture, climate, soil disturbance, managements and nutrients. The first source of data is the LUCAS project (Land Use/Land Cover Area Frame statistical Survey). Started in 2001, the LUCAS project aims to monitor changes in land cover/use and

  4. Regional hydrocarbon contaminated soil recycling facility standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.

    1992-01-01

    In an effort to protect the environment from uncontrolled releases of petroleum products, the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute member companies have initiated environmental upgrading programs for their underground fuel storage systems in British Columbia. These programs have been restricted in recent years as a result of environmental regulations targeting contaminated soil, which is generated when underground storage tanks are upgraded to current standards. The soil requiring treatment is typically sand backfill containing a nominal value of petroleum product. These soils can be treated in an engineered basin using bioremediation technology to reduce the level of contamination. Depending on the degree of treatment, the soil can be recycled as backfill or reused as landfill cover. An overview is presented of the basin treatment process and design. Natural bioremediation is enhanced with nutrients, water and oxygen addition. 4 figs

  5. Copper in Surface Soil of Veles Region, Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panchevski, Zlatko; Stafilov, Trajche; Frontasyeva, Marina V.

    2006-01-01

    For the first time a systematic study of copper distribution in surface soil over of the Veles region, known for its lead and zinc industrial activity, was undertaken. A total of 201 soil samples were collected according to a dense net (0.5 km) in urban and less dense net (1 km) in rural areas. Copper was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) using microwave digestion technique with two different types of solvents: aqua regia (HCI and HNO 3 )and the mixture of strong acids (HNO 3 , HCI, and HF). So far the same soil samples were subjected to reactor non-destructive multi-element instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), it served as a reference analytical technique for bulk copper determination. The results obtained by two methods of FAAS and INAA are discussed. GIS technology was applied to reveal the areas most affected by copper contamination. It was found that the content of copper in soil samples around the lead and zinc smelter plant is the highest and reaches 1800 mg/kg. Copper content in surface soil all around the town of Veles exceeds maximum permissible level for urban surface soil. Elevated copper content in some rural areas of the Veles region most likely could be explained through using copper containing fungicides for agricultural needs. (Author)

  6. Reliability evaluation of containments including soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, J.; Hwang, H.; Reich, M.

    1985-12-01

    Soil-structure interaction effects on the reliability assessment of containment structures are examined. The probability-based method for reliability evaluation of nuclear structures developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is extended to include soil-structure interaction effects. In this method, reliability of structures is expressed in terms of limit state probabilities. Furthermore, random vibration theory is utilized to calculate limit state probabilities under random seismic loads. Earthquake ground motion is modeled by a segment of a zero-mean, stationary, filtered Gaussian white noise random process, represented by its power spectrum. All possible seismic hazards at a site, represented by a hazard curve, are also included in the analysis. The soil-foundation system is represented by a rigid surface foundation on an elastic halfspace. Random and other uncertainties in the strength properties of the structure, in the stiffness and internal damping of the soil, are also included in the analysis. Finally, a realistic reinforced concrete containment is analyzed to demonstrate the application of the method. For this containment, the soil-structure interaction effects on; (1) limit state probabilities, (2) structural fragility curves, (3) floor response spectra with probabilistic content, and (4) correlation coefficients for total acceleration response at specified structural locations, are examined in detail. 25 refs., 21 figs., 12 tabs

  7. Soil Carbon in North American, Arctic, and Boreal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajtha, K.; Bailey, V. L.; Schuur, E.; McGuire, D.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2017-12-01

    Globally, soils contain more than 3 times as much as C as the atmosphere and >4 times more C than the world's biota, therefore even small changes in soil C stocks could lead to large changes in the atmospheric concentration of CO2. Since SOCCR-1, improvements have been made in quantifying stocks and uncertainties in stocks of soil C to a depth of 1 m across North America. Estimates for soil carbon stocks in the US (CONUS + Alaska) range from 151 - 162 Pg C, based on extensive sampling and analysis. Estimates for Canada average about 262 Pg C, but sampling is not as extensive. Soil C for Mexico is calculated as 18 Pg C, but there is a great deal of uncertainty surrounding this value. These soil carbon stocks are sensitive to agricultural management, land use and land cover change, and development and loss of C-rich soils such as wetlands. Climate change is a significant threat although may be partially mitigated by increased plant production. Carbon stored in permafrost zone circumpolar soils is equal to 1330-1580 Pg C, almost twice that contained in the atmosphere and about order of magnitude greater than carbon contained in plant biomass, woody debris, and litter in the boreal and tundra biomes combined. Surface air temperature change is amplified in high latitude regions such that Arctic temperature rise is about 2.5 times faster than for the globe as a whole, and thus 5 - 15% of this carbon is considered vulnerable to release to the atmosphere by the year 2100 following the current trajectory of global and Arctic warming. This amount is likely to be up to an order of magnitude larger loss than the increase in carbon stored in plant biomass under the same changing conditions. Models of soil organic matter dynamics have been greatly improved in the last decade by including greater process-level understanding of factors that affect soil C stabilization and destabilization, yet structural features of many models are still limited in representing Arctic and boreal

  8. Floor Response Spectra of Nuclear Containment Building with Soil-Structure Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Choon Gyo; Ryu, Jeong Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    This paper presents a seismic analysis technique for a 3D soil-structure interaction(SSI) system in frequency domain, based on the finite element formulation incorporating frequency-dependent dynamic infinite elements for the far field soil region. Earthquake input motions are regarded as traveling SV-wave which is vertically incident from a far-field soil region. In which, the equivalent earthquake forces in the frequency domain are calculated using the exterior rigid boundary method and the free field response analysis. For the application, floor response spectra analyses for nuclear containment building on a soil medium is carried out, the obtained results are compared with the free field response by other solution.

  9. Biofilm treatment of soil for waste containment and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.P.; Dennis, M.L.; Osman, Y.A.; Chase, J.; Bulla, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the potential for creating low-permeability reactive barriers for waste treatment and containment by treating soils with Beijerinckia indica, a bacterium which produces an exopolysaccharide film. The biofilm adheres to soil particles and causes a decrease in soil hydraulic conductivity. In addition, B. Indica biodegrades a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chemical carcinogens. The combination of low soil hydraulic conductivity and biodegradation capabilities creates the potential for constructing reactive biofilm barriers from soil and bacteria. A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effects of B. Indica on the hydraulic conductivity of a silty sand. Soil specimens were molded with a bacterial and nutrient solution, compacted at optimum moisture content, permeated with a nutrient solution, and tested for k sat using a flexible-wall permeameter. Saturated hydraulic conductivity (k sat ) was reduced from 1 x 10 -5 cm/sec to 2 x 10 -8 cm/sec: by biofilm treatment. Permeation with saline, acidic, and basic solutions following formation of a biofilm was found to have negligible effect on the reduced k sat , for up to three pore volumes of flow. Applications of biofilm treatment for creating low-permeability reactive barriers are discussed, including compacted liners for bottom barriers and caps and creation of vertical barriers by in situ treatment

  10. Design of dry barriers for containment of contaminants in unsaturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, C.E.; Thomson, B.M.; Stormont, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    A dry barrier is a region of very dry conditions in unsaturated soil that prevents vertical migration of water created by circulating dry air through the formation. Dry soil creates a barrier to vertical water movement by decreasing the soil's hydraulic conductivity, a concept also used in capillary barriers. A dry barrier may be a viable method for providing containment of a contaminant plume in a setting with a thick unsaturated zone and dry climate. The principal factors which determine the feasibility of a dry barrier include: (1) an and environment, (2) thick vadose zone, and (3) the ability to circulate air through the vadose zone. This study investigated the technical and economic considerations associated with creating a dry barrier to provide containment of a hypothetical 1 ha aqueous contaminant plume. The concept appears to be competitive with other interim containment methods such as ground freezing

  11. Electrokinetic treatment of firing ranges containing tungsten-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braida, Washington; Christodoulatos, Christos; Ogundipe, Adebayo; Dermatas, Dimitris; O'Connor, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Tungsten-based alloys and composites are being used and new formulations are being considered for use in the manufacturing of different types of ammunition. The use of tungsten heavy alloys (WHA) in new munitions systems and tungsten composites in small caliber ammunition could potentially release substantial amounts of this element into the environment. Although tungsten is widely used in industrial and military applications, tungsten's potential environmental and health impacts have not been thoroughly addressed. This necessitates the research and development of remedial technologies to contain and/or remove tungsten from soils that may serve as a source for water contamination. The current work investigates the feasibility of using electrokinetics for the remediation of tungsten-contaminated soils in the presence of other heavy metals of concern such as Cu and Pb with aim to removing W from the soil while stabilizing in situ, Pb and Cu

  12. Microelements containing in rock of the Aral region. Agrochemical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhumamuratov, A.

    2004-01-01

    Lately chemization of agriculture has been done not only by mineral nitrification and pesticides but also by melioration with rocks and industrial waste. However, increase in soil fertility and the related efficiency of production requires systematic control and analysis of the chemization so as not to disturb the existing balance in ecosystem. The experiment on bringing mountain rocks up 30 ton/hectare in soil shows that the socks have variable element contents (up a few orders of value) and under this condition the soil may be poisoned with undesirable toxic elements. Thus, it becomes actual to analyse the total element contents of soil and the inserted meliorants (rocks and other resources available in the region) used in agriculture production. Besides, the obtained information about element contents of mountain rocks allows to solve not only geochemical problems but also to evaluate soil formation process. Choose of a mountain rock having soil. Lack of microelements in soil can be made up by fitting optimal doses of meliorants consisting of mineral (NPK) and local fertilizers, mountain rocks or industrial waste. We proved earlier, that the soils of cotton planting area of Uzbekistan are exhausted with the nutrient elements (Co, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Mo, Rb, Cs, K and rarer P). Besides, the soil are polluted with As, Sb, Br, U, Th, REE and the Republics. Owing to pollution of the region soil with toxic elements, deficit of the nutritious in the environment, one can expect progressing of several diseases (sick ratr) in the population. Relating to the update agro-state of the soil of cotton planting region of Karakalpakstan, one can observe similar agrogeochemical processes complicated by a sharp accumulation on Na and Cl in subsurface layers of the soil. On the territory of the South Aral at different depths of many chinks and paleogenic terrigenic thick being opened in hills of Krantau, Khoja-Kul, Beshtube, Khojeily and also in the South-East Sultanuezdag, there are

  13. Microelements containing in rock of the Aral region. Agrogeochemical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhumamuratov, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Lately chemization of agriculture has been done not only by mineral nutrification and pesticides but also by melioration with rocks and industrial waste. However, increase in soil fertility and the related efficiency of production requires systematic control and analysis of the chemization so as not to disturb the existing balance in ecosystem. The experiment on bringing mountain rocks up 30ton/hectare in soil shows that the socks have variable element contents (up a few orders of value) and under this condition the soil may be poisoned with undesirable toxic elements. Thus, it becomes actual to analyse the total element contents of soil and the inserted meliorants (rocks and other resources available in the region) used in agriculture production. Besides, the obtained information about element contents of mountain rocks allows to solve not only geochemical problems but also to evaluate soil formation process. Choose of a mountain rock having soil. Lack of microelements in soil can be made up by fitting optimal doses of meliorants consisting of mineral (NPK) and local fertilizers, mountain rocks or industrial waste. We proved earlier, that the soils of cotton planting area of Uzbekistan are exhausted with the nutrient elements (Co, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Mo, Rb, Cs, K and rarer P). Besides, the soil are polluted with As, Sb, Br, U, Th, REE and the Republics. Owing to pollution of the region soil with toxic elements, deficit of the nutritious in the environment, one can expect progressing of several diseases (sick ratr) in the population. Relating to the update agro-state of the soil of cotton planting region of Karakalpakstan, one can observe similar agrogeochemical processes complicated by a sharp accumulation on Na and Cl in subsurface layers of the soil. On the territory of the South Aral at different depths of many chinks and paleogenic terrigenic thick being opened in hills of Krantau, Khoja-Kul, Beshtube, Khojeily and also in the South-East Sultanuezdag

  14. Nitrogen release from forest soils containing sulfide-bearing sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maileena Nieminen, Tiina; Merilä, Päivi; Ukonmaanaho, Liisa

    2014-05-01

    Soils containing sediments dominated by metal sulfides cause high acidity and release of heavy metals, when excavated or drained, as the aeration of these sediments causes formation of sulfuric acid. Consequent leaching of acidity and heavy metals can kill tree seedlings and animals such as fish, contaminate water, and corrode concrete and steel. These types of soils are called acid sulfate soils. Their metamorphic equivalents, such as sulfide rich black shales, pose a very similar risk of acidity and metal release to the environment. Until today the main focus in treatment of the acid sulfate soils has been to prevent acidification and metal toxicity to agricultural crop plants, and only limited attention has been paid to the environmental threat caused by the release of acidity and heavy metals to the surrounding water courses. Even less attention is paid on release of major nutrients, such as nitrogen, although these sediments are extremely rich in carbon and nitrogen and present a potentially high microbiological activity. In Europe, the largest cover of acid sulfate soils is found in coastal lowlands of Finland. Estimates of acid sulfate soils in agricultural use range from 1 300 to 3 000 km2, but the area in other land use classes, such as managed peatland forests, is presumably larger. In Finland, 49 500 km2 of peatlands have been drained for forestry, and most of these peatland forests will be at the regeneration stage within 10 to 30 years. As ditch network maintenance is often a prerequisite for a successful establishment of the following tree generation, the effects of maintenance operations on the quality of drainage water should be under special control in peatlands underlain by sulfide-bearing sediments. Therefore, identification of risk areas and effective prevention of acidity and metal release during drain maintenance related soil excavating are great challenges for forestry on coastal lowlands of Finland. The organic and inorganic nitrogen

  15. Adaptation of Regional Representative Soil Project and Soil Judging for Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Celestine Akuma

    2013-01-01

    Representative regional soils have agricultural, cultural, economic, environmental, and historical importance to Cameroon. Twenty seven regional representative soils have been identified in Cameroon. A set of laboratory exercises, assignments and exam questions have been developed utilizing the Regional Representative Soil Project (RRSP) that…

  16. Soil erosion in humid regions: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Holz; Karl W.J. Williard; Pamela J. Edwards; Jon E. Schoonover

    2015-01-01

    Soil erosion has significant implications for land productivity and surface water quality, as sediment is the leading water pollutant worldwide. Here, erosion processes are defined. The dominant factors influencing soil erosion in humid areas are reviewed, with an emphasis on the roles of precipitation, soil moisture, soil porosity, slope steepness and length,...

  17. In situ construction of horizontal soil containment barrier at Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridenour, D.; Pettit, P.J.; Walker, J.

    1995-01-01

    An innovative method of placing soil barriers to contain vertical flow is being prepared for demonstration by the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO), working in conjunction with the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development (DOE/OTD) and two principle subcontractors. The method employs proven directional drilling techniques, jet grouting technology and unique placement tooling to form horizontal soil barriers in situ. This is done without disturbance to existing land disposed wastes. This paper is a summary report on the current state of that demonstration, including: a discussion of the construction methods, the results of the initial tool tests, an overview of the Fernald site conditions and, the resulting path of tooling development for the second phase of tool testing

  18. Soil quality in a cropland soil treated with wood ash containing charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omil, Beatriz; Balboa, Miguel A.; Fonturbel, M. Teresa; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arias-González, Ander; Vega, Jose A.; Merino, Agustin

    2014-05-01

    The strategy of the European Union "Europe 2020" states that by 2020, 20% of final energy consumption must come from renewables. In this scenario, there is an increasing use of biomass utilization for energy production. Indeed, it is expected that the production of wood-ash will increase in coming years. Wood ash, a mixture of ash and charcoal, generated as a by-product of biomass combustion in power plants, can be applied to soil to improve the soil quality and crop production. Since the residue contains significant content of charcoal, the application of mixed wood ash may also improve the SOM content and soil quality in the long term, in soils degraded as a consequence of intensive management. The objective of this study was asses the changes in SOM quality and soil properties in a degraded soils treated with wood ash containing charcoal. The study was carried out in a field devoted to cereal crops during the last decades. The soil was acidic (pH 4.5) with a low SOC content (3 %) and fine texture. The experiment was based on a randomised block design with four replicates. Each block included the following four treatments: Control, 16 Mg fly wood ash ha-1, 16 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (16 Mg) and 32 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (32 Mg). The application was carried out once. The ash used in the study was obtained from a thermal power plant and was mainly derived from the combustion of Pinus radiata bark and branches. The wood ash is highly alkaline (pH= 10), contains 10 % of highly condensed black carbon (atomic H/C ratio solid state 13C CPMAS NMR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). These techniques were applied in bulk samples and aggregates of different sizes. The changes in microbial activity were studied by analysis of microbial biomass C and basal respiration. The soil bacterial community was studied by the Biolog method. Several physical properties, such soil aggregate distribution, hydraulic conductivity and available water contente were also determined

  19. Moessbauer Study of Soil Profiles in Industrial Region of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopcewicz, B.; Jelenska, M.; Hasso-Agopsowicz, A.; Kopcewicz, M.

    2005-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy was applied to study the influence of industrial activity on soil composition. Comparing the Moessbauer spectra of separate layers for the Mariupol sampling site (highly polluted industrial region of South -- East Ukraine) we observed: i) appearance of the Fe3O4 compound at top soil layers: 16.6% of relative spectral area (RA) at (0 - 10 cm) layer, 5.3% of RA at (30 - 40 cm) layer and no magnetite component at deeper layers, ii) a significant increase of the contribution of the magnetically split spectral components: from 10.9% of RA for (120 - 130 cm) layer to 32.8% of RA for (0-10 cm) layer. The differences in RA of the magnetically split spectral components between top soil layer and the (120 - 130 cm) layer at the Homutovski steppe sampling site (non-polluted area) are much smaller, 13.7% and 9.8%, respectively. From the temperature dependence of the Moessbauer spectra it was concluded that part of the iron-containing compounds appears in the form of ultra fine particles in the superparamagnetic state. The observed increase of total concentration of the magnetic minerals for polluted sampling sites is caused by an increase of the content of coarse fraction of the magnetic particles

  20. Soil-geographical regionalization as a basis for digital soil mapping: Karelia case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilnikov, P.; Sidorova, V.; Dubrovina, I.

    2010-12-01

    Recent development of digital soil mapping (DSM) allowed improving significantly the quality of soil maps. We tried to make a set of empirical models for the territory of Karelia, a republic at the North-East of the European territory of Russian Federation. This territory was selected for the pilot study for DSM for two reasons. First, the soils of the region are mainly monogenetic; thus, the effect of paleogeographic environment on recent soils is reduced. Second, the territory was poorly mapped because of low agricultural development: only 1.8% of the total area of the republic is used for agriculture and has large-scale soil maps. The rest of the territory has only small-scale soil maps, compiled basing on the general geographic concepts rather than on field surveys. Thus, the only solution for soil inventory was the predictive digital mapping. The absence of large-scaled soil maps did not allow data mining from previous soil surveys, and only empirical models could be applied. For regionalization purposes, we accepted the division into Northern and Southern Karelia, proposed in the general scheme of soil regionalization of Russia; boundaries between the regions were somewhat modified. Within each region, we specified from 15 (Northern Karelia) to 32 (Southern Karelia) individual soilscapes and proposed soil-topographic and soil-lithological relationships for every soilscape. Further field verification is needed to adjust the models.

  1. 137 Cs in the soil from Pljevlja region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukotic, P.; Jovanovic, S.; Dapcevic, S.; Zic, J.

    1996-01-01

    Surface layer of the seven characteristic types of soil in Pljevlja region (Montenegro) is sampled. Soil samples are taken 33 locations, at eight of them from three layers up to 20 cm in depth. Specific activity of 137 Cs is then measured in the soil samples by a method of semiconductor gamma-spectrometry. Average cesium contamination in the region is found to be about 10 times higher than the same before Chernobyl accident. 137 Cs is still in the superficial soil layer, mostly to the depth of 10 cm. Contamination level of soil has certain regularities in distribution over the region, and is the highest on the two mutually almost parallel geographic directions. 7 refs.; 1 figs.; 1 tabs

  2. Spatial Variation of Soil Type and Soil Moisture in the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R.

    2001-06-27

    Soil characteristics (texture and moisture) are typically assumed to be initially constant when performing simulations with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). Soil texture is spatially homogeneous and time-independent, while soil moisture is often spatially homogeneous initially, but time-dependent. This report discusses the conversion of a global data set of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) soil types to RAMS soil texture and the subsequent modifications required in RAMS to ingest this information. Spatial variations in initial soil moisture obtained from the National Center for Environmental Predictions (NCEP) large-scale models are also introduced. Comparisons involving simulations over the southeastern United States for two different time periods, one during warmer, more humid summer conditions, and one during cooler, dryer winter conditions, reveals differences in surface conditions related to increases or decreases in near-surface atmospheric moisture con tent as a result of different soil properties. Three separate simulation types were considered. The base case assumed spatially homogeneous soil texture and initial soil moisture. The second case assumed variable soil texture and constant initial soil moisture, while the third case allowed for both variable soil texture and initial soil moisture. The simulation domain was further divided into four geographically distinct regions. It is concluded there is a more dramatic impact on thermodynamic variables (surface temperature and dewpoint) than on surface winds, and a more pronounced variability in results during the summer period. While no obvious trends in surface winds or dewpoint temperature were found relative to observations covering all regions and times, improvement in surface temperatures in most regions and time periods was generally seen with the incorporation of variable soil texture and initial soil moisture.

  3. People, soil and manioc interactions in the upper Amazon region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña Venegas, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Clara Patricia Peña Venegas (2015). People, soil and manioc interactions in the upper Amazon region. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, with summaries in English and Dutch, 210 pp.

    The presence of anthropogenic soils, or Amazonian Dark

  4. [Response of mineralization of dissolved organic carbon to soil moisture in paddy and upland soils in hilly red soil region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang-Bi; Wang, Ai-Hua; Hu, Le-Ning; Huang, Yuan; Li, Yang; He, Xun-Yang; Su, Yi-Rong

    2014-03-01

    Typical paddy and upland soils were collected from a hilly subtropical red-soil region. 14C-labeled dissolved organic carbon (14C-DOC) was extracted from the paddy and upland soils incorporated with 14C-labeled straw after a 30-day (d) incubation period under simulated field conditions. A 100-d incubation experiment (25 degrees C) with the addition of 14C-DOC to paddy and upland soils was conducted to monitor the dynamics of 14C-DOC mineralization under different soil moisture conditions [45%, 60%, 75%, 90%, and 105% of the field water holding capacity (WHC)]. The results showed that after 100 days, 28.7%-61.4% of the labeled DOC in the two types of soils was mineralized to CO2. The mineralization rates of DOC in the paddy soils were significantly higher than in the upland soils under all soil moisture conditions, owing to the less complex composition of DOC in the paddy soils. The aerobic condition was beneficial for DOC mineralization in both soils, and the anaerobic condition was beneficial for DOC accumulation. The biodegradability and the proportion of the labile fraction of the added DOC increased with the increase of soil moisture (45% -90% WHC). Within 100 days, the labile DOC fraction accounted for 80.5%-91.1% (paddy soil) and 66.3%-72.4% (upland soil) of the cumulative mineralization of DOC, implying that the biodegradation rate of DOC was controlled by the percentage of labile DOC fraction.

  5. Hot regions of labile and stable soil organic carbon in Germany - Spatial variability and driving factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Cora; Jaconi, Angélica; Jacobs, Anna; Don, Axel

    2018-06-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels can be mitigated by sequestering carbon in the soil. Sequestration can be facilitated by agricultural management, but its influence is not the same on all soil carbon pools, as labile pools with a high turnover may be accumulated much faster but are also more vulnerable to losses. The aims of this study were to (1) assess how soil organic carbon (SOC) is distributed among SOC fractions on a national scale in Germany, (2) identify factors influencing this distribution and (3) identify regions with high vulnerability to SOC losses. The SOC content and proportion of two different SOC fractions were estimated for more than 2500 mineral topsoils (soil texture, bulk soil C / N ratio, total SOC content and pH. For some regions, the drivers were linked to the land-use history of the sites. Arable topsoils in central and southern Germany were found to contain the highest proportions and contents of stable SOC fractions, and therefore have the lowest vulnerability to SOC losses. North-western Germany contains an area of sandy soils with unusually high SOC contents and high proportions of light SOC fractions, which are commonly regarded as representing a labile carbon pool. This is true for the former peat soils in this area, which have already lost and are at high risk of losing high proportions of their SOC stocks. Those black sands can, however, also contain high amounts of stable SOC due to former heathland vegetation and need to be treated and discussed separately from non-black sand agricultural soils. Overall, it was estimated that, in large areas all over Germany, over 30 % of SOC is stored in easily mineralisable forms. Thus, SOC-conserving management of arable soils in these regions is of great importance.

  6. Accumulation, transfer, and environmental risk of soil mercury in a rapidly industrializing region of the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Biao; Yan, Lianxiang; Sun, Weixia; Zhao, Yongcun; Shi, Xuezheng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture; Wang, Mei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture; Graduate Univ. of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Weindorf, David C. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). AgCenter

    2011-06-15

    Purpose: Mercury (Hg) accumulation and transfer in soil ecosystems has been altered on local, regional, and even global scales, and their environmental risk has increasingly been a concern to the public and the scientific community. Materials and methods: A county level region in Zhangjiagang County, the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of China and a factory with Hg-contaminated wastewater discharging within the region were selected to study the accumulation, bioavailability, and transfer of Hg from different sources in soils and crops under rapid industrialization, urbanization, and intensive agricultural activities. Regional soil samples close to and away from factories and local soil and crop samples around a typical factory were collected in the YRD region of China. Soil and crop Hg and basic soil properties were examined. Results and discussion: Significant soil Hg accumulation was found in soils away from factories regardless of Cambosols (Entisols) and Anthrosols (Inceptisols), while the mobile HCl-extractable Hg (HCl-Hg) were greater in soils closer to factories due to a decrease and increase in soil pH and organic matter. A high level of soil total Hg (T-Hg) was found around the factory, and soil and crop Hg accumulation in the vicinity of the factory was localized with an exponential decrease as distance away from the wastewater discharge outlet increased. Although Hg accumulated in these soils, the T-Hg levels at only a few sampling sites in acidic Anthrosols area were found to exceed the second most stringent critical value of Chinese Environmental Quality Standards for Soils. Conclusions: Considering the cessation of Hg-containing agrochemicals and limitation of effects of industrial activities on Hg accumulation, more attention should be paid to the changes in soil properties and crop rotations than controlling the pathways of Hg entering soils because the current environmental risk is mobilization of accumulated soil Hg. (orig.)

  7. Soil 137Cs background values in monsoon region of china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingli; Yang Hao; Wang Xiaolei; Wang Yihong; Xu Congan; Yang Jiudong; Rong Jing

    2009-01-01

    Land degradation,, which is resulted from the soil erosion, is one of the major environmental problems. It severely affects the food supplies, environmental safety and the sustainable development in China. Some areas in the monsoon region are suffering from the acute soil erosion. To find out the degree of soil erosion, the proven technique of 137 Cs tracer is definitely one of the best methods, and the key is to ascertain the accuracy of soil 137 Cs background value. The distributions of 137 Cs were explored in soil profiles by detecting the 137 Cs of soil cores from the Yimeng mountain area in Shandong Province, hills in the southern area of Jiangsu Province and Dianchi catchment in Yunnan Province, respectively. We found that the depth of 137 Cs distribution is not the same in the soils of various areas. But the 137 Cs activity shows an exponential distribution in the uncultivated soil and demonstrates a strong correlation with the soil depth, while the 137 Cs activity proves uniform in the soil plowing layer of the cultivated land. The study shows the 137 Cs background values of three areas: 1737.1 Bq/m 2 in Yimeng mountain area, 1847.6 Bq/m 2 in southern area of hills in Jiangsu, 918.0 Bq/m 2 in Dianchi catchment. The certainty of 137 Cs background value can technically support the use of 137 Cs technique to study the spatial pattern of soil erosion, deposition and the land degradation, which provides the support for the sustainable utilization of soil resource, the assessment of economical benefit and loss and the evaluation of water and soil conservation measures. (authors)

  8. Biogeomorphic and pedogenic impact of trees in three soil regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Łukasz; Šamonil, Pavel

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation is an important factor of soil formation which together with topography, geology, climate and time modulates chemical and physical soil characteristics. Tree/soils/regolith interaction was recognized in recently uprooted trees and relict treethrow mounds and pits. In our present study we focus on effects of individual standing trees in pedogenesis and biogeomorphic processes. Constant pressure of tree root systems, changing hydric and temperature regime, together with rhizospheric microbes and root mycorrhizal associations may cause multiscale alterations to regolith and soils. We hypothesize different soil chemical properties under old tree stumps compared to unaffected control pedon resulted from affected pedogenetical pathways at the analyzed microsites. The present project highlights changes in soil properties under tree stumps in three different soil regions: Haplic Cambisols (Turbacz Reserve, Gorce Mts., Poland, hereafter HC), Entic Podzols (Zofin Reserve, Novohradske Mts., the Czech Republic, hereafter EP), Albic Podzols (Upper Peninsula, Michigan, USA, hereafter AP). These three regions represent different degrees of soil weathering and leaching. Pedons under fir, beech and hemlock stumps, as well as unaffected control pedons were sampled and laboratory analyzed for several chemical properties; active and exchangeable soil reaction, oxidized carbon, total nitrogen, and various forms of Fe, Al, Mn and Si. At the same time we studied age of the sampled tree stumps, as well as age of their death using radiocarbon technique and dendrochronology. While no effects of the soil-trees interactions can be visible on hillslope surface, we found important evidence of biomechanical activities of tree roots (e.g. root channels) and biochemical changes which add to the discussion about biogeomorphic and pedogenic significance of trees and tree roots as drivers of biomechanical weathering and soil processes in the decadal and centennial time scales. Preliminary

  9. Managing soil moisture on waste burial sites in arid regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.E.; Ratzlaff, T.D.; Nowak, R.S.; Markham, O.D.

    1993-01-01

    In semiarid regions, where potential evapotranspiration greatly exceeds precipitation, it is theoretically possible to preclude water form reaching interred wastes by (i) providing a sufficient cap of soil to store precipitation that falls while plants are dormant and (ii) establishing sufficient plant cover to deplete soil moisture during the growing season, thereby emptying the water storage reservoir of the soil. Here the authors discuss the theory and rationale for such an approach and then present the results of a field study to test its efficacy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). They examined the capacity of four species of perennial plants to deplete soil moisture on simulated waste trenches and determined the effective water storage capacity of the soil. Those data enabled them to estimate the minimum depth of fill soil required to prevent deep drainage. Any of the species studied can use all of the plant-available soil water, even during a very wet growing season. The water storage capacity of the soil studied is 17% by volume, so a trench cap of 1.6 m of soil should be adequate to store precipitation received at the INEL while plants are dormant. They recommend a fill soil depth of 2 m to provide a margin of safety in case water accumulates in local areas as a result of heavy snow accumulation, subsidence, or runoff. Fill soil requirements and choice of plant species will vary, but the concepts and general approach are applicable to other shallow land burial sites in arid or semiarid regions. 23 refs., 5 figs

  10. Halotolerant streptomycetes isolated from soil at Taif region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on isolation and purification of some halotolerant streptomycetes from soil and sea water of western region, KSA as a source of salt tolerance gene(s). A few numbers (32) of streptomycetes-like colonies (SLC) were isolated and purified from two regions. From Jeddah, a number of 22 out of the 32 SLC ...

  11. Biodegradation of PAHs by fungi in contaminated-soil containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PAH) benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a) fluoranthene, benzo(a) pyrene, chrysene and phenanthrene in a soil that was sterilized and inoculated with the nonligninolytic fungi, Fusarium flocciferum and Trichoderma spp. and the ligninolytic fungi, ...

  12. The Raam regional soil moisture monitoring network in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-J. F. Benninga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We have established a soil moisture profile monitoring network in the Raam region in the Netherlands. This region faces water shortages during summers and excess of water during winters and after extreme precipitation events. Water management can benefit from reliable information on the soil water availability and water storing capacity in the unsaturated zone. In situ measurements provide a direct source of information on which water managers can base their decisions. Moreover, these measurements are commonly used as a reference for the calibration and validation of soil moisture content products derived from earth observations or obtained by model simulations. Distributed over the Raam region, we have equipped 14 agricultural fields and 1 natural grass field with soil moisture and soil temperature monitoring instrumentation, consisting of Decagon 5TM sensors installed at depths of 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 cm. In total, 12 stations are located within the Raam catchment (catchment area of 223 km2, and 5 of these stations are located within the closed sub-catchment Hooge Raam (catchment area of 41 km2. Soil-specific calibration functions that have been developed for the 5TM sensors under laboratory conditions lead to an accuracy of 0.02 m3 m−3. The first set of measurements has been retrieved for the period 5 April 2016–4 April 2017. In this paper, we describe the Raam monitoring network and instrumentation, the soil-specific calibration of the sensors, the first year of measurements, and additional measurements (soil temperature, phreatic groundwater levels and meteorological data and information (elevation, soil physical characteristics, land cover and a geohydrological model available for performing scientific research. The data are available at https://doi.org/10.4121/uuid:dc364e97-d44a-403f-82a7-121902deeb56.

  13. The Raam regional soil moisture monitoring network in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninga, Harm-Jan F.; Carranza, Coleen D. U.; Pezij, Michiel; van Santen, Pim; van der Ploeg, Martine J.; Augustijn, Denie C. M.; van der Velde, Rogier

    2018-01-01

    We have established a soil moisture profile monitoring network in the Raam region in the Netherlands. This region faces water shortages during summers and excess of water during winters and after extreme precipitation events. Water management can benefit from reliable information on the soil water availability and water storing capacity in the unsaturated zone. In situ measurements provide a direct source of information on which water managers can base their decisions. Moreover, these measurements are commonly used as a reference for the calibration and validation of soil moisture content products derived from earth observations or obtained by model simulations. Distributed over the Raam region, we have equipped 14 agricultural fields and 1 natural grass field with soil moisture and soil temperature monitoring instrumentation, consisting of Decagon 5TM sensors installed at depths of 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 cm. In total, 12 stations are located within the Raam catchment (catchment area of 223 km2), and 5 of these stations are located within the closed sub-catchment Hooge Raam (catchment area of 41 km2). Soil-specific calibration functions that have been developed for the 5TM sensors under laboratory conditions lead to an accuracy of 0.02 m3 m-3. The first set of measurements has been retrieved for the period 5 April 2016-4 April 2017. In this paper, we describe the Raam monitoring network and instrumentation, the soil-specific calibration of the sensors, the first year of measurements, and additional measurements (soil temperature, phreatic groundwater levels and meteorological data) and information (elevation, soil physical characteristics, land cover and a geohydrological model) available for performing scientific research. The data are available at https://doi.org/10.4121/uuid:dc364e97-d44a-403f-82a7-121902deeb56.

  14. Pollutants impact bioassay from waters and soils in Banat region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crina Laura Mosneang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of water and soil samples by chemical methods identified the quantities of chlorides, nitrates and phosphates by comparison with the maximum limits of law. Acute toxicity tests on zebra fish embryos is an alternative test of water samples around swine farms in Banat region, because embryos are not subject to animal protection legislation during experiments. The use of Eisenia fetida earthworms as pollution indicators allowed assessment of avoidance behavior of potentially polluting soils collected from different distances from farms.

  15. Criticality analyses of regions containing uranium in the earth history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravnik, M.

    2005-01-01

    Investigations of necessary conditions for a self-sustained chain reaction in the Earth inner regions hypothetically containing uranium is presented for the time interval from Earth formation to present time. It is determined that criticality was theoretically possible up to 2.5 Ga before present if uranium concentrated in pure form. In the early geological history (4 Ga before present) the self-sustained criticality could occur even if uranium was diluted up to 1:20 by the average core material or 1:60 by the average mantle material. If other metallic materials of similar density as uranium (e.g., Au, W) or similar atomic weight (e.g., Th) concentrated from the primordial mixture in equal proportion as uranium, criticality was not possible for any period in Earth history provided that the basic material contained no light nuclides (H, C). Criticality in the Earth inner regions could have established only if uranium concentrated from the basic material more effectively than elements of similar density or atomic number. (orig.)

  16. Testing of multistep soil washing for radiocesium-contaminated soil containing plant matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funakawa, Masafumi; Tagawa, Akihiro; Okuda, Nobuyasu

    2012-01-01

    Decontamination work following radiocesium exposure requires a vast reduction in the amount of contaminated soil generated. The current study subjected 4 types of contaminated soil with different properties to multistep soil washing under the same conditions. This study also determined the effectiveness of radiocesium decontamination and the extent to which the amount of contaminated soil was reduced. In addition, the effectiveness of plant matter separation, adsorbent addition, and grinding as part of multistep soil washing was determined using the same contaminated soil. Results of testing indicated that the rate of radiocesium decontamination ranged from 73.6 to 89.2% and the recovery rate ranged from 51.5 to 84.2% for twice-treated soil, regardless of the soil properties or cesium level. Plant matter in soil had a high radiocesium level. However, there was little plant matter in our soil sample. Therefore, plant matter separation had little effect on the improvement in the percentage of radiocesium decontamination of twice-treated soil. Soil surface grinding improved the rate of radiocesium decontamination of twice-treated soil. However, radiocesium in soil tightly bound with minerals in the soil; thus, the addition of an adsorbent also failed to improve the rate of radiocesium decontamination. (author)

  17. Gamma radiation for the decontamination of soil containing dioxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhor, M.P.; Wethington, J.A. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Dioxin-2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) contamination poses an environmental danger. Different methods for the cleanup of contaminated sites have been proposed. The G value for dioxin dispersed in soil wetted with ethanol is much greater than G values for typical aromatic hydrocarbons. Doses > 6.24 x 10 23 eV/kg lead to decreasing rates of destruction of TCDD, and doses > 24.97 x 10 23 eV/kg are not very effective. Gamma irradiation of contaminated soil apparently will not result in large (powers of 10) decontamination factor. The concept of using gamma radiation for the degradation of TCDD in contaminated soil is about as good or as bad as other methods being tested

  18. Decontamination of soils by irrigation with solutions containing complexing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimpl, M.; Schuettelkopf, H.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments in laboratory scale were performed to increase the mobility of Pu, Am, and Cm in soil. Soil columns of 30 cm in diameter and 40 cm of length were contaminated on the surface with 5 μCi of Pu, Am, and Cm, applied as nitrates. By irrigation with 0.1 M DTPA-solution the actinides were mobilized and migrated with the irrigation solution through the columns. The migration velocity was measured and compared to the calculated one. Conclusions for the application of this procedure in field experiments are drawn. (author)

  19. Surficial geology and soils of the Elmira-Williamsport region, New York and Pennsylvania, with a section on forest regions and great soil groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Charles Storrow; Lyford, Walter Henry; Goodlett, J.C.

    1963-01-01

    The Elmira-Williamsport region, lying south of the Finger Lakes in central New York and northern Pennsylvania, is part of the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province. A small segment of the Valley and Ridge province is included near the south border. In 1953 and 1954, the authors, a geologist and a soil scientist, made a reconnaissance of about 5,000 square miles extending southward from the Finger Lakes, N.Y., to Williamsport, Pa., and eastward from Wellsboro, Pa., to Towanda, Pa. Glacial drift of Wisconsin age, covering the central and most of the northern parts of the region, belongs to the Olean substage of MacClintock and Apfel. This drift is thin and patchy, is composed of the relatively soft sandstones, siltstone, shales, and conglomerates of the plateaus, commonly has a low calcium carbonate content, and is deeply leached. Mantling its surface are extensive rubbly colluvial deposits. No conspicuous terminal moraine marks the relatively straight border of Olean drift. The Valley Heads moraine of Fairchild near the south ends of the Finger Lakes is composed of relatively thick drift containing a considerable amount of somewhat resistant sedimentary and crystalline rocks. Commonly this drift has a relatively high carbonate content and is leached to only shallow depths. The Valley Heads drift is younger than Olean, but its precise age is undetermined. The age of the Olean is perhaps between Sangamon and Farmdale, on the basis of, in part, a carbon-14 date from peat at Otto, N.Y. All differences in soil development on these two Wisconsin drifts are clearly related to the lithology of the parent material or the drainage, rather than to weathering differing in kind or in duration. The authors believe that the soils are relatively young, are in equilibrium with the present environment, and contain few, if any, features acquired during past weathering intervals. The effect of tree throw on soil profiles and the presence of soils on slopes clearly indicate that

  20. Demonstration of Incremental Sampling Methodology for Soil Containing Metallic Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    with a three-year rotation schedule. This rotation schedule enabled train- ing areas to be reseeded and rehabilitated prior to continued use. The only...berm was destroyed with the construction of Landfill 7 though some of its soil appears to have been stockpiled nearby. A description of the northern

  1. Dust emission parameterization scheme over the MENA region: Sensitivity analysis to soil moisture and soil texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherboudj, Imen; Beegum, S. Naseema; Marticorena, Beatrice; Ghedira, Hosni

    2015-10-01

    The mineral dust emissions from arid/semiarid soils were simulated over the MENA (Middle East and North Africa) region using the dust parameterization scheme proposed by Alfaro and Gomes (2001), to quantify the effect of the soil moisture and clay fraction in the emissions. For this purpose, an extensive data set of Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity soil moisture, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting wind speed at 10 m height, Food Agricultural Organization soil texture maps, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and erodibility of the soil surface were collected for the a period of 3 years, from 2010 to 2013. Though the considered data sets have different temporal and spatial resolution, efforts have been made to make them consistent in time and space. At first, the simulated sandblasting flux over the region were validated qualitatively using MODIS Deep Blue aerosol optical depth and EUMETSAT MSG (Meteosat Seciond Generation) dust product from SEVIRI (Meteosat Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) and quantitatively based on the available ground-based measurements of near-surface particulate mass concentrations (PM10) collected over four stations in the MENA region. Sensitivity analyses were performed to investigate the effect of soil moisture and clay fraction on the emissions flux. The results showed that soil moisture and soil texture have significant roles in the dust emissions over the MENA region, particularly over the Arabian Peninsula. An inversely proportional dependency is observed between the soil moisture and the sandblasting flux, where a steep reduction in flux is observed at low friction velocity and a gradual reduction is observed at high friction velocity. Conversely, a directly proportional dependency is observed between the soil clay fraction and the sandblasting flux where a steep increase in flux is observed at low friction velocity and a gradual increase is

  2. Delignification and Enhanced Gas Release from Soil Containing Lignocellulose by Treatment with Bacterial Lignin Degraders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Goran M M; Duran-Pena, Maria Jesus; Rahmanpour, Rahman; Sapsford, Devin; Bugg, Timothy D H

    2017-04-10

    The aim of the study was to isolate bacterial lignin-degrading bacteria from municipal solid waste soil, and to investigate whether they could be used to delignify lignocellulose-containing soil, and enhance methane release. A set of 20 bacterial lignin degraders, including 11 new isolates from municipal solid waste soil, were tested for delignification and phenol release in soil containing 1% pine lignocellulose. A group of 7 strains were then tested for enhancement of gas release from soil containing 1% lignocellulose in small-scale column tests. Using an aerobic pre-treatment, aerobic strains such as Pseudomonas putida showed enhanced gas release from the treated sample, but four bacterial isolates showed 5-10 fold enhancement in gas release in an in situ experiment under microanaerobic conditions: Agrobacterium sp., Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Comamonas testosteroni, and Enterobacter sp.. The results show that facultative anaerobic bacterial lignin degraders found in landfill soil can be used for in situ delignification and enhanced gas release in soil containing lignocellulose. The study demonstrates the feasibility of using an in situ bacterial treatment to enhance gas release and resource recovery from landfill soil containing lignocellulosic waste. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk assessment of soil compaction in Walloon Region (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlotte, Rosiere; Marie-France, Destain; Jean-Claude, Verbrugge

    2010-05-01

    The proposed Soil Framework Directive COM(2006)232 requires Member States to identify areas at risk of erosion, decline in organic matter, salinisation, compaction, sealing and landslides, as well as to set up an inventory of contaminated sites. The present project aims to identify the susceptibility to compaction of soils of the Walloon Region (Belgium) and to recommend good farming practices avoiding soil compaction as far as possible. Within this scope, the concept of precompression stress (Pc) (Horn and Fleige, 2003) was used. Pc is defined as the maximum major principal stress that a soil horizon can withstand against any applied external vertical stress. If applied stress is higher than Pc, the soil enters in a plastic state, not easily reversible. For a given soil, the intensity of soil compaction is mainly due to the applied load which depends on vehicle characteristics (axle load, tyre dimensions, tyre inflation pressure, and vehicle velocity). To determine soil precompression stress, pedotransfert functions of Lebert and Horn (1991) defined at two water suctions (pF 1.8 and 2.5) were used. Parameters required by these functions were found within several databases (Aardewerk and Digital Map of Walloon Soils) and literature. The validation of Pc was performed by measuring stress-strain relationships using automatic oedometers. Stresses of 15.6, 31, 3, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 kPa were applied for 10 min each. In this study, the compaction due to beet harvesters was considered because the axle load can exceed 10 tons and these machines are often used during wet conditions. The compaction at two depth levels was considered: 30 and 50 cm. Compaction of topsoil was not taken into account because, under conventional tillage, the plough depth is lower than 25 cm. Before and after the passage of the machines, following measurements were performed: granulometry, density, soil moisture, pF curve, Atterberg limits, ... The software Soilflex (Keller et al., 2007

  4. Earth System Models Underestimate Soil Carbon Diagnostic Times in Dry and Cold Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, W.; Xia, J.; Zhou, X.; Huang, K.; Huang, Y.; Jian, Z.; Jiang, L.; Xu, X.; Liang, J.; Wang, Y. P.; Luo, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Soils contain the largest organic carbon (C) reservoir in the Earth's surface and strongly modulate the terrestrial feedback to climate change. Large uncertainty exists in current Earth system models (ESMs) in simulating soil organic C (SOC) dynamics, calling for a systematic diagnosis on their performance based on observations. Here, we built a global database of SOC diagnostic time (i.e.,turnover times; τsoil) measured at 320 sites with four different approaches. We found that the estimated τsoil was comparable among approaches of 14C dating () (median with 25 and 75 percentiles), 13C shifts due to vegetation change () and the ratio of stock over flux (), but was shortest from laboratory incubation studies (). The state-of-the-art ESMs underestimated the τsoil in most biomes, even by >10 and >5 folds in cold and dry regions, respectively. Moreover,we identified clear negative dependences of τsoil on temperature and precipitation in both of the observational and modeling results. Compared with Community Land Model (version 4), the incorporation of soil vertical profile (CLM4.5) could substantially extend the τsoil of SOC. Our findings suggest the accuracy of climate-C cycle feedback in current ESMs could be enhanced by an improved understanding of SOC dynamics under the limited hydrothermal conditions.

  5. Threshold for sweepout from pedestal region of Mark III containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1984-01-01

    The assessment of the consequences of highly unlikely severe accident sequences in boiling water reactors includes those sequences in which molten corium is postulated to meltthrough the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lower head and enter the pedestal region beneath the vessel. If localized melt-through of the reactor vessel occurs at elevated primary system pressure, the ejection of molten corium from the vessel will be followed by a blowdown of steam and hydrogen. The gases flowing from the breached vessel constitute a source of driving forces capable of dispersing corium from the pedestal into other parts of the containment. The extent of the gas blowdown-driven sweepout process depends upon a number of factors including the primary system pressure at melt through, breach flow area, overall blowdown timescale, and the specific pedestal/containment geometry. A model is presented to predict whether or not the conditions of gas flow from the failed RPV are sufficient to cause sweepout of corium and/or water from the pedestal. The model is shown to predict the onset of sweepout in scale model, simulant material experiments and is applied to the investigation of sweepout in the full-size reactor system

  6. A review of the Hanford Site soil corrosion applicable to solid waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divine, J.R.

    1991-05-01

    The first phase of the assessment of the soil corrosion in the solid waste burial grounds of the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site is completed with this review of both existing information developed at the site and relevant offsite information. Detailed soil corrosion data are needed for several reasons: (1) the possibility of predicting the damage to the containers of the retrievable stored transuranic waste that are under soil cover, (2) the feasibility of forecasting the state of waste containers being retrieved in remedial investigation/feasibility studies, (3) the capability of predicting subsidence of the soil over the waste containers, and (4) the capability of forecasting when stored lead shielding or hazardous chemicals might be exposed to the environment. Because corrosion in soils is dependent on the soil type, site-specific data are required even though offsite data can provide guidance on the type and the approximate extent of corrosion to expect. These data permit rough estimations of the corrosion rates of a variety of materials -- including carbon steels, cast irons, stainless steels, and lead -- in the Hanford Site soils. This report attempts to compile these data to facilitate current estimates of waste container longevity. However, because of the lack of well-documented, site-specific data, it is difficult to provide a definite life expectancy for waste containers and other structures. Consequently, additional data are essential for reliable container life estimates. 36 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  7. Evaluation of Soils Contained in Mineral Tailings at Junin Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Javier; Fabian, Julio; Vela, Mariano

    2008-01-01

    The Junin National Reserve is located between the provinces of Junin and Pasco, Sierra Central, high land of Peru. It was analyzed 20 samples from different geographic locations soil of the Reserve. The results showed us that there are pollutants minerals very harmful to the environment because of some of the centers miners deposited the tailings in the vicinity of the nature reserve. The techniques used for characterization of mineralogical soil were: neutron activation analysis, x-ray fluorescence and spectroscopy Moessbauer by transmission. The analysis done by the method of X-ray fluorescence indicate the presence of Rubidium, tungsten, calcium, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, gold and zirconium. With spectroscopy Moessbauer technique was observed the presence a higher proportion of paramagnetic iron; while thanks to neutron activation analysis, besides these elements, it was observed the presence of Molybdenum, Manganese and a high concentration of arsenic. (authors)

  8. Evaluation of Soils Contained in Mineral Tailings at Junin Lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Javier [Instituto de Investigacion de Fisica, Av. Universitaria s/n, Lima (Peru); Fabian, Julio; Vela, Mariano [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Av. Canada 1470, San Borja, Lima (Peru)

    2008-07-01

    The Junin National Reserve is located between the provinces of Junin and Pasco, Sierra Central, high land of Peru. It was analyzed 20 samples from different geographic locations soil of the Reserve. The results showed us that there are pollutants minerals very harmful to the environment because of some of the centers miners deposited the tailings in the vicinity of the nature reserve. The techniques used for characterization of mineralogical soil were: neutron activation analysis, x-ray fluorescence and spectroscopy Moessbauer by transmission. The analysis done by the method of X-ray fluorescence indicate the presence of Rubidium, tungsten, calcium, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, gold and zirconium. With spectroscopy Moessbauer technique was observed the presence a higher proportion of paramagnetic iron; while thanks to neutron activation analysis, besides these elements, it was observed the presence of Molybdenum, Manganese and a high concentration of arsenic. (authors)

  9. Agricultural management explains historic changes in regional soil carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wesemael, Bas; Paustian, Keith; Meersmans, Jeroen; Goidts, Esther; Barancikova, Gabriela; Easter, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture is considered to be among the economic sectors having the greatest greenhouse gas mitigation potential, largely via soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. However, it remains a challenge to accurately quantify SOC stock changes at regional to national scales. SOC stock changes resulting from SOC inventory systems are only available for a few countries and the trends vary widely between studies. Process-based models can provide insight in the drivers of SOC changes, but accurate input data are currently not available at these spatial scales. Here we use measurements from a soil inventory dating from the 1960s and resampled in 2006 covering the major soil types and agricultural regions in Belgium together with region-specific land use and management data and a process-based model. The largest decreases in SOC stocks occurred in poorly drained grassland soils (clays and floodplain soils), consistent with drainage improvements since 1960. Large increases in SOC in well drained grassland soils appear to be a legacy effect of widespread conversion of cropland to grassland before 1960. SOC in cropland increased only in sandy lowland soils, driven by increasing manure additions. Modeled land use and management impacts accounted for more than 70% of the variation in observed SOC changes, and no bias could be demonstrated. There was no significant effect of climate trends since 1960 on observed SOC changes. SOC monitoring networks are being established in many countries. Our results demonstrate that detailed and long-term land management data are crucial to explain the observed SOC changes for such networks. PMID:20679194

  10. Decontamination of soils containing PAHs by electroremediation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, M; Rosales, E; Alcántara, T; Gómez, J; Sanromán, M A

    2010-05-15

    During the last years, the anthropogenic sources have contributed to organic compound penetration into the environment. One large group of persistent and toxic contaminants is the hydrophobic organic contaminants. Among them, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been recognized as a representative group of these pollutants with low solubility. In this paper, it is showed the electroremediation of soil contaminated with PAHs as an alternative, to organic compound removal. This technique, mainly used for heavy metal extraction, applies the electric current to promote the movement of contaminants. Nowadays the application of this technique alone or combined with other techniques as for example Fenton or bioremediation is taking fine results to PAHs removal. Although the PAHs soil decontamination by means of the electric field is in an initial stage, many researchers have demonstrated the treatment effectiveness. This paper describes the foremost principles to carry out the electroremediation of soils contaminated with PAHs, just like the different alternatives to improve the electroremediation of PAHs and also the new methodologies of PAHs removal by using hybrid technologies. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Heavy metal pollution of surface soil in Thrace region (Turkey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goskun, Mahmut; Goskun, Munevver; Steinnes, E.; Eidhammer Sjobakk, T.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Demkina, S.V.

    2004-01-01

    Samples of surface soil were collected at 73 sites in the Thrace region, northwest part of Turkey. Two complementary analytical techniques, epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) with flame and graphite furnace atomization were used to determine 37 elements in the soil samples. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd, Mn, Co, Pb, and As were determined using AAS and GF AAS and ENAA was used for the remaining 29 elements. Results for As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, I, In, K, La, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, and V are reported for the first time for soils from this region. The results show that concentrations of the most elements were little affected by the industrial and other anthropogenic activities performed in the region. Except for distinctly higher levels of Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn in Istanbul district than the median values for the Thrace region, the observed distributions seem to be mainly associated with lithogenic variations. Spatial distributions of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd, Cr, Pb, and As were plotted in relation to the concentration values in soil using Geographic Information System (GIS) technology

  12. Carbon-Nitrogen Relationships during the Humification of Cellulose in Soils Containing Different Amounts of Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse Holst

    1981-01-01

    the 2 soils with the high content of clay had a relatively high content of available unlabeled soil-N which was used for synthesis of metabolic material. The proportionate retention of labeled C for a given soil was largely independent of the size of the amendments, whereas the proportionate amount....... Some of the labeled organic N when mineralized was re-incorporated into organic compounds containing increasing proportions of native soil-C, whereas labeled C when mineralized as CO2 disappeared from the soils. The amount of labeled amino acid-C, formed during decomposition of the labeled cellulose...... was most intense, and it held throughout the 4 yr of the incubation; proportionally it was independent of the amount of cellulose added and the temperature. The labeled amino acid-N content was not directly related to the amount of clay in the soil, presumably because more unlabeled soil-N was available...

  13. Accumulation of sulfonamide resistance genes in arable soils due to repeated application of manure containing sulfadiazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Holger; Solehati, Qodiah; Zimmerling, Ute; Kleineidam, Kristina; Schloter, Michael; Müller, Tanja; Focks, Andreas; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Smalla, Kornelia

    2011-04-01

    Two soils were amended three times with pig manure. The abundance of sulfonamide resistance genes was determined by quantitative PCR 2 months after each application. In both soils treated with sulfadiazine-containing manure, the numbers of copies of sul1 and sul2 significantly increased compared to numbers after treatments with antibiotic-free manure or a control and accumulated with repeated applications.

  14. The interactive effects of soil transplant into colder regions and cropping on soil microbiology and biogeochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shanshan; Wang, Feng; Xue, Kai; Sun, Bo; Zhang, Yuguang; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng

    2015-03-01

    Soil transplant into warmer regions has been shown to alter soil microbiology. In contrast, little is known about the effects of soil transplant into colder regions, albeit that climate cooling has solicited attention in recent years. To address this question, we transplanted bare fallow soil over large transects from southern China (subtropical climate zone) to central (warm temperate climate zone) and northern China (cold temperate climate zone). After an adaptation period of 4 years, soil nitrogen components, microbial biomass and community structures were altered. However, the effects of soil transplant on microbial communities were dampened by maize cropping, unveiling a negative interaction between cropping and transplant. Further statistical analyses with Canonical correspondence analysis and Mantel tests unveiled annual average temperature, relative humidity, aboveground biomass, soil pH and NH4 (+) -N content as environmental attributes closely correlated with microbial functional structures. In addition, average abundances of amoA-AOA (ammonia-oxidizing archaea) and amoA-AOB (ammonia-oxidizing bacteria) genes were significantly (P Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effects of selected soil properties on phytoremediation applicability for heavy-metal-contaminated soils in the Apulia region, Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrag, K; Senesi, N; Rovira, P Soler; Brunetti, G

    2012-11-01

    Phytoremediation is a well-known promising alternative to conventional approaches used for the remediation of diffused and moderated contaminated soils. The evaluation of the accumulation, availability, and interactions of heavy metals in soil is a priority objective for the possible use of phytoremediation techniques such as phytoextraction and phytostabilization. The soils used in this work were collected from a number of sites inside a protected area in the Apulia region (Southern Italy), which were contaminated by various heavy metals originated from the disposal of wastes of different sources of origin. Soils examined contained Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in amounts exceeding the critical limits imposed by EU and Italian laws. However, the alkaline conditions, high organic matter content, and silty to silty loamy texture of soils examined would suggest a reduced availability of heavy metals to plants. Due to the high total content but the low available fraction of heavy metals analyzed, especially Cr, phytoextraction appears not to be a promising remediation approach in the sites examined, whereas phytostabilization appears to be the best technique for metal decontamination in the studied areas.

  16. Role of unsaturated soil in a waste containment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, P.C.; Tay, J.H. [Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore)

    1996-12-31

    The role of the unsaturated properties of sand as a drainage layer in a composite liner system for landfills is investigated. The effect of the unsaturated properties of coarse-grained soil on contaminant migration was evaluated by means of a series of simulations using a one-dimensional model of a two- and a three-layer soil liner system for advection and diffusion, respectively. The results showed that under seepage conditions, the effect of an unsaturated sand layer on the advancement of the concentration front was quite insignificant. The arrival time of the C/C{sub o} = 0.5 concentration front increased from 651 days for the case with no sand layer to approximately 951 days for the case with a 1.0-m sand layer. A steady-state flow condition was ultimately established in the sand, and this fact suggests that the capillary action might not be effective. For diffusion, the arrival time of the concentration front increased nonlinearly with a decrease in the degree of saturation and linearly with increasing depths of the sand layer. At a residual degree of saturation, the arrival times of the C/C{sub o} = 0.01 and 0.5 concentration front at the base of the 1-m sand layer were 26.9 and 877.4 years as compared to 1.52 and 2.62 years by advection, respectively. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Soil-bentonite design mix for slurry cutoff walls used as containment barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rad, N.S.; Bachus, R.C.; Jacobson, B.D.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, soil-bentonite slurry cutoff walls have been increasingly used as containment barriers around contaminated soils to impede or, in some cases, nearly eliminate the off-site migration of contaminated ground water or other potentially hazardous liquids. The paper presents the procedures used and the results obtained during an extensive laboratory testing program performed to select varying soil-bentonite slurry mix components for a soil-bentonite slurry cutoff wall constructed around an old landfill at a former oil refinery. The landfill is underlain to varying depths by a coarse granular soils that has been exposed to oil-products. Compatibility of three commercially available bentonite products with the free oil-products and the oil-contaminated ground water found at some locations in the landfill was initially investigated. Based on the test results, one of the bentonite products was selected for use in the soil-bentonite slurry testing program. A clayey soil from a borrow source, potable water from the site, and subsurface soils from the proposed soil-bentonite slurry wall alignment were used to form different soil-bentonite slurry mixes. Slump tests were performed to evaluate the workability of the mixes. Based on the test results, a single mix was selected for further study, including permeability/compatibility testing. The results of the compatibility testing program are presented and discussed in the paper. A specific design mix methodology for evaluating the chemical compatibility of soil-bentonite slurry mixes with permeants is proposed

  18. Seismic response of the 'Cut-and Cover' type reactor containment considering nonlinear soil behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Tahan, H.; Reddy, D.V.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes some parametric studies of dynamic soil-structure interaction for the 'cut-and-cover' reactor concept. The dynamic loading considered is a horizontal earthquake motion. The high frequency ranges, which must be considered in the study of soil-structure interaction for nuclear power plants, and the nonlinearity of soil behavior during strong earthquakes are adequately taken into account. Soil nonlinearity is accounted for in an approximate manner using a combination of the 'equivalent linear method' and the method of complex response with complex moduli. The structure considered is a reinforced concrete containment for a 1100 - MWe power plant, buried in a dense sand medium. (orig.)

  19. Isotopic evidence for the formation of unusually humus-rich soils in the Baltic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinweber, Peter; Acksel, Andre; Kühn, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Arable mineral soils in the Pleistocene landscape of Northern Germany usually contain about 4 to 8 kg of organic C (Corg) per m2, most of which is visually recognizable concentrated in the tilled topsoil horizon. Some unusually humus-rich (10 to 20 kg Corg m-2), and deeply (> 70 cm) dark-colored soils in coastal regions with mollic properties have been classified as Chernozems. Their location far away from the middle German and Central European Chernozem regions, absence of steppe vegetation and semi-arid climate conditions make classical pedogenetic theories doubtful. However, non-targeted mass spectrometric analyses of soil organic matter (SOM) composition revealed great similarities with typical Chernozems worldwide (Thiele-Bruhn et al., 2014) and made alternative (e.g. waterlogged) pathways of SOM accumulation unlikely. Subsequent detailed multi-method SOM analyses down the soil profiles revealed relative enrichments in cyclic ("black carbon") and heterocyclic organic compounds in the deeper, bioturbated horizons. These were plausibly explained by the input of combustion residues, likely originating from anthropogenic activities because spots of these soils coincided with archeological artifacts of early settlements (Acksel et al., 2016). However, these finding could not completely explain the genesis of Chernozems in the Baltic region. Therefore, we actually explored isotope analyses (12/13C, 13/14C, 14/15N, 32/34S) to find out the origin of these unusual SOM enrichments and the time period in which it occurred. The results will be compiled to a consistent hypothesis on the formation of these soils in the Baltic and other Northern European regions. References Acksel, A., W. Amelung, P. Kühn, E. Gehrt, T. Regier, P. Leinweber. 2016. Soil organic matter characteristics as indicator of Chernozem genesis in the Baltic Sea region. Geoderma Regional 7, 187-200. Thiele-Bruhn, S., Leinweber P., Eckhardt K.-U., Siem H.K., Blume H.-P. 2014. Identifying Chernozem

  20. Turning soil survey data into digital soil maps in the Energy Region Eger Research Model Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, László; Dobos, Anna; Kürti, Lívia; Takács, Katalin; Laborczi, Annamária

    2015-04-01

    Agria-Innoregion Knowledge Centre of the Eszterházy Károly College has carried out targeted basic researches in the field of renewable energy sources and climate change in the framework of TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV project. The project has covered certain issues, which require the specific knowledge of the soil cover; for example: (i) investigation of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of natural and landscape resources; (ii) determination of local amount and characteristics of renewable energy sources; (iii) natural/environmental risk analysis by surveying the risk factors. The Energy Region Eger Research Model Area consists of 23 villages and is located in North-Hungary, at the Western part of Bükkalja. Bükkalja is a pediment surface with erosional valleys and dense river network. The diverse morphology of this area results diversity in soil types and soil properties as well. There was large-scale (1:10,000 and 1:25,000 scale) soil mappings in this area in the 1960's and 1970's which provided soil maps, but with reduced spatial coverage and not with fully functional thematics. To achive the recent tasks (like planning suitable/optimal land-use system, estimating biomass production and development of agricultural and ecomonic systems in terms of sustainable regional development) new survey was planned and carried out by the staff of the College. To map the soils in the study area 10 to 22 soil profiles were uncovered per settlement in 2013 and 2014. Field work was carried out according to the FAO Guidelines for Soil Description and WRB soil classification system was used for naming soils. According to the general goal of soil mapping the survey data had to be spatially extended to regionalize the collected thematic local knowledge related to soil cover. Firstly three thematic maps were compiled by digital soil mapping methods: thickness of topsoil, genetic soil type and rate of surface erosion. High resolution digital elevation model, Earth

  1. Tank farms backlog soil sample and analysis results supporting a contained-in determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, C.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-27

    Soil waste is generated from Tank Farms and associated Tank Farms facilities operations. The soil is a mixed waste because it is an environmental media which contains tank waste, a listed mixed waste. The soil is designated with the listed waste codes (FOO1 through F005) which have been applied to all tank wastes. The scope of this report includes Tank Farms soil managed under the Backlog program. The Backlog Tank Farm soil in storage consists of drums and 5 boxes (originally 828 drums). The Backlog Waste Program dealt with 2276 containers of solid waste generated by Tank Farms operations during the time period from 1989 through early 1993. The containers were mismanaged by being left in the field for an extended period of time without being placed into permitted storage. As a corrective action for this situation, these containers were placed in interim storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC) pending additional characterization. The Backlog Waste Analysis Plan (BWAP) (RL 1993) was written to define how Backlog wastes would be evaluated for proper designation and storage. The BWAP was approved in August 1993 and all work required by the BWAP was completed by July 1994. This document presents results of testing performed in 1992 & 1996 that supports the attainment of a Contained-In Determination for Tank Farm Backlog soils. The analytical data contained in this report is evaluated against a prescribed decision rule. If the decision rule is satisfied then the Washington State Department of ecology (Ecology) may grant a Contained-In Determination. A Contained-In Determination for disposal to an unlined burial trench will be requested from Ecology . The decision rule and testing requirements provided by Ecology are described in the Tank Farms Backlog Soil Sample Analysis Plan (SAP) (WHC 1996).

