WorldWideScience

Sample records for region moss basic

  1. Invited review: climate change impacts in polar regions: lessons from Antarctic moss bank archives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royles, Jessica; Griffiths, Howard

    2015-03-01

    Mosses are the dominant plants in polar and boreal regions, areas which are experiencing rapid impacts of regional warming. Long-term monitoring programmes provide some records of the rate of recent climate change, but moss peat banks contain an unrivalled temporal record of past climate change on terrestrial plant Antarctic systems. We summarise the current understanding of climatic proxies and determinants of moss growth for contrasting continental and maritime Antarctic regions, as informed by 13C and 18O signals in organic material. Rates of moss accumulation are more than three times higher in the maritime Antarctic than continental Antarctica with growing season length being a critical determinant of growth rate, and high carbon isotope discrimination values reflecting optimal hydration conditions. Correlation plots of 13C and 18O values show that species (Chorisodontium aciphyllum / Polytrichum strictum) and growth form (hummock / bank) are the major determinants of measured isotope ratios. The interplay between moss growth form, photosynthetic physiology, water status and isotope composition are compared with developments of secondary proxies, such as chlorophyll fluorescence. These approaches provide a framework to consider the potential impact of climate change on terrestrial Antarctic habitats as well as having implications for future studies of temperate, boreal and Arctic peatlands. There are many urgent ecological and environmental problems in the Arctic related to mosses in a changing climate, but the geographical ranges of species and life-forms are difficult to track individually. Our goal was to translate what we have learned from the more simple systems in Antarctica, for application to Arctic habitats. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Moss and lichen cover mapping at local and regional scales in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapalee, G.; Steyaert, L.T.; Hall, F.G.

    2001-01-01

    Mosses and lichens are important components of boreal landscapes [Vitt et al., 1994; Bubier et al., 1997]. They affect plant productivity and belowground carbon sequestration and alter the surface runoff and energy balance. We report the use of multiresolution satellite data to map moss and lichens over the BOREAS region at a 10 m, 30 m, and 1 km scales. Our moss and lichen classification at the 10 m scale is based on ground observations of associations among soil drainage classes, overstory composition, and cover type among four broad classes of ground cover (feather, sphagnum, and brown mosses and lichens). For our 30 m map, we used field observations of ground cover-overstory associations to map mosses and lichens in the BOREAS southern study area (SSA). To scale up to a 1 km (AVHRR) moss map of the BOREAS region, we used the TM SSA mosaics plus regional field data to identify AVHRR overstory-ground cover associations. We found that: 1) ground cover, overstory composition and density are highly correlated, permitting inference of moss and lichen cover from satellite-based land cover classifications; 2) our 1 km moss map reveals that mosses dominate the boreal landscape of central Canada, thereby a significant factor for water, energy, and carbon modeling; 3) TM and AVHRR moss cover maps are comparable; 4) satellite data resolution is important; particularly in detecting the smaller wetland features, lakes, and upland jack pine sites; and 5) distinct regional patterns of moss and lichen cover correspond to latitudinal and elevational gradients. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Clonal in vitro propagation of peat mosses (Sphagnum L.) as novel green resources for basic and applied research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beike, Anna K; Spagnuolo, Valeria; Lüth, Volker; Steinhart, Feray; Ramos-Gómez, Julia; Krebs, Matthias; Adamo, Paola; Rey-Asensio, Ana Isabel; Angel Fernández, J; Giordano, Simonetta; Decker, Eva L; Reski, Ralf

    As builders and major components of peatlands, Sphagnopsida (peat mosses) are very important organisms for ecosystems and world's climate. Nowadays many Sphagnum species as well as their habitats are largely protected, while their scientific and economic relevance remains considerable. Advanced methods of in vitro cultivation provide the potential to work in a sustainable way with peat mosses and address aspects of basic research as well as biotechnological and economical topics like biomonitoring or the production of renewable substrates for horticulture ( Sphagnum farming). Here, we describe the establishment of axenic in vitro cultures of the five peat moss species Sphagnum fimbriatum Wils. and Hook., Sphagnum magellanicum Brid., Sphagnum palustre L., Sphagnum rubellum Wils. and Sphagnum subnitens Russ. and Warnst. with specific focus on large-scale cultivation of S. palustre in bioreactors. Axenic, clonal cultures were established to produce high quantities of biomass under standardized laboratory conditions. For advanced production of S. palustre we tested different cultivation techniques, growth media and inocula, and analyzed the effects of tissue disruption. While cultivation on solid medium is suitable for long term storage, submerse cultivation in liquid medium yielded highest amounts of biomass. By addition of sucrose and ammonium nitrate we were able to increase the biomass by around 10- to 30-fold within 4 weeks. The morphology of in vitro-cultivated gametophores showed similar phenotypic characteristics compared to material from the field. Thus the tested culture techniques are suitable to produce S. palustre material for basic and applied research.

  4. Heavy Metals and Trace Elements Atmospheric Deposition Studies in Tula Region Using Moss Biomonitors Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakova, E V; Steinnes, E

    2002-01-01

    For the first time the moss biomonitors technique was used in air pollution studies in Tula Region (Central Russia), applying NAA, AAS. Moss samples were collected at 83 sites in accordance with the sampling strategy adopted in European projects on biomonitoring atmospheric deposition. A wide set of trace elements in mosses was determined. The method of epithermal neutron activation at IBR-2 reactor of FLNP JINR has made it possible to identify 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) in the large-scale concentration range - from 10000 ppm for K to 0,001 ppm for Tb and Ta. Cu, Cd and Pb were determined by the flame AAS in the Norwegian Institute of Science and Technology. Using the graphical technique and principal component analysis allowed to separate plant, crustal and general pollution components in the moss. The obtained data will be used for constructing coloured maps of the distribution of elements over t...

  5. Air pollution studies in central Russia (Tver and Yaroslavl regions) using the moss biomonitoring technique and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermakova, E.V.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.; Povtorejko, E.A.; Steinnes, E.; Cheremisina, Ye.N.

    2003-01-01

    Data of 34 elements, including heavy metals, halogens, rare-earth elements, U, and Th in 140 moss samples, collected in central Russia (Tver and Yaroslavl regions and the northern part of Moscow Region) in 2000-2002, are presented. Factor analysis with VARIMAX rotation was applied to identify possible sources of the elements determined in the mosses. The seven resulting factors represent crust, vegetation and anthropogenic components in the moss. Some of the factors were interpreted as being associated with ferrous smelters (Fe, Zn, Sb, Ta); combination of non-ferrous smelters and other industries (Mn, Co, Mo, Cr, Ni, W); an oil-refining plant, and oil combustion at the thermal power plant (V, Ni). The geographical distribution patterns of the factor scores are also presented. The dependency equations of elemental content in mosses versus distance from the source are derived

  6. Air Pollution Studies in Central Russia (Tver and Yaroslavl Regions) Using the Moss Biomonitoring Technique and Neutron Activation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakova, E V; Pavlov, S S; Povtoreiko, E A; Steinnes, E; Cheremisina, Ye N

    2003-01-01

    Data of 34 elements, including heavy metals, halogens, rare-earth elements, U, and Th in 140 moss samples, collected in central Russia (Tver and Yaroslavl regions and the northern part of Moscow Region) in 2000-2002, are presented. Factor analysis with VARIMAX rotation was applied to identify possible sources of the elements determined in the mosses. The seven resulting factors represent crust, vegetation and anthropogenic components in the moss. Some of the factors were interpreted as being associated with ferrous smelters (Fe, Zn, Sb, Ta); combination of non-ferrous smelters and other industries (Mn, Co, Mo, Cr, Ni, W); an oil-refining plant, and oil combustion at the thermal power plant (V, Ni). The geographical distribution patterns of the factor scores are also presented. The dependency equations of elemental content in mosses versus distance from the source are derived.

  7. Air Pollution Studies in Central Russia (Tula Region) Using Moss Biomonitoring Technique, NAA and AAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakova, E V; Steinnes, E

    2002-01-01

    For the first time the moss biomonitoring technique has been applied to air pollution monitoring in Central Russia (Tula Region). Moss samples were collected from 83 sites in accordance with the sampling strategy of European projects on biomonitoring of atmospheric deposition. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) at the IBR-2 reactor has made it possible to determine the concentration of 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) over a large concentration range (from 10000 mg/kg for K to 0.001 mg/kg for Tb and Ta). In addition to NAA, flame AAS (atomic absorption spectrometry) was applied to determine the concentration of Cd, Cu and Pb. Factor analysis was applied to determine possible sources of elements detected in the investigated mosses. Eight factors were identified. The geographical distribution of factor scores is presented. The interpretation of the factor analysis findings points to natural as well as anthr...

  8. Use of mosses and lichens for regional mapping of 137Cs fallout from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinnes, E.; Njaastad, O.

    1992-01-01

    The lichens Hypogymnia physodles and Cladonia stellaris and the moss Hylocomium splendens were studied for potential use af biomonitors of the regional distribution of 137 Cs fallout in Norway from the Chernobyl accident. While Hylocomium splendens and Cladonia stellaris showed reasonable mutual agreement, the activities recorded in the epiphytic species Hypogymnia physodes were not consistent with those of the other species, and depended strongly on whether sampling was carried out on conifers or birch. The geographical distribution of 137 Cs in the two former species was in satisfactory agreement with depostion figures obtained from analysis of surface soil, considering the heterogeneous depostion pattern of Chernobyl radioactivity. Both Hylocomium splendens and Cladonia stellaris appear well suited for regional mapping of 137 Cs fallout from nuclear accidents. Regional heavy metal deposition surveys employing Hylocomium splendens might be extended to include radionuclides if desirable. (au) (21 refs.)

  9. Radioactivity measurements in moss (Hypnum cupressiforme) and lichen (Cladonia rangiformis) samples collected from Marmara region of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belivermis, Murat, E-mail: belmurat@istanbul.edu.t [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Cotuk, Yavuz, E-mail: cotukyav@istanbul.edu.t [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-11-15

    The present study was conducted to compare the {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 238}U activity concentrations in epigeic moss (Hypnum cupressiforme) and lichen (Cladonia rangiformis). The activity levels in 37 moss and 38 lichen samples collected from the Marmara region of Turkey were measured using a gamma spectrometer equipped with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 238}U in the moss samples were found to be in the range of 0.36-8.13, 17.1-181.1, 1.51-6.17, and 0.87-6.70 Bq kg{sup -1} respectively, while these values were below detection limit (BDL)-4.32, 16.6-240.0, 1.32-6.47, and BDL-3.57 Bq kg{sup -1} respectively in lichen. The average moss/lichen activity ratios of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 238}U were found to be 1.32 {+-} 0.57, 2.79 {+-} 1.67, 2.11 {+-} 0.82, and 2.19 {+-} 1.02, respectively. Very low {sup 137}Cs concentrations were observed in moss and lichen samples compared to soil samples collected from the same locations in a previous study. Seasonal variations of the measured radionuclide activities were also examined in the three sampling stations.

  10. Dust is the dominant source of "heavy metals" to peat moss (Sphagnum fuscum) in the bogs of the Athabasca Bituminous Sands region of northern Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotyk, William; Bicalho, Beatriz; Cuss, Chad W; Duke, M John M; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Steinnes, Eiliv; Zaccone, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Sphagnum fuscum was collected from twenty-five ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs surrounding open pit mines and upgrading facilities of Athabasca Bituminous Sands (ABS) in northern Alberta (AB) in order to assess the extent of atmospheric contamination by trace elements. As a control, this moss species was also collected at a bog near Utikuma (UTK) in an undeveloped part of AB and 264km SW of the ABS region. For comparison, this moss was also collected in central AB, in the vicinity of the City of Edmonton which is approximately 500km to the south of the ABS region, from the Wagner Wetland which is 22km W of the City, from Seba Beach (ca. 90km W) and from Elk Island National Park (ca. 45km E). All of the moss samples were digested and trace elements concentrations determined using ICP-SMS at a commercial laboratory, with selected samples also analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis at the University of Alberta. The mosses from the ABS region yielded lower concentrations of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Tl, and Zn compared to the moss from the Edmonton area. Concentrations of Ni and Mo in the mosses were comparable in these two regions, but V was more abundant in the ABS samples. Compared with the surface vegetation of eight peat cores collected in recent years from British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick, the mean concentrations of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn in the mosses from the ABS region are generally much lower. In fact, the concentrations of these trace elements in the samples from the ABS region are comparable to the corresponding values in forest moss from remote regions of central and northern Norway. Lithophile element concentrations (Ba, Be, Ga, Ge, Li, Sc, Th, Ti, Zr) explain most of the variation in trace metal concentrations in the moss samples. The mean concentrations of Th and Zr are greatest in the moss samples from the ABS region, reflecting dust inputs to the bogs from open pit mines, aggregate

  11. The mosses (Bryophyta) of Capitán Prat Province, Aisén Region, southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraín, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The bryophytes of Capitán Prat province have remained one of the least explored in Chile. The eventual construction of several dams on the rivers Baker and Pascua required prospection of all groups of organisms including bryophytes, work that was facilitated by the recent construction of vehicular roads that now offer easy access to previously almost unaccessible locations. The results of intense bryophyte collecting during the austral summer of 2007 are here presented. A total of 260 moss taxa are reported for the province, corresponding to 256 species and four infraspecific taxa, of which 211 are new records for the province, 54 are new for Aisén Region, and two are new records for continental Chile ( Pohlia longicollis (Hedw.) Lindb. and Rigodium toxarion var. robustum (Broth.) Zomlefer). Twelve species extend their known distribution ranges to the north, whereas 49 extend them to the south.

  12. Sphagnum mosses from 21 ombrotrophic bogs in the athabasca bituminous sands region show no significant atmospheric contamination of "heavy metals".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotyk, William; Belland, Rene; Duke, John; Kempter, Heike; Krachler, Michael; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Vile, Melanie A; Wieder, Kelman; Zaccone, Claudio; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2014-11-04

    Sphagnum moss was collected from 21 ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs surrounding open pit mines and upgrading facilities of Athabasca bituminous sands in Alberta (AB). In comparison to contemporary Sphagnum moss from four bogs in rural locations of southern Germany (DE), the AB mosses yielded lower concentrations of Ag, Cd, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Tl, similar concentrations of Mo, but greater concentrations of Ba, Th, and V. Except for V, in comparison to the "cleanest", ancient peat samples ever tested from the northern hemisphere (ca. 6000-9000 years old), the concentrations of each of these metals in the AB mosses are within a factor of 3 of "natural, background" values. The concentrations of "heavy metals" in the mosses, however, are proportional to the concentration of Th (a conservative, lithophile element) and, therefore, contributed to the plants primarily in the form of mineral dust particles. Vanadium, the single most abundant trace metal in bitumen, is the only anomaly: in the AB mosses, V exceeds that of ancient peat by a factor of 6; it is therefore enriched in the mosses, relative to Th, by a factor of 2. In comparison to the surface layer of peat cores collected in recent years from across Canada, from British Columbia to New Brunswick, the Pb concentrations in the mosses from AB are far lower.

  13. Five years of monitoring Cs-137 And Cs-134 in moss and soil samples in the campania region of Italy after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, C.; Tenero, A.Lo; Musumeci, R.G.; Valeriani, F.

    2000-01-01

    The Central Laboratory of The Italian Red Cross is part of the National Network for the Monitoring of the Environmental Radioactivity in Italy, coordinated by the National Environmental Agency (ANPA). The Central Laboratory took part in the national campaigns for the monitoring of the environmental gamma radioactivity in order to evaluate the deposition of artificial radioactivity on Italian territory after the Chernobyl accident. The distribution of the concentration of artificial radionuclide Cs-137 as reached, in North and Central Italy, the higher values: 2-185 kBq/m 2 and 0-40 kBq/m 2 . This paper presents the data of the concentration of artificial radionuclides Cs-137 and Cs-134 in mosses picked up in four different locations in the Campania Region of Italy with the help of the Department of the State Forestry Corp of S.Gregorio Matese, Vesuvio, Laviano, Piaggine from 1993 to 1998. The deposition of artificial radioactivity on the territory expected after the Chernobyl fallout was evaluated. The content of K-40 was also measured. Soil samples were also taken from the same sites. In this study Hypnum cupressiforme and Homalotecium lutescens mosses were used as bioindicators, available in all Italian ecosystems. The soil and moss samples were gathered according to a national standard procedure. These results, obtained by gamma spectrometry analyses, initially have shown values of medium concentration in mosses in the Campania Region of Cs-137 of 375 Bq/m 2 and of Cs-134 of 16 Bq/m 2 and K-40 of 150 Bq/m 2 in line with the ones of other Italian regions. The results of the average concentrations of the Cs-137 and Cs-134 in the mosses confirm a uniform distribution of post-Chernobyl radioactivity in the regional territory, in the Department of the State Forestry Corp of Vesuvio, Laviano and Piaggine. The results of Cs-137 and Cs-134 of S.Gregorio Matese are in accordance with the previous data relative to the monitoring campaign of mosses in Italy from 1992 to

  14. Monitoring of immissions of lead, copper, zinc and cadmium in the Zurich region with the help of the moss Bryum argenteum Hedw. as bio-monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoeni, L.; Schmid-Grob, I.; Hertz, J.; Urmi, E.

    1986-06-01

    Air pollution with Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd in the Zurich region was monitored by analyzing 196 moss samples. The metal concentrations were evaluated with the method of differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) after the samples had been thoroughly washed and after extraction with 2N nitric acid. Nine samples of the same moss species from a rural region with similar climatic conditions were used as comparison material. The average values of the urban region were higher by 6 times for Cd, 10 times for Pb, 12 times for Cu and 17 times for Zn than in the region of comparison. It was found that the emissions from traffic, from areas of high building density (e.g. domestic heating exhaust, erosion of building material) and from incineration plants were responsible for between 36% (Zn) and 62% (Pb) of the total variance (p < 0.05). The largest percentage of variance for all four metals can be attributed to the parameter traffic.

  15. Cesium contamination of mosses in county Vas, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golya, I.; Sebestyen, R.

    1993-01-01

    Two species of mosses were examined to assess radiocesium contamination of Vas county, and to analyse some aspects of mosses for use as indicator of radioactive contamination. Experimental results demonstrated that the distribution of contamination in a given region could be characterized by the cesium contamination of mosses. Sampling sites should be selected with special attention paid to spots with high contamination. Regression analysis proved that the contamination of mosses originated from Chernobyl fallout. (author) 4 refs.; 2 figs

  16. Wind power installations in Switzerland - Regional planning basics and impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, W.; Kaufmann, Y.; Steiner, P.; Gilgen, K.; Sartoris, A.

    2008-01-01

    This report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the basics of regional planning and its impact on the construction of wind-energy installations in Switzerland. The authors state that the planning and realisation of wind turbine installations is often time and resource consuming: this document presents and discusses the results obtained in a project that aimed to supply consolidated knowledge on project-relevant basics and their effect with respect to wind-energy installations. Experience gained in Switzerland and in other countries is discussed. This report on the basics of wind-energy planning with its detailed information formed the basis of a checklist described in a further report. In nine chapters, regional planning aspects, environment and landscape-relevant aspects, effects on the national and regional economies and social acceptance factors are discussed. Also, success-factors and possible solutions for the successful realisation of wind-energy projects are looked at.

  17. Mercury in bryophytes (moss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeaple, D S

    1972-01-28

    Recent reports in the literature, concerning the ability of certain mosses and lichens to concentrate heavy metals, have led to an investigation of the potential application of mosses as indicators of the transport of mercury through the atmosphere. A number of moss samples were collected to provide information regarding the level of mercury in moss around several types of populated areas. The results reported are from moss collected within an 80 mile radius of Boston, Massachusetts, along the Maine coast, near the tops of Mount Katahdin in Maine and Mount Washington in New Hampshire, and from Walden, New York, a small town located about 60 miles north of New York City. The data are admittedly limited, but provide sufficient insight into the usefulness of moss as an indicator to warrant the pursuit of a more detailed investigation. 6 references, 1 table.

  18. Tolerance to environmental desiccation in moss sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortlidge, Erin E; Rosenstiel, Todd N; Eppley, Sarah M

    2012-05-01

    • Sexual reproduction in mosses requires that sperm be released freely into the environment before finding and fertilizing a receptive female. After release from the male plant, moss sperm may experience a range of abiotic stresses; however, few data are available examining stress tolerance of moss sperm and whether there is genetic variation for stress tolerance in this important life stage. • Here, we investigated the effects of environmental desiccation and recovery on the sperm cells of three moss species (Bryum argenteum, Campylopus introflexus, and Ceratodon purpureus). • We found that a fraction of sperm cells were tolerant to environmental desiccation for extended periods (d) and that tolerance did not vary among species. We found that this tolerance occurs irrespective of ambient dehydration conditions, and that the addition of sucrose during dry-down improved cell recovery. Although we observed no interspecific variation, significant variation among individuals within species in sperm cell tolerance to environmental desiccation was observed, suggesting selection could potentially act on this basic reproductive trait. • The observation of desiccation-tolerant sperm in multiple moss species has important implications for understanding bryophyte reproduction, suggesting the presence of a significant, uncharacterized complexity in the ecology of moss mating systems. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Terrestrial mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric POPs pollution: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmens, H.; Foan, L.; Simon, V.; Mills, G.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide there is concern about the continuing release of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) into the environment. In this study we review the application of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of POPs. Examples in the literature show that mosses are suitable organisms to monitor spatial patterns and temporal trends of atmospheric concentrations or deposition of POPs. These examples include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The majority of studies report on PAHs concentrations in mosses and relative few studies have been conducted on other POPs. So far, many studies have focused on spatial patterns around pollution sources or the concentration in mosses in remote areas such as the polar regions, as an indication of long-range transport of POPs. Very few studies have determined temporal trends or have directly related the concentrations in mosses with measured atmospheric concentrations and/or deposition fluxes. - Highlights: ► Terrestrial mosses are suitable organisms to monitor deposition of POPs. ► They provide a good indication of spatial patterns and temporal trends. ► Mosses have been used as biomonitors of PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs dioxins and furans. ► Few studies have assessed the relationship between concentrations in air and mosses. - Mosses are suitable biomonitors of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

  20. Effect of UV-B radiation on UV absorbing compounds and pigments of moss and lichen of Schirmacher oasis region, East Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J; Gautam, S; Bhushan Pant, A

    2012-12-22

    The survival of Antarctic flora under ozone depletion depends on their ability to acclimate against increasing UV—B radiation by employing photo protective mechanisms either by avoiding or repairing UV—B damage. A fifteen days experiment was designed to study moss (Bryum argenteum) and lichen (Umbilicaria aprina) under natural UV—B exposure and under UV filter frames at the Maitri region of Schirmacher oasis, East Antarctica. Changes in UV absorbing compounds, phenolics, carotenoids and chlorophyll content were studied for continuous fifteen days and significant changes were observed in the UV exposed plants of B. argenteum and U. aprina. The change in the UV absorbing compounds was more significant in B. argenteum (P<0.0001) than U. aprina (P<0.0002). The change in phenolic contents and total carotenoid content was significant (P<0.0001) in both B. argenteum and lichen U. aprina indicating that the increase in UV absorbing compounds, phenolic contents and total carotenoid content act as a protective mechanism against the deleterious effect of UV—B radiations.

  1. Mosses in Radioactive Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marovic, G.; Franic, Z.; Sencar, J.

    2008-01-01

    Mosses, lichens and perennial plants, all characterized by slow growth, are able to efficiently accumulate different radionuclides from their environment to a much higher degree than other vegetation. Consequently, they are sensitive bio indicators of radioactive contamination for various ecosystems. Results of systematic, long-term measurements of 137Cs activities in mosses for the period 1986-2007 are summarized. The study was conducted in the Radiation Protection Unit of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health in Zagreb, as a part of an extensive monitoring program of the Croatian environment. In the overall observed period the highest activity concentration of 137Cs deposited by fallout has been recorded in 1986, which is the year of Chernobyl accident, causing peak 137Cs activity concentration in moss of 8800 Bqkg -1 in May 1986. Mean value for period 1986 - 1990 was 3423 Bqkg -1 . For comparison, in the same period mean 137Cs activity concentration in grass was 390 Bqkg -1 . In 1990s, ten year after Chernobyl accident, mean 137Cs activity concentration in moss was 1345 Bqkg -1 , with maximum value of 3940 Bqkg -1 (December 1994). In 2000s, mean 137Cs activity concentration in mosses was 172 Bqkg -1 with maximum value of 955 Bqkg -1 (July 2002). Fitting the measured 137Cs activity concentrations to the theoretical curve (1) the ecological half-life of 137Cs in moss was found to be about 978 days, while in grass was found to be about 126 days in the period 1986 - 1990. The ecological half-life of 137Cs in grass after 1991 was found to be about 2503 days. The ecological half-life of 137Cs in moss is about eight times higher than 137Cs ecological half-life observed in grass in the first period after the Chernobyl accident.(author)

  2. From basic concepts to emerging technologies in regional anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillane, Derek; Tsui, Ban C H

    2010-10-01

    The present article details how our understanding of the basic concepts of regional anesthesia has recently evolved. We will appraise current technological advances and question the commensurate nature of the relationship between tradition and innovation. Ultrasound localization has enhanced our understanding of the needle-nerve relationship. Intraneural injection of local anesthetic may occur with greater frequency than previously thought without inevitably leading to neurological complications. The ratio of neural to non-neural tissue varies both between and within nerves and may be an important determinant of neural injury. Ultrasonographic evidence of intraneural injection is subject to observer expertise and the resolution of the ultrasound image. Current ultrasound resolution capability does not reliably permit differentiation between intrafascicular and extrafascicular drug injection. Perineural electrical impedance may be a determinant of current threshold and conceivably distinguish between intraneural and extraneural tissue. Technology that enhances the sonographic image of both procedure needle and target nerve is the focus of current endeavors in ultrasound innovation.There is inconclusive evidence that the use of ultrasound technology has reduced the incidence of local anesthetic toxicity. Lipid emulsion therapy is now an accepted treatment for systemic local anesthetic toxicity. There are new reports on the development of an ultra long-acting local anesthetic agent that would permit lower doses and superannuate catheter-based continuous regional anesthesia techniques. Over the past decade, our understanding of the fundamental concepts of regional anesthesia continues to be challenged by emerging experimental and clinical evidence.