  2. Heavy Metal Pollution of Surface Soil in Thrace Region (Turkey)

    CERN Document Server

    Cocskun, M; Frontasyeva, M V; Munevver, C; Eidhammer Sjobakk, T; Demkina, S V

    2004-01-01

    Samples of surface soil were collected at 73 sites in the Thrace region, northwest part of Turkey. Two complementary analytical techniques, epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) with flame and graphite furnace atomization were used to determine 37 elements in the soil samples. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd, Mn, Co, Pb, and As were determined using AAS and GF AAS and ENAA was used for the remaining 29 elements. Results for As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, I, In, K, La, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, and V are reported for the first time for soils from this region. The results show that concentrations of the most elements were little affected by the industrial and other anthropogenic activities performed in the region. Except for distinctly higher levels of Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn in Istanbul district than the median values for the Thrace region, the observed distributions seem to be mainly associated with lithogenic variations. S...

  3. Distribution of heavy metals in cocoa farm soils in the Western Region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackah, Justice Edusei

    2012-10-01

    Western Region is the largest cocoa producer in Ghana. Cocoa farmlands have over the past decades received heavy doses of agrochemical application to boost cocoa production. These agrochemicals, however, may contain heavy metals and it is therefore likely that the metals may have accumulated in the soils. Evaluating the total concentrations and understanding the distribution characteristics of heavy metals in cocoa growing soils can aid environmental managers and even help regulate the rate of agrochemical application. A study was therefore, carried out on some selected soils of major cocoa growing areas in Western Region of Ghana to determine the levels of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in the soils and also to determine some of the soil factors that control the distribution of the heavy metals in the soil. Eight soils (two Haplic Luvisols, three Ferric Acrisols, one Haplic Ferrasol and two Dystric Fluvisols) and their accompanying pristine soils as control were taken from adjacent natural forests sampled at depths of 0 – 10 cm, 10 – 30 cm, 30 – 50 cm, 50 – 80 cm and 80 – 100 cm. These soils were analysed for their particle size distribution, pH, organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable bases, and total and bio-available Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. The study indicated that the ΔpH which is pH_K_C_l – pH_H_2_O were all negative indicating that the soils generally had net negative charges on their colloidal surface. For all soils, clay content and pH increased with depth indicating co-migration of the two soil parameters whilst total organic carbon content decreased with depth. Cation exchange capacity, however, did not show any clear pattern with depth in the soils. The average abundance of heavy metals determined in these soils decreased as follows: Fe > Mn > Cr > Zn > Cu > Cd > Pb > Ni. The soils had low metal contents, less than or within the range of

  4. Bioremediation of soils containing petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seech, A.; Burwell, S.; Marvan, I.

    1994-01-01

    Bench-scale treatability investigations, pilot-scale and full-scale bioremediation projects were conducted to evaluate Daramend trademark bioremediation of soils containing petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy oils, paraffins, chlorinated phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Bench-scale investigations were conducted using glass microcosms. Pilot-scale and full-scale demonstrations were conducted at industrial sites and included treatment of excavated soils and sediments in on-site cells constructed using synthetic liners and covered by steel/polyethylene structures as well as in-situ treatment. A total of approximately 5,000 tons of soil was treated. The soil treatment included organic soil amendments, specialized tillage/aeration apparatus, and strict control of soil moisture. The amendments are composed of naturally-occurring organic materials prepared to soil-specific particle size distributions, nutrient profiles, and nutrient-release kinetics. Bench-scale work indicated that in refinery soil containing high concentrations of heavy oils, extractable hydrocarbon concentrations could be rapidly reduced to industrial clean-up criteria, and that the hydrocarbons were fully mineralized with release of CO 2

  5. Heavy metals content in degraded agricultural soils of a mountain region related to soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Pedreño, José; Belén Almendro-Candel, María; Gómez, Ignacio; Jordán, Manuel M.; Bech, Jaume; Zorpas, Antonis

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture has been practiced for long time in Mediterranean regions. Intensive agriculture and irrigation have developed mainly in the valleys and coastal areas. In the mountainous areas, dry farming has been practiced for centuries. Soils have been fertilized using mainly organic amendments. Plants extracted nutrients and other elements like heavy metals presented in soils and agricultural practices modified soil properties that could favor the presence of heavy metals. In this work, it has been checked the content of heavy metals in 100 agricultural soils samples of the NorthWest area of the province of Alicante (Spain) which has been long cultivated with cereals and olive trees, and now soils are abandoned and degraded because of the low agricultural yields. European policy has the aim to improve the sustainable agriculture and recover landscapes of mountain regions. So that, it is important to check the state of the soils (Marques et al. 2007). Soils samples (arable layer) were analyzed determining: pH (1:5, w/v, water extract), equivalent calcium carbonate content, organic matter by Walkley-Black method (Nelson and Sommers 1996), micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) extracted with DTPA (Lindsay and Norvell, 1978) and measured by atomic absorption spectrometry, and total content of metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb) measured in soil samples after microwave acid digestion (Moral et al. 1996), quantifying the content of metals by ICP analysis. The correlation between soil properties and metals. The results indicated that pH and carbonates are the most important properties of these soils correlated with the metals (both micronutrients and heavy metals). The available micronutrients (all of them) are close correlated with the pH and carbonates in soils. Moreover, heavy metals like Pb and Ni are related to available Mn and Zn. Keywords: pH, carbonates, heavy metals, abandoned soils. References: Lindsay,W.L., andW.A. Norvell. 1978. "Development of a DTPA Soil Test for Zinc, Iron

  6. Gamma-spectrometric measurement of radioactivity in agricultural soils of the Lombardia region, northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Laura; Carini, Franca; Rossi, Riccardo; Gatti, Marina; Cenci, Roberto M; Beone, Gian Maria

    2015-04-01

    This work is part of a wider monitoring project of the agricultural soils in Lombardia, which aims to build a database of topsoil properties and the potentially toxic elements, organic pollutants and gamma emitting radionuclides that the topsoils contain. A total of 156 agricultural soils were sampled according to the LUCAS (Land Use/Cover Area frame statistical Survey) standard procedure. The aim was to provide a baseline to document the conditions present at the time of sampling. The results of the project concerning soil radioactivity are presented here. The aim was to assess the content of (238)U, (232)Th, (137)Cs and (40)K by measuring soil samples by gamma spectrometry. (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K activities range 24-231, 20-70, and 242-1434 Bq kg(-1) respectively. The geographic distribution of (238)U reflects the geophysical framework of the Lombardia region: the soils with high content of uranium are distributed for the most part in the South Alpine belt, where the presence of magmatic rocks is widespread. These soils show an higher activity of (238)U than of (232)Th. The (238)U activities become lower than (232)Th when soils are located in the plain, originating from basic sedimentary rocks. (137)Cs activity ranges 0.4-86.8 kBq m(-2). The lowest activity of (137)Cs is in the plain, whereas the highest is in the North on soils kept as lawn or pasture. The (137)Cs activity of some samples suggests the presence of accumulation processes that lead to (137)Cs enriched soils. This is the first survey of gamma emitting radionuclides in Lombardia that is based on the LUCAS standard sampling. The results from this monitoring campaign are important for the human radiation exposure and provide the zero point, which will be useful for assessing future effects due to external factors such as human activities. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Remediation of petroleum contaminated soils through bioventing in cold regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brar, G.S.; Currier, P.M.; Reynolds, C.M.; Millhouse, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    Petroleum contaminated soils are found in many remote sites in Alaska where releases from bulk storage of fuel oil for heat and power generation have occurred. Bioventing, a process in which petroleum degradation by indigenous aerobic bacteria is enhanced by supplying oxygen and nutrients, may be a viable treatment technique for soils at remote sites if limitations due to low temperatures can be overcome. The objectives of this study were to: (1) test a design for ex-situ bioventing in cold regions, (2) evaluate biodegradation rates at low temperatures, and (3) determine the effects of applied nutrients on low-temperature biodegradation. Two aerated biopit remediation cells were constructed to treat previously excavated soils at Eareckson Air Force Station, Shemya, Alaska. Experimental treatments consisted of a fertilized pile (FP) and a nonfertilized pile (NFP). Hourly soil and air temperature data at 4 depths were recorded at 4 locations in each biopit. During 148 days of remediation, mean temperature ranged from -3 to 6 C for air at 100 cm. above the piles. The mean concentrations of TPH and DRO decreased from an initial 1,304 and 982 mg/kg of 139 and 82 mg/kg, respectively, with the FP, and 422 and 294 mg/kg with the NFP in 115 days. Cumulative degradation rates of TPH and DRO are significantly (P 2 = 0.94 for TPH. 0.93 for DRO). Pit bioventing technology was shown to be efficient, fast, and cost-effective in cold regions where temperature during winter months is a major constraint for the remediation of contaminated soils

  8. Degradation process modelization in of metallic drink containers, in soil, in water and in water-soil interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieiro, I.; Trivino, V.; Gutierrez, T.; Munoz, J.; Larrea, M. T.

    2013-01-01

    This study asses the environmental pollution by metal release that takes place during prolonged exposures when metallic drink containers are accidentally settle in the soil in a uncontrolled way, For comparative purposes, the F111 steel and the aluminium alloy 3003, widely used for the fabrication of these containers, are also considered. A experimental design is proposed to simulate the environmental pollution during prolonged exposures. Analytical indicators have been obtained determining the metallic concentration from three types of mediums; water, water in presence of soil, and absorption-adsorption in soil. An analytical methodology has been developed by Atomic Emission Spectrometry with ICP as exciting source (ICP-OES) for metallic quantification. The method was validated using Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) of soil and water and the precision obtained varies from 5.39 to 5.86% and from 5.75 to 6.27%, respectively according to of the element studied. A statistical descriptive study followed by a factorial analysis (linear general model) has been carried out for the treatment of the experimental data packages. The metallic quantification for the three mediums shows that the soil inhibits metallic solubility in water. The process to make packages reduces in both cases their metallic cession. (Author)

  9. A regional soil and sediment geochemical study in northern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, Martin B.; Morrison, Jean M.; Holloway, JoAnn M.; Wanty, Richard B.; Helsel, Dennis R.; Smith, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Regional-scale variations in soil geochemistry were investigated in a 20,000-km 2 study area in northern California that includes the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, the southern Sacramento Valley and the northern Coast Ranges. Over 1300 archival soil samples collected from the late 1970s to 1980 in El Dorado, Placer, Sutter, Sacramento, Yolo and Solano counties were analyzed for 42 elements by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following a near-total dissolution. These data were supplemented by analysis of more than 500 stream-sediment samples from higher elevations in the Sierra Nevada from the same study site. The relatively high-density data (1 sample per 15 km 2 for much of the study area) allows the delineation of regional geochemical patterns and the identification of processes that produced these patterns. The geochemical results segregate broadly into distinct element groupings whose distribution reflects the interplay of geologic, hydrologic, geomorphic and anthropogenic factors. One such group includes elements associated with mafic and ultramafic rocks including Cr, Ni, V, Co, Cu and Mg. Using Cr as an example, elevated concentrations occur in soils overlying ultramafic rocks in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada (median Cr = 160 mg/kg) as well as in the northern Coast Ranges. Low concentrations of these elements occur in soils located further upslope in the Sierra Nevada overlying Tertiary volcanic, metasedimentary and plutonic rocks (granodiorite and diorite). Eastern Sacramento Valley soil samples, defined as those located east of the Sacramento River, are lower in Cr (median Cr = 84 mg/kg), and are systematically lower in this suite compared to soils from the west side of the Sacramento Valley (median Cr = 130 mg/kg). A second group of elements showing a coherent pattern, including Ca, K, Sr and REE, is derived from relatively silicic rocks types. This group occurs at elevated

  10. A regional soil and sediment geochemical study in northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, M.B.; Morrison, J.M.; Holloway, J.M.; Wanty, R.B.; Helsel, D.R.; Smith, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    Regional-scale variations in soil geochemistry were investigated in a 20,000-km2 study area in northern California that includes the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, the southern Sacramento Valley and the northern Coast Ranges. Over 1300 archival soil samples collected from the late 1970s to 1980 in El Dorado, Placer, Sutter, Sacramento, Yolo and Solano counties were analyzed for 42 elements by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following a near-total dissolution. These data were supplemented by analysis of more than 500 stream-sediment samples from higher elevations in the Sierra Nevada from the same study site. The relatively high-density data (1 sample per 15 km2 for much of the study area) allows the delineation of regional geochemical patterns and the identification of processes that produced these patterns. The geochemical results segregate broadly into distinct element groupings whose distribution reflects the interplay of geologic, hydrologic, geomorphic and anthropogenic factors. One such group includes elements associated with mafic and ultramafic rocks including Cr, Ni, V, Co, Cu and Mg. Using Cr as an example, elevated concentrations occur in soils overlying ultramafic rocks in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada (median Cr = 160 mg/kg) as well as in the northern Coast Ranges. Low concentrations of these elements occur in soils located further upslope in the Sierra Nevada overlying Tertiary volcanic, metasedimentary and plutonic rocks (granodiorite and diorite). Eastern Sacramento Valley soil samples, defined as those located east of the Sacramento River, are lower in Cr (median Cr = 84 mg/kg), and are systematically lower in this suite compared to soils from the west side of the Sacramento Valley (median Cr = 130 mg/kg). A second group of elements showing a coherent pattern, including Ca, K, Sr and REE, is derived from relatively silicic rocks types. This group occurs at elevated

  11. Soil-structure interaction effects on the reliability evaluation of reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, J.; Hwang, H.; Reich, M.

    1986-01-01

    The probability-based method for the seismic reliability assessment of nuclear structures, which has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), is extended to include the effects of soil-structure interaction. A reinforced concrete containment building is analyzed in order to examine soil-structure interaction effects on: (1) structural fragilities; (2) floor response spectra statistics; and (3) correlation coefficients for total acceleration responses at specified structural locations

  12. Abiotic and Biotic Soil Characteristics in Old Growth Forests and Thinned or Unthinned Mature Stands in Three Regions of Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Perry

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We compared forest floor depth, soil organic matter, soil moisture, anaerobic mineralizable nitrogen (a measure of microbial biomass, denitrification potential, and soil/litter arthropod communities among old growth, unthinned mature stands, and thinned mature stands at nine sites (each with all three stand types distributed among three regions of Oregon. Mineral soil measurements were restricted to the top 10 cm. Data were analyzed with both multivariate and univariate analyses of variance. Multivariate analyses were conducted with and without soil mesofauna or forest floor mesofauna, as data for those taxa were not collected on some sites. In multivariate analysis with soil mesofauna, the model giving the strongest separation among stand types (P = 0.019 included abundance and richness of soil mesofauna and anaerobic mineralizable nitrogen. The best model with forest floor mesofauna (P = 0.010 included anaerobic mineralizable nitrogen, soil moisture content, and richness of forest floor mesofauna. Old growth had the highest mean values for all variables, and in both models differed significantly from mature stands, while the latter did not differ. Old growth also averaged higher percent soil organic matter, and analysis including that variable was significant but not as strong as without it. Results of the multivariate analyses were mostly supported by univariate analyses, but there were some differences. In univariate analysis, the difference in percent soil organic matter between old growth and thinned mature was due to a single site in which the old growth had exceptionally high soil organic matter; without that site, percent soil organic matter did not differ between old growth and thinned mature, and a multivariate model containing soil organic matter was not statistically significant. In univariate analyses soil mesofauna had to be compared nonparametrically (because of heavy left-tails and differed only in the Siskiyou Mountains, where

  13. 'Becquerel screening' device to automatically measure activity level of contaminated soil in flexible containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Hisashi; Yamaguchi, Yoshihisa; Yamamoto, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated soil and incineration ash collected during offsite decontamination work following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. is being stored in flexible containers. These containers are managed taking their activity level into account in accordance with the Decontamination Guidelines issued by the Ministry of the Environment. Toshiba has developed the 'Becquerel Screening' device that can automatically measure the activity level of the contents of each flexible container simply by placing the container on a palette, without the need to take samples for analysis from the container. The Becquerel Screening device is expected to contribute not only to improved operational efficiency but also to reduced exposure of operators to radiation, because it eliminates the need for direct contact with contaminated soil and ash. (author)

  14. Thermokarst dynamics and soil organic matter characteristics controlling initial carbon release from permafrost soils in the Siberian Yedoma region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Niels; Blok, Daan; Elberling, Bo

    2016-01-01

    This study relates soil organic matter (SOM) characteristics to initial soil incubation carbon release from upper permafrost samples in Yedoma region soils of northeastern Siberia, Russia. Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, carbon to nitrogen ratios (C:N), δ13C and δ15N values show clear trends...

  15. Soil erosion after forest fires in the Valencia region

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pelayo, Óscar; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion after forest fire is triggered by the lack of vegetation cover and the degradation of the physical, biological and chemical properties (Martí et al., 2012; Fernández et al., 2012; Guénon, 2013). Valencia region belongs to the west Mediterranean basin ("Csa", Köppen climate classification), with drought summer periods that enhance forest fire risk. The characteristics of the climate, lithology and land use history makes this region more vulnerable to soil erosion. In this area, fire recurrence is being increased since late 50s (Pausas, 2004) and post-fire erosion studies became more popular from 80's until nowadays (Cerdá and Mataix-Solera, 2009). Research in Valencia region has contributed significantly to a better understanding of the effect of spatial and temporal scale on runoff and sediment yield measurements. The main achievements concerns: a) direct measurement of erosion rates under a wide range of methodologies (natural vs simulated rainfall, open vs closed plots); from micro- to meso-plot and catchment scale in single (Rubio et al., 1994; Cerdà et al., 1995; Cerdà 1998a; 1998b; Llovet et al., 1998; Cerdà, 2001; Calvo-Cases et al., 2003; Andreu et al., 2001; Mayor et al., 2007; Cerdà and Doerr, 2008) and multiples fires (Campo et al., 2006; González-Pelayo et al., 2010a). Changes in soil properties (Sanroque et al., 1985; Rubio et al., 1997; Boix-Fayós, 1997; Gimeno-Garcia et al., 2000; Guerrero et al., 2001; Mataix-Solera et al., 2004; González-Pelayo et al., 2006; Arcenegui et al., 2008; Campo et al., 2008; Bodí et al., 2012), in post-fire vegetation patterns (Gimeno-García et al., 2007) and, studies on mitigation strategies (Bautista et al., 1996; Abad et al., 2000). b) Progress to understanding post-fire erosion mechanism and sediment movement (Boix-Fayós et al., 2005) by definition of thresholds for sediment losses; fire severity, slope angle, bedrock, rain characteristics, vegetation pattern and ecosystem resilience (Mayor

  16. Heavy Metals in Soil&Plant System Under Conditions of the South of Tyumen Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oznobihina, A. O.; Gayevaya, E. V.

    2017-11-01

    The article considers the problems of pollution with heavy metals (zinc, copper, cadmium and lead) of topsoil and plant products. The article contains the results analysis for laboratory trials of the researched components of the natural environment in the territory of the reference plots of the south of the Tyumen region. The authors assessed soil pollution and the samples of natural as well as perennial grasses, rape, oats, wheat, barley with heavy metals. A correlation between the content of zinc, copper, cadmium, lead in the soil and plants growing in it was determined. The article identifies the regions where the agrotechnical procedures directed to the decrease of toxicants’ negative influence on the life form should be considered.

  17. Microbial control on decomposition of radionuclides-containing oily waste in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivanovskaya, Svetlana; Galitskaya, Polina

    2014-05-01

    The oily wastes are formed annually during extraction, refinement, and transportation of the oil and may cause pollution of the environment. These wastes contain different concentrations of waste oil (40-60%), waste water (30-90%), and mineral particles (5-40%). Some oily wastes also contain naturally occurring radionuclides which were incorporated by water that was pumped up with the oil. For assessment of the hazard level of waste treated soil, not only measurements of contaminants content are needed, because bioavailability of oily components varies with hydrocarbon type, and soil properties. As far as namely microbial communities control the decomposition of organic contaminants, biological indicators have become increasingly important in hazard assessment and the efficiency of remediation process. In this study the decomposition of radionuclides-containing oily waste by soil microbial communities were estimated. Waste samples collected at the Tikchonovskii petroleum production yard (Tatarstan, Russia) were mixed with Haplic greyzem soil at ratio 1:4 and incubated for 120 days. During incubation period, the total hydrocarbon content of the soil mixed with the waste reduced from 156 ± 48 g kg-1 to 54 ± 8 g kg-1 of soil. The concentrations of 226Ra and 232Th were found to be 643 ± 127, 254 ± 56 Bq kg-1 and not changed significantly during incubation. Waste application led to a soil microbial biomass carbon decrease in comparison to control (1.9 times after 1 day and 1.3 times after 120 days of incubation). Microbial respiration increased in the first month of incubation (up to 120% and 160% of control after 1 and 30 days, correspondingly) and decreased to the end of incubation period (74% of control after 120 days). Structure of bacterial community in soil and soil/waste mixture was estimated after 120 days of incubation using SSCP method. The band number decreased in contaminated soil in comparison to untreated soil. Besides, several new dominant DNA

  18. [Effects of altitudes on soil microbial biomass and enzyme activity in alpine-gorge regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rui; Wu, Fu Zhong; Yang, Wan Qin; Xu, Zhen Feng; Tani, Bo; Wang, Bin; Li, Jun; Chang, Chen Hui

    2016-04-22

    In order to understand the variations of soil microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities with the change of altitude, a field incubation was conducted in dry valley, ecotone between dry valley and mountain forest, subalpine coniferous forest, alpine forest and alpine meadow from 1563 m to 3994 m of altitude in the alpine-gorge region of western Sichuan. The microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, and the activities of invertase, urease and acid phosphorus were measured in both soil organic layer and mineral soil layer. Both the soil microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities showed the similar tendency in soil organic layer. They increased from 2158 m to 3028 m, then decreased to the lowest value at 3593 m, and thereafter increased until 3994 m in the alpine-gorge region. In contrast, the soil microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities in mineral soil layer showed the trends as, the subalpine forest at 3028 m > alpine meadow at 3994 m > montane forest ecotone at 2158 m > alpine forest at 3593 m > dry valley at 1563 m. Regardless of altitudes, soil microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities were significantly higher in soil organic layer than in mineral soil layer. The soil microbial biomass was significantly positively correlated with the activities of the measured soil enzymes. Moreover, both the soil microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities were significantly positively correlated with soil water content, organic carbon, and total nitrogen. The activity of soil invertase was significantly positively correlated with soil phosphorus content, and the soil acid phosphatase was so with soil phosphorus content and soil temperature. In brief, changes in vegetation and other environmental factors resulting from altitude change might have strong effects on soil biochemical properties in the alpine-gorge region.

  19. Evaluation of the use of sludge containing plutonium as a soil conditioner for food crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.S.; Silver, W.J.; Coles, D.G.; Lamson, K.C.; McIntyre, D.R.; Mendoza, B.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the potential hazard associated with the use of sludge containing plutonium as a soil conditioner for food crops. Conditions were chosen that would maximize exposure to the 239 Pu in the sludge through resuspension and in plant content and thus approximated the maximum potential hazards due to the inhalation and ingestion pathways. The estimated 50-year radiation doses to the pulmonary region of the lung, bone, and liver based on the results of the inhalation experiment are 6 x 10 -4 rem, 1.2 x 10 -3 rem, and 0.55 x 10 -4 rem, respectively. Similarly, the 50-year radiation doses attributable to ingestion of the sludge-grown vegetables were 2.2 x 10 -5 rem to the bone and 1.5 x 10 -5 rem to the liver. Thus, the inhalation pathway is the more critical of the two. The maximum permissible annual doses to the lungs, bone, and the liver for a member of the general public are 1.5, 3.0, and 1.5 rem, respectively. Thus, the maximum credible 50-year lung, bone, and liver dose commitments associated with the use of the 239 Pu-contaminated sludge as a soil conditioner are approximately 4.0 x 10 -2 percent of the annual maximum permissible dose. Under more realistic exposure circumstances, one might expect less drying of the sludge, less resuspension of dust and flying dirt before and during rototilling, and a much smaller sludge vegetable consumption rate. The conservative assumptions made in this analysis tend to assure that actual radiation doses would be even less than those calculated. (auth)

  20. Bioremediation of soils and sediments containing PAHs and PCP using Daramend trademark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seech, A.; Burwell, S.; Marvan, I.

    1994-01-01

    A full-scale demonstration of Grace Dearborn's Daramend trademark for bioremediation of soil containing chlorinated phenols, PAHs and petroleum hydrocarbons is being conducted at an industrial wood treatment site in Ontario. A pilot-scale demonstration of Daramend for the clean-up of sediments contaminated with PAHs was also conducted. The full-scale demonstration, which includes bioremediation of approximately 4,500 m 3 of soil, was initiated at a wood preserving facility in Ontario, in the summer of 1993. The soil contains chlorinated phenols, PAHs and total petroleum hydrocarbons at concentrations of up to 700, 1,400 and 6,300 mg/kg respectively. Full-scale bioremediation at this site employs the same Daramend protocols and organic amendment treatments that were used at the pilot-scale phase where the PAH, total petroleum hydrocarbon, and pentachlorophenol concentrations were reduced to below the Canadian clean-up guidelines for industrial soils. In addition, the toxicity of the soil to earthworms was eliminated while the rate of seed germination was increased to that of an agricultural soil during the pilot scale demonstration phase. The ex-situ portion of the full-scale demonstration is currently being audited by the EPA under the SITE program. This paper will focus on the ex-situ work. The pilot-scale demonstration of sediment remediation consisted of ex-situ bioremediation of approximately 90 tonnes of PAH-contaminated sediment in a confined treatment area

  1. Cr (VI) remediation by indigenous bacteria in soils contaminated by chromium-containing slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Liyuan; Huang Shunhong; Yang Zhihui; Peng Bing; Huang Yan; Chen Yuehui

    2009-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr) is a toxic element causing serious environmental threat. Recently, more and more attention is paid to the bio-remediation of Cr (VI) in the contaminated soils. Cr (VI) remediation by indigenous bacteria in soils contaminated by chromium-containing slag at a steel-alloy factory in Hunan Province, China, was investigated in the present study. The results showed that when sufficient nutrients were amended into the contaminated soils, total Cr (VI) concentration declined from the initial value of 462.8 to 10 mg kg -1 at 10 days and the removal rate was 97.8%. Water soluble Cr (VI) decreased from the initial concentration of 383.8 to 1.7 mg kg -1 . Exchangeable Cr (VI) and carbonates-bound Cr (VI) were removed by 92.6% and 82.4%, respectively. Meanwhile, four Cr (VI) resistant bacterial strains were isolated from the soil under the chromium-containing slag. Only one strain showed a high ability for Cr (VI) reduction in liquid culture. This strain was identified as Pannonibacter phragmitetus sp. by gene sequencing of 16S rRNA. X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) analysis indicated that Cr (VI) was reduced into trivalent chromium. The results suggest that indigenous bacterial strains have potential application for Cr (VI) remediation in the soils contaminated by chromium-containing slag.

  2. Assessing the pollution risk of soil Chromium based on loading capacity of paddy soil at a regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mingkai; Li, Weidong; Zhang, Chuanrong; Huang, Biao; Zhao, Yongcun

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of a trace metal in rice grain is not only affected by the total concentration of the soil trace metal, but also by crop variety and related soil properties, such as soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM) and so on. However, these factors were seldom considered in previous studies on mapping the pollution risk of trace metals in paddy soil at a regional scale. In this study, the spatial nonstationary relationships between rice-Cr and a set of perceived soil properties (soil-Cr, soil pH and SOM) were explored using geographically weighted regression; and the relationships were then used for calculating the critical threshold (CT) of soil-Cr concentration that may ensure the concentration of rice-Cr being below the permissible limit. The concept of “loading capacity” (LC) for Cr in paddy soil was then defined as the difference between the CT and the real concentration of Cr in paddy soil, so as to map the pollution risk of soil-Cr to rice grain and assess the risk areas in Jiaxing city, China. Compared with the information of the concentration of the total soil-Cr, such results are more valuable for spatial decision making in reducing the accumulation of rice-Cr at a regional scale. PMID:26675587

  3. Assessing the pollution risk of soil Chromium based on loading capacity of paddy soil at a regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mingkai; Li, Weidong; Zhang, Chuanrong; Huang, Biao; Zhao, Yongcun

    2015-12-17

    The accumulation of a trace metal in rice grain is not only affected by the total concentration of the soil trace metal, but also by crop variety and related soil properties, such as soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM) and so on. However, these factors were seldom considered in previous studies on mapping the pollution risk of trace metals in paddy soil at a regional scale. In this study, the spatial nonstationary relationships between rice-Cr and a set of perceived soil properties (soil-Cr, soil pH and SOM) were explored using geographically weighted regression; and the relationships were then used for calculating the critical threshold (CT) of soil-Cr concentration that may ensure the concentration of rice-Cr being below the permissible limit. The concept of "loading capacity" (LC) for Cr in paddy soil was then defined as the difference between the CT and the real concentration of Cr in paddy soil, so as to map the pollution risk of soil-Cr to rice grain and assess the risk areas in Jiaxing city, China. Compared with the information of the concentration of the total soil-Cr, such results are more valuable for spatial decision making in reducing the accumulation of rice-Cr at a regional scale.

  4. Clay slurry and engineered soils as containment technologies for remediation of contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.R.; Dudka, S.; Miller, W.P.; Johnson, D.O.

    1997-01-01

    Clay Slurry and Engineered Soils are containment technologies for remediation of waste disposal sites where leaching, groundwater plumes and surface runoff of contaminants are serious ecological hazards to adjacent environments. This technology is a patent-pending process which involves the use of conditioned clay materials mixed with sand and water to form a readily pourable suspension, a clay slurry, which is either placed into a trench barrier system or allowed to de-water to create Engineered Soils. The Engineered Soil forms a layer impervious to water and air, therefore by inhibiting both water and oxygen from penetrating through the soil the material. This material can be installed in layers and as a vertical barrier to create a surface barrier containment system. The clay percentage in the clay slurry and Engineered Soils varies depending on site characteristics and desired performance standards. For example Engineered Soils with 1-2% of clay (dry wt.) had a hydraulic conductivity (K) of 10 -8 to 10 -1 cm/sec. Tests of tailing materials from a kyanite and pyrite mine showed that the clay slurry was effective not only in reducing the permeability of the treated tailings, but also in decreasing their acidity due to the inherent alkalinity of the clay. The untreated tailings had pH values in the range of 2.4 - 3.1; whereas, the effluent from clay and tailings mixtures had pH values in a slightly alkaline range (7.7-7.9). Pug-mills and high volume slurry pumps can be readily adapted for use in constructing and placing caps and creating Engineered Soils. Moreover, material on site or from a local sand supply can be used to create clay slurries and engineered soils. Clay materials used in cap construction are likewise readily available commercially. As a result, the clay slurry system is very cost effective compared to other capping systems, including the commonly used High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) liner systems

  5. Potential of soil liquefaction at Perlis, northern region of Malalysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazaly, Zuhayr Md; Rahim, Mustaqqim Abdul; Nasir, Mohamad Amzar Bin Mhd; Isa, Nur Fitriah; Zaki, Mohd Faiz Mohammad; Hassan, Zulkarnain Bin; Ismail, Zul-Atfi Bin

    2017-09-01

    Soil liquefaction is earthquake's secondary effect which could cause fatal damages and structures instability. Despite Malaysia been located in stable zone of Pacific Ring of Fire, few significant surrounded quakes like Sumatra-Andaman earthquake had prompted Malaysian's public concern, especially in Perlis area, on local seismic resistant. Hence, this research presents the analysis result of liquefaction potential of the soils, as the secondary effect of earthquake, within Perlis, northern region of Malaysia; the next strong and sustainable metropolis by using semi-empirical procedures introduced by Seed and Idriss. The study consists of two stages which were determination of the local geological and geotechnical site conditions within Perlis and analysis of soil liquefaction susceptibility by using various methods and liquefaction potential by using Simplified Procedure developed by Seed and Idriss on stress approach. There were consist of four phases implemented in order to achieve the objectives targeted for the study after problem being identified. Firstly, a comprehensive review of literature on liquefaction at Perlis was carried out. Second phase was data collection process that includes collection of Site Investigation (SI) report. Thirdly, data analysis was carried out by utilizing suitable method. The final phase was to draw conclusion and recommendation for this study. It can be concluded that the overall Perlis due to earthquake moment magnitude below 7.5 has no potential to soil liquefaction. However, with the range of liquefaction potential of 1.60 to 5.64 in Kuala Perlis area, it is liquefiable. The development of liquefaction severity map of Perlis, Malaysia in this research, may be used by others as a reference for seismic design and standard safety measures as well as for further research work.

  6. Soil respiration in different agricultural and natural ecosystems in an arid region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Lai

    Full Text Available The variation of different ecosystems on the terrestrial carbon balance is predicted to be large. We investigated a typical arid region with widespread saline/alkaline soils, and evaluated soil respiration of different agricultural and natural ecosystems. Soil respiration for five ecosystems together with soil temperature, soil moisture, soil pH, soil electric conductivity and soil organic carbon content were investigated in the field. Comparing with the natural ecosystems, the mean seasonal soil respiration rates of the agricultural ecosystems were 96%-386% higher and agricultural ecosystems exhibited lower CO(2 absorption by the saline/alkaline soil. Soil temperature and moisture together explained 48%, 86%, 84%, 54% and 54% of the seasonal variations of soil respiration in the five ecosystems, respectively. There was a significant negative relationship between soil respiration and soil electrical conductivity, but a weak correlation between soil respiration and soil pH or soil organic carbon content. Our results showed that soil CO(2 emissions were significantly different among different agricultural and natural ecosystems, although we caution that this was an observational, not manipulative, study. Temperature at the soil surface and electric conductivity were the main driving factors of soil respiration across the five ecosystems. Care should be taken when converting native vegetation into cropland from the point of view of greenhouse gas emissions.

  7. Soil respiration in different agricultural and natural ecosystems in an arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Liming; Zhao, Xuechun; Jiang, Lianhe; Wang, Yongji; Luo, Liangguo; Zheng, Yuanrun; Chen, Xi; Rimmington, Glyn M

    2012-01-01

    The variation of different ecosystems on the terrestrial carbon balance is predicted to be large. We investigated a typical arid region with widespread saline/alkaline soils, and evaluated soil respiration of different agricultural and natural ecosystems. Soil respiration for five ecosystems together with soil temperature, soil moisture, soil pH, soil electric conductivity and soil organic carbon content were investigated in the field. Comparing with the natural ecosystems, the mean seasonal soil respiration rates of the agricultural ecosystems were 96%-386% higher and agricultural ecosystems exhibited lower CO(2) absorption by the saline/alkaline soil. Soil temperature and moisture together explained 48%, 86%, 84%, 54% and 54% of the seasonal variations of soil respiration in the five ecosystems, respectively. There was a significant negative relationship between soil respiration and soil electrical conductivity, but a weak correlation between soil respiration and soil pH or soil organic carbon content. Our results showed that soil CO(2) emissions were significantly different among different agricultural and natural ecosystems, although we caution that this was an observational, not manipulative, study. Temperature at the soil surface and electric conductivity were the main driving factors of soil respiration across the five ecosystems. Care should be taken when converting native vegetation into cropland from the point of view of greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. Seeing the soil through the net: an eye-opener on the soil map of the Flemish region (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondeyne, Stefaan; Vanierschot, Laura; Langohr, Roger; Van Ranst, Eric; Deckers, Jozef; Oorts, Katrien

    2017-04-01

    A systematic soil survey of Belgium was conducted from 1948 to 1991. Field surveys were done at the detailed scale of 1:5000 with the final maps published at a 1:20,000 scale. The legend of these detailed soil maps (scale 1:20,000) has been converted to the 3rd edition of the international soil classification system 'World Reference Base for Soil Resources' (WRB). Over the last years, the government of the Flemish region made great efforts to make these maps, along with other environmental data, available to the general audience through the internet. The soil maps are widely used and consulted by researchers, teachers, land-use planners, environmental consultancy agencies and archaeologists. The maps can be downloaded and consulted in the viewer 'Visual Soil Explorer' ('Bodemverkenner'). To increase the legibility of the maps, we assembled a collection of photographs from soil profiles representing 923 soil types and 413 photos of related landscape settings. By clicking on a specific location in the 'Visual Soil Explorer', pictures of the corresponding soil type and landscape appear in a pop-up window, with a brief explanation about the soil properties. The collection of photographs of soil profiles cover almost 80% of the total area of the Flemish region, and include the 100 most common soil types. Our own teaching experience shows that these information layers are particular valuable for teaching soil geography and earth sciences in general. Overall, such visual information layers should contribute to a better interpretation of the soil maps and legacy soil data by serving as an eye-opener on the soil map to the wider community.

  9. Influence of pH on pesticide sorption by soil containing wheat residue-derived char

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Guangyao; Yang Yaning; Huang Minsheng; Yang Kai

    2005-01-01

    Field burning of crop residues incorporates resulting chars into soil and may thus influence the environmental fate of pesticides in the soil. This study evaluated the influence of pH on the sorption of diuron, bromoxynil, and ametryne by a soil in the presence and absence of a wheat residue-derived char. The sorption was measured at pHs ∼3.0 and ∼7.0. Wheat char was found to be a highly effective sorbent for the pesticides, and its presence (1% by weight) in soil contributed >70% to the pesticide sorption (with one exception). The sorption of diuron was not influenced by pH, due to its electroneutrality. Bromoxynil becomes dissociated at high pHs to form anionic species. Its sorption by soil and wheat char was lower at pH ∼7.0 than at pH ∼3.0, probably due to reduced partition of the anionic species of bromoxynil into soil organic matter and its weak interaction with the carbon surface of the char. Ametryne in its molecular form at pH ∼7.0 was sorbed by char-amended soil via partitioning into soil organic matter and interaction with the carbon surface of the char. Protonated ametryne at pH ∼3.0 was substantially sorbed by soil primarily via electrostatic forces. Sorption of protonated ametryne by wheat char was also significant, likely due not only to the interaction with the carbon surface but also to interactions with hydrated silica and surface functional groups of the char. Sorption of ametryne by char-amended soil at pH ∼3.0 was thus influenced by both the soil and the char. Environmental conditions may thus significantly influence the sorption and behavior of pesticides in agricultural soils containing crop residue-derived chars. - Wheat char was effective for adsorption of pesticides in soil, with efficacy varying with pH and particular pesticides

  10. Influence of pH on pesticide sorption by soil containing wheat residue-derived char

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Guangyao [Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States)]. E-mail: gsheng@uark.edu; Yang Yaning [Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Huang Minsheng [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Yang Kai [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2005-04-01

    Field burning of crop residues incorporates resulting chars into soil and may thus influence the environmental fate of pesticides in the soil. This study evaluated the influence of pH on the sorption of diuron, bromoxynil, and ametryne by a soil in the presence and absence of a wheat residue-derived char. The sorption was measured at pHs {approx}3.0 and {approx}7.0. Wheat char was found to be a highly effective sorbent for the pesticides, and its presence (1% by weight) in soil contributed >70% to the pesticide sorption (with one exception). The sorption of diuron was not influenced by pH, due to its electroneutrality. Bromoxynil becomes dissociated at high pHs to form anionic species. Its sorption by soil and wheat char was lower at pH {approx}7.0 than at pH {approx}3.0, probably due to reduced partition of the anionic species of bromoxynil into soil organic matter and its weak interaction with the carbon surface of the char. Ametryne in its molecular form at pH {approx}7.0 was sorbed by char-amended soil via partitioning into soil organic matter and interaction with the carbon surface of the char. Protonated ametryne at pH {approx}3.0 was substantially sorbed by soil primarily via electrostatic forces. Sorption of protonated ametryne by wheat char was also significant, likely due not only to the interaction with the carbon surface but also to interactions with hydrated silica and surface functional groups of the char. Sorption of ametryne by char-amended soil at pH {approx}3.0 was thus influenced by both the soil and the char. Environmental conditions may thus significantly influence the sorption and behavior of pesticides in agricultural soils containing crop residue-derived chars. - Wheat char was effective for adsorption of pesticides in soil, with efficacy varying with pH and particular pesticides.

  11. Radioactivity of soils in Mtskheta-Mtianeti region (Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nodar Kekelidze

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems in the sphere of ecological researches is natural and technogenic environmental radioactivity. The purpose of the given work was radioactivity determination in various types of soil within the territory of Mtskheta-Mtianeti region (Georgia. Samples in 17 control points have been selected within this territory (soil types - mountain forest meadow, brown forest acid, and others. Up to 22 radionuclides were identified in these samples. Concentration of radionuclides of Th-232 family (in total 6 identified radionuclides was in limits from 17.6 to 54.9 Bq/kg with average value of 26.9 Bq/kg, U-238 family (in total 7 radionuclides – from 14.9 to 59.1 Bq/kg with average value of 25.4 Bq/kg, U-235 family (in total 6 radionuclides - from 0.65 to 2.7 Bq/kg with average value of 1.2 Bq/kg. Also individual radionuclides have been identified – Be-7 (activity concentration from less than minimal detectable activity to 23.1 Bq/kg with average value of 10.5 Bq/kg, K-40 (from 243 to 784 Bq/kg with average value of 464 Bq/kg and Cs-137 (from 0.3 to 53.3 Bq/kg with average value of 21.7 Bq/kg. Radium equivalent activity varied from 59.4 to 168 Bq/kg with average value of 94.9 Bq/kg, thus the greatest values were observed for mountain forest meadow and cinnamonic light soils, and the least value - for brown forest acid, alluvial carbonate and cinnamonic soils. Annual effective dose varied from 0.036 to 0.104 mSv/y with average value of 0.058 mSv/y. There were marked some features of radionuclides distribution, in particular, depending on the type of soil and sampling point's location. Several activity ratios of radionuclides were considered, in particular, U-238/U-235, U-238/Th-232, Ra-226/U-238 and Pb-210/Ra-226 (in the last case there were observed appreciable deviations in the greater way from equilibrium value – up to 8.73 with average value of 4.15, at the same time appreciable qualitative correlation with features of geotectonic

  12. Improvements on mapping soil liquefaction at a regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing

    Earthquake induced soil liquefaction is an important secondary hazard during earthquakes and can lead to significant damage to infrastructure. Mapping liquefaction hazard is important in both planning for earthquake events and guiding relief efforts by positioning resources once the events have occurred. This dissertation addresses two aspects of liquefaction hazard mapping at a regional scale including 1) predictive liquefaction hazard mapping and 2) post-liquefaction cataloging. First, current predictive hazard liquefaction mapping relies on detailed geologic maps and geotechnical data, which are not always available in at-risk regions. This dissertation improves the predictive liquefaction hazard mapping by the development and validation of geospatial liquefaction models (Chapter 2 and 3) that predict liquefaction extent and are appropriate for global application. The geospatial liquefaction models are developed using logistic regression from a liquefaction database consisting of the data from 27 earthquake events from six countries. The model that performs best over the entire dataset includes peak ground velocity (PGV), VS30, distance to river, distance to coast, and precipitation. The model that performs best over the noncoastal dataset includes PGV, VS30, water table depth, distance to water body, and precipitation. Second, post-earthquake liquefaction cataloging historically relies on field investigation that is often limited by time and expense, and therefore results in limited and incomplete liquefaction inventories. This dissertation improves the post-earthquake cataloging by the development and validation of a remote sensing-based method that can be quickly applied over a broad region after an earthquake and provide a detailed map of liquefaction surface effects (Chapter 4). Our method uses the optical satellite images before and after an earthquake event from the WorldView-2 satellite with 2 m spatial resolution and eight spectral bands. Our method

  13. Structural-functional concept of thermophysical condition of the soils of Altai Region

    OpenAIRE

    Makarychev, Sergey; Bolotov, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to reveal the quantitative interrelations between the thermophysical indices (thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity) and physical soil properties such as; moisture content, density and detachability. According to the research targets, the soil samples including different genesis and soil particle size distribution were taken in different soil and climatic zones of the Altai Region. These were the sod-podzolic sandy loam soils of the dry steppes, chernozems an...

  14. Gamma-spectrometric measurement of radioactivity in agricultural soils of the Lombardia region, northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidotti, Laura; Carini, Franca; Rossi, Riccardo; Gatti, Marina; Cenci, Roberto M.; Beone, Gian Maria

    2015-01-01

    This work is part of a wider monitoring project of the agricultural soils in Lombardia, which aims to build a database of topsoil properties and the potentially toxic elements, organic pollutants and gamma emitting radionuclides that the topsoils contain. A total of 156 agricultural soils were sampled according to the LUCAS (Land Use/Cover Area frame statistical Survey) standard procedure. The aim was to provide a baseline to document the conditions present at the time of sampling. The results of the project concerning soil radioactivity are presented here. The aim was to assess the content of 238 U, 232 Th, 137 Cs and 40 K by measuring soil samples by gamma spectrometry. 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K activities range 24–231, 20–70, and 242–1434 Bq kg −1 respectively. The geographic distribution of 238 U reflects the geophysical framework of the Lombardia region: the soils with high content of uranium are distributed for the most part in the South Alpine belt, where the presence of magmatic rocks is widespread. These soils show an higher activity of 238 U than of 232 Th. The 238 U activities become lower than 232 Th when soils are located in the plain, originating from basic sedimentary rocks. 137 Cs activity ranges 0.4–86.8 kBq m −2 . The lowest activity of 137 Cs is in the plain, whereas the highest is in the North on soils kept as lawn or pasture. The 137 Cs activity of some samples suggests the presence of accumulation processes that lead to 137 Cs enriched soils. This is the first survey of gamma emitting radionuclides in Lombardia that is based on the LUCAS standard sampling. The results from this monitoring campaign are important for the human radiation exposure and provide the zero point, which will be useful for assessing future effects due to external factors such as human activities. - Highlights: • A monitoring campaign of agricultural soils was carried out in Lombardia, Italy. • 156 topsoils were sampled according to the European standard

  15. Soil fertility shapes belowground food webs across a regional climate gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberté, Etienne; Kardol, Paul; Didham, Raphael K; Teste, François P; Turner, Benjamin L; Wardle, David A

    2017-10-01

    Changes in soil fertility during pedogenesis affect the quantity and quality of resources entering the belowground subsystem. Climate governs pedogenesis, yet how climate modulates responses of soil food webs to soil ageing remains unexplored because of the paucity of appropriate model systems. We characterised soil food webs along each of four retrogressive soil chronosequences situated across a strong regional climate gradient to show that belowground communities are predominantly shaped by changes in fertility rather than climate. Basal consumers showed hump-shaped responses to soil ageing, which were propagated to higher-order consumers. There was a shift in dominance from bacterial to fungal energy channels with increasing soil age, while the root energy channel was most important in intermediate-aged soils. Our study highlights the overarching importance of soil fertility in regulating soil food webs, and indicates that belowground food webs will respond more strongly to shifts in soil resources than climate change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  16. Arsenic-containing soil from geogenic source in Hong Kong: Leaching characteristics and stabilization/solidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang-Shan; Beiyuan, Jingzi; Tsang, Daniel C W; Wang, Lei; Poon, Chi Sun; Li, Xiang-Dong; Fendorf, Scott

    2017-09-01

    Geogenic sources of arsenic (As) have aroused extensive environmental concerns in many countries. This study evaluated the vertical profiles, leaching characteristics, and surface characteristics of As-containing soils in Hong Kong. The results indicated that elevated levels of As (486-1985 mg kg -1 ) were mostly encountered in deeper layer (15-20 m below ground). Despite high concentrations, geogenic As displayed a high degree of chemical stability in the natural geochemical conditions, and there was minimal leaching of As in various leaching tests representing leachability, mobility, phytoavailability, and bioaccessibility. Microscopic/spectroscopic investigations suggested that As in the soils was predominantly present as As(V) in a coordination environment with Fe oxides. Sequential extraction indicated that the majority of As were strongly bound with crystalline Fe/Al oxides and residual phase. Yet, uncertainties may remain with potential As exposure through accidental ingestion and abiotic/biotic transformation due to changes in geochemical conditions. Hence, the effectiveness of stabilization/solidification (S/S) treatment was evaluated. Although the leached concentrations of As from the S/S treated soils increased to varying extent in different batch leaching tests due to the increase in alkalinity, the mobility of As was considered very low based on semi-dynamic leaching test. This suggested that As immobilization in the S/S treated soils was predominantly dependent on physical encapsulation by interlocking framework of hydration products, which could also prevent potential exposure and allow controlled utilization of S/S treated soils as monolithic materials. These results illustrate the importance of holistic assessment and treatment/management of As-containing soils for enabling flexible future land use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Controlling factors in the dynamics of soil organic carbon from the region of Murcia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albaladejo, J.; Martinez-Mena, M.; Almagro, M.; Ruiz-navarro, A.; Ortiz, R.

    2009-01-01

    Sequestration and accumulation of C on the soil is a useful way to reduce the atmospheric concentration of CO 2 and to mitigate the climate change. The purpose of this study was to identify the key factors which determine the accumulation and permanence of CO on the soils of the Murcia Region. The study was arranged from data displayed on the Murcia Region Soils Map (1:100.000). The results showed that quantity of stored CO in the 30cm superficial soil is significantly different depending on soil uses, soil type, altitude and texture. One conclusion is that changes from natural vegetation to cultivated soil are the greatest cause of losses of CO of soil. The increasing of altitude and proportion of thin-silt + clay contributes to CE accumulation. In altitude, the speed of mineralization of organic materials decreases, and the thin particles stimulate the physical protection and the chemical stabilization of CO of soil. (Author) 8 refs.

  18. Soil radioactivity and its possible relationship with fertilizers in Araras region, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jocelyn L. de; Ferreira, Francisco J.F.; Mantovani, Luiz E.; Rocha, Helio O. da

    1997-01-01

    Fertilizers are widely used in agriculture, particularly in tropical regions, where weathering of soil nutrients is more intense. Uranium is commonly present in phosphate rocks and, consequently, in fertilizers. The exploitation, processing and persistent use of large amounts of phosphate fertilizers lead the environment to be contaminated by U, Th and other trace element resulting from radioactive decay. In the present study, airbone gamma-ray spectrometry, remote sensing, digital imagery and geographic information systems were used to integrate geophysical, geological, topographical pedological and drainage data in order to interpret radiometric (K, U and Th) anomalies in the region of Araras, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. These anomalies occur in soils developed from basic rocks (diabase sills), which are known to normally contain low concentrations of radionuclides. Owing to their high fertility, these soils have been historically used for important crops such as coffee and sugar cane, but an increasing amount of fertilizers has been used there over the last thirty years. The radiometric anomalies (U, Th) are attributed to impurities in phosphates, whereas the 40 K anomalies result both from the use potash and agricultural residues like those from the sugar cane industry, in which up to 0.7 g/l of K 2 O is present. (author). 13 refs., 6 figs

  19. Geoinformation evaluation of soil resource potential for horticulture in Krasnodar region and the Republic of Adygea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, I. Yu.; Dragavtseva, I. A.; Mironenko, N. Ya.; Sergeeva, N. N.; Domozhirova, V. V.; Morenets, A. S.; Ovechkin, S. V.

    2016-04-01

    A geoinformation database for assessing soil resource potential for horticulture in Krasnodar region and Adygea has been developed. The results of geoinformation analysis indicate that only 55-60% of soils in these regions are suitable for growing horticultural crops without limitations; about 35-40% of the total soil area is unsuitable for horticultural purposes. For plum trees, the area of unsuitable soils is somewhat lower than for other horticultural crops. Geographically, the areas of soils suitable and unsuitable for horticulture are close to one another. The thickness of the loose earthy soil material, the gravel content, the degree of salinization, the soil texture, and the degree of soil hydromorphism are the major soil properties imposing considerable limitations for the development of fruit-growing industry in the studied regions. The highest portions of soils suitable for horticulture are found in Eiskii, Kushchevskii, Krylovskii, Shcherbinovskii, and Novokubanskii districts of Krasnodar region. The development of horticulture in Tuapsinskii, Slavyanskii, and Primorsko-Akhtarskii districts is limited because of the unsuitability of soils for this purpose. About 8% of the existing orchards are found on soils recognized as unsuitable for horticulture, and only about 20% of the existing orchards are found on soils suitable for fruit growing without limitations. About 70% of the existing fruit orchards are located on degraded soils or on soils with certain limitations for horticulture. The profitability of fruit orchards on such soils is lower than that of the orchards planted on soils without limitations for horticulture. This information is necessary for the adequate economic evaluation of the degree of soil degradation.

  20. Evaluation of seismic behavior of soils under nuclear containment structures via dynamic centrifuge test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jeong Gon, E-mail: jgha87@kaist.ac.kr; Kim, Dong-Soo, E-mail: dskim@kaist.ac.kr

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • A series of dynamic centrifuge tests were performed for NPP structure to investigate the soil–foundation-structure interaction with various soil conditions from loose sand to weathered rock. • SFSI phenomena for NPP structure were observed directly using experimental method. • Effect of the soil stiffness and nonlinear characteristics on SFSI was estimated. • There are comparisons of the control motions for seismic design of a NPP structure. • Subsoil condition, earthquake intensity and control motion affected to seismic load. - Abstract: To evaluate the earthquake loads for the seismic design of a nuclear containment structure, it is necessary to consider the soil–foundation-structure interaction (SFSI) due to their interdependent behavior. Especially, understanding the effects of soil stiffness under the structure and the location of control motion to SFSI are very important. Motivated by these requirements, a series of dynamic centrifuge tests were performed with various soil conditions from loose sand to weathered rock (WR), as well as different seismic intensities for the bedrock motion. The different amplification characteristics in peak-accelerations profile and effects of soil-nonlinearity in response spectrum were observed. The dynamic behaviors were compared between surface of free-field and foundation of the structure for the evaluation of the control motion for seismic design. It was found that dynamic centrifuge test has potentials to estimate the seismic load considering SFSI.

  1. Evaluation of seismic behavior of soils under nuclear containment structures via dynamic centrifuge test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jeong Gon; Kim, Dong-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A series of dynamic centrifuge tests were performed for NPP structure to investigate the soil–foundation-structure interaction with various soil conditions from loose sand to weathered rock. • SFSI phenomena for NPP structure were observed directly using experimental method. • Effect of the soil stiffness and nonlinear characteristics on SFSI was estimated. • There are comparisons of the control motions for seismic design of a NPP structure. • Subsoil condition, earthquake intensity and control motion affected to seismic load. - Abstract: To evaluate the earthquake loads for the seismic design of a nuclear containment structure, it is necessary to consider the soil–foundation-structure interaction (SFSI) due to their interdependent behavior. Especially, understanding the effects of soil stiffness under the structure and the location of control motion to SFSI are very important. Motivated by these requirements, a series of dynamic centrifuge tests were performed with various soil conditions from loose sand to weathered rock (WR), as well as different seismic intensities for the bedrock motion. The different amplification characteristics in peak-accelerations profile and effects of soil-nonlinearity in response spectrum were observed. The dynamic behaviors were compared between surface of free-field and foundation of the structure for the evaluation of the control motion for seismic design. It was found that dynamic centrifuge test has potentials to estimate the seismic load considering SFSI

  2. Model for analyzing demand for low-level waste transport containers - regionalized and non-regionalized scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, A.J.; Rose, K.

    1982-01-01

    Certain types of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) must be shipped in expensive special containers. It is therefore desirable to keep container utilization high. There must be a stock of containers sufficient to ship waste in a timely fashion, but one does not want to have containers sitting idle a significant fraction of the time. A computerized discrete event network model has been developed and is described in this report. The model allows an analyst to determine the effects of varying the increase in LLW, establishment of regional disposal, etc. on requirements for shipping containers

  3. Quality control for measurement of soil samples containing 237Np and 241Am as radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha Lianmao; Zhang Caihong; Song Hailong; Ren Xiaona; Han Yuhu; Zhang Aiming; Chu Taiwei

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports quality control (QC) for the measurement of soil samples containing 237 Np and 241 Am as radiotracers in migration test of transuranic nuclides. All of the QC were done independently by the QA members of analytical work. It mainly included checking 5%-10% of the total analyzed samples; preparing blank samples, blind replicate sample and spiked samples used as quality control samples to check the quality of analytical work

  4. Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2001-01-01

    For Austria there exists a comprehensive soil data collection, integrated in a GIS (geographical information system). The content values of pollutants (cadmium, mercury, lead, copper, mercury, radio-cesium) are given in geographical charts and in tables by regions and by type of soil (forests, agriculture, greenland, others) for the whole area of Austria. Erosion effects are studied for the Austrian region. Legal regulations and measures for an effective soil protection, reduction of soil degradation and sustainable development in Austria and the European Union are discussed. (a.n.)

  5. CHARACTERIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF FLOODPLAIN SOILS IN THE PORTO ALEGRE METROPOLITAN REGION, RS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís de França da Silva Neto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn the Porto Alegre metropolitan region (PAMR there are a significant proportion of floodplain soils, mainly Planosols and Gleysols, in relation to upland soils. This study aimed to evaluate the morphological, chemical and physical characteristics, and to classify floodplain soils in the PAMR. Six soil profiles were evaluated under different sedimentary lithologies and drainage classes, and samples were collected for chemical and physical analyzes. Two orders of mineral soils (Planosols and Gleysols and one order of organic soil (Organosols were identified. The soils were moderately deep to deep and stratified. In mineral soils hue ranged between 7.5YR and 2.5Y, with the occurrence of Bg, Btg or Cg gley horizons, while in organic soil the colors were neutral. Sand and silt were the predominant particle sizes according to the origin sedimentary deposits. The organic carbon content was negatively related to soil density and positively related to soil specific surface area and with soil cation exchange capacity. Soil chemical characterization showed expressive variation in bases, aluminum and sodium saturation. Ki index and Fe(CBD/Fe(H2SO4 ratio indicated a low soil weathering degree. The different sedimentary lithologies and the soil hydromorphism degree were the main factors related to differences in morphological, physical and chemical characteristics of soils in the PAMR.

  6. Erodibility of calcareous soils as influenced by land use and intrinsic soil properties in a semiarid region of central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoubi, Shamsollah; Mokhtari, Javad; Mosaddeghi, Mohammad Reza; Zeraatpisheh, Mojtaba

    2018-03-06

    The most important properties affecting the soil loss and runoff were investigated, and the effects of land use on the soil properties, together with the erodibility indices in a semiarid zone, central Iran, were evaluated. The locations of 100 positions were acquired by cLHS and 0-5-cm surface soil layer samples were used for laboratory analyses from the Borujen Region, Chaharmahal-Va-Bakhtiari Province, central Iran. To measure in situ runoff and soil erodibility of three different land uses comprising dryland, irrigated farming, and rangeland, a portable rainfall simulator was used. The results showed that the high variations (coefficient of variation, CV) were obtained for electrical conductivity (EC), mean weight diameter (MWD), soil organic carbon (SOC), and soil erodibility indices including runoff volume, soil loss, and sediment concentration (CV ~ 43.6-77.4%). Soil erodibility indices showed positive and significant correlations with bulk density and negative correlations with SOC, MWD, clay content, and soil shear strength in the area under investigation. The values of runoff in the dryland, irrigated farming, and rangeland were found 1.5, 28.9, and 58.7 cm 3 ; soil loss in the dryland, irrigated farming, and rangeland were observed 0.25, 2.96, and 76.8 g; and the amount of sediment concentration in the dryland, irrigated farming, and rangeland were found 0.01, 0.11, and 0.15 g cm -3 . It is suggested that further investigations should be carried out on soil erodibility and the potential of sediment yield in various land uses with varying topography and soil properties in semiarid regions of Iran facing the high risk of soil loss.

  7. Effects of remediation train sequence on decontamination of heavy metal-contaminated soil containing mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Huang, Yu-Tuan; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    When a contaminated site contains pollutants including both nonvolatile metals and Hg, one single remediation technology may not satisfactorily remove all contaminants. Therefore, in this study, chemical extraction and thermal treatment were combined as a remediation train to remove heavy metals, including Hg, from contaminated soil. A 0.2 M solution of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was shown to be the most effective reagent for extraction of considerable amounts of Cu, Pb, and Zn (> 50%). Hg removal was ineffective using 0.2 M EDTA, but thermogravimetric analysis suggested that heating to 550 degrees C with a heating rate of 5 degrees C/min for a duration of 1 hr appeared to be an effective approach for Hg removal. With the employment of thermal treatment, up to 99% of Hg could be removed. However executing thermal treatment prior to chemical extraction reduced the effectiveness of the subsequent EDTA extraction because nonvolatile heavy metals were immobilized in soil aggregates after the 550 degrees C treatment. The remediation train of chemical extraction followed by thermal treatment appears to remediate soils that have been contaminated by many nonvolatile heavy metals and Hg. Implications: A remediation train conjoining two or more techniques has been initialized to remove multiple metals. Better understandings of the impacts of treatment sequences, namely, which technique should be employed first on the soil properties and the decontamination efficiency, are in high demand. This study provides a strategy to remove multiple heavy metals including Hg from a contaminated soil. The interactions between thermal treatment and chemical extraction on repartitioning of heavy metals was revealed. The obtained results could offer an integrating strategy to remediate the soil contaminated with both heavy metals and volatile contaminants.

  8. Behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in soil-plant systems of the Mediterranean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolakis, C.; Papanicolaou, E.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the project are the selection of regions in Greece with high degree of contamination and sampling of the main soil types - in various depths - and of the cultivated or indigenous plants grown on them; determination of the physicochemical parameters of the soil samples and the radionuclide concentration, especially of 137 Cs, in the soil and plant samples; greenhouse experimentation with selected soil types and main agricultural crops to establish uptake rates, and laboratory studies to investigate translocation of radionuclides within undisturbed soil columns; correlation of analytical and experimental data and calculation of transfer factors from soil to plants and various products. (R.P.) 12 refs

  9. Developing High-resolution Soil Database for Regional Crop Modeling in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, E.; Ines, A. V. M.

    2014-12-01

    The most readily available soil data for regional crop modeling in Africa is the World Inventory of Soil Emission potentials (WISE) dataset, which has 1125 soil profiles for the world, but does not extensively cover countries Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania in East Africa. Another dataset available is the HC27 (Harvest Choice by IFPRI) in a gridded format (10km) but composed of generic soil profiles based on only three criteria (texture, rooting depth, and organic carbon content). In this paper, we present a development and application of a high-resolution (1km), gridded soil database for regional crop modeling in East Africa. Basic soil information is extracted from Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS), which provides essential soil properties (bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil PH and percentages of sand, silt and clay) for 6 different standardized soil layers (5, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 200 cm) in 1km resolution. Soil hydraulic properties (e.g., field capacity and wilting point) are derived from the AfSIS soil dataset using well-proven pedo-transfer functions and are customized for DSSAT-CSM soil data requirements. The crop model is used to evaluate crop yield forecasts using the new high resolution soil database and compared with WISE and HC27. In this paper we will present also the results of DSSAT loosely coupled with a hydrologic model (VIC) to assimilate root-zone soil moisture. Creating a grid-based soil database, which provides a consistent soil input for two different models (DSSAT and VIC) is a critical part of this work. The created soil database is expected to contribute to future applications of DSSAT crop simulation in East Africa where food security is highly vulnerable.

  10. The influence of organic-containing soil dust on ice nucleation and cloud properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Matthias; Grini, Alf; Berntsen, Terje K.; Ekman, Annica

    2017-04-01

    Natural mineral dust from desert regions is known to be the most important contributor to atmospheric ice-nucleating particles (INP) which induce heterogeneous ice nucleation in mixed-phase clouds. Its ability to nucleate ice effectively is shown by various laboratory (Hoose and Möhler 2012) and field results (DeMott et al. 2015) and its abundance in ice crystal residuals has also been shown (Cziczo et al. 2013). Thus it is an important player when representing mixed-phase clouds in climate models. MODIS satellite data indicate that 1 /4 of the global dust emission originates from semi-arid areas rather than from arid deserts (Ginoux et al. 2012). Here, organic components can mix with minerals within the soil and get into the atmosphere. These so-called 'soil dust' particles are ice-nucleating active at high sub-zero temperatures, i.e. at higher temperatures than pure desert dust (Steinke et al. 2016). In this study, soil dust is incorporated into the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM, Bentsen et al. 2013) and applied to a modified ice nucleation parameterization (Steinke et al. 2016). Its influence on the cloud ice phase is evaluated by comparing a control run, where only pure desert dust is considered, and a sensitivity experiment, where a fraction of the dust emissions are classified as soil dust. Both simulations are nudged to ERA-interim meteorology and they have the same loading of dust emissions. NorESM gives a lower annual soil dust emission flux compared to Ginoux et al. (2012), but the desert dust flux is similar to the MODIS-retrieved data. Although soil dust concentrations are much lower than desert dust, the NorESM simulations indicate that the annual INP concentrations from soil dust are on average lower by a just a factor of 4 than INP concentrations from pure desert dust. The highest soil dust INP concentrations occur at a lower height than for desert dust, i.e at warmer temperatures inside mixed-phase clouds. Furthermore, soil dust INP

  11. Study of soil pollution by cadmium in Qatina region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargouth, G.; Johar, Y.; Ashkar, I.

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metals such as cadmium are specify to form complex compounds in soils make it difficulty to be absorbed from plants, but if prevailing circumstances changeability in soil and make these elements in absorbed actionable case to the plants, direct threatening upon of polluted soil with such elements will begin, and appears on plants, animals and humans. Holding comprehensive environmental evaluation on the agricultural soil field according to the prevailing circumstances in the transplanting zone, considered as important environmental practical stage in reducing environmental cadmium problems risk. Accordingly, we look to terming and controlling environment either to manage a soil pollution problem existed, or prophecy with circumstances lowers upon cadmium concentrations in the environment system (soil-plant) in order not to occurs environmental cadmium problems in the field soil futurity. (author)

  12. Characterization of sorption properties of selected soils from Lublin region by using water vapour adsorption method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skic, Kamil; Boguta, Patrycja; Sokołowska, Zofia

    2016-04-01

    *The studies were carried out within the framework of a research project. The project was financed from funds of National Science Center on the base of decision number DEC-2013/11/D/NZ9/02545 Among many methods proposed to study sorption properties of soils an analysis of adsorption/ desorption isotherm is probably the easiest and most convenient one. It characterizes both quantity and quality of mineral and organic components and also their physical and physicochemical properties. The main aim of this study is comparison of sorption properties of selected Polish soils by using water vapour adsorption method. Samples were taken from the depth of 0-20 cm, from the Lublin region, eastern Poland. Soils were selected on the basis of their different physicochemical properties and were classified as: Haplic Fluvisol, Haplic Chernozem, Mollic Gleysol, Rendzic Phaeozem, Stagnic Luvisol, Haplic Cambisol (WG WRB 2006). Data taken from experimental adsorption isotherms were used to determine parameters of monolayer capacity, specific surface area and the total amount of vapour adsorbed at relative pressure of 0.974. Obtained adsorption and desorption isotherms reviled that adsorbate molecules interacted with the soil particles in different extent. Similar monolayer capacity was observed for Haplic Fluvisol, Haplic Chernozem and Stagnic Luvisol, while for Mollic Gleysol was more than 4 times higher. Mollic Gleysol was also characterized by highest values of specific surface area as well as quantity of adsorbed vapour at relative pressure of 0.974. Higher sorption was caused by presence of soil colloids which contains functional groups of a polar nature (mainly hydroxyls, phenolic and carboxyls). These groups similarly to silicates, oxides, hydratable cations as well as electric charge form adsorption centres for water vapour molecules.

  13. Strength and Compressibility Characteristics of Reconstituted Organic Soil at Khulna Region of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Tahia Rabbee; Islam M. Rafizul

    2012-01-01

    This study depicts the experimental investigations into the effect of organic content on the shear strength and compressibility parameters of reconstituted soil. To these attempts, disturbed soil samples were collected from two selected locations of Khulna region. The reconstituted soil having organic content of 5-35 % were prepared in the laboratory to mix at various proportions of inorganic and organic soil at the water content equal to 1.25 times of liquid limits of collected samples .The ...

  14. Soil-structure interaction effects on containment fragilities and floor response spectra statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, J.; Reich, M.; Chokshi, N.C.

    1987-01-01

    The probability-based method for the reliability evaluation of nuclear structures developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is extended to include soil-structure interaction effects. A reinforced concrete containment is analyzed in order to investigate the soil-structure interaction effects on: structural fragilities; floor response spectra statistics and acceleration response correlations. To include the effect of soil flexibility on the reliability assessment the following two step approach is used. In the first step, the lumped parameter method for soil-structure interaction analysis is used together with a stick model representation of the structure in order to obtain the motions of the foundation plate. These motions, which include both translations and rotations of the foundation plate, are expressed in terms of the power-spectral density of the free-field ground excitation and the transfer function of the total acceleration response of the foundation. The second step involves a detailed finite element model of the structure subjected to the interaction motions computed from step one. Making use of the structural model and interaction motion the reliability analysis method yields the limit stat probabilities and fragility data for the structure

  15. Plutonium uptake by plants from soil containing plutonium-238 dioxide particles. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.W.; McFarlane, J.C.

    1977-05-01

    Three plant species--alfalfa, lettuce, and radishes were grown in soils contaminated with plutonium-238 dioxide (238)PuO2 at concentrations of 23, 69, 92, and 342 nanocuries per gram (nCi/g). The length of exposure varied from 60 days for the lettuce and radishes to 358 days for the alfalfa. The magnitude of plutonium incorporation as indicated by the discrimination ratios for these species, after being exposed to the relatively insoluble PuO2, was similar to previously reported data using different chemical forms of plutonium. Evidence indicates that the predominant factor in plutonium uptake by plants may involve the chelation of plutonium contained in the soils by the action of compounds such as citric acid and/or other similar chelating agents released from the plant roots

  16. Proceedings of the Regional Colloquium on Soil Organic Matter Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerri, C.C.; Athie, D.; Sodrzeieski, D.

    1982-01-01

    Isotope techniques are applied to soil organic matter studies, with special emphasis to decomposition studies. The effect of N fertilizers on the development of wheat and soybean crops is studied, as well as N-fixation. 14 C and 15 N are used as tracers; 13 C/ 12 C ratios are determined in humic horizons of soils. The influence of carbon sources addition on the degradation of the pesticide carbaril in soils is evaluated. (M.A.) [pt

  17. Influence of radioactive environment pollution upon soil fauna at the region of Chernobylsk Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivolutskij, D.A.; Pokarzhevskij, A.D.; Usachev, V.L.; Shein, G.N.; Nadvornyj, V.G.; Viktorov, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    Populations of soil fauna in the region of 30-km zone of Chernobylsk NPP accident were investigated. in July, September and October of 1986, in April of 1987 and in October of 1988. It is shown that number of soecies of soil microarthropods and their populations in soils of pine forests around the NPP reduced sharply during the first year after the accident, as compared to the standard. Decrease of number and biomass of earthworm populations was observed in soils of agroecosystems. Decrease of share young specimen was especially noticeable. Populations of settled specimens of soil fauna regenerated slowly during the second year after the accident, the second year after the accident, and regeneration of the total population of soil fauna in 30-km zone proceeded due to poupylations of migrating specimens. 2-2.5 years later the population and biomass of soil fauna in contaminated regions regerated completely

  18. Identification of vacuoles containing extraintestinal differentiated forms of Legionella pneumophila in colonized Caenorhabditis elegans soil nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinga, Jacqueline R; Garduño, Rafael A; Kormish, Jay D; Tanner, Jennifer R; Khan, Deirdre; Buchko, Kristyn; Jimenez, Celine; Pinette, Mathieu M; Brassinga, Ann Karen C

    2015-08-01

    Legionella pneumophila, a causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, is a facultative intracellular parasite of freshwater protozoa. Legionella pneumophila features a unique developmental network that involves several developmental forms including the infectious cyst forms. Reservoirs of L. pneumophila include natural and man-made freshwater systems; however, recent studies have shown that isolates of L. pneumophila can also be obtained directly from garden potting soil suggesting the presence of an additional reservoir. A previous study employing the metazoan Caenorhabditis elegans, a member of the Rhabditidae family of free-living soil nematodes, demonstrated that the intestinal lumen can be colonized with L. pneumophila. While both replicative forms and differentiated forms were observed in C. elegans, these morphologically distinct forms were initially observed to be restricted to the intestinal lumen. Using live DIC imaging coupled with focused transmission electron microscopy analyses, we report here that L. pneumophila is able to invade and establish Legionella-containing vacuoles (LCVs) in the intestinal cells. In addition, LCVs containing replicative and differentiated cyst forms were observed in the pseudocoelomic cavity and gonadal tissue of nematodes colonized with L. pneumophila. Furthermore, establishment of LCVs in the gonadal tissue was Dot/Icm dependent and required the presence of the endocytic factor RME-1 to gain access to maturing oocytes. Our findings are novel as this is the first report, to our knowledge, of extraintestinal LCVs containing L. pneumophila cyst forms in C. elegans tissues, highlighting the potential of soil-dwelling nematodes as an alternate environmental reservoir for L. pneumophila. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. [Effects of heavy machinery operation on the structural characters of cultivated soils in black soil region of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, En-Heng; Chai, Ya-Fan; Chen, Xiang-Wei

    2008-02-01

    With the cultivated soils in black soil region of Northeast China as test objects, this paper measured their structural characters such as soil strength, bulk density, and non-capillary porosity/capillary porosity (NCP/CP) ratio before and after heavy and medium-sized machinery operation, aimed to study the effects of machinery operation on the physical properties of test soils. The results showed that after machinery operation, there existed three distinct layers from top to bottom in the soil profiles, i.e., plowed layer, cumulative compacted layer, and non-affected layer, according to the changes of soil strength. Under medium-sized machinery operation, these three layers were shallower, and there was a new plow pan at the depth between 17.5 and 30 cm. Heavy machinery operation had significant positive effects on the improvement of topsoil structure (P heavy machinery, the bulk density of topsoil decreased by 7.2% and 3.5%, respectively, and NCP/CP increased by 556.6% after subsoiling, which would benefit water infiltration, reinforce water storage, and weaken the threat of soil erosion. The main action of heavy machinery operation was soil loosening, while that of medium-sized machinery operation was soil compacting.

  20. Accumulation of Sulfonamide Resistance Genes in Arable Soils Due to Repeated Application of Manure Containing Sulfadiazine ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Heuer, Holger; Solehati, Qodiah; Zimmerling, Ute; Kleineidam, Kristina; Schloter, Michael; Müller, Tanja; Focks, Andreas; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Smalla, Kornelia

    2011-01-01

    Two soils were amended three times with pig manure. The abundance of sulfonamide resistance genes was determined by quantitative PCR 2 months after each application. In both soils treated with sulfadiazine-containing manure, the numbers of copies of sul1 and sul2 significantly increased compared to numbers after treatments with antibiotic-free manure or a control and accumulated with repeated applications.

  1. System approach for evaluation of soil contamination by nitrogen containing pollutants in the 30-km zone power nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevtsova, O.V.; Zhigunova, L.N.; Makovskaya, N.A.; Pavlovich, E.L.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of studies of the nitrogen-containing chemical pollutants of the soil 30 km zone nuclear power plant in order to evaluate the chemical carcinogenic risk to public health. As a result of this work the least amount of NDMA fixed at 0,83 × 10 -4 mg/kg, the highest - 128,29 × 10 -4 mg/kg, which is 0,83 and 128,3 %, respectively, of Madman established in the Russian Federation and Republic of Kazakhstan, the content of NDMA precursors - nitrite ions varies from 0,07 to 4,43 mg/kg. Found that most of the compounds reported in agricultural land. Calculate the total carcinogenic risk for the population living in the region - the set value corresponds to the maximum risk tolerance, i. e. the upper limit of acceptable risk. These levels are subject to continuous monitoring. (authors)

  2. Element concentrations in surface soils of the Coconino Plateau, Grand Canyon region, Coconino County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2016-09-15

    This report provides the geochemical analyses of a large set of background soils collected from the surface of the Coconino Plateau in northern Arizona. More than 700 soil samples were collected at 46 widespread areas, sampled from sites that appear unaffected by mineralization and (or) anthropogenic contamination. The soils were analyzed for 47 elements, thereby providing data on metal concentrations in soils representative of the plateau. These background concentrations can be used, for instance, for comparison to metal concentrations found in soils potentially affected by natural and anthropogenic influences on the Coconino Plateau in the Grand Canyon region of Arizona.The soil sampling survey revealed low concentrations for the metals most commonly of environmental concern, such as arsenic, cobalt, chromium, copper, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, lead, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. For example, the median concentrations of the metals in soils of the Coconino Plateau were found to be comparable to the mean values previously reported for soils of the western United States.

  3. Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental soil surveys in each province of Austria have been performed, soils of about 5,000 sites were described and analyzed for nutrients and pollutants, the majority of these data are recorded in the soil information system of Austria (BORIS) soil database, http://www.ubavie.gv.at/umweltsituation/boden/boris), which also contains a soil map of Austria, data from 30 specific investigations mainly in areas with industry and results from the Austria - wide cesium investigation. With respect to the environmental state of soils a short discussion is given, including two geographical charts, one showing which sites have soil data (2001) and the other the cadmium distribution in top soils according land use (forest, grassland, arable land, others). Information related to the soil erosion, Corine land cover (Europe-wide land cover database), evaluation of pollutants in soils (reference values of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Pb, Tl, Va, Zn, AOX, PAH, PCB, PCDD/pcdf, dioxin), and relevant Austrian and European standards and regulations is provided. Figs. 2, Tables 4. (nevyjel)

  4. New Comparative Experiments of Different Soil Types for Farmland Water Conservation in Arid Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiben Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated farmland is the main food source of desert areas, and moisture is the main limiting factor of desert farmland crop productivity. Study on the influence of irrigation on desert farmland soil moisture can guide the agricultural water resource utilization and agricultural production in those regions. At present, the efficiency of irrigation water usage in Northwest China is as low as approximately 40% of the irrigated water. To understand the response of farmland soil moisture in different soil types on irrigation in the Ulan Buh Desert of Inner Mongolia of China, this experimental study takes advantage of different infiltration characteristics and hydraulic conductivities of sand, clay, and loam to determine an optimized soil combination scheme with the purpose of establishing a hydraulic barrier that reduces infiltration. This study includes three comparative experiments with each consisting of a 100 cm thick of filled sand, or clay, or loam soil underneath a 50 cm plough soil, with a total thickness of 150 cm soil profile. A new type of lysimeter is installed below the above-mentioned 150 cm soil profile to continuously measure deep soil recharge (DSR, and the ECH2O-5 soil moisture sensors are installed at different depths over the 150 cm soil profile to simultaneously monitor the soil moisture above the lysimeter. The study analyzes the characteristics of soil moisture dynamics, the irrigation-related recharge on soil moisture, and the DSR characteristics before and after irrigation, during the early sowing period from 2 April to 2 May 2017. Research results show that: (1 Irrigation significantly influences the soil moisture of 0–150 cm depths. The soil moisture increase after the irrigation follows the order from high to low when it is in the order of loam, sand, and clay. (2 Irrigation-induced soil moisture recharge occurs on all three soil combinations at 0–150 cm layers, and the order of soil moisture recharge from high to low

  5. Different habitats within a region contain evolutionary heritage from different epochs depending on the abiotic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartish, I.V.; Ozinga, W.A.; Bartish, M.I.; Wamelink, G.W.W.; Hennekens, S.M.; Prinzing, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Biodiversity hot-spots are regions containing evolutionary heritage from ancient or recent geological epochs, i.e. evolutionary 'museums' or 'cradles', respectively. We hypothesize that: (1) there are also 'museums' and 'cradles' within regions - some species pools of particular habitat

  6. Decontamination of PCBs-containing soil using subcritical water extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Park, Jeong-Hun; Shin, Moon-Su; Park, Ha-Seung

    2014-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one of the excision compounds listed at the Stockholm convention in 2001. Although their use has been heavily restricted, PCBs can be found in some specific site-contaminated soils. Either removal or destruction is required prior to disposal. The subcritical water extraction (SCWE) of organic hazardous compounds from contaminated soils is a promising technique for hazardous waste contaminated-site cleanup. In this study, the removal of PCBs by the SCWE process was investigated. The effects of temperature and treatment time on removal efficiency have been determined. In the SCWE experiments, a removal percentage of 99.7% was obtained after 1h of treatment at 250°C. The mass removal efficiency of low-chlorinated species was higher than high-chlorinated congeners at lower temperatures, but it was oppositely observed at higher temperatures because the lower chlorinated congeners are formed by dechlorination of higher chlorinated congeners. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that the PCBs underwent partial degradation. Several degradation products including mono- and di-chlorinated biphenyls, oxygen-containing aromatic compounds, and small-size hydrocarbons were identified in the effluent water, which were not initially present in the contaminated soil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The primary mission of the Containment Group is to ensure that underground nuclear tests are satisfactorily contained. The main goal is the development of sound technical bases for containment-related methodology. Major areas of activity include siting, geologic description, emplacement hole stemming, and phenomenological predictions. Performance results of sanded gypsum concrete plugs on the Jefferson, Panamint, Cornucopia, Labquark, and Bodie events are given. Activities are also described in the following areas: computational capabilities site description, predictive modeling, and cavity-pressure measurement. Containment publications are listed. 8 references

  8. Empirical estimates to reduce modeling uncertainties of soil organic carbon in permafrost regions: a review of recent progress and remaining challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, U; Jastrow, J D; Matamala, R; Fan, Z; Miller, R M; Hugelius, G; Kuhry, P; Koven, C D; Riley, W J; Harden, J W; Ping, C L; Michaelson, G J; McGuire, A D; Tarnocai, C; Schaefer, K; Schuur, E A G; Jorgenson, M T; Hinzman, L D

    2013-01-01

    The vast amount of organic carbon (OC) stored in soils of the northern circumpolar permafrost region is a potentially vulnerable component of the global carbon cycle. However, estimates of the quantity, decomposability, and combustibility of OC contained in permafrost-region soils remain highly uncertain, thereby limiting our ability to predict the release of greenhouse gases due to permafrost thawing. Substantial differences exist between empirical and modeling estimates of the quantity and distribution of permafrost-region soil OC, which contribute to large uncertainties in predictions of carbon–climate feedbacks under future warming. Here, we identify research challenges that constrain current assessments of the distribution and potential decomposability of soil OC stocks in the northern permafrost region and suggest priorities for future empirical and modeling studies to address these challenges. (letter)

  9. [Characteristics of soil phosphorous loss under different ecological planting patterns in hilly red soil regions of southern Hunan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Min; Wen, Shi-Lin; Xu, Ming-Gang; Dong, Chun-Hua; Qin, Lin; Zhang, Lu

    2013-11-01

    Taking a large standard runoff plot on a red soil slope in Qiyang County, southern Hunan Province as a case, this paper studied the surface soil phosphorus loss characteristics in the hilly red soil regions of southern Hunan under eight ecological planting patterns. The phosphorus loss from wasteland (T1) was most serious, followed by that from natural sloped cropping patterns (T2 and T3), while the phosphorus loss amount from terrace cropping patterns (T4-T8) was the least, only occupying 9.9%, 37%, 0.7%, 2.3%, and 1.9% of T1, respectively. The ecological planting patterns directly affected the forms of surface-lost soil phosphorus, with the particulate phosphorus (PP) as the main lost form. Under the condition of rainstorm (daily rainfall > 50 mm), rainfall had lesser effects on the phosphorus loss among different planting patterns. However, the phosphorus loss increased with increasing rain intensity. The surface soil phosphorus loss mainly occurred from June to September. Both the rainfall and the rain intensity were the factors directly affected the time distribution of surface soil phosphorus loss in hilly red soil regions of southern Hunan.

  10. [Using 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) to trace the impact of soil erosion on soil organic carbon at a slope farmland in the black soil region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hai-Yan; Sheng, Mei-Ling; Sun, Li-Ying; Cai, Qiang-Guo

    2013-07-01

    Soil cores were collected from a 28.5 hm2 slope farmland in the black soil region of Northeast China. Based on the sampled data of 137Cs, 210Pb(ex) and SOC, the potentials of applying 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) for assessing SOC redistribution were evaluated, aimed to approach the impact of soil erosion on soil organic carbon (SOC) in black soil region. At both planar and vertical directions, the 137Cs, 210Pb(ex) and SOC in the farmland had similar distribution patterns. Although there were large planar variations in the 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) areal activities and the SOC stock as affected by soil erosion and deposition, the 137Cs, 210Pb(ex) and SOC had similar changing trends over the landscape. Two depth distribution profiles were also used to study the relations of 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) with SOC. At eroded site, the radioactivities of 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) and the SOC mass fraction did not show large variations in 0-25 cm soil layer, but decreased sharply below 25 cm. For the deposition sample, the radioactivities of 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) in 0-100 cm soil increased firstly and then decreased. The SOC mass fraction also had similar depth distribution pattern in this soil layer. The 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) presented positive linear correlations with the SOC, indicating that 137Cs, 210Pb(ex) and SOC moved with the same physical mechanism in the farmland, and fallout 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) could be used to study spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of SOC in the black soil region under the condition of soil erosion.

  11. Meta-modeling soil organic carbon sequestration potential and its application at regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhongkui; Wang, Enli; Bryan, Brett A; King, Darran; Zhao, Gang; Pan, Xubin; Bende-Michl, Ulrike

    2013-03-01

    Upscaling the results from process-based soil-plant models to assess regional soil organic carbon (SOC) change and sequestration potential is a great challenge due to the lack of detailed spatial information, particularly soil properties. Meta-modeling can be used to simplify and summarize process-based models and significantly reduce the demand for input data and thus could be easily applied on regional scales. We used the pre-validated Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) to simulate the impact of climate, soil, and management on SOC at 613 reference sites across Australia's cereal-growing regions under a continuous wheat system. We then developed a simple meta-model to link the APSIM-modeled SOC change to primary drivers, i.e., the amount of recalcitrant SOC, plant available water capacity of soil, soil pH, and solar radiation, temperature, and rainfall in the growing season. Based on high-resolution soil texture data and 8165 climate data points across the study area, we used the meta-model to assess SOC sequestration potential and the uncertainty associated with the variability of soil characteristics. The meta-model explained 74% of the variation of final SOC content as simulated by APSIM. Applying the meta-model to Australia's cereal-growing regions reveals regional patterns in SOC, with higher SOC stock in cool, wet regions. Overall, the potential SOC stock ranged from 21.14 to 152.71 Mg/ha with a mean of 52.18 Mg/ha. Variation of soil properties induced uncertainty ranging from 12% to 117% with higher uncertainty in warm, wet regions. In general, soils in Australia's cereal-growing regions under continuous wheat production were simulated as a sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide with a mean sequestration potential of 8.17 Mg/ha.

  12. Soils and irrigation of three areas in the Lower Tana Region, Kenya : a comparative study of soil conditions and irrigation suitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muchena, F.N.

    1987-01-01

    The soils and soil conditions of three areas situated in different physiographic positions in the Lower Tana Region of Kenya were investigated in respect of their suitability for irrigated agriculture. The soils vary widely in both physical and chemical properties. Most of the soils have an

  13. Soil-restoration rate and initial soil formation trends on example of anthropogenically affected soils of opencast mine in Kursk region, Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigareva, Tatiana

    2015-04-01

    The mining industry is one of the main factors which anthropogenically change the environment. Mining process results in removing of the rocks and mechanical changes of considerable amounts of ground. One of the main results of mining arising of antropic ecosystems as well as increasing of the new created soils total area is technosols. The main factor controlling the soil formation in postmining environment is the quality of spoiled materials. Initial soil formation has been investigated on spoils of the largest iron ore extraction complex in Russia - Mikhailovsky mining and concentration complex which is situated in Kursk region, Russia. Investigated soils are presented by monogenetic weak developed soils of different age (10-15-20 years). Young soils are formed on the loess parent materials (20 year-old soil), or on a mix of sand and clay overburdens (15 and 10-year-old soils). Anthropogenically affected soils are characterized by well-developed humus horizon which is gradually replaced by weakly changed soil-building rocks (profile type A-C for 10-, 15-years old soils, and A-AC-C for 20 years old soils). Gray-humus soils are characterized by presence of diagnostic humus horizon gradually replaced by soil-building rock. The maximum intensity of humus accumulation has been determined in a semi-hydromorphic 10-year-old soil developed on the mixed heaps which is connected with features of water-air conditions complicating mineralization of plant remnants. 20-year-old soil on loess is characterized by rather high rate of organic substances accumulation between all the automorphous soils. It was shown that one of the most effective restoration ways for anthropogenically affected soils is a biological reclamation. Since overburdens once appeared on a day surface are overgrown badly in the first years, they are subject to influence of water and wind erosion. Our researchers have found out that permanent grasses are able to grow quickly; they accumulate a considerable

  14. Halotolerant streptomycetes isolated from soil at Taif region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... characteristics of Streptomyces isolate 4 and 6, they were very likely to be strains of S. rishiriensis and ... some halotolerant streptomycetes from soil and sea .... Research PTC-225 Peltier Thermal Cycler, DNA polymerase (FS.

  15. Optimum soil frost depth to alleviate climate change effects in cold region agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Yosuke; Iwata, Yukiyoshi; Hirota, Tomoyoshi

    2017-03-21

    On-farm soil frost control has been used for the management of volunteer potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), a serious weed problem caused by climate change, in northern Japan. Deep soil frost penetration is necessary for the effective eradication of unharvested small potato tubers; however, this process can delay soil thaw and increase soil wetting in spring, thereby delaying agricultural activity initiation and increasing nitrous oxide emissions from soil. Conversely, shallow soil frost development helps over-wintering of unharvested potato tubers and nitrate leaching from surface soil owing to the periodic infiltration of snowmelt water. In this study, we synthesised on-farm snow cover manipulation experiments to determine the optimum soil frost depth that can eradicate unharvested potato tubers without affecting agricultural activity initiation while minimising N pollution from agricultural soil. The optimum soil frost depth was estimated to be 0.28-0.33 m on the basis of the annual maximum soil frost depth. Soil frost control is a promising practice to alleviate climate change effects on agriculture in cold regions, which was initiated by local farmers and further promoted by national and local research institutes.

  16. Optimum soil frost depth to alleviate climate change effects in cold region agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Yosuke; Iwata, Yukiyoshi; Hirota, Tomoyoshi

    2017-03-01

    On-farm soil frost control has been used for the management of volunteer potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), a serious weed problem caused by climate change, in northern Japan. Deep soil frost penetration is necessary for the effective eradication of unharvested small potato tubers; however, this process can delay soil thaw and increase soil wetting in spring, thereby delaying agricultural activity initiation and increasing nitrous oxide emissions from soil. Conversely, shallow soil frost development helps over-wintering of unharvested potato tubers and nitrate leaching from surface soil owing to the periodic infiltration of snowmelt water. In this study, we synthesised on-farm snow cover manipulation experiments to determine the optimum soil frost depth that can eradicate unharvested potato tubers without affecting agricultural activity initiation while minimising N pollution from agricultural soil. The optimum soil frost depth was estimated to be 0.28-0.33 m on the basis of the annual maximum soil frost depth. Soil frost control is a promising practice to alleviate climate change effects on agriculture in cold regions, which was initiated by local farmers and further promoted by national and local research institutes.

  17. Response of runoff and soil loss to reforestation and rainfall type in red soil region of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhigang; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Li, Fengrui; Zheng, Hua; Wang, Xiaoke

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term effects of reforestation types on soil erosion on degraded land, vegetation and soil properties under conventional sloping farmland (CSF) and three different reforestation types including a Pinus massoniana secondary forest (PSF), an Eucommia ulmoides artificial economic forest (EEF) and a natural succession type forest (NST), were investigated at runoff plot scale over a six-year period in a red soil region of southern China. One hundred and thirty erosive rainfall events generating runoff in plots were grouped into four rainfall types by means of K-mean clustering method. Erosive rainfall type I is the dominant rainfall type. The amount of runoff and the soil loss under erosive rainfall type III were the most, followed by rain-fall type II, IV and I. Compared with CSF treatment, reforestation treatments decreased the average annual runoff depth and the soil loss by 25.5%-61.8% and 93.9%-96.2% during the study period respectively. Meanwhile, runoff depth at PSF and EEF treatments was significantly lower than that in NST treatment, but no significant difference existed in soil erosion modulus among the three reforestation treatments. This is mainly due to the improved vegetation properties (i.e., vegetation coverage, biomass of above- and below-ground and litter-fall mass) and soil properties (i.e., bulk density, total porosity, infiltration rate and organic carbon content) in the three reforestation treatments compared to CSF treatment. The PSF and EEF are recommended as the preferred reforestation types to control runoff and soil erosion in the red soil region of southern China, with the NST potentially being used as an important supplement.

  18. [Effects of biological soil crust at different succession stages in hilly region of Loess Plateau on soil CO2 flux].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ai-Guo; Zhao, Yun-Ge; Xu, Ming-Xiang; Yang, Li-Na; Ming, Jiao

    2013-03-01

    Biological soil crust (biocrust) is a compact complex layer of soil, which has photosynthetic activity and is one of the factors affecting the CO2flux of soil-atmosphere interface. In this paper, the soil CO, flux under the effects of biocrust at different succession stages on the re-vegetated grassland in the hilly region of Loess Plateau was measured by a modified LI-8100 automated CO, flux system. Under light condition, the soil CO2 flux under effects of cyanobacteria crust and moss crust was significantly decreased by 92% and 305%, respectively, as compared with the flux without the effects of the biocrusts. The decrement of the soil CO, flux by the biocrusts was related to the biocrusts components and their biomass. Under the effects of dark colored cyanobacteria crust and moss crust, the soil CO2 flux was decreased by 141% and 484%, respectively, as compared with that in bare land. The diurnal curve of soil CO2 flux under effects of biocrusts presented a trend of 'drop-rise-drop' , with the maximum carbon uptake under effects of cyanobacteria crust and moss crust being 0.13 and -1.02 micromol CO2.m-2.s-1 and occurred at about 8:00 and 9:00 am, respectively, while that in bare land was unimodal. In a day (24 h) , the total CO2 flux under effects of cyanobacteria crust was increased by 7.7% , while that under effects of moss crust was decreased by 29.6%, as compared with the total CO2 flux in bare land. This study suggested that in the hilly region of Loess Plateau, biocrust had significant effects on soil CO2 flux, which should be taken into consideration when assessing the carbon budget of the 'Grain for Green' eco-project.

  19. [Effects of biochar and PAM application on saline soil hydraulic properties of coastal reclamation region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu Tong; She, Dong Li

    2017-11-01

    Disc infiltration tests were carried out to study the soil infiltration characteristics under different rates of soil amendments application, and to investigate the effects of biochar and polyacrylamide (PAM) application on saline soil hydraulic properties, pore characteristics and contribution of each pore to soil water flow in coastal reclamation region. The results showed that soil satura-ted hydraulic conductivity increased by 46.4% when biochar was applied at 2% compared with the control, and decreased with increasing PAM application. The total effective soil porosity and r>100 μm pores were increased by 8.3% and 10.2% (PPAM application. Particularly, the total effective soil porosity decreased markedly when PAM was applied at 1‰ and the reduction was up to 88%. With the application of biochar and PAM, the contribution of r500 μm played a major role in determining water flows.

  20. The relationship between heavy metal concentration and soil mycoflora in the Gizan region, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Falih, A. M. [عبد الله مساعد خلف الفالح

    1997-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from different places from the Gizan region, Saudi Arabia, and analyzed mechanically and chemically for mineral content. The soils were highly alkaline and sandy in texture in all cases. The concentration of Zn, Pb and Cu were within the ranges reported earlier for some Saudi Arabian soils, while Fe, Co and Al occurred in high concentrations. There was a high content of total soluble salts in the samples tested. There was a marked decrease in bacterial counts, a...

  1. [Evaluation of soil heavy metals accumulation in the fast economy development region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xian-Lan; Zhou, Sheng-Lu; Li, Jiang-Tao; Zhao, Qi-Guo

    2010-06-01

    Evaluation of soil heavy metals accumulation was studied in Kunshan City, a typical region of the fast economy development region in China. 126 soil samples were collected and analyzed, and evaluation indexes of soil heavy metal accumulation, which including total concentration of soil heavy metal index (THMI), soil available heavy metal index (AHMI) and fractionation of soil heavy metal index (FHMI), were established, and the heavy metal accumulation conditions of soil in this region were also discussed. Results showed as follows: the spatial variability of THMI was relative lower, with a mean value of 42.57%, whereas strong variability was found in AHMI and FHMI (especially active fraction of soil heavy metals), with the average value of 82.75% and 77.83%, respectively. Judging by each index reference standard of C Horizon, THMI was low-grade with a mean value of 1.01, while the AHMI and FHMI reached to medium accumulation and serious accumulation, with the average values of 2.46 and 4.32, respectively. The synthetic accumulation index of soil heavy metals (SHMI) was 2.56, reaching to medium grade level and with strong variability. 21.54% land area was in low-grade accumulation and 54.70% land area was in medium grade accumulation, while 23.76% land area was in serious accumulation under SHMI evaluation system. All the accumulation evaluation indexes in livestock breeding zone were the lowest, while the indexes in the smelting and plating zone were the highest, but the indexes difference between two zones were unobvious. There were markedly differences in soil types, which the accumulation indexes in Wushan soil were significantly higher than those in Huangni soil and Qingni soil.

  2. Impacts of crop growth dynamics on soil quality at the regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Agricultural land use and in particular crop growth dynamics can greatly affect soil quality. Both the amount of soil lost from erosion by water and soil organic matter are key indicators for soil quality. The aim was to develop a modelling framework for quantifying the impacts of crop growth dynamics on soil quality at the regional scale with test case Flanders. A framework for modelling the impacts of crop growth on soil erosion and soil organic matter was developed by coupling the dynamic crop cover model REGCROP (Gobin, 2010) to the PESERA soil erosion model (Kirkby et al., 2009) and to the RothC carbon model (Coleman and Jenkinson, 1999). All three models are process-based, spatially distributed and intended as a regional diagnostic tool. A geo-database was constructed covering 10 years of crop rotation in Flanders using the IACS parcel registration (Integrated Administration and Control System). Crop allometric models were developed from variety trials to calculate crop residues for common crops in Flanders and subsequently derive stable organic matter fluxes to the soil. Results indicate that crop growth dynamics and crop rotations influence soil quality for a very large percentage. soil erosion mainly occurs in the southern part of Flanders, where silty to loamy soils and a hilly topography are responsible for soil loss rates of up to 40 t/ha. Parcels under maize, sugar beet and potatoes are most vulnerable to soil erosion. Crop residues of grain maize and winter wheat followed by catch crops contribute most to the total carbon sequestered in agricultural soils. For the same rotations carbon sequestration is highest on clay soils and lowest on sandy soils. This implies that agricultural policies that impact on agricultural land management influence soil quality for a large percentage. The coupled REGCROP-PESERA-ROTHC model allows for quantifying the impact of seasonal and year-to-year crop growth dynamics on soil quality. When coupled to a multi-annual crop

  3. Characteristics of soil seed bank in plantation forest in the rocky mountain region of Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zeng-hui; YANG Yang; LENG Ping-sheng; DOU De-quan; ZHANG Bo; HOU Bing-fei

    2013-01-01

    We investigated characteristics (scales and composition) of soil seed banks at eight study sites in the rocky mountain region of Beijing by seed identification and germination monitoring.We also surveyed the vegetation communities at the eight study sites to explore the role of soil seed banks in vegetation restoration.The storage capacity of soil seed banks at the eight sites ranked from 766.26 to 2461.92 seedsm-2.A total of 23 plant species were found in soil seed banks,of which 63-80%of seeds were herbs in various soil layers and 60% of seeds were located in the soil layer at 0-5 cm depth.Biodiversity indices indicated clear differences in species diversity of soil seed banks among different plant communities.The species composition of aboveground vegetation showed low similarity with that based on soil seed banks.In the aboveground plant community,the afforestation tree species showed high importance values.The plant species originating from soil seed banks represented natural regeneration,which also showed relatively high importance values.This study suggests that in the rocky mountain region of Beijing the soil seed banks played a key role in the transformation from pure plantation forest to near-natural forest,promoting natural ecological processes,and the role of the seed banks in vegetation restoration was important to the improvement of ecological restoration methods.

  4. Geochemical patterns in soils of the karst region, Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohic, E.; Hausberger, G.; Davis, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Soil samples were collected at 420 locations in a 5-km grid pattern in the Istria and Gorski Kotar areas of Croatia, and on the Croatian islands of Cres, Rab and Krk, in order to relate geochemical variation in the soils to underlying differences in geology, bedrock lithology, soil type, environment and natural versus anthropogenic influences. Specific objectives included assessment of possible agricultural and industrial sources of contamination, especially from airborne effluent emitted by a local power plant. The study also tested the adequacy of a fixed-depth soil sampling procedure developed for meager karstic soils. Although 40 geochemical variables were analyzed, only 15 elements and 5 radionuclides are common to all the sample locations. These elements can be divided into three groups: (1) those of mostly anthropogenic origin -Pb, V, Cu and Cr; (2) those of mixed origin - radionuclides and Zn; and (3) those of mostly geogene origin -Ba, Sr, Ti, Al, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Ni and Co. Variation in Pb shows a strong correlation with the pattern of road traffic in Istria. The distributions of Ca, Na and Mg in the flysch basins of southern Istria and Slovenia are clearly distinguishable from the distributions of these elements in the surrounding carbonate terrains, a consequence of differences in bedrock permeability, type of drainage and pH. The spatial pattern of Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident reflects almost exclusively the precipitation in Istria during the days immediately after the explosion. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

  5. Soil physical and chemical properties of cacao farms in the south western region of cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The low macro nutrient content (K, Ca and Mg) in soils under cacao is one of the major causes of the poor cacao (Theobroma cacao L) yields. Efforts were made to assess the major physical and chemical properties of soils from some important cacao zones of the South West Region of Cameroon in order t...

  6. Soil and water pollution in a banana production region in tropical Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geissen, V.; Que Ramos, F.; Bastidas-Bastidas, de P.J.; Díaz-González, G.; Bello-Mendoza, R.; Huerta-Lwanga, E.; Ruiz-Suárez, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn— bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha-1week-1 for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the

  7. A soil map of a large watershed in China: applying digital soil mapping in a data sparse region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthold, F.; Blank, B.; Wiesmeier, M.; Breuer, L.; Frede, H.-G.

    2009-04-01

    Prediction of soil classes in data sparse regions is a major research challenge. With the advent of machine learning the possibilities to spatially predict soil classes have increased tremendously and given birth to new possibilities in soil mapping. Digital soil mapping is a research field that has been established during the last decades and has been accepted widely. We now need to develop tools to reduce the uncertainty in soil predictions. This is especially challenging in data sparse regions. One approach to do this is to implement soil taxonomic distance as a classification error criterion in classification and regression trees (CART) as suggested by Minasny et al. (Geoderma 142 (2007) 285-293). This approach assumes that the classification error should be larger between soils that are more dissimilar, i.e. differ in a larger number of soil properties, and smaller between more similar soils. Our study area is the Xilin River Basin, which is located in central Inner Mongolia in China. It is characterized by semi arid climate conditions and is representative for the natural occurring steppe ecosystem. The study area comprises 3600 km2. We applied a random, stratified sampling design after McKenzie and Ryan (Geoderma 89 (1999) 67-94) with landuse and topography as stratifying variables. We defined 10 sampling classes, from each class 14 replicates were randomly drawn and sampled. The dataset was split into 100 soil profiles for training and 40 soil profiles for validation. We then applied classification and regression trees (CART) to quantify the relationships between soil classes and environmental covariates. The classification tree explained 75.5% of the variance with land use and geology as most important predictor variables. Among the 8 soil classes that we predicted, the Kastanozems cover most of the area. They are predominantly found in steppe areas. However, even some of the soils at sand dune sites, which were thought to show only little soil formation

  8. Soil surface moisture estimation over a semi-arid region using ENVISAT ASAR radar data for soil evaporation evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zribi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes a method for the evaluation of soil evaporation, using soil moisture estimations based on radar satellite measurements. We present firstly an approach for the estimation and monitoring of soil moisture in a semi-arid region in North Africa, using ENVISAT ASAR images, over two types of vegetation covers. The first mapping process is dedicated solely to the monitoring of moisture variability related to rainfall events, over areas in the "non-irrigated olive tree" class of land use. The developed approach is based on a simple linear relationship between soil moisture and the backscattered radar signal normalised at a reference incidence angle. The second process is proposed over wheat fields, using an analysis of moisture variability due to both rainfall and irrigation. A semi-empirical model, based on the water-cloud model for vegetation correction, is used to retrieve soil moisture from the radar signal. Moisture mapping is carried out over wheat fields, showing high variability between irrigated and non-irrigated wheat covers. This analysis is based on a large database, including both ENVISAT ASAR and simultaneously acquired ground-truth measurements (moisture, vegetation, roughness, during the 2008–2009 vegetation cycle. Finally, a semi-empirical approach is proposed in order to relate surface moisture to the difference between soil evaporation and the climate demand, as defined by the potential evaporation. Mapping of the soil evaporation is proposed.

  9. The taste of soil: chemical investigation of soil, grape and wine in the Sopron wine region (Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Tomás; Horvàth, Imre; Bidló, András; Hofmann, Eszther

    2015-04-01

    The taste of soil: chemical investigation of soil, grape and wine in the Sopron wine region (Hungary) The Sopron wine region is one of the most significant and historical wine-producing regions of Hungary. 1800 hectares out of the total area of 4300 hectares of the wine region are used for grape cultivation. Kékfrankos (Blue Frankish) is the most frequent grape variety (60%) nevertheless other varieties are also grown here (including Zweigelt, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Portugieser and Sauvignon Blanc). In this study preliminary results of the chemical analyses involving soil, grape and wine are presented, which could provide a future basis for a comprehensive terroir research in the wine region. As soil is the premanent home of grapevine, its quality is highly influencing for the growth of the plants and grape berries, and also determines future organoleptic characteristics of the wines. The investigated basic soil parameters included humus content, transition, soil structure, compactness, roots, skeletal percent, color, physical assortment, concretion, soil defects. Laboratory measurements involved the determination of pH, carbonated lime content, humus content, ammonium lactate-acetic acid soluble P and K content, KCl soluble Ca and Mg content, EDTA and DTPA soluble Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn content. Soil samples were also investigated for heavy metal contents using ICP-OES method (Thermo Scientific iCAP 7000 Series). By the use of thermoanalytical measurements (Mettler Toledo TGA/DSC 1 type thermogravimeter, 5°C/min, air atmosphere, 25-1000°C) the mineral composition of the soils was evaluated. Regarding major aroma compounds in grape berries and wine, the concentrations of organic acids (tartaric-, acetic-, succinic-, malic-, lactic acid), methanol, ethanol, glycerine, glucose and fructose were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (Shimadzu LC-20 HPLC equipment with DAD and RID detection). The density, titratable acidity, pH and total extractive

  10. Development of a regional hydrologic soil model and application to the Beerze-Reusel drainage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolditz, O.; Du, Y.; Buerger, C.; Delfs, J.; Kuntz, D.; Beinhorn, M.; Hess, M.; Wang, W.; Grift, B. van der; Stroet, C. te

    2007-01-01

    The soil compartment is an important interface between the atmosphere and the subsurface hydrosphere. In this paper a conceptual approach for regional hydrologic soil modelling (RHSM) is presented, which provides two important qualities for modelling. First, the soil compartment is directly coupled to the atmosphere via the land surface and to the aquifers. Second, extremely fine (5 cm vertical) resolutions of the soil system can be realized at regional scales (several hundreds of km 2 ). This high-resolution modelling could be achieved by parallel computation techniques. The RHSM approach is applied to the Beerze-Reusel drainage basin, which belongs to the Meuse River basin. Moisture transport in the soil system was calculated with extremely high vertical resolution at a regional scale based on rainfall-evaporation data for the year 2000. As a result, highly resolved regional groundwater recharge pattern addressing the heterogeneity of soil systems could be determined. - A real case application of concept of regional hydrologic soil modelling is presented

  11. Comparing soil organic carbon dynamics in perennial grasses and shrubs in a saline-alkaline arid region, northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Pei, Zhiqin; Su, Jiaqi; Zhang, Jingli; Zheng, Yuanrun; Ni, Jian; Xiao, Chunwang; Wang, Renzhong

    2012-01-01

    Although semi-arid and arid regions account for about 40% of terrestrial surface of the Earth and contain approximately 10% of the global soil organic carbon stock, our understanding of soil organic carbon dynamics in these regions is limited. A field experiment was conducted to compare soil organic carbon dynamics between a perennial grass community dominated by Cleistogenes squarrosa and an adjacent shrub community co-dominated by Reaumuria soongorica and Haloxylon ammodendron, two typical plant life forms in arid ecosystems of saline-alkaline arid regions in northwestern China during the growing season 2010. We found that both fine root biomass and necromass in two life forms varied greatly during the growing season. Annual fine root production in the perennial grasses was 45.6% significantly higher than in the shrubs, and fine root turnover rates were 2.52 and 2.17 yr(-1) for the perennial grasses and the shrubs, respectively. Floor mass was significantly higher in the perennial grasses than in the shrubs due to the decomposition rate of leaf litter in the perennial grasses was 61.8% lower than in the shrubs even though no significance was detected in litterfall production. Soil microbial biomass and activity demonstrated a strong seasonal variation with larger values in May and September and minimum values in the dry month of July. Observed higher soil organic carbon stocks in the perennial grasses (1.32 Kg C m(-2)) than in the shrubs (1.12 Kg C m(-2)) might be attributed to both greater inputs of poor quality litter that is relatively resistant to decay and the lower ability of microorganism to decompose these organic matter. Our results suggest that the perennial grasses might accumulate more soil organic carbon with time than the shrubs because of larger amounts of inputs from litter and slower return of carbon through decomposition.

  12. Immobilization of simulated radioactive soil waste containing cerium by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xianhe; Qin, Zhigui; Yuan, Xiaoning; Wang, Chunming; Cai, Xinan; Zhao, Weixia; Zhao, Kang; Yang, Ping; Fan, Xiaoling

    2013-11-01

    A simulated radioactive soil waste containing cerium as an imitator element has been immobilized by a thermite self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) process. The compositions, structures, and element leaching rates of products with different cerium contents have been characterized. To investigate the influence of iron on the chemical stability of the immobilized products, leaching tests of samples with different iron contents with different leaching solutions were carried out. The results showed that the imitator element cerium mainly forms the crystalline phases CeAl11O18 and Ce2SiO5. The leaching rate of cerium over a period of 28 days was 10-5-10-6 g/(m2 day). Iron in the reactants, the reaction products, and the environment has no significant effect on the chemical stability of the immobilized SHS products.

  13. Immobilization of simulated radioactive soil waste containing cerium by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Xianhe; Qin, Zhigui; Yuan, Xiaoning; Wang, Chunming; Cai, Xinan; Zhao, Weixia; Zhao, Kang; Yang, Ping; Fan, Xiaoling

    2013-01-01

    A simulated radioactive soil waste containing cerium as an imitator element has been immobilized by a thermite self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) process. The compositions, structures, and element leaching rates of products with different cerium contents have been characterized. To investigate the influence of iron on the chemical stability of the immobilized products, leaching tests of samples with different iron contents with different leaching solutions were carried out. The results showed that the imitator element cerium mainly forms the crystalline phases CeAl 11 O 18 and Ce 2 SiO 5 . The leaching rate of cerium over a period of 28 days was 10 −5 –10 −6 g/(m 2 day). Iron in the reactants, the reaction products, and the environment has no significant effect on the chemical stability of the immobilized SHS products

  14. Demonstration of in situ-constructed horizontal soil containment barrier at Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettit, P.J.; Ridenour, D.; Walker, J.; Saugier, K.

    1994-01-01

    A new design of jet grouting tool that can be guided by horizontal well casings and that operates in the horizontal plane has been used for the in situ placement of grout and construction of a prototype horizontal barrier that is free of windows. Jet grouting techniques have been advanced to permit construction of horizontal barriers underneath contaminated soil without having to excavate or disturb the waste. The paper describes progress on the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) In Situ Land Containment Project which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) for DOE's Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The Fernald project is to demonstrate a novel, enabling technology for the controlled underground placement of horizontal panels of grout, and the joining of adjacent panels to construct practical, extensive barriers. Construction strategy, equipment mechanics and operating details of this new method are described

  15. Amazon soils : a reconnaissance of the soils of the Brazilian Amazon region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sombroek, W.G.

    1966-01-01

    The study deals with soils of the Brazilian part of the Amazon basin. Most soils are Latosols, some with soft or hardened plinthite. The Latosols are characterized by a latosolic B horizon as defined in Brazil.

    Plinthite, its formation and morphology were extensively described. Five main

  16. Shallow tillage effects on soil properties for temperate-region hard-setting soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjønning, Per; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2013-01-01

    Shallow tillage (ST; typically soil physical properties and hence modifies significantly the conditions for root growth and soil biotic activity as compared to mouldboard ploughing (MP; typically ∼25 cm). At field capacity in the spring, we measured cone...... quoted 1.5 MPa critical limit for root growth. Across the 11 field experiments, the untilled ST soil at 14–18 cm generally had lower ɛa and ka than the mechanically loosened soil at the same depth for MP. Also the specific air permeability (pore organization = ka/ɛa) was lower for ST than for MP. SOC...... penetration resistance (PR) of the top 40 cm soil and sampled intact soil cores (at 0–4 and 14–18 cm depths) in 11 field experiments (4–23% clay) after continued ST and MP management for mostly 4–8 years (two experiments >30 years). Bulk soil was sampled from 0 to ∼20 cm of the MP soil and from the two layers...

  17. Natural radioelement concentrations in fertilizers and the soil of the Mila region of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Bramki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The addition of inorganic fertilizers to treat crop soil and increase its production has become a necessity and a tool used around the world. These fertilizers contain different quantities of uranium and thorium. Therefore, tons of radionuclides from natural radioactive series U238, U235 and T232h are dispersed in the environment due to a high use of fertilizer in agriculture. In this work, the radioactivity levels were determined in two fertilizers and in fertilized and unfertilized soil samples collected at various depths from the Algerian agricultural region of El-Athmania Mila, using high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy. The activity concentrations of R226a, T232h and K40 for fertilized and unfertilized soil samples were found unchanged as a function of depth and ranged from 23.72 ± 2.37 to 65.47 ± 5.06 Bq.Kg−1; 32.48 ± 9.84 to 49.83 ± 5.31 Bq.Kg−1 for 226Ra, from 26.45 ± 0.78 to 27.10 ± 0.80 Bq.Kg−1; 27.56 ± 0.75 to 28.70 ± 0.90 Bq.Kg−1 for T232h and from 220.80 ± 10.01 to 260.70 ± 8.24 Bq.Kg−1; 283.50 ± 8.41 to 290.10 ± 10.50 Bq.Kg−1 for K40 respectively. The presence of C137sis found in all measured samples and its average activity for all soil samples was 3.12 ± 0.13 Bq.Kg−1. To assess the radiological hazard, the radiation equivalent activity (Raeq, the representative level index (Iγr, the external hazard (Hex, the internal hazard (Hin and the absorbed dose rate due to three primordial radionuclides for soil samples were calculated. The measured values were compared with the published data in different countries and were found to be safe for the public and the environment.

  18. Determination of 210Pb and 210Po in soil or rock samples containing refractory matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guogang; Torri, Giancarlo

    2007-01-01

    A new method has been developed for determination of 21 Pb and 21 Po in soil or rock samples containing refractory matrices. The samples were first fused with Na 2 CO 3 and Na 2 O 2 at 600 o C for pre-treatment and then 210 Pb and 210 Po were sequentially leached out at 200-250 o C with HNO 3 +HF, HClO 4 and HCl. About 10% of the leaching solution was used for 21 Po determination, carried out by spontaneous deposition of polonium on a silver disc from a weakly acidic solution that contained hydroxylamine hydrochloride, sodium citrate and 209 Po tracer, measurement being made by α-spectrometry. The remains of the leaching solution were used for determination of 21 Pb, conducted by precipitation as sulphate, purification with Na 2 S as PbS in 6 M ammonium acetate, separation from α-emitters by an anion-exchange resin column, source preparation as PbSO 4 , and measurement with a β-counter. The procedure has been checked with two certified IAEA reference materials, showing good agreement with the recommended values. The lower limits of detection for 1 g of analysed soil or rock samples were found to be 0.75 Bq kg -1 for 210 Po and 2.2 Bq kg -1 for 210 Pb. A variety of solid sample species analysed through use of the procedure gave average yields of 90.0±9.8% for 210 Po and 88.4±7.1% for 210 Pb

  19. Soil water content, runoff and soil loss prediction in a small ungauged agricultural basin in the Mediterranean region using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Martín, Ma. C. (Ma. Concepción); Martínez Casasnovas, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the possibilities of using sub-basin data for calibration of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model in a small (46 ha) ungauged basin (i.e. where the water flow is not systematically measured) and its response. This small basin was located in the viticultural Anoia-Penedès region (North-east Spain), which suffers severe soil erosion. The data sources were: daily weather data from an observatory located close to the basin; a detailed soil ma...

  20. Integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth in Iberian viticultural regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Fraga

    Full Text Available The Iberian viticultural regions are convened according to the Denomination of Origin (DO and present different climates, soils, topography and management practices. All these elements influence the vegetative growth of different varieties throughout the peninsula, and are tied to grape quality and wine type. In the current study, an integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth was performed for the Iberian DO regions, using state-of-the-art datasets. For climatic assessment, a categorized index, accounting for phenological/thermal development, water availability and grape ripening conditions was computed. Soil textural classes were established to distinguish soil types. Elevation and aspect (orientation were also taken into account, as the leading topographic elements. A spectral vegetation index was used to assess grapevine vegetative growth and an integrated analysis of all variables was performed. The results showed that the integrated climate-soil-topography influence on vine performance is evident. Most Iberian vineyards are grown in temperate dry climates with loamy soils, presenting low vegetative growth. Vineyards in temperate humid conditions tend to show higher vegetative growth. Conversely, in cooler/warmer climates, lower vigour vineyards prevail and other factors, such as soil type and precipitation acquire more important roles in driving vigour. Vines in prevailing loamy soils are grown over a wide climatic diversity, suggesting that precipitation is the primary factor influencing vigour. The present assessment of terroir characteristics allows direct comparison among wine regions and may have great value to viticulturists, particularly under a changing climate.

  1. Integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth in Iberian viticultural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Helder; Malheiro, Aureliano C; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Cardoso, Rita M; Soares, Pedro M M; Cancela, Javier J; Pinto, Joaquim G; Santos, João A

    2014-01-01

    The Iberian viticultural regions are convened according to the Denomination of Origin (DO) and present different climates, soils, topography and management practices. All these elements influence the vegetative growth of different varieties throughout the peninsula, and are tied to grape quality and wine type. In the current study, an integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth was performed for the Iberian DO regions, using state-of-the-art datasets. For climatic assessment, a categorized index, accounting for phenological/thermal development, water availability and grape ripening conditions was computed. Soil textural classes were established to distinguish soil types. Elevation and aspect (orientation) were also taken into account, as the leading topographic elements. A spectral vegetation index was used to assess grapevine vegetative growth and an integrated analysis of all variables was performed. The results showed that the integrated climate-soil-topography influence on vine performance is evident. Most Iberian vineyards are grown in temperate dry climates with loamy soils, presenting low vegetative growth. Vineyards in temperate humid conditions tend to show higher vegetative growth. Conversely, in cooler/warmer climates, lower vigour vineyards prevail and other factors, such as soil type and precipitation acquire more important roles in driving vigour. Vines in prevailing loamy soils are grown over a wide climatic diversity, suggesting that precipitation is the primary factor influencing vigour. The present assessment of terroir characteristics allows direct comparison among wine regions and may have great value to viticulturists, particularly under a changing climate.

  2. Soil erosion determinations using 137Cs technique in the agricultural regions of Gediz Basin, Western Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sac, M.; Ymurtaci, E.; Yener, G.; Ugur, A.; Ozden, B.; Camgoz, B.

    2004-01-01

    Gediz basin is one of the regions where intense agricultural activities take place in Western Turkey. Erosion and soil degradation has long been causing serious problems to cultivated fields in the basin. This work describes the application of two different 137 Cs models for estimating soil erosion rates in cultivated sites of the region. Soil samples were collected from five distinct cultivated regions subject to soil erosion. The variations of 137 Cs concentrations with depth in soil profiles were investigated. Soil loss rates were calculated from 137 Cs inventories of the samples using both Proportional Model (PM) and Simplified Mass Balance Model (SMBM). When Proportional Model was used, erosion and deposition rates varied from -15 to -28 t ha -1 y -1 and from +5 to +41 t ha ha -1 y -1 , respectively, they varied from -16 to -33 t ha -1 y -1 and from +5 to +55 t ha -1 y -1 with Simplified Mass Balance Model. A good agreement was observed between the results of two models up to 30 t ha -1 y -1 soil loss and gain in the study area. Ulukent, a small representative agricultural field, was selected to compare the present data of 137 Cs techniques with the results obtained by Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) applied in the area before. (authors)

  3. Effects of added organic matter and water on soil carbon sequestration in an arid region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Lai

    Full Text Available It is generally predicted that global warming will stimulate primary production and lead to more carbon (C inputs to soil. However, many studies have found that soil C does not necessarily increase with increased plant litter input. Precipitation has increased in arid central Asia, and is predicted to increase more, so we tested the effects of adding fresh organic matter (FOM and water on soil C sequestration in an arid region in northwest China. The results suggested that added FOM quickly decomposed and had minor effects on the soil organic carbon (SOC pool to a depth of 30 cm. Both FOM and water addition had significant effects on the soil microbial biomass. The soil microbial biomass increased with added FOM, reached a maximum, and then declined as the FOM decomposed. The FOM had a more significant stimulating effect on microbial biomass with water addition. Under the soil moisture ranges used in this experiment (21.0%-29.7%, FOM input was more important than water addition in the soil C mineralization process. We concluded that short-term FOM input into the belowground soil and water addition do not affect the SOC pool in shrubland in an arid region.

  4. Regional amplification of projected changes in extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil moisture-temperature feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, M. M.; Orth, R.; Cheruy, F.; Hagemann, S.; Lorenz, R.; Hurk, B. J. J. M.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2017-02-01

    Regional hot extremes are projected to increase more strongly than global mean temperature, with substantially larger changes than 2°C even if global warming is limited to this level. We investigate the role of soil moisture-temperature feedbacks for this response based on multimodel experiments for the 21st century with either interactive or fixed (late 20th century mean seasonal cycle) soil moisture. We analyze changes in the hottest days in each year in both sets of experiments, relate them to the global mean temperature increase, and investigate processes leading to these changes. We find that soil moisture-temperature feedbacks significantly contribute to the amplified warming of the hottest days compared to that of global mean temperature. This contribution reaches more than 70% in Central Europe and Central North America. Soil moisture trends are more important for this response than short-term soil moisture variability. These results are relevant for reducing uncertainties in regional temperature projections.

  5. Model testing on rainfall-induced landslide of loose soil in Wenchuan earthquake region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the formation process of rainfall-induced landslide for slopes composed of loose soil in the Wenchuan earthquake region. Experimental investigations have been performed on the landslide's formation and the variation of the controlling soil parameters under various artificial rainfall conditions. The landslide triggering mechanisms can be described in the following way. Firstly, the large porosity of the loose soil facilitated the infiltration of water, which increased the pore water pressure and reduced the shear strength of the soil significantly. In addition, the rainfalls probably caused the concentration of finer particles at a certain depth of the valley slopes. This concentration within the soil increased the pore water pressure significantly, and consequently reduced both the porosity ratio and permeability. Therefore, when the pore water pressure reached a critical state, the effective shear strength of the soil diminished, inducing the landslide's formation.

  6. SOIL QUALITY AND YIELD OF PINUS TAEDA IN THE PLANALTO CATARINENSE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedinara Arruda Santana Morales

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In forest areas, the continual use of the soil alters its physical attributes and deteriorates its quality, in consequence of the traffic of machines used in forest operations, resulting in lower yields of crops. The relationship between soil quality at different sites and the production of Pinus taeda was evaluated in soils of the Planalto Catarinense region. Four farms were used, with two sites on each farm, chosen for the soil type and yield of the forest. The soil morphology was described and samples were collected in each pedogenetic horizon for physical and chemical analyses. Great variation exists in the physical attributes of the profiles, especially in the sequence and thickness of the horizons. Compaction was verified in the surface layer of the shallow profiles, evidenced by the higher bulk density and, or, soil resistance to penetration. In these profiles, the yield was reduced by between 14 and 36%, compared to the deeper profiles with a smaller degree of compaction.

  7. [Prediction of regional soil quality based on mutual information theory integrated with decision tree algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fen-Fang; Wang, Ke; Yang, Ning; Yan, Shi-Guang; Zheng, Xin-Yu

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, some main factors such as soil type, land use pattern, lithology type, topography, road, and industry type that affect soil quality were used to precisely obtain the spatial distribution characteristics of regional soil quality, mutual information theory was adopted to select the main environmental factors, and decision tree algorithm See 5.0 was applied to predict the grade of regional soil quality. The main factors affecting regional soil quality were soil type, land use, lithology type, distance to town, distance to water area, altitude, distance to road, and distance to industrial land. The prediction accuracy of the decision tree model with the variables selected by mutual information was obviously higher than that of the model with all variables, and, for the former model, whether of decision tree or of decision rule, its prediction accuracy was all higher than 80%. Based on the continuous and categorical data, the method of mutual information theory integrated with decision tree could not only reduce the number of input parameters for decision tree algorithm, but also predict and assess regional soil quality effectively.

  8. Distribution and mobility of mercury in soils of a gold mining region, Cuyuni river basin, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Francés, F; García-Sánchez, A; Alonso-Rojo, P; Contreras, F; Adams, M

    2011-04-01

    An extensive and remote gold mining region located in the East of Venezuela has been studied with the aim of assessing the distribution and mobility of mercury in soil and the level of Hg pollution at artisanal gold mining sites. To do so, soils and pond sediments were sampled at sites not subject to anthropological influence, as well as in areas affected by gold mining activities. Total Hg in regionally distributed soils ranged between 0.02 mg kg(-1) and 0.40 mg kg(-1), with a median value of 0.11 mg kg(-1), which is slightly higher than soil Hg worldwide, possibly indicating long-term atmospheric input or more recent local atmospheric input, in addition to minor lithogenic sources. A reference Hg concentration of 0.33 mg kg(-1) is proposed for the detection of mining affected soils in this region. Critical total Hg concentrations were found in the surrounding soils of pollutant sources, such as milling-amalgamation sites, where soil Hg contents ranged from 0.16 mg kg(-1) to 542 mg kg(-1) with an average of 26.89 mg kg(-1), which also showed high levels of elemental Hg, but quite low soluble+exchangeable Hg fraction (0.02-4.90 mg kg(-1)), suggesting low Hg soil mobility and bioavailability, as confirmed by soil column leaching tests. The vertical distribution of Hg through the soil profiles, as well as variations in soil Hg contents with distance from the pollution source, and Hg in pond mining sediments were also analysed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Soils of The Irkutsk Region, Agriculture Land Funds and Quality Of Soils. Chapter 3. Development of Genesis, Geography and Agrochemical Properties of Soils Studies at Experimental Stations, Higher Education Institutions and Scientific Research Institutions of Irkutsk (in the 20s-80s of XX Century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.T. Kolesnichenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this monograph, based on many years of research by the author, systematization and generalization of soil and cartographic materials of the Siberian Institute of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, as well as the use of a large number of literary and fund sources, the characteristics of soil formation and soil cover in the Irkutsk region are given. It is shown that, due to the great extent of the territory of the region from north to south and from west to east, the heterogeneity of the relief, geological structure, climatic conditions and vegetation, the soil cover is characterized by a complex structure and a wide variety of soil types. Based on the latest research and modern ideas on the genesis of soils, a systematic description of the soils and their diagnostics is given, specific features of the temperature and water regimes of seasonally frozen soils, the structure of the soil profile, physical and chemical properties are reported, which inform the regional features of the soils forming here, determining the fertility of soils and Ways of their rational use in agricultural production. A new scheme for soil-geographical zoning of the territory of the Irkutsk region was developed, which was used as the basis for the soil map of the Irkutsk region at a scale of 1:1 500 000, published by the USSR in 1988. Areas of soil zones, sub-zones and districts were determined and the degree of their agricultural use was indicated. The calculations of the areas of the main types of soils along the soil zones, subareas and districts used in agriculture are given. The data contained in the monograph make it possible to assess the potential for further agricultural development of soils both in the southern regions of the region and in the north – in areas of new industrial construction and in the zone of the western section of the BAM. The work can serve as an explanatory note to the soil map of the Irkutsk region at a scale of 1: 1

  10. Regional soil erosion assessment based on a sample survey and geostatistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is one of the most significant environmental problems in China. From 2010 to 2012, the fourth national census for soil erosion sampled 32 364 PSUs (Primary Sampling Units, small watersheds with the areas of 0.2–3 km2. Land use and soil erosion controlling factors including rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length, slope steepness, biological practice, engineering practice, and tillage practice for the PSUs were surveyed, and the soil loss rate for each land use in the PSUs was estimated using an empirical model, the Chinese Soil Loss Equation (CSLE. Though the information collected from the sample units can be aggregated to estimate soil erosion conditions on a large scale; the problem of estimating soil erosion condition on a regional scale has not been addressed well. The aim of this study is to introduce a new model-based regional soil erosion assessment method combining a sample survey and geostatistics. We compared seven spatial interpolation models based on the bivariate penalized spline over triangulation (BPST method to generate a regional soil erosion assessment from the PSUs. Shaanxi Province (3116 PSUs in China was selected for the comparison and assessment as it is one of the areas with the most serious erosion problem. Ten-fold cross-validation based on the PSU data showed the model assisted by the land use, rainfall erosivity factor (R, soil erodibility factor (K, slope steepness factor (S, and slope length factor (L derived from a 1 : 10 000 topography map is the best one, with the model efficiency coefficient (ME being 0.75 and the MSE being 55.8 % of that for the model assisted by the land use alone. Among four erosion factors as the covariates, the S factor contributed the most information, followed by K and L factors, and R factor made almost no contribution to the spatial estimation of soil loss. The LS factor derived from 30 or 90 m Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

  11. Regional soil erosion assessment based on a sample survey and geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shuiqing; Zhu, Zhengyuan; Wang, Li; Liu, Baoyuan; Xie, Yun; Wang, Guannan; Li, Yishan

    2018-03-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most significant environmental problems in China. From 2010 to 2012, the fourth national census for soil erosion sampled 32 364 PSUs (Primary Sampling Units, small watersheds) with the areas of 0.2-3 km2. Land use and soil erosion controlling factors including rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length, slope steepness, biological practice, engineering practice, and tillage practice for the PSUs were surveyed, and the soil loss rate for each land use in the PSUs was estimated using an empirical model, the Chinese Soil Loss Equation (CSLE). Though the information collected from the sample units can be aggregated to estimate soil erosion conditions on a large scale; the problem of estimating soil erosion condition on a regional scale has not been addressed well. The aim of this study is to introduce a new model-based regional soil erosion assessment method combining a sample survey and geostatistics. We compared seven spatial interpolation models based on the bivariate penalized spline over triangulation (BPST) method to generate a regional soil erosion assessment from the PSUs. Shaanxi Province (3116 PSUs) in China was selected for the comparison and assessment as it is one of the areas with the most serious erosion problem. Ten-fold cross-validation based on the PSU data showed the model assisted by the land use, rainfall erosivity factor (R), soil erodibility factor (K), slope steepness factor (S), and slope length factor (L) derived from a 1 : 10 000 topography map is the best one, with the model efficiency coefficient (ME) being 0.75 and the MSE being 55.8 % of that for the model assisted by the land use alone. Among four erosion factors as the covariates, the S factor contributed the most information, followed by K and L factors, and R factor made almost no contribution to the spatial estimation of soil loss. The LS factor derived from 30 or 90 m Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) data

  12. Laser confocal microscope for analysis of 3013 inner container closure weld region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Rodriguez, M. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-26

    As part of the protocol to investigate the corrosion in the inner container closure weld region (ICCWR) a laser confocal microscope (LCM) was used to perform close visual examination of the surface and measurements of corrosion features on the surface. However, initial analysis of selected destructively evaluated (DE) containers using the LCM revealed several challenges for acquiring, processing and interpreting the data. These challenges include topography of the ICCWR sample, surface features, and the amount of surface area for collecting data at high magnification conditions. In FY17, the LCM parameters were investigated to identify the appropriate parameter values for data acquisition and identification of regions of interest. Using these parameter values, selected DE containers were analyzed to determine the extent of the ICCWR to be examined.