  3. The present-day level of long-living artificial radionuclides content in mosses, lichens and needles of Siberia areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strakhovenko, V.D.; Sukhorukov, F.V.; Shcherbov, B.L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to estimate the present-day level of long-living artificial radionuclides activity in lichen-moss cover and needles in the Siberia region. During the expeditionary activities (1995-2004) the Lichen cover mosses and needles were sampled in the Ust'-Ordinsky and Aginsky Buryatsky autonomous regions, Altai area, Republic of Altai, Novosibirsk Region, the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous region. The identical species of lichen, mosses. needles were collected from Siberia (lichens - Cladonia, Evernia, Usnea, Parmeli; mosses - Polytrichum, Hylocomium, Pleurozium, Sphagnum; needles - Pinaceae). It was collected 6 and more lichen species from each of 18 sample sites, more than 3 Moss species from 7 sample sites, and in place of coniferous trees joint growth (a pine, a cedar, a fir, a fur-tree and a larch). The needles were selected from all trees and thus were divided into one-year-old and many-year old. The samples were analyzed in the Laboratory of Trace Elements Geochemistry and Ecogeochemistry of the UIGGM, Novosibirsk, using special sample preparation and analysis techniques. The content of 137 Cs were determined by gamma-spectrometry (analyst Stepin A.S.), 90 Sr by beta-radiometry with a radiochemical sample preparation (analyst Makeover I.V.). The data reported are evidence that a present-day level of radioactive contamination in moss-lichen cover and needles of Siberia areas corresponds to this of global background, expect for northern area of Siberia (YNAD) for which hyperactivity are determined for the each of three components. Radiocesium concentration in one-year old needles reflects a level of atmospheric intake only for accidents, for other cases the condition of current needles reflects basically radionuclide level established as the result of dynamic balance between root intake and annual biogenic abscission of needles. (author)

  4. Terrestrial mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric POPs pollution: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmens, H; Foan, L; Simon, V; Mills, G

    2013-02-01

    Worldwide there is concern about the continuing release of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) into the environment. In this study we review the application of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of POPs. Examples in the literature show that mosses are suitable organisms to monitor spatial patterns and temporal trends of atmospheric concentrations or deposition of POPs. These examples include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The majority of studies report on PAHs concentrations in mosses and relative few studies have been conducted on other POPs. So far, many studies have focused on spatial patterns around pollution sources or the concentration in mosses in remote areas such as the polar regions, as an indication of long-range transport of POPs. Very few studies have determined temporal trends or have directly related the concentrations in mosses with measured atmospheric concentrations and/or deposition fluxes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dynamic Moss Observed with Hi-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Caroline; Winebarger, Amy; Morton, Richard; Savage, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C), flown on 11 July 2012, has revealed an unprecedented level of detail and substructure within the solar corona. Hi-C imaged a large active region (AR11520) with 0.2-0.3'' spatial resolution and 5.5s cadence over a 5 minute period. An additional dataset with a smaller FOV, the same resolution, but with a higher temporal cadence (1s) was also taken during the rocket flight. This dataset was centered on a large patch of 'moss' emission that initially seemed to show very little variability. Image processing revealed this region to be much more dynamic than first thought with numerous bright and dark features observed to appear, move and disappear over the 5 minute observation. Moss is thought to be emission from the upper transition region component of hot loops so studying its dynamics and the relation between the bright/dark features and underlying magnetic features is important to tie the interaction of the different atmospheric layers together. Hi-C allows us to study the coronal emission of the moss at the smallest scales while data from SDO/AIA and HMI is used to give information on these structures at different heights/temperatures. Using the high temporal and spatial resolution of Hi-C the observed moss features were tracked and the distribution of displacements, speeds, and sizes were measured. This allows us to comment on both the physical processes occurring within the dynamic moss and the scales at which these changes are occurring.

  6. Major and trace elements in Sphagnum moss from four southern German bogs, and comparison with available moss monitoring data

    OpenAIRE

    KEMPTER HEIKE; KRACHLER MICHAEL; SHOTYK W.; ZACCONE CLAUDIO

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present concentrations of an array of major and trace elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th, Tl, U, V, Zn) in living Sphagnum mosses from four southern German bogs and compare them with moss monitoring data of the respective regions. To do this, Sphagnum mosses were collected in Upper Bavaria (Oberbayern, OB) and the Northern Black Forest (Nordschwarzwald, NBF). Surfaces of Sphagnum carpets were marked with plastic mesh and, one year la...

  7. Regional Distribution of Metals and C and N Stable Isotopes in the Epiphytic Ball Moss (Tillandsia Recurvata) at the Mezquital Valley, Hidalgo State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano-Garcia, A.; López-Veneroni, D.; Rojas, A.; Torres, A.; Sosa, G.

    2007-05-01

    As a part of the MILAGRO Field Campaign 2006, the influence of anthropogenic sources to metal air pollution in the Mezquital Valley, Hidalgo State, was explored by biomonitoring techniques. This valley is a major industrial- agriculture area located in central Mexico. An oil refinery, an electrical power plant, several cement plants with open-pit mines, as well as intensive wastewater-based agricultural areas, all within a 50 km radius, are some of the most important local sources of particulate air pollution. The concentrations of 25 metals and elements were determined by ICP-AES (EPA 610C method) for triplicate composite samples of the "ball moss" (T. recurvata ) collected at 50 sites. In addition, the ratios of two stable isotopes ((13C/12C and 15N/14N) were determined by continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry in order to assess their potential as tracers for industrial emissions. Preliminary results showed high to very high average contents of several metals in the biomonitor compared to values from similar studies in other world regions, indicating a high degree of local air pollution. In contrast, most samples had Ag, As, Be, Se and Tl contents below detection levels (DL = 0.05 mg/kg of sample dry weight) indicating low levels of pollution by these metals. Metals such as Al, Ba, Ca, Fe, Li, Mo, Ni, Sr, Ti, V and Zn concentrated the most at the South portion of the valley, where the Tepeji-Tula-Apaxco industrial corridor is located. A transect parallel to the along-wind direction (N-S) showed a higher concentration of metals farther away from the sources relative to a cross-wind transect, which is consistent with the eolian transport of metal-enriched particles. Regional distribution maps of metals in the biomonitor showed that Al, Ba, Fe, Mo, Ni, Sr, Ti and V had higher levels at the industrial sampling sites; whereas K, Na and P were more abundant near to agriculture areas. Vanadium, a common element of crude oil, reflected better the influence from

  8. Use of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinnes, E.

    2000-01-01

    Some basic facts about the use of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric trace element deposition are reviewed, and advantages and limitations of this approach are discussed, largely on the basis of experience from regular use of this technique in Norway over the last 20 years. Topics discussed include different versions of the moss technique, mechanisms and efficiencies of trace element uptake, conversion of concentrations in moss to bulk deposition rates, and contribution from sources other than air pollution to the elemental composition of different elements. Suggestions are presented for further work in order to extend the use of mosses as biomonitors. (author)

  9. IAEA regional basic professional training on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This book contains the manuscripts of lectures of the Basic Professional Training Course on Radiation Protection which was organized and prepared on the basis of the standard syllabus put together in accordance with the recommendations of the International Basic safety standards for radiation protection against ionizing radiation and for safety of radiation sources (BSS). The course was intended to meet the educational and initial training requirements of personnel working in this field. The course is aimed at workers of a graduate level who are called on to take up position in the radiation protection field and who might someday become trainers in their home countries and institutions. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  10. Retelling Basic Writing at a Regional Campus: Iconic Discourse and Selective Function Meet Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassoni, John Paul

    2005-01-01

    This article relates case histories of basic writing programs at regional campuses in Florida, and the perceived need to incorporate concerns of social class into basic writing curriculum. Attention to class helps scholars identify institutional patterns that distance basic writing from the university's mainstream business. This author describes a…

  11. Use of pioneer mosses for the revegetation of bare mineral sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campeau, S. [Bryophyta Technologies Inc., Lambton, PQ (Canada); Quinty, F. [Planirest Environnement Inc., St-Charles-de-Bellechasse, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Abandoned sand and gravel pits in boreal regions often consist of poor, depleted substrates that are only slowly colonized by plants. Soil compaction and the lack of readily available topsoil can retard the establishment of seedlings during restoration activities. The use of native mosses and lichens in restoration activities has not yet been fully assessed. However, mosses and lichens play an important role in boreal ecosystems, and are readily adapted to poor soil and harsh climates. This paper presented the results of a series of 3 experiments conducted to accelerate the colonization of mosses in soils contaminated by mineral disturbances. Experiments were conducted on (1) a forest road embankment, (2) an abandoned gravel pit, and (3) an abandoned section of a sand and gravel quarry. Two species of moss were used, namely Polytrichum piliferum and Polytrichum juniperum. Moss fragments were collected from moss colonies in the Foret Montmorency and reintroduced into the experimental plots. A straw erosion blanket was used, and phosphorus was applied in the first 2 experiments. A protective cover consisting of wood cellulose fibre mulch was used for the third experiment. The experiment was conducted over a period of 4 years. Results indicated that all the mosses were slow to establish themselves on the experimental plots, which resulted in lower than expected plant cover over the first 2 growing seasons observed. The combined use of straw mulch and phosphorus fertilizer improved moss establishment. However, the moss cover continued to increase during the third and fourth years of the experiment, which suggested that mulch types used during the experiment may need to be improved. Sources of moss diaspores may need to be reconsidered, as large donor sites for pioneer mosses are not easily located. It was concluded that moss communities are an important component of boreal regions. Further research is needed to understand the appropriate conditions for propagating moss

  12. Basic Practices Aiding High-Performance Homeland Security Regional Partnerships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caudle, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    ....1 A national priority under the Goal is the use of geographic regions across the nation to share risk, engage in joint planning, and share resources to develop and sustain risk-based capability levels...

  13. Accessibility Inequality to Basic Education in Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    educational services in Amhara region of Ethiopia in terms of availability and accessibility ... Dept. of Geography Bahir Dar University Bahir Dar, Ethiopia ... and very high students / teacher ratio. .... facilities to train their children (Hanmer et ...

  14. Dynamical evolution of star-forming regions - II. Basic kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard J.; Wright, Nicholas J.

    2016-04-01

    We follow the dynamical evolution of young star-forming regions with a wide range of initial conditions and examine how the radial velocity dispersion, σ, evolves over time. We compare this velocity dispersion to the theoretically expected value for the velocity dispersion if a region were in virial equilibrium, σvir and thus assess the virial state (σ/σvir) of these systems. We find that in regions that are initially subvirial, or in global virial equilibrium but subvirial on local scales, the system relaxes to virial equilibrium within several million years, or roughly 25-50 crossing times, according to the measured virial ratio. However, the measured velocity dispersion, σ, appears to be a bad diagnostic of the current virial state of these systems as it suggests that they become supervirial when compared to the velocity dispersion estimated from the virial mass, σvir. We suggest that this discrepancy is caused by the fact that the regions are never fully relaxed, and that the early non-equilibrium evolution is imprinted in the one-dimensional velocity dispersion at these early epochs. If measured early enough (interquartile range (IQR) dispersion, with measures of spatial structure, places stronger constraints on the dynamical history of a region than using the velocity dispersion in isolation.

  15. BASIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Schmidt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    De sidste 10 år har vi været vidner til opkomsten af et nyt evidensbaseret policy paradigme, Behavioural Public Policy (BPP), der søger at integrere teoretiske og metodiske indsigter fra adfærdsvidenskaberne i offentlig politikudvikling. Arbejdet med BPP har dog båret præg af, at være usystematisk...... BPP. Tilgangen består dels af den overordnede proces-model BASIC og dels af et iboende framework, ABCD, der er en model for systematisk adfærdsanalyse, udvikling, test og implementering af adfærdsrettede løsningskoncepter. Den samlede model gør det muligt for forskere såvel som offentligt ansatte...

  16. Reconstructing temporal trends in heavy metal deposition: assessing the value of herbarium moss samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotbolt, L; Büker, P; Ashmore, M R

    2007-05-01

    The use of the herbarium moss archive for investigating past atmospheric deposition of Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb was evaluated. Moss samples from five UK regions collected over 150 years were analysed for 26 elements using ICP-MS. Principal components analysis identified soil as a significant source of Ni and As and atmospheric deposition as the main source of Pb and Cu. Sources of Zn and Cd concentrations were identified to be at least partly atmospheric, but require further investigation. Temporal and spatial trends in metal concentrations in herbarium mosses showed that the highest Pb and Cu levels are found in Northern England in the late 19th century. Metal concentrations in herbarium moss samples were consistently higher than those in mosses collected from the field in 2000. Herbarium moss samples are concluded to be a useful resource to contribute to reconstructing trends in Pb and Cu deposition, but not, without further analysis, for Cd, Zn, As and Ni.

  17. Gender Inequality in Basic Education in the Northern Region of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender Inequality in Basic Education in the Northern Region of Ghana: Household and Contextual Factors in Perspectives. ... Ghana Journal of Development Studies ... Socio-economic factors such as the high cost associated with girls' ...

  18. MOSS spectroscopic camera for imaging time resolved plasma species temperature and flow speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, Clive; Howard, John

    2000-01-01

    A MOSS (Modulated Optical Solid-State) spectroscopic camera has been devised to monitor the spatial and temporal variations of temperatures and flow speeds of plasma ion species, the Doppler broadening measurement being made of spectroscopic lines specified. As opposed to a single channel MOSS spectrometer, the camera images light from plasma onto an array of light detectors, being mentioned 2D imaging of plasma ion temperatures and flow speeds. In addition, compared to a conventional grating spectrometer, the MOSS camera shows an excellent light collecting performance which leads to the improvement of signal to noise ratio and of time resolution. The present paper first describes basic items of MOSS spectroscopy, then follows MOSS camera with an emphasis on the optical system of 2D imaging. (author)

  19. MOSS spectroscopic camera for imaging time resolved plasma species temperature and flow speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael, Clive; Howard, John [Australian National Univ., Plasma Research Laboratory, Canberra (Australia)

    2000-03-01

    A MOSS (Modulated Optical Solid-State) spectroscopic camera has been devised to monitor the spatial and temporal variations of temperatures and flow speeds of plasma ion species, the Doppler broadening measurement being made of spectroscopic lines specified. As opposed to a single channel MOSS spectrometer, the camera images light from plasma onto an array of light detectors, being mentioned 2D imaging of plasma ion temperatures and flow speeds. In addition, compared to a conventional grating spectrometer, the MOSS camera shows an excellent light collecting performance which leads to the improvement of signal to noise ratio and of time resolution. The present paper first describes basic items of MOSS spectroscopy, then follows MOSS camera with an emphasis on the optical system of 2D imaging. (author)

  20. Airborne metals in Spanish moss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, J.J.; Shacklette, H.T.

    1973-01-01

    One hundred twenty-three samples of Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides L.) were collected throughout the southern United States to assess the potential use of the plant as a natural long-term integrator of local atmospheric metal burdens. R-mode components analysis of the ash chemistry strongly suggests that at least five nearly uncorrelated factors are contributing to the observed chemical variation. Four of these factors are thought to reflect chemical properties of the atmosphere or airborne particulates; the fifth appears to be related in some way to metabolic activity in the living plant. The atmospheric factors are interpreted to be a) the ratio of terrestrial dust to ocean-derived salt in the local atmosphere, b) the regional variation in trace-element content of the terrestrial dust, c) the local concentration of automotive or technology-related lead-rich emissions, and d) higher concentrations of airborne vanadium east of the Mississippi River. If the intensity of the lead-rich factor in each sample is used as an index of general atmospheric pollution, sets of most polluted and least polluted samples may be defined. The estimates of abundance (arithmetic mean) are given for ash (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, and Cr) based on the 20 most polluted (MP) and 17 least polluted (LP) samples.

  1. Recent Nitrogen Deposition In Poland Monitored With The Moss Pleurozium Schreberi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapusta Paweł

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, atmospheric deposition of nitrogen was determined for Poland by moss biomonitoring. Nitrogen content was measured in the moss Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid. Mitt. sampled in 2010 from 320 sites evenly distributed throughout the country. Mosses (green parts contained an average 1.56% nitrogen. The result places Poland among the European countries most polluted by airborne nitrogen. The highest nitrogen concentrations were found in mosses from the central and southern parts of the country, and the lowest in samples from some eastern and northern regions. Multiple regression showed that this variability was due mostly to nitrogen emissions from agricultural and industrial areas (moss nitrogen was positively associated with the consumption of mineral nitrogen fertilizers and the magnitude of particulate pollution. Some details of the spatial variability of the nitrogen data indicate that local and regional point sources of pollution (e.g., chemical plants played an important role in shaping the nitrogen deposition pattern

  2. Evaporation from a sphagnum moss surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.S. Nichols; J.M. Brown

    1980-01-01

    Peat cores, 45 cm in diameter, were collected from a sphagnum bog in northern Minnesota, and used to measure the effects of different temperatures and water levels on evaporation from a sphagnum moss surface in a growth chamber. Under all conditions, evaporation from the moss surface was greater than that from a free-water surface. Evaporation from the moss increased...

  3. Contact allergy to oak moss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernard, Guillaume; Gimenéz-Arnau, Elena; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra

    2003-01-01

    In addition to pure synthetic fragrance materials several natural extracts are still in use in the perfume industry. Among them oak moss absolute, prepared from the lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Arch., is considered a major contact sensitizer and is therefore included in the fragrance mix used...... for diagnosing perfume allergy. The process of preparing oak moss absolute has changed during recent years and, even though several potential sensitizers have been identified from former benzene extracts, its present constituents and their allergenic status are not clear. In the study reported here, we applied...

  4. The effects of drying following heat shock exposure of the desert moss Syntrichia caninervis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shu-Jun; Liu, Chun-Jiang; Jiang, Ping-An; Cai, Wei-Min; Wang, Yan

    2009-03-15

    Desert mosses are components of biological soil crusts (BSCs) and their ecological functions make assessment and protection of these mosses a high-ranking management priority in desert regions. Drying is thought to be useful for desert mosses surviving heat shock. In this study, we investigated the role of drying by monitoring the responses of physiological characters and asexual reproduction in the typical desert moss Syntrichia caninervis. Heat significantly decreased chlorophyll content and weakened rapid recovery of photochemical activity, and increased carotenoid content and membrane permeability. Lethal temperatures significantly destroyed shoot regeneration potential. In comparison with heat alone, drying significantly increased protonema emergence time and depressed protonema emergence area. Drying combined with heat accelerated water loss, followed by a decrease of photosynthetic activity. Drying had different influences on membrane permeability at different temperatures. When moss leaves were subjected to a combined stress of drying and heat shock, photosynthesis was maintained mainly due to the effects of drying on physiological activity although the cellular morphological integrity was affected. Drying caused opposing effects on moss physiological and reproductive characteristics. On the one hand, drying caused a positive synergistic effect with heat shock when the temperature was below 40 degrees C. On the other hand, drying showed antagonism with heat shock when the moss was subjected to temperatures higher than 40 degrees C. These findings may help in understanding the survival mechanism of dessert mosses under heat shock stress which will be helpful for the artificial reconstruction of BSCs.

  5. The effects of drying following heat shock exposure of the desert moss Syntrichia caninervis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shujun; Liu Chunjiang; Jiang Pingan; Cai Weimin; Wang Yan

    2009-01-01

    Desert mosses are components of biological soil crusts (BSCs) and their ecological functions make assessment and protection of these mosses a high-ranking management priority in desert regions. Drying is thought to be useful for desert mosses surviving heat shock. In this study, we investigated the role of drying by monitoring the responses of physiological characters and asexual reproduction in the typical desert moss Syntrichia caninervis. Heat significantly decreased chlorophyll content and weakened rapid recovery of photochemical activity, and increased carotenoid content and membrane permeability. Lethal temperatures significantly destroyed shoot regeneration potential. In comparison with heat alone, drying significantly increased protonema emergence time and depressed protonema emergence area. Drying combined with heat accelerated water loss, followed by a decrease of photosynthetic activity. Drying had different influences on membrane permeability at different temperatures. When moss leaves were subjected to a combined stress of drying and heat shock, photosynthesis was maintained mainly due to the effects of drying on physiological activity although the cellular morphological integrity was affected. Drying caused opposing effects on moss physiological and reproductive characteristics. On the one hand, drying caused a positive synergistic effect with heat shock when the temperature was below 40 deg. C. On the other hand, drying showed antagonism with heat shock when the moss was subjected to temperatures higher than 40 deg. C. These findings may help in understanding the survival mechanism of dessert mosses under heat shock stress which will be helpful for the artificial reconstruction of BSCs

  6. Learning and Motivation in Thailand: A Comparative Regional Study on Basic Education Ninth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loima, Jyrki; Vibulphol, Jutarat

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative research studied regional motivation and learning of the basic education 9th graders in Thailand. Second topic was the school size and its possible effect on motivation. Furthermore, the data gave an opportunity to discuss, whether international research on motivation and learning was valid in Thai classrooms. The informants were…

  7. The resilience and functional role of moss in boreal and arctic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turetsky, Merritt; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Euskirchen, Eugenie S.; Talbot, Julie; Frolking, Steve; McGuire, A. David; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2012-08-24

    Mosses in boreal and arctic ecosystems are ubiquitous components of plant communities, represent an important component of plant diversity, and strongly influence the cycling of water, nutrients, energy and carbon. Here we use a literature review and synthesis as well as model simulations to explore the role of moss in ecological stability and resilience. Our literature review of moss community responses to disturbance showed all possible responses (increases, decreases, no change) within most disturbance categories in boreal and arctic regions. Our modeling simulations suggest that loss of moss within northern plant communities will reduce soil carbon accumulation primarily by influencing decomposition rates and soil nitrogen availability. While two models (HPM and STM-TEM) showed a significant effect of moss removal, results from the Biome-BGC and DVM-TEM models suggest that northern, moss-rich ecosystems would need to experience extreme perturbation before mosses were eliminated. We highlight a number of issues that have not been adequately explored in moss communities, such as functional redundancy and singularity, relationships between response and effect traits, phenotypical plasticity in traits, and whether the effects of moss on ecosystem processes scale with local abundance. We also suggest that as more models explore issues related to ecological resilience, issues related to both parameter and conceptual uncertainty should be addressed: are the models more limited by uncertainty in the parameterization of the processes included or by what is not represented in the model at all? It seems clear from our review that mosses need to be incorporated into models as one or more plant functional types, but more empirical work is needed to determine how to best aggregate species.

  8. Unsaturated hydraulic properties of xerophilous mosses: towards implementation of moss covered soils in hydrological models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voortman, B.R.; Bartholomeus, R.P.; Bodegom, van P.M.; Gooren, H.P.A.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Witte, J.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Evaporation from mosses and lichens can form a major component of the water balance, especially in ecosystems where mosses and lichens often grow abundantly, such as tundra, deserts and bogs. To facilitate moss representation in hydrological models, we parameterized the unsaturated hydraulic

  9. In vitro antioxidative activity of moss extract, and effect of moss on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    moss on serum lipid level of mice fed with high-fat diet. Kyung-Ok ... For much of human history, moss have been regarded as ... moss as a new biologically active resource for improved ... were used as additives for experimental animal feed.

  10. Reconstructing temporal trends in heavy metal deposition: Assessing the value of herbarium moss samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shotbolt, L. [Geography Department, Queen Mary, University of London, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: l.shotbolt@qmul.ac.uk; Bueker, P. [Stockholm Environment Institute, University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: pb25@york.ac.uk; Ashmore, M.R. [Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ma512@york.ac.uk

    2007-05-15

    The use of the herbarium moss archive for investigating past atmospheric deposition of Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb was evaluated. Moss samples from five UK regions collected over 150 years were analysed for 26 elements using ICP-MS. Principal components analysis identified soil as a significant source of Ni and As and atmospheric deposition as the main source of Pb and Cu. Sources of Zn and Cd concentrations were identified to be at least partly atmospheric, but require further investigation. Temporal and spatial trends in metal concentrations in herbarium mosses showed that the highest Pb and Cu levels are found in Northern England in the late 19th century. Metal concentrations in herbarium moss samples were consistently higher than those in mosses collected from the field in 2000. Herbarium moss samples are concluded to be a useful resource to contribute to reconstructing trends in Pb and Cu deposition, but not, without further analysis, for Cd, Zn, As and Ni. - Herbarium moss samples can contribute to the reconstruction of past heavy metal deposition.

  11. Reconstructing temporal trends in heavy metal deposition: Assessing the value of herbarium moss samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shotbolt, L.; Bueker, P.; Ashmore, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    The use of the herbarium moss archive for investigating past atmospheric deposition of Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb was evaluated. Moss samples from five UK regions collected over 150 years were analysed for 26 elements using ICP-MS. Principal components analysis identified soil as a significant source of Ni and As and atmospheric deposition as the main source of Pb and Cu. Sources of Zn and Cd concentrations were identified to be at least partly atmospheric, but require further investigation. Temporal and spatial trends in metal concentrations in herbarium mosses showed that the highest Pb and Cu levels are found in Northern England in the late 19th century. Metal concentrations in herbarium moss samples were consistently higher than those in mosses collected from the field in 2000. Herbarium moss samples are concluded to be a useful resource to contribute to reconstructing trends in Pb and Cu deposition, but not, without further analysis, for Cd, Zn, As and Ni. - Herbarium moss samples can contribute to the reconstruction of past heavy metal deposition

  12. Air pollution studies in Bulgaria using the moss biomonitoring technique, NAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinova, S.; Karadzhinova, A.G.; Yurukova, L.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Strelkova, L.P.; Marinov, A.; Steinnes, E.