  13. Study of radioactive sr and Cs in soil and soil /plant system at Inshas region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, H.S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The radioactive fallout is considered one of the most major environmental problems that threats public health. The work presented in this thesis is carried out to investigate the level of radioactivity in different environmental samples of soils and vegetations collected from different locations around the NRC at Inshas area and the area nearby (about 30 km radius). Six different locations: Inshas, Shebeen, Abu-Zaabal, Al-Oboor in addition to two sites in the nuclear research center (old reactor and protection department sites) were chosen for the collection of the soil and plant samples. Most typical egyptian soils (sandy, sandyloam, clayey)from three different places (Al-Oboor, Abu-Zaabal, and Shebeen El-Kanatter) were selected for the experiments carried out under laboratory conditions. The plants investigated were grass, old trees and wheat. Cs 137 and Sr 90 were chosen to represent the most important long-lived radionuclides considering the human health, since these nuclides can enter human body via food chain and increase the radiation burden for many years. The following points are considered in this work: 1- Natural radionuclides concentration in different environmental samples of soil and plant especially (grasses and leaves of old trees) were determined using high resolution gamma-spectroscopic system (hyper-pure germanium detector). 2-Two groups of elements have been determined directly in two plant samples from each location (one grass, and the other old trees) together with their corresponding soils.3- Transfer factors (often used to describe the uptake of the radioisotope from soil to plant)of the log-lived radionuclides 137 Cs and 90 from soil to the wheat plant have been studied by radiotracer experiments .4- The sorption behavior of Cs and Sr radionuclides by the different soil types was investigated kinetically using batch techniques.

  14. Soil-structure interaction analysis of NPP containments: substructure and frequency domain methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venancio-Filho, F.; Almeida, M.C.F.; Ferreira, W.G.; De Barros, F.C.P.

    1997-01-01

    Substructure and frequency domain methods for soil-structure interaction are addressed in this paper. After a brief description of mathematical models for the soil and of excitation, the equations for dynamic soil-structure interaction are developed for a rigid surface foundation and for an embedded foundation. The equations for the frequency domain analysis of MDOF systems are provided. An example of soil-structure interaction analysis with frequency-dependent soil properties is given and examples of identification of foundation impedance functions and soil properties are presented. (orig.)

  15. Human polyomavirus JCV late leader peptide region contains important regulatory elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akan, Ilhan; Sariyer, Ilker Kudret; Biffi, Renato; Palermo, Victoria; Woolridge, Stefanie; White, Martyn K.; Amini, Shohreh; Khalili, Kamel; Safak, Mahmut

    2006-01-01

    Transcription is a complex process that relies on the cooperative interaction between sequence-specific factors and the basal transcription machinery. The strength of a promoter depends on upstream or downstream cis-acting DNA elements, which bind transcription factors. In this study, we investigated whether DNA elements located downstream of the JCV late promoter, encompassing the late leader peptide region, which encodes agnoprotein, play regulatory roles in the JCV lytic cycle. For this purpose, the entire coding region of the leader peptide was deleted and the functional consequences of this deletion were analyzed. We found that viral gene expression and replication were drastically reduced. Gene expression also decreased from a leader peptide point mutant but to a lesser extent. This suggested that the leader peptide region of JCV might contain critical cis-acting DNA elements to which transcription factors bind and regulate viral gene expression and replication. We analyzed the entire coding region of the late leader peptide by a footprinting assay and identified three major regions (region I, II and III) that were protected by nuclear proteins. Further investigation of the first two protected regions by band shift assays revealed a new band that appeared in new infection cycles, suggesting that viral infection induces new factors that interact with the late leader peptide region of JCV. Analysis of the effect of the leader peptide region on the promoter activity of JCV by transfection assays demonstrated that this region has a positive and negative effect on the large T antigen (LT-Ag)-mediated activation of the viral early and late promoters, respectively. Furthermore, a partial deletion analysis of the leader peptide region encompassing the protected regions I and II demonstrated a significant down-regulation of viral gene expression and replication. More importantly, these results were similar to that obtained from a complete deletion of the late leader

  16. Matching soil grid unit resolutions with polygon unit scales for DNDC modelling of regional SOC pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. D.; Yu, D. S.; Ni, Y. L.; Zhang, L. M.; Shi, X. Z.

    2015-03-01

    Matching soil grid unit resolution with polygon unit map scale is important to minimize uncertainty of regional soil organic carbon (SOC) pool simulation as their strong influences on the uncertainty. A series of soil grid units at varying cell sizes were derived from soil polygon units at the six map scales of 1:50 000 (C5), 1:200 000 (D2), 1:500 000 (P5), 1:1 000 000 (N1), 1:4 000 000 (N4) and 1:14 000 000 (N14), respectively, in the Tai lake region of China. Both format soil units were used for regional SOC pool simulation with DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) process-based model, which runs span the time period 1982 to 2000 at the six map scales, respectively. Four indices, soil type number (STN) and area (AREA), average SOC density (ASOCD) and total SOC stocks (SOCS) of surface paddy soils simulated with the DNDC, were attributed from all these soil polygon and grid units, respectively. Subjecting to the four index values (IV) from the parent polygon units, the variation of an index value (VIV, %) from the grid units was used to assess its dataset accuracy and redundancy, which reflects uncertainty in the simulation of SOC. Optimal soil grid unit resolutions were generated and suggested for the DNDC simulation of regional SOC pool, matching with soil polygon units map scales, respectively. With the optimal raster resolution the soil grid units dataset can hold the same accuracy as its parent polygon units dataset without any redundancy, when VIV indices was assumed as criteria to the assessment. An quadratic curve regression model y = -8.0 × 10-6x2 + 0.228x + 0.211 (R2 = 0.9994, p < 0.05) was revealed, which describes the relationship between optimal soil grid unit resolution (y, km) and soil polygon unit map scale (1:x). The knowledge may serve for grid partitioning of regions focused on the investigation and simulation of SOC pool dynamics at certain map scale.

  17. Inversion of Farmland Soil Moisture in Large Region Based on Modified Vegetation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. X.; Yu, B. S.; Zhang, G. Z.; Zhao, G. C.; He, S. D.; Luo, W. R.; Zhang, C. C.

    2018-04-01

    Soil moisture is an important parameter for agricultural production. Efficient and accurate monitoring of soil moisture is an important link to ensure the safety of agricultural production. Remote sensing technology has been widely used in agricultural moisture monitoring because of its timeliness, cyclicality, dynamic tracking of changes in things, easy access to data, and extensive monitoring. Vegetation index and surface temperature are important parameters for moisture monitoring. Based on NDVI, this paper introduces land surface temperature and average temperature for optimization. This article takes the soil moisture in winter wheat growing area in Henan Province as the research object, dividing Henan Province into three main regions producing winter wheat and dividing the growth period of winter wheat into the early, middle and late stages on the basis of phenological characteristics and regional characteristics. Introducing appropriate correction factor during the corresponding growth period of winter wheat, correcting the vegetation index in the corresponding area, this paper establishes regression models of soil moisture on NDVI and soil moisture on modified NDVI based on correlation analysis and compare models. It shows that modified NDVI is more suitable as a indicator of soil moisture because of the better correlation between soil moisture and modified NDVI and the higher prediction accuracy of the regression model of soil moisture on modified NDVI. The research in this paper has certain reference value for winter wheat farmland management and decision-making.

  18. Regional amplification of projected changes in extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil moisture-temperature feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Martha Marie; Orth, René; Cheruy, Frederique; Hagemann, Stefan; Lorenz, Ruth; van den Hurk, Bart; Seneviratne, Sonia Isabelle

    2017-04-01

    Regional hot extremes are projected to increase more strongly than global mean temperature, with substantially larger changes than 2°C even if global warming is limited to this level. We investigate here the role of soil moisture-temperature feedbacks for this response based on multi-model experiments for the 21st century with either interactive or fixed (late 20th century mean seasonal cycle) soil moisture. We analyze changes in the hottest days in each year in both sets of experiments, relate them to the global mean temperature increase, and investigate physical processes leading to these changes. We find that soil moisture-temperature feedbacks significantly contribute to the amplified warming of hottest days compared to that of global mean temperature. This contribution reaches more than 70% in Central Europe and Central North America and between 42%-52% in Amazonia, Northern Australia and Southern Africa. Soil moisture trends (multi-decadal soil moisture variability) are more important for this response than short-term (e.g. seasonal, interannual) soil moisture variability. These results are relevant for reducing uncertainties in regional temperature projections. Vogel, M.M. et al.,2017. Regional amplification of projected changes in extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil moisture-temperature feedbacks. Geophysical Research Letters, accepted.

  19. [Impact of industrial pollution on emission of carbon dioxide by soils in the Kola Subarctic Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptsik, G N; Kadulin, M S; Zakharova, A I

    2015-01-01

    Soil emission of carbon dioxide, the key component of carbon cycle and the characteristic of soil biological activity, has been studied in background and polluted ecosystems in the Kola subarctic, the large industrial region of Russia. Long-term air pollution by emissions of "Pechenganikel" smelter, the largest source of sulphur dioxide and heavy metals in Northern Europe, has caused the technogenic digression of forest ecosystems. As a result of the digression, the tree layer was destructed, the number of plant species was diminished, the activity of soil biota was weakened, the soils were polluted and exhausted, biogeochemical cycles of elements were disturbed and productivity of ecosystems shrunk. Field investigations revealed the decrease of the in.situ soil respiration in average from 190-230 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in background pine forests to 130-160, 100, and 20 mg C-CO2/m2.per h at the stages of pine defoliation, sparse pine forest and technogenic barrens of the technogenic succession, respectively. The soil respira- tion in birch forests was more intense than in pine forests and tended to decrease from about 290 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in background forests to 210-220 and 170-190 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in defoliating forests and technogenic sparse forests, respectively. Due to high spatial variability of soil respiration in both pine and birch forests significant differences from the background level were found only in technogenic sparse forests and barrens. Soil respiration represents total production of carbon dioxide by plant roots and soil microorganisms. The decrease in share of root respiration in the total soil respiration with the rise of pollution from 38-57% in background forests up to zero in technogenic barrens has been revealed for the first time for this region. This indicates that plants seem to be more sensitive to pollution as compared to relatively resistant microorganisms. Soil respiration and the contribution of roots to the total respiration

  20. Soil water movement in the unsaturated zone of an inland arid region: Mulched drip irrigation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Zhou, Tiantian

    2018-04-01

    Agricultural irrigation with trans-basin water diversion can effectively relieve the water paucity in arid and semi-arid regions, however, this may be accompanied by eco-environmental problems (e.g., saline soils, rising groundwater levels, water quality problems). The mechanism of soil water movement under irrigation in the unsaturated zone of arid regions is a key scientific problem that should be solved in order to evaluate agricultural water management and further improve current irrigation practices. This study investigated the impact of drip irrigation on soil water movement in the unsaturated zone of a cotton field in an inland arid region (the Karamay Agricultural Development Area), northwest China. Combining in situ observational physical data with temporal variation in stable isotopic compositions of soil water, we described the soil water flow system and mechanism in severe (Plot 1) and mild (Plot 2) saline-alkali cotton fields. The infiltration depths are 0-150 cm for both plots. Drip irrigation scheduling makes no significant contribution to local groundwater recharge, however, groundwater can move into the unsaturated zone through capillary rise during cotton flowering and boll periods. Plot 2 is less prone to having secondary soil salinization than Plot 1 due to the existence of a middle layer (approximately 100 cm thick), which elongated the distance between the root zone and aquifer. Rise in the water table (approximately 60 cm for Plot 1 and 50 cm for Plot 2) could be caused by lateral groundwater flow instead of vertical infiltration. We estimated the soil water storage changes in the unsaturated zone and proposed a conceptual model for deciphering the movement process of soil water. This study provides a scientific basis for determining the rise of groundwater levels and potential development of saline soils and improving agricultural water management in arid regions.

  1. Vegetation-induced turbulence influencing evapotranspiration-soil moisture coupling: Implications for semiarid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, E.; Kirchner, J. W.; Entekhabi, D.

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between soil moisture and evapotranspiration (ET) fluxes is an important component of land-atmosphere interactions controlling hydrology-climate feedback processes. Important as this relationship is, it remains empirical and physical mechanisms governing its dynamics are insufficiently studied. This is particularly of importance for semiarid regions (currently comprising about half of the Earth's land surface) where the shallow surface soil layer is the primary source of ET and direct evaporation from bare soil is likely a large component of the total flux. Hence, ET-soil moisture coupling in these regions is hypothesized to be strongly influenced by soil evaporation and associated mechanisms. Motivated by recent progress in mechanistic modeling of localized heat and mass exchange rates from bare soil surfaces covered by cylindrical bluff-body elements, we developed a physically based ET model explicitly incorporating coupled impacts of soil moisture and vegetation-induced turbulence in the near-surface region. Model predictions of ET and its partitioning were in good agreement with measured data and suggest that the strength and nature of ET-soil moisture interactions in sparsely vegetated areas are strongly influenced by aerodynamic (rather than radiative) forcing namely wind speed and near-surface turbulence generation as a function of vegetation type and cover fraction. The results demonstrated that the relationship between ET and soil moisture varies from a nonlinear function (the dual regime behavior) to a single moisture-limited regime (linear relationship) by increasing wind velocity and enhancing turbulence generation in the near-surface region (small-scale woody vegetation species of low cover fraction). Potential benefits of this study for improving accuracy and predictive capabilities of remote sensing techniques when applied to semiarid environments will also be discussed.

  2. Technical Efficiency Analysis of Container Terminals in the Middle Eastern Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Sharaf Almawsheki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite an increasing number of studies on the efficiency of container terminals, their focus has mostly been on advanced and emerging markets. There are limited studies on container terminals in developing countries such as those of the Middle Eastern region, which are located in a critical geographic position in the international maritime route between the East and the West. Information on their potential for development relative to other terminals worldwide is thus not readily available. This study aims to evaluate the technical efficiency of 19 container terminals in the Middle Eastern region. The DEA approach is used to measure technical efficiency, and slack variable analysis identifies potential areas of improvement for inefficient terminals. The results show that the Jebel Ali, Salalah and Beirut container terminals are the most efficient terminals in the region, and that the least efficient is the terminal in Aden. The results provide valuable information for terminal managers, helping to develop resource utilisation for steady development in operational efficiency.

  3. Studies of phosphorus-containing fertilizer uptake in soils by 32P isotope labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueleky, Gyoergy; Osztoics, Andrasne; Papne Kranitz, Erzsebet

    1983-01-01

    Breeding experiments were carried out with rye-grass (Lolium perenne L.) on two soil types to determine the plant uptake of phosphorus from naturally occuring element and from that added to the soil by superphosphate fertilizers. 32 P isotope labelling and radiometric measuring method were applied. In addition to the determination of phosphorus uptake, the phosphorus contents of the soil from its natural stock and from the fertilizer for both soil types can be determined by this method. (A.L.)

  4. Structural-functional concept of thermophysical condition of the soils of Altai Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Makarychev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to reveal the quantitative interrelations between the thermophysical indices (thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity and physical soil properties such as; moisture content, density and detachability. According to the research targets, the soil samples including different genesis and soil particle size distribution were taken in different soil and climatic zones of the Altai Region. These were the sod-podzolic sandy loam soils of the dry steppes, chernozems and chestnut soils of light and medium loamy particle size distribution of temperately arid zone, and the heavy loamy gray forest soils and clayey chernozems of the Altai foothills and low mountains. The samples of undisturbed structures in different soil horizons were studied. To measure the thermophysical properties in laboratory setting, a pulse method of a two-dimensional heat source was used. The method takes into account the patterns of temperature field equalization in an unbounded medium after the heat source termination. A feature of this process is the occurrence of peak temperature at the investigated point of the medium at a given instant. The knowledge of this temperature and time enables to determine the soil thermal capacity, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity.

  5. [Soil infiltration capacity under different vegetations in southern Ningxia Loess hilly region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong-Hui; Zhao, Shi-Wei; Lei, Ting-Wu; Liu, Han

    2008-05-01

    A new apparatus for measuring the run off-on-out under simulated rainfall conditions was used to study the soil infiltration capacity under different rainfall intensities and vegetations in loess hilly region of southern Ningxia, with the relationships between soil water-stable aggregate content and soil stable infiltration rate under different vegetations analyzed. The results showed that the regression equations between rainfall duration and soil infiltration rate under different vegetations all followed y = a + be(-cx), with R2 ranged from 0.9678 to 0.9969. With the increase of rainfall intensity, the soil stable infiltration rate on slope cropland decreased, while that on Medicago lupulina land, natural grassland, and Caragana korshinskii land increased. Under the rainfall intensity of 20 mm h(-1), the rainfall infiltration translation rate (RITR) was decreased in the order of M. lupulina land > slope cropland > natural grassland > C. korshinskii land; while under the rainfall intensity of 40 mm h(-1) and 56 mm h(-1), the RITR was in the sequence of M. lupulina land > natural grassland > slope cropland > C. korshinskii land, and decreased with increasing rainfall intensity. After the reversion of cropland to grassland and forest land, and with the increase of re-vegetation, the amount of >0.25 mm soil aggregates increased, and soil infiltration capacity improved. The revegetation in study area effectively improved soil structure and soil infiltration capacity, and enhanced the utilization potential of rainfall on slope.

  6. Moving Forward on Remote Sensing of Soil Salinity at Regional Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Scudiero

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity undermines global agriculture by reducing crop yield and impairing soil quality. Irrigation management can help control salinity levels within the soil root-zone. To best manage water and soil resources, accurate regional-scale inventories of soil salinity are needed. The past decade has seen several successful applications of soil salinity remote sensing. Two salinity remote sensing approaches exist: direct assessment based on analysis of surface soil reflectance (the most popular approach, and indirect assessment of root-zone (e.g., 0-1 m soil salinity based on analysis of crop canopy reflectance. In this perspective paper, we call on researchers and funding agencies to pay greater attention to the indirect approach because it is better suited for surveying agriculturally important lands. A joint effort between agricultural producers, irrigation specialists, environmental scientists, and policy makers is needed to better manage saline agricultural soils, especially because of projected future water scarcity in arid and semi-arid irrigated areas. The remote sensing community should focus on providing the best tools for mapping and monitoring salinity in such areas, which are of vital relevance to global food production.

  7. Soil modern evolution impact on the C fluxes in Chernozems at the Middle Volga Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazanov, Sabir; Yashin, Ivan; Atenbekov, Ramiz; Vasenev, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    There are results of long-term stationary field research on the aridization impact on the carbon fluxes in the topsoil of Chernozemic soils in the representative agricultural and native forest-steppe landscapes in conditions of the Middle Volga region of Russia (educational-experimental farm "Mummovskoe", Saratov region). Especial attention is dedicated to the water-soluble organic substances (WSOS) which are better available for soil microorganisms that utilize them, enhancing CO2 emission. Dominated in the Middle-Volga natural and agro-landscapes soil conditions are unfavorable for mobile humic acid production and accumulation: organic acids and polyphenols gradually mobilized into solution from root excretions and crop residues or woody plant litter are quickly neutralized by calcium, magnesium or sodium ions in topsoil. Most arable Chernozems of the Middle-Volga region are actively degraded due to both topsoil CO2 emission and water-soluble organic substances fluxes in form of sodium and calcium humates and fulvates, as evidenced by sorption lysimetry data on the WSOS fluxes in 15-21 g/m2 over the vegetation period. Additional researches are necessary to evaluate the ratio between soil organic carbon losses through soil erosion processes, topsoil CO2 emission and WSOS profile and lateral fluxes in conditions of different land-use practice and climate conditions to develop the modern climate-smart farming systems in the Middle-Volga region agrolandscapes with potentially very prolific Chernozemic soils.

  8. Effects of afforestation on soil structure formation in two climatic regions of the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. Podrazsky; O. Holubik; J. Vopravil; T. Khel; W. K. Moser; H. Prknova

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of agricultural land afforestation on soil characteristics. Two sites in two regions of the Czech Republic were evaluated, at lower as well as higher submountain elevations: in the regions of the Orlicke hory Mts. and Kostelec nad Cernymi lesy, afforested, arable and pasture lands were compared for basic chemical and...

  9. Soil respiration dynamics in the middle taiga of Central Siberia region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhnykina, Anastasia; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Polosukhina, Daria

    2017-04-01

    A large amount of carbon in soil is released to the atmosphere through soil respiration, which is the main pathway of transferring carbon from terrestrial ecosystems (Comstedt et al., 2011). Considering that boreal forests is a large terrestrial sink (Tans et al., 1990) and represent approximately 11 % of the Earth's total land area (Gower et al., 2001), even a small change in soil respiration could significantly intensify - or mitigate - current atmospheric increases of CO2, with potential feedbacks to climate change. The objectives of the present study are: (a) to study the dynamic of CO2 emission from the soil surface during summer season (from May to October); (b) to identify the reaction of soil respiration to different amount of precipitation as the main limiting factor in the region. The research was located in the pine forests in Central Siberia (60°N, 90°E), Russia. Sample plots were represented by the lichen pine forest, moss pine forest, mixed forest and anthropogenic destroyed area. We used the automated soil CO2 flux system based on the infrared gas analyzer -LI-8100 for measuring the soil efflux. Soil temperature was measured with Soil Temperature Probe Type E in three depths -5, 10, 15 cm. Volumetric soil moisture was measured with Theta Probe Model ML2. The presence and type of ground cover substantially affects the value of soil respiration fluxes. The carbon dioxide emission from the soil surface averaged 5.4 ±2.3 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. The destroyed area without plant cover demonstrated the lowest soil respiration (0.1-5.6 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). The lowest soil respiration among forested areas was observed in the feathermoss pine forest. The lichen pine forest was characterized by the intermediate values of soil respiration. The maximum soil respiration values and seasonal fluctuations were obtained in the mixed forest (2.3-29.3 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). The analysis of relation between soil CO2 efflux and climatic conditions identified the parameters with

  10. Determination of 137Cs activities in soil samples from east and south Marmara region, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Oe.; Belivermis, M.; Cotuk, Y.; Coskun, M.; Cayir, A.; Kuecer, R.

    2006-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 1 37Cs, 4 0K and physico-chemical parameters of soil samples collected from 99 sampling stations in the east and south of Marmara Region of Turkey were determined. The study region was divided into 20 x 20 km grids and soil samples collected randomly in each square from 0-5 cm surface layer. Activities were measured by means of multichannel gamma analyser provided with high purity germanium detector. Relations among 1 37Cs concentrations and physico-chemical parameters of soils and climatic factors of the region were evaluated. Arc View GIS version 3.1 was used mapping of study area. Distribution of radionuclide concentrations in the region illustrated with contour maps using Surfer 8.0 for Windows. The range of activity concentrations of 1 37Cs and 4 0K were measured to be 0.92-153.72 and 69.24-1085.57 Bq/kg respectively

  11. Soil contamination in the impact zone of mining enterprises in the Bashkir Transural region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opekunova, M. G.; Somov, V. V.; Papyan, E. E.

    2017-06-01

    The results of long-term studies of the contents of bulk forms of metals (Cu, Zn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Mn, Co, and Cd) and their mobile compounds in soils of background and human-disturbed areas within the Krasnoural'sk-Sibai-Gai copper-zinc and Baimak-Buribai mixed copper mineralization zones in the Bashkir Transural region are discussed. It is shown that soils of the region are characterized by abnormally high natural total contents of heavy metals (HMs) typomorphic for ore mineralization: Cu, Zn, and Fe for the Sibai province and Cu, Zn, and Ni for the Baimak province. In the case of a shallow depth of the ores, the concentrations of HMs in the soils are close to or higher than the tentative permissible concentration values. The concentrations of mobile HM compounds in soils of background areas and their percentage in the total HM content strongly vary from year to year in dependence on weather conditions, position in the soil catenas, species composition of vegetation, and distance from the source of technogenic contamination. The high natural variability in the content of mobile HM compounds in soils complicates the reliable determination of the regional geochemical background and necessitates annual estimation of background parameters for the purposes of the ecological monitoring of soils. The bulk content of Cu and Zn content in soils near mining enterprises exceeds the regional geochemical background values by 2-12 times and the tentative permissible concentrations of these metals by 2-4 times. Anthropogenic contamination results in a sharp rise in the content of mobile HM compounds in soils. Their highest concentrations exceed the maximum permissible concentrations by 26 times for Cu, 18 times for Zn, and 2 times for Pb. Soil contamination in the impact zone of mining enterprises is extremely dangerous or dangerous. However, because of the high temporal variability in the migration and accumulation of HMs in the soils, the recent decline in the ore mining

  12. Allegheny County Soil Type Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains soil type and soil classification, by area. Additional info at: http://mcdc.cas.psu.edu/datawiz.htm;...

  13. 7Be in soil, deposited dust and atmospheric air and its using to infer soil erosion along Alexandria region, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, I H; Abdel-Halim, A A

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the radioactivity behavior of 7 Be in surface soil, airborne and deposited dust along Alexandria region in Egypt. The results obtained were used to predict scavenging processes of 7 Be from surface soil to infer soil erosion and land vulnerable to accelerated sea-level rise. The areal activity concentrations of 7 Be in surface soil were investigated in 30 undisturbed sites and 7 Be inventories were determined via deposited dust in 10 locations. Results of the former were found to be ranged from 78 Bq/m 2 to 104 Bq/m 2 . High levels were observed in western sites associated with high dust deposition rate. On the other hand, low levels were found in the eastern sites, those may be attributed to scavenging processes such as land erosion toward the direction to the sea. The effective removal rates of 7 Be were calculated using the box-model, showing a broad special trend of inventories generally decreasing eastwards. The scavenging rates were ranged between 3.13 yr -1 in western sites to 5.34 yr -1 in eastern ones which denote that the east of the city suffers from rapid soil erosion. The airborne 7 Be was monthly monitored along the period from October 2014 to September 2015 through one site located at the mid of the city. The results revealed lower values in winter and autumn than in summer and spring ranged between 6.2 mBq/m 3 and 10.5 mBq/m 3 . These levels are comparable with that in other world regions and the seasonal variations are associated with the prevailing climatic conditions in Alexandria region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemical weathering and loess inputs to soils in New Zealand's Wairarapa region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukens, C. E.; Norton, K. P.

    2017-12-01

    Geochemical mass-balance approaches are commonly used in soils to evaluate patterns in chemical weathering. In conjuction with cosmogenic nuclide measurements of total denudation or soil production, mass-balance approaches have been used to constrain rates of chemical weathering across a variety of landscapes. Here we present geochemical data from a series of soil pits in the Wairarapa region of New Zealand's North Island, where rates of soil production equal rates of total denudation measured using 10Be at sites nearby (i.e., the landscape is in steady state). Soil density increases with depth, consistent with steady weathering over the average soil residence time. However, soil geochemistry indicates very little chemical weathering has occurred, and immobile elements (Zr, Ti, and V) are depleted in soils relative to bedrock. This is contrary to the expected observation, wherein immobile elements should be enriched in soils relative to parent bedrock as weathered mobile solutes are progressively removed from soil. Our geochemical measurements suggest contributions from an exernal source, which has a different chemical composition than the underlying bedrock. We hypothesize that loess constitutes a substantial influx of additional material, and use a mixing model to predict geochemical patterns within soil columns. We evaluate the relative contributions of several likely loess sources, including tephra from the nearby Taupo Volcanic Center, local loess deposits formed during glacial-interglacial transitions, and far-travelling Australian dust. Using an established mass-balance approach with multiple immobile elements, we calculate the fraction of mass in soils contributed by loess to be as much as 25%. Combined with 10Be-derived estimates of soil production, we calculate average loess fluxes up to 320 t/km2/yr, which are consistent with previous estimates of loess acculumation over the late Holocene. Accounting for loess input, we find that chemical weathering

  15. Potential use of fly ash to soil treatment in the Morava region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulíková, Lucia; Kresta, František; Rochovanský, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Soil treatment by binders is a standard technology and leads to optimal utilization of excavated soils in road constructions. Soil treatment is controlled in the Czech Republic by EN 14227-15 and Technical Requirement TP 94. Soil treatment using fly ash has not been performed in the Czech Republic, although there is a sufficient normative base. Fly ash produced by burning of hard coal in the Moravian region was tested as a potential binder. Fly ash samples were mixed with loess loams (CI). Tested siliceous fly ash of class F (ASTM C618) did not showed hydraulic properties but it showed positive effect on reducing maximum dry density of mixtures, increasing the IBI value (Immediate bearing index) and decreasing tendency to volume changes when the amount of fly ash was increased. The results of laboratory tests demonstrate the possibility of using fly ashes as a binder for soil treatment.

  16. Classification and Use of Natural and Anthropogenic Soils by Indigenous Communities of the Upper Amazon Region of Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Peña-Venegas, C.P.; Stomph, T.J.; Verschoor, G.; Echeverri, J.A.; Struik, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Outsiders often oversimplify Amazon soil use by assuming that abundantly available natural soils are poorly suited to agriculture and that sporadic anthropogenic soils are agriculturally productive. Local perceptions about the potentials and limitations of soils probably differ, but information on these perceptions is scarce. We therefore examined how four indigenous communities in the Middle Caquetá River region in the Colombian Amazon classify and use natural and anthropogenic soils. The st...

  17. Soils of Mountainous Forests and Their Transformation under the Impact of Fires in Baikal Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnoshchekov, Yu. N.

    2018-04-01

    Data on postpyrogenic dynamics of soils under mountainous taiga cedar ( Pinus sibirica) and pine ( Pinus sylvestris) forests and subtaiga-forest-steppe pine ( Pinus sylvestris) forests in the Baikal region are analyzed. Ground litter-humus fires predominating in this region transform the upper diagnostic organic soil horizons and lead to the formation of new pyrogenic organic horizons (Opir). Adverse effects of ground fires on the stock, fractional composition, and water-physical properties of forest litters are shown. Some quantitative parameters of the liquid and solid surface runoff in burnt areas related to the slope gradient, fire intensity, and the time passed after the fire are presented. Pyrogenic destruction of forest ecosystems inevitably induces the degradation of mountainous soils, whose restoration after fires takes tens of years. The products of soil erosion from the burnt out areas complicate the current situation with the pollution of coastal waters of Lake Baikal.

  18. Arsenic content of soils from three regions of Santa Catarina State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Cristina de Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The determination of trace elements is necessary in order to monitor their entry into the soil system and to remediate contaminated areas. The purpose of this study was to determine the natural content of arsenic (As in soils of three regions of Santa Catarina State (SC: the Southern Plateau, the Metropolitan area and the Southern Coast. Arsenic content was obtained after digestion in a microwave oven, following the USEPA 3051 A protocol and quantification was made by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization. The results were analyzed by the Scott-Knott test at a 5% significance level. Soil attributes that best correlated with arsenic content were clay, organic carbon, cation exchange capacity and Al and Fe oxides. The arsenic levels are related to the source material and the slope of regional soils.

  19. GIS and geotechnical mapping of expansive soil in Toshka region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Labib

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a subsurface site investigation that was performed to characterize different soil and rock formations along Sheikh Zayed canal with particular emphasis on the swelling characteristics of the clays in that area. Site-specific empirical correlations were developed to predict the clay swelling potential and pressure from simple and economic laboratory test results. The data were input into a Geographic Information System (GIS framework to provide interactive maps that show the spatial distribution of the variables and identify their characteristics. These maps are then used to easily identify the values of swelling pressure/potential at various locations. This research provides a tool that is based on simple index tests that can be used to provide data that otherwise would require elaborate and costly investigations; the GIS framework allows storing, retrieving and updating these data easily to assist taking supported decisions dynamically.

  20. Assessing the potential water quality hazards caused by disposal of radium-containing waste solids by soil blending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, G.F.; Jones, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Soil blending has recently been proposed as a method for disposal of radium-containing waste solids. This approach is basically the dilution of the waste solids with ''soils'' in order to reduce the concentration of radium-226 to designated levels. While in principle this approach may be satisfactory, in practice appropriate environmental and public health protection will be difficult to achieve with this approach because of the potential for leaching of radium-226 which could contaminate surface and groundwaters, increasing the cancer risk of those using the waters. This paper reviews the factors that should be considered in developing a technically valid program for the disposal of radium-containing waste solids by soil blending that is protective of public health and the environment

  1. PROTOCOL FOR EXAMINATION OF THE INNER CAN CLOSURE WELD REGION FOR 3013 DE CONTAINERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.

    2014-09-16

    The protocol for the examination of the inner can closure weld region (ICCWR) for 3013 DE containers is presented within this report. The protocol includes sectioning of the inner can lid section, documenting the surface condition, measuring corrosion parameters, and storing of samples. This protocol may change as the investigation develops since findings may necessitate additional steps be taken. Details of the previous analyses, which formed the basis for this protocol, are also presented.

  2. Radioachemical analysis of fission products contained in the soil collected at Tokyo, May 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Y; Saruhashi, K; Kigoshi, K

    1955-01-01

    Soil (300 g.) was leached with 50 ml. 6N H01 on a steam bath and the filtered solution evaporated to dryness. The residue was dissolved in distilled water and an aliquot of the solution was subjected to chemical analyses, in which the sample was dried on a stainless steel planchet and its ..beta..-rays were counted. Group separation of the extract was made after addition of carriers of Ce, Ba, and Sr. Precipitation with H/sub 2/S showed very weak activity which was only a few % of the total. The hydroxide group contained an appreciable amount of radionuclides, but most of them were insoluble when changed into fluoride forms. The filtrate of fluoride solution also showed a weak activity. The radionuclides obtained in the carbonate fraction were separated into Ca, Sr, and Ba and the Ca fraction was separated by concentrated HNO/sub 3/ and the Ba fraction obtained by precipitation as chromate. Results show radionuclides of rare earths = 9 x 10/sup -13/ curie/g., /sup 89/Sr = 3 x 10/sup -13/ curie/g, and Ba/sup 140/ = 7 x 10/sup -13/ curie/g.

  3. Effects of Recent Regional Soil Moisture Variability on Global Net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L. A.; Madani, N.; Kimball, J. S.; Reichle, R. H.; Colliander, A.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture exerts a major regional control on the inter-annual variability of the global land sink for atmospheric CO2. In semi-arid regions, annual biomass production is closely coupled to variability in soil moisture availability, while in cold-season-affected regions, summer drought offsets the effects of advancing spring phenology. Availability of satellite solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) observations and improvements in atmospheric inversions has led to unprecedented ability to monitor atmospheric sink strength. However, discrepancies still exist between such top-down estimates as atmospheric inversion and bottom-up process and satellite driven models, indicating that relative strength, mechanisms, and interaction of driving factors remain poorly understood. We use soil moisture fields informed by Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP) observations to compare recent (2015-2017) and historic (2000-2014) variability in net ecosystem land-atmosphere CO2 exchange (NEE). The operational SMAP Level 4 Carbon (L4C) product relates ground-based flux tower measurements to other bottom-up and global top-down estimates to underlying soil moisture and other driving conditions using data-assimilation-based SMAP Level 4 Soil Moisture (L4SM). Droughts in coastal Brazil, South Africa, Eastern Africa, and an anomalous wet period in Eastern Australia were observed by L4C. A seasonal seesaw pattern of below-normal sink strength at high latitudes relative to slightly above-normal sink strength for mid-latitudes was also observed. Whereas SMAP-based soil moisture is relatively informative for short-term temporal variability, soil moisture biases that vary in space and with season constrain the ability of the L4C estimates to accurately resolve NEE. Such biases might be caused by irrigation and plant-accessible ground-water. Nevertheless, SMAP L4C daily NEE estimates connect top-down estimates to variability of effective driving factors for accurate estimates of regional

  4. Soil and water pollution in a banana production region in tropical Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Geissen, V.; Que Ramos, F.; Bastidas-Bastidas, de, P.J.; Díaz-González, G.; Bello-Mendoza, R.; Huerta-Lwanga, E.; Ruiz-Suárez, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn— bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha-1week-1 for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the main metabolite ethylenethiourea was near the detection limit. Surface and subsurface water was highly polluted with ethylenethiourea, the main metabolite of Mancozeb (22.5 and 4.3 lg L-1, respective...

  5. Classification and Use of Natural and Anthropogenic Soils by Indigenous Communities of the Upper Amazon Region of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Venegas, C P; Stomph, T J; Verschoor, G; Echeverri, J A; Struik, P C

    Outsiders often oversimplify Amazon soil use by assuming that abundantly available natural soils are poorly suited to agriculture and that sporadic anthropogenic soils are agriculturally productive. Local perceptions about the potentials and limitations of soils probably differ, but information on these perceptions is scarce. We therefore examined how four indigenous communities in the Middle Caquetá River region in the Colombian Amazon classify and use natural and anthropogenic soils. The study was framed in ethnopedology: local classifications, preferences, rankings, and soil uses were recorded through interviews and field observations. These communities recognized nine soils varying in suitability for agriculture. They identified anthropogenic soils as most suitable for agriculture, but only one group used them predominantly for their swiddens. As these communities did not perceive soil nutrient status as limiting, they did not base crop-site selection on soil fertility or on the interplay between soil quality and performance of manioc genetic resources.

  6. Development of regional scale soil erosion and sediment transport model; its calibration and validations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, M.H.; Akhtar, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    Despite of the fact that many soil erosion models have been developed in the past more than 5 decades including empirical based models like USLE and RUSLE and many process based soil erosion and sediment transport models like WEPP, EUROSEM and SHETRAN, the application of these models to regional scales remained questionable. To address the problem, a process-based soil erosion and sediment transport model has been developed to estimate the soil erosion, deposition, transport and sediment yield at regional scale. The soil erosion processes are modeled as the detachment of soil by the raindrop impact over the entire grid and detachment of soil due to overland flow only within the equivalent channels, whereas sediment is routed to the forward grid considering the transport capacity of the flow. The loss of heterogeneity in the spatial information of the topography due to slope averaging effect is reproduced by adapting a Fractal analysis approach. The model has been calibrated for Nan river basin (N.13A) and validated to the Yom river basin (Y.6) and Nam Mae Klang river basin (P.24A) of Thailand, simulated results show good agreements with the observed sediment discharge data. The developed model with few new components can also be applied for predicting the sediment discharges of the river Indus. (author)

  7. Estimative of the soil amount ingested by cattle in high natural radioactive region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Roosevelt; Silva, Lucia H.C.; Taddei, Maria H.T.

    1997-01-01

    Considering that Pocos de Caldas is a region of high natural radioactivity, where many environmental impacts have been studied, 27 samples of cattle faeces and 24 samples of local soil were collected and analyzed for Ti concentrations, during dry and rain periods. Using this element as an indicator, the percentage of soil ingestion by cattle were estimated for three management practices: confined, semi-confined and free. The results showed the management practices influence on the cattle soil ingestion percentage, and the importance of this pathway in the environmental impact assessment. (author). 7 refs., 1 tab

  8. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION OF A THERMAL DESORPTION/UV PHOTOLYSIS PROCESS FOR DECONTAMINATING SOILS CONTAINING HERBICIDE ORANGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This treatability study report presents the results of laboratory and field tests on the effectiveness of a new decontamination process for soils containing 2,4-D/2,4,5-T and traces of dioxin. The process employs three operations, thermal desorption, condensation and absorp...

  9. Soil application of formulated Metarhizium brunneum F52 (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) containing microsclerotia controls eggs of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the potential of a granular formulation of Metarhizium brunneum F52 containing microsclerotia (MbMSc granules) for control of Aedes aegypti (L.) by targeting eggs. MbMSc granules produced infective conidia within 14 days after application to moist potting soil, producing 5.9 × 10**5, 2....

  10. Studies of soil and ecohydrological processes in oil-gas production regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodyreva, E. Ya.; Khodyrev, Yu. P.

    2009-04-01

    For a better understanding and describing of the functional interactions between processes in soil and drinking, underground and stratum waters in oil-gas production regions we used laboratory and field monitoring methods of studies. The control of ecological situation dynamics in oil-gas production regions proposes a presence of primary data about parameter-indicators, which characterize a state of the object under investigation. One of these parameters is the concentration of heavy metal salts in drinking and stratum waters. Isolation of some compounds, which are extracted as impurities of oil and water during recovery of hydrocarbons from productive horizons, would enhance profitableness of recovery. Because accompanying impurities are a mixture of different salts and complexes, the methods of multielement analysis give the most objective evaluation of total content of some elements by search and prospecting. The developed method of laser mass-spectrometric analysis of oil and drinking, underground and industrial waters allows to investigate the samples on all elements of the periodical system simultaneously with limit sensitivity 0.1 mkg/l. The preparation of the oil and water probes was carried out by sublimation of highly volatile fractions in vacuum at 100 0C. The samples of drinking and underground waters, oils and industrial waters from wells of oil field Romashkin (Tatarstan) were chosen as the object for the research. In respect to possible metal extraction scandium is of most interest in inspected area because it's very high cost and availability of water-soluble pattern, most probably chloride. Its concentration in one well was 1 mg/l in water and 0.01 mg/l in oil. According to the received data of laser mass-spectrometric analysis, industrial waters on the activity investigated territory joint-stock company "Tatneft" contain 220-330 kg / ton of salts of metals that does by their potential source of alternative raw material for the chemical industry

  11. Factor value determination and applicability evaluation of universal soil loss equation in granite gneiss region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-hai Zhang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Six types of runoff plots were set up and an experimental study was carried out to examine natural rate of soil and water loss in the granite gneiss region of northern Jiangsu Province in China. Through correlation analysis of runoff and soil loss during 364 rainfall events, a simplified and convenient mathematical formula suitable for calculating the rainfall erosivity factor (R for the local region was established. Other factors of the universal soil loss equation (USLE model were also determined. Relative error analysis of the soil loss of various plots calculated by the USLE model on the basis of the observed values showed that the relative error ranged from -3.5% to 9.9% and the confidence level was more than 90%. In addition, the relative error was 5.64% for the terraced field and 12.36% for the sloping field in the practical application. Thus, the confidence level was above 87.64%. These results provide a scientific basis for forecasting and monitoring soil and water loss, for comprehensive management of small watersheds, and for soil and water conservation planning in the region.

  12. Heavy Metal Pollution in a Soil-Rice System in the Yangtze River Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhouping; Zhang, Qiaofen; Han, Tiqian; Ding, Yanfei; Sun, Junwei; Wang, Feijuan; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-12-22

    Heavy metals are regarded as toxic trace elements in the environment. Heavy metal pollution in soil or rice grains is of increasing concern. In this study, 101 pairs of soil and rice samples were collected from the major rice-producing areas along the Yangtze River in China. The soil properties and heavy metal (i.e., Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr) concentrations in the soil and rice grains were analyzed to evaluate the heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the soil-rice systems. The results showed that the Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil ranged from 0.10 to 4.64, 0.01 to 1.46, 7.64 to 127.56, and 13.52 to 231.02 mg·kg(-)¹, respectively. Approximately 37%, 16%, 60% and 70% of the rice grain samples were polluted by Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr, respectively. The degree of heavy metal contamination in the soil-rice systems exhibited a regional variation. The interactions among the heavy metal elements may also influence the migration and accumulation of heavy metals in soil or paddy rice. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and rice grains is related to a certain extent to the pH and soil organic matter (SOM). This study provides useful information regarding heavy metal accumulation in soil to support the safe production of rice in China. The findings from this study also provide a robust scientific basis for risk assessments regarding ecological protection and food safety.

  13. Heavy Metal Pollution in a Soil-Rice System in the Yangtze River Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouping Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are regarded as toxic trace elements in the environment. Heavy metal pollution in soil or rice grains is of increasing concern. In this study, 101 pairs of soil and rice samples were collected from the major rice-producing areas along the Yangtze River in China. The soil properties and heavy metal (i.e., Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil and rice grains were analyzed to evaluate the heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the soil-rice systems. The results showed that the Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil ranged from 0.10 to 4.64, 0.01 to 1.46, 7.64 to 127.56, and 13.52 to 231.02 mg·kg−1, respectively. Approximately 37%, 16%, 60% and 70% of the rice grain samples were polluted by Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr, respectively. The degree of heavy metal contamination in the soil-rice systems exhibited a regional variation. The interactions among the heavy metal elements may also influence the migration and accumulation of heavy metals in soil or paddy rice. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and rice grains is related to a certain extent to the pH and soil organic matter (SOM. This study provides useful information regarding heavy metal accumulation in soil to support the safe production of rice in China. The findings from this study also provide a robust scientific basis for risk assessments regarding ecological protection and food safety.

  14. Heavy Metal Pollution in a Soil-Rice System in the Yangtze River Region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhouping; Zhang, Qiaofen; Han, Tiqian; Ding, Yanfei; Sun, Junwei; Wang, Feijuan; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are regarded as toxic trace elements in the environment. Heavy metal pollution in soil or rice grains is of increasing concern. In this study, 101 pairs of soil and rice samples were collected from the major rice-producing areas along the Yangtze River in China. The soil properties and heavy metal (i.e., Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr) concentrations in the soil and rice grains were analyzed to evaluate the heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the soil-rice systems. The results showed that the Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil ranged from 0.10 to 4.64, 0.01 to 1.46, 7.64 to 127.56, and 13.52 to 231.02 mg·kg−1, respectively. Approximately 37%, 16%, 60% and 70% of the rice grain samples were polluted by Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr, respectively. The degree of heavy metal contamination in the soil-rice systems exhibited a regional variation. The interactions among the heavy metal elements may also influence the migration and accumulation of heavy metals in soil or paddy rice. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and rice grains is related to a certain extent to the pH and soil organic matter (SOM). This study provides useful information regarding heavy metal accumulation in soil to support the safe production of rice in China. The findings from this study also provide a robust scientific basis for risk assessments regarding ecological protection and food safety. PMID:26703698

  15. Assessment of pedotransfer functions for estimating soil water retention curves for the amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Medeiros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the soil water retention curve (SWRC is essential for understanding and modeling hydraulic processes in the soil. However, direct determination of the SWRC is time consuming and costly. In addition, it requires a large number of samples, due to the high spatial and temporal variability of soil hydraulic properties. An alternative is the use of models, called pedotransfer functions (PTFs, which estimate the SWRC from easy-to-measure properties. The aim of this paper was to test the accuracy of 16 point or parametric PTFs reported in the literature on different soils from the south and southeast of the State of Pará, Brazil. The PTFs tested were proposed by Pidgeon (1972, Lal (1979, Aina & Periaswamy (1985, Arruda et al. (1987, Dijkerman (1988, Vereecken et al. (1989, Batjes (1996, van den Berg et al. (1997, Tomasella et al. (2000, Hodnett & Tomasella (2002, Oliveira et al. (2002, and Barros (2010. We used a database that includes soil texture (sand, silt, and clay, bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil pH, cation exchange capacity, and the SWRC. Most of the PTFs tested did not show good performance in estimating the SWRC. The parametric PTFs, however, performed better than the point PTFs in assessing the SWRC in the tested region. Among the parametric PTFs, those proposed by Tomasella et al. (2000 achieved the best accuracy in estimating the empirical parameters of the van Genuchten (1980 model, especially when tested in the top soil layer.

  16. Sources and distribution of polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans in soil and sediment from the Yellow Sea region of China and Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naile, Jonathan E.; Khim, Jong Seong; Wang Tieyu; Wan Yi; Luo Wei; Hu Wenyou; Jiao Wentao; Park, Jinsoon; Ryu, Jongseong; Hong, Seongjin; Jones, Paul D.; Lu Yonglong

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were measured in soils and sediments from the Yellow Sea region. Korean soils and sediments mostly contained detectable PCDD/Fs and showed a widespread distribution among locations. Soil and sedimentary PCDD/Fs from China were comparable to or less than those in Korea. The patterns of relative concentrations of individual congeners in soils were different between the two countries, but similar in sediments. Sources of PCDD/Fs in China and Korea were found to be independent of each other and their distributions reflected matrix-dependent accumulation. Spatial distribution indicated some point sources in Korea while Chinese sources were more widespread and diffuse. PCDD/Fs measured in the coastal areas of the Yellow Sea were comparable to or less than those previously reported in for eastern Asia. However, ΣTEQs in soils and sediments were near to or, in some cases exceeded environmental quality guidelines. - Research highlights: → PCDDs were comparable or greater than PCDFs for Yellow Sea soils and sediments. → PCDD/Fs congener patterns in soils were different but similar in sediments. → PCDD/Fs congener patterns varied among regions reflecting regional activities. → Sources of PCDD/Fs in China and Korea were mainly independent of each other. → ΣTEQs in Yellow Sea soils and sediments often exceeded corresponding guidelines. - PCDD/Fs in soils and sediments along the Yellow Sea indicated both point and non-point sources and their contribution to total TEQs differed among land uses and by regional activities.

  17. Magneto-aerotactic bacteria deliver drug-containing nanoliposomes to tumour hypoxic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfoul, Ouajdi; Mohammadi, Mahmood; Taherkhani, Samira; de Lanauze, Dominic; Zhong Xu, Yong; Loghin, Dumitru; Essa, Sherief; Jancik, Sylwia; Houle, Daniel; Lafleur, Michel; Gaboury, Louis; Tabrizian, Maryam; Kaou, Neila; Atkin, Michael; Vuong, Té; Batist, Gerald; Beauchemin, Nicole; Radzioch, Danuta; Martel, Sylvain

    2016-11-01

    Oxygen-depleted hypoxic regions in the tumour are generally resistant to therapies. Although nanocarriers have been used to deliver drugs, the targeting ratios have been very low. Here, we show that the magneto-aerotactic migration behaviour of magnetotactic bacteria, Magnetococcus marinus strain MC-1 (ref. 4), can be used to transport drug-loaded nanoliposomes into hypoxic regions of the tumour. In their natural environment, MC-1 cells, each containing a chain of magnetic iron-oxide nanocrystals, tend to swim along local magnetic field lines and towards low oxygen concentrations based on a two-state aerotactic sensing system. We show that when MC-1 cells bearing covalently bound drug-containing nanoliposomes were injected near the tumour in severe combined immunodeficient beige mice and magnetically guided, up to 55% of MC-1 cells penetrated into hypoxic regions of HCT116 colorectal xenografts. Approximately 70 drug-loaded nanoliposomes were attached to each MC-1 cell. Our results suggest that harnessing swarms of microorganisms exhibiting magneto-aerotactic behaviour can significantly improve the therapeutic index of various nanocarriers in tumour hypoxic regions.

  18. Soil monitoring in Pavlodar region adjoining to Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuleubaev, B.A.; Ramazanov, Zh.R.; Askarov, E.V.

    2004-01-01

    A problem of territory study and rehabilitation contaminated with man-caused radionuclides is an important task and it has economic, social, and ecology aspects. The problem is crucial for Pavlodar region due to real proximity and to partial location of Semipalatinsk Test Site on its territory. (author)

  19. Time series analysis of soil Radon-222 recorded at Kutch region, Gujarat, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhusudan Rao, K.; Rastogi, B.K.; Barman, Chiranjib; Chaudhuri, Hirok

    2013-01-01

    Kutch region in Gujarat lies in a seismic vulnerable zone (seismic zone-v). After the devastating Bhuj earthquake (7.7M) of January 26, 2001 in the Kutch region several researcher focused their attention to monitor geophysical and geochemical precursors for earthquakes in the region. In order to find out the possible geochemical precursory signals for earthquake events, we monitored radioactive gas radon-222 in sub surface soil gas at Kutch region. We have analysed the recorded soil radon-222 time series by means of nonlinear techniques such as FFT power spectral analysis, empirical mode decomposition, multi-fractal analysis along with other linear statistical methods. Some fascinating and fruitful results originated out the nonlinear analysis of the said time series have been discussed in the present paper. The entire analytical method aided us to recognize the nature and pattern of soil radon-222 emanation process. Moreover the recording and statistical and non-linear analysis of soil radon data at Kutch region will assist us to understand the preparation phase of an imminent seismic event in the region. (author)

  20. Dynamics of Soil Bacterial Communities in Response to Repeated Application of Manure Containing Sulfadiazine

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Guo-Chun; Radl, Viviane; Schloter-Hai, Brigitte; Jechalke, Sven; Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia; Schloter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of manure have been applied to arable soils as fertilizer worldwide. Manure is often contaminated with veterinary antibiotics which enter the soil together with antibiotic resistant bacteria. However, little information is available regarding the main responders of bacterial communities in soil affected by repeated inputs of antibiotics via manure. In this study, a microcosm experiment was performed with two concentrations of the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) which were applied ...

  1. Negative soil moisture-precipitation feedback in dry and wet regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingbin; Sun, Guoqing; Zhi, Lu; Zhao, Jianjun

    2018-03-05

    Soil moisture-precipitation (SM-P) feedback significantly influences the terrestrial water and energy cycles. However, the sign of the feedback and the associated physical mechanism have been debated, leaving a research gap regarding global water and climate changes. Based on Koster's framework, we estimate SM-P feedback using satellite remote sensing and ground observation data sets. Methodologically, the sign of the feedback is identified by the correlation between monthly soil moisture and next-month precipitation. The physical mechanism is investigated through coupling precipitation and soil moisture (P-SM), soil moisture ad evapotranspiration (SM-E) and evapotranspiration and precipitation (E-P) correlations. Our results demonstrate that although positive SM-P feedback is predominant over land, non-negligible negative feedback occurs in dry and wet regions. Specifically, 43.75% and 40.16% of the negative feedback occurs in the arid and humid climate zones. Physically, negative SM-P feedback depends on the SM-E correlation. In dry regions, evapotranspiration change is soil moisture limited. In wet regions, evapotranspiration change is energy limited. We conclude that the complex SM-E correlation results in negative SM-P feedback in dry and wet regions, and the cause varies based on the environmental and climatic conditions.

  2. Soil erosion at agricultural land in Moravia loess region estimated by using magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapicka, Ales; Dlouha, Sarka; Petrovsky, Eduard; Jaksik, Ondrej; Grison, Hana; Kodesova, Radka

    2014-05-01

    A detailed field study on a small test site of agricultural land situated in loess region in Southern Moravia (Czech Republic) and subsequent laboratory analyses have been carried out in order to test the applicability of magnetic methods for the estimation of soil erosion. Chernozem, the original dominant soil unit in the wider area, is nowadays progressively transformed into different soil units along with intensive soil erosion. As a result, an extremely diversified soil cover structure has resulted from the erosion. The site was characterized by a flat upper part while the middle part, formed by a substantive side valley, is steeper (up to 15°). We carried out field measurements of magnetic susceptibility on a regular grid, resulting in 101 data points. The bulk soil material for laboratory investigation was gathered from all the grid points. We found a strong correlation between the volume magnetic susceptibility (field measurement) and mass specific magnetic susceptibility measured in the laboratory (R2 = 0.80). Values of the magnetic susceptibility are spatially distributed depending on the terrain. Higher values were measured in the flat upper part (where the original top horizon remained). The lowest values of magnetic susceptibility were obtained on the steep valley sides. Here the original topsoil was eroded and mixed by tillage with the soil substrate (loess). The soil profile that was unaffected by erosion was investigated in detail. The vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility along this "virgin" profile was measured in laboratory on the samples from layers along the whole profile with 2-cm spacing. The undisturbed profile shows several soil horizons. Horizons Ac and A show a slight increase in magnetic susceptibility up to a depth of about 70 cm. Horizon A/Ck is characterized by a decrease in susceptibility, and the underlying C horizon (h > 103 cm) has a very low value of magnetic susceptibility. The differences between the values of

  3. Study on Flexible Pavement Failures in Soft Soil Tropical Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, M.; Chee Soon, Lee

    2015-04-01

    Road network system experienced rapid upgrowth since ages ago and it started developing in Malaysia during the colonization of British due to its significant impacts in transportation field. Flexible pavement, the major road network in Malaysia, has been deteriorating by various types of distresses which cause descending serviceability of the pavement structure. This paper discusses the pavement condition assessment carried out in Sarawak and Sabah, Malaysia to have design solutions for flexible pavement failures. Field tests were conducted to examine the subgrade strength of existing roads in Sarawak at various failure locations, to assess the impact of subgrade strength on pavement failures. Research outcomes from field condition assessment and subgrade testing showed that the critical causes of pavement failures are inadequate design and maintenance of drainage system and shoulder cross fall, along with inadequate pavement thickness provided by may be assuming the conservative value of soil strength at optimum moisture content, whereas the exiting and expected subgrade strengths at equilibrium moisture content are far below. Our further research shows that stabilized existing recycled asphalt and base materials to use as a sub-base along with bitumen stabilized open graded base in the pavement composition may be a viable solution for pavement failures.

  4. Annual variation of 7Be soil inventory in a semiarid region of central Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohaiza, F.; Velasco, H.; Juri Ayub, J.; Rizzotto, M.; Di Gregorio, D.E.; Huck, H.; Valladares, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable information on environmental radionuclides atmospheric entrance, and their distribution along the soil profile, is a necessary condition for using these soil and sediment tracers to investigate key environmental processes. To address this need, 7 Be content in rainwater and the wet deposition in a semiarid region at San Luis Province, Argentina, were studied. Following these researches, in the same region, we have assessed the 7 Be content along a soil profile, during 2.5 years from September 2009 to January 2012. As expected, the specific activity values in soil samples in the wet period (November–April) were higher than in the dry period (May–October). During the investigated period (2009 – beginning 2012) and for all sampled points, the maximum value of the 7 Be specific activity (Bq kg −1 ) was measured at the surface level. A typical decreasing exponential function of 7 Be areal activity (Bq m −2 ) with soil mass depth (kg m −2 ) was found and the key distribution parameters were determined for each month. The minimum value of areal activity was 51 Bq m −2 in August, and the maximum was 438 Bq m −2 in February. The relaxation mass depth ranges from 2.9 kg m −2 in March to 1.3 kg m −2 in August. 7 Be wet deposition can explain in a very significant proportion the 7 Be inventory in soil. During the period of winds in the region (September and October), the 7 Be content in soil was greater than the expected contribution from wet deposition, situation that is compatible with a higher relative contribution of dry deposition at this period of the year. - Highlights: • The 7 Be content along the soil profile in a semiarid region of Argentina was assessed. • The 7 Be areal activity on soil shows an exponentially decreasing distribution with mass depth. • The relaxation mass depth ranging from 2.9 kg m −2 to 1.3 kg m −2 in wet and dry period respectively. • A simple model is used to determine the 7 Be content in soil from the 7

  5. New Culture Medium Containing Ionic Concentrations of Nutrients Similar to Concentrations Found in the Soil Solution †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angle, J. Scott; McGrath, Stephen P.; Chaney, Rufus L.

    1991-01-01

    A new growth medium which closely approximates the composition of the soil solution is presented. This soil solution equivalent (SSE) medium contains the following components (millimolar): NO3, 2.5; NH4, 2.5; HPO4, 0.005; Na, 2.5; Ca, 4.0; Mg, 2.0; K, 0.503; Cl, 4.0; SO4, 5.0; ethylenediamine-di(o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid), 0.02; and MES [2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid] (to maintain the pH at 6.0), 10, plus 0.1% arabinose. The advantages of the SSE medium are discussed. PMID:16348614

  6. [Heavy metals and hydrocarbons content in soils of settlements of the Yamal-Nenets autonomous region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, I I; Abakumov, E V; Shamilishvili, G A; Lodygin, E D

    In August 2015 there were executed investigations on the study of the soils diversity of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. One of the directions of this work got be the study of urban soils of settlements of the Yamal-Nenents Autonomous Okrug. The sectors for the observation were settlement of Harsaim, village Aksarka, city of Salekhard, settlement Harp and city of Labytnangi. About 20 soil samples were collected during the field work. Samples were collected from a depth of 0-5 cm and 5-20 cm. Heavy metals (HM) were detected with the use of X-ray fluorescent analyzer “Spectroscan-MAX”. The HM content values were compared with the corresponding Approxible Permissible Concentrations and Maximum Allowable Concentrations (MAC) adopted in Russia. Hydrocarbons content was determined by gravimetric method. Values of the hydrocarbons content in studied soils were compared with the existing regulations of the Russian Federation. The levels of soil contamination by hydrocarbons were determined. The study of soil samples from different settlements allowed to reveal characteristic features of soil contamination of separate settlements by HM and hydrocarbons and to compare them against each other. The vast majority of samples are characterized by arsenic exceedance of MAC, which should indicate to a high regional background of this element. For a more adequate assessment of the Zc meaning as the value of the total pollution index of soils there were used not only arithmetical average values of the coefficients of the chemical composition concentration (Kc), but also their average geometric values. According to levels of total soil contamination most of soil samples are characterized as non-hazardous (Zc<16). Calculation of soil pollution index showed that the most of soil samples have values less than 1. It characterizes soils as unpolluted. Statistical processing of obtained data in the media of the analytical software interface STATISTICA 10 showed a statistically

  7. Soil characterization and vulnerability indices of the Autonomous region of Madrid. Scale 1:200.000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, T.; Millan, R.; Lago, C; Trueba, C.

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of the soil due to a nuclear accident is a risk for the population. A research project, within the program of Radiological Protection by Intervention in CIEMAT, has been developed to study the behaviour of radionuclides in soils. An evaluation of the radiological vulnerability considering the external irradiation and the food chain pathway for caesium and strontium has been determined using partial and global indices, which indicate the potential transfer of the radionuclides via the two mentioned pathways. A detailed study of the soils found in the Autonomous Region of Madrid was carried out with data from individual soil profiles and combining data obtained from maps with a Geographic Information System in order to obtain a spatial distribution of the results. The soil vulnerability for the external irradiation pathway of caesium and strontium is in general found to be higher in more developed soils located in the south and leading to the foothills of the Sierra of Madrid in the north. The vulnerability for the food chain pathway is found to be higher in the less developed soils in acid conditions situated in the Sierra of Madrid. (Author) 11 refs

  8. Estimating Runoff and Soil Moisture Deficit in Guinea Savannah Region of Nigeria using Water Balance Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Adesiji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of runoff and soil moisture deficit in Guinea Savannah region using semi arid model based on soil water balance technique (SAMBA was carried out. The input to the SAMBA model are daily rainfall, daily evapotranspiration, type and date of planting of crop, and soil parameters. The estimated runoff was validated with field measurement taken in a 67.23 ha catchment in the study area. The annual rainfall for the year under study (2009 is 1356.2 mm, the estimated annual evapotranspiration. runoff and recharge are 638mm, 132.93mm, and 447.8mm respectively. Recharge was experienced 23 days after a significant depth of rainfall was recorded. For the crop growth in the catchment, the soil was cropped with a pepper and the growth monitored from the planting to the harvesting. The crop enjoyed so much moisture throughout the growing period as Total Available Water in the soil is greater than Soil Moisture Deficit (TAW>SMD. The model results show that the larger percentage of the total annual rainfall was lost to evaporation and recharge during the growing season. The low runoff and high recharge are attributed to soil characteristics of the area and moderate terrain of the study area.

  9. Impact of Spatial Soil and Climate Input Data Aggregation on Regional Yield Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Holger; Zhao, Gang; Asseng, Senthold; Bindi, Marco; Biernath, Christian; Constantin, Julie; Coucheney, Elsa; Dechow, Rene; Doro, Luca; Eckersten, Henrik; Gaiser, Thomas; Grosz, Balázs; Heinlein, Florian; Kassie, Belay T; Kersebaum, Kurt-Christian; Klein, Christian; Kuhnert, Matthias; Lewan, Elisabet; Moriondo, Marco; Nendel, Claas; Priesack, Eckart; Raynal, Helene; Roggero, Pier P; Rötter, Reimund P; Siebert, Stefan; Specka, Xenia; Tao, Fulu; Teixeira, Edmar; Trombi, Giacomo; Wallach, Daniel; Weihermüller, Lutz; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh; Ewert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We show the error in water-limited yields simulated by crop models which is associated with spatially aggregated soil and climate input data. Crop simulations at large scales (regional, national, continental) frequently use input data of low resolution. Therefore, climate and soil data are often generated via averaging and sampling by area majority. This may bias simulated yields at large scales, varying largely across models. Thus, we evaluated the error associated with spatially aggregated soil and climate data for 14 crop models. Yields of winter wheat and silage maize were simulated under water-limited production conditions. We calculated this error from crop yields simulated at spatial resolutions from 1 to 100 km for the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Most models showed yields biased by <15% when aggregating only soil data. The relative mean absolute error (rMAE) of most models using aggregated soil data was in the range or larger than the inter-annual or inter-model variability in yields. This error increased further when both climate and soil data were aggregated. Distinct error patterns indicate that the rMAE may be estimated from few soil variables. Illustrating the range of these aggregation effects across models, this study is a first step towards an ex-ante assessment of aggregation errors in large-scale simulations.

  10. Impact of Spatial Soil and Climate Input Data Aggregation on Regional Yield Simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Hoffmann

    Full Text Available We show the error in water-limited yields simulated by crop models which is associated with spatially aggregated soil and climate input data. Crop simulations at large scales (regional, national, continental frequently use input data of low resolution. Therefore, climate and soil data are often generated via averaging and sampling by area majority. This may bias simulated yields at large scales, varying largely across models. Thus, we evaluated the error associated with spatially aggregated soil and climate data for 14 crop models. Yields of winter wheat and silage maize were simulated under water-limited production conditions. We calculated this error from crop yields simulated at spatial resolutions from 1 to 100 km for the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Most models showed yields biased by <15% when aggregating only soil data. The relative mean absolute error (rMAE of most models using aggregated soil data was in the range or larger than the inter-annual or inter-model variability in yields. This error increased further when both climate and soil data were aggregated. Distinct error patterns indicate that the rMAE may be estimated from few soil variables. Illustrating the range of these aggregation effects across models, this study is a first step towards an ex-ante assessment of aggregation errors in large-scale simulations.

  11. SOIL ALGAE OF BLADE OF COIL IN DONETSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltseva I.A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available On territory of Donbass for more than 200 years the underground coal mining has produced, accompanied by the formation of the mine dumps. Finding ways to reduce their negative impact on the environment should be based on their comprehensive study. The soil algae are active participants in the syngenetic processes in industrial dumps of different origin. The purpose of this paper is to identify the species composition and dominant algae groups in dump mine SH/U5 “Western” in the western part of Donetsk.The test blade is covered with vegetation to the middle from all sides, and on the north side of 20-25 m to the top. The vegetation cover of the lower and middle tiers of all the exposures range in 70-80%. Projective vegetation cover of upper tiers of the northern, north-eastern and north-western exposures are in the range of 20-40%, other – 5-10%. We revealed some 38 algae species as a result of our research in southern, northern, western, and eastern slopes of the blade “Western”. The highest species diversity has Chlorophyta - 14 species (36.8% of the total number of species, then Cyanophyta - 9 (23,7%, Bacillariophyta - 7 (18,4%, Xantophyta - 5 (13.2%, and Eustigmatophyta - 3 (7.9%. The dominants are represented by Hantzschia amphyoxys (Ehrenberg Grunow in Cleve et Grunow, Bracteacoccus aerius, Klebsormidium flaccidum (Kützing Silva et al., Phormidium autumnale, Pinnularia borealis Ehrenberg, Planothidium lanceolatum (Brebisson in Kützing Bukhtiyarova, Xanthonema exile (Klebs Silva.It should be noted that the species composition of algae groups in different slopes of the blade was significantly different. Jacquard coefficient was calculated for algae communities varied in the range of 15,4-39,1%. The smallest number of algae species was observed on the southern slope of the blade (14 species, maximum was registered in the areas of north and west slopes. Differences in the species composition of algae were also observed in three

  12. Land use impact on soil quality in eastern Himalayan region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A K; Bordoloi, L J; Kumar, Manoj; Hazarika, S; Parmar, Brajendra

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative assessment of soil quality is required to determine the sustainability of land uses in terms of environmental quality and plant productivity. Our objective was to identify the most appropriate soil quality indicators and to evaluate the impact of six most prevalent land use types (natural forestland, cultivated lowland, cultivated upland terrace, shifting cultivation, plantation land, and grassland) on soil quality in eastern Himalayan region of India. We collected 120 soil samples (20 cm depth) and analyzed them for 29 physical, chemical, and biological soil attributes. For selection of soil quality indicators, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the measured attributes, which provided four principal components (PC) with eigenvalues >1 and explaining at least 5% of the variance in dataset. The four PCs together explained 92.6% of the total variance. Based on rotated factor loadings of soil attributes, selected indicators were: soil organic carbon (SOC) from PC-1, exchangeable Al from PC-2, silt content from PC-3, and available P and Mn from PC-4. Indicators were transformed into scores (linear scoring method) and soil quality index (SQI) was determined, on a scale of 0-1, using the weighting factors obtained from PCA. SQI rating was the highest for the least-disturbed sites, i.e., natural forestland (0.93) and grassland (0.87), and the lowest for the most intensively cultivated site, i.e., cultivated upland terrace (0.44). Ratings for the other land uses were shifting cultivation (0.60) > cultivated low land (0.57) > plantation land (0.54). Overall contribution (in percent) of the indicators in determination of SQI was in the order: SOC (58%) > exch. Al (17.1%) > available P (8.9%) > available Mn (8.2%) > silt content (7.8%). Results of this study suggest SOC and exch. Al as the two most powerful indicators of soil quality in study area. Thus, organic C and soil acidity management holds the key to improve soil

  13. Change of the Asian dust source region deduced from the composition of anthropogenic radionuclides in surface soil in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Igarashi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent climate change, especially during the 2000s, may be the primary reason for the expansion of the Asian dust source region. The change in the dust source region was investigated by examining anthropogenic radionuclides contained in surface soil samples from Mongolia. Surface soil was globally labeled by radioactive fallout from nuclear testing during the late 1950s and early 1960s, but there are no current direct sources for anthropogenic radionuclides in the air (before the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in 2011. Radionuclides in the atmosphere are therefore carried mainly by wind-blown dust from surface soil, that is, aeolian dust. Asian dust carries traces of 90Sr, 137Cs, and other anthropogenic radionuclides; the heaviest deposition occurs in spring and has been recorded in Japan since the early 1990s. The composition of anthropogenic radionuclides in atmospheric depositions would be affected by a change in the dust source. Previous studies of atmospheric deposition at long-term monitoring sites (e.g. in Tsukuba, Japan have detected changes in the 137Cs/90Sr ratio and in the specific activity of the radionuclides. These changes in the composition of observed atmospheric depositions are supposed to reflect changes in the climatic conditions of the dust source region. To investigate this dust source change, we conducted a field survey of radionuclides (90Sr and 137Cs in surface soil samples in September 2007 in the eastern and southern regions of Mongolia, where dust storms have occurred more frequently since 2000. The specific activities of both radionuclides as well as the 137Cs/90Sr ratio in the surface soil were well correlated with annual average precipitation in the Mongolian desert-steppe zone. Higher specific activities and a higher 137Cs/90Sr ratio were found in grassland regions that experienced greater

  14. Soils Developed on Geomorphic Surfaces in the Mountain Region of the State of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Fontana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The evaluation of soils in representative landscapes constitutes an opportunity to evaluate spatial distribution, discuss formation processes, and apply this knowledge to land use and management. In this sense, from the perspective of an environmentally diversified region, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the occurrence and understand the formation of soils in different geomorphic surfaces of a landscape from a mountain region in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The study was developed in the Pito Aceso microbasin in the municipality of Bom Jardim, composed of narrow valleys and a rugged mountain domain, with elevation between 640 and 1,270 m. In a representative landscape, the geomorphic surfaces were obtained from the slope segments and flow lines. On the geomorphic surfaces, soil profiles were described by their morphological properties, collected, and analyzed to describe the chemical and physical properties of each horizon. Geomorphological aspects and possible variations of the parent material directly affected pedogenesis and led to distinct soil classes in the landscape. Variation in the geomorphic surfaces directs the processes for soil formation under current conditions, as well as the preservation of polygenetic soils. Soils of lower development and with greater participation of the exchangeable cations were identified at the summit (talus deposit (Neossolo Litólico and Cambissolo Húmico and toeslope (colluvial-alluvial (Neossolo Flúvico, whereas more developed soils with lower nutrient content occur in the concave (Argissolos Vermelho and Amarelo and convex (Latossolo Amarelo backslope, except for the Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo in the shoulder, which had high exchangeable cations contents.

  15. Two-Region Model for Soil Water Repellency as a Function of Matric Potential and Water Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karunarathna, Anurudda Kumara; Møldrup, Per; Kawamoto, Ken

    2010-01-01

    by the so-called Dexter index) is useful for predicting if soils are likely to exhibit WR. Expression of soil water repellency depends on soil water content; however, only a limited amount of predictive description is available to date. In this study, based on experimental data, a simple two-region model...

  16. Advanced stress analysis of PWR containments in the region of nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauer, G.

    1977-01-01

    As an example of the stress analysis of a nozzle in a PWR steel containment, an advanced stress analysis of a personnel lock is presented. Contrary to the calculations by means of numerical shell programs usual till now, this advanced stress analysis was executed with the finite-element-method. Because of their theory, the shell programs compute mathematically exact results, but at the intersection of two shells the notch stresses cannot be analyzed well. A further disadvantage must be seen in the fact that there is a great distance between the real critical region near the intersection line and the calculation point, which lies on the neutral axis of the shell

  17. Constitutive modelling of the undrained shear strength of fine grained soils containing gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grozic, J.L.H. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Nadim, F.; Kvalstad, T.J. [Norwegian Geotechnical Inst., Oslo (Norway)

    2002-07-01

    The behaviour of fine grained gassy soils was studied in order to develop a technique to quantitatively evaluate geohazards. Gas can occur in seabeds either in solution in pore water, undissolved in the form of gas filled voids, or as gas hydrates. In offshore soils, the degree of saturation is generally greater than 90 per cent, resulting in a soil structure with a continuous water phase and a discontinuous gas phase. The presence of methane gas will impact the strength of the soil, which alters its resistance to submarine sliding. This paper presents a constitutive model for determining the undrained shear strength of fine-grained gassy soils to assess the stability of deep water marine slopes for offshore developments. Methane gas is shown to have a beneficial effect on the soil strength in compressive loading, but the peak strength is achieved at larger deformations. The increased strength is a result of compression and solution gas which cause partial drainage and reduced pore pressures. The undrained shear strength of gassy soils was shown to increase with increasing initial consolidation stress, increasing volumetric coefficient of solubility, and increasing initial void ratio. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  18. Digital modelling of landscape and soil in a mountainous region: A neuro-fuzzy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viloria, Jesús A.; Viloria-Botello, Alvaro; Pineda, María Corina; Valera, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Research on genetic relationships between soil and landforms has largely improved soil mapping. Recent technological advances have created innovative methods for modelling the spatial soil variation from digital elevation models (DEMs) and remote sensors. This generates new opportunities for the application of geomorphology to soil mapping. This study applied a method based on artificial neural networks and fuzzy clustering to recognize digital classes of land surfaces in a mountainous area in north-central Venezuela. The spatial variation of the fuzzy memberships exposed the areas where each class predominates, while the class centres helped to recognize the topographic attributes and vegetation cover of each class. The obtained classes of terrain revealed the structure of the land surface, which showed regional differences in climate, vegetation, and topography and landscape stability. The land-surface classes were subdivided on the basis of the geological substratum to produce landscape classes that additionally considered the influence of soil parent material. These classes were used as a framework for soil sampling. A redundancy analysis confirmed that changes of landscape classes explained the variation in soil properties (p = 0.01), and a Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant differences (p = 0.01) in clay, hydraulic conductivity, soil organic carbon, base saturation, and exchangeable Ca and Mg between classes. Thus, the produced landscape classes correspond to three-dimensional bodies that differ in soil conditions. Some changes of land-surface classes coincide with abrupt boundaries in the landscape, such as ridges and thalwegs. However, as the model is continuous, it disclosed the remaining variation between those boundaries.

  19. Evaluation of the mobility of 137CS in soil profiles of the Pantanal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fernanda L. da; Ferreira, Ana C.M.; Wasserman, Maria Angelica V.; Lapa, Celso F.; Perez, Daniel Vidal; Rendeiro, Nilson; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive pollutants can cause impact on the environmental quality of soils and represent a risk to human health. Radioecological studies have shown that soils with low pH, low organic matter content and low fertility are more vulnerable to contamination by 137 Cs, since the transfer to plants is high. In this study, some surface horizons of soils from Jaraguari, situated at Brazilian Pantanal were assessed in order to map their vulnerability to contamination by 137 Cs. It was also proposed some mitigation measures adapted to the regional scenario in order to optimize radiological protection for rural areas. A conceptual model established to detect the vulnerability of radioactively contaminated soils was applied for soils located in the municipality of Jaraguari (Mato Grosso do Sul). This conceptual model was established based on the relationship between reference values of the soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) for 137 Cs and critical pedological parameters for each radiovulnerability category (pH, CTC and exchangeable K). The application of this conceptual model to a soil data bank using Geographic Information System (GIS) tools generated vulnerability soils maps. This result identified that most of Pantanal soils presented very low radiovulnerability, but it was possible to detect some small areas presenting extreme radiovulnerability. It was possible to conclude that these small areas is not indicated for activities that presents a potential risk for 137 Cs contamination and also it must receive priority actions for remediation in the case of accident, since a superficial contamination with 137 Cs in these areas can lead to a contamination of subsoil and to a significant spread of contamination via groundwater. (author)

  20. Evaluation of the mobility of {sup 137}CS in soil profiles of the Pantanal region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fernanda L. da; Ferreira, Ana C.M., E-mail: fleite@ird.gov.br, E-mail: anacris@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wasserman, Maria Angelica V.; Lapa, Celso F., E-mail: lapa@ien.gov.br, E-mail: mwasserman@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Perez, Daniel Vidal; Rendeiro, Nilson, E-mail: chpd@cnps.embrapa.br, E-mail: nilson.rendeiro@embrapa.br [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos; Picanco Junior, Pericles L., E-mail: pericles.picanco@gmail.com [Instituto BioAtlantica (IBIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: elainerochedo@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive pollutants can cause impact on the environmental quality of soils and represent a risk to human health. Radioecological studies have shown that soils with low pH, low organic matter content and low fertility are more vulnerable to contamination by {sup 137}Cs, since the transfer to plants is high. In this study, some surface horizons of soils from Jaraguari, situated at Brazilian Pantanal were assessed in order to map their vulnerability to contamination by {sup 137}Cs. It was also proposed some mitigation measures adapted to the regional scenario in order to optimize radiological protection for rural areas. A conceptual model established to detect the vulnerability of radioactively contaminated soils was applied for soils located in the municipality of Jaraguari (Mato Grosso do Sul). This conceptual model was established based on the relationship between reference values of the soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) for {sup 137}Cs and critical pedological parameters for each radiovulnerability category (pH, CTC and exchangeable K). The application of this conceptual model to a soil data bank using Geographic Information System (GIS) tools generated vulnerability soils maps. This result identified that most of Pantanal soils presented very low radiovulnerability, but it was possible to detect some small areas presenting extreme radiovulnerability. It was possible to conclude that these small areas is not indicated for activities that presents a potential risk for {sup 137}Cs contamination and also it must receive priority actions for remediation in the case of accident, since a superficial contamination with {sup 137}Cs in these areas can lead to a contamination of subsoil and to a significant spread of contamination via groundwater. (author)

  1. Soil organic matter change - analysis on a regional scale of Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruendling, Ralf; Franko, Uwe; Sedy, Katrin; Freudenschuß, Alexandra; Spiegel, Adelheid; Formayer, Herbert

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is an important resource in agriculture. It influences soil fertility, erosion processes and prevents soil degradation. However, SOM is strongly affected by climate change, soil conditions and management alterations. The presented study analyzes SOM changes in Austria on a regional scale in the "Marchfeld" and the "Muehlviertel". For quantification these SOM changes the model CCB (Candy Carbon Balance) was used. Based on a 1 square kilometer raster, the impact of specific site conditions on SOM are determined to characterize the study areas. Used as a main indicator for these conditions is the biologic active time (BAT). BAT describes the biologic activity for carbon cycling in top soils depending on soil and climatic conditions. High values of BAT indicate fast SOM reproduction rates. Hence, BAT changes over last years signpost the risk of SOM loss and can be used as an on-farm decision tool. The change of risks of SOM loss due to climate change is assessed by model results. Therefore, three climate scenarios are used to compute reproduction rates of SOM. "High risk-regions" can be identified for policy consulting. Different climate scenarios can help to develop best case and worst case results. First results show that the region "Marchfeld" had a higher change in BAT during last 2 decades comparing to the "Muehlviertel". A higher risk of SOM loosing is evident. Nevertheless, future scenarios predict a higher change of BAT for the "Muehlviertel". Apparently, the sensitivity of "Marchfeld" sites regard to climate change has been higher in the past and most BAT changes took place until now. With this method an evaluation of farm management in regard to SOM reproduction and recommendation of crop rotations for the future are possible. In conclusion, the aim of the project is a tool box for farmers and policy makers to evaluate present and future agricultural management. An examination of additional regions in Austria is planned.

  2. Biochar effects on wet and dry regions of the soil water retention curve of a sandy loam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Moldrup, Per; Sun, Zhencai

    2014-01-01

    Reported beneficial effects of biochar on soil physical properties and processes include decreased soil density, and increased soil water transport, water holding capacity and retention (mainly for the wet region). Research is limited on biochar effects on the full soil water retention curve (wet...... and dry regions) for a given soil and biochar amendment scenarios. This study evaluates how biochar applied to a sandy loam field at rates from 0 to 50 Mg ha−1 yr–1 in 2011, 2012, or both years (2011+2012) influences the full water retention curve. Inorganic fertilizer and pig slurry were added to all...... treatments. Six months after the last biochar application, intact and disturbed soil samples were collected for analyses. Soil water retention was measured from −1 kPa to −100 kPa using tension tables and ceramic plates and from −10 MPa to −480 MPa using a Vapor Sorption Analyzer. Soil specific area...

  3. Diversity of microorganisms isolated from the soil sample surround Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, P; Liu, Y; Yin, Y

    2011-01-01

    to isolate and classify beneficial microorganisms that could affect its growth, which could be used in future research on artificial cultivation. In total, 342 isolates were isolated from soil samples collected around a C. rutilus colony in the Beijing region. Of these, 22 bacterial and 14 fungal isolates...

  4. Representing major soil variability at regional scale by constrained Latin Hypercube Sampling of remote sensing data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, V.L.; Bruin, de S.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a sparse, remote sensing-based sampling approach making use of conditioned Latin Hypercube Sampling (cLHS) to assess variability in soil properties at regional scale. The method optimizes the sampling scheme for a defined spatial population based on selected covariates, which are

  5. [Soil quality assessment under different cropping system and straw management in farmland of arid oasis region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng Peng; Pu, Xiao Zhen; Zhang, Wang Feng

    2018-03-01

    To reveal the regulatory mechanism of agricultural management practices on soil quality, an experiment was carried out to study the different cropping system and straw management on soil organic carbon and fractions and soil enzyme activity in farmland of arid oasis region, which would provide a scientific basic for enhancing agricultural resources utilization and sustainable development. In crop planting planning area, we took the mainly crop (cotton, wheat, maize) as research objects and designed long-term continues cropping and crop rotation experiments. The results showed that the soil organic carbon (SOC), soil microbial biomass C, labile C, water-soluble organic C, and hot-water-soluble organic C content were increased by 3.6%-9.9%, 41.8%-98.9%, 3.3%-17.0%, 11.1%-32.4%, 4.6%-27.5% by crop rotation compared to continues cropping, and 12%-35.9%, 22.4%-49.7%, 30.7%-51.0%, 10.6%-31.9%, 41.0%-96.4% by straw incorporated compared to straw removed, respectively. The soil catalase, dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, invertase glucose, cellulase glucose activity were increased by 6.4%-10.9%, 6.6%-18.8%, 5.9%-15.3%, 10.0%-27.4%, 28.1%-37.5% by crop rotation compared to continues cropping, and 31.4%-47.5%, 19.9%-46.6%, 13.8%-20.7%, 19.8%-55.6%, 54.1%-70.9% by straw incorporated compared to straw removed, respectively. There were significant positive linear correlations among SOC, labile SOC fractions and soil enzyme. Therefore, we concluded that labile SOC fractions and soil enzyme were effective index for evaluating the change of SOC and soil quality. Based on factor analysis, in arid region, developing agricultural production using cropland management measures, such as straw-incorporated and combined short-term continues cotton and crop rotation, could enhance SOC and labile SOC fractions contents and soil enzyme activity, which could improve soil quality and be conducive to agricultural sustainable development.

  6. Economic feasibility of biochar application to soils in temperate climate regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Gerhard; Bücker, Jannis; Gunczy, Stefan; Kitzler, Barbara; Klinglmüller, Michaela; Kloss, Stefanie; Watzinger, Andrea; Wimmer, Bernhard; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Zehetner, Franz

    2014-05-01

    The findings that fertility improvements in tropical soils have been successfully mediated by biochar applications have caused wide-spread interest to use biochar as a soil amendment also for soils in temperate climate regions. But these soils in intensively cultivated regions are not always as acidic or sandy as the tropical Ferralsols where biochar is most effective. Therefore it is not self-evident that different soil characteristics allow biochar to display the same benefits if site-specific demands for the optimal organic soil amendment are not considered. This study pursued the objective to study the extent of benefits that biochar could provide for crops on two typical Austrian agricultural soils in a two-year field experiment. An economic evaluation assessed the local biochar production costs and compared them with the value of the observed biochar benefits. From a business economic viewpoint, currently high costs of biochar are not balanced by only moderate increases in crop yields and thus agricultural revenues. Improved water retention due to biochar, however, might justify biochar as an adaptation measure to global warming, especially when considering beside business economic aspects also overall economic aspects. When not assuming total crop failures but only increased soil fertility, even an inclusion of avoided social (=societal) costs by sequestering carbon and thereby helping to mitigate climate change do not economically justify the application of biochar. Price of biochar would need to decrease by at least 40 % to achieve a break-even from the overall economic viewpoint (if optimistic assumptions about the social value of sequestered carbon are applied; at pessimistic assumptions price for biochar must decrease even more in order to break even). When applying an alternative type of soil treatment of using modified biochar but avoiding additional N-fertilization, a similar picture arises: Social benefits due to avoided N-fertilization and

  7. Identification and isolation of bacteria containing OPH enzyme for biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticide diazinon from contaminated agricultural soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mobarakpoor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphorus insecticide diazinon has been widely used in agriculture and has the ability to transfer and accumulate in soil, water and animal tissues, and to induce toxicity in plants, animals and humans. In humans, diazinon inhibits nerve transmission by inactivating acetylcholinesterase enzyme. The present study was carried out to identify bacteria containing OPH enzyme for biodegradation of diazinon from contaminated agricultural soil. Methods: In this study, 8 contaminated agricultural soil samples that were exposed to pesticides, especially diazinon in the last two decades, were collected from the farms of Hamedan province. After preparing the media, for isolation of several bacterial strains containing OPH enzyme that are capable of biodegrading organophosphorus pesticides by diazinon enzymatic hydrolysis, bacterial genomic DNA extraction, plasmid product sequencing, phylogenetic sequence processing and phylogenetic tree drawing were carried out. Results: Eight bacterial strains, capable of secreting OPH enzyme, were isolated from soil samples, one of which named BS-1 with 86% similarity to Bacillus safensis displayed the highest organophosphate-hydrolyzing capability and can be used as a source of carbon and phosphorus. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the isolated bacterial strain identified in this study with OPH enzyme secretion has the potential for biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides, especially diazinon in invitro conditions. Also, further studies such as the environmental stability and interaction, production strategies, safety, cost-benefit, environmental destructive parameters, and, toxicological, genetic and biochemical aspects are recommended prior to the application of bacterial strains in the field-scale bioremediation.

  8. Dynamics of soil bacterial communities in response to repeated application of manure containing sulfadiazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guo-Chun; Radl, Viviane; Schloter-Hai, Brigitte; Jechalke, Sven; Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia; Schloter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of manure have been applied to arable soils as fertilizer worldwide. Manure is often contaminated with veterinary antibiotics which enter the soil together with antibiotic resistant bacteria. However, little information is available regarding the main responders of bacterial communities in soil affected by repeated inputs of antibiotics via manure. In this study, a microcosm experiment was performed with two concentrations of the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) which were applied together with manure at three different time points over a period of 133 days. Samples were taken 3 and 60 days after each manure application. The effects of SDZ on soil bacterial communities were explored by barcoded pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA. Samples with high concentration of SDZ were analyzed on day 193 only. Repeated inputs of SDZ, especially at a high concentration, caused pronounced changes in bacterial community compositions. By comparison with the initial soil, we could observe an increase of the disturbance and a decrease of the stability of soil bacterial communities as a result of SDZ manure application compared to the manure treatment without SDZ. The number of taxa significantly affected by the presence of SDZ increased with the times of manure application and was highest during the treatment with high SDZ-concentration. Numerous taxa, known to harbor also human pathogens, such as Devosia, Shinella, Stenotrophomonas, Clostridium, Peptostreptococcus, Leifsonia, Gemmatimonas, were enriched in the soil when SDZ was present while the abundance of bacteria which typically contribute to high soil quality belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Lysobacter, Hydrogenophaga, and Adhaeribacter decreased in response to the repeated application of manure and SDZ.

  9. Dynamics of soil bacterial communities in response to repeated application of manure containing sulfadiazine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Chun Ding

    Full Text Available Large amounts of manure have been applied to arable soils as fertilizer worldwide. Manure is often contaminated with veterinary antibiotics which enter the soil together with antibiotic resistant bacteria. However, little information is available regarding the main responders of bacterial communities in soil affected by repeated inputs of antibiotics via manure. In this study, a microcosm experiment was performed with two concentrations of the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ which were applied together with manure at three different time points over a period of 133 days. Samples were taken 3 and 60 days after each manure application. The effects of SDZ on soil bacterial communities were explored by barcoded pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA. Samples with high concentration of SDZ were analyzed on day 193 only. Repeated inputs of SDZ, especially at a high concentration, caused pronounced changes in bacterial community compositions. By comparison with the initial soil, we could observe an increase of the disturbance and a decrease of the stability of soil bacterial communities as a result of SDZ manure application compared to the manure treatment without SDZ. The number of taxa significantly affected by the presence of SDZ increased with the times of manure application and was highest during the treatment with high SDZ-concentration. Numerous taxa, known to harbor also human pathogens, such as Devosia, Shinella, Stenotrophomonas, Clostridium, Peptostreptococcus, Leifsonia, Gemmatimonas, were enriched in the soil when SDZ was present while the abundance of bacteria which typically contribute to high soil quality belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Lysobacter, Hydrogenophaga, and Adhaeribacter decreased in response to the repeated application of manure and SDZ.

  10. Dynamics of Soil Bacterial Communities in Response to Repeated Application of Manure Containing Sulfadiazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guo-Chun; Radl, Viviane; Schloter-Hai, Brigitte; Jechalke, Sven; Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia; Schloter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of manure have been applied to arable soils as fertilizer worldwide. Manure is often contaminated with veterinary antibiotics which enter the soil together with antibiotic resistant bacteria. However, little information is available regarding the main responders of bacterial communities in soil affected by repeated inputs of antibiotics via manure. In this study, a microcosm experiment was performed with two concentrations of the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) which were applied together with manure at three different time points over a period of 133 days. Samples were taken 3 and 60 days after each manure application. The effects of SDZ on soil bacterial communities were explored by barcoded pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA. Samples with high concentration of SDZ were analyzed on day 193 only. Repeated inputs of SDZ, especially at a high concentration, caused pronounced changes in bacterial community compositions. By comparison with the initial soil, we could observe an increase of the disturbance and a decrease of the stability of soil bacterial communities as a result of SDZ manure application compared to the manure treatment without SDZ. The number of taxa significantly affected by the presence of SDZ increased with the times of manure application and was highest during the treatment with high SDZ-concentration. Numerous taxa, known to harbor also human pathogens, such as Devosia, Shinella, Stenotrophomonas, Clostridium, Peptostreptococcus, Leifsonia, Gemmatimonas, were enriched in the soil when SDZ was present while the abundance of bacteria which typically contribute to high soil quality belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Lysobacter, Hydrogenophaga, and Adhaeribacter decreased in response to the repeated application of manure and SDZ. PMID:24671113

  11. Mapping regional soil water erosion risk in the Brittany-Loire basin for water management agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degan, Francesca; Cerdan, Olivier; Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien; Gautier, Jean-Noël

    2014-05-01

    Soil water erosion is one of the main degradation processes that affect soils through the removal of soil particles from the surface. The impacts for environment and agricultural areas are diverse, such as water pollution, crop yield depression, organic matter loss and reduction in water storage capacity. There is therefore a strong need to produce maps at the regional scale to help environmental policy makers and soil and water management bodies to mitigate the effect of water and soil pollution. Our approach aims to model and map soil erosion risk at regional scale (155 000 km²) and high spatial resolution (50 m) in the Brittany - Loire basin. The factors responsible for soil erosion are different according to the spatial and time scales considered. The regional scale entails challenges about homogeneous data sets availability, spatial resolution of results, various erosion processes and agricultural practices. We chose to improve the MESALES model (Le Bissonnais et al., 2002) to map soil erosion risk, because it was developed specifically for water erosion in agricultural fields in temperate areas. The MESALES model consists in a decision tree which gives for each combination of factors the corresponding class of soil erosion risk. Four factors that determine soil erosion risk are considered: soils, land cover, climate and topography. The first main improvement of the model consists in using newly available datasets that are more accurate than the initial ones. The datasets used cover all the study area homogeneously. Soil dataset has a 1/1 000 000 scale and attributes such as texture, soil type, rock fragment and parent material are used. The climate dataset has a spatial resolution of 8 km and a temporal resolution of mm/day for 12 years. Elevation dataset has a spatial resolution of 50 m. Three different land cover datasets are used where the finest spatial resolution is 50 m over three years. Using these datasets, four erosion factors are characterized and

  12. An 810 ft/sec soil impact test of a 2-foot diameter model nuclear reactor containment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthoff, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    A soil impact test was conducted on a 880-pound 2-foot diameter sphere model. The impact area consisted of back filled desert earth and rock. The impact generated a crater 5 feet in diameter by 5 feet deep. It buried itself a total of 15 feet - as measured to the bottom of the model. After impact the containment vessel was pressure checked. No leaks were detected nor cracks observed.

  13. Bacterial Diversity within the Extreme Arid Atacama Desert Soils of the Yungay Region, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connon, S. A.; Lester, E. D.; Shafaat, H. S.; Obenhuber, D. C.; Ponce, A.

    2006-12-01

    Surface and subsurface soil samples analyzed for this study were collected from the hyper-arid Yungay region of the Atacama Desert, Chile. This is the first report of microbial diversity from DNA extracted directly from these extremely desiccated soils. Our data shows that 94% of the 16S rRNA genes cloned from these soils belong to the Actinobacteria phylum. A 24-hour time course series showed a diurnal water activity (aw) cycle that peaked at 0.52 in the early predawn hours, and ranged from 0.08 0.01 during the day. All measured water activity values were below the level required for microbial growth or enzyme activity. Total organic carbon (TOC) levels in this region were just above the limits of detection and ranged from 220 660 μg/g of soil. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) levels indicated cellular biomass ranging from 2 ×105 to 7 ×106 cell equivalents per gram of soil. The culturable counts were low with most samples showing no growth on standard plates of R2A medium; the highest single count was 47 colony forming units (CFU) per gram.

  14. Impact of Spatial Soil and Climate Input Data Aggregation on Regional Yield Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Holger; Zhao, Gang; Asseng, Senthold; Bindi, Marco; Biernath, Christian; Constantin, Julie; Coucheney, Elsa; Dechow, Rene; Doro, Luca; Eckersten, Henrik; Gaiser, Thomas; Grosz, Balázs; Heinlein, Florian; Kassie, Belay T.; Kersebaum, Kurt-Christian; Klein, Christian; Kuhnert, Matthias; Lewan, Elisabet; Moriondo, Marco; Nendel, Claas; Priesack, Eckart; Raynal, Helene; Roggero, Pier P.; Rötter, Reimund P.; Siebert, Stefan; Specka, Xenia; Tao, Fulu; Teixeira, Edmar; Trombi, Giacomo; Wallach, Daniel; Weihermüller, Lutz; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh; Ewert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We show the error in water-limited yields simulated by crop models which is associated with spatially aggregated soil and climate input data. Crop simulations at large scales (regional, national, continental) frequently use input data of low resolution. Therefore, climate and soil data are often generated via averaging and sampling by area majority. This may bias simulated yields at large scales, varying largely across models. Thus, we evaluated the error associated with spatially aggregated soil and climate data for 14 crop models. Yields of winter wheat and silage maize were simulated under water-limited production conditions. We calculated this error from crop yields simulated at spatial resolutions from 1 to 100 km for the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Most models showed yields biased by data. The relative mean absolute error (rMAE) of most models using aggregated soil data was in the range or larger than the inter-annual or inter-model variability in yields. This error increased further when both climate and soil data were aggregated. Distinct error patterns indicate that the rMAE may be estimated from few soil variables. Illustrating the range of these aggregation effects across models, this study is a first step towards an ex-ante assessment of aggregation errors in large-scale simulations. PMID:27055028

  15. Radon in soil gas in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Giane Gariglio; Rocha, Zildete

    2007-01-01

    Radon, the natural radioactive gas is produced by the radioactive decay of uranium and thorium which are ubiquitous, specially in rock and soil. By diffusion and convection. Radon migrate from the rocks and to the groundwater and to the soil and from them the radon migrate through fissures, pipes and hales to the surface. Measurements were carried out in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte, whose greatest part of the in habitants occupies the great pre cambrian unit of the Iron Quadrangle of Minas Gerais denominated 'Granitic Gneissic Complex', composed of Archean rocks of age between 3,2 Ga and 2,6 Ga. The part in which occurs in the municipal area of Belo Horizonte was denominated as Complexo Belo Horizonte, whose most characteristics rocks named Gneiss Belo Horizonte. The soil gas radon concentrations were determined by using a samples and a continuos flow through ionization chamber detector AlphaGUARD PQ2000PRO - Genitron Instruments GmbH in a Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis). Most results of radon concentration soil gas were in the range 10 kBq/m 3 to 50 kBq/m 3 . This values, according to the established Swedish Criteria are normal risk values. For soils classified as normal risk require 'radon protective construction', but the necessity of mitigation actions will depend on other factors, for example the soil permeability and rock type. (author)

  16. Effectiveness and competing capacity of native Rhizobium strains evaluated in IX Region soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrientos D, Leticia; Mendez A, Edith; Pino N, Ines

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes reaches its optimum when the host plants are nodulated by highly competitive and effective Rhizobium strains. With the purpose of assessing competition and nitrogen fixing capacity of native Rhizobium leguminosarum bio-var trifolii strains, a greenhouse test was carried out using white clover (Trifolium re-pens) and four kinds of soils, which represent the main agroecological areas of the IX Region. Eleven strains were evaluated, they were both native and collected and were streptomycin sulphate antibiotic resistant. A nitrogen and a nitrogen-less without inoculation testers were used as controls. All pots received a solution of ammonium sulphate marked with 10% 15 N a.e, equivalent to 10 kg ha -1 of N. Rye-grass was used as reference crop, cv. Nu-i. In general, the evaluated strains were very efficient. After three or four cuts they became the only source of nitrogen for the plants. They were also very competitive, getting to over 70% of root infection with regard to those present in soils. In Curacautin and Tolten soils, biological nitrogen fixation begins later than other soils evaluated, which is coincident with soils having a higher nitrogen content. Symbiosis occurs when the soil nitrogen content exhausts or diminishes. (author)

  17. Assessment of Copper and Zinc Contamination in Soils of Industrial Estates of Arak Region (Iran (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisa Solgi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of the environment due to heavy metals is a major concern to human life and the environment. This study was conducted to investigate and quantify the copper and zinc concentrations in industrial estates soil in Arak, Iran. Methods: Four industrial estates were considered for the experimental design, including Arak 1, Arak 2, Arak 3, and Ghotbe Sanaati. For preliminary understanding of soil heavy metals pollution in industrial estates, the concentrations of zinc and copper in the soil are analyzed and investigated to evaluate their concentration and environmental quality based on the contamination factor. Results: The results indicated the soils had been polluted by heavy metals due to industrial processes that concentrate these metals in the soil. Copper concentrations varied from 15.69 to 49.55 mg/kg. Zinc concentrations were found to be between 23.02 and 144.17 mg/kg. The highest concentration of Zn was found in Arak 3 region which may be due to industrial activities while the highest concentration of Cu was observed in the soil of Arak 1 region that may be due to proximity of this industrial estate to Arak city. The findings of the contamination factor showed that the heavy metals are accumulated in the soil of industrial estates that are considered low risk for contamination with zinc and copper. Conclusion: The achievements of this research showed the location of the industrial estate, proximity to highways and main roads, and the area of green space of industrial estates are important factors in determining heavy metals concentration.

  18. Study of Organic Matter in Soils of the Amazon Region Employing Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadini, Amanda Maria; Nicolodelli, Gustavo; Mounier, Stéphane; Montes, Célia Regina; Marcondes Bastos Pereira Milori, Débora

    2014-05-01

    In the face of climate change and increasing CO2 levels in the atmosphere, the global carbon cycle, soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration, and the role of different world biomes as potential sources and sinks of carbon are receiving increasing attention. Carbon quantification is an important environmental indicator, but the structure of organic matter is also important because is related to carbon stability. The synthesis of soil organic matter (SOM), as presented in soils of forest vegetation, can be originated from condensation polymeric polyphenols and quinones that are responsible for controlling the main physical-chemical properties of soils. These systems are present in humic substances, representing the major fluorophore of SOM[1-3]. Abiotic factors, such as soil texture, use and occupation of soil, can influence on the process of SOM formation, molecular structure and in its humification index[4]. Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (LIFS) have become a promising technique for assessing humification index of SOM (HLIFS). In this context, the aim of this study was to analyze the humification index of the SOM in the region of Barcelos (Amazon) employing LIFS. The study area was the region of Barcelos, close the river Demeni. The whose vegetation distribution in this area, is two biomes the Dense Ombrophylous Forest (DPQD) and Campinarana (DPQT), with areas of edaphic contacts between these two phytophysiognomies, which ranged from Open field (FDE) to closed Depression (DPQ). Preliminary results showed that the area closed Depression (DPQ) there was a continuous gradient of humification with increasing soil depth. A similar behavior was verified for area Forest (DPQD), where the highest values of HLIFS were obtained between the four points analyzed, indicating the magnitude of the molecular recalcitrance this organic matter in this area. The results obtained for area Campinarana (DPQT) and Open field (FDE) showed an opposite behavior. These points there

  19. Field Performance of Nine Soil Water Content Sensors on a Sandy Loam Soil in New Brunswick, Maritime Region, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Stevens

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available An in situ field test on nine commonly-used soil water sensors was carried out in a sandy loam soil located in the Potato Research Center, Fredericton, NB (Canada using the gravimetric method as a reference. The results showed that among the tested sensors, regardless of installation depths and soil water regimes, CS615, Trase, and Troxler performed the best with the factory calibrations, with a relative root mean square error (RRMSE of 15.78, 16.93, and 17.65%, and a r2 of 0.75, 0.77, and 0.65, respectively. TRIME, Moisture Point (MP917, and Gopher performed slightly worse with the factory calibrations, with a RRMSE of 45.76, 26.57, and 20.41%, and a r2 of 0.65, 0.72, and 0.78, respectively, while the Gypsum, WaterMark, and Netafim showed a frequent need for calibration in the application in this region.

  20. Comparative Microbiome Analysis of a Fusarium Wilt Suppressive Soil and a Fusarium Wilt Conducive Soil From the Châteaurenard Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Siegel-Hertz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Disease-suppressive soils are soils in which specific soil-borne plant pathogens cause only limited disease although the pathogen and susceptible host plants are both present. Suppressiveness is in most cases of microbial origin. We conducted a comparative metabarcoding analysis of the taxonomic diversity of fungal and bacterial communities from suppressive and non-suppressive (conducive soils as regards Fusarium wilts sampled from the Châteaurenard region (France. Bioassays based on Fusarium wilt of flax confirmed that disease incidence was significantly lower in the suppressive soil than in the conducive soil. Furthermore, we succeeded in partly transferring Fusarium wilt-suppressiveness to the conducive soil by mixing 10% (w/w of the suppressive soil into the conducive soil. Fungal diversity differed significantly between the suppressive and conducive soils. Among dominant fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs affiliated to known genera, 17 OTUs were detected exclusively in the suppressive soil. These OTUs were assigned to the Acremonium, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Clonostachys, Fusarium, Ceratobasidium, Mortierella, Penicillium, Scytalidium, and Verticillium genera. Additionally, the relative abundance of specific members of the bacterial community was significantly higher in the suppressive and mixed soils than in the conducive soil. OTUs found more abundant in Fusarium wilt-suppressive soils were affiliated to the bacterial genera Adhaeribacter, Massilia, Microvirga, Rhizobium, Rhizobacter, Arthrobacter, Amycolatopsis, Rubrobacter, Paenibacillus, Stenotrophomonas, and Geobacter. Several of the fungal and bacterial genera detected exclusively or more abundantly in the Fusarium wilt-suppressive soil included genera known for their activity against F. oxysporum. Overall, this study supports the potential role of known fungal and bacterial genera in Fusarium wilt suppressive soils from Châteaurenard and pinpoints new bacterial and fungal

  1. Lots of legacy soil data are available, but which data do we need to collect for regional land use analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Chantal; Stoorvogel, Jetse; Claessens, Lieven

    2015-04-01

    In the past, soil surveying techniques were mainly developed for qualitative regional land use analysis (RLUA) like land evaluation and land use planning. Conventional soil survey techniques usually describe soil types according to a soil classification scheme (e.g. Soil Taxonomy and World Reference Base). These soil surveys met the requirements of qualitative land evaluation and land use planning. However, during the last decades there is an increased need for quantitative RLUA resulting in an increased demand for quantitative soil data. The rapid developments in computing technology and the availability of auxiliary information (e.g. remote sensing and digital elevation models) allowed for the development of new soil surveying techniques like digital soil mapping. These new soil surveying techniques aim to produce continuous maps of quantitative functional soil properties. However, RLUA nowadays requires soil data that include a description of the spatial variability of the entire pedon in which correlations between soil properties are retained. Current surveying techniques do not fully fulfil these requirements resulting in a gap between the supply and demand of soil data in RLUA. The gap is caused by the fact that legacy soil data are collected for different purposes and inherently have different assumptions on e.g., soil variability. In this study, some of these assumptions are tested and verified using primary soil data collected during a recent field survey in Machakos and Makueni County (Kenya). Subsequently an ongoing RLUA, the Global Yield Gap Atlas (GYGA) project, is taken as a case study to evaluate the effect of different sources of soil data on the results of the RLUA. The results of the study show that various assumptions underlying the soil survey hamper the quality requirements of soil data for the specific objectives of the RLUA. To give a few examples: mapping soil properties individually ignores correlations between them, soil properties

  2. Soil organic matter composition and quality across fire severity gradients in coniferous and deciduous forests of the southern boreal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica R. Miesel; William C. Hockaday; Randy Kolka; Philip A. Townsend

    2015-01-01

    Recent patterns of prolonged regional drought in southern boreal forests of the Great Lakes region, USA, suggest that the ecological effects of disturbance by wildfire may become increasingly severe. Losses of forest soil organic matter (SOM) during fire can limit soil nutrient availability and forest regeneration. These processes are also influenced by the composition...

  3. Evaluation of 137Cs mobility in soil profiles from the Pantanal region, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fernanda Leite da

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive pollutants can cause impact on the environmental quality of soils and pose a risk to human health. The release of radioactive materials through nuclear testing or nuclear accidents cause the deposition of radionuclides on the ground,· it may be leached by rain, transported to the sources of natural waters and absorbed by the soil fauna and flora, and thus enter the human food chain. Radioecological studies have shown that soils with low pH, low organic matter content and low fertility are more vulnerable to contamination by 137 Cs, since the transfer to plants is high. In this study, we aimed to assess and map the vulnerability to contamination by 137 Cs surface horizons of the soils from the Pantanal and propose mitigation measures adapted to the regional scenario to optimize radiological protection of agricultural areas. Therefore, selected soil profiles located in the municipality of Jaraguari, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, and applied the conceptual model developed by Picanco Jr (2012), which was used in the reference values of the factor of soil-plant transfer (FT) for 137 Cs in corn, related soil variables (pH, CTC and exchangeable K) and relevance of parameters and variations of amplitudes for each value range of FT. The application of this conceptual model established to detect the vulnerability of soils to radioactive contamination generated maps vulnerability showing that the region is very heterogeneous as this criterion, showing low levels of vulnerability for most of the region and in some areas, extreme vulnerability. This result identified the Pantanal as one of the less vulnerable to the radioactive contamination, but the sparse areas of extreme vulnerability can lead to contamination of subsoil and a significant spread of contamination via groundwater. This conceptual model, which defines vulnerability classification, is a first step for the study and determination of a numerical index of vulnerability to 137 Cs soil and can be used in

  4. Soil gross nitrogen transformations in responses to land use conversion in a subtropical karst region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dejun; Liu, Jing; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Liang; Wang, Kelin

    2018-04-15

    Gross nitrogen (N) transformations can provide important information for assessing indigenous soil N supply capacity and soil nitrate leaching potential. The current study aimed to assess the variation of gross N transformations in response to conversion of maize-soybean fields to sugarcane, mulberry, and forage grass fields in a subtropical karst region of southwest China. Mature forests were included for comparison. Gross rates of N mineralization (GNM) were highest in the forests, intermediate in the maize-soybean and forage grass fields, and lowest in the sugarcane and mulberry fields, suggesting capacity of indigenous soil N supply derived from organic N mineralization was lowered after conversion to sugarcane and mulberry fields. The relative high indigenous soil N supply capacity in the maize-soybean fields was obtained at the cost of soil organic N depletion. Gross nitrification (GN) rates were highest in the forests, intermediate in the forage grass fields and lowest in the other three agricultural land use types. The nitrate retention capacity (24.1 ± 2.0% on average) was similar among the five land use types, implying that nitrate leaching potential was not changed after land use conversion. Microbial biomass N exerted significant direct effects on the rates of N mineralization, nitrification, ammonium immobilization and nitrate immobilization. Soil organic carbon, total N and exchangeable magnesium had significant indirect effects on these N transformation rates. Our findings suggest that forage grass cultivation instead of other agricultural land uses should be recommended from the perspective of increasing indigenous soil N supply while not depleting soil organic N pool. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sorption behaviour of radiocaesium in soils from various regions of Libya and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenber, Mohamed Ahmed.

    1992-01-01

    In the last years the interest of zeolite minerals has increased. Some of them have been tested as caesium binding agents in both animals and in soil-plant systems. The sorption capacity of zeolites was high, and the experimental results showed that the zeolite materials have a considerable potential as a caesium binding agent. A significant reduction reduction in the plant uptake of 134 Cs, maximally by a factor of 8, was obtained in the experiments. The sorption characteristics of 134 Cs on soils from various regions of Libya and Sweden were studied, using batch techniques. The influence of soil parameters, contact time, and various concentrations of Cs + , K + and NH 4 + in the solution on the sorption ratio (R s -value) for 134 Cs were determined by using 134 Cs as a tracer. Important parameters influencing the sorption were clay content, pH, and the concentration of cations, in particular that of K + and NH 4 + , which compete with Cs + for the sorption sites. The conditions influencing the exchangeability of 134 Cs sorbed in different soil types were studied in desorption experiments. The exchangeability of caesium was determined by extraction with 1 N Ba Cl 2 and 1 N NH 4 Cl. The results showed that divalent Ba 2+ was much less effective than the monovalent NH 4 + in exchanging 134 Cs from the sorption sites in the soils. Increasing the equilibration time and drying the soils reduced the exchangeability of 134 Cs in most of the soils, especially the fraction exchangeable with NH 4 + . Correlations were found between the radiocaesium transfer factor for plant uptake, clay content, and sorption ratio. Simple mathematical models were used to estimate the transfer factors for radiocaesium to wheat on soils of interest, for which no uptake data are available. 31 refs, 1 fig, 2 tabs

  6. Evaluation of soil fertility status of Regional Agricultural Research Station, Tarahara, Sunsari, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Khadka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertility evaluation of an area or region is most basic decision making tool for the sustainable soil nutrient management. In order to evaluate the soil fertility status of the Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS, Tarahara, Susari, Nepal. Using soil sampling auger 81 soil samples (0-20 cm were collected based on the variability of land. The collected samples were analyzed for their texture, structure, colour, pH, OM, N, P2O5, K2O, Ca, Mg, S, B, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn status. The Arc-GIS 10.1 software was used for the preparation of soil fertility maps. The soil structure was granular to sub-angular blocky and varied between brown- dark grayish brown and dark gray in colour. The sand, silt and clay content were 30.32±1.4%, 48.92±0.89% and 20.76±0.92%, respectively and categorized as loam, clay loam, sandy loam, silt loam and silty clay loam in texture. The soil was moderately acidic in pH (5.98±0.08. The available sulphur (2.15±0.21 ppm, available boron (0.08±0.01 ppm and available zinc (0.35±0.03 ppm status were very low, whereas extractable magnesium (44.33±6.03 ppm showed low status. Similarly, organic matter (2.80±0.07%, total nitrogen (0.09±0.004 %, extractable calcium (1827.90±45.80 ppm and available copper (1.15±0.04 ppm were medium in content. The available phosphorus (39.77±5.27 ppm, extractable potassium (134.12±4.91 ppm, and available manganese (18.15±1.15 ppm exhibits high status, while available iron (244.7±19.70 ppm was very high. The fertilizer recommendation can be done based on determined soil fertility status to economize crop production. Furthermore, research farm should develop future research strategy accordance with the prepared soil data base.

  7. pH buffering capacity of acid soils from tropical and subtropical regions of China as influenced by incorporation of crop straw biochars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ren-kou; Zhao, An-zhen; Yuan, Jin-hua; Jiang, Jun [Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: The key factors influencing pH buffering capacity of acid soils from tropical and subtropical regions, and effects of soil evolution and incorporation of biochars on pH buffering capacity were investigated to develop suitable methods to increase pH buffering capacity of acid soils. Materials and methods: A total of 24 acid soils collected from southern China were used. The pH buffering capacity was determined using acid-base titration. The values of pH buffering capacity were obtained from the slope of titration curves of acid or alkali additions plotted against pH in the pH range 4.0-7.0. Two biochars were prepared from straws of peanut and canola using a low temperature pyrolysis method. After incubation of three acid soils, pH buffering capacity was then determined. Results and discussion: pH buffering capacity had a range of 9.1-32.1 mmol kg{sup -1} pH{sup -1} for 18 acid soils from tropical and subtropical regions of China. The pH buffering capacity was highly correlated (R{sup 2} = 0.707) with soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) measured with ammonium acetate method at pH 7.0 and decreased with soil evolution due to the decreased CEC. Incorporation of biochars at rates equivalent to 72 and 120 t ha{sup -1} increased soil pH buffering capacity due to the CEC contained in the biochars. Incorporation of peanut straw char which itself contained more CEC and alkalinity induced more increase in soil CEC, and thus greater increase in pH buffering capacity compared with canola straw char. At 5% of peanut straw char added, soil CEC increased by 80.2%, 51.3%, and 82.8% for Ultisol from Liuzhou, Oxisol from Chengmai and Ultisol from Kunlun, respectively, and by 19.8%, 19.6%, and 32.8% with 5% of canola straw char added, respectively; and correspondingly for these soils, the pH buffering capacity increased by 73.6%, 92.0%, and 123.2% with peanut straw char added; and by 31.3%, 25.6%, and 52.3% with canola straw char added, respectively. Protonation

  8. Soil risk assessment of As and Zn contamination in a coal mining region using geostatisretics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komnitsas, Kostas; Modis, Kostas

    2006-01-01

    The present paper aims to map As and Zn contamination and assess the risk for agricultural soils in a wider disposal site containing wastes derived from coal beneficiation. Geochemical data related to environmental studies show that the waste characteristics favor solubilisation and mobilization of inorganic contaminants and in some cases the generation of acidic leachates. 135 soil samples were collected from a 34 km 2 area and analysed by using geostatistics under the maximum entropy principle in order to produce risk assessment maps and estimate the probability of soil contamination. In addition, the present paper discusses the main issues related to risk assessment in wider mining and waste disposal sites in order to assist decision makers in selecting feasible rehabilitation schemes

  9. Relationships of 137Cs inventory with magnetic measures of calcareous soils of hilly region in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoubi, Shamsollah; Ahmadi, Mohamamd; Abdi, Mohammad Reza; Abbaszadeh Afshar, Farideh

    2012-01-01

    Erosion is a natural process, but it has been dramatically increased by human activities; and this adversely influences soil productivity and environmental quality. For quantification of soil erosion, several techniques including the use of Cs-137 have been employed. This study was conducted to explore the relationships of Cs-137 inventory with magnetic properties in calcareous soils in western Iran. Ten transects were selected in the hilly region in Chelgerd district of Iran. Soil samples from 0 to 30 and 30–50 cm depths were collected from fifty points to determine Cs-137 inventory, magnetic measures and selected physico-chemical properties (in total there were 100 soil samples). The results showed that simple mass balance model (SMBM) estimated a gross erosion rate of 29.6 t ha −1 yr −1 and a net soil deposition of 21.8 t ha −1 yr −1 ; hence, a net soil loss of 9.6 t ha −1 yr −1 and a sediment delivery ratio of 31.4%. Simple linear regression and non-linear regression analysis showed that mass magnetic susceptibility (χ lf ) explained only 33.64% and 45% of variability in Cs-137 in the transects studied. The results of multiple linear regression analysis of 137 Cs with magnetic parameters and physico-chemical properties indicated that extractable potassium and χ lf explained approximately 61% of the total variability in 137 Cs in the area studied. Overall, the results suggest that further research is needed for the use of magnetic characteristics as an alternative technique in place Cs-137 methodology for calcareous soils. - Highlights: ► Simple linear regression mass magnetic susceptibility (χ L ) explained only 33.64 % of Cs-137 variability. ► Non-linear regression model explained 45% of variability in Cs-137 in the transects studied. ► Magnetic Susceptibility measures could not directly be used in calcareous soils to evaluate soil redistribution. ► Magnetic characteristics as an alternative technique instead of Cs-137 in calcareous

  10. Interactions between 59Fe(14C)EDTA and soils containing calcium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargitai-Toth, A.; Konya, J.

    1991-01-01

    Interaction between FeEDTA and calcareous soils was followed over a period of four weeks using a radiotracer technique, and a kinetic evaluation of the results was performed. 59 Fe served to determine the quantity of iron, 14 C to assay for EDTA and 45 Ca to measure calcium. During the experiment, i.e. within four weeks in case of the chernozem soil 61% and in case of the clayey meadow soil 51% of the iron chelate disappeared from the solution. The loss in soluble iron was partly due to a rapid sorption process of about an hour and partly due to the slow decomposition of FeEDTA to Fe(OH) 3 . The two processes could be separated using the Christiansen equation. (author) 9 refs.; 1 figs.; 2 tabs

  11. A retroviral oncogene, akt, encoding a serine-threonine kinase containing an SH2-like region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellacosa, A; Testa, J R; Staal, S P; Tsichlis, P N

    1991-10-11

    The v-akt oncogene codes for a 105-kilodalton fusion phosphoprotein containing Gag sequences at its amino terminus. Sequence analysis of v-akt and biochemical characterization of its product revealed that it codes for a protein kinase C-related serine-threonine kinase whose cellular homolog is expressed in most tissues, with the highest amount found in thymus. Although Akt is a serine-threonine kinase, part of its regulatory region is similar to the Src homology-2 domain, a structural motif characteristic of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases that functions in protein-protein interactions. This suggests that Akt may form a functional link between tyrosine and serine-threonine phosphorylation pathways.

  12. Advanced stress analysis of PWR containments in the region of nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauer, G.

    1977-01-01

    As an example of the stress analysis of a nozzle in a PWR steel containment, an advanced stress analysis of a personnel lock is presented. Contrary to the calculations by means of numerical shell programs usual till now, this advanced stress analysis was executed with the finite-element-method. Because of their theory, the shell programs compute mathematically exact results, but at the intersection of two shells the notch stresses cannot be analyzed well. A further disadvantage must be seen in the fact that there is a great distance between the real critical region near the intersection line and the calculation point, which lies on the neutral axis of the shell. The study shows that the results obtained to date which are based on the shell theory and calculate stresses at a fictitious intersection line can be improved and that there is a possibility to get stress values adjacent to the real intersection line. (Auth.)

  13. Disturbance to desert soil ecosystems contributes to dust-mediated impacts at regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointing, Stephen B.; Belnap, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    This review considers the regional scale of impacts arising from disturbance to desert soil ecosystems. Deserts occupy over one-third of the Earth’s terrestrial surface, and biological soil covers are critical to stabilization of desert soils. Disturbance to these can contribute to massive destabilization and mobilization of dust. This results in dust storms that are transported across inter-continental distances where they have profound negative impacts. Dust deposition at high altitudes causes radiative forcing of snowpack that leads directly to altered hydrological regimes and changes to freshwater biogeochemistry. In marine environments dust deposition impacts phytoplankton diazotrophy, and causes coral reef senescence. Increasingly dust is also recognized as a threat to human health.

  14. Tropical organic soils ecosystems in relation to regional water resources in southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armentano, T. V.

    1982-01-01

    Tropical organic soils have functioned as natural sinks for carbon, nitrogen, slfur and other nutrients for the past 4000 years or more. Topographic evolution in peat swamp forests towards greater oligotrophy has concentrated storage of the limited nutrient stock in surface soils and biota. Tropical peat systems thus share common ecosystem characteristics with northern peat bogs and certain tropical oligotrophic forests. Organic matter accumulation and high cation-exchange-capacity limit nutrient exports from undisturbed organic soils, although nutrient retention declines with increasing eutrophy and wetland productivity. Peat swamps are subject to irreversible degradation if severely altered because disturbance of vegetation, surface peats and detritus can disrupt nuttrient cycles and reduce forest recovery capacity. Drainage also greatly increases exports of nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutrients and leads to downstream eutrophication and water quality degradation. Regional planning for clean water supplies must recognize the benefits provided by natural peatlands in balancing water supplies and regulating water chemistry.

  15. Cesium-137 inventory of the undisturbed soil areas in the Londrina Region, Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrello, Avacir C.; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Cesium-137 is an artificial radionuclide introduced in the environment through the radioactive fallout of the superficial tests of nuclear weapons. The cesium-137 deposition occurred to middles of the 1980-decade and, due to the Chernobyl accident, great part of Europe had a additional fallout of cesium-137. The contaminations of this accident do not have reached Southern Hemisphere. Cesium-137 is an alkaline metal, high electropositive, that in contact with the soil is strongly adsorbed to the clay in the FES (Frayed Edge Sites) and RES (Regular Edge Sites) positions, and it movement by chemical processes in the soil is insignificant. Because of this, cesium-137 became a good soil marker, and its movement is related to the soil movement particles, so that the cesium-137 have been used in the study of the soil redistribution processes, as a tool of quantifying the rates of soil losses and gain. To use this methodology, it is necessary the knowledge of the reference inventory of cesium-137, that is given as function of the total concentration of cesium-137 deposited in an area by the radioactive fallout. If a sampling point presents less cesium-137 than the reference inventory, this point is considered a point with soil loss; otherwise, the point is considered a point with soil deposition. To evaluate the cesium-137 inventory in the Londrina region, four areas of the undisturbed soil were sampling in grid of 3x3, with a distance of 9 meters among the points. Of these four sampling areas, three areas were of native forest (labeled Mata1, Mata2 and Mata UEL), and one was a pasture area. Cesium-137 inventory was 223 ± 41 Bq m -2 , 240 ± 65 Bq m -2 and 305 ± 36 Bq m -2 for Mata UEL, Mata1 and Mata2, respectively, and of 211 ± 28 Bq m -2 for the native pasture. Considering the deviation in each value, it is not possible to conclude that there are differences among the values of cesium-137 inventory, so that the average reference inventory of cesium-137 for the

  16. Chlorpyrifos sorption studies on two soils from the VI Region, using isotopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moll S, Oscar; Potenza M, Dennisse; Nario M, Adriana; Luzio L, Walter; Pino N, Ines; Parada C, Ana Maria; Carrasco R, M.Adriana

    2005-01-01

    The soil sorption of a pesticide, is one of the main factor that affects its mobility in a soil profile and the potential groundwater contamination. The chlorpyrifos insecticide (CLP) is used to control a wide range of insects, and represents the 41% of the total amount of traded pesticides in the VI Region of Chile. Thus, to study the CLP behaviour and its potential leaching, sorption studies were carried out on two soil surface horizons, Serie O'Higgins (S1) and Serie Rancagua (S2), Fluventic Haploxerolls Family, located at the VI Region of Chile. Different 14 C-CLP concentrations of a CaCl 2 0,01 M solution were added to soil samples. The equilibrium time was 24 h and 6 h for S1 and S2 respectively. The datas were adjusted to the Freundlich isotherm, where the distribution coefficient K d were 32.4 mL g -1 and 67.25 mL g -1 for S1 and S2. The normalized K d at 100% of the organic carbon (K CO ) of the soil were 1140 mL g -1 and 2690 mL g-1 for S1 and S2, respectively. For the non polar character of the CLP and its affinity with the organic matter, both soils presented a low potential to contaminate the groundwater. This information was complemented with CLP biodegradation and half life studies to characterize the product under establish parameters. This study is part of a joint project between SAG, CCHEN, INIA and UCH, focused on national programs on SAG's pesticide management, and the Technical Cooperation Program of the IAEA. Besides, the study rely on the support of the national company ANASAC (AN)

  17. [Effect of Biochar on Soil Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Semi-arid Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan-liang; Wang, Dan-dan; Zheng, Ji-yong; Zhao, Shi-wei; Zhang, Xing-chang

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of biochar addition on the emission of greenhouse gases from farmland soil in semi-arid region. Through an in-situ experiments, the influence of sawdust biochar(J) and locust tree skin biochar (H) at three doses (1%, 3%, and 5% of quality percentage) on C2, CH4 and N2O emissions were studied within the six months in the south of Ningxiaprovince. The results indicated that soil CO2 emission flux was slightly increased with the addition doses for both biochars, and the averaged CO2 emission flux for sawdust and locust tree skin biochar was enhanced by 1. 89% and 3. 34% compared to the control, but the difference between treatments was not statistically significant. The soil CH4 emission was decreased with the increasing of biochar doses, by 1. 17%, 2. 55%, 4. 32% for J1, J3, J5 and 2. 35%, 5. 83%, 7. 32% for H1, H3, H5, respectively. However, the difference was statistically significant only for J5, H3 and H5 treatments (P effect on soil N2O emission. Our study indicated that the biochar has no significant influence on soil CO2 and N2O emissions within six months in semi-arid region and can significantly influence soil CH4 emissions (P < 0. 05). As for biochar type, the locust tree skin biochar is significantly better than the sawdust biochar in terms of restraining CH4 emission(P = 0. 048).

  18. Effect of organic carbon on sorption of human adenovirus to soil particles and laboratory containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key factor controlling the relationship between virus release and human exposure is how virus particles interact with soils, sediments and other solid particles in the environment and in engineered treatment systems. Finding no previous investigations of human adenovirus (HAdV)...

  19. Phytoremediation of contaminated soils containing gasoline using Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) in greenhouse pots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mansoory, Asia Fadhile; Idris, Mushrifah; Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh; Anuar, Nurina

    2017-05-01

    Greenhouse experiments were carried out to determine the phytotoxic effects on the plant Ludwigia octovalvis in order to assess its applicability for phytoremediation gasoline-contaminated soils. Using plants to degrade hydrocarbons is a challenging task. In this study, different spiked concentrations of hydrocarbons in soil (1, 2, and 3 g/kg) were tested. The results showed that the mean efficiency of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal over a 72-day culture period was rather high. The maximum removal of 79.8 % occurred for the 2 g/kg concentration, while the removal rate by the corresponding unplanted controls was only (48.6 %). The impact of gasoline on plants included visual symptoms of stress, yellowing, growth reduction, and perturbations in the developmental parameters. The dry weight and wet weight of the plant slightly increased upon exposure to gasoline until day 42. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated change to the root and stem structure in plant tissue due to the direct attachment with gasoline contaminated compared to the control sample. The population of living microorganisms in the contaminated soil was found to be able to adapt to different gasoline concentrations. The results showed that L. octovalvis and rhizobacteria in gasoline-contaminated soil have the potential to degrade organic pollutants.

  20. Towards prediction of soil erodibility using hyperspectral information: a case study in a semi-arid region of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostovari, Yaser; Ghorbani-Dashtaki, Shoja; Bahrami, Hossein-Ali

    2018-01-01

    and develop Spectrotransfer Function (STF) using spectral reflectance information and Pedotransfer Function (PTF) to predict the K-factor, respectively. The derived STF was compared with developed PTF using measurable soil properties by Ostovari et al. (2016) and the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE......Soil Visible–Near-Infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy has become an applicable and interesting technique to evaluate a number of soil properties because it is a fast, cost-effective, and non-invasive measurement technique. The main objective of the study to predict soil erodibility (K-factor), soil...... organic matter (SOM), and calcium carbonate equivalent (CaCO3) in calcareous soils of semi-arid regions located in south of Iran using spectral reflectance information in the Vis-NIR range. The K-factor was measured in 40 erosion plots under natural rainfall and the spectral reflectance of soil samples...

  1. Environmental radioactivity level and soil radon measurement of a volcanic region in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngachin, M.; Garavaglia, M.; Giovani, C.; Kwato Njock, M.G.