    2009-01-01

    The moss biomonitoring technique was used to study trace element atmospheric deposition in four areas of Bulgaria (the western Thracian-Rhodope, the eastern Thracian-Rhodope, the south-eastern and the northern central regions) during the European moss survey in 2005. A total of 41 elements (Na, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rd, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Tb, Dy, Tm, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Pb, Th, and U) were determined by instrumental epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) in 97 samples of terrestrial moss. The moss species used was Hypnum cupressiforme. Principal component analysis (factor analysis)was used to identify and characterize different pollution sources and to point out the most polluted areas. The interpretation of the factor analysis findings points to natural crust, marine, and vegetation components as well as to anthropogenic sources: ferrous (Plovdiv, Haskovo) and non-ferrous industries (Plovdiv, Kardzhali, Burgas); and central heating stations (Plovdiv, Haskovo, Stara Zagora, Burgas). Comparison of the medians of the elemental concentrations in moss samples collected in Bulgaria with those in the Balkan and other European countries reveals that the Balkan countries show considerably higher concentrations of most elements in moss than observed in other European countries where moss sampling has been employed

  13. Endemism in the moss flora of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Benjamin E; Shaw, Blanka; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Identifying regions of high endemism is a critical step toward understanding the mechanisms underlying diversification and establishing conservation priorities. Here, we identified regions of high moss endemism across North America. We also identified lineages that contribute disproportionately to endemism and document the progress of efforts to inventory the endemic flora. To understand the documentation of endemic moss diversity in North America, we tabulated species publication dates to document the progress of species discovery across the continent. We analyzed herbarium specimen data and distribution data from the Flora of North America project to delineate major regions of moss endemism. Finally, we surveyed the literature to assess the importance of intercontinental vs. within-continent diversification for generating endemic species. Three primary regions of endemism were identified and two of these were further divided into a total of nine subregions. Overall endemic richness has two peaks, one in northern California and the Pacific Northwest, and the other in the southern Appalachians. Description of new endemic species has risen steeply over the last few decades, especially in western North America. Among the few studies documenting sister species relationships of endemics, recent diversification appears to have played a larger role in western North America, than in the east. Our understanding of bryophyte endemism continues to grow rapidly. Large continent-wide data sets confirm early views on hotspots of endemic bryophyte richness and indicate a high rate of ongoing species discovery in North America. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  14. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON MOSSES FOR AIR POLLUTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-08-16

    Aug 16, 2012 ... research works by Kovacs et al. and Rovinsky et al., (1993) have shown that mosses have proved to be better bio-indicators of pollution because they are more sensitive to atmospheric pollution. The usefulness of mosses in determining heavy metal concentrations in different geographical areas has been ...

  15. Atmospheric pollution assessment with mosses in Western Rhodopes, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gana Gecheva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The moss analysis technique was applied to monitor 10 heavy metals and toxic elements deposition. Our study was the first attempt to assess spatial patterns in a border mountain region (area 8732 km2 with a low population density and high proportion of protected territories. The obtained results did not correlate to the results from areas with low air pollution and could be linked to the impact of old and open mines.

  16. Plutonium and americium concentrations and vertical profiles in some Italian mosses used as bioindicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, C.; Desideri, D.; Meli, M.A.; Guerra, F.; Degetto, S.; Jia, G.; Gerdol, R.

    1998-01-01

    We have examined the uptake of actinide elements Am and Pu by different species of lichen and moss collected in two locations (Urbino, Central Italy; Alps region, North-east Italy). Plutonium and americium were separated and determined by extraction chromatography, electrodeposition and alpha-spectrometry. This paper summarizes our results with a special emphasis on the vertical profiles of these actinides in two different species of mosses. Several 1-2 cm depth sections were obtained and dated by 210 Pb method. A typical peak for 239,240 Pu and 241 Am was found in the very old moss species ('Sphagnum Compactum') at a depth corresponding to the period 1960-1970 which was the period characterized by the maximum nuclear weapon tests. In a younger moss species ('Neckeria Crispa') no peak was observed and the regression curves showed that Am is more mobile than 239,240 Pu and 238 Pu. (author)

  17. The natural depuration rate of 137Cs radionuclides in a lichen and moss species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topcuoglu, S.; Dawen, A.M. van; Gungor, N.

    1995-01-01

    Caesium-137 concentrations in lichen and moss samples have been studied for calculations of natural depuration rates. The lichen and moss species were collected from the same trees in western and eastern Black Sea region during the periods of 1987-1992 and 1990-1993, respectively. The natural depuration rates are estimated at biological half-lives. The pattern of depuration results represented by a single component for each non-vascular plant. The biological half-lives of 137 Cs in a lichen and moss samples (Xanthoria parietina and Leucodon immersus) are estimated to be 5.86 and 10.9 months, respectively. This work set supports the view that radioactivity monitoring in lichens can be a more useful monitor than mosses to determine the lasting effect of radioactive fallout. (author)

  18. Effect of a Brazilian regional basic diet on the prevalence of caries in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, J.T.; Couto, G.B.L.; Vasconcelos, M.M.V.B.; Melo, M.M.D.C.; Guedes, R.C.A.; Cordeiro, M.A.C.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a regional basic diet (RBD) on the prevalence of caries in the molar teeth of rats of both sexes aged 23 days. The animals were divided into six groups of 10 rats each receiving the following diets for 30 and 60 days after weaning: RBD, a cariogenic diet, and a commercial diet. The prevalence and penetration of caries in the molar teeth of the rats was then analyzed. The RBD produced caries in 37.5% of the teeth of animals fed 30 day...

  19. Conceptual Approach to Forming the Basic Code of Neo-Industrial Development of a Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Leonidovna Andreeva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the authors propose the conceptual fundamentals of the “code approach” to the regional neo-industrial development. The purpose of the research is to reveal the essence of the transition to a new type of industrial and economic relations through a prism of “genetic codes” of the region. We consider these codes as a system of the “racial memory” of a territory, which determines the specificity and features of neo-industrialization realization. We substantiated the hypothesis about the influence of the “genetic codes” of the region on the effectiveness of the neo-industrialization. We have defined the participants, or else the carriers of the codes in the transformation of regional inheritance for the stimulation of the neoindustrial development of region’s economy. The subject matter of the research is the distinctive features of the functioning of the determinative region’s codes. Their content determines the socio-economic specificity of the region and the features of innovative, informational, value-based and competence-based development of the territory. The determinative codes generate the dynamic codes of the region, which are understood as their derivatives. They have a high probability of occurrence, higher speed of development and distribution, internal forces that make possible the self-development of the region. The scientific contribution is the substantiation of the basic code of the regional neo-industrial development. It represents the evolutionary accumulation of the rapid changes of its innovative, informational, value-based and competence-based codes stimulating the generation and implementation of new ideas regarding to economic entities adapted to the historical and cultural conditions. The article presents the code model of neo-industrial development of the region described by formulas. We applied the system analysis methods, historical and civilization approaches, evolutionary and

  20. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe estimated by moss analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehling, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology

    1995-12-31

    Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe including 21 countries was monitored in 1990-1992 by the moss technique. This technique is based on the fact that the concentrations of heavy metals in moss are closely correlated to atmospheric deposition. This was the first attempt to map heavy metal deposition in this large area. The objectives of the project were to characterise qualitatively and quantitatively the regional atmospheric deposition pattern of heavy metals in background areas in Europe, to indicate the location of important heavy metal pollution sources and to allow retrospective comparisons with similar studies. The present survey is a follow-up of a joint Danish and Swedish project in 1980 and an extended survey in 1985 within the framework of the Nordic Council of Ministers. In Sweden, heavy-metal deposition was first mapped on a nation-wide scale in 1968-1971 and 1975. (author)

  1. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe estimated by moss analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehling, Aa [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology

    1996-12-31

    Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe including 21 countries was monitored in 1990-1992 by the moss technique. This technique is based on the fact that the concentrations of heavy metals in moss are closely correlated to atmospheric deposition. This was the first attempt to map heavy metal deposition in this large area. The objectives of the project were to characterise qualitatively and quantitatively the regional atmospheric deposition pattern of heavy metals in background areas in Europe, to indicate the location of important heavy metal pollution sources and to allow retrospective comparisons with similar studies. The present survey is a follow-up of a joint Danish and Swedish project in 1980 and an extended survey in 1985 within the framework of the Nordic Council of Ministers. In Sweden, heavy-metal deposition was first mapped on a nation-wide scale in 1968-1971 and 1975. (author)

  2. 77 FR 14963 - Special Local Regulation; Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; O'Leary Lake; Moss Point, MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; O'Leary Lake; Moss Point, MS..., and persons on navigable waters during the Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival high speed boat... and vessels from safety hazards associated with the Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival high...

  3. Characterization and speciation of mercury in mosses and lichens from the high-altitude Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jun-Juan; Liu, Cheng-Bin; Zhang, Qing-Hua; Fu, Jian-Jie; Yang, Rui-Qiang; Shi, Jian-Bo; Cai, Yong; Jiang, Gui-Bin

    2017-06-01

    The accumulation and species of mercury (Hg) in mosses and lichens collected from high-altitude Tibetan Plateau were studied. The altitudes of the sampling sites spanned from 1983 to 5147 m, and a total of 130 mosses and 52 lichens were analyzed. The total mercury (THg) contents in mosses and lichens were in the ranges of 13.1-273.0 and 20.2-345.9 ng/g, respectively. The average ratios of methylmercury (MeHg) in THg in mosses and lichens were 2.4 % (0.3-11.1 %) and 2.7 % (0.4-9.6 %), respectively, which were higher than those values reported in other regions. The contents of THg in both mosses and lichens were not correlated with the THg in soils (p > 0.05). The lipid contents displayed a significantly positive correlation with concentrations of MeHg in mosses (r = 0.461, p Tibetan Plateau.

  4. Differentiating moss from higher plants is critical in studying the carbon cycle of the boreal biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Liang, Shunlin; Zhao, Shuqing; Chen, Jingming; Xu, Wenfang; Li, Xianglan; Barr, Alan; Andrew Black, T; Yan, Wende; Goulden, Mike L; Kulmala, Liisa; Lindroth, Anders; Margolis, Hank A; Matsuura, Yojiro; Moors, Eddy; van der Molen, Michiel; Ohta, Takeshi; Pilegaard, Kim; Varlagin, Andrej; Vesala, Timo

    2014-06-26

    The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is used for estimating gross primary production (GPP), often includes contributions from both mosses and vascular plants in boreal ecosystems. For the same NDVI, moss can generate only about one-third of the GPP that vascular plants can because of its much lower photosynthetic capacity. Here, based on eddy covariance measurements, we show that the difference in photosynthetic capacity between these two plant functional types has never been explicitly included when estimating regional GPP in the boreal region, resulting in a substantial overestimation. The magnitude of this overestimation could have important implications regarding a change from a current carbon sink to a carbon source in the boreal region. Moss abundance, associated with ecosystem disturbances, needs to be mapped and incorporated into GPP estimates in order to adequately assess the role of the boreal region in the global carbon cycle.

  5. Differentiating moss from higher plants is critical in studying the carbon cycle of the boreal biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Liang, Shunlin; Zhao, Shuqing; Chen, Jingming; Xu, Wenfang; Li, Xianglan; Barr, Alan; Black, T. Andrew; Yan, Wende; Goulden, Michael; Kulmala, Liisa; Lindroth, Anders; Margolis, Hank A.; Matsuura, Yojiro; Moors, Eddy; van der Molen, Michiel; Ohta, Takeshi; Pilegaard, Kim; Varlagin, Andrej; Vesala, Timo

    2014-01-01

    The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is used for estimating gross primary production (GPP), often includes contributions from both mosses and vascular plants in boreal ecosystems. For the same NDVI, moss can generate only about one-third of the GPP that vascular plants can because of its much lower photosynthetic capacity. Here, based on eddy covariance measurements, we show that the difference in photosynthetic capacity between these two plant functional types has never been explicitly included when estimating regional GPP in the boreal region, resulting in a substantial overestimation. The magnitude of this overestimation could have important implications regarding a change from a current carbon sink to a carbon source in the boreal region. Moss abundance, associated with ecosystem disturbances, needs to be mapped and incorporated into GPP estimates in order to adequately assess the role of the boreal region in the global carbon cycle.

  6. A basic peptide within the juxtamembrane region is required for EGF receptor dimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aifa, Sami; Aydin, Jan; Nordvall, Gunnar; Lundström, Ingemar; Svensson, Samuel P S; Hermanson, Ola

    2005-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is fundamental for normal cell growth and organ development, but has also been implicated in various pathologies, notably tumors of epithelial origin. We have previously shown that the initial 13 amino acids (P13) within the intracellular juxtamembrane region (R645-R657) are involved in the interaction with calmodulin, thus indicating an important role for this region in EGFR function. Here we show that P13 is required for proper dimerization of the receptor. We expressed either the intracellular domain of EGFR (TKJM) or the intracellular domain lacking P13 (DeltaTKJM) in COS-7 cells that express endogenous EGFR. Only TKJM was immunoprecipitated with an antibody directed against the extracellular part of EGFR, and only TKJM was tyrosine phosphorylated by endogenous EGFR. Using SK-N-MC cells, which do not express endogenous EGFR, that were stably transfected with either wild-type EGFR or recombinant full-length EGFR lacking P13 demonstrated that P13 is required for appropriate receptor dimerization. Furthermore, mutant EGFR lacking P13 failed to be autophosphorylated. P13 is rich in basic amino acids and in silico modeling of the EGFR in conjunction with our results suggests a novel role for the juxtamembrane domain (JM) of EGFR in mediating intracellular dimerization and thus receptor kinase activation and function.

  7. Differentiating moss from higher plants is critical in studying the carbon cycle of the boreal biome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie

    2014-01-01

    The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is used for estimating gross primary production (GPP), often includes contributions from both mosses and vascular plants in boreal ecosystems. For the same NDVI, moss can generate only about one-third of the GPP...... that vascular plants can because of its much lower photosynthetic capacity. Here, based on eddy covariance measurements, we show that the difference in photosynthetic capacity between these two plant functional types has never been explicitly included when estimating regional GPP in the boreal region, resulting...

  8. Heavy metal and nitrogen concentrations in mosses are declining across Europe whilst some “hotspots” remain in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmens, H.; Norris, D.A.; Sharps, K.; Mills, G.; Alber, R.; Aleksiayenak, Y.; Blum, O.; Cucu-Man, S.-M.; Dam, M.; De Temmerman, L.; Ene, A.; Fernández, J.A.; Martinez-Abaigar, J.; Frontasyeva, M.; Godzik, B.; Jeran, Z.

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, naturally growing mosses have been used successfully as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and nitrogen. Since 1990, the European moss survey has been repeated at five-yearly intervals. In 2010, the lowest concentrations of metals and nitrogen in mosses were generally found in northern Europe, whereas the highest concentrations were observed in (south-)eastern Europe for metals and the central belt for nitrogen. Averaged across Europe, since 1990, the median concentration in mosses has declined the most for lead (77%), followed by vanadium (55%), cadmium (51%), chromium (43%), zinc (34%), nickel (33%), iron (27%), arsenic (21%, since 1995), mercury (14%, since 1995) and copper (11%). Between 2005 and 2010, the decline ranged from 6% for copper to 36% for lead; for nitrogen the decline was 5%. Despite the Europe-wide decline, no changes or increases have been observed between 2005 and 2010 in some (regions of) countries. - Highlights: • In 2010, heavy metal and nitrogen concentrations in mosses were determined at up to 4400 sites across Europe. • Moss concentrations complement deposition measurements at high spatial resolution. • For most metals, concentrations in mosses have significantly declined since 1990. • Heavy metal pollution remains high in (South-)eastern Europe. • Nitrogen pollution remains high in the central European belt. - Heavy metal pollution remains high particularly in (south-)eastern Europe, whereas nitrogen pollution remains high in the central belt of Europe

  9. Effect of a Brazilian regional basic diet on the prevalence of caries in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, J T; Couto, G B L; Vasconcelos, M M V B; Melo, M M D C; Guedes, R C A; Cordeiro, M A C

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a regional basic diet (RBD) on the prevalence of caries in the molar teeth of rats of both sexes aged 23 days. The animals were divided into six groups of 10 rats each receiving the following diets for 30 and 60 days after weaning: RBD, a cariogenic diet, and a commercial diet. The prevalence and penetration of caries in the molar teeth of the rats was then analyzed. The RBD produced caries in 37.5% of the teeth of animals fed 30 days, and in 83.4% of animals fed 60 days, while the cariogenic diet produced caries in 72.5% and 77.5% of the teeth of animals fed 30 and 60 days, respectively. Rats fed the RBD for 30 days had caries in the enamel in 38% of their teeth, 48% had superficial dentin caries, and 7.5% moderate dentin caries. The effect of the RBD did not differ significantly from that of the cariogenic diet in terms of the presence of caries in rats fed 60 days. The penetration depth of the caries produced by the RBD was the same as that produced by the cariogenic diet. Our results show that the RBD has the same cariogenic potential as the cariogenic diet. Since the RBD is the only option for the low-income population, there should be a study of how to compensate for the cariogenicity of this diet.

  10. Effect of a Brazilian regional basic diet on the prevalence of caries in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.T. Pinheiro

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a regional basic diet (RBD on the prevalence of caries in the molar teeth of rats of both sexes aged 23 days. The animals were divided into six groups of 10 rats each receiving the following diets for 30 and 60 days after weaning: RBD, a cariogenic diet, and a commercial diet. The prevalence and penetration of caries in the molar teeth of the rats was then analyzed. The RBD produced caries in 37.5% of the teeth of animals fed 30 days, and in 83.4% of animals fed 60 days, while the cariogenic diet produced caries in 72.5% and 77.5% of the teeth of animals fed 30 and 60 days, respectively. Rats fed the RBD for 30 days had caries in the enamel in 38% of their teeth, 48% had superficial dentin caries, and 7.5% moderate dentin caries. The effect of the RBD did not differ significantly from that of the cariogenic diet in terms of the presence of caries in rats fed 60 days. The penetration depth of the caries produced by the RBD was the same as that produced by the cariogenic diet. Our results show that the RBD has the same cariogenic potential as the cariogenic diet. Since the RBD is the only option for the low-income population, there should be a study of how to compensate for the cariogenicity of this diet.

  11. Wind power installations in Switzerland - Regional planning basics and impact; Windkraftanlagen in der Schweiz - Raumplanerische Grundlagen und Auswirkungen - Grundlagenbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Kaufmann, Y.; Steiner, P. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Gilgen, K.; Sartoris, A. [IRAP-HSR, Institut fuer Raumentwicklung an der Hochschule fuer Technik Rapperswil, Rapperswil (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    This report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the basics of regional planning and its impact on the construction of wind-energy installations in Switzerland. The authors state that the planning and realisation of wind turbine installations is often time and resource consuming: this document presents and discusses the results obtained in a project that aimed to supply consolidated knowledge on project-relevant basics and their effect with respect to wind-energy installations. Experience gained in Switzerland and in other countries is discussed. This report on the basics of wind-energy planning with its detailed information formed the basis of a checklist described in a further report. In nine chapters, regional planning aspects, environment and landscape-relevant aspects, effects on the national and regional economies and social acceptance factors are discussed. Also, success-factors and possible solutions for the successful realisation of wind-energy projects are looked at.

  12. Natural radionuclides and 137Cs in moss and lichen in eastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čučulović Ana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of radionuclides determination in moss (Homolothecium sp., Hypnum Cupressiforme sp., and Brachythecium sp. and lichen (Cladonia sp. sampled in the region of Eastern Serbia during 1996-2010. The activities in moss are in the range of 100-500 Bq/kg d. w. for 40K, and 5-50 Bq/kg d. w. for 226Ra and 232Th, while the “soil-to-moss” transfer factors are 0.45 for 40K, 3 for 226Ra, and 0.3 for 232Th. The spatial distribution of the 137Cs activities is highly non-uniform; some values reach 500 Bq/kg d. w., with less than 10% of the samples, mainly the ones taken prior to 2000, with the activity above 1000 Bq/kg d. w. The variations in the content of natural radionuclides among the moss species are not significant. The frequency pattern of the activities of natural radionuclides in lichen is similar to the one in moss, but the activities in lichen are to some extent lower. The mean activity of 137Cs in lichen is below 400 Bq/kg d. w. The mean activities of 7Be in moss and lichen sampled in 2006 and 2008 are in the range of 41-122 Bq/kg d. w., with pronounced variations between the sampling sites.

  13. Oak moss extracts in the diagnosis of fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Heydorn, Siri; Menné, Torkil

    2002-01-01

    Oak moss absolute is one of the eight ingredients of the fragrance mix (FM) used for diagnosing perfume allergy. Oak moss absolute is an extract prepared from the lichen Evernia prunastri growing on oak trees. It has been shown that the oak moss patch test material from one producer contained resin...

  14. Activity concentrations of 137Cs and 40K in mosses from spas in Eastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čučulović Ana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of detecting the presence of radionuclides in moss samples in eastern Serbia, 129 samples of mosses were collected from 2000 to 2010 in the region of the spas: Sokobanja, Banja Jošanica and Gamzigradska banja. The data obtained show that 137Cs was present in all of the 129 samples from 3 sampling areas and 15 sampling localities and in 20 moss taxa. This indicates that pollution with this radionuclide resulting from the Chernobyl accident still exists. Changes in the average activity concentrations of 40K are within measurement error limits, while for 137Cs changes in the average activity concentrations are more noticeable, i.e. they have decreased with time. [Acknowledgments. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia, project code III 43009.

  15. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Serbia studied by moss biomonitoring, neutron activation analysis and GIS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frontas'eva, M.V.; Galinskaya, T.E.; Pavlov, S.S.; Kumar, M.; Matavuly, M.; Radnovic, D.; Steinnes, E.

    2002-01-01

    The results of a pilot study on atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other trace elements using the moss biomonitoring technique in the northern part of Serbia and some areas of Bosnia are presented. Samples of Hypnum cupressiforme along with some other moss types were collected at 92 sites during the summer of 2000. A total of 44 elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons. The observed levels of Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, etc. in the area surrounding the town of Bor (Serbia) are comparable to those reported from similar industrial areas in other countries such as the Copper Basin in Poland and the South Urals of Russia. In the same region the maximum Se and Mo concentrations are the highest ever recorded in biomonitoring studies using mosses. High median concentrations of Fe and Ni in Serbian mosses are associated with a crustal component as apparent from factor analysis of the moss data. This component could be a result of windblown soil dust (most of the samples were taken from agricultural regions) or deposition of ash from coal-burning power stations. Some specific elements such as Cl and V may originate from known industrial sources, but at certain places high values in the moss samples are suspected to be associated with fires in oil refineries damaged during the 1999 NATO military action

  16. Mosses new to Hong Kong (4)

    OpenAIRE

    So, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    Sixteen moss species - Eurhynchium asperisetum (C. Muell.) Tak.; Rhynchostegium pallidifolium (Mitt.) Jaeg.; Bryum argenteum Hedw.; Bryum caespiticium Hedw.; Bryum capillare Hedw.; Platyhynidium riarioides (Hedw.) Dix.; Dicranella varia (Hedw.) Schimp.;Entodon virudulus Card.; Fissidens strictulus C. Muell.; Ectropothecium obtusulum (Card.) Iwats.; Caduciella guangdongensis Enroth.; Plagiomnium cuspidatum (Hedw.) T. Kop.; Plagiomnium vesicatum (Besch.) T. Kop.; Pyrrhobryum spiniforme (Hedw.) ...

  17. Management of basic education for ethnic groups in highland and border regions of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phathombut Keawsomnuk

    2017-05-01

    The research findings revealed that the actors for advocacy policy in basic education for ethnic groups consist of: 1 the primary education service area, 2 community, 3 NGOs, 4 scholars, and 5 schools. This study indicated that the provision of basic education policy for ethnic groups must consist of knowledge from communities such as ethnic life styles integrated in the curriculum, and a special education mechanism and process for Thai ethnic groups, including facilitation of ethnic group participation in the abovementioned actors by various means.

  18. The role of sample preparation in interpretation of trace element concentration variability in moss bioindication studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migaszewski, Z.M.; Lamothe, P.J.; Crock, J.G.; Galuszka, A.; Dolegowska, S.

    2011-01-01

    Trace element concentrations in plant bioindicators are often determined to assess the quality of the environment. Instrumental methods used for trace element determination require digestion of samples. There are different methods of sample preparation for trace element analysis, and the selection of the best method should be fitted for the purpose of a study. Our hypothesis is that the method of sample preparation is important for interpretation of the results. Here we compare the results of 36 element determinations performed by ICP-MS on ashed and on acid-digested (HNO3, H2O2) samples of two moss species (Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi) collected in Alaska and in south-central Poland. We found that dry ashing of the moss samples prior to analysis resulted in considerably lower detection limits of all the elements examined. We also show that this sample preparation technique facilitated the determination of interregional and interspecies differences in the chemistry of trace elements. Compared to the Polish mosses, the Alaskan mosses displayed more positive correlations of the major rock-forming elements with ash content, reflecting those elements' geogenic origin. Of the two moss species, P. schreberi from both Alaska and Poland was also highlighted by a larger number of positive element pair correlations. The cluster analysis suggests that the more uniform element distribution pattern of the Polish mosses primarily reflects regional air pollution sources. Our study has shown that the method of sample preparation is an important factor in statistical interpretation of the results of trace element determinations. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Gender Inequality in Basic Education in the Northern Region of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with girls' education, availability of household resources, poverty and high ... boys than girls complete schooling, especially at the basic school (Kane, 2004). ... the time of the 2010 population census in Ghana, 36 percent of all males aged .... educated than the female children because of the fact that women marry out of the.

  20. Efficacy of Moss as a Bioindicator of Heavy Metals When Controlling for Microbial Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, K. M.; Atkinson, D. B.

    2017-12-01

    Interest in pollution has lead to the use of plants as indicators of particulate levels, acting as a cheaper, more widely dispersed resource than human manufactured alternatives. These biomonitors could provide accurate, current data across cities and in localized regions once the mechanism of accumulation is fully understood. One possible variable that could affect the efficacy of mosses as bioindicators of heavy metal absorption is the microbial colonies that thrive on the surface of these non vascular plants. Each micro organism has shown variance in absorption of heavy metals, leading to the question how much do the colonies contribute to measured variation? For this experiment samples of living mosses were collected from different trees in a region, each showing a different set of organisms growing on them. Measurements of cadmium were taken from a portion of the first samples, and second samples will be taken after dosing the rest of the living samples in a lab environment over time. Two of the mosses are being treated to limit microbial growth to compare to samples from the same tree. We hypothesize that there will be a significant difference either from one tree's absorption to the next, or between mosses from the same tree with limited growth due to the variation of microbial influence.

  1. Dominant region: a basic feature for group motion analysis and its application to teamwork evaluation in soccer games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Jun-ichi

    1998-12-01

    This paper proposes a basic feature for quantitative measurement and evaluation of group behavior of persons. This feature called 'dominant region' is a kind of sphere of influence for each person in the group. The dominant region is defined as a region in where the person can arrive earlier than any other persons and can be formulated as Voronoi region modified by replacing the distance function with a time function. This time function is calculated based on a computational model of moving ability of the person. As an application of the dominant region, we present a motion analysis system of soccer games. The purpose of this system is to evaluate the teamwork quantitatively based on movement of all the players in the game. From experiments using motion pictures of actual games, it is suggested that the proposed feature is useful for measurement and evaluation of group behavior in team sports. This basic feature may be applied to other team ball games, such as American football, basketball, handball and water polo.