    2007-02-01

    A part of the survey programme on the evaluation of environmental radioactivity in Cameroon has just been initiated. The radioactivity level of soils in a volcanic area in Cameroon was determined and discussed. 30 soils samples were collected from Buea and Limbe cities located in the south-western Cameroon. These two regions are known for theirs volcanic grounds due to the presence of Mount Cameroon mountain. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides as well as that of the fission product were evaluated by gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper purity germanium detector (HPGe). The ranges of concentrations in the surveyed soils were 11 - 17 Bq kg -1 , 22 - 36 Bq kg -1 and 43 - 201 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively. The radioisotope 137 Cs was also found but in a very small amount. The outdoor absorbed dose rate 1 m above ground with the corresponding annual effective dose rate, assuming a 20% occupancy factor were estimated. The radium equivalent and the external hazard index were also evaluated and results are compared with available data from other studies and with the world average value (UNSCEAR, 1988, 2000). A solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTDs), LR-115 was used for soil radon measurements at a depth of 50 cm. The ranges of soil radon concentrations were 6.7 - 10.8 kBq m -3 and 5.5 - 8.7 kBq m -3 in Buea and Limbe, respectively. A positive correlation was found between concentrations of radium measured with γ-spectrometry and the soil radon concentrations measured with the nitrate cellulose detectors. The results of this study provide the radioactivity level in soil of a volcanic area, which has been found to be within the safety limits. The south-western Cameroon can be considered as having normal natural background radiation in normal living conditions. (author)

  2. Deforestation impacts on soil organic carbon stocks in the Semiarid Chaco Region, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarino, Sebastián Horacio; Studdert, Guillermo Alberto; Baldassini, Pablo; Cendoya, María Gabriela; Ciuffoli, Lucía; Mastrángelo, Matias; Piñeiro, Gervasio

    2017-01-01

    Land use change affects soil organic carbon (SOC) and generates CO 2 emissions. Moreover, SOC depletion entails degradation of soil functions that support ecosystem services. Large areas covered by dry forests have been cleared in the Semiarid Chaco Region of Argentina for cropping expansion. However, deforestation impacts on the SOC stock and its distribution in the soil profile have been scarcely reported. We assessed these impacts based on the analysis of field data along a time-since-deforestation-for-cropping chronosequence, and remote sensing indices. Soil organic C was determined up to 100cm depth and physically fractionated into mineral associated organic carbon (MAOC) and particulate organic C (POC). Models describing vertical distribution of SOC were fitted. Total SOC, POC and MAOC stocks decreased markedly with increasing cropping age. Particulate organic C was the most sensitive fraction to cultivation. After 10yr of cropping SOC loss was around 30%, with greater POC loss (near 60%) and smaller MAOC loss (near 15%), at 0-30cm depth. Similar relative SOC losses were observed in deeper soil layers (30-60 and 60-100cm). Deforestation and subsequent cropping also modified SOC vertical distribution. Soil organic C loss was negatively associated with the proportion of maize in the rotation and total crop biomass inputs, but positively associated with the proportion of soybean in the rotation. Without effective land use polices, deforestation and agricultural expansion can lead to rapid soil degradation and reductions in the provision of important ecosystem services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The rostral medulla of bullfrog tadpoles contains critical lung rhythmogenic and chemosensitive regions across metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Mitchell D; Iceman, Kimberly E; Harris, Michael B; Taylor, Barbara E

    2018-06-08

    The development of amphibian breathing provides insight into vertebrate respiratory control mechanisms. Neural oscillators in the rostral and caudal medulla drive ventilation in amphibians, and previous reports describe ventilatory oscillators and CO 2 sensitive regions arise during different stages of amphibian metamorphosis. However, inconsistent findings have been enigmatic, and make comparisons to potential mammalian counterparts challenging. In the current study we assessed amphibian central CO 2 responsiveness and respiratory rhythm generation during two different developmental stages. Whole-nerve recordings of respiratory burst activity in cranial and spinal nerves were made from intact or transected brainstems isolated from tadpoles during early or late stages of metamorphosis. Brainstems were transected at the level of the trigeminal nerve, removing rostral structures including the nucleus isthmi, midbrain, and locus coeruleus, or transected at the level of the glossopharyngeal nerve, removing the putative buccal oscillator and caudal medulla. Removal of caudal structures stimulated the frequency of lung ventilatory bursts and revealed a hypercapnic response in normally unresponsive preparations derived from early stage tadpoles. In preparations derived from late stage tadpoles, removal of rostral or caudal structures reduced lung burst frequency, while CO 2 responsiveness was retained. Our results illustrate that structures within the rostral medulla are capable of sensing CO 2 throughout metamorphic development. Similarly, the region controlling lung ventilation appears to be contained in the rostral medulla throughout metamorphosis. This work offers insight into the consistency of rhythmic respiratory and chemosensitive capacities during metamorphosis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Drip irrigation and fertigation of potato under light-textured soils of cappadocia region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitgil, M. B.; Onaran, H.; Munsuz, N.; Kislal, H.; Akin, A.; Unlenen, A. L.; Cayci, G.; Kutuk, C.

    2002-01-01

    In order to evaluate potato response to drip irrigation and N fertigation; and also to improve nitrogen and water use efficiencies of potato and eventually to obtain less nitrogen polluted surface and water, 10 field experiments were carried out at three different locations in Cappadocia Region of Turkey in 1997, 1998, 1999 and 2000 growing seasons. Nitrogen as ammonium sulphate ((NH 4 ) 2 So 4 ), was supplied by drip irrigation water (fertigation) at rates of 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg N/da. Also, soil N application treatment equivalent to the fertigation treatment of 60kg N/da was included. These five treatments were investigated in a completely randomized block design with four replicants. Agria potato variety was used in all experiments and potato was planted in mid May and harvested at the end of October.''1''5N-labelled ammonium sulphate fertilizer were applied in isotope-sub plots within the macroplots for each treatment, in order to determine the amount of nitrogen taken up by the plant, nitrogen use efficiency and the distribution of residual nitrogen at different depths in the soil profile. Each year, during the growth period, total 12 irrigations were done and 50 mm of water was applied at each irrigation. At harvest, plant samples (tuber and leaf+vein) and soil samples were taken from each plot and N%, ''1''5N% atom excess (''1''5N% a.e.) and Ndff% determinations were done. Soil water contents at differrent soil depths were determined by soil moisture neutron probe at plantingand at harvest period so that water contents at different soil layers and water use efficiencies were calculated for each treatment. The results obtained showed that 3350 kg/da mean total marketable tuber yield was obtained with application of 600 mm irrigation water. Also,it was found that water did not move below 90 cm of soil layer in drip irrigation-fertigation system, which showed clearly that no nitrogen movement occured beyond 90 cm soil depth. Tuber yields and %Ndff increased when

  5. Spatial variation of peat soil properties in the oil-producing region of northeastern Sakhalin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, D. N.; Shcheglov, A. I.; Manakhov, D. V.; Zavgorodnyaya, Yu. A.; Rozanova, M. S.; Brekhov, P. T.

    2017-07-01

    Morphology and properties of medium-deep oligotrophic peat, oligotrophic peat gley, pyrogenic oligotrophic peat gley, and peat gley soils on subshrub-cotton grass-sphagnum bogs and in swampy larch forests of northeastern Sakhalin have been studied. Variation in the thickness and reserves of litters in the studied bog and forest biogeocenoses has been analyzed. The profile distribution and spatial variability of moisture, density, ash, and pHKCl in separate groups of peat soils have been described. The content and spatial variability of petroleum hydrocarbons have been considered in relation to the accumulation of natural bitumoids by peat soils and the technogenic pressing in the oil-producing region. Variation of each parameter at different distances (10, 50, and 1000 m) has been estimated using a hierarchical sampling scheme. The spatial conjugation of soil parameters has been studied by factor analysis using the principal components method and Spearman correlation coefficients. Regression equations have been proposed to describe relationships of ash content with soil density and content of petroleum hydrocarbons in peat horizons.

  6. Uptake of endogenous and exogenous 226Ra by vegetables from soils of a highly radioactive region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, V.T.; Penna-Franca, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Pocos de Caldas Plateau is a weathered alkaline igneous intrusion where several radioactive anomalies (U and Th series) exist. Not only the local soils but also the edible vegetables produced in the region can present 226 Ra concentrations up to 10 times higher than those from areas of normal radioactivity. The aim of this work is to evaluate through greenhouse experiments, the uptake of endogenous and exogenous 226 Ra by carrots, brown beans and kale grown from four paired local natural and contaminated farm soils. Simultaneously, sequential selective extractions were performed to estimate the partitioning of 226 Ra among six geochemical fractions. The results showed that concentration ratios (CRs), related to plant dry weight, for endogenous and exogenous 226 Ra in soils, were of the order of 10 -2 -10 -1 and 10 -2 -10 0 respectively. The averages of 226 Ra exchangeable and residual fractions in soils were: 3.2% and 50.2% for endogenous and 15.4% and 6.0% for exogenous radium. The CRs calculated either in relation to total 226 Ra or to the exchangeable fraction in soils showed about the same variability. (author)

  7. Statistical analysis of content of Cs-137 in soils in Bansko-Razlog region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobilarov, R. G.

    2014-01-01

    Statistical analysis of the data set consisting of the activity concentrations of 137 Cs in soils in Bansko–Razlog region is carried out in order to establish the dependence of the deposition and the migration of 137 Cs on the soil type. The descriptive statistics and the test of normality show that the data set have not normal distribution. Positively skewed distribution and possible outlying values of the activity of 137 Cs in soils were observed. After reduction of the effects of outliers, the data set is divided into two parts, depending on the soil type. Test of normality of the two new data sets shows that they have a normal distribution. Ordinary kriging technique is used to characterize the spatial distribution of the activity of 137 Cs over an area covering 40 km 2 (whole Razlog valley). The result (a map of the spatial distribution of the activity concentration of 137 Cs) can be used as a reference point for future studies on the assessment of radiological risk to the population and the erosion of soils in the study area

  8. Sustainable Agriculture Evaluation for Red Soil Hill Region of Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qi-Guo; XU Meng-Jie

    2004-01-01

    Agricultural sustainability for economic development is important and a complex issue throughout the world; however,it is difficult to synthetically evaluate its use in the policy making process. The objective of this study was to evaluate sustainable agriculture in the red soil hill region of Southeast China through a newly proposed method combining four separate sub-systems: regional population (P), resource (R), environmental (E), and socio-economic (S). This new index system was proposed to appraise synthetically the agricultural sustainability of the red soil hill region from 1988 to 1996 with a two-step method assessing: a) the agricultural sustainability in each province independently and b) the relative sustainability of each province to the whole region. The first step only provided a development trend for each province based on its original situation, while the second step provided additional information on the comparative status of each province in agricultural development to the region as a whole. Higher index scores were found for the economy and resource categories denoting improvement. However, lower scores in the environment category indicated the improvement was achieved at the cost of deteriorating ecological surroundings due to an increasing population that demanded more from the agro-ecosystem and put heavier pressures on it. Results also showed that water and soil losses in this region were the major obstacles encountered in sustainable agriculture development. The assessment results were verified when compared with results from another method. This suggested that the new assessment system was reliable and credible in evaluating agricultural sustainability on a regional scale.

  9. A comparison of methods for estimating soil characteristics in regional acidification models; an application of the MAGIC model to Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Helliwell

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The results from an application of MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater In Catchments to 733 Scottish catchments are presented. The availability of representative, good quality soil data is frequently limiting factor for biogeochemical modelling, particularly those involving modelling at various spatial scales. This study tests the sensitivity of MAGIC to soil input data derived from two different methodologies; the 'nearest neighbour method' considers the closest representative soil profile to a catchment, and the 'spatial weighting method' of all soil types identified in a catchment, based on a soil physico-chemical classification of Scotland. Soil data (soil depth, density, cation exchange capacity and base saturation calculated using the 'nearest neighbour method' and the 'spatial weighting method' were highly variable, although the range of upper and lower limits were greater for soil data produced using the nearest neighbour method. In contrast to the predominantly organic soil data calculated by the nearest neighbour method, the spatially weighted soil parameters included a greater proportion of mineral soils. With regard to simulated surface water Acid Neutralising Capacity (ANC for 1851, 1997 and 2050, MAGIC predictions were similar irrespective of the methodology used to determine soil input parameters. However, soil input data derived from both methods resulted in variable base saturation predictions. It is concluded that the 'nearest neighbour' methodology is most appropriate if the objective is to determine the predicted response of the most acid- sensitive sites within a region in line with the approach used in Critical Laod mapping. On the other hand, 'spatial weighting' integrates catchment soils and represents a more robust methodology by which to determine changes in median soil and water response in a regional context. The anticipated reductions in S emissions associated with the Second S Protocol are predicted to have

  10. Detection of soil moisture impact in convective initiation in the central region of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolores, Edgar; Caetano, Ernesto

    2017-04-01

    Soil moisture is important for understanding hydrological cycle variability in many regions. Local surface heat and moisture fluxes represent a major source of convective rainfall in Mexico during the summer, driven by positive evaporation-precipitation feedback. The effects of soil moisture are directly reflected in the limitation of evapotranspiration, affecting the development of the planetary boundary layer and, therefore, the initiation and intensity of convective precipitation. This study presents preliminary analysis of the role of soil moisture in convective initiations in central Mexico, for which a methodology for the detection of convective initiations similar to Taylor (2015) has been considered. The results show that the moisture fluxes from the surface influence the development of convection favored by mesoscale circulations at low levels. Initiations are more frequent in regions less humid than their surroundings with the very strong signal during the month of September. The knowledge of the soil predisposition to allow the development of deep convection suggests an alternative tool for the prediction of convective rains in Mexico.

  11. Application of Geomorphologic Factors for Identifying Soil Loss in Vulnerable Regions of the Cameron Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahhoong Kok

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to propose a methodology for identifying vulnerable regions in the Cameron Highlands that are susceptible to soil loss, based on runoff aggregation structure and the energy expenditure pattern of the natural river basin, within the framework of power law distribution. To this end, three geomorphologic factors, namely shear stress and stream power, as well as the drainage area of every point in the basin of interest, have been extracted using GIS, and then their complementary cumulative distributions are graphically analyzed by fitting them to power law distribution, with the purpose of identifying the sensitive points within the basin that are susceptible to soil loss with respect to scaling regimes of shear stress and stream power. It is observed that the range of vulnerable regions by the scaling regime of shear stress is much narrower than by the scaling regime of stream power. This result seems to suggest that shear stress is a scale-dependent factor, which does not follow power law distribution and does not adequately reflect the energy expenditure pattern of a river basin. Therefore, stream power is preferred as a more reasonable factor for the evaluation of soil loss. The methodology proposed in this study can be validated by visualizing the path of soil loss, which is generated from the hillslope process (characterized by the local slope to the valley through a fluvial process (characterized by the drainage area as well as the local slope.

  12. Forest decline caused by high soil water conditions in a permafrost region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Iwasaki

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the permafrost region near Yakutsk, eastern Siberia, Russia, annual precipitation (June–May in 2005–2006 and 2006–2007 exceeded the 26-year (1982–2008 mean of 222±68 mm by 185 mm and 128 mm, respectively, whereas in 2007–2008 the excedent was only 48 mm, well within the range of variability. Yellowing and browning of larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr. trees occurred in an undisturbed forest near Yakutsk in the 2007 summer growing season. Soil water content at a depth of 0.20 m was measured along a roughly 400 m long line transect running through areas of yellowing and browning larch trees (YBL and of normal larch trees (NL. In the two years of supranormal precipitation, soil water content was very high compared to values recorded for the same area in previous studies. For both wet years, the mean degree of saturation (s was significantly greater in YBL than NL areas, whereas the converse was the case for the gas diffusivity in soil. This implies that rather than mitigating water stress suffered during normal precipitation years, elevated soil water conditions adversely affected the growth of larch trees. Eastern Siberia's taiga forest extends widely into the permafrost region. Was such supranormal annual precipitation to extend for more than two years, as might be expected under impending global climate changes, forest recovery may not be expected and emission of greenhouse gas might continue in future.

  13. A comparison of spatial interpolation methods for soil temperature over a complex topographical region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Tang, Xiao-Ping; Ma, Xue-Qing; Liu, Hong-Bin

    2016-08-01

    Soil temperature variability data provide valuable information on understanding land-surface ecosystem processes and climate change. This study developed and analyzed a spatial dataset of monthly mean soil temperature at a depth of 10 cm over a complex topographical region in southwestern China. The records were measured at 83 stations during the period of 1961-2000. Nine approaches were compared for interpolating soil temperature. The accuracy indicators were root mean square error (RMSE), modelling efficiency (ME), and coefficient of residual mass (CRM). The results indicated that thin plate spline with latitude, longitude, and elevation gave the best performance with RMSE varying between 0.425 and 0.592 °C, ME between 0.895 and 0.947, and CRM between -0.007 and 0.001. A spatial database was developed based on the best model. The dataset showed that larger seasonal changes of soil temperature were from autumn to winter over the region. The northern and eastern areas with hilly and low-middle mountains experienced larger seasonal changes.

  14. Chernobyl fallout radionuclides in soil, plant and honey of a mountain region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuric, G.; Todorovic, D.; Popovic, D.

    1997-01-01

    Honey bee and the products (honey, pollen, wax, propolis) are generally considered as efficient bioindicators of the environmental pollution. Honey bee activity upon a territory is well defined both in space and time and honey bee itself is easier to control than other animal bioindicators (birds, fish, wild animals). Networks of bee hives near nuclear and industrial installations are therefore often used for, environment pollution research and control. The investigations started in 1983/84. Gamma exposure and Cs-137 activity measurements provided information on ''zero status'' of the radioecological situation in the region. During the nuclear plant accident at Chernobyl in April 1986 and afterworks through the year, over two hundred samples of honey, grass and meadow flora have been examined. Investigations of the radioactivity in soils, meadow flora and honey in the region continued up to 1991 and afterwards. The vertical distribution of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in different soils provided data on the migration rate through soil and on concentration factors for different phases of the ''soil-plant-honey'' ecosystem

  15. [The concentration and distribution of 137Cs in soils of forest and agricultural ecosystems of Tula Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, D N; Shcheglov, A I; Tsvetnova, O B

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with a comparative study of 137Cs contamination in forest, old arable and cultivated soils of Tula Region. Initial interception of Chernobyl derived 137Cs is higher in forest ecosystems: oak-forest > birch-forest > pine-forest > agricultural ecosystems. Vertical migration of 137Cs in deeper layers of soils was intensive in agricultural ecosystems: cultivated soils > old arable soils > birch-forest soils > oak-forest soils > pine-forest soils. In study have been evaluated spatial variability of 137Cs in soil and asymmetrical distribution, that is a skew to the right. Spatial heterogeneity of 137Cs in agricultural soils is much lower than in forest soils. For cultivated soil are determined the rate of resuspension, which equal to 6.1 x 10(-4) day(-1). For forest soils are described the 137Cs concentration in litter of different ecosystems. The role of main accumulation and barrier of 137Cs retain higher layers of soils (horizon A1(A1E) in forest, horizon Ap in agricultural ecosystems) in long-term forecast after Chernobyl accident.

  16. Soil fauna and diversity of animals in mining landscape of Karvina region Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullmanova, M.

    2006-01-01

    To study development of edaphon, esp. animals living on the top of the soil-epigeon, in relation to natural succession, were utilized the extreme different habitats from devastated landscape of Karvina region, Czech republic. Using the method of ground traps was collected numerous biological material of epigeon fauna at the spoil heap of the Dukla and Lazy face working area, in Karvina region. During two years of the research 2002-2004 was collected about 20 thousand examples. The fauna of epigeon, top horizon of the soil, was recovered and determined 24 taxons. The samples were analyzed according to several ecological criteria like an abundance, dominance, diversity and frequency. Special interest was paid to the succession and biodiversity of flora and fauna of spoil heap the reclamation process. Plants and animals that are adapted to specific conditions of life. First results show that the succession of community of edaphon is faster then succession of community of plants. (author)

  17. Soil and water pollution in a banana production region in tropical Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissen, Violette; Ramos, Franzisco Que; de J Bastidas-Bastidas, Pedro; Díaz-González, Gilberto; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo; Huerta-Lwanga, Esperanza; Ruiz-Suárez, Luz E

    2010-10-01

    The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn-bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha⁻¹week⁻¹ for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the main metabolite ethylenethiourea was near the detection limit. Surface and subsurface water was highly polluted with ethylenethiourea, the main metabolite of Mancozeb (22.5 and 4.3 μg L⁻¹, respectively), but not with manganese. In deep ground water, no ethylenethiourea was detected. The level of pollution in the region presents a worrisome risk for aquatic life and for human health.

  18. Sorption/desorption of Cs on clay and soil fractions from various regions of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erten, H.N.

    1988-01-01

    The sorption/desorption behaviour of Cs ion in the concentration region of 10 -8 to 10 -4 meqml -1 have been studied using clay and soil fractions from various regions of Turkey. The sorption curves for all the material studied show similar behaviour indicating at least two different sorption processes. One with high and the other with low distribution coefficients. The results of desorption studies indicate that Cs cation is to a large extent attached to the solid material in a reversible manner. The adsorption isotherms were found to be nonlinear in all cases. The increase of R D values with decreasing particle size in most cases, suggests that sorption and/or exchange is primarily a surface phenomenon in the clay and soil fractions studied. 14 figs.; 4 tabs

  19. The Quantitation of Sulfur Mustard By-Products, Sulfur-Containing Herbicides, and Organophosphonates in Soil and Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomkins, B.A., Sega, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)], Macnaughton, S.J. [Microbial Insights, Inc., Rockford, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Over the past fifty years, the facilities at Rocky Mountain Arsenal have been used for the manufacturing, bottling, and shipping sulfur- containing herbicides, sulfur mustard, and Sarin. There is a need for analytical methods capable of determining these constituents quickly to determine exactly how specific waste structural materials should be handled, treated, and landfilled.These species are extracted rapidly from heated samples of soil or crushed concrete using acetonitrile at elevated pressure, then analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector. Thiodiglycol, the major hydrolysis product of sulfur mustard, must be converted to a silylated derivative prior to quantitation. Detection limits, calculated using two statistically-unbiased protocols, ranged between 2-13 micrograms analyte/g soil or concrete.

  20. Is the soil quality monitoring an effective tool in consumers' protection of agricultural crops from cadmium soil contamination?-a case of the Silesia region (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekut, Agata; Baranowska, Renata; Marchwińska-Wyrwał, Ewa; Ćwieląg-Drabek, Małgorzata; Hajok, Ilona; Dziubanek, Grzegorz; Grochowska-Niedworok, Elżbieta

    2017-12-16

    The monitoring of soil quality should be a control tool used to reduce the adverse health effects arising from exposure to toxic chemicals in soil through cultivated crop absorption. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the monitoring and control system of soil quality in Poland, in terms of consumer safety, for agricultural plants cultivated in areas with known serious cadmium contamination, such as Silesia Province. To achieve the objective, the contents of cadmium in soils and vegetables in the Silesia administrative area were examined. The obtained results were compared with the results of soil contamination from the quality monitoring of arable soil in Poland. The studies show a significant exceedance of the permissible values of cadmium in soil samples and the vegetables cultivated on that soil. The threat to consumer health is a valid concern, although this threat was not indicated by the results of the national monitoring of soil quality. The results indicated an unequal distribution of risk to consumers resulting from contaminated soil. Moreover, the monitoring systems should be designed at the local or regional scale to guarantee the safety of consumers of edible plants cultivated in the areas contaminated with cadmium.

  1. Principal factors of soil spatial heterogeneity and ecosystem services at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    The essential spatial heterogeneity is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia which is not only one of the biggest «food baskets» in RF but very important regulator of ecosystem principal services at the European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of dominated here forest-steppe and steppe Chernozems and the other soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and more than 1000-year history of human impacts. The carried out long-term researches of representative natural, rural and urban landscapes in Kursk, Orel, Tambov and Voronezh oblasts give us the regional multi-factorial matrix of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) with different land-use practices and history, soil-geomorphologic features, environmental and microclimate conditions. The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of ESCP regulation and development, ecosystem principal services, land functional qualities and agroecological state have been done for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of regional and local GIS, soil spatial patterns mapping, traditional regression kriging, correlation tree models. The outcomes of statistical modeling show the essential amplification of erosion, dehumification and CO2 emission, acidification and alkalization, disaggregation and overcompaction processes due to violation of agroecologically sound land-use systems and traditional balances of organic matter, nutrients, Ca and Na in agrolandscapes. Due to long-term intensive and out-of-balance land-use practices the famous Russian Chernozems begin to lose not only their unique natural features of (around 1 m of humus horizon, 4-6% of Corg and favorable agrophysical features), but traditional soil cover patterns, ecosystem services and agroecological functions. Key-site monitoring

  2. Soil pH is a Key Determinant of Soil Fungal Community Composition in the Ny-Ålesund Region, Svalbard (High Arctic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Neng-Fei; Liu, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Yu, Li-Yan

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the fungal community composition and its relationships with properties of surface soils in the Ny-Ålesund Region (Svalbard, High Arctic). A total of thirteen soil samples were collected and soil fungal community was analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing with fungi-specific primers targeting the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The following eight soil properties were analyzed: pH, organic carbon (C), organic nitrogen (N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N), silicate silicon (SiO42--Si), nitrite nitrogen (NO2--N), phosphate phosphorus (PO43--P), and nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N). A total of 57,952 reads belonging to 541 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found. of these OTUs, 343 belonged to Ascomycota, 100 to Basidiomycota, 31 to Chytridiomycota, 22 to Glomeromycota, 11 to Zygomycota, 10 to Rozellomycota, whereas 24 belonged to unknown fungi. The dominant orders were Helotiales, Verrucariales, Agaricales, Lecanorales, Chaetothyriales, Lecideales, and Capnodiales. The common genera (>eight soil samples) were Tetracladium, Mortierella, Fusarium, Cortinarius, and Atla. Distance-based redundancy analysis (db-rda) and analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) revealed that soil pH (p = 0.001) was the most significant factor in determining the soil fungal community composition. Members of Verrucariales were found to predominate in soils of pH 8–9, whereas Sordariales predominated in soils of pH 7–8 and Coniochaetales predominated in soils of pH 6–7. The results suggest the presence and distribution of diverse soil fungal communities in the High Arctic, which can provide reliable data for studying the ecological responses of soil fungal communities to climate changes in the Arctic. PMID:26955371

  3. Soil pH is a key determinant of soil fungal community composition in the Ny-Ålesund Region, Svalbard (High Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao eZhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the fungal community composition and its relationships with properties of surface soils in the Ny-Ålesund Region (Svalbard, High Arctic. A total of thirteen soil samples were collected and soil fungal community was analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing with fungi-specific primers targeting the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS region. The following eight soil properties were analyzed: pH, organic carbon (C, organic nitrogen (N, ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N, silicate silicon (SiO42--Si, nitrite nitrogen (NO2--N, phosphate phosphorus (PO43--P and nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N. A total of 57,952 reads belonging to 541 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were found. Of these OTUs, 343 belonged to Ascomycota, 100 to Basidiomycota, 31 to Chytridiomycota, 22 to Glomeromycota, 11 to Zygomycota, 10 to Rozellomycota, whereas 24 belonged to unknown fungi. The dominant orders were Helotiales, Verrucariales, Agaricales, Lecanorales, Chaetothyriales, Lecideales, and Capnodiales. The common genera (>8 soil samples were Tetracladium, Mortierella, Fusarium, Cortinarius, and Atla. Distance-based redundancy analysis (db-rda and analysis of similarities (ANOSIM revealed that soil pH (p=0.001 was the most significant factor in determining the soil fungal community composition. Members of Verrucariales were found to predominate in soils of pH 8-9, whereas Sordariales predominated in soils of pH 7-8 and Coniochaetales predominated in soil samples of pH 6-7. The results suggest the presence and distribution of diverse soil fungal communities in the High Arctic, which can provide reliable data for studying the ecological responses of soil fungal communities to climate changes in the Arctic.

  4. Chemical evolution of soil profile from humid regions: The role of the rare elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.N. Vodyanitskii

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Eluvial-illuvial distribution of rare metals in forest soils is expressed more vividly than the distribution of Fe and Al the more. This is applies primarily to lanthanides: Y, La, Ce. In particular, this difference is noticeable in light Al–Fe-humus podzols, where highly differentiated elements of platinum group. The type of metals exposed to eluvial-illuvial distribution depends on the mineralogical composition of the parent rock and has a pronounced regional dimension.

  5. Ametryn Leaching in Soils from the Sugarcane Region in Northeastern Brazilian

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, K.S.; FREITAS, F.C.L.; BRAGA, D.F.; DOMBROSKI, J.L.D.; SANTOS, A.F.B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ametryn is one of the most widely used herbicides in the sugarcane culture. Little is known about the interactions between this herbicide and the attributes of soils in the sugarcane region of northeastern Brazil. This knowledge, before recommending herbicide, will minimize the negative effects on the environment, particularly on water resources, and will ensure weed control efficacy. In this work, ametryn leaching potential was estimated through bioassays and chromatography, in five...

  6. Magnetic parameters of forest top soils in Krušné hory region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kapička, Aleš; Petrovský, Eduard; Fialová, Hana; Podrázský, V.; Křížek, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 38, Special issue (2008), s. 54-55 ISSN 1335-2806. [Paleo, Rock and Environmental Magnetism. Castle Meeting /11./. 22.06.2008-28.06.2008, Bojnice] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/0941 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : magnetic properties of soils * mapping of pollution * Krušné hory region Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  7. Sanitation of overburden dumps containing organic pollutants. Soil pollution obstructs removal of overburden dumps at Ronneburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammami, R.; Fischer, D.

    1999-01-01

    Contamination of mineral oil hydrocarbons is a common problem in soil sanitation, and classic methods are employed as a rule. In one case, radioactivity of the polluted rock material, a wide spectrum of pollutants and a high pollutant level necessitated adapted solutions. The task was tackled in a joint effort by builder-owners, authorities, sanitation experts and scientific experts in consideration of economic and ecological aspects [de

  8. The effect of regional-scale soil-moisture deficits on mesoscale atmospheric dynamics that influence fire severity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, J.D.

    1994-09-30

    This study employs a three-dimensional, nonhydrostatic mesoscale model to evaluate the effects of horizontally heterogeneous soil moisture and vegetation type on the atmosphere during two periods in which wildland fires occurred. Numerical sensitivity simulations demonstrate that evapotranspiration significantly affects the boundary-layer structure embedded in the synoptic-scale circulations. In regions with sufficiently moist soils, evapotranspiration increases the humidity and modifies the diurnally varying temperature near the surface. Occasionally, changes in the humidity and temperature fields can also be seen a significant distance downwind of the moist soil regions. The perturbations in the temperature fields ultimately affect the wind speed and direction over or at the boundaries of the moist-soil regions, but only at certain times during the simulation period. The higher humidity also increases the cloudiness and changes the precipitation amounts, indicating that soil moisture and vegetation may play an important role in modifying the spatial distribution and intensity of precipitation. A lower atmospheric stability index, that is an indicator of the potential for wildland fire, is also calculated from the model results. This index is also sensitive to the horizontal distribution of soil moisture and vegetation, especially in regions with relatively moist soils. While only two periods are examined in this study, the impact of surface inhomogeneities in soil moisture and vegetation type on the atmosphere is expected to be highly dependent on the particular synoptic conditions and upon the distribution of soil moisture.

  9. Regional amplification of extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil moisture-temperature feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, M.; Orth, R.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2016-12-01

    Land temperatures, and in particular hot extremes, will likely increase by more than 2° C in many regions, even in the case that the global temperature increase with respect to pre-industrial levels can be limited to 2°C. We investigate here the role of soil moisture-temperature feedbacks for projected changes of extreme temperatures by comparing experiments from the GLACE-CMIP5 (Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment - Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) project. In particular, we consider fully coupled experiments with all 6 involved GCMs and corresponding experiments where soil moisture is fixed to the local present-day seasonal cycle until the end of the 21st century. We consider the yearly hottest days and apply a scaling approach whereby we relate changes of hottest days to global mean temperature increase. We find that soil moisture-temperature coupling significantly contributes to additional future warming of extreme temperatures in many regions: In particular, it can explain more than 70% of the warming amplification of hottest days compared to global mean temperature in Central Europe, Central North America and Northern Australia, and around 50% of this signal in the Amazonian Region and Southern Africa.

  10. [Soil organic carbon mineralization of Black Locust forest in the deep soil layer of the hilly region of the Loess Plateau, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin-Xin; Xu, Ming-Xiang; Yang, Kai

    2012-11-01

    The deep soil layer (below 100 cm) stores considerable soil organic carbon (SOC). We can reveal its stability and provide the basis for certification of the deep soil carbon sinks by studying the SOC mineralization in the deep soil layer. With the shallow soil layer (0-100 cm) as control, the SOC mineralization under the condition (temperature 15 degrees C, the soil water content 8%) of Black Locust forest in the deep soil layer (100-400 cm) of the hilly region of the Loess Plateau was studied. The results showed that: (1) There was a downward trend in the total SOC mineralization with the increase of soil depth. The total SOC mineralization in the sub-deep soil (100-200 cm) and deep soil (200-400 cm) were equivalent to approximately 88.1% and 67.8% of that in the shallow layer (0-100 cm). (2) Throughout the carbon mineralization process, the same as the shallow soil, the sub-deep and deep soil can be divided into 3 stages. In the rapid decomposition phase, the ratio of the mineralization or organic carbon to the total mineralization in the sub-deep and deep layer (0-10 d) was approximately 50% of that in the shallow layer (0-17 d). In the slow decomposition phase, the ratio of organic carbon mineralization to total mineralization in the sub-deep, deep layer (11-45 d) was 150% of that in the shallow layer (18-45 d). There was no significant difference in this ratio among these three layers (46-62 d) in the relatively stable stage. (3) There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the mineralization rate of SOC among the shallow, sub-deep, deep layers. The stability of SOC in the deep soil layer (100-400 cm) was similar to that in the shallow soil layer and the SOC in the deep soil layer was also involved in the global carbon cycle. The change of SOC in the deep soil layer should be taken into account when estimating the effects of soil carbon sequestration in the Hilly Region of the Loess Plateau, China.

  11. Analysis on Cu and Zn Concentrations in Agricultural Soils of Ili District, Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Jing-na

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is mainly to investigate the contents of copper(Cuand zinc(Znin agricultural soils to provide basic infor-mation for the establishment of green and organic production base in Ili District, Xinjiang Autonomous Region. 600 topsoil samples of the a-gricultural land were collected from eight counties of Ili District, and the contents of Cu and Zn were determined by AAS after microwave di-gestion. The statistics analysis showed that the mean contents of Cu and Zn in the agricultural soils of Ili District were 28.68 mg·kg-1 and 83.17 mg·kg-1, respectively. The concentrations of Cu in the agricultural soils of Ili District ranged from 11.07 mg·kg-1 to 59.90 mg·kg-1, 85% of which ranged from 20 mg·kg-1 to 40 mg·kg-1; and the concentrations of Zn in the agricultural soils of Ili District ranged from 39.58 mg·kg-1 to 160.40 mg·kg-1, 90%of which ranged from 60 mg·kg-1 to 110 mg·kg-1. Furthermore, compared the Cu and Zn contents of the tested soils among the eight counties, Cu contents in Tekes County were higher than other counties, while Zn contents showed little difference. The con-tents of Cu and Zn in the tested soils were all below the threshold values that were established in the national environmental quality standard for soils(secondary standards, GB 15618-1995, but about 7% and 21% were higher than the Cu and Zn background values of soil in Ili District, respectively. Furthermore, the concentrations of Cu and Zn in soils of Ili District accord with the environmental requirements for or-ganic and green production base regulated by national standard of organic products(GB/T 19630-2011and industrial standard of green food(NY/T 391-2013.

  12. Impacts of Climate Change on Soil Erosion in the Great Lakes Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying changes in potential soil erosion under projections of changing climate is important for the sustainable management of land resources, as soil loss estimates will be helpful in identifying areas susceptible to erosion, targeting future erosion control efforts, and/or conservation funding. Therefore, the macro-scale Variable Infiltration Capacity—Water Erosion Prediction Project (VIC-WEPP soil erosion model was utilized to quantify soil losses under three climate change scenarios (A2, A1B, B1 using projections from three general circulation models (GFDL, PCM, HadCM3 for the Great Lakes region from 2000 to 2100. Soil loss was predicted to decrease throughout three future periods (2030s, 2060s, and 2090s by 0.4–0.7 ton ha−1 year−1 (4.99–23.2% relative to the historical period (2000s with predicted air temperature increases of 0.68–4.34 °C and precipitation increases of 1.74–63.7 mm year−1 (0.23–8.6%. In the forested northern study domain erosion kept increasing by 0.01–0.18 ton ha−1 year−1 over three future periods due to increased precipitation of 9.7–68.3 mm year−1. The southern study domain covered by cropland and grassland had predicted soil loss decreases of 0.01–1.43 ton ha−1 year−1 due to air temperature increases of 1.75–4.79 °C and reduced precipitation in the summer. Fall and winter had greater risks of increased soil loss based on predictions for these two seasons under the A2 scenario, with the greatest cropland soil loss increase due to increased fall precipitation, and combined effects of increases in both precipitation and air temperature in the winter. Fall was identified with higher risks under the A1B scenario, while spring and summer were identified with the greatest risk of increased soil losses under the B1 scenario due to the increases in both precipitation and air temperature.

  13. Radio ecological monitoring of soils within the region of Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidenov, Ilko; Tsibranski, Rusiyan; Avramov, Valentin; Popov, Lubomir

    2005-01-01

    The main approach of assessing the radio ecological impact of nuclear power plants is systematic monitoring of major environmental components, status indicators and indicators on the dynamics of radiation status and those appearing as an inseparable part of the food chain for radioactivity intake by humans. Such ecological components are air, water, soil, plants, agricultural products - grain-fodder crops, meat, milk etc.- within NPP areas. All of these components participate directly or indirectly into the internal irradiation of human body, as different forms of intake from land and water ecosystem. The accumulation of natural and artificial radionuclides in main ecological components and its analysis are subject of a continuous scientific interest and research, and are mandatory part of the scope of control in the ecological monitoring programs. Modern high-sensitive methods, such as gamma spectrometry, radiochemical separation, radiometry of radiostrontium, alpha spectrometry of trans-uranium elements, etc., are being used for laboratory radiation analyses. Along with the monitoring of radiation gamma background of air and water, that is reasonably the largest in its volume and frequency in the ecological programs, research and radioactivity of soils is of high significance. The interest to the radiation status of soils is justified by the fact that they are the 'ecological stamp of time' and they give valuable information on the history and origin of radioactive contaminations. Radioactivity of soils within the region of Kozloduy NPP has been a subject of detailed and systematic research since the commissioning of the plant in 1974. The monitoring conducted by EML covers the region that is divided into three areas in order to be able to localize possible radiation impact by KNPP - 3 km, 12 km, and 100 km. Samples are taken and analysis of soils are made at 36 control points within the 100 km area of observation. An issue of great interest is the content of

  14. Radio ecological monitoring of soil within the region of Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidenov, I.; Tsibranski, R.; Avramov, V.; Popov, L.; Naidenov, Ilko; Tsibranski, Rusiyan; Avramov, Valentin; Popov, Lubomir

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The main approach of assessing the radio ecological impact of nuclear power plants is systematic monitoring of major environmental components, status indicators and indicators on the dynamics of radiation status and those appearing as an inseparable part of the food chain for radioactivity intake by humans. Such ecological components are air, water, soil, plants, agricultural products - grain-fodder crops, meat, milk etc.- within NPP areas. All of these components participate directly or indirectly into the internal irradiation of human body, as different forms of intake from land and water ecosystem. The accumulation of natural and artificial radionuclides in main ecological components and its analysis are subject of a continuous scientific interest and research, and are mandatory part of the scope of control in the ecological monitoring programs. Modern high-sensitive methods, such as gamma spectrometry, radiochemical separation, radiometry of radiostrontium, alpha spectrometry of trans-uranium elements, etc., are being used for laboratory radiation analyses. Along with the monitoring of radiation gamma background of air and water, that is reasonably the largest in its volume and frequency in the ecological programs, research and radioactivity of soils is of high significance. The interest to the radiation status of soils is justified by the fact that they are the 'ecological stamp of time' and they give valuable information on the history and origin of radioactive contaminations. Radioactivity of soils within the region of Kozloduy NPP has been a subject of detailed and systematic research since the commissioning of the plant in 1974. The monitoring conducted by EML covers the region that is divided into three areas in order to be able to localize possible radiation impact by KNPP - 3 km, 12 km, and 100 km. Samples are taken and analysis of soils are made at 36 control points within the 100 km area of observation. An issue of great interest is the

  15. Investigating the spatial anisotropy of soil radioactivity in the region of Vinaninkarena, Antsirabe-Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabesiranana, N.; Rasolonirina, M.; Solonjara, A.F.; Raoelina Andriambololona

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted in the region of Vinaninkarena-Antsirabe, to investigate the spatial distrubition of the environmental radioactivity. Forty-two (42) top soil samples were collected from two different sampling points. They were analyzed for uranium and thorium series by gamma spectrometry. In order to determine radioactivity spatial structure, semi-variance analysis was used. From 82 samples and 840 paired data, semi-variances were computed, variograms charted and modelled. Results showed that spatial dependance ranges vary from 100 m to 300m. Moreover, spatial anisotropy is also detected. Such result allows optimizing sampling design for future mapping of the environmental radioactivity of the region.

  16. New information on regional subsidence and soil fracturing in Mexico City Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Auvinet

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, updated information about regional subsidence in Mexico City downtown area is presented. Data obtained by R. Gayol in 1891, are compared with information obtained recently from surveys using the reference points of Sistema de Aguas de la Ciudad de México (2008 and on the elevation of a cloud of points on the ground surface determined using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR technology. In addition, this paper provides an overview of recent data obtained from systematic studies focused on understanding soil fracturing associated with regional land subsidence and mapping of areas susceptible to cracking in Mexico City Valley.

  17. Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  18. Weeds of cereal stubble-fields on various soils in the Kielce region. P. 1. Podzolic and brown soils developed from sands and loams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciszek Pawłowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Occupying cereal stubble-fields weed flora is the most characteristic of the environmental (especially soil conditions. Because of its developing and accomplishing the reproductive stages there it can threatens cultivated plants. They are considered to complete the seed store in a soil by 393 min per ha. The results presented in the paper concern the species composition, number and constancy (S and indice of coverage (D of the cereal stubble-field weed species on various soils in the Kielce region (the central part of Poland. The report was based upon 885 phytosociological records collected in the 268 stands. The records were carried out after the crop harvest, in the latter part of September, in 1976-1980. Soil were chosen on the base of soil maps. The analyse of soil samples, taken at the investigation process, were done in order to confirm the soil quality. The worked out material was divided into three parts. The first part, including 369 phytosociological records collected in the 112 stands (in 90 localities concerns stubble-field weeds on podzolic and brown soils developed from sands (loose, weakly loamy and loamy and loams (light and medium. It was found that these soils were grown by 108 (loamy sands to 132 (weakly loamy sands weed species. Among them 66 species were common for all of the soils. Species composition was not differentiated by the soil type (brown, podzolic within kind of the. soil (sand or loams. Among soil examined, the brown loams was the most abundant with species of high constancy degree (30 species but brown loose sands and podzolic loamy sands was the poorest one with (16 species.

  19. Health assessment for Newcastle Abandoned Container Site, Newcastle, Delaware, Region 3. CERCLIS No. DED058980442. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Newcastle Abandoned Container site is listed on the National Priorities List. On February 28, 1986, radioactive, corrosive, and toxic materials, and a large number of containers filled with unknown material, were inventoried, containerized, and removed. On-site contamination consists of polychlorinated biphenyls, trichloroethylene, creosote, chloroform, and di-n-butylphthalate in soil; and tetrachloroethylene, acetone, xylene, trichlorofluoromethane, trichloroethylene, and tris(betachloroisopropyl)phosphate in groundwater. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via groundwater. The potential for contamination of the lower aquifer should be investigated

  20. Regional Variation in the Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Organic Matter Decomposition in China's Forests and Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; He, N.; Zhu, J.; Yu, G.; Xu, L.; Niu, S.; Sun, X.; Wen, X.

    2017-12-01

    How to assess the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and its regional variation with high accuracy is one of the largest uncertainties in determining the intensity and direction of the global carbon (C) cycle in response to climate change. In this study, we collected a series of soils from 22 forest sites and 30 grassland sites across China to explore regional variation in Q10 and its underlying mechanisms. We conducted a novel incubation experiment with periodically changing temperature (5-30 °C), while continuously measuring soil microbial respiration rates. The results showed that Q10 varied significantly across different ecosystems, ranging from 1.16 to 3.19 (mean 1.63). Q10 was ordered as follows: alpine grasslands (2.01) > temperate grasslands (1.81) > tropical forests (1.59) > temperate forests (1.55) > subtropical forests (1.52). The Q10 of grasslands (1.90) was significantly higher than that of forests (1.54). Furthermore, Q10 significantly increased with increasing altitude and decreased with increasing longitude. Environmental variables and substrate properties together explained 52% of total variation in Q10 across all sites. Overall, pH and soil electrical conductivity primarily explained spatial variation in Q10. The general negative relationships between Q10 and substrate quality among all ecosystem types supported the C quality temperature (CQT) hypothesis at a large scale, which indicated that soils with low quality should have higher temperature sensitivity. Furthermore, alpine grasslands, which had the highest Q10, were predicted to be more sensitive to climate change under the scenario of global warming.

  1. Modeling Regional Soil Water Balance in Farmland of the Middle Reaches of Heihe River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying components of soil water balance in farmland of the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin is essential for efficiently scheduling and allocating limited water resources for irrigation in this arid region. A soil water balance model based on empirical assumptions in the vadose zone of farmland was developed and simulation results were compared/validated with results by the numerical model HYDRUS-1D. Results showed a good coherence between the simulated results of the water balance models and the HYDRUS-1D model in soil water storage, evapotranspiration, deep percolation and groundwater recharge, which indicated that the water balance model was suitable for simulating soil water movement in the study area. Considering the spatial distribution of cropping patterns, groundwater depth and agricultural management, ArcGIS was applied for the pre-/post-processing of the water balance model to quantify the spatial distribution of components of soil water balance in the major cropland in middle reaches of Heihe River Basin. Then, distributions of components of soil water balance in the major cropland under different water-saving irrigation practices during the growing season were predicted and discussed. Simulation results demonstrated that evapotranspiration of the main crops would be more prominently influenced by irrigation quota under deep groundwater depth than that under shallow groundwater depth. Groundwater recharge would increase with the increase of irrigation quota and decrease with the increase of groundwater depth. In general, when groundwater depth reached 3 m, groundwater recharge from root zone was negligible for spring wheat. While when it reached 6 m, groundwater recharge was negligible for maize. Water-saving irrigation practices would help to reduce groundwater recharge with a slight decrease of crop water consumption.

  2. Spatial Distribution Analysis of Soil Properties in Varzaneh Region of Isfahan Using Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mahmoodi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Use of remote sensing for soil assessment and monitoring started with the launch of the first Landsat satellite. Since then many other polar orbiting Earth-observation satellites such as the Landsat series, have been launched and their imagery have been used for a wide range of soil mapping. The broad swaths and regular revisit frequencies of these multispectral satellites mean that they can be used to rapidly detect changes in soil properties. Arid and semi-arid lands cover more than 70 percent of Iran and are very prone to desertification. Due to the broadness, remoteness, and harsh condition of these lands, soil studies using ground-based techniques appear to be limited. Remote sensing imagery with its cost and time-effectiveness has been suggested and used as an alternative approach for more than four decades. Flood irrigation is one of the most common techniques in Isfahan province in which 70% of water is lost through evaporation. This system has increased soil salinization and desert-like conditions in the region. For principled decision making on agricultural product management, combating desertification and its consequences and better use of production resources to achieve sustainable development; understanding and knowledge of the origin, amount and area of salinity, the percentage of calcite, gypsum and other mineral of soil in each region is essential. Therefore, this study aimed to map the physical and chemical characteristics of soils in Vazaneh region of Isfahan province, Iran. Materials and Methods : Varzaneh region with 75000 ha located in central Iran and lies between latitudes 3550234 N and 3594309 N and longitudes 626530 E to 658338 E. The climate in the study area is characterized by hot summers and cold winters. The mean daily maximum temperature ranges from 35°C in summer to approximately 17°C in winter and mean daily minimum temperature ranges from 5°C in summer to about -24.5°C in winter. The mean

  3. Fallout radionuclide based techniques for assessing the effectiveness of soil conservation measures in different eroded regions of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hanqing; Li Yong; Liu Guoqiang; Li Junjie; Nguyen, M.L.; Funk, R.

    2012-01-01

    Using fallout radionuclide techniques (FRN), we investigated the extent of soil erosion and to quantify the beneficial effects of soil conservation measures at four sites (Xichang city in the Yangtze upriver, Yan'an in the Loess Plateau, Fengning in the wind erosion region of northern China, and Baiquan in black soil region of north-eastern China) extending from South West (SW) to North East (NE) China. At the Xichang site of SW-China, the combined use of FRN 137 Cs and 210 Pbex measurements demonstrated that the effectiveness of vegetation species in reducing soil erosion decreased in the following order: shrubs > trees with litter layer > grasses > trees without litter layer. At the Yan'an site of Loess Plateau, sediment production estimated by 137 Cs declined by 49% due to terracing and by 80% due to vegetated (with grass forest) compared to the cultivated hillslopes. Vegetated hillslope with grasses and forest increased soil organic matter (SOM) by 255%, soil available N (AN) by 198%, and soil available P (AP) by 18% while terracing increased SOM by 121%, soil AN by 103%, and soil AP by 162% compared with the entire cultivated hillslope. Both terracing and vegetating hillslopes were found to enhance soil porosity as shown by a decrease in soil bulk density (1.6% and 6.4%, respectively). At the Fengning site, data from 7 Be measurements indicated that four years of no tillage with high crop residues (50 ∼ 56 cm depth) reduced soil erosion by 44% and no tillage with low residues (25 cm depth) reduced soil erosion rates by 33% when compared with conventional tillage practices. At the Baiquan site in NE-China, soil loss as measured by 137 Cs tracer, decreased by 14% due to terracing and by 34% due to contoured tillage. Our results suggested that shrub cover and composite structure of forest and grass are the effective practices to control hillslope erosion in SW-China, while terracing forest-grass structure can greatly reduce soil erosion and improve soil quality

  4. Mercury concentrations and distribution in soil, water, mine waste leachates, and air in and around mercury mines in the Big Bend region, Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E; Theodorakos, Peter M; Fey, David L; Krabbenhoft, David P

    2015-02-01

    Samples of soil, water, mine waste leachates, soil gas, and air were collected from areas mined for mercury (Hg) and baseline sites in the Big Bend area, Texas, to evaluate potential Hg contamination in the region. Soil samples collected within 300 m of an inactive Hg mine contained elevated Hg concentrations (3.8-11 µg/g), which were considerably higher than Hg in soil collected from baseline sites (0.03-0.05 µg/g) distal (as much as 24 km) from mines. Only three soil samples collected within 300 m of the mine exceeded the probable effect concentration for Hg of 1.06 µg/g, above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Concentrations of Hg in mine water runoff (7.9-14 ng/L) were generally higher than those found in springs and wells (0.05-3.1 ng/L), baseline streams (1.1-9.7 ng/L), and sources of drinking water (0.63-9.1 ng/L) collected in the Big Bend region. Concentrations of Hg in all water samples collected in this study were considerably below the 2,000 ng/L drinking water Hg guideline and the 770 ng/L guideline recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to protect aquatic wildlife from chronic effects of Hg. Concentrations of Hg in water leachates obtained from leaching of mine wastes varied widely from <0.001 to 760 µg of Hg in leachate/g of sample leached, but only one leachate exceeded the USEPA Hg industrial soil screening level of 31 µg/g. Concentrations of Hg in soil gas collected at mined sites (690-82,000 ng/m(3)) were highly elevated compared to soil gas collected from baseline sites (1.2-77 ng/m(3)). However, air collected from mined areas at a height of 2 m above the ground surface contained concentrations of Hg (4.9-64 ng/m(3)) that were considerably lower than Hg in soil gas from the mined areas. Although concentrations of Hg emitted from mine-contaminated soils and mine wastes were elevated, persistent wind in southwest Texas disperses Hg in the air within a few meters of the

  5. Effects of straw mulching on soil evaporation during the soil thawing period in a cold region in northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Yan, Peiru; Li, Tianxiao; Cui, Song; Peng, Li

    2018-04-01

    To study the effect of straw mulching on soil water evaporation, it is necessary to measure soil water evaporation under different conditions of straw mulching during the soil thawing period. A field experiment was conducted in winter, and soil evaporation was measured using a microlysimeter on bare land (LD) and 4500 (GF4500), 9000 (GF9000) and 13500 kg/hm2 (GF13500) straw mulch. The influence of different quantities of straw mulch on soil water evaporation during the thawing period was analyzed using the Mallat algorithm, statistical analysis and information cost function. The results showed that straw mulching could delay the thawing of the surface soil by 3-6 d, decrease the speed at which the surface soil thaws by 0.40-0.80 cm/d, delay the peak soil liquid water content, increase the soil liquid water content, reduce the cumulative evaporation by 2.70-7.40 mm in the thawing period, increase the range of soil evaporation by 0.04-0.10 mm in the early stage of the thawing period, and reduce the range of soil evaporation by 0.25-0.90 mm in the late stage of the thawing period. Straw mulching could reduce the range of and variation in soil evaporation and can reduce the effect of random factors on soil evaporation. When the amount of straw mulch exceeded 9000 kg/hm2, the effect of increasing the amount of straw mulch on daily soil water evaporation was small.

  6. Comparing soil moisture anomalies from multiple independent sources over different regions across the globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammalleri, Carmelo; Vogt, Jürgen V.; Bisselink, Bernard; de Roo, Ad

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural drought events can affect large regions across the world, implying the need for a suitable global tool for an accurate monitoring of this phenomenon. Soil moisture anomalies are considered a good metric to capture the occurrence of agricultural drought events, and they have become an important component of several operational drought monitoring systems. In the framework of the JRC Global Drought Observatory (GDO, eu/gdo/" target="_blank">http://edo.jrc.ec.europa.eu/gdo/), the suitability of three datasets as possible representations of root zone soil moisture anomalies has been evaluated: (1) the soil moisture from the Lisflood distributed hydrological model (namely LIS), (2) the remotely sensed Land Surface Temperature data from the MODIS satellite (namely LST), and (3) the ESA Climate Change Initiative combined passive/active microwave skin soil moisture dataset (namely CCI). Due to the independency of these three datasets, the triple collocation (TC) technique has been applied, aiming at quantifying the likely error associated with each dataset in comparison to the unknown true status of the system. TC analysis was performed on five macro-regions (namely North America, Europe, India, southern Africa and Australia) detected as suitable for the experiment, providing insight into the mutual relationship between these datasets as well as an assessment of the accuracy of each method. Even if no definitive statement on the spatial distribution of errors can be provided, a clear outcome of the TC analysis is the good performance of the remote sensing datasets, especially CCI, over dry regions such as Australia and southern Africa, whereas the outputs of LIS seem to be more reliable over areas that are well monitored through meteorological ground station networks, such as North America and Europe. In a global drought monitoring system, the results of the error analysis are used to design a weighted-average ensemble system that exploits the advantages of

  7. Comparing soil moisture anomalies from multiple independent sources over different regions across the globe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cammalleri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural drought events can affect large regions across the world, implying the need for a suitable global tool for an accurate monitoring of this phenomenon. Soil moisture anomalies are considered a good metric to capture the occurrence of agricultural drought events, and they have become an important component of several operational drought monitoring systems. In the framework of the JRC Global Drought Observatory (GDO, http://edo.jrc.ec.europa.eu/gdo/, the suitability of three datasets as possible representations of root zone soil moisture anomalies has been evaluated: (1 the soil moisture from the Lisflood distributed hydrological model (namely LIS, (2 the remotely sensed Land Surface Temperature data from the MODIS satellite (namely LST, and (3 the ESA Climate Change Initiative combined passive/active microwave skin soil moisture dataset (namely CCI. Due to the independency of these three datasets, the triple collocation (TC technique has been applied, aiming at quantifying the likely error associated with each dataset in comparison to the unknown true status of the system. TC analysis was performed on five macro-regions (namely North America, Europe, India, southern Africa and Australia detected as suitable for the experiment, providing insight into the mutual relationship between these datasets as well as an assessment of the accuracy of each method. Even if no definitive statement on the spatial distribution of errors can be provided, a clear outcome of the TC analysis is the good performance of the remote sensing datasets, especially CCI, over dry regions such as Australia and southern Africa, whereas the outputs of LIS seem to be more reliable over areas that are well monitored through meteorological ground station networks, such as North America and Europe. In a global drought monitoring system, the results of the error analysis are used to design a weighted-average ensemble system that exploits the advantages of each dataset.

  8. Composting of soils/sediments and sludges containing toxic organics including high energy explosives. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, R.C.; Kitchens, J.F.

    1993-07-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale experimentation were conducted to evaluate composting as an on-site treatment technology to remediate soils contaminated with hazardous waste at DOE`s PANTEX Plant. Suspected contaminated sites within the PANTEX Plant were sampled and analyzed for explosives, other organics, and inorganic wastes. Soils in drainage ditches and playas at PANTEX Plant were found to be contaminated with low levels of explosives (including RDX, HMX, PETN and TATB). Additional sites previously used for solvent disposal were heavily contaminated with solvents and transformation products of the solvent, as well as explosives and by-products of explosives. Laboratory studies were conducted using {sup 14}C-labeled explosives and {sup 14}C-labeled diacetone alcohol contaminated soil loaded into horse manure/hay composts at three rates: 20, 30, and 40%(W/W). The composts were incubated for six weeks at approximately 60{degree}C with continuous aeration. All explosives degraded rapidly and were reduced to below detection limits within 3 weeks in the laboratory studies. {sup 14}C-degradates from {sup 14}C-RDX, {sup 14}C-HMX and {sup 14}C-TATB were largely limited to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and unextracted residue in the compost. Volatile and non-volatile {sup 14}C-degradates were found to result from {sup 14}C-PETN breakdown, but these compounds were not identified. {sup 14}C-diacetone alcohol concentrations were significantly reduced during composting. However, most of the radioactivity was volatilized from the compost as non-{sup 14}CO{sub 2} degradates or as {sup 14}C-diacetone alcohol. Pilot scale composts loaded with explosives contaminated soil at 30% (W/W) with intermittent aeration were monitored over six weeks. Data from the pilot-scale study generally was in agreement with the laboratory studies. However, the {sup 14}C-labeled TATB degraded much faster than the unlabeled TATB. Some formulations of TATB may be more resistant to composting activity than others.

  9. Chlorpyrifos biodegradation in two soils of the VI Region, using isotopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potenza M, Denisse; Moll S, Oscar; Nario M, Adriana; Luzio L, Walter; Pino N, Ines; Parada C, Ana Maria; Carrasco R, M.Adriana

    2005-01-01

    The microbial activity is responsible for the biodegradation of pesticides, producing undesirable molecules or metabolites to the environment. The biodegradation dynamic of a product depends on environmental factors (temperature, humidity), soil characteristics (organic matter, clays and pH content) and pesticides characteristics (molecule type, sorption coefficient, etc). The pesticide biodegradation can be total o partial, where depending of it nature, the products or metabolites remain linked or adsorbed to the soil particles, extending the controlled action. In other situation, the products after the degradation are leaching to groundwater producing potential water pollution. The chlorpyrifos pesticide (CLP) is wide used to control a high number of insects in different crops, besides represents the 41% of the total traded volume applied in the VI Region of Chile. The behavior of chlorpyrifos under biodegradation was determined to compare the microbial activity rates on CLP degradation in surface horizons of two productive soils (Serie O'Higgins (S1) and Serie Rancagua (S2), Family Fluventic Haploxerolls) of the VI Region of Chile. The soils were fortified with 14C-CLP and incubated at 20 o C and 75% moisture content at 33 kPa, for a period of 69 and 57 days for S1 and S2, respectively. For both soil, during the first week a 23% of the product was degraded, reaching the 50% of biodegradation at 40 days for S1 and 24 days for S2. It was observed a diminish of the total and extractable residues for both soils, increasing the bound residues to 22% (S1) at the day 24 and 33% (S2) at the day 42. Assuming the value of 50% of biodegradation as a t 1/2 of the product, the GUS will be 1.38 for S1 and 0.79 for S2, indicating low mobility of the product in the soil profile and low possibility to contaminate the groundwater. Other studies to establish CLP sorption grades and half life must be studied to characterize the behavior of the product to improve crop management

  10. Immunization with influenza virus hemagglutinin globular region containing the receptor-binding pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sung Ho; Arnon, Ruth

    2002-01-01

    The globular region of hemagglutinin (residues 91-261) membrane glycoprotein of influenza virus that encompasses the binding zone to the oligosaccharide receptor of target cells has been cloned by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This protein segment (denoted HA91-261 peptide) induced significant immune response in mice. The serum antibodies and lung homogenates from the immunized mice cross-reacted with native virus particles. The cellular immunity was manifested by proliferative splenocyte responses and cytokine release indicating T helper type 1 activity. The plasmid DNA containing this segment (denoted pHA91-261) provoked, in addition, a significant cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response, whereas the HA91-261 protein fragment led to no such response. Both the DNA and the protein fragment of HA91-261 induced significant protection against viral challenge, although the immune response they induce might be along different pathways. Interestingly, the combined DNA priming-protein boosting immunization regimen did not induce protection against viral challenges even though it led to significant humoral immune responses similar to that induced by the peptide vaccine.

  11. Genic regions of a large salamander genome contain long introns and novel genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Susan V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basis of genome size variation remains an outstanding question because DNA sequence data are lacking for organisms with large genomes. Sixteen BAC clones from the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum: c-value = 32 × 109 bp were isolated and sequenced to characterize the structure of genic regions. Results Annotation of genes within BACs showed that axolotl introns are on average 10× longer than orthologous vertebrate introns and they are predicted to contain more functional elements, including miRNAs and snoRNAs. Loci were discovered within BACs for two novel EST transcripts that are differentially expressed during spinal cord regeneration and skin metamorphosis. Unexpectedly, a third novel gene was also discovered while manually annotating BACs. Analysis of human-axolotl protein-coding sequences suggests there are 2% more lineage specific genes in the axolotl genome than the human genome, but the great majority (86% of genes between axolotl and human are predicted to be 1:1 orthologs. Considering that axolotl genes are on average 5× larger than human genes, the genic component of the salamander genome is estimated to be incredibly large, approximately 2.8 gigabases! Conclusion This study shows that a large salamander genome has a correspondingly large genic component, primarily because genes have incredibly long introns. These intronic sequences may harbor novel coding and non-coding sequences that regulate biological processes that are unique to salamanders.

  12. Soil diagnosis of an urban settlement with low levels of anthropogenic pollution (Stepnoe, Saratov region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngun, C. T.; Pleshakova, Ye V.; Reshetnikov, M. V.

    2018-01-01

    A soil diagnosis of an urban territory Stepnoe (Saratov region) was conducted within the framework of soil research monitoring of inhabited localities with low levels of anthropogenic impact using chemical and microbiological analysis. Excess over maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of mobile forms of Cr, Zn and Cd were not observed within the researched territory. A universal excess over MPC of mobile forms of Ni, Cu and Pb was established which is most likely connected with anthropogenic contamination. It was discovered that, at the territory of the Stepnoe settlement, mobile forms of heavy metals compounds (HM) in most cases formed paragenetic associations with high correlation coefficient and despite this, an excess over MPC was not significant. This point to a common mineralogical origin of the elements inherited from the parent rock. The values of the total index of chemical contamination were not above 16, which puts the researched samples in a category with permissible contamination. The indices of the total number of heterotrophic bacteria, iron-oxidizing and hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria in most samples corresponded to normal indices for chestnut solonetsous and saline soils. In some samples, a deviation from the normal indices was observed justifying the impact of specific contaminants on the soil.

  13. Mineral content in soil and pasture in bovine dairy herds of the Andean region of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Rodrigo Balarezo Urresta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to characterize the mineral status of the soil and pasture in of the Andean Ecuadorian region, during the rainy and dry periods, three dairy farms were used as study cases investigated him three dairy farms of the El Carchi province. They determined the chemical indicators of the soil and the pasture, the descriptive statisticians were calculated themselves and it was used a multifactorial ANOVA to determine the main factors affecting them on them, comparing means with Bonferroni and Duncan test. The soil classified as acid lightly, 100 % of the samples presented elevated levels of organic matter, NH4+, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. The farm had a significant effect on the pH, Ca, Mg, K, Cu, Fe, Mg and P, and the climatic period on the organic matter, NH4+, S, Cu and P. Pasture presented deficiencies of Mg, Zn and Na, the other minerals were above the critical limits. The farm affected the Ca, P, Mg, Na and Mn, and the climatic period the levels of Ca, K, Cu y Zn. In conclusion, 100 % soil samples presented high OM, slight acidity, low levels of Ca and high concentrations of NH4+, S, Mg, Cu, Zn and Mn. In pastures, there were diagnosed deficiencies of P, Cu and Zn, and their concentrations differed among farms and the two climatic periods of the year.

  14. Vertical distribution of 137Cs in the native forest soil at Londrina region (Parana, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrello, Avacir Casanova; Appolono, Carlos Roberto; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do

    2002-01-01

    The 137 Cs depth distribution has been studied in several areas in the world and its knowledge is very important to verify its behavior in the soil matrix. The form of 137 Cs depth distribution more observed in an undisturbed soil it is exponential type. In this work, the study of 137 Cs depth distribution was accomplished at three native forests and a coffee yard, built before the 137 Cs fallout, in the region of Londrina (Parana). The sampling was conducted in 1 cm, 2 cm, 4 cm and 5 cm increment depth. The 137 Cs inventory observed for the forests was 248 Bq m -2 (Mata1), 338 Bq m -2 (Mata2) and 325 Bq m -2 (MataUEL). No 137 Cs activity was detected in the coffee yard. The 137 Cs depth distribution for the three forests presented the exponential type. For the soil class of the forests, 137 Cs adsorbed on the soil particles can be considered fixed or slowly exchangeable. (author)

  15. Ecological status of soils in petroleum mining regions of North-Eastern area of Caspian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenzhegaliev, A.K.; Asanbaev, I.K.; Auehzova, O.N.; Akasova, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Comprehensive monitoring of environment (air, water, soil) in populated area adjoining to the Kulsaryneft' deposit is carried out. Purposes of observations are warning and liquidation of petroleum leakages and emission of polluted substances in the case of maximum permissible concentration exceeding. Effectiveness of microbiological methods for liquidation of soils petroleum pollution is emphasized. Active carbon-hydrogen-oxidizing microorganisms for 14 deposits are separated, petroleum in these deposits has distinguished by its content. Researched cultures have tendency to gradual growth of petroleum utilization rate during from 1 up to 7 days. Qualitative changes of petroleum under action of these micro-organisms are determined by method of infrared spectroscopy. There are most typically figures: increase of oxygen containing structures of both the acid and the ether types, and sharp decrease of long-chain paraffins

  16. Factors controlling regional differences in forest soil emission of nitrogen oxides (NO and N2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pilegaard

    2006-01-01

    often explaining most of the temporal variation within a site. When comparing annual emissions on a regional scale, however, factors such as nitrogen deposition and forest and soil type become much more important.

  17. Soil carbon stocks and carbon sequestration rates in seminatural grassland in Aso region, Kumamoto, Southern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Yo; Clifton-Brown, John; Sugiyama, Shinji; Nakaboh, Makoto; Hatano, Ryusuke; Fernández, Fabián G; Ryan Stewart, J; Nishiwaki, Aya; Yamada, Toshihiko

    2013-06-01

    Global soil carbon (C) stocks account for approximately three times that found in the atmosphere. In the Aso mountain region of Southern Japan, seminatural grasslands have been maintained by annual harvests and/or burning for more than 1000 years. Quantification of soil C stocks and C sequestration rates in Aso mountain ecosystem is needed to make well-informed, land-use decisions to maximize C sinks while minimizing C emissions. Soil cores were collected from six sites within 200 km(2) (767-937 m asl.) from the surface down to the k-Ah layer established 7300 years ago by a volcanic eruption. The biological sources of the C stored in the Aso mountain ecosystem were investigated by combining C content at a number of sampling depths with age (using (14) C dating) and δ(13) C isotopic fractionation. Quantification of plant phytoliths at several depths was used to make basic reconstructions of past vegetation and was linked with C-sequestration rates. The mean total C stock of all six sites was 232 Mg C ha(-1) (28-417 Mg C ha(-1) ), which equates to a soil C sequestration rate of 32 kg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) over 7300 years. Mean soil C sequestration rates over 34, 50 and 100 years were estimated by an equation regressing soil C sequestration rate against soil C accumulation interval, which was modeled to be 618, 483 and 332 kg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) , respectively. Such data allows for a deeper understanding in how much C could be sequestered in Miscanthus grasslands at different time scales. In Aso, tribe Andropogoneae (especially Miscanthus and Schizoachyrium genera) and tribe Paniceae contributed between 64% and 100% of soil C based on δ(13) C abundance. We conclude that the seminatural, C4 -dominated grassland system serves as an important C sink, and worthy of future conservation. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition and the Properties of Soils in Forests of Vologda Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrevatykh, I. Yu.; Ivashchenko, K. V.; Ananyeva, N. D.; Ivanishcheva, E. A.

    2018-02-01

    Twenty plots (20 m2 each) were selected in coniferous and mixed forests of the industrial Vologda district and the Vytegra district without developed industries in Vologda region. In March, snow cores corresponding to the snow cover depth were taken on these plots. In August, soil samples from the 0- to 20-cm layer of litter-free soddy-podzolic soil (Albic Retisol (Ochric)) were taken on the same plots in August. The content of mineral nitrogen (Nmin), including its ammonium (NH+ 4) and nitrate (NO- 3) forms, was determined in the snow (meltwater) and soil. The contents of total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and elements (Al, Ca); pH; particle size distribution; and microbiological parameters―carbon of microbial biomass (Cmic) and microbial respiration (MR)―were determined in the soil. The ratio MR/Cmic = qCO2 (specific respiration of microbial biomass, or soil microbial metabolic quotient) was calculated. The content of Nmic in meltwater of two districts was 1.7 mg/L on the average (1.5 and 0.3 mg/L for the NH+ 4 and NO- 3 forms, respectively). The annual atmospheric deposition was 0.6-8.9 kg Nmin/ha, the value of which in the Vologda district was higher than in the Vytegra district by 40%. Reliable correlations were found between atmospheric NH+ 4 depositions and Cmic (-0.45), between NH+ 4 and qCO2 (0.56), between atmospheric NO- 3 depositions and the soil NO- 3 (-0.45), and between NO- 3 and qCO2 (-0.58). The content of atmospheric Nmin depositions correlated with the ratios C/N (-0.46) and Al/Ca (-0.52) in the soil. In forests with the high input of atmospheric nitrogen (>2.0 kg NH+ 4/(ha yr) and >6.4 kg Nmin/(ha yr)), a tendency of decreasing Cmic, C/N, and Al/Ca, as well as increasing qCO2, was revealed, which could be indicative of deterioration in the functioning of microbial community and the chemical properties of the soil.

  19. Response analysis of a nuclear containment structure with nonlinear soil-structure interaction under bi-directional ground motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Raychowdhury, Prishati; Gundlapalli, Prabhakar

    2015-06-01

    Design of critical facilities such as nuclear power plant requires an accurate and precise evaluation of seismic demands, as any failure of these facilities poses immense threat to the community. Design complexity of these structures reinforces the necessity of a robust 3D modeling and analysis of the structure and the soil-foundation interface. Moreover, it is important to consider the multiple components of ground motion during time history analysis for a realistic simulation. Present study is focused on investigating the seismic response of a nuclear containment structure considering nonlinear Winkler-based approach to model the soil-foundation interface using a distributed array of inelastic springs, dashpots and gap elements. It is observed from this study that the natural period of the structure increases about 10 %, whereas the force demands decreases up to 24 % by considering the soil-structure interaction. Further, it is observed that foundation deformations, such as rotation and sliding are affected by the embedment ratio, indicating an increase of up to 56 % in these responses for a reduction of embedment from 0.5 to 0.05× the width of the footing.

  20. Electro-removal of H-3 and C-14 contained in scintillation liquid absorbed in soils type Phaeozem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdovinos, V.; Bustos, E.; Monroy G, F.

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents the results of electro-removal, an electrochemical treatment in soils contaminated with H-3 and C-14 contained in scintillation liquids absorbed in soils. For this purpose the best electrochemical conditions were used, which are: scintillation liquid Ultima Gold Xr, water (1:1) and 1 m A in the passage of current. The media were characterized before and after of applying the different potentials by various analytical techniques, such as: liquids by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector, solids and liquids by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (Ftir) and electrodes by scanning electron microscopy with elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Later standard samples with H-3 and C-14 were prepared and the electrochemical treatment was applied to previously established conditions. After electrochemical treatment the scintillation liquid characterization was performed by gas chromatography and a scintillation counter to see the disintegrations per minute. According to results of Ftir, soils show no deterioration and in the liquid phase the amount of water increases as the applied potential, due to oxidation-reduction reactions where happen modification or mineralization of organic molecules (H 2 O and CO 2 formation). In 4 h of treatment, removal percentages in the liquid phase, were: 53.6% of H-3 and 11.6% of C-14. (Author)

  1. Effects of short-term variability of meteorological variables on soil temperature in permafrost regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Christian; Porada, Philipp; Ekici, Altug; Brakebusch, Matthias

    2018-03-01

    Effects of the short-term temporal variability of meteorological variables on soil temperature in northern high-latitude regions have been investigated. For this, a process-oriented land surface model has been driven using an artificially manipulated climate dataset. Short-term climate variability mainly impacts snow depth, and the thermal diffusivity of lichens and bryophytes. These impacts of climate variability on insulating surface layers together substantially alter the heat exchange between atmosphere and soil. As a result, soil temperature is 0.1 to 0.8 °C higher when climate variability is reduced. Earth system models project warming of the Arctic region but also increasing variability of meteorological variables and more often extreme meteorological events. Therefore, our results show that projected future increases in permafrost temperature and active-layer thickness in response to climate change will be lower (i) when taking into account future changes in short-term variability of meteorological variables and (ii) when representing dynamic snow and lichen and bryophyte functions in land surface models.

  2. Sustainable Lang Use in Hilly Red Soil Region of Southeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGTAO-LIN; ZHAOQI-GUO; 等

    1995-01-01

    In the present work,an integrated analysis of natural and socio-economic conditions in the hilly red soil region of southeastern China is made by means of a Geographic Information System.Particular emphasis lies on soil degradation and other adverse ecological and environmental effects of the prevalent and irrational land-use systems of mono-and valley-agriculture in the region.Moreover,taking into account the simultaneous existence of enormous potentials and serious constraints and the high diversity and complexity of the biophysical and socio-economic environments,a set of strategies and countermeasures are also proposed for appropriate management of environmental resources,in terms of maintaining harmony between utilization and coservation of the natural environment,including 1) adjustment of the agricultural structure and optimization of ecological patterns of stereo-agriculture;2) improvement and integrated exploitation of the low-yield lands and wastelands;3) ehabilitation and conservation of soil and water resources;and 4) establishment of production bases of tropical and subtropical cash crops and fruits.

  3. Vertical distribution and inventories of 137Cs in the Syrian soils of the eastern Mediterranean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Vertical distribution and inventories of 137 Cs have been determined using radiocesium distributions in presumably undistributed soil profiles, collected from 36 sites distributed all over Syria (eastern Mediterranean region). Vertical distributions of 137 Cs in the collected profiles were found to be strongly correlated with soil type and five groups were identified. Based on these profiles, total 137 Cs inventory (bomb test and Chernobyl) varied between 320 Bq m -2 and 9647 Bq m -2 . Geographical mapping of 137 Cs inventories showed that the highest values were found in the coastal, middle and north-east regions of Syria indicating that Chernobyl atmospheric contribution to the total 137 Cs deposition in the region is predominant. In contrast, the lowest values were found in the south-east region (Syrian Badia), where a relatively uniform distribution was observed, which may only be attributed to the past global nuclear bomb test. The measured inventories were also compared with a mathematical model for estimating bomb derived 137 Cs reference inventories

  4. Soil organic carbon stock and distribution in cultivated land converted to grassland in a subtropical region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J H; Li, F C; Wang, Y; Xiong, D H

    2014-02-01

    Land-use change from one type to another affects soil carbon (C) stocks which is associated with fluxes of CO2 to the atmosphere. The 10-years converted land selected from previously cultivated land in hilly areas of Sichuan, China was studied to understand the effects of land-use conversion on soil organic casrbon (SOC) sequestration under landscape position influences in a subtropical region of China. The SOC concentrations of the surface soil were greater (P\\0.001) for converted soils than those for cultivated soils but lower (P\\0.001) than those for original uncultivated soils. The SOC inventories (1.90–1.95 kg m-2) in the 0–15 cm surface soils were similar among upper, middle, and lower slope positions on the converted land, while the SOC inventories (1.41–1.65 kg m-2) in this soil layer tended to increase from upper to lower slope positions on the cultivated slope. On the whole, SOC inventories in this soil layer significantly increased following the conversion from cultivated land to grassland (P\\0.001). In the upper slope positions, converted soils (especially in 0–5 cm surface soil) exhibited a higher C/N ratio than cultivated soils (P = 0.012), implying that strong SOC sequestration characteristics exist in upper slope areas where severe soil erosion occurred before land conversion. It is suggested that landscape position impacts on the SOC spatial distribution become insignificant after the conversion of cultivated land to grassland, which is conducive to the immobilization of organic C. We speculate that the conversion of cultivated land to grassland would markedly increase SOC stocks in soil and would especially improve the potential for SOC sequestration in the surface soil over a moderate period of time (10 years).

  5. [Analysis of soil respiration and influence factors in wheat farmland under conservation tillage in southwest hilly region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sai; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Long-Chang; Luo, Hai-Xiu; Zhou, Hang-Fei; Ma, Zhong-Lian; Zhang, Cui-Wei

    2013-07-01

    In order to investigate the effect of conservation tillage on soil respiration in dry cropping farmland in southwest purple hilly region, the LI6400-09 respiratory chamber was adopted in the experiment conducted in the experimental field in Southwest University in Beibei, Chongqing. The respiration and the hydrothermal and biotic factors of soil were measured and analyzed during the growth period of wheat in the triple intercropping system of wheat/maize/soybean. There were four treatments including T (traditional tillage), R (ridge tillage), TS (traditional tillage + straw mulching) and RS (ridge tillage + straw mulching), which were all in triplicates. The results indicated that the soil respiration rate changed in the range of 1.100-2.508 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1) during the reproductive growth stage of wheat. There were significant differences in soil respiration rate among different treatments, which could be ranked as RS > R > TS > T. The soil temperature in the 10cm layer was ranked as T > R > TS > RS. The relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature fitted well with an exponential function, in which the Q10 values were 1.25, 1.20, 1.31 and 1.26, respectively. The soil moisture in the 5cm layer was ranked as TS > RS > T > R. The best fitting model between soil moisture and soil respiration was a parabolic curve, indicating the presence of soil moisture with the strongest soil respiration. The response threshold of wheat to soil moisture was 14.80%-17.47% during the reproductive stage. The dominant groups of soil animals were Collembola and Acarina, which were correlated with soil respiration to some extent. The correlation was high in the treatments T and R, ranged from 0.669-0.921, whereas there was no remarkable correlation in the other treatments.

  6. Multi-temporal Soil Erosion Modelling over the Mt Kenya Region with Multi-Sensor Earth Observation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeonakis, Elias; Higginbottom, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Accelerated soil erosion is the principal cause of soil degradation across the world. In Africa, it is seen as a serious problem creating negative impacts on agricultural production, infrastructure and water quality. Regarding the Mt Kenya region, specifically, soil erosion is a serious threat mainly due to unplanned and unsustainable practices linked to tourism, agriculture and rapid population growth. The soil types roughly correspond with different altitudinal zones and are generally very fertile due to their volcanic origin. Some of them have been created by eroding glaciers while others are due to millions of years of fluvial erosion. The soils on the mountain are easily eroded once exposed: when vegetation is removed, the soil quickly erodes down to bedrock by either animals or humans, as tourists erode paths and local people clear large swaths of forested land for agriculture, mostly illegally. It is imperative, therefore, that a soil erosion monitoring system for the Mt Kenya region is in place in order to understand the magnitude of, and be able to respond to, the increasing number of demands on this renewable resource. In this paper, we employ a simple regional-scale soil erosion modelling framework based on the Thornes model and suggest an operational methodology for quantifying and monitoring water runoff and soil erosion using multi-sensor and multi-temporal remote sensing data in a GIS framework. We compare the estimates of this study with general data on the severity of soil erosion over Kenya and with measured rates of soil loss at different locations over the area of study. The results show that the measured and estimated rates of erosion are generally similar and within the same order of magnitude. They also show that, over the last years, erosion rates are increasing in large parts of the region at an alarming rate, and that mitigation measures are needed to reverse the negative effects of uncontrolled socio-economic practices.

  7. The role of soil physics in fighting soil degradation. A case study in the Valencia Region, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingelmo-Sánchez, Florencio

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the peculiar characteristics of climate, topography, geology, soils and managing systems in the Valencia region, some proven general facts in soil Physics are presented, emphasizing some points needing further investigation which, as a whole, fall within the framework of actions in controlling soil degradation processes. The text is divided into two sections: the first, and longer, deals with the study of hydrological and erosion processes. Involving Soil Physics In the explanation of some behaviours and mechanisms; in the second, the various mechanisms of physical degradation leading to soil compaction are shown, and the main causes and Impacts are also determined.

    [es] Teniendo en cuenta las características peculiares del clima, topografía, geología, suelos y sistemas de manejo en la Región Valenciana, se exponen algunos hechos probados como suficientemente generales en la Física de suelos y algunos de los avances más significativos de dicha disciplina, enmarcando al mismo tiempo aspectos que necesitan ser Investigados, como base para la aplicación de un modelo conceptual de actuación para el control de los procesos de degradación del suelo. La exposición queda dividida, por consideraciones didácticas, en dos apartados. El primero, más extenso, se dedica al estudio de los procesos hidrológicos y erosivos, implicando a la Física del Suelo en la explicación de algunos comportamientos y mecanismos. En el segundo, se exponen los diferentes mecanismos de degradación física que conducen a la compactación del suelo, identificándose las principales causas y las repercusiones.
    [fr] Compte tenu des particulières caractéristiques du climat, topographie, géologie, sols et systèmes d'aménagement des sols dans la Région de Valence, on expose Ici quelques sujets bien connus, sur la Physique du Sol, et on signale certains rapports qui doivent être recherchés pour l'application d'un mod

  8. Microflora dynamics in earthworms casts in an artificial soil (biosynthesol containing lactic acid oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alauzet Nathalie

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were performed to appreciate the presence of micro-organisms able to degrade OLA, in earthworms casts or in the surroundings. Worms were grown in biosynthesol, an artificial soil. The counting of bacteria and fungi in earthworms casts and in biosynthesol without earthworms suggested that earthworms ate some of the micro-organisms. The main filamentous fungi genera found were Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Fusarium and Penicillium. Previous results in the literature have shown that some species from the Aspergillus and Fusarium genera were able to degrade OLA and other aliphatic esters. It could be suggested that these two genera and some bacteria were responsible for the pre-degradation of OLA, and that earthworms might eat them.

  9. Coordinating bifurcated remediation of soil and groundwater at sites containing multiple operable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laney, D.F.

    1996-01-01

    On larger and/or more complex sites, remediation of soil and groundwater is sometimes bifurcated. This presents some unique advantages with respect to expedited cleanup of one medium, however, it requires skillful planning and significant forethought to ensure that initial remediation efforts do not preclude some long-term options, and/or unduly influence the subsequent selection of a technology for the other operable units and/or media. this paper examines how the decision to bifurcate should be approached, the various methods of bifurcation, the advantages and disadvantages of bifurcation, and the best methods to build flexibility into the design of initial remediation systems so as to allow for consideration of a fuller range of options for remediation of other operable units and/or media at a later time. Pollutants of concern include: metals; petroleum hydrocarbons; and chlorinated solvents

  10. Heavy metals contamination of soils in response to wastewater irrigation in Rawalpindi region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, N.; Khan, K.S.

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the quality of effluents/ waste water samples from Rawalpindi region for irrigation purpose and to elucidate effects of their application on heavy metal contents in soils of area. Results indicated that the EC, SAR, RSC and TDS of most effluent/ waste water samples were above the critical limits. Cadmium and Cr were above the critical limits in almost all the effluent samples, whereas Ni was high in 14, Pb was high in 10, Cu was high in 5 and the Fe was high in 3 effluent samples as compared to critical limits. Regarding heavy metals contents of soils irrigated by these effluents/ waste water, total Fe, total Cd and total Ni were higher in almost all the sampled sites, whereas total Cr was high at 7 sampled sites. AB-DTPA extractable Fe and Zn were higher at all the sampled sites, while the extractable Cd was higher at 2 sampled sites. Overall, the effluent samples collected from Adiala showed high concentrations of heavy metals, whereas soils of Wah factory and Islamabad area had higher heavy metal contents (total and AB-DTPA extractable). On the basis of results it is concluded that quality of effluents/ waste water samples collected from different locations of Rawalpindi is not good for irrigation and the long term use of these effluents for crop production caused accumulation of some toxic metals in soils above critical limits which is harmful for soil health and may lead to elevated levels of heavy metals in crop plants. (author)

  11. The effect of portland cement for solidification of soils contaminated by mine tailings containing heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian-Jun, Chen; Zheng-Miao, Xie

    2010-05-01

    Portland cement(PC) was used to solidify the lead-zinc mine tailings contaminated soils(CS) in this work. The soils were heavily polluted by heavy metals with lead(up to 19592 mg/kg), zinc(up to 647mg/kg), Cd(up to 14.65mg.kg) and Cu(up to 287mg/kg). Solidified/stabilized(s/s)forms with a range of cement contents, 40-90 wt%, were evaluated to determine the optimal binder content. Unconfined compression strength test(UCS), Chinese solid waste-extraction procedure for leaching toxicity - Horizontal vibration method, toxicity characteristic leaching procedures(TCLP) were used for physical and chemical characterization of the s/s forms. The procedure of Tessier et al.(1979) was used to separate S/S forms Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu into different fractions. The results show that addition of 50% cement was enough for the s/s forms to satisfy the MU10 requirements (0.10 MPa). Under the 50% addition, the content of the water-exchangeable fraction of Pb reduced from 2.25% to 0.2%, the carbonate-bound fraction and organic-bound fraction reduced by about half, while the Fe-Mn oxide-bound fraction was more than doubled. The residual fraction decreased 8% on the contrary. For Zn, except for the carbonate-bound fraction increased slightly, the features of other items were same as that of Pb. For Cd, the water-exchangeable fraction was reduced largely, the residual fraction and Fe-Mn oxide-bound fraction increased 2-3%. For Cu, A distinct feature is the organic-bound fraction reduced with the reduction in consumption of cement, at the same time, the residual fraction increased corresponding. Leaching test results indicate that the leaching contents of Pb2+ of the six specimens are quite different at low pH value(

  12. Natural radionuclides in rocks and soils of the high-mountain regions of the Great Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asvarova, T. A.; Abdulaeva, A. S.; Magomedov, M. A.

    2012-06-01

    The results of the radioecological survey in the high-mountain regions of the Great Caucasus at the heights from 2200 to 3800 m a.s.l. are considered. This survey encompassed the territories of Dagestan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Chechnya, Northern Ossetia-Alania, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia, and the Stavropol and Krasnodar regions. The natural γ background radiation in the studied regions is subjected to considerable fluctuations and varies from 6 to 40 μR/h. The major regularities of the migration of natural radionuclides 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, and 40K in soils in dependence on the particular environmental conditions (the initial concentration of the radionuclides in the parent material; the intensity of pedogenesis; the intensity of the vertical and horizontal migration; and the geographic, climatic, and landscape-geochemical factors) are discussed.

  13. Transfer factors for the „soil-cereals” system in the region of Pcinja, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Jelena S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to estimate the values of transfer factors for natural radionuclides (40K, 226Ra, 232Th, 235U, and 238U and 137Cs from soil to plants (cereals: wheat, corn and barley as important parameters for the agricultures in the selection of the location and the sort of cereals to be planted on. The results presented in this paper refer to the „soil-cereals” system in the region of Pcinja, Serbia. Total of 9 samples of soil and 7 samples of cereals were measured in the Department of Radiation and Environmental Protection, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, using three high-purity germanium detectors for gamma spectrometry measurements. In all the samples, transfer factors for 226Ra are significantly lower than for 40K, but they are all in good agreement with the literature data. On the three investigated locations, the calculated values of transfer factors for 40K were in the range of 0.144 to 0.392, while in the case of 226Ra, the transfer factors ranged from 0.008 to 0.074. Only one value (0.051 was obtained for transfer factor of 232Th. Specific activities of 137Cs, as well as uranium isotopes, in all the investigated cereal samples, were below minimal detectable activity concentrations. Also, the absorbed dose rate and the annual absorbed dose from the natural radionuclides in the soil, were calculated. The absorbed dose rate ranged from 49-86 nSv/h, while the annual absorbed dose ranged from 0.061-0.105 mSv. The measurements presented in this manuscript are the first to be conducted in the region of Pcinja, thus providing the results that can be used as a baseline for future measurements and monitoring.

  14. FIREX (Fire Influence on Regional and Global Environments Experiment): Measurements of Nitrogen Containing Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, C.; Schwarz, J. P.; Yokelson, R. J.; Roberts, J. M.; Koss, A.; Coggon, M.; Yuan, B.; Sekimoto, K.

    2017-12-01

    A combination of a warmer, drier climate with fire-control practices over the last century have produced a situation in which we can expect more frequent fires and fires of larger magnitude in the Western U.S. and Canada. There are urgent needs to better understand the impacts of wildfire and biomass burning (BB) on the atmosphere and climate system, and for policy-relevant science to aid in the process of managing fires. The FIREX (Fire Influence on Regional and Global Environment Experiment) research effort is a multi-year, multi-agency measurement campaign focused on the impact of BB on climate and air quality from western North American wild fires, where research takes place on scales ranging from the flame-front to the global atmosphere. FIREX includes methods development and small- and large-scale laboratory and field experiments. FIREX will include: emission factor measurements from typical North American fuels in the fire science laboratory in Missoula, Montana; mobile laboratory deployments; ground site measurements at sites influenced by BB from several western states. The main FIREX effort will be a large field study with multiple aircraft and mobile labs in the fire season of 2019. One of the main advances of FIREX is the availability of various new measurement techniques that allows for smoke evaluation in unprecedented detail. The first major effort of FIREX was the fire science laboratory measurements in October 2016, where a large number of previously understudied Nitrogen containing volatile organic compounds (NVOCs) were measured using H3O+CIMS and I-CIMS instruments. The contribution of NVOCs to the total reactive Nitrogen budget and the relationship to the Nitrogen content of the fuel are investigated.

  15. Soil Fertility Assessment and Mapping of Regional Agricultural Research Station, Parwanipur, Bara, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Khadka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertility assessment is a key for sustainable planning of a particular area. Thus, the present study was conducted to assess the soil fertility status of the Regional Agricultural Research Station, Parwanipur, Bara, Nepal. The study area is situated at the latitude 27°4’40.9’’N and longitude 84°56’9.85”E at 75masl altitude. Altogether 76 soil samples were collected based on the variability of land at 0-20 cm depth. The texture, pH, OM, total N, available P2O5, K2O, Ca, Mg, S, B, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn content in the samples were determined following standard analytical methods. Arc-GIS 10.1 was used for soil fertility mapping. The soil structure was angular blocky, and varied between grayish brown (10YR 5/2 and dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2 in color. The sand, silt and clay content were 24.41±0.59%, 54.57±0.44% and 21.03±0.32%, respectively and categorized as silt loam and loam in texture. The soil was moderately acidic in pH (5.67±0.09, low in organic matter (0.74±0.04% and available Sulphur (0.8± 0.1 ppm. The total nitrogen (0.06±0.001%, available boron (0.59±0.08ppm and available zinc (0.51±0.05ppm were low. Furthermore, available potassium (50.26±2.95ppm, available calcium (1674.6±46.3ppm and available magnesium (175.43± 8.93ppm were medium. Moreover, available copper (1.36±0.06 ppm and available manganese (16.52±1.12 ppm were high, while, available phosphorus (77.55±6.65 ppm and available iron (85.88±7.05 ppm were found high. It is expected that the present study would help to guide practices required for sustainable soil fertility management and developing future agricultural research strategy in the farm.

  16. Regional Variability of Cd, Hg, Pb and C Concentrations in Different Horizons of Swedish Forest Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alriksson, A.

    2001-01-01

    Contents of cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and carbon(C) in the O, B and C horizons of podzolized forest soils in Sweden were surveyed. Concentrations and storage of Cd, Hg and Pb in the O and B horizons were high in southern Sweden and gradually decreased towards the north, though with considerable local variability. This pattern reflects the influence of anthropogenic emissions of these metals, as well as the effects of soil-forming processes. Parent till material, as represented by the C horizon concentration of the respective metal, accounted for little of the variation in metal concentration in the O horizon. For Cd and Pb, the correlations were not significant or slightly negative (R 2 = 0.12 and 0.09 respectively) depending on region, while for Hg the correlation was not significant or slightly positive (R 2 = 0.03 and 0.08). Furthermore, parent till material accounted for more of the variation in metal concentrations in the B horizons in the northern part of Sweden than in the middle and southernmost parts, where the concentration of total carbon had more influence. The correlation between the metal concentrations in the B and C horizon was strongest for Pb (R 2 = 0.63 and 0.36 in the two northernmost regions), lower for Cd (R 2 = 0.19 and 0.16) and not significant for Hg. For all soil horizons, total C concentration accounted for much of the variation in Hg concentration in particular (O-horizon R 2 = 0.15-0.69, B horizon R 2 = 0.36-0.50, C horizon R 2 = 0.23-0.50 and ns in one region). Ratios of metal concentrations between the B and C horizons were highest for Hg(maximum value of 30), indicating a relatively larger addition or retention of Hg compared to Cd and Pb (maximum value of 10)in the B horizon. This study indicate that factors other than parent material account for the large scale variation in O horizon concentrations of metals but patterns correspond well with those of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and acidifying substances

  17. Quantifying the uncertainty of regional and national estimates of soil carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papritz, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    At regional and national scales, carbon (C) stocks are frequently estimated by means of regression models. Such statistical models link measurements of carbons stocks, recorded for a set of soil profiles or soil cores, to covariates that characterize soil formation conditions and land management. A prerequisite is that these covariates are available for any location within a region of interest G because they are used along with the fitted regression coefficients to predict the carbon stocks at the nodes of a fine-meshed grid that is laid over G. The mean C stock in G is then estimated by the arithmetic mean of the stock predictions for the grid nodes. Apart from the mean stock, the precision of the estimate is often also of interest, for example to judge whether the mean C stock has changed significantly between two inventories. The standard error of the estimated mean stock in G can be computed from the regression results as well. Two issues are thereby important: (i) How large is the area of G relative to the support of the measurements? (ii) Are the residuals of the regression model spatially auto-correlated or is the assumption of statistical independence tenable? Both issues are correctly handled if one adopts a geostatistical block kriging approach for estimating the mean C stock within a region and its standard error. In the presentation I shall summarize the main ideas of external drift block kriging. To compute the standard error of the mean stock, one has in principle to sum the elements a potentially very large covariance matrix of point prediction errors, but I shall show that the required term can be approximated very well by Monte Carlo techniques. I shall further illustrated with a few examples how the standard error of the mean stock estimate changes with the size of G and with the strenght of the auto-correlation of the regression residuals. As an application a robust variant of block kriging is used to quantify the mean carbon stock stored in the

  18. Airborne Soil Moisture determination at regional level: A data fusion mission approach for Catalan territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Francisco; Corbera, Jordi; Marchan, Juan Fernando; Camps, Adriano

    2010-05-01

    During the last years the importance of water management has grown considerably. Average temperatures exhibit an increasing pattern (0.77 °C during the last 20 years) that is expected to continue in the next years. These results in a decrease in the hydrical resources (15% during the last 20 years for the Catalan territori) being the expectative not very optimist. A tangible consequence was the drought episode that suffers Catalonia. It is within this scenario that the ‘Programa Català d'Observació de la Terra' (PCOT) as a unit of the official mapping agency of Catalonia, the ‘Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya' (ICC) has detected the need to develop new tools to improve the management of water resources. The knowledge of soil moisture across a given region can help to efficiently manage the limited water resources. Present Earth Observations missions such as ESA's SMOS, or the future NASA's SMAP focus considerably their efforts in the estimation of soil moisture. The main drawbacks are the resolutions obtained (40 km for SMOS, 10 km for SMAP), which are not adequate for regional scale and territorial availability such as the case of Catalonia where a spatial resolution in a range between 20-30m. and 100-150m. is desired both for local actuations and to deteminate hidric soil patterns In this scenario, PCOT is carrying out an airborne soil moisture mission for the Catalan territory, taking advantage of the availability of ICC aircrafts and of more than 20 years of experience in making aircraft campaigns and operating hyperspectral airborne sensors such as CASI (0.75-1.4 µm) and TASI (8-11.5 µm) to respond to environmental and cartographic end users needs of geoinformation data, products and services. This mission will generate soil moisture maps over the Catalan region that will improve the water management, and will also be used for the study of the hydrological patterns of Catalonia. Soil moisture determination will be achieved by means of L

  19. Shear strength in corner region of reinforced concrete duct type structures to be embedded in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Y.; Endo, T.

    1993-01-01

    Reinforced concrete ducts for accommodating emergency cooling water pipes are generally embedded in soil. The structures is classified as one of the most important structures in terms of earthquake resistant design. During a strong earthquake it is subjected to shear deformations in concerted movement with surrounding soil. The comer regions of the duct should be designed against shear with moment combined. However, the complicated stress conditions in the region render the design more intricate in comparison with the case of simple determinate RC beam type structures. With the above situation in mind an experimental study was conducted, in which prototype as well as one half scale models representing the stress conditions in the region of interest were loaded and brought to failure in shear. The cross section of the prototype test model without shear reinforcements was 60 (height) x 30cm (width), and the tensile reinforcement ratio was 2.58%. The following results were obtained within the limit of the experimental study. (1) The shear capacity predicted by Japanese Design Code for linear RC members over-estimated the experimental ones with a considerably large safety margin of 4.4-5.0. (2) An improved design procedure to be applied to the specific structure was proposed, which gave a reasonable safety factor against shear failure of 1.7-2.0. (3) Combined smeared and discrete cracking model was utilized to simulate the shear failure mechanism, which could realistically pursue experimental behaviors. (author)

  20. Effects of different agricultural managements in soil microbial community structure in a semi-arid Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Morugan, Alicia; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Scow, Kate

    2013-04-01

    Agriculture has been practiced in semi-arid Mediterranean regions for 10.000 years and in many cases these practices have been unsuitable causing land degradation for millennium and an important loss of soil quality. The land management can provide solutions to find the best agricultural practices in order to maintain the soil quality and get a sustainable agriculture model. Microbiological properties are the most sensitive and rapid indicators of soil perturbations and land use managements. The study of microbial community and diversity has an important interest as indicators of changes in soil quality. The main objective of this work was to asses the effect of different agricultural management practices in soil microbial community (evaluated as abundance of phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA). Four different treatments were selected, based on the most commonly practices applied by farmers in the study area, "El Teularet Experimental Station", located at the Enguera Range in the southern part of the Valencia province (eastern Spain). These treatments were: a) ploughing, b) herbicides c) mulch, using the types applied by organic farmers to develop a sustainable agriculture, such as oat straw and d) control that was established as plot where the treatment was abandonment after farming. An adjacent area with the same type of soil, but with natural vegetation was used as a standard or reference high quality soil. Soil samples were taken to evaluate the changes in microbial soil structure, analysing the abundance of PLFA. The results showed a major content of total PLFA in soils treated with oats straw, being these results similar to the content of PLFA in the soil with natural vegetation, also these soils were similar in the distribution of abundance of different PLFA studied. However, the herbicide and tillage treatments showed great differences regarding the soil used as reference (soil under natural vegetation).

  1. Regional analysis of groundwater phosphate concentrations under acidic sandy soils: Edaphic factors and water table strongly mediate the soil P-groundwater P relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabilde, Lisa; De Neve, Stefaan; Sleutel, Steven

    2017-12-01

    Historic long-term P application to sandy soils in NW-Europe has resulted in abundant sorption, saturation and eventually leaching of P from soil to the groundwater. Although many studies recognize the control of site-specific factors like soil texture and phosphate saturation degree (PSD), the regional-scaled relevance of effects exerted by single factors controlling P leaching is unclear. Very large observational datasets of soil and groundwater P content are furthermore required to reveal indirect controls of soil traits through mediating soil variables. We explored co-variation of phreatic groundwater orthophosphate (o-P) concentration and soil factors in sandy soils in Flanders, Belgium. Correlation analyses were complemented with an exploratory model derived using 'path analysis'. Data of oxalate-extractable Al, Fe, P and pH KCl , phosphate sorption capacity (PSC) and PSD in three depth layers (0-30, 30-60, 60-90 cm), topsoil SOC, % clay and groundwater depth (fluctuation) were interpolated to predict soil properties on exact locations of a very extensive net of groundwater monitoring wells. The mean PSD was only poorly correlated to groundwater o-P concentration, indicating the overriding control of other factors in the transport of P to the groundwater. A significant (P soil pH and groundwater table depth than by PSD indicates the likely oversimplification of the latter index to measure the long-term potential risk of P leaching. Accounting for controls on leaching not included in PSD via an alternative index, however, seems problematic as in Flanders for example groundwater o-P turned out to be higher in finer textured soils or soils with higher pedogenic Fe content, probably because of their lower pedogenic Al content and higher soil pH. Path analysis of extensive soil and groundwater datasets seems a viable way to identify prime local determinants of soil P leaching and could be further on used for 'ground-truthing' more complex P-migration simulation

  2. A novel explicit approach to model bromide and pesticide transport in soils containing macropores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, J.; Zehe, E.

    2011-01-01

    The present study tests whether an explicit treatment of worm burrows is feasible for simulating water flow, bromide and pesticide transport in structured heterogeneous soils. The essence is to represent worm burrows as morphologically connected paths of low flow resistance in the spatially highly resolved model domain. A recent Monte Carlo study (Klaus and Zehe, 2010) revealed that this approach allowed successful reproduction of tile drain event discharge recorded during an irrigation experiment at a tile drained field site. However, several "hillslope architectures" that were all consistent with the available extensive data base allowed a good reproduction of tile drain flow response. Our second objective was thus to find out whether this "equifinality" in spatial model setups may be reduced when including bromide tracer data in the model falsification process. We thus simulated transport of bromide and Isoproturon (IPU) for the 13 spatial model setups, which performed best with respect to reproduce tile drain event discharge, without any further calibration. All model setups allowed a very good prediction of the temporal dynamics of cumulated bromide leaching into the tile drain, while only four of them matched the accumulated water balance and accumulated bromide loss into the tile drain. The number of behavioural model architectures could thus be reduced to four. One of those setups was used for simulating transport of IPU, using different parameter combinations to characterise adsorption according to the Footprint data base. Simulations could, however, only reproduce the observed leaching behaviour, when we allowed for retardation coefficients that were very close to one.

  3. Pollution of intensively managed greenhouse soils by nutrients and heavy metals in the Yellow River Irrigation Region, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiaole; Cao, Jing; Tang, Rangyun; Zhang, Shengqiang; Dong, Fang

    2014-11-01

    The present study aimed to assess the potential ecological risk of heavy metals and nutrient accumulation in polytunnel greenhouse soils in the Yellow River irrigation region (YRIR), Northwest China, and to identify the potential sources of these heavy metals using principal component analysis. Contents of available nitrogen (AN), phosphorus (AP), and potassium (AK) in the surface polytunnel greenhouse soils (0-20 cm) varied from 13.42 to 486.78, from 39.10 to 566.97, and from 21.64 to 1,156.40 mg kg(-1), respectively, as well as AP, soil organic matter (SOM) and AK contents tended to increase significantly at the 0-20- and 20-40-cm soil layers. Heavy metal accumulations occurred in the polytunnel greenhouse soils as compared to arable soils, especially at a depth of 20 cm where Cd, Zn and Cu contents were significantly higher than arable soil. Cd and As were found to be the two main polluting elements in the greenhouse soils because their contents exceeded the thresholds established for greenhouse vegetable production HJ333-2006 in China and the background of Gansu province. It has been shown that Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn at the 0-20-cm soil layer were derived mainly from agricultural production activities, whereas contents of Cr and Ni at the same soil layer were determined by 'natural' factors and As originated from natural sources, deposition and irrigation water.

  4. Survey and Zoning of Soil Physical and Chemical Properties Using Geostatistical Methods in GIS (Case Study: Miankangi Region in Sistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hashemi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to provide a database, it is essential having access to accurate information on soil spatial variation for soil sustainable management such as proper application of fertilizers. Spatial variations in soil properties are common but it is important for understanding these changes, particularly in agricultural lands for careful planning and land management. Materials and Methods: To this end, in winter 1391, 189 undisturbed soil samples (0-30 cm depth in a regular lattice with a spacing of 500 m were gathered from the surface of Miankangi land, Sistan plain, and their physical and chemical properties were studied. The land area of the region is about 4,500 hectares; the average elevation of studied area is 489.2 meters above sea level with different land uses. Soil texture was measured by the hydrometer methods (11, Also EC and pH (39, calcium carbonate equivalent (37 and the saturation percentage of soils were determined. Kriging, Co-Kriging, Inverse Distance Weighting and Local Polynomial Interpolation techniques were evaluated to produce a soil characteristics map of the study area zoning and to select the best geostatistical methods. Cross-validation techniques and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE were used. Results and Discussion: Normalized test results showed that all of the soil properties except calcium carbonate and soil clay content had normal distribution. In addition, the results of correlation test showed that the soil saturation percentage was positively correlated with silt content (r=0.43 and p

  5. Diversity and structure of soil bacterial communities in the Fildes Region (maritime Antarctica as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neng Fei eWang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the diversity and composition of bacterial communities in four different soils (human-, penguin-, seal-colony impacted soils and pristine soil in the Fildes Region (King George Island, Antarctica using 454 pyrosequencing with bacterial-specific primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia were abundant phyla in almost all the soil samples. The four types of soils were significantly different in geochemical properties and bacterial community structure. Thermotogae, Cyanobacteria, Fibrobacteres, Deinococcus-Thermus, and Chlorobi obviously varied in their abundance among the 4 soil types. Considering all the samples together, members of the genera Gaiella, Chloracidobacterium, Nitrospira, Polaromonas, Gemmatimonas, Sphingomonas and Chthoniobacter were found to predominate, whereas members of the genera Chamaesiphon, Herbaspirillum, Hirschia, Nevskia, Nitrosococcus, Rhodococcus, Rhodomicrobium, and Xanthomonas varied obviously in their abundance among the four soil types. Distance-based redundancy analysis revealed that pH (p < 0.01, phosphate phosphorus (p < 0.01, organic carbon (p < 0.05, and organic nitrogen (p < 0.05 were the most significant factors that correlated with the community distribution of soil bacteria. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore the soil bacterial communities in human-, penguin-, and seal- colony impacted soils from ice-free areas in maritime Antarctica using high-throughput pyrosequencing.

  6. Comparison Study on the Estimation of the Spatial Distribution of Regional Soil Metal(loids Pollution Based on Kriging Interpolation and BP Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyi Jia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil pollution by metal(loids resulting from rapid economic development is a major concern. Accurately estimating the spatial distribution of soil metal(loid pollution has great significance in preventing and controlling soil pollution. In this study, 126 topsoil samples were collected in Kunshan City and the geo-accumulation index was selected as a pollution index. We used Kriging interpolation and BP neural network methods to estimate the spatial distribution of arsenic (As and cadmium (Cd pollution in the study area. Additionally, we introduced a cross-validation method to measure the errors of the estimation results by the two interpolation methods and discussed the accuracy of the information contained in the estimation results. The conclusions are as follows: data distribution characteristics, spatial variability, and mean square errors (MSE of the different methods showed large differences. Estimation results from BP neural network models have a higher accuracy, the MSE of As and Cd are 0.0661 and 0.1743, respectively. However, the interpolation results show significant skewed distribution, and spatial autocorrelation is strong. Using Kriging interpolation, the MSE of As and Cd are 0.0804 and 0.2983, respectively. The estimation results have poorer accuracy. Combining the two methods can improve the accuracy of the Kriging interpolation and more comprehensively represent the spatial distribution characteristics of metal(loids in regional soil. The study may provide a scientific basis and technical support for the regulation of soil metal(loid pollution.

  7. Comparison Study on the Estimation of the Spatial Distribution of Regional Soil Metal(loid)s Pollution Based on Kriging Interpolation and BP Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhenyi; Zhou, Shenglu; Su, Quanlong; Yi, Haomin; Wang, Junxiao

    2017-12-26

    Soil pollution by metal(loid)s resulting from rapid economic development is a major concern. Accurately estimating the spatial distribution of soil metal(loid) pollution has great significance in preventing and controlling soil pollution. In this study, 126 topsoil samples were collected in Kunshan City and the geo-accumulation index was selected as a pollution index. We used Kriging interpolation and BP neural network methods to estimate the spatial distribution of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) pollution in the study area. Additionally, we introduced a cross-validation method to measure the errors of the estimation results by the two interpolation methods and discussed the accuracy of the information contained in the estimation results. The conclusions are as follows: data distribution characteristics, spatial variability, and mean square errors (MSE) of the different methods showed large differences. Estimation results from BP neural network models have a higher accuracy, the MSE of As and Cd are 0.0661 and 0.1743, respectively. However, the interpolation results show significant skewed distribution, and spatial autocorrelation is strong. Using Kriging interpolation, the MSE of As and Cd are 0.0804 and 0.2983, respectively. The estimation results have poorer accuracy. Combining the two methods can improve the accuracy of the Kriging interpolation and more comprehensively represent the spatial distribution characteristics of metal(loid)s in regional soil. The study may provide a scientific basis and technical support for the regulation of soil metal(loid) pollution.

  8. Effect of agricultural inputs and essential oils on the soil of vegetables in Colombia's Caribbean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mena-Rodríguez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of vegetables to food security and economic development in Colombia, as well as to environmental problems worldwide, justifies the interest to design sustainable production strategies for the agro-chain. This study was developed to evaluate the effect of the application of essential oils and agricultural inputs in chili peppers, beans and eggplants in Codazzi, Cesar, Colombia. The methodology included the compatibility analysis between pesticides used in these vegetables, and Lippia alba and Cymbopogon citratus oils in relation to their biocidal effect in vitro on native strains of Macrophomina phaseolina, Phytophthora capsici and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Applications of thiabendazole in an individual basis and combined with oils were carried out in the field. Physicochemical and microbiological indicators of soil, pests and diseases incidence and crop yield were measured. Oils controlled up to 97% of plant pathogens in vitro and exhibited compatibility with carbendazim and thiabendazole. In the field, up to 67 % of disease control was observed with C. citratus + thiabendazole compared to the control (p = 0.00, yields were close to the regional average, and better microbiological and physicochemical soil conditions were observed. In conclusion, there are differences in the edaphic effect between treatments, as the agrochemical and the oil combinations were more favorable than the individual effect of each product on the variables evaluated. The above exhorts to continue soil evaluations with oils to elucidate the duration of the described effects.

  9. Temporal compression of soil erosion processes. A regional analysis of USLE database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Hidalgo, J. C.; Luis, M.; Lopez-Bermudez, F.

    2009-01-01

    When John Thornes and Denis Brunsden wrote in 1977 How often one hears the researcher (and no less the undergraduate) complain that after weeks of observation nothing happened only to learn that, the day after his departure, a flood caused unprecedented erosion and channel changes (Thrones and Brunsden, 1977, p. 57), they were focussing to important problems in Geomorphology: the extreme events and time compression of geomorphological processes. Time compression is a fundamental characteristic of geomorphological processes, some times produced by extreme events. Extreme events are rare events, defined by deviation from mean values. But from magnitude-frequency analysis we know that few events, not necessarily extreme, are able to produce a high amount of geomorphological work. finally time compression of geomorphological processes can be focused by the analysis of largest events defined by ranks, not magnitude. We have analysed the effects of largest events on total soil erosion by using 594 erosion plots from USLE database. Plots are located in different climate regions of USA and have different length of records. The 10 largest daily events mean contribution value is 60% of total soil erosion. There exist a relationship between such percentage and total daily erosive events recorded. The pattern seems to be independent of climate conditions. We discuss the nature of such relationship and the implications in soil erosion research. (Author) 17 refs.

  10. Soil health in the Mediterranean region: Development and consolidation of a multifactor index to characterize the health of agricultural lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Eshel; Guy, Levy; Oshri, Rinot; Michael, Borisover; Uri, Yermiyahu; Leah, Tsror; Hanan, Eizenberg; Tal, Svoray; Alex, Furman; Yael, Mishael; Yosef, Steinberger

    2017-04-01

    The link among between soil health, soil conservation, and food security, resilience, and function under a wide range of agricultural uses and different environmental systems, is at the heart of many ecofriendly research studies worldwide. We consider the health of soil as a function of its ability to provide ecosystem services, including agricultural production (provisional services); regulating natural cycles (regulation services) and as a habitat for plants (support services). Soil health is affected by a wide range of soil properties (biotic and abiotic) that maintain complex interactions among themselves. The decline in soil health includes degradation in its physical properties (e.g., deterioration of soil structure, compaction and sealing, water-repellency, soil erosion by water and wind), chemical properties (e.g., salinization, depletion of nutrients and organic matter content, accumulation of pollutants and reduction of the soils' ion exchange capacity) and biological properties (e.g., vulnerable populations of microflora, microfauna, and mesofauna, leading to a breach of ecological balance and biodiversity and, as a result, destruction of beneficial populations and pathogen outbreaks). Numerous studies show that agricultural practices have a major impact on soil functioning. Substituting longstanding tillage with no-till cropping and the amalgamation of cover crops in crop rotations were found to improve soil properties. Such changes contributed to the enhancement of the agronomical performance of the soil. On the other hand, these practices may result in lessened effectiveness of controlling perennial weeds. The evaluation of soil-health status in the Mediterranean region is very limited. Moreover, existing approaches for evaluation that have been used (such as the Cornell and Hany tests) do not give sufficient weight to important agronomic processes, such as soil erosion, salinization, sodification, spread of weeds in the fields (in particular, weeds

  11. Multielemental analysis of soil samples from the Assin District of Central Region in Ghana using nuclear and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agyemang, O.

    2008-06-01

    Macronutrients, micronutrients, pH, salinity and moisture content were determined in soil samples from six farms in two farming towns in Assin North District in the Central Region of Ghana namely Assin Akonfudi and Assin Bereku. Soil samples were taken from cocoa farms, orange farms and palm oil plantations at three different depths. The nutrients determined were Primary macronutrients that was K, Secondary macronutrients that were Ca, Mg and Micronutrients that were, Cl, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Zn, Na and Se and Neutron Activation method and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry were used for the elemental analysis. The pHs were within the acidic range, ranging from 4.50-6.44. The top soil (0-5cm) had the higher pH followed by soil at the depth of 5-30cm and then soil at the depth of 30-40cm that is the pH decreased with depth. The salinity rather increased with depth ranging from 0.3l-2.98dS/m and the moisture content also ranged from 0.5-2.04%. For the soil samples taken from the cocoa farms, K recorded the highest concentration and Mo recorded the lowest concentration in the soil. For soil samples taken from orange farms, Ca recorded the highest concentration and Se recorded the lowest concentration in the soil and for soil samples taken from the palm oil plantations, Fe recorded the highest concentration and Mo recorded the lowest concentration in soil. The macronutrients ranged from 28591.19-6.49 mg/kg and the micronutrients ranged from <0.0004-20344.50 mg/kg. Soils in the cocoa farms were found to be more rich in nutrients and the soils in the palm oil plantations were found to be least rich in nutrients

  12. Regional scale soil salinity assessment using remote sensing based environmental factors and vegetation indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ligang; Ma, Fenglan; Li, Jiadan; Gu, Qing; Yang, Shengtian; Ding, Jianli

    2017-04-01

    Land degradation, specifically soil salinization has rendered large areas of China west sterile and unproductive while diminishing the productivity of adjacent lands and other areas where salting is less severe. Up to now despite decades of research in soil mapping, few accurate and up-to-date information on the spatial extent and variability of soil salinity are available for large geographic regions. This study explores the po-tentials of assessing soil salinity via linear and random forest modeling of remote sensing based environmental factors and indirect indicators. A case study is presented for the arid oases of Tarim and Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, China using time series land surface temperature (LST), evapotranspiration (ET), TRMM precipitation (TRM), DEM product and vegetation indexes as well as their second order products. In par-ticular, the location of the oasis, the best feature sets, different salinity degrees and modeling approaches were fully examined. All constructed models were evaluated for their fit to the whole data set and their performance in a leave-one-field-out spatial cross-validation. In addition, the Kruskal-Wallis rank test was adopted for the statis-tical comparison of different models. Overall, the random forest model outperformed the linear model for the two basins, all salinity degrees and datasets. As for feature set, LST and ET were consistently identified to be the most important factors for two ba-sins while the contribution of vegetation indexes vary with location. What's more, models performances are promising for the salinity ranges that are most relevant to agricultural productivity.

  13. On-farm assessment of tillage impact on the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon and structural soil properties in a semiarid region in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemai, Imene; Ben Aissa, Nadhira; Ben Guirat, Saida; Ben-Hammouda, Moncef; Gallali, Tahar

    2012-12-30

    In semiarid areas, low and erratic rainfall, together with the intensive agricultural use of soils, has depleted soil organic carbon and degraded the soil's chemical, biological and physical fertility. To develop efficient soil-management practices for the rapid restoration of severely degraded soils, no-till, mulch-based cropping systems have been adopted. Thus, a study was conducted on a farm to evaluate the effect of a no-tillage system (NT) versus conventional tillage (CT) on the vertical (0-50 cm) distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC), bulk density (BD), total porosity (TP), structural instability (SI), stable aggregates and infiltration coefficient (Ks) in a clay loam soil under rain-fed conditions in a semiarid region of north-western Tunisia. CT consisting of moldboard plowing to a depth of 20 cm was used for continuous wheat production. NT by direct drilling under residue was used for 3 (NT3) and 7 (NT7) years in wheat/fava bean and wheat/sulla crop rotations, respectively. SOC was more significantly increased (p < 0.05) by NT3 and NT7 than by CT at respective depths of 0-10 and 0-20 cm, but a greater increase in the uppermost 10 cm of soil was observed in the NT7 field. NT3 management decreased BD and consequently increased TP at a depth of 0-10 cm. The same trend was observed for the NT7 treatment at a depth of 0-30 cm. Ks was not affected by the NT3 treatment but was improved at a depth of 0-30 cm by the NT7 treatment. Changes in BD, TP and Ks in the NT7 plot were significant only in the first 10 cm of the soil. Both NT3 and NT7 considerably reduced SI (p < 0.1) and enhanced stable aggregates (p < 0.05) across the soil profile. These differences were most pronounced under NT7 at a depth of 0-10 cm. The stratification ratio (SR) of the selected soil properties, except that of SI, showed significant differences between the CT and NT trials, indicating an improvement in soil quality. NT management in the farming systems of north-western Tunisia was

  14. The influence of land use systems on soil and surface litter fauna in the western region of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Luise Carolina Bartz

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the abundance of soil and surface litter fauna in the western region of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil, in the following land use systems (LUS: no-tillage crops (NT, integrated crop-livestock (ICL, pasture (PA, Eucalyptus plantation (EP and native forest fragments (NF. Sampling was done in three counties in the western region of Santa Catarina: Xanxerê, Chapecó and São Miguel do Oeste, in two seasons (winter and summer. The evaluation of soil/litter fauna in each LUS was performed by installing nine "pitfall traps" per sampling grid (3 x 3. The counties are true replicas. The soil for the chemical attributes was collected at the same sampling points for soil fauna. Altogether, 17 taxa were identified in the five LUS. The presence of groups of fauna was influenced by the type of soil management used. The LUS NF and EP provide better soil conditions for the development of a higher diversity of soil fauna groups compared to other LUS, which showed varying degrees of human intervention, regardless of the sampling season (winter or summer. However, annual crop systems NT and ICL groups showed greater richness and total abundance when compared to the perennial systems (EP and PA. Principal component analysis is an important tool in the study of biological indicators of sustainability because it allows use of soil attributes (chemical and physical as explanatory environmental variables, which helps in the interpretation of ecological data.

  15. The influence of regional surface soil moisture anomalies on forest fires in Siberia observed from satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, A [Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Vienna University of Technology, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Balzter, H [Department of Geography, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); George, C, E-mail: ab@ipf.tuwien.ac.a [Earth Observation, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    Forest fires are frequent in the Siberian taiga and are predicted to increase in frequency as a result of increased fire risk under drought conditions, and prolonged fire seasons caused by climate change. There is, however, some uncertainty as to the extent to which drought influences forest fire frequency at a regional scale. Here, we present an analysis of satellite derived soil moisture anomaly data from ERS-1/2 (ERS: Earth Resources Satellite) scatterometer data and burned area maps from MODIS/AVHRR/ATSR (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer/Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer/Along-Track Scanning Radiometer) over Central Siberia for the years 1992-2000. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship of remotely sensed soil moisture deviations from the long-term mean and fire within the boreal biome on a sub-continental scale. Results show that wet surface soil moisture conditions limit the extent of burned area. They can prevent the outbreak of fires but the magnitude of a negative (dry) deviation does not determine the maximum size of fire affected areas. It is known from the literature, however, that an ignition is more likely to occur under low surface wetness conditions, such as those that we observed during July and August in both permafrost and non-permafrost regions. Although the burned area under drier conditions in July is lowest over non-permafrost, the actual number of fires is as high as over continuous permafrost. Approximately 80% of all events occurred under such conditions during that month. The fire size was below 50 km{sup 2} under moist conditions. Larger burned areas have in general not been detected when the surface wetness deviation exceeded +5%.

  16. The influence of regional surface soil moisture anomalies on forest fires in Siberia observed from satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartsch, A; Balzter, H; George, C

    2009-01-01

    Forest fires are frequent in the Siberian taiga and are predicted to increase in frequency as a result of increased fire risk under drought conditions, and prolonged fire seasons caused by climate change. There is, however, some uncertainty as to the extent to which drought influences forest fire frequency at a regional scale. Here, we present an analysis of satellite derived soil moisture anomaly data from ERS-1/2 (ERS: Earth Resources Satellite) scatterometer data and burned area maps from MODIS/AVHRR/ATSR (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer/Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer/Along-Track Scanning Radiometer) over Central Siberia for the years 1992-2000. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship of remotely sensed soil moisture deviations from the long-term mean and fire within the boreal biome on a sub-continental scale. Results show that wet surface soil moisture conditions limit the extent of burned area. They can prevent the outbreak of fires but the magnitude of a negative (dry) deviation does not determine the maximum size of fire affected areas. It is known from the literature, however, that an ignition is more likely to occur under low surface wetness conditions, such as those that we observed during July and August in both permafrost and non-permafrost regions. Although the burned area under drier conditions in July is lowest over non-permafrost, the actual number of fires is as high as over continuous permafrost. Approximately 80% of all events occurred under such conditions during that month. The fire size was below 50 km 2 under moist conditions. Larger burned areas have in general not been detected when the surface wetness deviation exceeded +5%.

  17. Evolution of Regions Containing Antibiotic Resistance Genes in FII-2-FIB-1 ColV-Colla Virulence Plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert A; Hall, Ruth M

    2018-05-01

    Three ColV virulence plasmids carrying antibiotic resistance genes were assembled from draft genome sequences of commensal ST95, ST131, and ST2705 Escherichia coli isolates from healthy Australians. Plasmids pCERC4, pCERC5, and pCERC9 include almost identical backbones containing FII-2 and FIB-1 replicons and the conserved ColV virulence region with an additional ColIa determinant. Only pCERC5 includes a complete, uninterrupted F-like transfer region and was able to conjugate. pCERC5 and pCERC9 contain Tn1721, carrying the tet(A) tetracycline resistance determinant in the same location, with Tn2 (bla TEM ; ampicillin resistance) interrupting the Tn1721 in pCERC5. pCERC4 has a Tn1721/Tn21 hybrid transposon carrying dfrA5 (trimethoprim resistance) and sul1 (sulfamethoxazole resistance) in a class 1 integron. Four FII-2:FIB-1 ColV-ColIa plasmids in the GenBank nucleotide database have a related transposon in the same position, but an IS26 has reshaped the resistance gene region, deleting 2,069 bp of the integron 3'-CS, including sul1, and serving as a target for IS26 translocatable units containing bla TEM , sul2 and strAB (streptomycin resistance), or aphA1 (kanamycin/neomycin resistance). Another ColV-ColIa plasmid containing a related resistance gene region has lost the FII replicon and acquired a unique transfer region via recombination within the resistance region and at oriT. Eighteen further complete ColV plasmid sequences in GenBank contained FIB-1, but the FII replicons were of three types, FII-24, FII-18, and a variant of FII-36.

  18. Rapid identification of soil cadmium pollution risk at regional scale based on visible and near-infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Tao; Chang, Qingrui; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Kooistra, L.

    2015-01-01

    Soil heavy metal pollution due to long-term sewage irrigation is a serious environmental problem in many irrigation areas in northern China. Quickly identifying its pollution status is an important basis for remediation. Visible-near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (VNIRS) provides a useful tool. In a case study, 76 soil samples were collected and their reflectance spectra were used to estimate cadmium (Cd) concentration by partial least squares regression (PLSR) and back propagation neural network (BPNN). To reduce noise, six pre-treatments were compared, in which orthogonal signal correction (OSC) was first used in soil Cd estimation. Spectral analysis and geostatistics were combined to identify Cd pollution hotspots. Results showed that Cd was accumulated in topsoil at the study area. OSC can effectively remove irrelevant information to improve prediction accuracy. More accurate estimation was achieved by applying a BPNN. Soil Cd pollution hotspots could be identified by interpolating the predicted values obtained from spectral estimates. - Highlights: • Soil reflectance spectroscopy provides a promising tool for detecting soil contaminants. • Orthogonal signal correction efficiently extracted information from noisy spectra. • Back propagation neural network achieved a more accurate estimation for soil Cd. • Soil Cd pollution hotspots could be identified by interpolating the predicted Cd. - Combining spectral analysis and geostatistics can provide a rapid method for identifying the pollution hotspot of soil heavy metal at regional scale.

  19. Structural changes in latosols of the cerrado region: II - soil compressive behavior and modeling of additional compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Costa Severiano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently in Brazil, as in other parts of the world, the concern is great with the increase of degraded agricultural soil, which is mostly related to the occurrence of soil compaction. Although soil texture is recognized as a very important component in the soil compressive behaviors, there are few studies that quantify its influence on the structural changes of Latosols in the Brazilian Cerrado region. This study aimed to evaluate structural changes and the compressive behavior of Latosols in Rio Verde, Goiás, through the modeling of additional soil compaction. The study was carried out using five Latosols with very different textures, under different soil compaction levels. Water retention and soil compression curves, and bearing capacity models were determined from undisturbed samples collected on the B horizons. Results indicated that clayey and very clayey Latosols were more susceptible to compression than medium-textured soils. Soil compression curves at density values associate with edaphic functions were used to determine the beneficial pressure (σ b , i.e., pressure with optimal water retention, and critical pressure (σcrMAC, i.e., pressure with macroporosity below critical levels. These pressure values were higher than the preconsolidation pressure (σp, and therefore characterized as additional compaction. Based on the compressive behavior of these Latosols, it can be concluded that the combined preconsolidation pressure, beneficial pressure and critical pressure allow a better understanding of compression processes of Latosols.

  20. Dissipation of 2,4-D in soils of the Humid Pampa region, Argentina: a microcosm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merini, Luciano J; Cuadrado, Virginia; Flocco, Cecilia G; Giulietti, Ana M

    2007-06-01

    Phenoxy herbicides like 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) are widely used in agricultural practices. Although its half life in soil is 7-14d, the herbicide itself and its first metabolite 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) could remain in the soil for longer periods, as a consequence of its intensive use. Microcosms assays were conducted to study the influence of indigenous microflora and plants (alfalfa) on the dissipation of 2,4-D from soils of the Humid Pampa region, Argentina, with previous history of phenoxy herbicides application. Results showed that 2,4-D was rapidly degraded, and the permanence of 2,4-DCP in soil depended on the presence of plants and soil microorganisms. Regarding soil microbial community, the presence of 2,4-D degrading bacteria was detected even in basal conditions in this soil, possibly due to the adaptation of the microflora to the herbicide. There was an increment of two orders of magnitude in herbicide degraders after 15d from 2,4-D addition, both in planted and unplanted microcosms. Total heterotrophic bacteria numbers were about 1x10(8) CFUg(-1) dry soil and no significant differences were found between different treatments. Overall, the information provided by this work indicates that the soil under study has an important intrinsic degradation capacity, given by a microbial community adapted to the presence of phenoxy herbicides.

  1. The importance of atmospheric base cation deposition for preventing soil acidification in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaun A. Watmough; Colin J. Whitfield; Mark E. Fenn

    2014-01-01

    Industrial activities in the oil sands region of Alberta, Canada have resulted in greatly elevated emissions of SO2 and N (NOx and NH3) and there are concerns over possible widespread ecosystem acidification. Acid sensitive soils in the region are common and have very low base cation weathering rates...

  2. Comparison of runoff and soil loss in different tillage systems in the Mollisol region of Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longitudinal ridge tillage is the conventional tillage method in the cold, Mollisol region of Northeast China in which furrows are oriented up and down the slope. Soil erosion is a serious problem in this region in part due to the use of this tillage system with long slope lengths. It is unclear wha...

  3. Soil precompression stress, penetration resistance and crop yields in relation to differently-trafficked, temperate-region sandy loam soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjønning, Per; Lamandé, Mathieu; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2016-01-01

    . Undisturbed soil cores were used for quantifying the precompression stress (spc) of non-compacted soil. Tractor-trailer combinations for slurry application with wheel loads of 3, 6 and 8 Mg (treatments M3, M6, M8) were used for the experimental traffic in the spring at field-capacity. For one additional...