  2. Vortex rings from Sphagnum moss capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Dwight; Strassman, Sam; Cha, Jung; Chang, Emily; Guo, Xinyi; Edwards, Joan

    2010-11-01

    The capsules of Sphagnum moss use vortex rings to disperse spores to suitable habitats many kilometers away. Vortex rings are created by the sudden release of pressurized air when the capsule ruptures, and are an efficient way to carry the small spores with low terminal velocities to heights where they can be carried by turbulent wind currents. We will present our computational model of these explosions, which are carried out using a 2-D large eddy simulation (LES) on FLUENT. Our simulations can reproduce the observed motion of the spore clouds observed from moss capsules with high-speed videos, and we will discuss the roles of bursting pressure, cap mass, and capsule morphology on the formation and quality of vortex rings created by this plant.

  3. Immunity in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bressendorff, Simon

    model system, we identify and create targeted knock out of nine Physcomitrella homologs of defense related Arabidopsis genes. The knock-out lines are assessed for altered immune responses to a range of different pathogens. We find that at least one Physcomitrella mitogen activated protein kinase (MPK...... molecular patterns (MAMPs) including fungal chitin and bacterial MAMPs. The knock out of PpMPK4A renders the moss more susceptible to the pathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola and fails to accumulate several defense related transcripts and ROS production upon treatment with fungal...... to MAMP-triggered immunity, and the moss may use other signaling components to respond to abiotic stresses. In addition, a Physcomitrella knock-out of a homolog of the autophagy related gene ATG5 provides the first analysis of autophagy in non-vascular plants. PpATG5 knock-out mutants show clear signs...

  4. Basic Properties and Problem Fields of Scientific-Innovation Space of the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Aleksandrovich Rumyantsev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing scale of the scientific-innovative activity in administrative-territorial units, complicating structure of the regional scientific-innovative complexes and development of inter-regional horizontal and vertical ties expand the space of the scientific and innovation activity research of which primarily involves the development of theoretical and methodological provisions. Basing on the philosophical category «space», the paper describes main properties of the scientific-innovative space of the region and the factors causing them. The author identified problem fields as the direction of possible transformation of scientific-innovative space of the region. The analysis allowed defining some features of the scientific and innovation space and problems of development. The obtained results show the feasibility of study of the scientific-innovative activity in the spatial dimension

  5. Importance of basic CPR techniques. A study in the Region of Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arturo Abraldes Valeiras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Annually in Spain many people die from diseases related to heart. Heart attack is the main cause of such deaths. Know and control the basic techniques of basic Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR are essential to help a person away from these features. This study examined 1 the importance of knowing these techniques in the general population, and 2 the perception of the difficulty of understanding and application of techniques. We used a questionnaire designed "ad hoc" as a tool for collecting information. The instrument was subjected to validation and reliability for the study. The questionnaire was completed by 235 volunteers aged between 10 and 65. We performed a descriptive analysis, based on gender and the variables importance of knowledge and learning / apply techniques. Among the most relevant results, we emphasize an interest of society to improve training in this type of knowledge. Training would be ideal in most age groups of people (teens to seniors. Likewise, CPR techniques are easy to understand and execute a lesser extent, relevant perception among people who acknowledge and application these techniques

  6. Airborne chemical elements in Spanish moss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shacklette, H.T.; Connor, J.J.

    1973-01-01

    Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides L.), collected from its geographic range in Southern United States, was analyzed for 38 chemical elements in 123 samples. Analyses of Spanish moss samples collected at rural, residential, highway, and industrial locations reflected significant differences in concentrations of metals. Samples from industrial and highway locations are characterized as containing greater-than-average amounts of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, and vanadium. The high levels of lead found in some samples from highway locations are especially noteworthy. Many samples from sites near the seashore contained greater-than-average amounts of sodium that is thought to have been derived from ocean spray. Samples from rural locations commonly contain low concentrations of the metal usually associated with industrial or urban activity but may contain large amounts of the elements that are ordinary constituents of soil dust. Four of six samples containing detectable amounts of tin were collected within 50 miles of the only tin smelter in the United States; this result suggests that elemental analyses of Spanish moss samples can provide an economical and rapid method of estimating the kind and relative degree of local atmospheric metal pollution.

  7. Marine Gradients of Halogens in Moss Studied by Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Frontasyeva, M V

    2002-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis is known to be a powerful technique for the simultaneous study of chlorine, bromine and iodine in environmental samples. In this paper it is shown to be useful to elucidate marine gradients of these elements. Examples are from a transect study in northern Norway where samples of the feather moss Hylocomium splendens were collected at distances 0-300 km from the coastline. All three elements decreased exponentially as a function of distance from the ocean in the moss samples, strongly indicating that atmospheric supply from the marine environment is the predominant source of these elements to the terrestrial ecosystem. These results are compared with similar data for surface soils along the same gradients. Comparison is also made with previous data for halogens in moss in Norway obtained by conventional NAA and covering similar transects in other geographical regions. The Cl/Br and Br/I ratios in moss showed a regular change distance from the ocean in all transects, and h...

  8. Gibberellin-regulated gene in the basal region of rice leaf sheath encodes basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Setsuko; Takasaki, Hironori

    2009-07-01

    Genes regulated by gibberellin (GA) during leaf sheath elongation in rice seedlings were identified using the transcriptome approach. mRNA from the basal regions of leaf sheaths treated with GA3 was analyzed by high-coverage gene expression profiling. 33,004 peaks were detected, and 30 transcripts showed significant changes in the presence of GA3. Among these, basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (AK073385) was significantly upregulated. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed that expression of AK073385 was controlled by GA3 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (AK073385) is therefore involved in the regulation of gene expression by GA3.

  9. Back to the Basics: Socio-Economic, Gender, and Regional Disparities in Canada's Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, Jason D.; Peter, Tracey; Roberts, Lance W.

    2008-01-01

    This study reassessed the extent to which socio-economic background, gender, and region endure as sources of educational inequality in Canada. The analysis utilized the 28,000 student Canadian sample from the data set of the OECD's 2003 "Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA)". Results, consistent with previous findings,…

  10. Active moss biomonitoring of trace elements with Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bags in relation to atmospheric bulk deposition in Belgrade, Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anicic, M.; Tasic, M.; Frontasyeva, M.V.; Tomasevic, M.; Rajsic, S.; Mijic, Z.; Popovic, A.

    2009-01-01

    Active biomonitoring with wet and dry moss bags was used to examine trace element atmospheric deposition in the urban area of Belgrade. The element accumulation capability of Sphagnum girgensohnii Russow was tested in relation to atmospheric bulk deposition. Moss bags were mounted for five 3-month periods (July 2005-October 2006) at three representative urban sites. For the same period monthly bulk atmospheric deposition samples were collected. The concentrations of Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were determined by instrumental neutron activation analyses and atomic absorption spectrometry. Significant accumulation of most elements occurred in the exposed moss bags compared with the initial moss content. High correlations between the elements in moss and bulk deposits were found for V, Cu, As, and Ni. The enrichment factors of the elements for both types of monitor followed the same pattern at the corresponding sites. - Accumulated trace elements in the moss Sphagnum girgensohnii reflect atmospheric deposition

  11. Aquatic mosses as a monitoring tool for 137Cs contamination in streams and rivers--a field study from central southern Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongve, D.; Brittain, J.E.; Bjoernstad, H.E.

    2002-01-01

    Mosses are frequently used as biomonitors for trace element pollution in the aquatic environment. The purpose of this study was to assess their usefulness as a tool in monitoring and in regional surveys of radioactive contamination. Specimens of the aquatic mosses, Fontinalis antipyretica and F. dalecarlica, were transplanted from non-contaminated areas to streams and rivers in the Norwegian Jotunheimen Mountains and neighbouring lowland areas that had received radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl accident. Equilibrium concentrations of 137 Cs in the exposed mosses were reached after a few weeks. Two series from 20 streams in 1994 and 1996 show linear correlations between activities in water and moss samples and biomagnification ratios of 10 4 -10 5 . We conclude that mosses are better suited for monitoring purposes than water samples, because they provide values integrated over weeks while the radioactivity in surface waters can be subject to rapid variations according to hydrological events. The activity concentrations in aquatic mosses can be easily measured with good precision even when aqueous concentrations are below the limit of detection. Use of aquatic mosses also reduces the logistic problems of transporting large volumes of water, especially in areas inaccessible by road

  12. Social responsibility of business and government as the basic scientific and practical position of regional studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efim Mikhaylovich Kozakov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes social responsibility in regional studies as a base of scientific and practical position has an interdisciplinary character and is a key in economic theory topic, referred to as «behavioral economics». The strategic aspect of social behavior should eventually become a daily norm at all levels of administration and corporate governance in all spheres of human activity. Tactical objective of regional and municipal authorities is development and implementation of research-based socially responsible policy. The level of social responsibility cannot be measured using a single universal (integral indicator. The idea that «The economics has as much science inside, as much as it has mathematics», as formulated in the XIX century, in the beginning of the XXI century should be rephrased the following way: «The economics has as much science inside, as much as it has humanity».

  13. A basic design for a multicriteria approach to efficient bioenergy production at regional level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, Zoe [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Environmental Assessment and Policy Research Group

    2012-12-01

    In Germany, government policies supporting the growth of renewable energies lead to a rapid increase in energy crop cultivation. This increase is linked to possible conflicts between different sustainability goals which so far have been rarely considered in the planning procedure. This article looks at different approaches of assessment and planning methods on a regionspecific level. It describes the methodology of the project Efficient Bio-Energy in the Perspective of Nature Conservation - Assessment and Recommendations to Protect Biodiversity and Climate which aims to establish the basis for an integrated sustainability assessment of energy crop cultivation for decentralized energy production in Germany and has been conducted by the author. The method takes into account the three main requirements of agricultural profitability, greenhouse gases (GHG) efficiency, and environmental sustainability of energy crop cultivation for decentralized energy production and has been applied for two sample regions. Using ArcGIS, the suitability of energy crops can be displayed, and regional aspects can be considered by overlaying and intersecting the individual output of all three requirements. This allows the definition of 'no-go' areas as well as the overall estimation of the maximum sustainable production capacity for each energy crop or energy path in a specific region. It enables an estimation of the profitability and GHG efficiency of energy crop cultivation paths at regional or communal level under consideration of different indicators for environmental sustainability. The article closes with a discussion of the methodological challenges of this integrative method. The conclusion gives an outlook in which planning and policy processes could be beneficial to apply such an integrative method in order to assess the suitability of certain landscape areas for energy production paths. (orig.)

  14. FTIR Spectroscopy on Basic Materials in THz Region for Compact FEL-Based Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Cha, H J; Lee, B C; Park, S H

    2005-01-01

    We are making experiments on THz(terahertz) imaging using a compact high power FEL (free-electron laser) which is operating as a users facility at KAERI. The wavelength range of output pulses is 100~1200 μm, which corresponds to 0.3~3 THz in the frequency region. We should select the optimum wavelength for the constituents of specimens to realize the imaging based on the THz FEL. A FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared) spectrometer was modified to measure the optical constants of the specimens in THz region. A polyester film of which thickness is 3.7 μm was used as a beam splitter of the spectrometer. In the case of normal incidence, the transmittance of the film was measured to be more than 90%, and the estimated loss by absorption was approximately 2% at the FEL frequency of 3 THz. Several tens of nanometer-thick-silver was coated on the polyester film to balance both transmission and reflection of THz waves in the beam splitter. We investigated FTIR spectroscopy on air, vapor and liquid water...

  15. Program TOTELA calculating basic cross sections in intermediate energy region by using systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukahori, Tokio; Niita, Koji

    2000-01-01

    Program TOTELA can calculate neutron- and proton-induced total, elastic scattering and reaction cross sections and angular distribution of elastic scattering in the intermediate energy region from 20 MeV to 3 GeV. The TOTELA adopts the systematics modified from that by Pearlstein to reproduce the experimental data and LA150 evaluation better. The calculated results compared with experimental data and LA150 evaluation are shown in figures. The TOTELA results can reproduce those data almost well. The TOTELA was developed to fill the lack of experimental data of above quantities in the intermediate energy region and to use for production of JENDL High Energy File. In the case that there is no experimental data of above quantities, the optical model parameters can be fitted by using TOTELA results. From this point of view, it is also useful to compare the optical model calculation by using RIPL with TOTELA results, in order to verify the parameter quality. Input data of TOTELA is only atomic and mass numbers of incident particle and target nuclide and input/output file names. The output of TOTELA calculation is in ENDF-6 format used in the intermediate energy nuclear data files. It is easy to modify the main routine by users. Details are written in each subroutine and main routine

  16. A survey of natural terrestrial and airborne radionuclides in moss samples from the peninsular Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanavatee, Komrit; Krmar, Miodrag; Bhongsuwan, Tripob

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the activity concentrations of natural terrestrial radionuclides ( 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K) and airborne radionuclides ( 210 Pb, 210 Pb ex and 7 Be) in natural terrestrial mosses. The collected moss samples (46) representing 17 species were collected from 17 sampling localities in the National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries of Thailand, situated in the mountainous areas between the northern and the southern ends of peninsular Thailand (∼7-12 °N, 99-102 °E). Activity concentrations of radionuclides in the samples were measured using a low background gamma spectrometer. The results revealed non-uniform spatial distributions of all the radionuclides in the study area. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis revealed two distinct origins for the studied radionuclides, and furthermore, the Pearson correlations were strong within 226 Ra, 232 Th, 238 U and 40 K as well as within 210 Pb and 210 Pb ex , but there was no significant correlation between these two groups. Also 7 Be was uncorrelated to the others, as expected due to different origins of the airborne and terrestrial radionuclides. The radionuclide activities of moss samples varied by moss species, topography, geology, and meteorology of each sampling area. The observed abnormally high concentrations of some radionuclides probably indicate that the concentrations of airborne and terrestrial radionuclides in moss samples were directly related to local geological features of the sampling site, or that high levels of 7 Be were most probably linked with topography and regional NE monsoonal winds from mainland China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: moss [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available moss Physcomitrella patens subsp. patens. Physcomitrella_patens_subsp_patens_L.png Physcomitrella_patens..._subsp_patens_NL.png Physcomitrella_patens_subsp_patens_S.png Physcomitrella_patens_subsp_patens..._NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physcomitrella+patens+subsp%2e+patens%2e&t...=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physcomitrella+patens+subsp%2e+patens...%2e&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physcomitrella+patens+subsp%2e+patens%2e&t

  18. Laparoscopic insertion of the Moss feeding tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrink, M H; Hagan, K; Rosemurgy, A S

    1993-12-01

    Placement of enteral feeding tubes is an important part of a surgeon's skill base. Surgical insertion of feeding tubes has been performed safely for many years with very few modifications. With the recent surge in interest and applicability of other laparoscopic procedures, it is well within the skills of the average laparoscopic surgeon to insert feeding tubes. We describe herein a simple technique for the insertion of the Moss feeding tube. The procedure described has a minimum of invasion, along with simplicity, safety, and accuracy.

  19. Atmospheric Deposition of Heavy Metals in Serbia Studied by Moss Biomonitoring, Neutron Activation Analysis and GIS Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Frontasyeva, M V; Kumar, M; Matavuly, M; Pavlov, S S; Radnovic, D; Steinnes, E

    2002-01-01

    The results of a pilot study on atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other trace elements using the moss biomonitoring technique in the northern part of Serbia and some areas of Bosnia are presented. Samples of Hypnum cupressiforme along with some other moss types were collected at 92 sites during the summer of 2000. A total of 44 elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons. The observed levels of Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, etc. in the area surrounding the town of Bor (Serbia) are comparable to those reported from similar industrial areas in other countries such as the Copper Basin in Poland and the South Urals of Russia. In the same region the maximum Se and Mo concentrations are the highest ever recorded in biomonitoring studies using mosses. High median concentrations of Fe and Ni in Serbian mosses are associated with a crustal component as apparent from factor analysis of the moss data. This component could be a result of windblown soil dust (most ...

  20. The use of mosses in air pollution monitoring in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liiv, S.; Eensaar, A. [Academy of Sciences of Estonia, Tallinn (Estonia). Tallinn Botanic Garden

    1995-12-31

    Mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens have been proposed as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metals. These mosses are wide-used in biomonitoring studies in Scandinavia as well as in other Nordic countries. Some methodical problems of bryoindication, e.g. other factors than the adsorption of precipitation which influence element concentrations in mosses have been studied in Scandinavia as well. Methodical study for determining the intrasite, local variability in Estonia was started in 1991. Despite of the used uniform methodics in sampling, cleaning, digesting and chemical analysing of moss samples in the same laboratory there is high variability of the content of elements at the reference area. There are many reasons for this variability - errors from instrumental procedures (analytical steps in chemical analysing), biological deviation, etc. In this article the results of the methodical study of intrasite variability of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn and V in mosses at reference areas of different deposition level in Estonia are presented. The intrasite variability of elemental content in mosses at the reference areas is taken into account in mapping the territorial distribution of the content of elements in mosses, samples of which were collected during the joint Finnish-Estonian-Russian biomonitoring project in 1992 in a more dense network compared with the 1989 and 1990 national moss surveys in Estonia in order to describe more accurately the pollution situation in highly polluted north-eastern Estonia

  1. Controls on moss evaporation in a boreal black spruce forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Arp, W.J.; Chapin, F.S.

    2004-01-01

    [1] Mosses are an important component of the boreal forest, but little is known about their contribution to ecosystem carbon, water, and energy exchange. We studied the role of mosses in boreal forest evapotranspiration by conducting two experiments in a black spruce forest in Fairbanks, Alaska.

  2. Genetic transformation of moss plant | Jing | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, in recent times mosses such as Physcomitrella patens, Funaria hygrometrica, Ceratodon purpureus, and Tortula ruralis are being developed for genetic engineering studies. Recently, the finding of efficient homologous recombination of P. patens and yeast and murine cells could be comparable. So, the moss, P.

  3. Using essential oils to control moss and liverwort in containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabil Khadduri

    2011-01-01

    Liverwort and moss are economically significant weeds across a range of US container production sites, including forest seedling greenhouse culture in the Pacific Northwest. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of essential oils, or distilled plant extracts, in controlling liverwort and moss container weeds over three seasons of trials. When applied at the...

  4. The use of mosses in air pollution monitoring in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liiv, S; Eensaar, A [Academy of Sciences of Estonia, Tallinn (Estonia). Tallinn Botanic Garden

    1996-12-31

    Mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens have been proposed as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metals. These mosses are wide-used in biomonitoring studies in Scandinavia as well as in other Nordic countries. Some methodical problems of bryoindication, e.g. other factors than the adsorption of precipitation which influence element concentrations in mosses have been studied in Scandinavia as well. Methodical study for determining the intrasite, local variability in Estonia was started in 1991. Despite of the used uniform methodics in sampling, cleaning, digesting and chemical analysing of moss samples in the same laboratory there is high variability of the content of elements at the reference area. There are many reasons for this variability - errors from instrumental procedures (analytical steps in chemical analysing), biological deviation, etc. In this article the results of the methodical study of intrasite variability of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn and V in mosses at reference areas of different deposition level in Estonia are presented. The intrasite variability of elemental content in mosses at the reference areas is taken into account in mapping the territorial distribution of the content of elements in mosses, samples of which were collected during the joint Finnish-Estonian-Russian biomonitoring project in 1992 in a more dense network compared with the 1989 and 1990 national moss surveys in Estonia in order to describe more accurately the pollution situation in highly polluted north-eastern Estonia

  5. Investigation of metal ions sorption of brown peat moss powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelus, Nadezhda; Blokhina, Elena; Novikov, Dmitry; Novikova, Yaroslavna; Chuchalin, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    For regularities research of sorptive extraction of heavy metal ions by cellulose and its derivates from aquatic solution of electrolytes it is necessary to find possible mechanism of sorption process and to choice a model describing this process. The present article investigates the regularities of aliovalent metals sorption on brown peat moss powder. The results show that sorption isotherm of Al3+ ions is described by Freundlich isotherm and sorption isotherms of Na+ i Ni2+ are described by Langmuir isotherm. To identify the mechanisms of brown peat moss powder sorption the IR-spectra of the initial brown peat moss powder samples and brown peat moss powder samples after Ni (II) sorption were studied. Metal ion binding mechanisms by brown peat moss powder points to ion exchange, physical adsorption, and complex formation with hydroxyl and carboxyl groups.

  6. Air Pollution Studies in the Republic of Udmurtia, Russian Federation, using Moss Biomonitoring and INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankratova, Yu. S.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Pavlov, S. S.; Berdnikov, A. A.

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of 36 elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis in 79 moss samples, collected in the southern part of the Republic of Udmurtia, Russian Federation, in the period 2005-2006. A factor analysis was applied to determine possible pollution sources over the territory. The seven resulting factors represent a natural and anthropogenic origin of the elemental deposition in Udmurt moss. Some of the factors are interpreted as being associated with the industry factor (W, Mo, Cr, Zn); chemical weapon destruction (As is the component of lewisite; Na is used for detoxication of lewisite). The results are compared to the data of atmospheric deposition of some regions of Russia and European countries

  7. Air Pollution Study in the Republic of Moldova Using Moss Biomonitoring Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinicovscaia, Inga; Hramco, Constantin; Duliu, Octavian G; Vergel, Konstantin; Culicov, Otilia A; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Duca, Gheorghe

    2017-02-01

    Moss biomonitoring using the species Hypnum cupressiforme (Hedw.) and Pleurocarpous sp was applied to study air pollution in the Republic of Moldova. A total of 41 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Tm, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Pb, Th, and U) were determined by instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Principal component analysis was used to identify and characterize different pollution sources. Geographical distribution maps were prepared to point out the regions most affected by air pollution and relate this to potential sources of contamination. Median values of the elements studied were compared with data from the European moss biomonitoring program. The cities of Chisinau and Balti were determined to experience particular environmental stress.

  8. Validating modelled data on major and trace element deposition in southern Germany using Sphagnum moss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempter, Heike; Krachler, Michael; Shotyk, William; Zaccone, Claudio

    2017-10-01

    Sphagnum mosses were collected from four ombrotrophic bogs in two regions of southern Germany: Upper Bavaria (Oberbayern, OB) and the Northern Black Forest (Nordschwarzwald, NBF). Surfaces of Sphagnum carpets were marked with plastic mesh and, one year later, plant matter was harvested and productivity determined. Major and trace element concentrations (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th, Ti, Tl, U, V, Zn) were determined in acid digests using sector field ICP-MS. Up to 12 samples (40 × 40 cm) were collected per site, and 6-10 sites investigated per bog. Variation in element accumulation rates within a bog is mostly the result of the annual production rate of the Sphagnum mosses which masks not only the impact of site effects, such as microtopography and the presence of dwarf trees, but also local and regional conditions, including land use in the surrounding area, topography, etc. The difference in productivity between peat bogs results in distinctly higher element accumulation rates at the NBF bogs compared to those from OB for all studied elements. The comparison with the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program (EMEP; wet-only and total deposition) and Modelling of Air Pollutants and Ecosystem Impact (MAPESI; total deposition) data shows that accumulation rates obtained using Sphagnum are in the same range of published values for direct measurements of atmospheric deposition of As, Cd, Cu, Co, Pb, and V in both regions. The accordance is very dependent on how atmospheric deposition rates were obtained, as different models to calculate the deposition rates may yield different fluxes even for the same region. In future studies of atmospheric deposition of trace metals, both Sphagnum moss and deposition collectors have to be used on the same peat bog and results compared. Antimony, however, shows considerable discrepancy, because it is either under-estimated by Sphagnum moss or over-estimated by both atmospheric deposition

  9. Atmospheric Pb and Ti accumulation rates from Sphagnum moss: dependence upon plant productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempter, H; Krachler, M; Shotyk, W

    2010-07-15

    The accumulation rates of atmospheric Pb and Ti were obtained using the production rates of Sphagnum mosses collected in four ombrotrophic bogs from two regions of southern Germany: Upper Bavaria (Oberbayern, OB) and the Northern Black Forest (Nordschwarzwald, NBF). Surfaces of Sphagnum carpets were marked with plastic mesh and one year later the production of plant matter was harvested. Metal concentrations were determined in acid digests using sector field ICP-MS employing well established analytical procedures. Up to 12 samples (40 x 40 cm) were collected per site, and 6-10 sites were investigated per bog. Variations within a given sampling site were in the range 2.3-4x for Pb concentrations, 1.8-2.5x for Ti concentrations, 3-8.3x for Pb/Ti, 5.6-7.8x for Pb accumulation rates, and 2.3-6.4x for Ti accumulation rates. However, the median values of these parameters for the sites (6-10 per bog) were quite consistent. The mosses from the bogs in NBF exhibited significantly greater productivity (187-202 g m(-2) a(-1)) compared to the OB peat bogs (71-91 g m(-2) a(-1)), and these differences had a pronounced effect on the Pb and Ti accumulation rates. Highly productive mosses showed no indication of a "dilution effect" of Pb or Ti concentrations, suggesting that more productive plants were simply able to accumulate more particles from the air. The median rates of net Pb accumulation by the mosses are in excellent agreement with the fluxes obtained by direct atmospheric measurements at nearby monitoring stations in both regions (EMEP and MAPESI data).

  10. Basic amino acid residues located in the N-terminal region of BEND3 are essential for its nuclear localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiheido, Hirokazu, E-mail: shiheido@ak.med.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Shimizu, Jun

    2015-02-20

    BEN domain-containing protein 3 (BEND3) has recently been reported to function as a heterochromatin-associated protein in transcriptional repression in the nucleus. BEND3 should have nuclear localization signals (NLSs) to localize to the nucleus in light of its molecular weight, which is higher than that allowed to pass through nuclear pore complexes. We here analyzed the subcellular localization of deletion/site-directed mutants of human BEND3 by an immunofluorescence assay in an attempt to identify the amino acids essential for its nuclear localization. We found that three basic amino acid residues located in the N-terminal region of BEND3 (BEND3{sub 56–58}, KRK) are essential, suggesting that these residues play a role as a functional NLS. These results provide valuable information for progressing research on BEND3. - Highlights: • BEND3 localizes to the nucleus. • The N-terminal 60 amino acids region of BEND3 contains NLS. • Amino acids located between 56 and 58 of BEND3 (KRK) are part of NLS. • KRK motif is highly conserved among BEND3 homologs.

  11. Mosses accumulate heavy metals from the substrata of coal ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukojević Vanja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants that are able to accumulate and tolerate extraordinarily high concentrations of heavy metals (hyperaccumulators can be used for phytoremediation (removal of contaminants from soils or phytomining (growing a crop of plants to harvest the metals. Two moss species, Bryum capillare Hedw. and Ceratodon purpureus Hedw., were tested as potential phytoremedies under in vivo conditions on a coal ash disposal site in the surroundings of Obrenovac (NW Serbia. The content of various heavy metals (iron, manganese zinc, lead, nickel, cadmium, and copper in the mosses and substrata were investigated over a period of three years. Iron and zinc were found to have the highest concentration in the mosses.

  12. Radiation induced processes in moss cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doehren, R. v.

    1975-01-01

    The moss F.h. shows apical growth in the protonema cells which spread radially from the spor. Every apical daughter cell during the state of 'Caulonema' and just before in the state of 'Caulonema Primanen' initiates cell division as soon as more than twice the length of the mother cell is reached. All this allows to follow radiation effects in single cells conveniently. UV irradiation on the range of 254 nm and 280 nm delivered at different parts of the cell area delays cell division markedly may suppress it, and is able to stop the process of growing in relation to the delivered dose and to the irradiated area as well. In case of irradiation of the area next to where the membrane is just being formed - that is to say next to the phragmoplast - the new membrane will be wrongly oriented. In particular giant cells are occurring in the case of nucleus irradiation during early prophase. (orig./GSE) [de

  13. Imaging Mitosis in the Moss Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Moé; Miki, Tomohiro; Goshima, Gohta

    2016-01-01

    At first glance, mitosis in plants looks quite different from that in animals. In fact, terrestrial plants have lost the centrosome during evolution, and the mitotic spindle is assembled independently of a strong microtubule organizing center. The phragmoplast is a plant-specific mitotic apparatus formed after anaphase, which expands centrifugally towards the cell cortex. However, the extent to which plant mitosis differs from that of animals at the level of the protein repertoire is uncertain, largely because of the difficulty in the identification and in vivo characterization of mitotic genes of plants. Here, we discuss protocols for mitosis imaging that can be combined with endogenous green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagging or conditional RNA interference (RNAi) in the moss Physcomitrella patens, which is an emergent model plant for cell and developmental biology. This system has potential for use in the high-throughput study of mitosis and other intracellular processes, as is being done with various animal cell lines.

  14. New moss species with gravitropic protonemata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobachevska, O. V.

    Gravitropism of 30 moss species was analysed at different stages of development: germination of spores, protonemata, gametophore and sporophyte formation. Spores were sowed in sterile conditions from the closed capsules on 1 % bactoagar with 0,2 % glucose and cultivated in the dark in vertically oriented petri dishes. In the same conditions fragments of protonemata and gametophores were grown being transferred aseptically from sterile cultures of spores germinated in controled light conditions. To assess gravity sensitivity the dishes were kept upright for 7 10 days in darkness and then 90o turned. After 20 h gravistimulation the angles of apical cell gravity bending were determined. The amount of amyloplasts and their distribution during growth and spatial reorientation of sporophytes selected from nature samples on different stages of species-specific capsule formation were analyzed after JK2J staining. The gravitropic sensing was established in 7 new moss species only. The general traits of all such species were the ark-like cygneous seta bending and inclined, to pendulous, capsules. JK2J staining of young isolated sporophytes has shown, that twisting and bending of seta as well as the spatial capsule reorientation result from the changes of distribution of amyloplasts in the direction of gravitropic growth or caused by their lateral sedimentation. In the dark protonemata of investigated mosses grew upwards on agar surface giving rise to bundles of negatively gravitropic stolons in 7-10 days. During germination at first negatively gravitropic primary chloronema and then positively gravitropic primary rizoid appeared. In 3 days, however, the growth of all primary filaments was negatively gravitropic. In Dicranella cerviculata majority of primary filaments were negatively gravitropic from the very beginning. After 20 h gravistimulation of protonemata of different moss species the following mean values of gravity bending (degrees) were established: Leptobryum

  15. Treatment of waste waters with peat moss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coupal, B; Lalancette, J M

    1976-01-01

    Waste waters containing heavy metals such as Hg, Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe, Ni, Cr/sup 6 +/, Cr/sup 3 +/, Ag, Pb, Sb or cyanide, phosphates and organic matters such as oil, detergents and dyes can be treated efficiently after a crude settling by contacting with peat moss. Chromium, as Cr/sup 6 +/, can be eliminated in one step from a starting solution of low turbidity to give effluent containing less than 10 ppb of Cr/sup 6 +/ and less than 40 ppb of Cr/sup 3 +/. The characteristics and performances of a contacting machine of 20,000 gal/day capacity for the treatment of industrial waste waters are reported.

  16. Vertical profiles of 239(240)Pu, 238Pu and 241Am in some peculiar Italian mosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, C.; Desideri, D.; Guerra, F.; Meli, M.A.; Roselli, C.; Jia, G.; Degetto, S.

    2000-01-01

    During the last two years the Urbino University and the Padua ICTIMA CNR were working on a special radioecological program having the aim to study the Pu and Am retention behaviour in different species of mosses growing in two Italian regions (Urbino, Central Italy, 450 m a.s.l. and Alps region, Northern Italy, 1500 m a.s.l.). 239,240 Pu, 238 Pu and 241 Am were separated and determined by extraction chromatography, electroplating and alpha spectrometry; 242 Pu and 243 Am were used as the yield tracers. The paper summarizes the results dealing with the vertical profiles of the radionuclides in three different species of mosses. Several 1-2 cm high sections were obtained and dated by 210 Pb determination. Typical concentration peaks for Pu and Am were found for very old moss species ('Sphagnum Compactum' and 'Sphagnum Nemoreum') at a depth corresponding to the early 1960's which is the period characterized by the maximum nuclear weapon tests. In more recent moss species ('Neckeria Crispa') no peak was observed and the regression curves showed that Am is more mobile than Pu. (author)

  17. Distribution of trace elements in moss biomonitors near Mumbai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabortty, S.; Paratkar, G.T.; Jha, S.K.; Puranik, V.D.

    2004-01-01

    Elemental composition of mosses from Mahabaleshwar, a remote hill station near Mumbai was measured. Trace element profiles of two different species of mosses were compared. Chemical analysis for washed and unwashed moss samples was done using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (EDXRF) and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) techniques in an attempt to understand the variation. The comparative concentration of Al, Sr , Zn and Rb in both the mosses reflected the order of abundance of metal in the soil. The enrichment factor of Pb, was found more in Pinnatella alopccuroides than the other one whereas enrichment factor of Cr was more in Pterobryopsis flexiceps compared to Pinnatella alopccuroides. So they can be preferentially used as bioindicators for respective elements. (author)

  18. pupil initiatives in urban nature trail development: pmb moss

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .ritzburg is provided. Negotiations and procedures initiated by standard 9 pupils in stimulating authorities and the public to recog~ nise the need for urban trail development and metropolitan open space. (MOSS) are outlined. long-tenn ...

  19. The use of mosses as environmental metal pollution indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, Maurizio; Abollino, Ornella; Conca, Raffaele; Malandrino, Mery; Mentasti, Edoardo; Sarzanini, Corrado

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of using mosses as environmental indicators of metal pollution has been investigated. Mosses of the species Bryum argenteum were collected from different parts of Piedmont (Italy), ranging from highly polluted areas to nearly uncontaminated mountain areas. Periodical samplings were planned in every site on a monthly base, in order to check variations of metal uptake throughout one year; correlations with pluviometric and thermal patterns were investigated for all sampling stations. On every moss sample 20 elements, ranging from major (K, P, Al, Ca, Fe and Mg) to minor (Mn, Na, Ti and Zn) and trace (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Ni, Pb and Sr), were quantitatively determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry or graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometry, depending on the needed sensitivity. Statistical analyses, carried out with principal component analysis and cluster analysis methods, revealed that a good correlation exists between metal content in mosses and pollution degree in the areas sampled.

  20. Spatial and temporal variation in isotopic composition of atmospheric lead in Norwegian moss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosman, K.J.R.; Ly, C.; Steinnes, E.

    1998-01-01

    Earlier studies using moss as a biomonitor of pollution have shown that long-range transport is a major source of pollution in Norway. Until now, the origin of these pollutants has been inferred from concentration measurements of various elements in moss and the climatology at each sampling site. Lead isotopes provide an opportunity to identify the sources and to quantify the contribution of each. This preliminary study reports measurements of lead isotopes in moss from selected sites along the full extent of Norway that reveal significant spatial and temporal variations. There are significant north-south trends that differ at coastal and inland sites and differ between sampling periods (1974--1994). These variations reflect the changing contributions from the different source regions as the regulation of pollution from automobiles and industry takes effect. Identifiable sources are the U.K. and possibly France, which is noticeable at coastal sites; western Europe at the southern end; and eastern Europe and Russia influencing the inland and northernmost sites

  1. Estimation of element deposition derived from road traffic sources by using mosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zechmeister, H.G.; Hohenwallner, D.; Riss, A.; Hanus-Illnar, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sixty moss samples were taken along transects of nine roads in Austria. The concentrations of 17 elements in four moss species were determined. There was a high correlation between several elements like Cu/Sb (0.906), Ni/Co (0.897) or Cr/V (0.898), indicating a common traffic-related source. Enrichment factors were calculated, showing highest enrichment levels for: Cr, Mo, Sb, Zn, As, Fe, V, Cu, Ni, and Co. For these elements, road traffic has to be assumed as a source, which is confirmed by a significant negative correlation of the concentrations in mosses to the distance from the road for most of these metals. The rate of decrease followed a log-shaped curve at most of the investigated transects, although the decline cannot be explained by a single model. Multiple regression analysis highlighted traffic density, distance from and elevation of the road as the most influencing factors for the deposition of the investigated elements. Heavy duty vehicles (HDVs) and light duty vehicles (LDVs) showed different patterns. A comparison of sites likely to be influenced by traffic emissions with average values for the respective regions showed no significant differences for road distances of more than 250 m. Nevertheless, at heavily frequented roads, raised deposition of some elements was found even at a distance of 1000 m. - Cr, Mo, Sb, Zn, As, Fe, V, Cu, Ni, and Co were identified as road traffic emissions and were mainly deposited within a distance of 250 m from major roads

  2. Using devitalized moss for active biomonitoring of water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debén, S.; Fernández, J.A.; Carballeira, A.; Aboal, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experiment carried out for the first time in situ to select a treatment to devitalize mosses for use in active biomonitoring of water pollution. Three devitalizing treatments for the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica were tested (i.e. oven-drying at 100 °C, oven-drying with a 50-80-100 °C temperature ramp, and boiling in water), and the effects of these on loss of material during exposure of the transplants and on the accumulation of different heavy metals and metalloids were determined. The suitability of using devitalized samples of the terrestrial moss Sphagnum denticulatum to biomonitor aquatic environments was also tested. The structure of mosses was altered in different ways by the devitalizing treatments. Devitalization by boiling water led to significantly less loss of material (p < 0.01) than the oven-drying treatments. However, devitalization by oven-drying with a temperature ramp yielded more stable results in relation to both loss of material and accumulation of elements. With the aim of standardizing the moss bag technique, the use of F. antipyretica devitalized by oven-drying with a temperature ramp is recommended, rather than other devitalization treatments or use of S. denticulatum. - Highlights: • Devitalization treatments of the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica were tested. • Loss of material during the exposure and accumulation of contaminants were evaluated. • The use of mosses devitalized by oven-drying with a temperature ramp is recommended. • The use of Sphagnum denticulatum as biomonitor of aquatic environments is not suitable. - Selection of a devitalization treatment as a contribution for standardizing moss bag technique.

  3. Unexpected diversity in mosses on walls of modern buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Hofbauer, Wolfgang; Forrest, Laura L.; Hollingsworth, Michelle L.; Rennebarth, Thorsten; Breuer, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Previous investigations of the first colonizers of modern building surfaces, especially of external thermal insulation compound system (ETICS), revealed that after a certain while certain mosses may be found amongst them. Usually fungal and algal colonizers are faster, but after only a few years, moss growth may start if conditions are favorable. The primary aim of the project between the "Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (RBGE)" and the Fraunhofer-Institute for Building Physics IBP was to obta...

  4. Impairment of interferon regulatory factor-3 activation by hepatitis C virus core protein basic amino acid region 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kazuaki; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Matsuda, Chiho; Yoneyama, Mitsutoshi; Fujita, Takashi; Kuge, Shusuke; Yoshiba, Makoto; Kohara, Michinori

    2012-11-30

    Interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3), a key transcriptional factor in the type I interferon system, is frequently impaired by hepatitis C virus (HCV), in order to establish persistent infection. However, the exact mechanism by which the virus establishes persistent infection has not been fully understood yet. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of various HCV proteins on IRF-3 activation, and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. To achieve this, full-length HCV and HCV subgenomic constructs corresponding to structural and each of the nonstructural proteins were transiently transfected into HepG2 cells. IFN-β induction, plaque formation, and IRF-3 dimerization were elicited by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection. The expressions of IRF-3 homodimer and its monomer, Ser386-phosphorylated IRF-3, and HCV core protein were detected by immunofluorescence and western blotting. IFN-β mRNA expression was quantified by real-time PCR (RT-PCR), and IRF-3 activity was measured by the levels of IRF-3 dimerization and phosphorylation, induced by NDV infection or polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I:C)]. Switching of the expression of the complete HCV genome as well as the core proteins, E1, E2, and NS2, suppressed IFN-β mRNA levels and IRF-3 dimerization, induced by NDV infection. Our study revealed a crucial region of the HCV core protein, basic amino acid region 1 (BR1), to inhibit IRF-3 dimerization as well as its phosphorylation induced by NDV infection and poly (I:C), thus interfering with IRF-3 activation. Therefore, our study suggests that rescue of the IRF-3 pathway impairment may be an effective treatment for HCV infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Stable isotopes and Antarctic moss banks: Plants and soil microbes respond to recent warming on the Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royles, Jessica; Amesbury, Matthew; Ogée, Jérôme; Wingate, Lisa; Convey, Peter; Hodgson, Dominic; Griffiths, Howard; Leng, Melanie; Charman, Dan

    2014-05-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, with air temperature increases of as much as 3°C recorded since the 1950s. However, the longer-term context of this change is limited and existing records, largely relying on ice core data, are not suitably located to be able to trace the spatial signature of change over time. We are working on a project exploiting stable isotope records preserved in moss peat banks spanning 10 degrees of latitude along the Antarctic Peninsula as an archive of late Holocene climate variability. Here we present a unique time series of past moss growth and soil microbial activity that has been produced from a 150 year old moss bank at Lazarev Bay, Alexander Island (69°S), a site at the southern limit of significant plant growth in the Antarctic Peninsula region. These moss banks are ideal archives for palaeoclimate research as they are well-preserved by freezing, generally monospecific, easily dated by radiocarbon techniques, and have sufficiently high accumulation rates to permit decadal resolution. We use accumulation rates, cellulose δ13C and fossil testate amoebae to show that growth rates, assimilation and microbial productivity rose rapidly in the 1960s, consistent with temperature change, although recently may have stalled, concurrent with other evidence. The increase in biological activity is unprecedented in the last 150 years. Along with work completed on Signy Island (60°S), in the South Orkney Islands, in which we used carbon isotope evidence to show recent climate-related enhancement of CO2 assimilation and peat accumulation rates in Antarctica, the observed relationships between moss growth, microbial activity and climate suggests that moss bank records have the potential to test the regional expression of temperature variability shown by instrumental data on the Antarctic Peninsula over centennial to millennial timescales, by providing long-term records of summer growth conditions

  6. Wind power installations in Switzerland - Regional planning basics and impact; Eoliennes en Suisse. Bases de planification pour l'amenagement du territoire et effets. Rapport de base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Kaufmann, Y.; Steiner, P. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Gilgen, K.; Sartoris, A. [IRAP-HSR, Institut fuer Raumentwicklung an der Hochschule fuer Technik Rapperswil, Rapperswil (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    This report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the basics of regional planning and its impact on the construction of wind-energy installations in Switzerland. The authors state that the planning and realisation of wind turbine installations is often time and resource consuming: this document presents and discusses the results obtained in a project that aimed to supply consolidated knowledge on project-relevant basics and their effect with respect to wind-energy installations. Experience gained in Switzerland and in other countries is discussed. This report on the basics of wind-energy planning with its detailed information formed the basis of a checklist described in a further report. In nine chapters, regional planning aspects, environment and landscape-relevant aspects, effects on the national and regional economies and social acceptance factors are discussed. Also, success-factors and possible solutions for the successful realisation of wind-energy projects are looked at.

  7. Trends of atmospheric deposition of trace elements in Macedonia studied by the moss biomonitoring technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barandovski, Lambe; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Stafilov, Trajče; Sajn, Robert; Pavlov, Sergey; Enimiteva, Vangelica

    2012-01-01

    In 2002 and 2005 the moss biomonitoring technique was applied to air pollution studies in the Republic of Macedonia in the framework of the International Cooperative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE-ICP Vegetation) Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP). In August 2005 samples of the terrestrial mosses Homolothecium lutescens and Hypnum cupressiforme were collected at 72 sites evenly distributed over the territory of the country, in accordance with the sampling strategy of the European moss survey programme. A total of 41 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy Hf, Ta, W, Hg, Pb, Th, and U) were determined by instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Principal component analysis was used to identify and characterize different pollution sources. Distributional maps were prepared to point out the regions most affected by pollution and to relate this to known sources of contamination. A few areas, as in 2002, are experiencing particular environmental stress: Veles, Skopje, Tetovo, Radoviš and Kavadarci-Negotino, whereas the agricultural regions in the south, south-west, and south-east show median European values for most elements of mainly pollution origin. A significant increase in the content of Ni is noticed in the 2005 moss survey compared with 2002, due to the increased production of the ferro-nickel smelter in Kavadarci. A higher content of Cd, Hg, and Pb in 2005 relative to 2002 can be explained by pollution from the lead-zinc smelter in Veles, as well as the pollution that comes from the open slag waste dump of this smelter. Protection activities on the dump of slag from the former ferrochromium smelter located near Tetovo resulted in a lower content of Cr in the 2005 moss

  8. USING A MICRO-UAV FOR ULTRA-HIGH RESOLUTION MULTI-SENSOR OBSERVATIONS OF ANTARCTIC MOSS BEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lucieer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first to use an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV for mapping moss beds in Antarctica. Mosses can be used as indicators for the regional effects of climate change. Mapping and monitoring their extent and health is therefore important. UAV aerial photography provides ultra-high resolution spatial data for this purpose. We developed a technique to extract an extremely dense 3D point cloud from overlapping UAV aerial photography based on structure from motion (SfM algorithms. The combination of SfM and patch-based multi-view stereo image vision algorithms resulted in a 2 cm resolution digital terrain model (DTM. This detailed topographic information combined with vegetation indices derived from a 6-band multispectral sensor enabled the assessment of moss bed health. This novel UAV system has allowed us to map different environmental characteristics of the moss beds at ultra-high resolution providing us with a better understanding of these fragile Antarctic ecosystems. The paper provides details on the different UAV instruments and the image processing framework resulting in DEMs, vegetation indices, and terrain derivatives.

  9. Chemical and structural characterization of copper adsorbed on mosses (Bryophyta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, Aridane G., E-mail: aridaneglez@gmail.com [GET (Géosciences Environnement Toulouse) UMR 5563CNRS, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Jimenez-Villacorta, Felix [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Beike, Anna K. [Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestrasse 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); State Museum of Natural History Stuttgart, Rosenstein 1, 70191 Stuttgart (Germany); Reski, Ralf [Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestrasse 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); BIOSS—Centre for Biological Signalling Studies, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); FRIAS—Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Adamo, Paola [Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Via Università 100, 80055 Naples (Italy); Pokrovsky, Oleg S. [GET (Géosciences Environnement Toulouse) UMR 5563CNRS, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); BIO-GEO-CLIM Laboratory, Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Ecological Problems of the North, Russian Academy of Science, Arkhangelsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Cu{sup 2+} was adsorbed on four mosses used in moss-bag pollution monitoring technique. • Thermodynamic approach was used to model Cu speciation based on XAS results. • All studied mosses have ∼4.5 O/N atoms at ∼1.95 Å around Cu likely in a pseudo-square geometry. • Cu(II)-carboxylates and Cu(II)-phosphoryls are the main moss surface binding groups. • Moss growing in batch reactor yielded ∼20% of Cu(I) in the form of Cu–S(CN) complexes. - Abstract: The adsorption of copper on passive biomonitors (devitalized mosses Hypnum sp., Sphagnum denticulatum, Pseudoscleropodium purum and Brachythecium rutabulum) was studied under different experimental conditions such as a function of pH and Cu concentration in solution. Cu assimilation by living Physcomitrella patents was also investigated. Molecular structure of surface adsorbed and incorporated Cu was studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Devitalized mosses exhibited the universal adsorption pattern of Cu as a function of pH, with a total binding sites number 0.05–0.06 mmolg{sub dry}{sup −1} and a maximal adsorption capacity of 0.93–1.25 mmolg{sub dry}{sup −1} for these devitalized species. The Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) fit of the first neighbor demonstrated that for all studied mosses there are ∼4.5 O/N atoms around Cu at ∼1.95 Å likely in a pseudo-square geometry. The X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) analysis demonstrated that Cu(II)-cellulose (representing carboxylate groups) and Cu(II)-phosphate are the main moss surface binding moieties, and the percentage of these sites varies as a function of solution pH. P. patens exposed during one month to Cu{sup 2+} yielded ∼20% of Cu(I) in the form of Cu–S(CN) complexes, suggesting metabolically-controlled reduction of adsorbed and assimilated Cu{sup 2+}.

  10. Chemical and structural characterization of copper adsorbed on mosses (Bryophyta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Aridane G.; Jimenez-Villacorta, Felix; Beike, Anna K.; Reski, Ralf; Adamo, Paola; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu 2+ was adsorbed on four mosses used in moss-bag pollution monitoring technique. • Thermodynamic approach was used to model Cu speciation based on XAS results. • All studied mosses have ∼4.5 O/N atoms at ∼1.95 Å around Cu likely in a pseudo-square geometry. • Cu(II)-carboxylates and Cu(II)-phosphoryls are the main moss surface binding groups. • Moss growing in batch reactor yielded ∼20% of Cu(I) in the form of Cu–S(CN) complexes. - Abstract: The adsorption of copper on passive biomonitors (devitalized mosses Hypnum sp., Sphagnum denticulatum, Pseudoscleropodium purum and Brachythecium rutabulum) was studied under different experimental conditions such as a function of pH and Cu concentration in solution. Cu assimilation by living Physcomitrella patents was also investigated. Molecular structure of surface adsorbed and incorporated Cu was studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Devitalized mosses exhibited the universal adsorption pattern of Cu as a function of pH, with a total binding sites number 0.05–0.06 mmolg dry −1 and a maximal adsorption capacity of 0.93–1.25 mmolg dry −1 for these devitalized species. The Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) fit of the first neighbor demonstrated that for all studied mosses there are ∼4.5 O/N atoms around Cu at ∼1.95 Å likely in a pseudo-square geometry. The X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) analysis demonstrated that Cu(II)-cellulose (representing carboxylate groups) and Cu(II)-phosphate are the main moss surface binding moieties, and the percentage of these sites varies as a function of solution pH. P. patens exposed during one month to Cu 2+ yielded ∼20% of Cu(I) in the form of Cu–S(CN) complexes, suggesting metabolically-controlled reduction of adsorbed and assimilated Cu 2+ .

  11. Mosses, a necessary step for perennial plant dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiaffredo, M. [MCK Environnement (France); Denayer, F.O. [Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques de Lille, Laboratoire de Botanique et de Cryptogamie (France)

    2004-07-01

    Green roofs have the potential to fulfill the requirements of several important ecological functions such as regulating rainwater; creating surfaces of ecological compensation; reducing the greenhouse effect,; improving air quality and reducing noise pollution. This paper described the advantages of both intensive and extensive green roof systems. Intensive green roofs refer to those in which a real garden is planted with bushes and possibly trees. A significant depth of substrate is needed in intensive green roofs, leading to higher construction and maintenance costs. Extensive green roofs refer to those in which rustic drought resistant plants are planted in only a shallow layer of substrate. Extensive green roofs do not require fertilization or watering and do not require much upkeep. Observations at a terraced and waterproofed roof that was planted 15 years ago showed that mosses and sedum grow well in gravel without human intervention. This paper reviewed the important ecological role that mosses play in terms of carbon fixation, nitrogen fixation, effects on vascular plants, water relations and soil stabilization. It was concluded that mosses are well suited for lands where colonization is particularly difficult. Mosses were shown to be among the first colonizers of mineral soils. Moss mats reduce substrate temperature fluctuations and moisture loss, while contributing to pedogenesis and plant succession. They also grow successfully in harsh environments, and can tolerate repeated cycles of drought and rehydration. 34 refs.

  12. Using devitalized moss for active biomonitoring of water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debén, S; Fernández, J A; Carballeira, A; Aboal, J R

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an experiment carried out for the first time in situ to select a treatment to devitalize mosses for use in active biomonitoring of water pollution. Three devitalizing treatments for the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica were tested (i.e. oven-drying at 100 °C, oven-drying with a 50-80-100 °C temperature ramp, and boiling in water), and the effects of these on loss of material during exposure of the transplants and on the accumulation of different heavy metals and metalloids were determined. The suitability of using devitalized samples of the terrestrial moss Sphagnum denticulatum to biomonitor aquatic environments was also tested. The structure of mosses was altered in different ways by the devitalizing treatments. Devitalization by boiling water led to significantly less loss of material (p treatments. However, devitalization by oven-drying with a temperature ramp yielded more stable results in relation to both loss of material and accumulation of elements. With the aim of standardizing the moss bag technique, the use of F. antipyretica devitalized by oven-drying with a temperature ramp is recommended, rather than other devitalization treatments or use of S. denticulatum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatiotemporal distribution of airborne elements monitored with the moss bags technique in the Greater Thriasion Plain, Attica, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitanis, C J; Frontasyeva, M V; Steinnes, E; Palmer, M W; Ostrovnaya, T M; Gundorina, S F

    2013-01-01

    The well-known moss bags technique was applied in the heavily polluted Thriasion Plain region, Attica, Greece, in order to study the spatiotemporal distribution, in the atmosphere, of the following 32 elements: Na, Al, Cl, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Dy, Yb, Hf, Ta, Hg, Th, and U. The moss bags were constituted of Sphagnum girgensohnii materials. The bags were exposed to ambient air in a network of 12 monitoring stations scattered throughout the monitoring area. In order to explore the temporal variation of the pollutants, four sets of moss bags were exposed for 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Instrumental neutral activation analysis was used for the determinations of the elements. The data were analyzed using the Pearson correlations, the partial redundancy analysis, and the biplot statistical methods. Some pairs of elements were highly correlated indicating a probable common source of origin. The levels of the measured pollutants were unevenly distributed throughout the area and different pollutants exhibited different spatial patterns. In general, higher loads were observed in the stations close to and within the industrial zone. Most of the measured elements (e.g., Al, Ca, Ni, I, Zn, Cr, and As) exhibited a monotonic accumulation trend over time. Some elements exhibited different dynamics. The elements Mn, Mo, and Hg showed a decreasing trend, probably due to leaching and/or volatilization processes over time. Na and Br initially showed an increasing trend during the winter and early spring periods but decreased drastically during the late warm period. The results further suggest that the moss bags technique would be considered valuable for the majority of elements but should be used with caution in the cases of elements vulnerable to leaching and/or volatilization. It also suggests that the timing and the duration of the exposure of moss materials should be considered in the interpretation of the results.