  4. Environmental Indicators for Italian Soils (SIAS Project: Development of a New Approach from Regional to Harmonised National Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Rischia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Erosion and loss of organic matter of soils are two of the threats identified by the European Communication “Towards a Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection” (2002/267, and by the Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection (COM 2006, 231. Regarding Italian context, a new approach that exploits soil data and expertise available at local level has been developed in a pilot project, named SIAS Project (Sviluppo Indicatori Ambientali sul Suolo that involves ISPRA (Italian Institute for Environmental Protection and Research as project coordinator and financing body, Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention and Protection in Veneto (ARPAV, responsible of the technical coordination of the activities, Regional Soil Survey Services that contribute to the methodology definition and responsible for the data elaboration within their region of the data, JRC and CRA – ABP as technical support. The SIAS Project concerns the building of two soil environmental indicators, erosion and organic matter content, based on harmonisation of regional data and according with the INSPIRE directive. The main aim of the SIAS Project can be summarised in exploiting at most the existing information and local expertise for indicator assessment in a relatively short time, in order to obtain interregional harmonisation of the information about erosion and organic matter content at regional scale. For this purpose, it has been chosen to assess and represent output data by a reference grid (1 km x 1 km with a common coordinate reference system, following the recommendations of the INSPIRE Directive. Furthermore an exchange format for storing data and metadata information has been set up jointly by the working group. So far a large part of the Northern and Central Italy has completed the project, while a part of Southern Region has only recently joined it. The results show that at the present moment there are some differences both in soil loss and in organic matter content

  5. Integrated GIS and multivariate statistical analysis for regional scale assessment of heavy metal soil contamination: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Deyi; O'Connor, David; Nathanail, Paul; Tian, Li; Ma, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metal soil contamination is associated with potential toxicity to humans or ecotoxicity. Scholars have increasingly used a combination of geographical information science (GIS) with geostatistical and multivariate statistical analysis techniques to examine the spatial distribution of heavy metals in soils at a regional scale. A review of such studies showed that most soil sampling programs were based on grid patterns and composite sampling methodologies. Many programs intended to characterize various soil types and land use types. The most often used sampling depth intervals were 0–0.10 m, or 0–0.20 m, below surface; and the sampling densities used ranged from 0.0004 to 6.1 samples per km 2 , with a median of 0.4 samples per km 2 . The most widely used spatial interpolators were inverse distance weighted interpolation and ordinary kriging; and the most often used multivariate statistical analysis techniques were principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The review also identified several determining and correlating factors in heavy metal distribution in soils, including soil type, soil pH, soil organic matter, land use type, Fe, Al, and heavy metal concentrations. The major natural and anthropogenic sources of heavy metals were found to derive from lithogenic origin, roadway and transportation, atmospheric deposition, wastewater and runoff from industrial and mining facilities, fertilizer application, livestock manure, and sewage sludge. This review argues that the full potential of integrated GIS and multivariate statistical analysis for assessing heavy metal distribution in soils on a regional scale has not yet been fully realized. It is proposed that future research be conducted to map multivariate results in GIS to pinpoint specific anthropogenic sources, to analyze temporal trends in addition to spatial patterns, to optimize modeling parameters, and to expand the use of different multivariate analysis tools beyond principal component

  6. [Community traits of soil fauna in forestlands converted from cultivated lands in limestone red soil region of Ruichang, Jiangxi Province of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Liu, Yuan-Qiug; Guo, Sheng-Mao; Ke, Guo-Qing; Zhang, Zhao; Xiao, Xu-Bao; Liu, Wu

    2012-04-01

    This paper studied the variations of the community composition and individuals' number of soil fauna in limestone red soil region of Ruichang, Jiangxi Province after six years of converting cultivated lands into forestlands. Three converted forestlands, including the lands of mixed multiple-species forest, bamboo-broadleaved forest, and tree-seedling integration, were selected as test objects, with cultivated lands as the comparison. A total of 34 orders, 17 classes, and 6 phyla of soil fauna were observed in the converted forestlands. The dominant group was Nematoda, accounting for 86.7% of the total, whereas Acarina, Enchytraeidae, and Collembola were the common groups. In the cultivated lands, soil fauna had 21 orders, 10 classes, and 5 phyla. The dominant group was also Nematoda, accounting 86.7% of the total, and Acarina and Enchytraeidae were the common groups. In the converted forestlands, the group number of rare species was greater than that in the cultivated lands (30 vs. 18), and, except in winter, the group number and average density were significantly higher than those in the cultivated lands (P soil fauna in the soil profiles showed an obvious surface accumulation, which was more apparent in converted forestlands than in cultivated lands, and the individuals' number had significant differences between the surface (0-5 cm) layer and the 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm layers (P soil fauna in the converted forestlands had a seasonal variation ranked in the order of summer > autumn > spring > winter, and there was a significant difference between summer-autumn and spring-winter. The average density of the soil fauna also had a seasonal variation but ranked as autumn > summer > spring > winter, and the differences among the seasons were significant (P soil fauna was significantly higher in converted forestlands than in cultivated lands, and was the highest in mixed multiple-species forestland and the least in tree-seedling integration land.

  7. Assessing the effect of soil use changes on soil moisture regimes in mountain regions. (Catalan Pre-Pyrenees NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaiza Usuga, Juan Carlos; Jarauta Bragulat, Eusebio; Porta Casanellas, Jaume; Poch Claret, Rosa Maria

    2010-01-01

    Soil moisture regimes under different land uses were observed and modeled in a representative forest basin in the Catalonian Pre-Pyrenees, more specifically in the Ribera Salada catchment (222.5 km2). The vegetation cover in the catchment consists of pasture, tillage and forest. A number of representative plots for each of these land cover types were intensely monitored during the study period. The annual precipitation fluctuates between 516 and 753 mm, while the soil moisture content oscillates between 14 and 26% in the middle and low lying areas of the basin, and between 21 and 48% in shady zones near the river bed, and in the higher parts of the basin. Soil moisture and rainfall are controlled firstly by altitude, with the existence of two climatic types in the basin (sub-Mediterranean and sub-alpine), and further, by land use. Two models were applied to the estimated water moisture regimes: the Jarauta Simulation Newhall model (JSM) and the Newhall simulation model (NSM) were found to be able to predict the soil moisture regimes in the basin in the different combinations of local abiotic and biotic factors. The JSM results are more precise than the results obtained using another frequently used method, more specifically the Newhall Simulation Model (NSM), which has been developed to simulate soil moisture regimes. NSM was found to overestimate wet soil moisture regimes. The results show the importance of the moisture control section size and Available Water Capacity (AWC) of the profile, in the moisture section control state and variability. The mountain soils are dominated by rustic and occasionally xeric regimes. Land use changes leading to an increase in forest areas would imply drier soil conditions and therefore drier soil water regimes. These effects are most evident in degraded shallow and stony soils with low AWC.

  8. Low-level gamma spectrometry of forest and moor soils from exposed mountain regions in Saxony (Erzgebirge)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, N [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Applied Physics; Preusse, W [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Applied Physics; Degering, D [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Applied Physics; Unterricker, S [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Applied Physics

    1997-03-01

    In soils with distinct organic and mineral horizons, radionuclides (RN) can be used to understand geochemical migration processes. In the study presented here high sensitivity HPGe-detectors with active and passive shielding were employed to determine the low activity levels of various natural, cosmogenic and artificial RN. Soils of a spruce forest and a moor from exposed mountain regions in Saxony (Erzgebirge) were investigated as they provide a good example of layered soil systems with vertical transfer of chemical elements. Different soil horizons were sub-sampled as thin slices and analysed to examine the migration processes at sub-horizon level. The depth distributions of chemically different RN were studied considering the geochemical and pedological soil characteristics of the profiles. (orig.)

  9. [FEATURES OF THE CONTENT OF MOVABLE FORMS OF HEAVY METALS AND SELENIUM IN SOILS OF THE YAROSLAVL REGION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaeva, E A; Eremeyshvili, A V

    2016-01-01

    With the use of the method of inversion voltammetry there was analyzed the content of movableforms of trace elements: (selenium, zinc, copper lead, cadmium) in soils in the Yaroslavl district of the Yaroslavl region, and also content of zinc, copper lead, cadmium in soils and snow cover in the city of Yaroslavl. According to values of concentrations of movable compounds in soils determined trace elements can be ranked into the following row: zinc > lead > copper > selenium > cadmium. There was revealed insufficient if compared with literature data concentrations, content of movable compounds of selenium, copper and zinc in examined explored soils. The maximal concentrations of lead are revealed in the close proximity to both the city of Yaroslavl and large highways of the city. It indicates to the anthropogenic pollution of soils by this element.

  10. Abacus to determine soils salinity in presence of saline groundwater in arid zones case of the region of Ouargla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergougui, Myriam Marie El; Benyamina, Hind; Boutoutaou, Djamel

    2018-05-01

    In order to remedy the limit of salt intake to the soil surface, it is necessary to study the causes of the soil salinity and find the origin of these salts. The arid areas in the region of Ouargla lie on excessively mineralized groundwater whose level is near the soil surface (0 - 1.5 m). The topography and absence of a reliable drainage system led to the rise of the groundwater beside the arid climatic conditions contributed to the salinization and hydromorphy of the soils. The progress and stabilization of cultures yields in these areas can only occur if the groundwater is maintained (drained) to a depth of 1.6 m. The results of works done to the determination of soil salinity depend mainly on the groundwater's salinity, its depth and the climate.

  11. Mapping natural radioactivity of soil samples in different regions of Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Komal; Bajwa, B S

    2017-09-01

    Thallium activated sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) detector and multi channel analyzer has been utilized to measure gamma rays emitted by radio nuclides found in soil samples of south-west (SW) region of Punjab state, India where elevated level of uranium of around value of 700µg/l in groundwater has been reported. For comparative study, soil samples were also collected and analyzed from west (W) and north east (NE) regions of the state. Uranium and potassium has been found to be comparatively higher in SW region whereas thorium level is higher in W and NE part of Punjab state. Overall concentration level of naturally occurring radio nuclides 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th has been found to be varied from 260.1±17.3 to 728.2±27.7, BDL to 41.9±10.3 and 29.5±7.1 to 88.1±6.2Bq/Kg respectively. Overall average level of 40 K and 232 Th has been found to be higher as compared to world's average concentration level. Average radium equivalent activity (134.8±23.03 (σ) Bq/Kg), dose rate (61.9±10.3nGy/h), outdoor and indoor dose (0.30±0.05 and 0.08±0.01 mSv/year), external and internal hazard index (0.36±0.06 and 0.42±0.08) has been calculated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A review of soil heavy metal pollution from industrial and agricultural regions in China: Pollution and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qianqi; Li, Zhiyuan; Lu, Xiaoning; Duan, Qiannan; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun

    2018-06-14

    Soil heavy metal pollution has been becoming serious and widespread in China. To date, there are few studies assessing the nationwide soil heavy metal pollution induced by industrial and agricultural activities in China. This review obtained heavy metal concentrations in soils of 402 industrial sites and 1041 agricultural sites in China throughout the document retrieval. Based on the database, this review assessed soil heavy metal concentration and estimated the ecological and health risks on a national scale. The results revealed that heavy metal pollution and associated risks posed by cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) are more serious. Besides, heavy metal pollution and associated risks in industrial regions are severer than those in agricultural regions, meanwhile, those in southeast China are severer than those in northwest China. It is worth noting that children are more likely to be affected by heavy metal pollution than adults. Based on the assessment results, Cd, Pb and As are determined as the priority control heavy metals; mining areas are the priority control areas compared to other areas in industrial regions; food crop plantations are the priority control areas in agricultural regions; and children are determined as the priority protection population group. This paper provides a comprehensive ecological and health risk assessment on the heavy metals in soils in Chinese industrial and agricultural regions and thus provides insights for the policymakers regarding exposure reduction and management. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Heavy metals and organic compounds contamination in soil from an e-waste region in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Huang, Bo; Bi, Xinhui; Ren, Zhaofang; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2013-05-01

    Heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed in 34 surface soil samples collected from farmland and 7 soil or dust samples collected from the workshops in South China, where e-waste was dismantled using primitive techniques. The results show that Cd, Cu and Hg were the most abundant metals, in particular Cd pollution was serious in farmland soils, and the median concentrations in farmland soils were beyond the environmental quality standard for soils (China Grade II). A correlation between Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and PCBs or PBDEs was significant indicating similar sources. Among the PCB congeners, high relative similarity was observed between the e-waste dump site soil (EW1) and Aroclor 1254, implying that the technical product Aroclor 1254 was one of the major sources of PCB contamination. High concentrations of PCBs in workshop dusts (D2 and D3) (1958 and 1675 μg kg(-1)) demonstrated that the workshops dismantling electrical wires and cables, electrical motors, compressors and aluminum apparatus containing PCBs in lubricants represent strong PCB emission sources to this area. Principal component analysis (PCA) and PBDE homologue patterns verify that farmland soils surrounding the e-waste recycling sites were enriched with lower brominated congeners, and the major source of PBDEs in dust samples might potentially be associated with the extensive use of deca-mix technical products as a flame retardant. The difference between e-waste soils, dusts and farmland soils can be observed in the PCA score plot of PCBs and PBDEs, and E-waste soils and dusts exhibited more diversity than farmland soils. Furthermore, a prediction of the particular kinds of pollution from different recycling activities through the analysis of each contamination and the connections between them was investigated.

  14. Regional-scale assessment of soil salinity in the Red River Valley using multi-year MODIS EVI and NDVI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobell, D B; Lesch, S M; Corwin, D L; Ulmer, M G; Anderson, K A; Potts, D J; Doolittle, J A; Matos, M R; Baltes, M J

    2010-01-01

    The ability to inventory and map soil salinity at regional scales remains a significant challenge to scientists concerned with the salinization of agricultural soils throughout the world. Previous attempts to use satellite or aerial imagery to assess soil salinity have found limited success in part because of the inability of methods to isolate the effects of soil salinity on vegetative growth from other factors. This study evaluated the use of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery in conjunction with directed soil sampling to assess and map soil salinity at a regional scale (i.e., 10-10(5) km(2)) in a parsimonious manner. Correlations with three soil salinity ground truth datasets differing in scale were made in Kittson County within the Red River Valley (RRV) of North Dakota and Minnesota, an area where soil salinity assessment is a top priority for the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS). Multi-year MODIS imagery was used to mitigate the influence of temporally dynamic factors such as weather, pests, disease, and management influences. The average of the MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI) for a 7-yr period exhibited a strong relationship with soil salinity in all three datasets, and outperformed the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). One-third to one-half of the spatial variability in soil salinity could be captured by measuring average MODIS EVI and whether the land qualified for the Conservation Reserve Program (a USDA program that sets aside marginally productive land based on conservation principles). The approach has the practical simplicity to allow broad application in areas where limited resources are available for salinity assessment.

  15. Emission of CO2 from the arable soils polluted by heavy metals of Baikal forest-steppe region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenova, Yu.V.; Pomazkina, L.V.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of arable soil contamination by heavy metals on C0 2 emission in Lake Baikal region had been studied during the period from 1992 till 2005. It was shown, that the way of agroecosystems response on technogenic impact vary from year to year following the changes in both the temperature and humidity. The contamination mostly resulted in soil organic matter mineralization increase and, consequently, increased carbon losses in the form of CO 2 .

  16. Trace element and ΣDDT concentrations in horticultural soils from the Tasman, Waikato and Auckland regions of New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaw, S.K.; Wilkins, A.L.; Kim, N.D.; Palmer, G.T.; Robinson, P.

    2006-01-01

    The long-term routine use of agrichemicals can result in elevated levels of trace elements and persistent organic pollutants in soils. Trace element concentrations and ΣDDT levels were measured in soil (0-7.5 cm) samples collected from horticultural and grazing properties in 3 regions of New Zealand (Auckland, Tasman and Waikato). Elevated levels of arsenic ( -1 ), cadmium ( -1 ), copper (5 to 523 mg kg -1 ), lead (5 to 243 mg kg -1 ) and ΣDDT ( -1 ) were detected in soils from all 3 regions. With the exception of cadmium and zinc, significantly higher levels of contaminants were generally detected in horticultural soils than in grazing soils. Our results have implications for the on-going use of agrichemicals as concentrations of cadmium, copper, tin and zinc in some samples exceeded ecotoxicity based soil criteria. The p,p'-DDE : DDT ratios indicate that the degradation of DDT in NZ horticultural soils may be inhibited by the co-contamination with trace elements

  17. Evaluating the role of soil variability on groundwater pollution and recharge at regional scale by integrating a process-based vadose zone model in a stochastic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Antonio; Comegna, Alessandro; Dragonetti, Giovanna; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Zdruli, Pandi

    2013-04-01

    the lack of information on vertical variability of soil properties. It is our opinion that, with sufficient information on soil horizonation and with an appropriate horizontal resolution, it may be demonstrated that model outputs may be largely sensitive to the vertical variability of stream tubes, even at applicative scales. Horizon differentiation is one of the main observations made by pedologists while describing soils and most analytical data are given according to soil horizons. Over the last decades, soil horizonation has been subjected to regular monitoring for mapping soil variation at regional scales. Accordingly, this study mainly aims to developing a regional-scale simulation approach for vadose zone flow and transport that use real soil profiles data based on information on vertical variability of soils. As to the methodology, the parallel column concept was applied to account for the effect of vertical heterogeneity on variability of water flow and solute transport in the vadose zone. Even if the stream tube approach was mainly introduced for (unrealistic) vertically homogeneous soils, we extended their use to real vertically variable soils. The approach relies on available datasets coming from different sources and offers quantitative answers to soil and groundwater vulnerability to non-point source of chemicals and pathogens at regional scale within a defined confidence interval. This result will be pursued through the design and building up of a spatial database containing 1). Detailed pedological information, 2). Hydrological properties mainly measured in the investigated area in different soil horizons, 3). Water table depth, 4). Spatially distributed climatic temporal series, and 5). Land use. The area of interest for the study is located in the sub-basin of Metaponto agricultural site, located in southern Basilicata Region in Italy, covering approximately 11,698 hectares, crossed by two main rivers, Sinni and Agri and from many secondary water

  18. Determination of 238Pu and 239+240Pu in soils of different agricultural regions of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Martinez, Edwin Ariel

    1999-01-01

    This study allowed to determine the concentration of radioactivity alpha, due to contamination for plutonium in cultivated soils of different regions of Guatemala. They were carried out samplings for convenience in cultivated soils of 15 departments of the republic, determined in each soils sample, the activity concentration for plutonium 2 38 Plutonium and 239+240 Plutonium expressed in mili-becquerel by kilogram (mBq/Kg), which has been caused from all over the world by the different provoked liberations or accidents of radioactive particles to the atmosphere

  19. Extreme nitrogen deposition can change methane oxidation rate in moist acidic tundra soil in Arctic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Kim, J.; Kang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, extreme nitrogen(N) deposition events are observed in Arctic regions where over 90% of the annual N deposition occurred in just a few days. Since Arctic ecosystems are typically N-limited, input of extremely high amount of N could substantially affect ecosystem processes. CH4 is a potent greenhouse gas that has 25 times greater global warming potential than CO2 over a 100-year time frame. Ammonium is known as an inhibitor of methane oxidation and nitrate also shows inhibitory effect on it in temperate ecosystems. However, effects of N addition on Arctic ecosystems are still elusive. We conducted a lab-scale incubation experiment with moist acidic tundra (MAT) soil from Council, Alaska to investigate the effect of extreme N deposition events on methane oxidation. Zero point five % methane was added to the head space to determine the potential methane oxidation rate of MAT soil. Three treatments (NH4NO3-AN, (NH4)2SO4-AS, KNO3-PN) were used to compare effects of ammonium, nitrate and salts. All treatments were added in 3 levels: 10μg N gd.w-1(10), 50μg N gd.w-1(50) and 100μg N gd.w-1(100). AN10 and AN50 increased methane oxidation rate 1.7, 6% respectively. However, AN100 shows -8.5% of inhibitory effect. In AS added samples, all 3 concentrations (AN10, AN50, AN100) stimulated methane oxidation rate with 4.7, 8.9, 4%, respectively. On the contrary, PN50 (-9%) and PN100 (-59.5%) exhibited a significant inhibitory effect. We also analyzed the microbial gene abundance and community structures of methane oxidizing bacteria using a DNA-based fingerprinting method (T-RFLP) Our study results suggest that NH4+ can stimulate methane oxidation in Arctic MAT soil, while NO3- can inhibit methane oxidation significantly.

  20. Resolution of Laplace equation in a region containing plane and cylindrical charged plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus Paes, A.C. de.

    1986-05-01

    A computational program to solve the Laplace equation, in two dimensions, was developed. Cylindrical coordinates were used and the electric potential was calculated in a region bounded by an eccentric circunference that is grounded and in this region there were electrodes at known potential. The iterative method of Gauss-Seidel was used to solve the equation and the matrix of the coefficients, a sparse matrix, was stored in a compacted form in three line matrices. The distribution of this electric field were obtained from the potential and a subroutine to draw was developed. (author) [pt

  1. Distributions of recent gullies on hillslopes with different slopes and aspects in the Black Soil Region of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dichen; Fan, Haoming; Fan, Xiangguo

    2017-09-17

    Gully erosion is an important environmental problem worldwide and the main process by which water and soil losses occur in the Black Soil Region (BSR) of Northeast China. At the end of 2012, 295,663 gullies were present in this region. However, few studies have examined the gullies of the Black Soil Region as a whole. Studying the distribution of recent gullies can reveal the pattern of gully distribution and can help predict their spatial development according to the soil and water conservation regionalization of China. This study examines the recorded gullies in the BSR of Northeast China, which is included in the first census of water resources in China and in six sub-regions of the soil and water conservation regionalization of China. Specifically, digital elevation model (DEM) data are combined with data on gullies occurring on hillslopes with different slopes and aspects to study the distribution of these features. The results illustrate that gully density, developing gully density, and the proportion of cutting land initially increase with increasing slope up to some threshold value, then decrease as the slope increases further. The patterns of stable gullies are divided into unimodal and bimodal types. Three patterns of gully intensity are identified. The areas and lengths of gullies are larger on sunny slopes, but larger numbers of gullies are present on shaded slopes. In addition, more space is available for gully development in the Hulun Buir hilly and plain sub-region and the Changbai Mountain-Wanda Mountain sub-region than in the other sub-regions.

  2. Abundance and potential metabolic activity of methanogens in well-aerated forest and grassland soils of an alpine region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Katrin; Praeg, Nadine; Mutschlechner, Mira; Wagner, Andreas O; Illmer, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Although methanogens were recently discovered to occur in aerated soils, alpine regions have not been extensively studied for their presence so far. Here, the abundance of archaea and the methanogenic guilds Methanosarcinales, Methanococcales, Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales and Methanocella spp. was studied at 16 coniferous forest and 14 grassland sites located at the montane and subalpine belts of the Northern Limestone Alps (calcareous) and the Austrian Central Alps (siliceous) using quantitative real-time PCR. Abundance of archaea, methanogens and the methanogenic potentials were significantly higher in grasslands than in forests. Furthermore, methanogenic potentials of calcareous soils were higher due to pH. Methanococcales, Methanomicrobiales and Methanocella spp. were detected in all collected samples, which indicates that they are autochthonous, while Methanobacteriales were absent from 4 out of 16 forest soils. Methanosarcinales were absent from 10 out of 16 forest soils and 2 out of 14 grassland soils. Nevertheless, together with Methanococcales they represented the majority of the 16S rRNA gene copies quantified from the grassland soils. Contrarily, forest soils were clearly dominated by Methanococcales. Our results indicate a higher diversity of methanogens in well-aerated soils than previously believed and that pH mainly influences their abundances and activities. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Influence of Elevation Data Resolution on Spatial Prediction of Colluvial Soils in a Luvisol Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Penížek

    Full Text Available The development of a soil cover is a dynamic process. Soil cover can be altered within a few decades, which requires updating of the legacy soil maps. Soil erosion is one of the most important processes quickly altering soil cover on agriculture land. Colluvial soils develop in concave parts of the landscape as a consequence of sedimentation of eroded material. Colluvial soils are recognised as important soil units because they are a vast sink of soil organic carbon. Terrain derivatives became an important tool in digital soil mapping and are among the most popular auxiliary data used for quantitative spatial prediction. Prediction success rates are often directly dependent on raster resolution. In our study, we tested how raster resolution (1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 20 and 30 meters influences spatial prediction of colluvial soils. Terrain derivatives (altitude, slope, plane curvature, topographic position index, LS factor and convergence index were calculated for the given raster resolutions. Four models were applied (boosted tree, neural network, random forest and Classification/Regression Tree to spatially predict the soil cover over a 77 ha large study plot. Models training and validation was based on 111 soil profiles surveyed on a regular sampling grid. Moreover, the predicted real extent and shape of the colluvial soil area was examined. In general, no clear trend in the accuracy prediction was found without the given raster resolution range. Higher maximum prediction accuracy for colluvial soil, compared to prediction accuracy of total soil cover of the study plot, can be explained by the choice of terrain derivatives that were best for Colluvial soils differentiation from other soil units. Regarding the character of the predicted Colluvial soils area, maps of 2 to 10 m resolution provided reasonable delineation of the colluvial soil as part of the cover over the study area.

  4. Influence of Elevation Data Resolution on Spatial Prediction of Colluvial Soils in a Luvisol Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penížek, Vít; Zádorová, Tereza; Kodešová, Radka; Vaněk, Aleš

    2016-01-01

    The development of a soil cover is a dynamic process. Soil cover can be altered within a few decades, which requires updating of the legacy soil maps. Soil erosion is one of the most important processes quickly altering soil cover on agriculture land. Colluvial soils develop in concave parts of the landscape as a consequence of sedimentation of eroded material. Colluvial soils are recognised as important soil units because they are a vast sink of soil organic carbon. Terrain derivatives became an important tool in digital soil mapping and are among the most popular auxiliary data used for quantitative spatial prediction. Prediction success rates are often directly dependent on raster resolution. In our study, we tested how raster resolution (1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 20 and 30 meters) influences spatial prediction of colluvial soils. Terrain derivatives (altitude, slope, plane curvature, topographic position index, LS factor and convergence index) were calculated for the given raster resolutions. Four models were applied (boosted tree, neural network, random forest and Classification/Regression Tree) to spatially predict the soil cover over a 77 ha large study plot. Models training and validation was based on 111 soil profiles surveyed on a regular sampling grid. Moreover, the predicted real extent and shape of the colluvial soil area was examined. In general, no clear trend in the accuracy prediction was found without the given raster resolution range. Higher maximum prediction accuracy for colluvial soil, compared to prediction accuracy of total soil cover of the study plot, can be explained by the choice of terrain derivatives that were best for Colluvial soils differentiation from other soil units. Regarding the character of the predicted Colluvial soils area, maps of 2 to 10 m resolution provided reasonable delineation of the colluvial soil as part of the cover over the study area. PMID:27846230

  5. Territorial Systems, Regional Disparities and Sustainability: Economic Structure and Soil Degradation in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was devoted to identify the evolutionary path of a number of local systems in a Mediterranean country vulnerable to soil degradation (SD in the last decades. A multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the socio-ecological conditions and to estimate rapidity-of-change of local systems by considering 6 bio-physical factors predisposing soil to degradation and 23 socioeconomic indicators over fifty years (1960–2010. Results indicate that systems’ development paths diverged during the investigated time period reflecting changes in the spatial organization and in the economic base of entire regions. Interestingly, economic performance and environmental quality do not seem to follow opposite trajectories. Local systems characterized by low per-capita income, agricultural specialization and population ageing, seem not to be associated with better and more stable ecological conditions. Local systems in affluent areas, featuring a mix of socioeconomic conditions with the prevalence of services in the economy and tourism specialization, showed relatively good ecological conditions and moderate-to-low SD vulnerability. Thus, affluent local systems do not necessarily reflect a higher pressure on the environment. These findings suggest that areas with a changing socio-demographic profile and a dynamic economic structure are compatible with low and stable levels of SD vulnerability.

  6. Phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soil in temperate humid regions of British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmavathiamma, Prabha K; Li, Loretta Y

    2009-08-01

    The suitability of five plant species was studied for phytoextraction and phytostabilisation in a region with temperate maritime climate of coastal British Columbia, Canada. Pot experiments were conducted using Lolium perenne L (perennial rye grass), Festuca rubra L (creeping red fescue), Helianthus annuus L (sunflower), Poa pratensis L (Kentucky bluegrass) and Brassica napus L (rape) in soils treated with three different metal (Cu, Pb, Mn, and Zn) concentrations. The bio-metric characters of plants in soils with multiple-metal contaminations, their metal accumulation characteristics, translocation properties and metal removal were assessed at different stages of plant growth, 90 and 120 DAS (days after sowing). Lolium was found to be suitable for the phytostabilisation of Cu and Pb, Festuca for Mn and Poa for Zn. Metal removal was higher at 120 than at 90 days after sowing, and metals concentrated more in the underground tissues with less translocation to the aboveground parts. Bioconcentration factors indicate that Festuca had the highest accumulation for Cu, Helianthus for Pb and Zn and Poa for Mn.

  7. Frequent non-reciprocal exchange in microsatellite-containing-DNA-regions of vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegler, J.O.; Wälther, M.; Linzer, T.R.

    2009-01-01

    Microsatellites are DNA-fragments containing short repetitive motifs with 2-10 bp. They are highly variable in most species and distributed throughout the whole genome. It is broadly accepted that their high degree of variability is closely associated with mispairing of DNA-strands during...... on stepwise mutation models should be interpreted with caution if no detailed information on the allelic variation of microsatellites is available....

  8. Mercury concentrations and distribution in soil, water, mine waste leachates, and air in and around mercury mines in the Big Bend region, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Theodorakos, Peter M.; Fey, David L.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Samples of soil, water, mine waste leachates, soil gas, and air were collected from areas mined for mercury (Hg) and baseline sites in the Big Bend area, Texas, to evaluate potential Hg contamination in the region. Soil samples collected within 300 m of an inactive Hg mine contained elevated Hg concentrations (3.8–11 µg/g), which were considerably higher than Hg in soil collected from baseline sites (0.03–0.05 µg/g) distal (as much as 24 km) from mines. Only three soil samples collected within 300 m of the mine exceeded the probable effect concentration for Hg of 1.06 µg/g, above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Concentrations of Hg in mine water runoff (7.9–14 ng/L) were generally higher than those found in springs and wells (0.05–3.1 ng/L), baseline streams (1.1–9.7 ng/L), and sources of drinking water (0.63–9.1 ng/L) collected in the Big Bend region. Concentrations of Hg in all water samples collected in this study were considerably below the 2,000 ng/L drinking water Hg guideline and the 770 ng/L guideline recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to protect aquatic wildlife from chronic effects of Hg. Concentrations of Hg in water leachates obtained from leaching of mine wastes varied widely from wastes were elevated, persistent wind in southwest Texas disperses Hg in the air within a few meters of the ground surface.

  9. Observational evidence for the relationship between spring soil moisture and June rainfall over the Indian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    KanthaRao, B.; Rakesh, V.

    2018-05-01

    Understanding the relationship between gradually varying soil moisture (SM) conditions and monsoon rainfall anomalies is crucial for seasonal prediction. Though it is an important issue, very few studies in the past attempted to diagnose the linkages between the antecedent SM and Indian summer monsoon rainfall. This study examined the relationship between spring (April-May) SM and June rainfall using observed data during the period 1979-2010. The Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analyses showed that the spring SM plays a significant role in June rainfall over the Central India (CI), South India (SI), and North East India (NEI) regions. The composite anomaly of the spring SM and June rainfall showed that excess (deficit) June rainfall over the CI was preceded by wet (dry) spring SM. The anomalies in surface-specific humidity, air temperature, and surface radiation fluxes also supported the existence of a positive SM-precipitation feedback over the CI. On the contrary, excess (deficit) June rainfall over the SI and NEI region were preceded by dry (wet) spring SM. The abnormal wet (dry) SM over the SI and NEI decreased (increased) the 2-m air temperature and increased (decreased) the surface pressure compared to the surrounding oceans which resulted in less (more) moisture transport from oceans to land (negative SM-precipitation feedback over the Indian monsoon region).

  10. Distribution of cadmium in surface soils in K.Mitrovica region, Kosovo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliu, Milihate; Shajn, Robert; Stafilov, Trajche

    2009-01-01

    The results of the study of spatial distribution of cadmium in topsoil (0-5 cm) over the K. Mitrovica region, Kosovo, are reported. The investigated region (300 km 2 ) is covered by a sampling grid of 1.4 x 1.4 km. In total 159 soil samples from 149 locations were collected. Inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) were applied for the determination of cadmium. Data analysis and construction of the map were performed using the Paradox (ver. 9), Statistica (ver. 6.1), AutoDesk Map (ver. 2008) and Surfer (ver. 8.09) software. It was found that the average content of Cd in the topsoil for the entire study area is 3.25 mg/kg (with a range of 0.10-46.8 mg/kg) which exceeds the estimated European Cd average of topsoil by a factor of 27. It is evident that the content of cadmium is very high in the topsoils from the areas of the lead and zinc smelter plant, as well as in the topsoils from the part of the city of K. Mitrovica. In the region of Zvechan and K. Mitrovica several topsoil samples with extremely high content of cadmium are present. The main polluted area was found that covers 5.9 km 2 with the average concentration of Cd is 14 mg/kg (from 12 to 47 mg/kg).

  11. Assessment of DDT and Metabolites in Soil and Sediment of Potentially Contaminated Areas of Belém, Amazon Region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Andreia Oliveira; de Souza, Larissa Costa; da Silva Rocha, Cássia Christina; da Costa, Amilton Cesar Gomes; de Alcântara Mendes, Rosivaldo

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of DDT and metabolites in surface soils and soil profiles from two areas containing deposits of obsolete pesticides in Belém, Amazon Region, Brazil. DDT and metabolites were extracted by microwave assisted extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Concentrations of total DDT in surface soil samples ranged from 64.22 mg kg -1 in area 1 (A1) to 447.84 mg kg -1 in area 2 (A2). Lower levels were found in soil profiles than at the surface (6.21-21.17 mg kg -1 in A1 and 36.13-113.66 mg kg -1 in A2). pp'-DDT, pp'-DDE and pp'-DDD were detected in sediments at levels of 2.01, 0.96 and 0.35 mg kg -1 , respectively. The ratio (DDE + DDD)/ΣDDT was low indicating the recent introduction of DDT to the environment in the two study areas, through the volatilization and atmospheric deposition of the obsolete pesticides.

  12. Differentiate responses of soil structure to natural vegetation and artificial plantation in landslide hazard region of the West Qinling Mountains, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Huang, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Hong, M.

    2017-12-01

    Natural vegetation and artificial plantation are the most important measures for ecological restoration in soil erosion and landslide hazard-prone regions of China. Previous studies have demonstrated that both measures can significantly change the soil structure and decrease soil and water erosion. Few reports have compared the effects of the two contrasting measures on mechanical and hydrological properties and further tested the differentiate responses of soil structure. In the study areas, two vegetation restoration measures-natural vegetation restoration (NVR) and artificial plantation restoration (APR) compared with control site, with similar topographical and geological backgrounds were selected to investigate the different effects on soil structure based on eight-year ecological restoration projects. The results showed that the surface vegetation played an important role in releasing soil erosion and enhance soil structure stability through change the soil aggregates (SA) and total soil porosity (TSP). The SArestoration and conservation in geological hazard-prone regions.

  13. Controlling factors in the dynamics of soil organic carbon from the region of Murcia; Factores de control en la dinamica del Carbono Organico de los suelos de la Region de Murcia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albaladejo, J.; Martinez-Mena, M.; Almagro, M.; Ruiz-navarro, A.; Ortiz, R.

    2009-07-01

    Sequestration and accumulation of C on the soil is a useful way to reduce the atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2} and to mitigate the climate change. The purpose of this study was to identify the key factors which determine the accumulation and permanence of CO on the soils of the Murcia Region. The study was arranged from data displayed on the Murcia Region Soils Map (1:100.000). The results showed that quantity of stored CO in the 30cm superficial soil is significantly different depending on soil uses, soil type, altitude and texture. One conclusion is that changes from natural vegetation to cultivated soil are the greatest cause of losses of CO of soil. The increasing of altitude and proportion of thin-silt + clay contributes to CE accumulation. In altitude, the speed of mineralization of organic materials decreases, and the thin particles stimulate the physical protection and the chemical stabilization of CO of soil. (Author) 8 refs.

  14. Trace element concentrations along a gradient of urban pressure in forest and lawn soils of the Paris region (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Ludovic; Dubs, Florence; Gignoux, Jacques; Lata, Jean-Christophe; Lerch, Thomas Z; Mathieu, Jérôme; Nold, François; Nunan, Naoise; Raynaud, Xavier; Abbadie, Luc; Barot, Sébastien

    2017-11-15

    The concentration, degree of contamination and pollution of 7 trace elements (TEs) along an urban pressure gradient were measured in 180 lawn and wood soils of the Paris region (France). Iron (Fe), a major element, was used as reference element. Copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were of anthropogenic origin, while arsenic (As), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) were of natural origin. Road traffic was identified as the main source of anthropogenic TEs. In addition, the industrial activity of the Paris region, especially cement plants, was identified as secondary source of Cd. Soil characteristics (such as texture, organic carbon (OC) and total nitrogen (tot N) contents) tell the story of the soil origins and legacies along the urban pressure gradient and often can explain TE concentrations. The history of the land-use types was identified as a factor that allowed understanding the contamination and pollution by TEs. Urban wood soils were found to be more contaminated and polluted than urban lawns, probably because woods are much older than lawns and because of the legacy of the historical management of soils in the Paris region (Haussmann period). Lawn soils are similar to the fertile agricultural soils and relatively recently (mostly from the 1950s onwards) imported from the surrounding of Paris, so that they may be less influenced by urban conditions in terms of TE concentrations. Urban wood soils are heavily polluted by Cd, posing a high risk to the biological communities. The concentration of anthropogenic TEs increased from the rural to the urban areas, and the concentrations of most anthropogenic TEs in urban areas were equivalent to or above the regulatory reference values, raising the question of longer-term monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Integrated GIS and multivariate statistical analysis for regional scale assessment of heavy metal soil contamination: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Deyi; O'Connor, David; Nathanail, Paul; Tian, Li; Ma, Yan

    2017-12-01

    Heavy metal soil contamination is associated with potential toxicity to humans or ecotoxicity. Scholars have increasingly used a combination of geographical information science (GIS) with geostatistical and multivariate statistical analysis techniques to examine the spatial distribution of heavy metals in soils at a regional scale. A review of such studies showed that most soil sampling programs were based on grid patterns and composite sampling methodologies. Many programs intended to characterize various soil types and land use types. The most often used sampling depth intervals were 0-0.10 m, or 0-0.20 m, below surface; and the sampling densities used ranged from 0.0004 to 6.1 samples per km 2 , with a median of 0.4 samples per km 2 . The most widely used spatial interpolators were inverse distance weighted interpolation and ordinary kriging; and the most often used multivariate statistical analysis techniques were principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The review also identified several determining and correlating factors in heavy metal distribution in soils, including soil type, soil pH, soil organic matter, land use type, Fe, Al, and heavy metal concentrations. The major natural and anthropogenic sources of heavy metals were found to derive from lithogenic origin, roadway and transportation, atmospheric deposition, wastewater and runoff from industrial and mining facilities, fertilizer application, livestock manure, and sewage sludge. This review argues that the full potential of integrated GIS and multivariate statistical analysis for assessing heavy metal distribution in soils on a regional scale has not yet been fully realized. It is proposed that future research be conducted to map multivariate results in GIS to pinpoint specific anthropogenic sources, to analyze temporal trends in addition to spatial patterns, to optimize modeling parameters, and to expand the use of different multivariate analysis tools beyond principal component analysis

  16. [Runoff and sediment yielding processes on red soil engineering accumulation containing gravels by a simulated rainfall experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qian-hua; Wang, Wen-long; Guo, Ming-ming; Bai, Yun; Deng, Li-qiang; Li, Jian-ming; Li, Yao-lin

    2015-09-01

    Engineering accumulation formed in production and construction projects is characterized by unique structure and complex material composition. Characteristics of soil erosion on the engineering accumulation significantly differ from those on farmland. An artificially simulated rainfall experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of rainfall intensity on the processes of runoff and sediment yielding on the engineering accumulation of different gravel contents (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%) in red soil regions. Results showed that the initial time of runoff generation decreased with increases in rainfall intensity and gravel content, the decreased amplitudes being about 48.5%-77.9% and 4.2%-34.2%, respectively. The initial time was found to be a power function of rainfall intensity. Both runoff velocity and runoff rate manifested a trend of first rising and then in a steady state with runoff duration. Rainfall intensity was found to be the main factor influencing runoff velocity and runoff rate, whereas the influence of gravel content was not significant. About 10% of gravel content was determined to be a critical value in the influence of gravel content on runoff volume. For the underlying surface of 10% gravel content, the runoff volume was least at rainfall intensity of 1.0 mm · min(-1) and maximum at rainfall intensity of greater than 1.0 mm · min(-1). The runoff volume in- creased 10%-60% with increase in rainfall intensity. Sediment concentration showed a sharp decline in first 6 min and then in a stable state in rest of time. Influence of rainfall intensity on sediment concentration decreased as gravel content increased. Gravels could reduce sediment yield significantly at rainfall intensity of greater than 1.0 mm · min(-1). Sediment yield was found to be a linear function of rainfall intensity and gravel content.

  17. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Contamination in Soils and Selected Crops in Zanjan Urban and Industrial Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Afshari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy metals are types of elements naturally present in soil or enter into soil as a result of human activities. The most important route of exposure to heavy metals is daily intake of food. Crops grown in contaminated soil (due to mining activities, industrial operations and agriculture may contain high concentrations of heavy metals. Also closeness to cities and industrial centers can have a great influence on the accumulation of heavy metals to agricultural products grown in the region. The study aimed to determine the concentration of heavy metals in soil and agricultural products around urban and industrial areas of Zanjan province (North West of Iran and consumption hazard probability. Materials and Methods: Soil (75 samples of soil from a depth of 0 to 10 cm and plant (101 samples samples, in the summer 2011, were randomly taken from industrial areas as follow: tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum M, wheat seed (Triticum vulgare, barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare, alfalfa shoots (Medicago sativa L., potato tubers (Solanumtuberosum L., apple fruit, vegetables and fruits such as Dill (Aniethum graveolens L., leek (Allium porrum L., Gardencress (Barbara verna L. and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.. Plant samples were then washed with distilled water, oven dried for48 hours at a temperature of 70 ´C until constant weight was attained and then they digested using 2 M hydrochloric acid (HCl and nitric acid digestion in 5 M. Concentrations of heavy metals in the soil and crops were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. DTPA extraction of metals by Lindsay and Norvell (1978 method and sequential extraction method by Tessier et al. (1979 were performed. Statistical analysis was accomplished using the software SPSS 16.0 and the comparison of mean values was done using the Duncan test at the 5% level of significance. Results and Discussion: The magnitude of variations for total copper was from 11.5 to 352.5 (average 52.4, zinc was from 96

  18. Stochastic analysis of uncertain thermal characteristic of foundation soils surrounding the crude oil pipeline in permafrost regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tao; Zhou, Guoqing; Wang, Jianzhou; Zhao, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The influence of stochastic properties and conditions on permafrost foundation was investigated. • A stochastic analysis for the uncertain thermal characteristic of crude oil pipe is presented. • The mean temperature and standard deviation of foundation soils are obtained and analyzed. • Average standard deviation and maximum standard deviation of foundation soils increase with time. - Abstract: For foundation soils surrounding the crude oil pipeline in permafrost regions, the soil properties and the upper boundary conditions are stochastic because of complex geological processes and changeable atmospheric environment. The conventional finite element analysis of thermal characteristics for crude oil pipeline is always deterministic, rather than taking stochastic parameters and conditions into account. This study investigated the stochastic influence of an underground crude oil pipeline on the thermal stability of the permafrost foundation on the basis of a stochastic analysis model and the stochastic finite element method. A stochastic finite element program is compiled by Matrix Laboratory (MATLAB) software, and the random temperature fields of foundation soils surrounding a crude oil pipeline in a permafrost region are obtained and analyzed by Neumann stochastic finite element method (NSFEM). The results provide a new way to predict the thermal effects of the crude oil pipeline in permafrost regions, and it shows that the standard deviations in temperature increase with time when considering the stochastic effect of soil properties and boundary conditions, which imply that the results of conventional deterministic analysis may be far from the true value, even if in different seasons. It can improve our understanding of the random temperature field of foundation soils surrounding the crude oil pipeline and provide a theoretical basis for actual engineering design in permafrost regions.

  19. Trace metal concentrations in forest and lawn soils of Paris region (France) along a gradient of urban pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovic, Foti

    2017-04-01

    Urban soils differ greatly from natural ones as they are located in areas of intense anthropogenic activity (e.g. pollution, physical disturbance, surface transformation). Urban soils are a crucial component of urban ecosystems, especially in public green spaces, and contribute to many ecosystem services from the mitigation of urban heat island to recreational services. In the last decade, the study of urban soils has emerged as an important frontier in environmental research, at least because of their impact on the quality of life of urban populations, because of the services they deliver and because they are more and more recognized as a valuable resource. One of the key issues is the pollution of urban soils because they receive a variety of deposits from local (vehicle emissions, industrial discharges, domestic heating, waste incineration and other anthropogenic activities) and from remote sources (through atmospheric transport). Typical contaminants include persistent toxic substances, such as trace metals (TMs) that have drawn wide attention due to their long persistence in the environment, their tendency to bioaccumulate in the food chain and their toxicity for humans and other organisms. Concentrations, spatial distributions, dynamics, impacts and sources of TMs (e.g. industry or fossil fuels combustion) have attracted a global interest in urban soils and are the subject of ongoing research (e.g. ecotoxicological urban ecology). Some studies have already documented soil pollution with TMs at both the town and regional scales. So far, several monitoring programs (e.g. National Network for the long term Monitoring of Forest Ecosystem, Regional Monitoring Quality of Soil in France) and studies have been carried out on a national scale to measure the ranges of TM concentrations and natural background values in French soils. These studies have focused on French agricultural and forest soils and have not tackled urban soils. No study has described TM

  20. Geomorphological assessment of sites and impoundments for the long term containment of uranium mill tailings in the Alligator Rivers Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    East, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a program of current and future research into those geomorphological processes likely to affect the long term containment of uranium mill tailings in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory. Research is directed at three main areas: identification of geomorphic hazards at proposed impoundment sites; determination of erosion rates on impoundment slopes; and prediction of patterns of fluvial dispersal of released tailings. Each necessitates consideration of present and future geomorphic processes

  1. Large Differences in Global and Regional Total Soil Carbon Stock Estimates Based on SoilGrids, HWSD, and NCSCD: Intercomparison and Evaluation Based on Field Data From USA, England, Wales, and France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tifafi, Marwa; Guenet, Bertrand; Hatté, Christine

    2018-01-01

    Soils are the major component of the terrestrial ecosystem and the largest organic carbon reservoir on Earth. However, they are a nonrenewable natural resource and especially reactive to human disturbance and climate change. Despite its importance, soil carbon dynamics is an important source of uncertainty for future climate predictions and there is a growing need for more precise information to better understand the mechanisms controlling soil carbon dynamics and better constrain Earth system models. The aim of our work is to compare soil organic carbon stocks given by different global and regional databases that already exist. We calculated global and regional soil carbon stocks at 1 m depth given by three existing databases (SoilGrids, the Harmonized World Soil Database, and the Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database). We observed that total stocks predicted by each product differ greatly: it is estimated to be around 3,400 Pg by SoilGrids and is about 2,500 Pg according to Harmonized World Soil Database. This difference is marked in particular for boreal regions where differences can be related to high disparities in soil organic carbon concentration. Differences in other regions are more limited and may be related to differences in bulk density estimates. Finally, evaluation of the three data sets versus ground truth data shows that (i) there is a significant difference in spatial patterns between ground truth data and compared data sets and that (ii) data sets underestimate by more than 40% the soil organic carbon stock compared to field data.

  2. Optimization of the Closure-Weld Region of cylindrical Containers for Long-Term Corrosion Resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zekai Ceylan; Mohamed B. Trabia

    2001-01-01

    Welded cylindrical containers are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in the closure-weld area. An induction coil heating technique may be used to relieve the residual stresses in the closure-weld. This technique involves localized heating of the material by the surrounding coils. The material is then cooled to room temperature by quenching. A two-dimensional axisymmetric finite element model is developed to study the effects of induction coil heating and subsequent quenching. The finite element results are validated through an experimental test. The parameters of the design are tuned to maximize the compressive stress from the outer surface to a depth that is equal to the long-term general corrosion rate of Alloy 22 (Appendix A) multiplied by the desired container lifetime. The problem is subject to geometrical and stress constraints. Two different solution methods are implemented for this purpose. First, off-the-shelf optimization software is used to obtain an optimum solution. These results are not satisfactory because of the highly nonlinear nature of the problem. The paper proposes a novel alternative: the Successive Heuristic Quadratic Approximation (SHQA) technique. This algorithm combines successive quadratic approximation with an adaptive random search. Examples and discussion are included

  3. [Evaluation of phosphate-containing amendments on remediation effect and influential factors in a lead/zinc mining tailings contaminated soil using TCLP and forms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Jun; Yu, Tian-Ming; Wang, Bi-Ling; Xie, Zheng-Miao

    2010-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of phosphate-containing (P) amendments on the toxicity and bioavailability of Pb and Zn in a soil contaminated by mining tailings using toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and water soluble, exchangeable leaching procedures in order to find out the appropriate P application rates to reduce the soil TCLP extractable Pb to below the USA EPA's regulatory limit levels. The results showed that TCLP extractable Pb concentrations were significantly decreased by up to 93.3% for MPP treatments and up to 68.5% for SSP treatments after P application. The dose required to reduce leachable Pb below the EPA's regulatory limit level was found to be around the molar ratio of v(P/Pb) = 0.6 for MPP and 1.8 for SSP. It was also found both MPP and SSP could reduce the exchangeable Pb and Zn concentrations that all bio-available Zn forms including water soluble, exchangeable, and TCLP extractable forms in soil were significantly and negatively correlated to soil pH values, indicating that the content of Zn in the soil was mostly controlled by soil pH value even after P application. These results suggest that P as MPP and SSP could successfully decrease the toxicity and bioavailability of Pb and Zn in the contaminated soil.

  4. Use of soil-streamwater relationships to assess regional patterns of acidic deposition effects in the northeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemion, Jason; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Murdoch, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    Declines of acidic deposition levels by as much as 50% since 1990 have led to partial recovery of surface waters in the northeastern USA but continued depletion of soil calcium through this same period suggests a disconnection between soil and surface water chemistry. To investigate the role of soil-surface water interactions in recovery from acidification, the first regional survey to directly relate soil chemistry to stream chemistry during high flow was implemented in a 4144-km2 area of the Catskill region of New York, where acidic deposition levels are among the highest in the East.More than 40% of 95 streams sampled in the southern Catskill Mountains were determined to be acidified and had inorganic monomeric aluminum concentrations that exceeded a threshold that is toxic to aquatic biota. More than 80% likely exceeded this threshold during the highest flows, but less than 10% of more than 100 streams sampled were acidified in the northwestern portion of the region. Median Oa horizon soil base saturation ranged from 50% to 80% at 200 sites across the region, but median base saturation in the upper 10 cm of the B horizon was less than 20% across the region and was only 2% in the southern area. Aluminum is likely to be interfering with root uptake of calcium in the mineral horizon in approximately half the sampled watersheds. Stream chemistry was highly variable over the Catskill region and, therefore, did not always reflect the calcium depletion of the B horizon that our sampling suggested was nearly ubiquitous throughout the region. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Study of the influence of the metal partition coefficient on the human health risk evaluation, applied to Figueira (PR) soil region, using C-Soil model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Iara Maria Carneiro de.

    2005-01-01

    Studies of partition coefficient show that Kp values of metals can vary orders of magnitude according to the soil physical-chemistry characteristics. Therefore, the Kp is a sensible parameter in human health risk assessment model. In general, a default value is adopted by environmental agencies and often it is not represent suitably the soil studied and can cause errors in the risk calculation. The objectives of this work are: evaluate the heavy metals soil contamination around the Figueira coal-fired power plant; determine the metal Kp of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn in soil by the ratio between the metal concentration obtained by concentrate HNO 3 digestion and the metal concentration obtained by extraction with EDTA 0,05 mol L -1 (Kp EDTA ) or Ca(NO 3 ) 2 0,1 mol L -1 (Kp Ca(NO3)2 ); and evaluate the influence of the application of different Kp values in human health risk assessment C-Soil model in risk calculation. The main conclusions of the present study were: As, Cd, Mo, Pb e Zn were the Figueira soil metal contaminants, being As the pollutant of major human health concern; either Kp Ca(NO3)2 or Kp EDTA values could be used for human health risk calculation, in Figueira case, except for Pb, and the Kp EDTA values were preferably recommended due to the less dispersion of their values; the KpC Soil metals default values could be applied for the human health risk calculation in Figueira case, in other words, it would not have necessity to determine Kp values of region (Kp EDTA and Kp Ca(NO3)2 ), except to Pb. (author)

  6. Effect of soil moisture and treatment volume on bentazone mobility in soil

    OpenAIRE

    Guimont, Sophie; Perrin-Ganier, Corinne; Real, Benoit; Schiavon, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Soil moisture affects the leaching behaviour of pesticides by inducing their physical entrapment in the soil structure. Columns containing soil aggregates were dampened to specific initial moisture levels. Bentazon was dripped onto surface aggregates in different volumes. The columns were then percolated after an equilibration period. Soil water from the columns was divided arbitrarily among mobile and immobile regions in order to describe the herbicide redistribution processes in the soil. W...

  7. Determination of half life of the pesticides chlorpyrifos (14C) in an agricultural soil of the VI region by means of the using isotopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarda Rojas, Gabriela Paz

    2005-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus insecticide widely used in Chilean agriculture in the control of plagues of insects in soil and several crops. From an environmental point of view, to know the behavior and fate of Chlorpyrifos under different moisture regimes in soil is important because it contributes to optimize its use, assuring that collateral effects do not take place inside or outside the application area and in addition it specifies the optimal conditions of application to obtain better results in the treatment with the land insecticide. In this work it was studied the half life of Chlorpyrifos ( 14 C) in an agricultural soil of VI Region, by means of the use of Isotopic techniques, under two moisture regimes of 50 and 75% of the Field Capacity. The ground samples were fortified with doses of 10 mg/Kg and incubated to 20 o C and in absence of light. The dissipation of Chlorpyrifos in soil was determined during 110 days of test, through the quantification of remaining 14 CO 2 by liquid scintillation counting. Results show temporary differences in the half life for different moisture regimes, with T 1/2 of 21 and 28 days for the soil to 75 and 50% of the Field Capacity, respectively. It was studied the factors related to soil and plaguicide that could affect speed of degradation, either accelerating or inhibiting the process of dissipation of Chlorpyrifos, under the described moisture regimes. The results indicated that the fast degradation of the insecticide organophosphorus in the soil to 75% of the CC is product of biotic and abiotic processes. Between the abiotic processes the neutral hydrolysis constituted the principal route of dissipation, mainly due to the moisture content and pH presented in soil (pH 7,2). Nevertheless, factors as the high content of organic matter of the soil, low water solubility, high coefficient of adsorption and bond p=S of the Chlorpyrifos, they suggest the sorption process would inhibit hydrolysis, slowing down the

  8. Radioactivity measurements of soil samples in the Region Vranje (Bratoselce Village) for the period 2001-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremic-savkovic, M.; Pantelic, G.; Tanaskovic, I.; Vuletic, V.; Javorina, L.

    2006-01-01

    Systematic examination of radioactive contamination of soil samples was established at the Institute for Occupational and Radiological Health. With the bombing of our country (Spring 1999) the monitoring of radioactivity has changed. We also measured the activities of uranium and it descendants. This paper presents the results of radioactivity monitoring of the soil in small area 700 m near village Bratoselce in region Vranje during the period 2001 - 2004. From 2001 to 2004, we collected different samples from this fenced area as well as outside this area assuming not to be contaminated, before, during and after decontamination. Some soil samples were made as a mix of small samples from a large area of location. Other samples were taken at the points formerly designated as contaminated or from shell-craters seen on the fenced area surface. All samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometry and measurements of alpha and beta activity. On the basis of measurements of soil activities, analysis of 238 U and 235 U, as well as in comparison with natural activity ratio being 21.4, it may be concluded that depleted uranium contamination was present both in the fenced area and outside it, because this ratio in the samples of soil was found to be 34 to 73. Natural activity in soil samples was slightly higher in relation to mean soil activity in Serbia. (authors)

  9. Quantifying the effect of ecological restoration on soil erosion in China's Loess Plateau region: an application of the MMF approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changbin; Qi, Jiaguo; Feng, Zhaodong; Yin, Runsheng; Guo, Biyun; Zhang, Feng; Zou, Songbing

    2010-03-01

    Land degradation due to erosion is one of the most serious environmental problems in China. To reduce land degradation, the government has taken a number of conservation and restoration measures, including the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP), which was launched in 1999. A logical question is whether these measures have reduced soil erosion at the regional level. The objective of this article is to answer this question by assessing soil erosion dynamics in the Zuli River basin in the Loess Plateau of China from 1999 to 2006. The MMF (Morgan, Morgan and Finney) model was used to simulate changes in runoff and soil erosion over the period of time during which ecological restoration projects were implemented. Some model variables were derived from remotely sensed images to provide improved land surface representation. With an overall accuracy rate of 0.67, our simulations show that increased ground vegetation cover, especially in forestlands and grasslands, has reduced soil erosion by 38.8% on average from 1999 to 2006. During the same time period, however, the change in rainfall pattern has caused a 13.1% +/- 4.3% increase in soil erosion, resulting in a net 25.7% +/- 8.5% reduction in soil erosion. This suggests that China's various ecological restoration efforts have been effective in reducing soil loss.

  10. Use of 137Cs technique for soil erosion study in the agricultural region of Casablanca in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouira, A.; Sayouty, E.H.; Benmansour, M.

    2003-01-01

    Accelerated erosion and soil degradation currently cause serious problems to the Oued El Maleh basin (Morocco). Furthermore, there is still only limited information on rates of soil loss for optimising strategies for soil conservation. In the present study we have used the 137 Cs technique to assess the soil erosion rates on an agricultural land in Oued el Maleh basin near Casablanca (Morocco). A small representative agricultural field was selected to investigate the soil degradation required by soil managers in this region. The transect approach was applied for sampling to identify the spatial redistribution of 137 Cs. The spatial variability of 137 Cs inventory has provided evidence of the importance of tillage process and the human effects on the redistribution of 137 Cs. The mean 137 Cs inventory was found about 842 Bq m -2 , this value corresponds to an erosion rate of 82 tha -1 yr -1 by applying simplified mass balance model in a preliminary estimation. When data on site characteristics were available, the refined mass balance model was applied to highlight the contribution of tillage effect in soil redistribution. The erosion rate was estimated about 50 tha -1 yr -1 . The aspects related to the sampling procedures and the models for calculation of erosion rates are discussed

  11. Characterization of Aerosols Containing Zn, Pb, and Cl from an Industrial Region of Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffet, Ryan C.; Desyaterik, Yury; Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Gilles, Marry K.; Wang, Yan A.; Shutthanandan, V.; Molina, Luisa T.; Abraham, Rodrigo G.; Johnson, Kirsten S.; Mugica, Violeta; Molina, Mario J.; Laskin, Alexander; Prather, Kimberly A.

    2008-01-01

    During the March, 2006 MILAGRO campaign, measurements in the Northern Mexico City Metropolitan Area revealed the frequent appearance of particles with a characteristically high content of internally mixed Zn, Pb, Cl, and P. A comprehensive study of the chemical and physical properties of these particles was performed using a complementary combination of aerosol measurement techniques. Individual particles were analyzed using Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (ATOFMS) and Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (CCSEM/EDX). Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) analysis of bulk aerosol samples provided time-resolved mass concentrations of individual elements. The PIXE measurements indicated that Zn is more strongly correlated with Cl than with any other element and that Zn concentrations are higher than other non-ferrous transition metals. The Zn- and Pb-containing particles have both spherical and non-spherical morphologies. Many metal rich particles had needle-like structures and were found to be composed of ZnO and/or Zn(NO3)2 6H2O as indicated by scanning transmission x-ray microscopy/near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). The Zn and Pb rich particles were primarily in the submicron size range and internally mixed with elemental carbon. The unique chemical associations most closely match signatures acquired for garbage incineration. This unique combination of complementary analytical techniques has allowed for a comprehensive evaluation of Zn- and Pb- containing particles in a complex urban environment, highlighting unique characteristics that give powerful insight into their origin

  12. Determination and Distribution of Critical Loads: Application to the Forest Soils in the Autonomous Region of Madrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, M.; Schmid, T.; Rabago, I.

    2000-01-01

    The critical loads of acidity and sulphur have been determined for forest soils within the north and northwest of the Autonomous Region of Madrid. The SMB-CCE and SMB-PROFILE steady state models have been applied using a 1 km x 1 km resolution. The forest ecosystems have been characterised according to the soil and forest type, slope and climatic data using a Geographic Information System. In order to estimate the critical loads, processes such as weathering rate of the parent material, atmospheric deposition. critical alkalinity leaching rate and nutrients absorbed by the vegetation have been considered. In general the forest soils present high critical load values for acidity and sulphur. The more sensitive zones are found in the north of the Sierra of Guadarrama. Independent of the applied methods, the results are associated to the types of soils where Leptosols have the lowest, Cambisoles and Regosoles intermediate and Luvisoles the most elevated values. (Author) 40 refs

  13. Natural Radionuclides in Different plants, Together with Their Corresponding Soils in Egypt at Inshas Region and the Area Nearby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu - Khadra, S.A.; Eissa, H.S.

    2009-01-01

    Six different locations :Inshas, Shebeen, Abu-Zaabal, Al-Oboor in addition to two sites in the Nuclear Research Centre (NRC), (Old reactor and Protection department sites), in Egypt at Inshas region and the area nearby (about 30 Km radius) were selected for collection of plant samples , together with their corresponding soils. Natural radionuclides concentration in different environmental samples of plants especially grasses ,)leaves of old trees) and soils, were determined using high resolution gamma- spectroscopy (Hyper Pure Germanium detector).Natural uranium-238 and thorium -232 together with their decay products were determined as well as K-40. Also, Cs-137 radiation level was determined as an indication of the contamination from the fallout. It is noticed that the obtained results for all plants and grasses in the present study are higher than those obtained for their corresponding soils (except for Shebeen), which has nearly the same average concentration value of K-40 in plants and their corresponding soils

  14. Use of microwave remote sensing data to monitor spatio temporal characteristics of surface soil moisture at local and regional scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Löw

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic processes, such as runoff production or evapotranspiration, largely depend on the variation of soil moisture and its spatial pattern. The interaction of electromagnetic waves with the land surface can be dependant on the water content of the uppermost soil layer. Especially in the microwave domain of the electromagnetic spectrum, this is the case. New sensors as e.g. ENVISAT ASAR, allow for frequent, synoptically and homogeneous image acquisitions over larger areas. Parameter inversion models are therefore developed to derive bio- and geophysical parameters from the image products. The paper presents a soil moisture inversion model for ENVISAT ASAR data for local and regional scale applications. The model is validated against in situ soil moisture measurements. The various sources of uncertainties, being related to the inversion process are assessed and quantified.

  15. A survey of natural radiation levels in soils and rocks from Aliaga-Foca region in Izmir, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuesun cam, N.; Oezken, I.; Yaprak, G.

    2013-01-01

    The gamma spectroscopic analysis of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K has been carried out in surface soil samples collected from Aliaga-Foca industrial region. The rock samples as parent materials of the soils are also collected and analysed for relevant radionuclides in order to evaluate the natural radiation levels. In the present study, the mean activity concentrations and ranges of the related radionuclides in the soil samples from 60 sites distributed all over the region are as follows: 226 Ra is 38 (14-123) Bq kg -1 ; 232 Th, 63 (27-132) Bq kg -1 and 40 K , 633 (141-1666) Bq kg -1 . Meanwhile, the ranges of natural radionuclide activities in the rock samples characterising the region are 41-95 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 10-122 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th and 264-1470 Bq kg -1 for 40 K , respectively. Based on the available data, the radiation hazard parameters associated with the surveyed soils/rocks are calculated and the results do not exceed the permissible recommended values except for soils originated from Foca rhyolites and tuffs. Furthermore, the collected data allowed for the mapping of the measured activities and corresponding gamma dose rates. (authors)

  16. [Characteristics of soil moisture variation in different land use types in the hilly region of the Loess Plateau, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Min; Zhao, Xi Ning; Gao, Xiao Dong; Zhang, Chao; Wu, Pu Te

    2018-03-01

    Soil water availability is a key factor restricting the ecological construction and sustainable land use in the loess hilly region. It is of great theoretical and practical significance to understand the soil moisture status of different land use types for the vegetation restoration and the effective utilization of land resources in this area. In this study, EC-5 soil moisture sensors were used to continuously monitor the soil moisture content in the 0-160 cm soil profile in the slope cropland, terraced fields, jujube orchard, and grassland during the growing season (from May to October) in the Yuanzegou catchment on the Loess Plateau, to investigate soil moisture dynamics in these four typical land use types. The results showed that there were differences in seasonal variation, water storage characteristics, and vertical distribution of soil moisture under different land use types in both the normal precipitation (2014) and dry (2015) years. The terraced fields showed good water retention capacity in the dry year, with the average soil moisture content of 0-60 cm soil layer in the growing season being 2.6%, 4.2%, and 1.8% higher than that of the slope cropland, jujube orchard, and grassland (all Pmoisture content of 0-60 cm soil layer in jujube orchard in the growing season was 2.9%, 3.8%, and 4.5% lower than that of slope cropland, terraced fields, and grassland, respectively (all Pmoisture in the surface layer (0-20 cm) and soil moisture in the middle layer (20-100 cm) under different land use types was large, and the trend for the similarity degree of soil moisture variation followed terraced fields > grassland > slope cropland > jujube orchard. The slope cropland in this area could be transformed into terraced fields to improve the utilization of precipitation and promote the construction of ecological agriculture. Aiming at resolving the severe water shortage in the rain-fed jujube orchard for the sustainable development of jujube orchard in the loess hilly

  17. [Assessment of soil degradation in regions of nuclear power explosions at Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evseeva, T I; Geras'kin, S A; Maĭstrenko, T A; Belykh, E S

    2011-01-01

    Degree of the soil cover degradation at the "Balapan" and "Experimental field" test sites was assessed based on Allium-test of soil toxicity results and international guidelines on radioactive restriction of solid materials (IAEA, 2004) and environment (Smith, 2005). Soil cover degradation maps