  14. Active moss biomonitoring applied to an industrial area in Romania: variation of element contents with the height of exposure site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culicov, O.; Yurukova, L.; Mocanu, R.; Frontasyeva, V.; Sarbu, C.

    2007-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis and the moss-bag transplant technique were used to investigate the variation of element contents with the height of the exposure site of Sphagnum girgensohnii samples in the strongly polluted town of Baia Mare, Romania, according to a novel sampling design. Moss collected from the background area in Moscow region, Russia, was hanged in bags at 3 locations spread within an area of one square kilometre, and analyzed after 4 months of exposure. At each location a number of 15 samples were suspended at 6 different levels above the ground: 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 m. A total of 35 elements were determined by NAA at IBR-2 reactor in Dubna, Russia. Discriminant Analysis allowed depicting the differences between the accumulation patterns of moss at different levels of exposure and at various locations. The concentration of only twenty four and twenty five elements of thirty five provided sufficient information to enable classification rules to be developed for identifying moss samples according with their height of exposure and location, respectively. The most discriminant elements have the F values (indicating the statistical significance in the discrimination between groups) descending in the following order: K, Rb, Sb, Cs, Zn, Cl for the location model and Ca, Cd, As, Sr, Ba, Cl for the height model. A good agreement have been observed between the groups obtained by applying Discriminant Analysis and the origin of the samples. A small number of elements are significant for the separation of moss-bags by height in individual locations. The parameter ?variation in concentration by height? is less significant than the parameter ? variation in concentration by location?

  15. International Commercial Contracts, by Giuditta Cordero Moss. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Review of: Giuditta Cordero Moss, International Commercial Contracts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. XV + 329 pages. ISBN: 9781107684713......Review of: Giuditta Cordero Moss, International Commercial Contracts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. XV + 329 pages. ISBN: 9781107684713...

  16. Nitrogen concentrations in mosses indicate the spatial distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmens, H.; Norris, D.A.; Cooper, D.M.; Mills, G.; Steinnes, E.; Kubin, E.; Thoeni, L.; Aboal, J.R.; Alber, R.; Carballeira, A.; Coskun, M.; De Temmerman, L.; Frolova, M.; Gonzalez-Miqueo, L.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005/6, nearly 3000 moss samples from (semi-)natural location across 16 European countries were collected for nitrogen analysis. The lowest total nitrogen concentrations in mosses ( 2 = 0.91) linear relationship was found between the total nitrogen concentration in mosses and measured site-specific bulk nitrogen deposition rates. The total nitrogen concentrations in mosses complement deposition measurements, helping to identify areas in Europe at risk from high nitrogen deposition at a high spatial resolution. - Highlights: → Nitrogen concentrations in mosses were determined at ca. 3000 sites across Europe. → Moss concentrations were compared with EMEP modelled nitrogen deposition. → The asymptotic relationship for Europe showed saturation at ca. 15 kg N ha -1 y -1 . → Linear relationships were found with measured nitrogen deposition in some countries. → Moss concentrations complement deposition measurements at high spatial resolution. - Mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Europe.

  17. Reproductive output of mosses under experimental warming on Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, maritime Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Casanova-Katny, A.; Torres-Mellado, G. A.; Eppley, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mosses dominate much of the vegetation in the Antarctic, but the effect of climatic change on moss growth and sexual reproduction has scarcely been studied. In Antarctica, mosses infrequently produce sporophytes; whether this is due to physiological limitation or an adaptive response is unknown. We studied the effect of experimental warming (with Open Top Chambers, OTCs) on sporophyte production on Fildes Peninsula, King George Island for four moss species (Bartramia patens, Henne...

  18. Characterization of freshwater mosses as indicators of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K.

    1994-01-01

    The necessity of indicators of freshwater contamination has developed the interest for aquatic mosses. From a fundamental point of view, studying the influence of some biotic and abiotic factors has permitted to better know the mechanisms of radionuclides accumulation by these bryophytes. From a radioecological point of view, simulating real cases of water contamination has allowed to give results a very interesting representativeness. The use of mosses as bio-indicators was applied for two in situ experiments, the results of which have been interpreted from those obtained in laboratory. Finally, an approach by a mathematical model has showed that it is possible to have, in a middle term, an evaluation tool of freshwater contamination, based on the radionuclides concentrations measured in aquatic mosses. (author). refs., 57 figs., 24 tabs

  19. The effect of moisture content on the thermal conductivity of moss and organic soil horizons from black spruce ecosystems in interior alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, J. A.; Romanovsky, V.E.; Harden, J.W.; McGuire, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Organic soil horizons function as important controls on the thermal state of near-surface soil and permafrost in high-latitude ecosystems. The thermal conductivity of organic horizons is typically lower than mineral soils and is closely linked to moisture content, bulk density, and water phase. In this study, we examined the relationship between thermal conductivity and soil moisture for different moss and organic horizon types in black spruce ecosystems of interior Alaska. We sampled organic horizons from feather moss-dominated and Sphagnum-dominated stands and divided horizons into live moss and fibrous and amorphous organic matter. Thermal conductivity measurements were made across a range of moisture contents using the transient line heat source method. Our findings indicate a strong positive and linear relationship between thawed thermal conductivity (Kt) and volumetric water content. We observed similar regression parameters (?? or slope) across moss types and organic horizons types and small differences in ??0 (y intercept) across organic horizon types. Live Sphagnum spp. had a higher range of Kt than did live feather moss because of the field capacity (laboratory based) of live Sphagnum spp. In northern regions, the thermal properties of organic soil horizons play a critical role in mediating the effects of climate warming on permafrost conditions. Findings from this study could improve model parameterization of thermal properties in organic horizons and enhance our understanding of future permafrost and ecosystem dynamics. ?? 2009 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  20. High Throughput Sequencing to Detect Differences in Methanotrophic Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae in Surface Peat, Forest Soil, and Sphagnum Moss in Cranesville Swamp Preserve, West Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Evan; Nolan, Edward J.; Dillard, Zachary W.; Dague, Ryan D.; Semple, Amanda L.; Wentzell, Wendi L.

    2015-01-01

    Northern temperate forest soils and Sphagnum-dominated peatlands are a major source and sink of methane. In these ecosystems, methane is mainly oxidized by aerobic methanotrophic bacteria, which are typically found in aerated forest soils, surface peat, and Sphagnum moss. We contrasted methanotrophic bacterial diversity and abundances from the (i) organic horizon of forest soil; (ii) surface peat; and (iii) submerged Sphagnum moss from Cranesville Swamp Preserve, West Virginia, using multiplex sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA (V3 region) gene amplicons. From ~1 million reads, >50,000 unique OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units), 29 and 34 unique sequences were detected in the Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae, respectively, and 24 potential methanotrophs in the Beijerinckiaceae were also identified. Methylacidiphilum-like methanotrophs were not detected. Proteobacterial methanotrophic bacteria constitute Sphagnum moss) or co-occurred in both Sphagnum moss and peat. This study provides insights into the structure of methanotrophic communities in relationship to habitat type, and suggests that peat and Sphagnum moss can influence methanotroph community structure and biogeography. PMID:27682082

  1. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION OF MAJOR AND TRACE ELEMENTS IN THE GREATER AND LESSER CAUCASUS MOUNTAINS STUDIED BY THE MOSS TECHNIQUE AND NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shetekauri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The method of moss biomonitoring of atmospheric deposition of trace elements was applied for the first time in the western Caucasus Mountains to assess the environmental situation in this region. The sixteen moss samples have been collected in 2014 summer growth period along altitudinal gradients in the range of altitudes from 600 m to 2665 m. Concentrations of Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Mo, Cd, I, Sb, Ba, La, Sm, W, Au, and U determined by neutron activation analysis in the moss samples are reported. A comparison with the data for moss collected in Norway (pristine area was carried out.  Multivariate statistical analysis of the results was used for assessment pollution sources in the studied part of the Caucasus. The increase in concentrations of most of elements with rising altitude due to gradually disappearing vegetation cover and wind erosion of soil was observed. A comparison with the available data for moss collected in the Alps at the same altitude (~ 2500 m was performed.

  2. Correlations between physicochemical properties of PAHs and their distribution in soil, moss and reindeer dung at Ny-Alesund of the Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhen; Ma Xindong; Na Guangshui; Lin Zhongsheng [National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, Dalian 116023 (China); Ding Qian [Environmental Science and Engineering College, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026 (China); Yao Ziwei, E-mail: zwyao@nmemc.gov.c [National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, moss and reindeer dung collected at Ny-Alesund of the Arctic were measured to investigate their accumulation trends and distribution in the three compartments. Compared with the other regions, the proportions of 2 + 3 ring PAHs to the total PAHs were higher, whereas the proportions of 5 + 6 ring PAHs were lower in the three compartments at Ny-Alesund. Significant log/log-linear relationship was observed between the sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure (p{sub L}{sup o}) and the soil/moss quotient (Q{sub SM}). The relation was similar to the relationship between the gas/particle partition coefficient (K{sub P}) and p{sub L}{sup o} of PAHs, implying Q{sub SM} would be a 'mirror image' of K{sub P}. Excellent log/log-linear relationships were observed between Q{sub SM} and K{sub OA} as well as between the moss/dung quotient (Q{sub MD}) and K{sub OW}. The results presented here indicate the physicochemical properties are suitable for characterizing the distribution of PAHs in soil, moss and reindeer dung. - The physicochemical properties of PAHs are suitable for characterizing their distribution in soil, moss and reindeer dung.

  3. [Impact of a nutrition education intervention in teachers, preschool and basic school-age children in Valparaiso region in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vio, Fernando; Salinas, Judith; Montenegro, Edith; González, Carmen Gloria; Lera, Lydia

    2014-06-01

    To assess the impact of a nutrition education program for teachers in the nutritional status, food knowledge and food consumption of their pre basic and basic students, and in the controls. A nutrition education intervention was conducted in pre basic and basic teachers in a school year, with a pre-post evaluation of their students, compared with a control group. Subjects were 817 students (389 men and 428 women) from pre kindergarten to the second grade. The 465 students of the intervened group were distributed in two schools (Liceo 1 = 283; Liceo 2 = 182) and 352 in the control school. The nutrition intervention consisted in 9 interactive workshops for teachers with the utilization of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). The pre post evaluation consisted in a nutritional status assessment, and a food and nutrition survey with questions related with food knowledge and food consumption, at the beginning and at the end of the school year. There were no significant differences in nutritional status between the beginning and the end of the intervention. In one of the experimental schools (Liceo 2) there was a significant decrease in obesity, in women and in the age-group 7-9 years. In the experimental group there was a significant improvement in food knowledge and a decrease in non-healthy food consumption. In the control group, consumption of non-healthy food was stable, with a decrease in fruits and vegetables consumption. As it was demonstrated in similar studies, a short interactive nutrition education intervention with utilization of ICT in pre basic and basic teachers can produce positive changes in nutritional status of their students, improving food knowledge and healthy food consumption and decreasing non-healthy food consumption, compared with the control group. However, a strategy to incorporate parents in school nutrition education programs is still a pending issue. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights

  4. Imaging MOSS tomographic system for H-1NF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, F.; Howard, J.

    1999-01-01

    A tomographic diagnostic utilising the Modulated Optical Solid-State spectrometer (MOSS) is planned for the H-1NF stellarator at the ANU. It is designed to create two-dimensional temperature or velocity maps of a poloidal cross-section of the high temperature plasma of H-1NF. The introduction of the MOSS spectrometers has enabled the development of several diagnostics to be used on the H-1NF stellerator. The MOSS spectrometer allows calculations of the plasma temperature and bulk velocity based on a line-integrated measurement of light emitted from electronic transitions within the plasma. A tomographic system utilising a rotatable multi-view ring apparatus and spatial multiplexing through a MOSS spectrometer is currently being developed. The ring apparatus is placed inside the H-1NF vessel and encircles the plasma. Multiple line-of-sight views collect light through a poloidal cross-section of the plasma and the emitted light is coupled into large core optical fibres. The transmitted light, via the optical fibre bundle, is then imaged through a large aperture MOSS spectrometer and onto another optical fibre array. Each fibre is then fed into a photomultiplier tube for signal detection. Characterisation of the properties of the lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 ) crystal used for modulation in the MOSS spectrometer is being undertaken to account for ray divergence in the imaging system. Tomographic techniques enable the construction of a temperature or velocity map of the poloidal cross-section. Rotating the ring apparatus to a new viewing position for the next pulse of plasma should allow an accurate picture to be built up based on the reproducibility of the plasma pulses. It is expected that initial testing of the system will begin in May when H-1NF begins operations at 0.5 Telsa field strength

  5. Effect of Water Content Components on Desiccation and Recovery in Sphagnum Mosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hájek, Tomáš; Beckett, Richard P.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The basic parameters of water relations were measured in Sphagnum mosses. The relationships of these parameters to the photosynthetic response to desiccation and the ecology of these mosses were then tested. Methods The water relations parameters of six Sphagnum species (mosses typical of wet habitats) and Atrichum androgynum (a moss more typical of mesophytic conditions) were calculated from pressure–volume isotherms. Photosynthetic properties during and after moderate desiccation were monitored by chlorophyll fluorescence. Key Results When desiccated, the hummock-forming species S. fuscum and S. magellanicum lost more water before turgor started dropping than other sphagna inhabiting less exposed habitats (73 % compared with 56 % on average). Osmotic potentials at full turgor were similar in all species, with an average value of −1·1 MPa. Hummock sphagna had clearly more rigid cell walls than species of wet habitats (ε = 3·55 compared with 1·93 MPa). As a result, their chlorophyllous cells lost turgor at higher relative water contents (RWCs) than species of wet habitats (0·61 compared with 0·46) and at less negative osmotic potentials (–2·28 compared with −3·00 MPa). During drying, ΦPSII started declining earlier in hummock species (at an RWC of 0·65 compared with 0·44), and Fv/Fm behaved similarly. Compared with other species, hummock sphagna desiccated to −20 or −40 MPa recovered more completely after rehydration. Atrichum androgynum responded to desiccation similarly to hummock sphagna, suggesting that their desiccation tolerance may have a similar physiological basis. Conclusions Assuming a fixed rate of desiccation, the higher water-holding capacities of hummock sphagna will allow them to continue metabolism for longer than other species. While this could be viewed as a form of ‘desiccation avoidance’, hummock species also recover faster than other species during rehydration, suggesting that they have higher

  6. Elemental atmospheric pollution assessment via moss-based measurements in Portland, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrios Gatziolis; Sarah Jovan; Geoffrey Donovan; Michael Amacher; Vicente Monleon

    2016-01-01

    Mosses accumulate pollutants from the atmosphere and can serve as an inexpensive screening tool for mapping air quality and guiding the placement of monitoring instruments. We measured 22 elements using 346 moss samples collected across Portland, Oregon, in December 2013. Our objectives were to develop citywide maps showing concentrations of each element in moss and...

  7. The Analysis of Basic Public Service Supply Regional Equalization in China’s Provinces——Based on the Theil Index Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zangyi

    2017-12-01

    Accomplishing the regional equalization of basic public service supply among the provinces in China is an important objective that can promote the people’s livelihood construction. In order to measure the problem which is about the non-equalization of basic public service supply, this paper takes these aspects as the first index, such as the infrastructure construction, basic education services, public employment services, public health service and social security service. At the same time, it cooperates with 16 index as the second index to construct the performance evaluation systems, and then use the Theil index to evaluate the performance in provinces that using the panel data from the year 2000 to 2012.

  8. The basic and ultrabasic dikes from the coast region between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities, Sao Paulo State, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garda, Gianna Maria

    1995-01-01

    The coastline between Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities and the shores of Sao Sebastiao, Anchieta and Mar Virado islands (Sao Paulo State, Brazil) are crosscut by several small swarms and isolated dykes trending N55E. The main rock types range from basic to intermediate, but also a conspicuous variety of alkaline lamprophyres occur side by side with the main group. The thickness of the basic to intermediate dykes vary widely, from a few centimeters to several metres, while the lamprophyres are a few tens of centimeters thick. The objective of this thesis is the petrographic, mineralogic, petrochemical and isotopic characterization of the basic and ultrabasic dykes that occur between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities (State of Sao Paulo), also including some occurrences from the Sao Sebastiao, Mar Virado and Anchieta islands and from the Bairro Alto region (Folha de Natividade da Serra). The petrogenetic model presented is based in the national and international bibliography. (author)

  9. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of the CAM epiphyte Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides, Bromeliaceae and its comparative analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Poczai

    Full Text Available Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides is an epiphytic bromeliad widely distributed throughout tropical and warm temperate America. This plant is highly adapted to extreme environmental conditions. Striking features of this species include specialized trichomes (scales covering the surface of its shoots aiding the absorption of water and nutrients directly from the atmosphere and a specific photosynthesis using crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM. Here we report the plastid genome of Spanish moss and present the comparison of genome organization and sequence evolution within Poales. The plastome of Spanish moss has a quadripartite structure consisting of a large single copy (LSC, 87,439 bp, two inverted regions (IRa and IRb, 26,803 bp and short single copy (SSC, 18,612 bp region. The plastid genome had 37.2% GC content and 134 genes with 88 being unique protein-coding genes and 20 of these are duplicated in the IR, similar to other reported bromeliads. Our study shows that early diverging lineages of Poales do not have high substitution rates as compared to grasses, and plastid genomes of bromeliads show structural features considered to be ancestral in graminids. These include the loss of the introns in the clpP and rpoC1 genes and the complete loss or partial degradation of accD and ycf genes in the Graminid clade. Further structural rearrangements appeared in the graminids lacking in Spanish moss, which include a 28-kb inversion between the trnG-UCC-rps14 region and 6-kb in the trnG-UCC-psbD, followed by a third <1kb inversion in the trnT sequence.

  10. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of the CAM epiphyte Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides, Bromeliaceae) and its comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poczai, Péter; Hyvönen, Jaakko

    2017-01-01

    Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides) is an epiphytic bromeliad widely distributed throughout tropical and warm temperate America. This plant is highly adapted to extreme environmental conditions. Striking features of this species include specialized trichomes (scales) covering the surface of its shoots aiding the absorption of water and nutrients directly from the atmosphere and a specific photosynthesis using crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). Here we report the plastid genome of Spanish moss and present the comparison of genome organization and sequence evolution within Poales. The plastome of Spanish moss has a quadripartite structure consisting of a large single copy (LSC, 87,439 bp), two inverted regions (IRa and IRb, 26,803 bp) and short single copy (SSC, 18,612 bp) region. The plastid genome had 37.2% GC content and 134 genes with 88 being unique protein-coding genes and 20 of these are duplicated in the IR, similar to other reported bromeliads. Our study shows that early diverging lineages of Poales do not have high substitution rates as compared to grasses, and plastid genomes of bromeliads show structural features considered to be ancestral in graminids. These include the loss of the introns in the clpP and rpoC1 genes and the complete loss or partial degradation of accD and ycf genes in the Graminid clade. Further structural rearrangements appeared in the graminids lacking in Spanish moss, which include a 28-kb inversion between the trnG-UCC-rps14 region and 6-kb in the trnG-UCC-psbD, followed by a third <1kb inversion in the trnT sequence.

  11. Active Moss Biomonitoring of Atmospheric Trace Element Deposition in Belgrade Urban Area using ENAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anicic, M.; Tasic, M.; Tomasevic, M.; Rajsic, S.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Strelkova, L. P.; Steinnes, E.

    2007-01-01

    Active biomonitoring of air quality in Belgrade, Serbia, was performed using the moss Sphagnum girgensohnii. Moss bags were exposed in parallel with and without irrigation respectively for four consecutive 3-month periods at three urban sites. Twenty-nine elements were determined in the exposed moss samples by ENAA and three (Cu, Cd, and Pb) by AAS. The relative accumulation factor (RAF) was greater than 1 for the majority of elements. Elements such as Cl, K, Rb and Cs, however, leached from the moss tissue during the exposure time. For all exposure periods, higher uptake in the irrigated moss bags was evident for Al, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Pb, and Cd

  12. Air Pollution with Heavy Metals and Radionuclides in Slovakia Studied by the Moss Biomonitoring Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Florek, M; Mankovska, B; Oprea, K; Pavlov, S S; Steinnes, E; Sykora, I

    2001-01-01

    Applying the moss biomonitoring technique to air pollution studies in Slovakia, heavy metals, rare-earth elements, actinides (U and Th) were determined in 86 moss samples from the European moss survey 2000 by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor (Dubna). Such elements as In, Cu, Cd, Hg and Pb were determined by AAS in the Forest Research Institute, Zvolen (Slovakia). The results of measurement of the natural radionuclides ^{210}Pb, ^{7}Be, ^{137}Cs and ^{40}K in 11 samples of moss are also reported. A comparison with the results from moss surveys 1991 and 1995 revealed previously unknown tendencies of air pollution in the examined areas.

  13. Regional and Interregional Cooperation to Strengthen Basic Sciences in Developing Countries : Addis Ababa, 1-4 September 2009

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The International Science Programme (ISP) at Uppsala University, Sweden, is devoted to long-term support to institutional capacity building in research and higher education in developing countries, with focus on the basic sciences: physics (since 1961), chemistry (since 1970), and mathematics (since 2002). Both research groups and scientific network activities are supported. Interdisciplinary and applied research is important in solving a number of challenges facing the world today. Problems ...

  14. Moss as Indicator of Heavy Metals Pollution in Kano Municipality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2015-09-23

    Sep 23, 2015 ... Metals accumulation was determined in moss specie funaria hygrometrica collected from industrial and neighbouring residential .... of Lead in street dust to index its pollution in. Kano municipality. Spectrum journal, 1: 94-. 97. Sharada. Bompai. City campus Kano municipal. Zoo Road. 0. 5. 10. 15. 20. 25. 30.

  15. Bacteriohopanepolyol signatures as markers for methanotrophic bacteria in peat moss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, J.F.; Talbot, H.M.; Kip, N.; Reichart, G.J.; Pol, A.; McNamara, N.P.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Op den Camp, H.J.M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are bacterial biomarkers with a likely potential to identify present and past methanotrophic communities. To unravel the methanotrophic community in peat bogs, we report the BHP signatures of type I and type II methanotrophs isolated from Sphagnum mosses and of an

  16. Moss Biomonitoring as a Tool for Radiological Exposure Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisic, D.; Vekic, B.; Kusan, V.; Spiric, Z.; Frontasyeva, M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an insight into the Atmospheric Deposition of Airborne Radionuclides in Croatia by using the Moss Biomonitoring Technique. Moss samples were collected during the summer of 2010, from 161 locations in Croatia evenly distributed across the entire country. Sampling was performed in accordance with the LRTAP Convention - ICP Vegetation protocol and sampling strategy of the European Programme on Biomonitoring of Heavy Metal Atmospheric Deposition. In addition to the comprehensive qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses of all samples collected determined by NAA, ICP-AES and AAS, 22 out of 161 moss samples were subjected to gamma-spectrometric analyses for assessing activity of the naturally occurring radionuclides. The activities of 40K, 232Th, 137Cs, 226Ra and 238U were determined by using a low background HPGe detector system coupled with an 8192-channel CANBERRA analyzer. The detector system was calibrated using gamma mixed standards supplied by Eckert and Ziegler (Analytics USA). Preliminary research results on the Atmospheric Deposition of Airborne Radionuclides in Croatia by using the Moss Biomonitoring Technique confirm that it may serve as a valuable tool for Radiological Exposure Assessment. This research has the potential for simple, accurate, reliable and affordable environmental radiation control.(author)

  17. Antifungal and antibacterial effects of some acrocarpic mosses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the number of microorganism affected. Tortella tortuosa (Hedw.) Limpr. only has effect on Candida albicans ATCC 16231 strain. All the results were compared with standard antibiotic discs, ketoconazole (50 ìg), ampicillin (10 ìg), eritromycin (15 ìg) and vancomycin (30 ìg). Key words: Moss, acrocarpous, antimicrobial ...

  18. Detection, isolation, and characterization of acidophilic methanotrophs from Sphagnum mosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kip, Nardy; Ouyang, Wenjing; van Winden, Julia; Raghoebarsing, Ashna; van Niftrik, Laura; Pol, Arjan; Pan, Yao; Bodrossy, Levente; van Donselaar, Elly G; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Jetten, Mike S M; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Op den Camp, Huub J M

    2011-08-15

    Sphagnum peatlands are important ecosystems in the methane cycle. Methane-oxidizing bacteria in these ecosystems serve as a methane filter and limit methane emissions. Yet little is known about the diversity and identity of the methanotrophs present in and on Sphagnum mosses of peatlands, and only a few isolates are known. The methanotrophic community in Sphagnum mosses, originating from a Dutch peat bog, was investigated using a pmoA microarray. A high biodiversity of both gamma- and alphaproteobacterial methanotrophs was found. With Sphagnum mosses as the inoculum, alpha- and gammaproteobacterial acidophilic methanotrophs were isolated using established and newly designed media. The 16S rRNA, pmoA, pxmA, and mmoX gene sequences showed that the alphaproteobacterial isolates belonged to the Methylocystis and Methylosinus genera. The Methylosinus species isolated are the first acid-tolerant members of this genus. Of the acidophilic gammaproteobacterial strains isolated, strain M5 was affiliated with the Methylomonas genus, and the other strain, M200, may represent a novel genus, most closely related to the genera Methylosoma and Methylovulum. So far, no acidophilic or acid-tolerant methanotrophs in the Gammaproteobacteria class are known. All strains showed the typical features of either type I or II methanotrophs and are, to the best of our knowledge, the first isolated (acidophilic or acid-tolerant) methanotrophs from Sphagnum mosses.

  19. Kinase inhibition by the Jamaican ball moss, Tillandsia recurvata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Henry I C; Watson, Charah T; Badal, Simone; Toyang, Ngeh J; Bryant, Joseph

    2012-10-01

    This research was undertaken in order to investigate the inhibitory potential of the Jamaican ball moss, Tillandsia recurvata against several kinases. The inhibition of these kinases has emerged as a potential solution to restoring the tight regulation of normal cellular growth, the loss of which leads to cancer cell formation. Kinase inhibition was investigated using competition binding (to the ATP sites) assays, which have been previously established and authenticated. Four hundred and fifty one kinases were tested against the Jamaican ball moss extract and a dose-response was tested on 40 kinases, which were inhibited by more than 35% compared to the control. Out of the 40 kinases, the Jamaican ball moss selectively inhibited 5 (CSNK2A2, MEK5, GAK, FLT and DRAK1) and obtained Kd(50)s were below 20 μg/ml. Since MEK5 and GAK kinases have been associated with aggressive prostate cancer, the inhibitory properties of the ball moss against them, coupled with its previously found bioactivity towards the PC-3 cell line, makes it promising in the arena of drug discovery towards prostate cancer.

  20. Pupil initiatives in urban nature trail development: PMB MOSS and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A brief background to Greenbelt and urban nature trail development in Pietermaritzburg is provided. Negotiations and procedures initiated by standard 9 pupils in stimulating authorities and the public to recognise the need for urban trail development and metropolitan open space (MOSS) are outlined. long-term ...

  1. Moss-nitrogen input to boreal forest soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousk, Kathrin; Jones, Davey; DeLuca, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria living epiphytically on mosses in pristine, unpolluted areas fix substantial amounts of atmospheric nitrogen (N) and therefore represent a primary source of N in N-limited boreal forests. However, the fate of this N is unclear, in particular, how the fixed N2 enters the soil and bec...... and that transfer of N to the soil is not facilitated by fungal hyphae....

  2. Comparative Studies on Mosses for Heavy Metals Pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sources of these heavy metals were discovered to include: vehicular emission and incineration of domestic wastes and the heavy metals from these sources were discovered to pose severe toxicological risks to the environment and human health. Samples of mosses were collected at eight different locations in each ...

  3. PCA and multidimensional visualization techniques united to aid in the bioindication of elements from transplanted Sphagnum palustre moss exposed in the Gdańsk City area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astel, Aleksander; Astel, Karolina; Biziuk, Marek

    2008-01-01

    for moss-based air pollution surveys. Both biomaterials: dry and living Sphagnum palustre show cumulative properties relative to elements under interest. Dry moss has a very loose collection of the atmospheric particles, which can also easily get lost upon rinsing with rainwater running through exposed dry moss material. The living moss may, on the contrary, incorporate the elements in its tissue, thus being less susceptible to rinsing and thus better reflecting the atmospheric conditions. Despite the differences in element uptake and uphold capabilities dry and living moss reflect characteristic anthropogenic and natural profiles. Visible differences in impacts' map coverage exist mostly due to the accumulation mechanisms differentiating dry from living moss. However, in case of each indicator 'phosphatic fertilizer plant impact' is recognized as the strongest pollution source present in examined region. General types of pollution sources responsible for a structure of monitoring data set were determined as high-risk/low-risk areas and visualized in form of geographic distribution maps. These locations can be targeted for environmental hazards and public health. Chemometric results in the form of easy defined surface maps can became a powerful instrument in hands of decision-makers working in the field of sustainable development implementation.

  4. "Fire Moss" Cover and Function in Severely Burned Forests of the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, H.; Doherty, K.; Sieg, C.; Robichaud, P. R.; Fulé, P. Z.; Bowker, M.

    2017-12-01

    With wildfires increasing in severity and extent throughout the Western United States, land managers need new tools to stabilize recently burned ecosystems. "Fire moss" consists of three species, Ceratodon purpureus, Funaria hygrometrica, and Bryum argentum. These mosses colonize burned landscapes quickly, aggregate soils, have extremely high water holding capacity, and can be grown rapidly ex-situ. In this talk, I will focus on our efforts to understand how Fire Moss naturally interacts with severely burned landscapes. We examined 14 fires in Arizona, New Mexico, Washington, and Idaho selecting a range of times since fire, and stratified plots within each wildfire by winter insolation and elevation. At 75+ plots we measured understory plant cover, ground cover, Fire Moss cover, and Fire Moss reproductive effort. On plots in the Southwest, we measured a suite of soil characteristics on moss covered and adjacent bare soil including aggregate stability, shear strength, compressional strength, and infiltration rates. Moss cover ranged from 0-75% with a mean of 16% across all plots and was inversely related to insolation (R2 = .32, p = stability and infiltration rates as adjacent bare ground. These results will allow us to model locations where Fire Moss will naturally increase postfire hillslope soil stability, locations for targeting moss restoration efforts, and suggest that Fire Moss could be a valuable tool to mitigate post wildfire erosion.

  5. Nitrogen concentrations in mosses indicate the spatial distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmens, H., E-mail: hh@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Norris, D.A., E-mail: danor@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Cooper, D.M., E-mail: cooper@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Mills, G., E-mail: gmi@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Steinnes, E., E-mail: Eiliv.Steinnes@chem.ntnu.no [Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Kubin, E., E-mail: Eero.Kubin@metla.fi [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kirkkosaarentie 7, 91500 Muhos (Finland); Thoeni, L., E-mail: lotti.thoeni@fub-ag.ch [FUB-Research Group for Environmental Monitoring, Alte Jonastrasse 83, 8640 Rapperswil (Switzerland); Aboal, J.R., E-mail: jesusramon.aboal@usc.es [University of Santiago de Compostela, Faculty of Biology, Department of Ecology, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alber, R., E-mail: Renate.Alber@provinz.bz.it [Environmental Agency of Bolzano, 39055 Laives (Italy); Carballeira, A., E-mail: alejo.carballeira@usc.es [University of Santiago de Compostela, Faculty of Biology, Department of Ecology, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Coskun, M., E-mail: coskunafm@yahoo.com [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biology, 17100 Canakkale (Turkey); De Temmerman, L., E-mail: ludet@var.fgov.be [Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre, Tervuren (Belgium); Frolova, M., E-mail: marina.frolova@lvgma.gov.lv [Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Agency, Riga (Latvia); Gonzalez-Miqueo, L., E-mail: lgonzale2@alumni.unav.es [Univ. of Navarra, Irunlarrea No 1, 31008 Pamplona (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    In 2005/6, nearly 3000 moss samples from (semi-)natural location across 16 European countries were collected for nitrogen analysis. The lowest total nitrogen concentrations in mosses (<0.8%) were observed in northern Finland and northern UK. The highest concentrations ({>=}1.6%) were found in parts of Belgium, France, Germany, Slovakia, Slovenia and Bulgaria. The asymptotic relationship between the nitrogen concentrations in mosses and EMEP modelled nitrogen deposition (averaged per 50 km x 50 km grid) across Europe showed less scatter when there were at least five moss sampling sites per grid. Factors potentially contributing to the scatter are discussed. In Switzerland, a strong (r{sup 2} = 0.91) linear relationship was found between the total nitrogen concentration in mosses and measured site-specific bulk nitrogen deposition rates. The total nitrogen concentrations in mosses complement deposition measurements, helping to identify areas in Europe at risk from high nitrogen deposition at a high spatial resolution. - Highlights: > Nitrogen concentrations in mosses were determined at ca. 3000 sites across Europe. > Moss concentrations were compared with EMEP modelled nitrogen deposition. > The asymptotic relationship for Europe showed saturation at ca. 15 kg N ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}. > Linear relationships were found with measured nitrogen deposition in some countries. > Moss concentrations complement deposition measurements at high spatial resolution. - Mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Europe.

  6. Project GeoPower: Basic subsurface information for the utilization of geothermal energy in the Danish-German border region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsch, Reinhard; Balling, Niels; Fuchs, Sven

    and require reliable cross-border management and planning tools. In the framework of the Interreg4a GeoPower project, fundamental geological and geophysical information of importance for the planning of geothermal energy utilization in the Danish-German border region was compiled and analyzed. A 3D geological......Information on both hydraulic and thermal conditions of the subsurface is fundamental for the planning and use of hydrothermal energy. This is paramount in particular for densely populated international border regions, where different subsurface applications may introduce conflicts of use...... on potential geothermal reservoirs, and a new 3D structural geological model was developed. The interpretation of petrophysical data (core data and well logs) allows to evaluate the hydraulic and thermal rock properties of geothermal formations and to develop a parameterized 3D thermal conductive subsurface...

  7. Basic survey report on regional new energy vision for Ehime Prefecture; Ehimeken chiiki shin energy vision kiso chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A new energy vision has been formulated to establish guidelines for popularizing and utilizing new energy which generates but a small amount of environmental impact. The results of surveys conducted in this connection are described in five chapters, which cover (1) the trend of new energy, (2) current situation of new energy in Ehime Prefecture, (3) calculation of the existing amount and available amount of new energy, (4) calculation of the introducible amount of new energy, and (5) the basic policy toward the introduction of new energy. Part (4) covers solar energy, wind energy, waste-derived energy, temperature difference energy, minor scale hydroelectric power generation, biomass energy, and like others. It states that a total of 540,000 kl/year will be available in terms of oil, equivalent to approximately 6% of Ehime Prefecture's 1997 energy consumption, and that it is expected that in fiscal 2010 photovoltaic/passive solar energy utilization, cogeneration, and wind power will yield 152,000, 314,000, and 27,000 kl/year respectively. (NEDO)

  8. AirMOSS P-Band Radar Retrieval of Subcanopy Soil Moisture Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaeenejad, A.; Burgin, M. S.; Duan, X.; Moghaddam, M.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of soil moisture, as a key variable of the Earth system, plays an important role in our under-standing of the global water, energy, and carbon cycles. The importance of such knowledge has led NASA to fund missions such as Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) and Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS). The AirMOSS mission seeks to improve the estimates of the North American Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) by providing high-resolution observations of the root zone soil moisture (RZSM) over regions representative of the major North American biomes. AirMOSS flies a P-band SAR to penetrate vegetation and into the root zone to provide estimates of RZSM. The flights cover areas containing flux tower sites in regions from the boreal forests in Saskatchewan, Canada, to the tropical forests in La Selva, Costa Rica. The radar snapshots are used to generate estimates of RZSM via inversion of a scattering model of vegetation overlying soils with variable moisture profiles. These retrievals will be used to generate a time record of RZSM, which will be integrated with an ecosystem demography model in order to estimate the respiration and photosynthesis carbon fluxes. The aim of this work is the retrieval of the moisture profile over AirMOSS sites using the collected P-band radar data. We have integrated layered-soil scattering models into a forest scattering model; for the backscattering from ground and for the trunk-ground double-bounce mechanism, we have used a layered small perturbation method and a coherent scattering model of layered soil, respectively. To estimate the soil moisture profile, we represent it as a second-order polynomial in the form of az2 + bz + c, where z is the depth and a, b, and c are the coefficients to be retrieved from radar measurements. When retrieved, these coefficients give us the soil moisture up to a prescribed depth of validity. To estimate the unknown coefficients of the polynomial, we use simulated

  9. Efficient biolistic transformation of the moss Physcomitrella patens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmídková, Markéta; Holá, M.; Angelis, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 4 (2010), s. 777-780 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/04/0971; GA AV ČR IBS5038304; GA MŠk 1M0505; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Helios biolistic gun * moss protonemal tissue * particle size Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.582, year: 2010

  10. Adaptations of lowland jungle mosses to anthropogenic environments in Guyana

    OpenAIRE

    Kuc, Marian

    2000-01-01

    Sixteen lowland jungle mosses growing in anthropogenic habitats at Santa and The Bell - Ituni localities on the Demerara River in Guyana were examined in detail with the aim of detecting any features which would indicate their adaptations to new habitats. Amounts of chlorophyll in leaf cells, protective coloration, alterations in leaf morphology, characteristics of old stems, rhizoid tomentum and fertility are considered as the most pronounced adaptive features of these species to new localit...

  11. Glyco-engineering for biopharmaceutical production in moss bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva L. Decker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The production of recombinant biopharmaceuticals (pharmaceutical proteins is a strongly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. While most products to date are produced in mammalian cell cultures, namely CHO cells, plant-based production systems gained increasing acceptance over the last years. Different plant systems have been established which are suitable for standardization and precise control of cultivation conditions, thus meeting the criteria for pharmaceutical production.The majority of biopharmaceuticals comprise glycoproteins. Therefore, differences in protein glycosylation between humans and plants have to be taken into account and plant-specific glycosylation has to be eliminated to avoid adverse effects on quality, safety and efficacy of the products.The basal land plant Physcomitrella patens (moss has been employed for the recombinant production of high-value therapeutic target proteins (e.g., Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Complement Factor H, monoclonal antibodies, Erythropoietin. Being genetically excellently characterized and exceptionally amenable for precise gene targeting via homologous recombination, essential steps for the optimization of moss as a bioreactor for the production of recombinant proteins have been undertaken.Here, we discuss the glyco-engineering approaches to avoid non-human N- and O-glycosylation on target proteins produced in moss bioreactors.

  12. [Chemical-nutritional characterization of the moss Spagnum magellanicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, Mario; Biolley, Edith; Yáñez, Enrique; Peralta, Rosario

    2002-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to know the chemical characteristics of the moss Sphagnum magellanicum (S.M.) growing in the southern part of Chile, spreading approximately. in a geographic area of 500.000 Has. Very few antecedents are reported in the literature concerning the functional properties of this resource, with the exception of the water absorption and holding capacity. Many of the industrial or agricultural uses of this moss are strongly related with this characteristic. Looking for other alternatives of utilization, it has been planned its incorporation to staple foods as a source of dietary fiber. But first it is necessary to know its chemical characteristics Representative samples of this material were submitted to different chemical analysis such as proximal analysis, fractional fiber analysis and anti nutrient factors.. Results of those analysis show the high amount of dietary fiber founded in this resource (77%), higher than reported data for other traditional fiber sources such as lupin bran, rice hull, barley hull, oat bran, etc. Finally it is important emphasize the absence of antinutrient factor in this moss, that could make feasible its use for human nutrition.

  13. Gravitropism in caulonemata of the moss Pottia intermedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, C. I.; Kern, V. D.; Ripetskyj, R. T.; Demkiv, O. T.; Sack, F. D.

    1998-01-01

    The gravitropism of caulonemata of Pottia intermedia is described and compared with that of other mosses. Spore germination produces primary protonemata including caulonemata which give rise to buds that form the leafy moss plant, the gametophore. Primary caulonemata are negatively gravitropic but their growth and the number of filaments are limited in the dark. Axenic culture of gametophores results in the production of secondary caulonemata that usually arise near the leaf base. Secondary protonemata that form in the light are agravitropic. Secondary caulonemata that form when gametophores are placed in the dark for several days show strong negative gravitropism and grow well in the dark. When upright caulonemata are reorientated to the horizontal or are inverted, upward bending can be detected after 1 h and caulonemata reach the vertical within 1-2 d. Clear amyloplast sedimentation occurs 10-15 minutes after horizontal placement and before the start of upward curvature. This sedimentation takes place in a sub-apical zone. Amyloplast sedimentation also takes place along the length of upright and inverted Pottia protonemata. These results support the hypothesis that amyloplast sedimentation functions in gravitropic sensing since sedimentation occurs before gravitropism in Pottia and since the location and presence of a unique sedimentation zone is conserved in all four mosses known to gravitropic protonomata.

  14. Heavy metal accumulation by Mosses as affected by roadside pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Hasan Aziz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mosses sampling were collected from 10 sites within the Erbil governorate in October 2015 during dry condition. The samples were air dried and crushed to fine particulates using rotary, then after the heavy metals concentration were determined by XRF spectrophotometer (Sky Instrument Genius. Location Map of selected mosses distribution were made. The results revealed that the mean values of Pb was 52.25mg/kg, of Hg was 0.01mg/kg, of Mn was 162.8mg/kg, of Fe was 1.655%, Cu was 8.27mg/kg, Zn was 162mg/kg, Ti was 851.1mg/kg, Co was 6.28mg/kg, Ni was 57.57mg/kg, As was 6.84mg/kg, Se was 0.19mg/kg and Cr was 9.73mg/kg. The statistical results indicated that there were significant difference (P<0.05 between sites and mosses species. The data obtained in this study was compared with that of WHO standards, the results revealed that the concentration of studied heavy metals were less than of WHO standards.

  15. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of some moss species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpiński Tomasz M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For centuries, mosses have been used in traditional medicine due to their antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained from 12 moss species: Brachythecium albicans, Bryum argenteum, Ceratodon purpureus, Dicranum scoparium, Dryptodon pulvinatus, Orthotrichum anomalum, Oxyrrhynchium hians, Plagiomnium undulatum, Polytrichum juniperinum, P. piliferum, Schistidium crassipilum, and Syntrichia ruralis. Methods: The antimicrobial activity of extracts was investigated against three Gram(+ bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes and two Gram(- bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, using the agar disc-diffusion method. Results: The high activity against all investigated bacteria was determined for extracts of D. pulvinatus, P. undulatum, B. argenteum, S. crassipilum, O. anomalum (mean inhibition zone: 11.3-13.1 mm and to a lesser extent in the case of D. scoparium (8.3 mm. Extracts from P. juniperinum and P. piliferum showed activity only against Gram-positive bacteria, with an inhibition zone from 7.3 to 9.7 mm. Four species: B. albicans, C. purpureus, O. hians, and S. ruralis had not antibacterial properties. Conclusions: The obtained results indicate that mosses could be a significant source of antibacterial agents. For the first time, we presented antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts from S. crassipilum and O. anomalum.

  16. Plant, Microbiome, and Biogeochemistry: Quantifying moss-associated N fixation in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, J.; Mack, M. C.; Holland Moritz, H.; Fierer, N.; McDaniels, S.; Lewis, L.

    2017-12-01

    The future carbon (C) sequestration potential of the Arctic and boreal zones, currently the largest terrestrial C sink globally, is linked to nitrogen (N) cycling and N availability vis-a-vis C accumulation and plant species composition. Pristine environments in Alaska have low anthropogenic N deposition (<1 kg N ha-1 yr-1), and the main source of new N to these ecosystems is through previously overlooked N-fixation from microbial communities on mosses. Despite the importance of moss associated N-fixation, the relationship between moss species, microbial communities, and fixation rates remains ambiguous. In the summer of 2016, the fixation rates of 20 moss species from sites around both Fairbanks and Toolik Lake were quantified using 15N2 incubations. Subsequently, the microbial community and moss genome of the samples were also analyzed by collaborators. The most striking result is that all sampled moss genera fixed N, including well-studied feather mosses such as Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi as well as less common but ecologically relevant mosses such as Aulacomnium spp., Dicranum spp., Ptilium crista-castrensis, and Tomentypnum nitens. Across all samples, preliminary fixation rates ranged from 0.004-19.994 µg N g-1 moss d-1. Depending upon percent cover, moss-associated N fixation is the largest input of new N to the ecosystem. Given this, linking variation in N-fixation rates to microbial and moss community structures can be helpful in predicting future trends of C and N cycling in northern latitudes. Vegetation changes, alterations in downstream biogeochemical N processes, and anthropogenic N deposition could all interact with or alter moss associated N-fixation, thereby changing ecosystem N inputs. Further elucidation of the species level signal in N-fixation rates and microbial community will augment our knowledge of N cycling in northern latitudes, both current and future.

  17. The performance of moss, grass, and 1- and 2-year old spruce needles as bioindicators of contamination: a comparative study at the scale of the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchara, Ivan; Sucharova, Julie; Hola, Marie; Reimann, Clemens; Boyd, Rognvald; Filzmoser, Peter; Englmaier, Peter

    2011-05-01

    Moss (Pleurozium schreberi), grass (Avenella flexuosa), and 1- and 2-year old spruce (Picea abies) needles were collected over the territory of the Czech Republic at an average sample density of 1 site per 290km(2). The samples were analysed for 39 elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, Hg, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Pb, Pr, Rb, S, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Th, Tl, U, V, Y and Zn) using ICP-MS and ICP-AES techniques (the major nutrients Ca, K, Mg and Na were not analysed in moss). Moss showed by far the highest element concentrations for most elements. Exceptions were Ba (spruce), Mn (spruce), Mo (grass), Ni (spruce), Rb (grass) and S (grass). Regional distribution maps and spatial trend analysis were used to study the suitability of the four materials as bioindicators of anthropogenic contamination. The highly industrialised areas in the north-west and the far east of the country and several more local contamination sources were indicated in the distribution maps of one or several sample materials. At the scale of the whole country moss was the best indicator of known contamination sources. However, on a more local scale, it appeared that spruce needles were especially well suited for detection of urban contamination. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of Antarctic moss health from multi-sensor UAS imagery with Random Forest Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Darren; Lucieer, Arko; Malenovský, Zbyněk; King, Diana; Robinson, Sharon A.

    2018-06-01

    Moss beds are one of very few terrestrial vegetation types that can be found on the Antarctic continent and as such mapping their extent and monitoring their health is important to environmental managers. Across Antarctica, moss beds are experiencing changes in health as their environment changes. As Antarctic moss beds are spatially fragmented with relatively small extent they require very high resolution remotely sensed imagery to monitor their distribution and dynamics. This study demonstrates that multi-sensor imagery collected by an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) provides a novel data source for assessment of moss health. In this study, we train a Random Forest Regression Model (RFM) with long-term field quadrats at a study site in the Windmill Islands, East Antarctica and apply it to UAS RGB and 6-band multispectral imagery, derived vegetation indices, 3D topographic data, and thermal imagery to predict moss health. Our results suggest that moss health, expressed as a percentage between 0 and 100% healthy, can be estimated with a root mean squared error (RMSE) between 7 and 12%. The RFM also quantifies the importance of input variables for moss health estimation showing the multispectral sensor data was important for accurate health prediction, such information being essential for planning future field investigations. The RFM was applied to the entire moss bed, providing an extrapolation of the health assessment across a larger spatial area. With further validation the resulting maps could be used for change detection of moss health across multiple sites and seasons.

  19. Hygiene Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hygiene Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Hygiene Basics What's in this article? Oily Hair Sweat ... smell, anyway? Read below for information on some hygiene basics — and learn how to deal with greasy ...

  20. N-terminal segments modulate the α-helical propensities of the intrinsically disordered basic regions of bZIP proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rahul K; Crick, Scott L; Pappu, Rohit V

    2012-02-17

    Basic region leucine zippers (bZIPs) are modular transcription factors that play key roles in eukaryotic gene regulation. The basic regions of bZIPs (bZIP-bRs) are necessary and sufficient for DNA binding and specificity. Bioinformatic predictions and spectroscopic studies suggest that unbound monomeric bZIP-bRs are uniformly disordered as isolated domains. Here, we test this assumption through a comparative characterization of conformational ensembles for 15 different bZIP-bRs using a combination of atomistic simulations and circular dichroism measurements. We find that bZIP-bRs have quantifiable preferences for α-helical conformations in their unbound monomeric forms. This helicity varies from one bZIP-bR to another despite a significant sequence similarity of the DNA binding motifs (DBMs). Our analysis reveals that intramolecular interactions between DBMs and eight-residue segments directly N-terminal to DBMs are the primary modulators of bZIP-bR helicities. We test the accuracy of this inference by designing chimeras of bZIP-bRs to have either increased or decreased overall helicities. Our results yield quantitative insights regarding the relationship between sequence and the degree of intrinsic disorder within bZIP-bRs, and might have general implications for other intrinsically disordered proteins. Understanding how natural sequence variations lead to modulation of disorder is likely to be important for understanding the evolution of specificity in molecular recognition through intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding water deficit stress-induced changes in the basic metabolism of higher plants - biotechnologically and sustainably improving agriculture and the ecoenvironment in arid regions of the globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hong-Bo; Chu, Li-Ye; Jaleel, C Abdul; Manivannan, P; Panneerselvam, R; Shao, Ming-An

    2009-01-01

    Water is vital for plant growth, development and productivity. Permanent or temporary water deficit stress limits the growth and distribution of natural and artificial vegetation and the performance of cultivated plants (crops) more than any other environmental factor. Productive and sustainable agriculture necessitates growing plants (crops) in arid and semiarid regions with less input of precious resources such as fresh water. For a better understanding and rapid improvement of soil-water stress tolerance in these regions, especially in the water-wind eroded crossing region, it is very important to link physiological and biochemical studies to molecular work in genetically tractable model plants and important native plants, and further extending them to practical ecological restoration and efficient crop production. Although basic studies and practices aimed at improving soil water stress resistance and plant water use efficiency have been carried out for many years, the mechanisms involved at different scales are still not clear. Further understanding and manipulating soil-plant water relationships and soil-water stress tolerance at the scales of ecology, physiology and molecular biology can significantly improve plant productivity and environmental quality. Currently, post-genomics and metabolomics are very important in exploring anti-drought gene resources in various life forms, but modern agriculturally sustainable development must be combined with plant physiological measures in the field, on the basis of which post-genomics and metabolomics have further practical prospects. In this review, we discuss physiological and molecular insights and effects in basic plant metabolism, drought tolerance strategies under drought conditions in higher plants for sustainable agriculture and ecoenvironments in arid and semiarid areas of the world. We conclude that biological measures are the bases for the solutions to the issues relating to the different types of

  2. Mosses in Ohio wetlands respond to indices of disturbance and vascular plant integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Schumacher, William; Gara, Brian; Viau, Nick

    2016-01-01

    We examined the relationships between an index of wetland habitat quality and disturbance (ORAM score) and an index of vascular plant integrity (VIBI-FQ score) with moss species richness and a moss quality assessment index (MQAI) in 45 wetlands in three vegetation types in Ohio, USA. Species richness of mosses and MQAI were positively associated with ORAM and VIBI-FQ scores. VIBI-FQ score was a better predictor of both moss species richness and MQAI than was either ORAM score or vegetation type. This result was consistent with the strict microhabitat requirements for many moss species, which may be better assessed by VIBI-FQ than ORAM. Probability curves as a function of VIBI-FQ score were then generated for presence of groups of moss species having the same degree of fidelity to substrate and plant communities relative to other species in the moss flora (coefficients of conservatism, CCs). Species having an intermediate- or high degree of fidelity to substrate and plant communities (i.e., species with CC ≥ 5) had a 50% probability of presence (P50) and 90% probability of presence (P90) in wetlands with intermediate- and high VIBI-FQ scores, respectively. Although moss species richness, probability of presence of species based on CC, and MQAI may reflect wetland habitat quality, the 95% confidence intervals around P50 and P90 values may be too wide for regulatory use. Moss species richness, MQAI, and presence of groups of mosses may be more useful for evaluating moss habitat quality in wetlands than a set of “indicator species.”

  3. Filling the interspace—restoring arid land mosses: source populations, organic matter, and overwintering govern success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Lea; Pyke, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Biological soil crusts contribute to ecosystem functions and occupy space that could be available to invasive annual grasses. Given disturbances in the semiarid shrub steppe communities, we embarked on a set of studies to investigate restoration potential of mosses in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. We examined establishment and growth of two moss species common to the Great Basin, USA: Bryum argenteum and Syntrichia ruralis from two environmental settings (warm dry vs. cool moist). Moss fragments were inoculated into a third warm dry setting, on bare soil in spring and fall, both with and without a jute net and with and without spring irrigation. Moss cover was monitored in spring seasons of three consecutive years. Both moss species increased in cover over the winter. When Bryum received spring irrigation that was out of sync with natural precipitation patterns, moss cover increased and then crashed, taking two seasons to recover. Syntrichia did not respond to the irrigation treatment. The addition of jute net increased moss cover under all conditions, except Syntrichia following fall inoculation, which required a second winter to increase in cover. The warm dry population of Bryum combined with jute achieved on average 60% cover compared to the cool moist population that achieved only 28% cover by the end of the study. Differences were less pronounced for Syntrichia where moss from the warm dry population with jute achieved on average 51% cover compared to the cool moist population that achieved 43% cover by the end of the study. Restoration of arid land mosses may quickly protect soils from erosion while occupying sites before invasive plants. We show that higher moss cover will be achieved quickly with the addition of organic matter and when moss fragments originate from sites with a climate that is similar to that of the restoration site.

  4. Fiscal 2000 basic survey report for vision formulation. Regional new energy vision for Sabae city, Fukui prefecture; Sabaeshi chiiki shin energy vision. 2000 nendo sakutei kiso chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Sabae city, Fukui Prefecture, has worked out a regional new energy vision for which the inhabitants, industrialists, and administrators combined their efforts to build a daily life related culture, friendly to environments and peculiar to the locality. The fruits of their activities are summarized in five chapters, which are (1) the basic philosophy, (2) survey of the amounts of new energy in existence, (3) survey of the amount of energy demanded, (4) various surveys conducted with the participation of the citizenry, (5) and summarization of important topics. Discussed in chapter (2) is the basic policy toward reckoning the amounts of new energy in existence, such as photovoltaic energy, solar heat energy, wind energy, hydraulic energy, temperature difference energy, and other energy resources remaining to be utilized. It states that they, when converted into electric power, 2.0 times 10{sup 8} kWh/year will be available and, when converted into heat energy, 2.92 times 10{sup 11} kcal/year will be available, accounting for approximately 30% of the city's energy consumption. When the energy resources are broken down by type, it is found that solar energy, wind energy, and refuse-derived energy are in existence aplenty. (NEDO)

  5. Numerical modeling of the groundwater contaminant transport for the Lake Karachai Area: The methodological approach and the basic two- dimensional regional model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, A.V.; Samsonova, L.M.; Vasil'kova, N.A.; Zinin, A.I.; Zinina, G.A.

    1994-06-01

    Methodological aspects of the numerical modeling of the groundwater contaminant transport for the Lake Karachay area are discussed. Main features of conditions of the task are the high grade of non-uniformity of the aquifer in the fractured rock massif and the high density of the waste solutions, and also the high volume of the input data: both on the part of parameters of the aquifer (number of pump tests) and on the part of observations of functions of processes (long-time observations by the monitoring well grid). The modeling process for constructing the two dimensional regional model is described, and this model is presented as the basic model for subsequent full three-dimensional modeling in sub-areas of interest. Original powerful mathematical apparatus and computer codes for finite-difference numerical modeling are used

  6. Mineralogical and structural transformations related to alterations in hydrothermal and climatological conditions of basic vulcanic rocks from northern Parana (Ribeirao Preto region, SP, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, N.M.M.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed studies of the basic vulcanic rocks of northern Parana basin (Region of Ribeirao Preto, SP) reveled that these rocks were affected by pre-meteoric activity (hydrothermal alteration) before being exposed to the supergene system of alteration linked to the lithosphere/atmosphere interface. Mineralogical and structural transformation are studied. The appearance of sequential crystalline-chemical paragenesis in zones suggest that the hydrothermal activity occurred during two successives processes of alteration: the expulsion of the water from the rock during the later stages of magma cooling and the continous process of dissolution of the rock wall and the ionic diffusion involving the rock sistem of structural voids. The hydro-thermal action was followed by weathering action developing a thin 'front' of superficial alteration. This alteration system, can lead to the formation of three major levels of alteration horizons and superficial accumulations: alterites, glebular and suil surface materials. (C.D.G.) [pt

  7. Cravity modulation of the moss Tortula modica branching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorkavtsiv, Yaroslava; Kit, Nadja

    Among various abiotic factors the sensor system of plants constantly perceives light and gravitation impulses and reacts on their action by photo- and gravitropisms. Tropisms play fundamental part in ontogenesis and determination of plant forms. Essentially important question is how light initiating phototropic bending modulates gravitropism. In contrast to flower plants, red light is phototropically active for mosses, and phytochromic system controls initiation of apical growth, branching and photomorphogenesis of mosses. The aim of this investigation was to analyse cell branching of protonemata Tortula modica Zander depending on the direction of light and gravitation vector. The influence of light and gravitation on the form of protonemal turf T. modica, branching and the angle of lateral branches relative to axis of mother cell growth has been investigated. As moss protonemata is not branched in the darkness, light is necessary for branching activation. Minimally low intensity of the red light (0.2 mmol (.) m (-2) ({) .}sec (-1) ) induced branching without visual display of phototropic growth. It has been established that unidirectional action of light and gravitation intensifies branching, and, on the contrary, perpendicularly oriented vectors of factors weaken branches formation. Besides, parallel oriented vectors initiated branching from both cell sides, but oppositely directed vectors initiated branching only from one side. Clinostate rotation the change of the vector gravity and causes uniform cell branching, hence, light and gravitation mutually influence the branching system form of the protonemata cell. It has been shown that the angle of lateral branches in darkness does not depend on the direction of light and gravitation action. After lighting the local growth of the cell wall took place mainly under the angle 90 (o) to the axes of mother cell growth. Then the angle gradually decreased and in 3-4 cell divisions the lateral branch grew under the angle

  8. Sphagnum mosses : Masters of efficient N-uptake while avoiding intoxication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritz, Christian; Lamers, Leon P.M.; Riaz, Muhammed; van den Berg, Leon J.L.; Elzenga, Theo J.T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Peat forming Sphagnum mosses are able to prevent the dominance of vascular plants under ombrotrophic conditions by efficiently scavenging atmospherically deposited nitrogen (N). N-uptake kinetics of these mosses are therefore expected to play a key role in differential N availability, plant

  9. The resilience and functional role of moss in boreal and arctic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turetsky, M.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Euskirchen, E.S.; Talbot, J. J.; Frolking, S.; McGuire, A.D.; Tuittila, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    Mosses in northern ecosystems are ubiquitous components of plant communities, and strongly influence nutrient, carbon and water cycling. We use literature review, synthesis and model simulations to explore the role of mosses in ecological stability and resilience. Moss community responses to disturbance showed all possible responses (increases, decreases, no change) within most disturbance categories. Simulations from two process-based models suggest that northern ecosystems would need to experience extreme perturbation before mosses were eliminated. But simulations with two other models suggest that loss of moss will reduce soil carbon accumulation primarily by influencing decomposition rates and soil nitrogen availability. It seems clear that mosses need to be incorporated into models as one or more plant functional types, but more empirical work is needed to determine how to best aggregate species. We highlight several issues that have not been adequately explored in moss communities, such as functional redundancy and singularity, relationships between response and effect traits, and parameter vs conceptual uncertainty in models. Mosses play an important role in several ecosystem processes that play out over centuries – permafrost formation and thaw, peat accumulation, development of microtopography – and there is a need for studies that increase our understanding of slow, long-term dynamical processes.

  10. The resilience and functional role of moss in boreal and arctic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turetsky, M R; Bond-Lamberty, B; Euskirchen, E; Talbot, J; Frolking, S; McGuire, A D; Tuittila, E-S

    2012-10-01

    Mosses in northern ecosystems are ubiquitous components of plant communities, and strongly influence nutrient, carbon and water cycling. We use literature review, synthesis and model simulations to explore the role of mosses in ecological stability and resilience. Moss community responses to disturbance showed all possible responses (increases, decreases, no change) within most disturbance categories. Simulations from two process-based models suggest that northern ecosystems would need to experience extreme perturbation before mosses were eliminated. But simulations with two other models suggest that loss of moss will reduce soil carbon accumulation primarily by influencing decomposition rates and soil nitrogen availability. It seems clear that mosses need to be incorporated into models as one or more plant functional types, but more empirical work is needed to determine how to best aggregate species. We highlight several issues that have not been adequately explored in moss communities, such as functional redundancy and singularity, relationships between response and effect traits, and parameter vs conceptual uncertainty in models. Mosses play an important role in several ecosystem processes that play out over centuries - permafrost formation and thaw, peat accumulation, development of microtopography - and there is a need for studies that increase our understanding of slow, long-term dynamical processes. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. The interactive effects of temperature and moisture on nitrogen fixation in two temperate-arctic mosses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousk, Kathrin; Pedersen, Pia Agerlund; Dyrnum, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    fixation in mosses under controlled conditions have rarely been investigated separately, rendering the interactive effects of the two climatic factors on N2 fixation unknown. Here, we tested the interactive effects of temperature and moisture on N2 fixation in the two most dominant moss species...

  12. The history of the peat manufacturing industry in The Netherlands : peat moss litter and active carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karel, Erwin; Gerding, Michiel; De Vries, Gerben

    This article describes the development of three major forms of peat processing by the manufacturing industry in The Netherlands since the last quarter of the 19th century. At a time when peat as a fuel was gradually being replaced by coal, the first form was the peat moss litter industry. Peat moss

  13. Fog interception by Ball moss (Tillandsia recurvata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Escobar, A.; Cervantes-Jiménez, M.; Suzán-Azpiri, H.; González-Sosa, E.; Hernández-Sandoval, L.; Malda-Barrera, G.; Martínez-Díaz, M.

    2011-08-01

    Interception losses are a major influence in the water yield of vegetated areas. For most storms, rain interception results in less water reaching the ground. However, fog interception can increase the overall water storage capacity of the vegetation and once the storage is exceeded, fog drip is a common hydrological input. Fog interception is disregarded in water budgets of semiarid regions, but for some plant communities, it could be a mechanism offsetting evaporation losses. Tillandsia recurvata is a cosmopolitan epiphyte adapted to arid habitats where fog may be an important water source. Therefore, the interception storage capacity by T. recurvata was measured in controlled conditions and applying simulated rain or fog. Juvenile, vegetative specimens were used to determine the potential upperbound storage capacities. The storage capacity was proportional to dry weight mass. Interception storage capacity (Cmin) was 0.19 and 0.56 mm for rainfall and fog respectively. The coefficients obtained in the laboratory were used together with biomass measurements for T. recurvata in a xeric scrub to calculate the depth of water intercepted by rain. T. recurvata contributed 20 % to the rain interception capacity of their shrub hosts: Acacia farnesiana and Prosopis laevigata and; also potentially intercepted 4.8 % of the annual rainfall. Nocturnal stomatic opening in T. recurvata is not only relevant for CO2 but for water vapor, as suggested by the higher weight change of specimens wetted with fog for 1 h at dark in comparison to those wetted during daylight (543 ± 77 vs. 325 ± 56 mg, p = 0.048). The storage capacity of T. recurvata leaf surfaces could increase the amount of water available for evaporation, but as this species colonise montane forests, the effect could be negative on water recharge, because potential storage capacity is very high, in the laboratory experiments it took up to 12 h at a rate of 0.26 l h-1 to reach saturation conditions when fog was applied.

  14. Fog interception by Ball moss (Tillandsia recurvata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Malda-Barrera

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Interception losses are a major influence in the water yield of vegetated areas. For most storms, rain interception results in less water reaching the ground. However, fog interception can increase the overall water storage capacity of the vegetation and once the storage is exceeded, fog drip is a common hydrological input. Fog interception is disregarded in water budgets of semiarid regions, but for some plant communities, it could be a mechanism offsetting evaporation losses. Tillandsia recurvata is a cosmopolitan epiphyte adapted to arid habitats where fog may be an important water source. Therefore, the interception storage capacity by T. recurvata was measured in controlled conditions and applying simulated rain or fog. Juvenile, vegetative specimens were used to determine the potential upperbound storage capacities. The storage capacity was proportional to dry weight mass. Interception storage capacity (Cmin was 0.19 and 0.56 mm for rainfall and fog respectively. The coefficients obtained in the laboratory were used together with biomass measurements for T. recurvata in a xeric scrub to calculate the depth of water intercepted by rain. T. recurvata contributed 20 % to the rain interception capacity of their shrub hosts: Acacia farnesiana and Prosopis laevigata and; also potentially intercepted 4.8 % of the annual rainfall. Nocturnal stomatic opening in T. recurvata is not only relevant for CO2 but for water vapor, as suggested by the higher weight change of specimens wetted with fog for 1 h at dark in comparison to those wetted during daylight (543 ± 77 vs. 325 ± 56 mg, p = 0.048. The storage capacity of T. recurvata leaf surfaces could increase the amount of water available for evaporation, but as this species colonise montane forests, the effect could be negative on water recharge, because potential storage capacity is very high, in the laboratory experiments it took up to 12 h at a rate of 0.26 l h−1 to reach saturation conditions

  15. Basic electrotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Ashen, R A

    2013-01-01

    BASIC Electrotechnology discusses the applications of Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) in engineering, particularly in solving electrotechnology-related problems. The book is comprised of six chapters that cover several topics relevant to BASIC and electrotechnology. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to BASIC, and Chapter 2 talks about the use of complex numbers in a.c. circuit analysis. Chapter 3 covers linear circuit analysis with d.c. and sinusoidal a.c. supplies. The book also discusses the elementary magnetic circuit theory. The theory and performance of two windi

  16. Effects of storage temperature on the physiological characteristics and vegetative propagation of desiccation-tolerant mosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuewei; Zhao, Yunge

    2018-02-01

    Mosses, as major components of later successional biological soil crusts (biocrusts), play many critical roles in arid and semiarid ecosystems. Recently, some species of desiccation-tolerant mosses have been artificially cultured with the aim of accelerating the recovery of biocrusts. Revealing the factors that influence the vegetative propagation of mosses, which is an important reproductive mode of mosses in dry habitats, will benefit the restoration of moss crusts. In this study, three air-dried desiccation-tolerant mosses (Barbula unguiculata, Didymodon vinealis, and Didymodon tectorum) were hermetically sealed and stored at five temperature levels (0, 4, 17, 25, and 30 °C) for 40 days. Then, the vegetative propagation and physiological characteristics of the three mosses were investigated to determine the influence of storage temperature on the vegetative propagation of desiccation-tolerant mosses and the mechanism. The results showed that the vegetative propagation of the three mosses varied with temperature. The most variation in vegetative propagation among storage temperatures was observed in D. tectorum, followed by the variation observed in B. unguiculata. In contrast, no significant difference in propagation among temperatures was found in D. vinealis. The regenerative capacity of the three mosses increased with increasing temperature from 0 to 17 °C, accompanied by a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and decreased thereafter. As the temperature increased, the chlorophyll and soluble protein contents increased in B. unguiculata but decreased in D. vinealis and D. tectorum. As to storage, the MDA and soluble sugar contents increased after storage. The MDA content of the three mosses increased at each of the investigated temperatures by more than 50 % from the initial values, and the soluble sugar content became higher than before in the three mosses. The integrity of cells and cell membranes is likely the most important factor influencing the

  17. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The last few years have yielded remarkable discoveries in physics. In particle physics it appears that a fundamental scalar field exists. The Higgs boson is measured to have a mass of about 126 GeV and to have spin zero and positive parity. The Higgs field is the first fundamental scalar to be discovered in physics. The Cosmic Microwave Background, CMB, is known to have a uniform temperature to parts per 105, but has well measured fluctuations, which are thought to evolve gravitationally to provide the seeds of the current structure of the Universe. In addition, the Universe appears to contain, at present, an unknown “dark energy”, which is presently the majority energy density of the Universe, larger than either matter or radiation. This may, indeed, be a fundamental scalar field like the Higgs. “Big Bang” (BB) cosmology is a very successful “standard model” in cosmology. However, it cannot explain the uniformity of the CMB because the CMB consists of many regions not causally connected in the context of the BB model. In addition, the Universe appears to be spatially flat. However, in BB cosmology the present spatial curvature is not stable, so that the initial conditions for BB cosmology would need to be fantastically fine-tuned in order to successfully predict the presently small value of the observed curvature. These issues for BB cosmology have led to the hypothesis of “inflation” which postulates an unknown scalar field, not presumably the Higgs field or the dark energy, which causes an exponential expansion of the Universe at very early times. This attractive hypothesis can account for the problems in BB cosmology of flatness and causal CMB connectivity. In addition, the quantum fluctuations of this postulated field provide a natural explanation of the CMB fluctuations which are the seeds of the structure of galaxies. Researchers are now searching for gravitational waves imprinted on the CMB. These would be a “smoking gun” for

  18. Inflation Basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The last few years have yielded remarkable discoveries in physics. In particle physics it appears that a fundamental scalar field exists. The Higgs boson is measured to have a mass of about 126 GeV and to have spin zero and positive parity. The Higgs field is the first fundamental scalar to be discovered in physics. The Cosmic Microwave Background, CMB, is known to have a uniform temperature to parts per 10 5 , but has well measured fluctuations, which are thought to evolve gravitationally to provide the seeds of the current structure of the Universe. In addition, the Universe appears to contain, at present, an unknown ''dark energy'', which is presently the majority energy density of the Universe, larger than either matter or radiation. This may, indeed, be a fundamental scalar field like the Higgs. ''Big Bang'' (BB) cosmology is a very successful ''standard model'' in cosmology. However, it cannot explain the uniformity of the CMB because the CMB consists of many regions not causally connected in the context of the BB model. In addition, the Universe appears to be spatially flat. However, in BB cosmology the present spatial curvature is not stable, so that the initial conditions for BB cosmology would need to be fantastically fine-tuned in order to successfully predict the presently small value of the observed curvature. These issues for BB cosmology have led to the hypothesis of ''inflation'' which postulates an unknown scalar field, not presumably the Higgs field or the dark energy, which causes an exponential expansion of the Universe at very early times. This attractive hypothesis can account for the problems in BB cosmology of flatness and causal CMB connectivity. In addition, the quantum fluctuations of this postulated field provide a natural explanation of the CMB fluctuations which are the seeds of the structure of galaxies. Researchers are now searching for gravitational

  19. Reduced content of chloroatranol and atranol in oak moss absolute significantly reduces the elicitation potential of this fragrance material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Andersen, Kirsten H; Bernois, Armand

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oak moss absolute, an extract from the lichen Evernia prunastri, is a valued perfume ingredient but contains extreme allergens. OBJECTIVES: To compare the elicitation properties of two preparations of oak moss absolute: 'classic oak moss', the historically used preparation, and 'new o...

  20. Radiocesium accumulation in mosses from highlands of Serbia and Montenegro: chemical and physiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragovic, S.; Nedic, O.; Stankovic, S.; Bacic, G.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was (i) to determine the activity levels of 137 Cs in mosses from highland ecosystems of Serbia and Montenegro, (ii) to find out if radiocesium is associated with essential biomacromolecules, and (iii) to investigate 137 Cs distribution among intracellular compartments. It was found that biomolecules of mosses do not bind significant amounts of radiocesium (2.3-3.3% of the absorbed 137 Cs), a behavior that was independent of the moss species. Cellular fractionation of mosses showed that membranes are the primary 137 Cs-binding sites at the cellular level. They contained 26.1-43.1% of the initial radiocesium activity. It seems that 137 Cs-binding molecules in different mosses are of similar chemical nature, and their distribution between various cellular compartments is not species specific

  1. Cellulose and Lignin Carbon Isotope Signatures in Sphagnum Moss Reveal Complementary Environmental Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loisel, J.; Nichols, J. E.; Kaiser, K.; Beilman, D. W.; Yu, Z.

    2016-12-01

    The carbon isotope signature (δ13C) of Sphagnum moss is increasingly used as a proxy for past surface wetness in peatlands. However, conflicting interpretations of these carbon isotope records have recently been published. While the water film hypothesis suggests that the presence of a thick (thin) water film around hollow (hummock) mosses leads to less (more) negative δ13C values, the carbon source hypothesis poses that a significant (insignificant) amount of CH4 assimilation by hollow (hummock) mosses leads to more (less) negative δ13C values. To evaluate these competing mechanisms and their impact on moss δ13C, we gathered 30 moss samples from 6 peatlands in southern Patagonia. Samples were collected along a strong hydrological gradient, from very dry hummocks (80 cm above water table depth) to submerged hollows (5 cm below water surface). These peat bogs have the advantage of being colonized by a single cosmopolitan moss species, Sphagnum magellanicum, limiting potential biases introduced by species-specific carbon discrimination. We measured δ13C from stem cellulose and leaf waxes on the same samples to quantify compound-specific carbon signatures. We found that stem cellulose and leaf-wax lipids were both strongly negatively correlated with moss water content, suggesting a primary role of water film thickness on carbon assimilation. In addition, isotopic fractionation during wax synthesis was greater than for cellulose. This offset decreases as conditions get drier, due to (i) a more effective carbon assimilation, or (ii) CH4 uptake through symbiosis with methanotrophic bacteria within the leaves of wet mosses. Biochemical analysis (carbohydrates, amino acids, hydrophenols, cutin acids) of surface moss are currently being conducted to characterize moss carbon allocation under different hydrological conditions. Overall, this modern calibration work should be of use for interpreting carbon isotope records from peatlands.

  2. The effects of threonine phosphorylation on the stability and dynamics of the central molecular switch region of 18.5-kDa myelin basic protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenrick A Vassall

    Full Text Available The classic isoforms of myelin basic protein (MBP are essential for the formation and maintenance of myelin in the central nervous system of higher vertebrates. The protein is involved in all facets of the development, compaction, and stabilization of the multilamellar myelin sheath, and also interacts with cytoskeletal and signaling proteins. The predominant 18.5-kDa isoform of MBP is an intrinsically-disordered protein that is a candidate auto-antigen in the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. A highly-conserved central segment within classic MBP consists of a proline-rich region (murine 18.5-kDa sequence -T92-P93-R94-T95-P96-P97-P98-S99- containing a putative SH3-ligand, adjacent to a region that forms an amphipathic α-helix (P82-I90 upon interaction with membranes, or under membrane-mimetic conditions. The T92 and T95 residues within the proline-rich region can be post-translationally modified through phosphorylation by mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases. Here, we have investigated the structure of the α-helical and proline-rich regions in dilute aqueous buffer, and have evaluated the effects of phosphorylation at T92 and T95 on the stability and dynamics of the α-helical region, by utilizing four 36-residue peptides (S72-S107 with differing phosphorylation status. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals that both the α-helical as well as the proline-rich regions are disordered in aqueous buffer, whereas they are both structured in a lipid environment (cf., Ahmed et al., Biochemistry 51, 7475-9487, 2012. Thermodynamic analysis of trifluoroethanol-titration curves monitored by circular dichroism spectroscopy reveals that phosphorylation, especially at residue T92, impedes formation of the amphipathic α-helix. This conclusion is supported by molecular dynamics simulations, which further illustrate that phosphorylation reduces the folding reversibility of the α-helix upon temperature perturbation and affect the

  3. Anesthesia Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Anesthesia Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Anesthesia Basics What's in ... español Conceptos básicos sobre la anestesia What Is Anesthesia? No doubt about it, getting an operation can ...

  4. BASIC Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Carol Ann

    Designed for use by both secondary- and postsecondary-level business teachers, this curriculum guide consists of 10 units of instructional materials dealing with Beginners All-Purpose Symbol Instruction Code (BASIC) programing. Topics of the individual lessons are numbering BASIC programs and using the PRINT, END, and REM statements; system…

  5. Fluoride injury symptoms in epiphytic lichens and mosses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblanc, F; Comeau, G; Rao, D N

    1971-01-01

    This study was conducted in Arvida, Quebec, where volatile fluorides and HF are released into the atmosphere from an aluminum factory. Lichen and moss-bearing bark discs, cut out from trees in an unpolluted area, were fixed in groups of six in rectangular wooden boards. All discs were photographed in color as well as in black and white. Fifteen sites, in addition to a control site were selected in different directions from the factory. At each site two boards were fixed with nails in a vertical position at a height of 8-10 m on a tree. One board was removed after 4 months exposure and the other after 12 months. The lichens and mosses exposed in control and polluted areas were compared with respect to their color, external morphology, plasmolysis in algal cells, loss of green color, and nature of reactions towards neutral red and 2,3,5-triphenyl-2h-tetrazolium chloride (ttc), absorption spectra of chlorophyll, and fluoride concentration. Results indicate that f-pollution affects moisture balance, causes chlorophyll damage, and produces other symptoms of injury which could lead to ultimate death of these organisms.

  6. Bacteriohopanepolyol signatures as markers for methanotrophic bacteria in peat moss

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Winden, Julia F.; Talbot, Helen M.; Kip, Nardy; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Pol, Arjan; McNamara, Niall P.; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are bacterial biomarkers with a likely potential to identify present and past methanotrophic communities. To unravel the methanotrophic community in peat bogs, we report the BHP signatures of type I and type II methanotrophs isolated from Sphagnum mosses and of an extreme acidophilic verrucomicrobial methanotroph. A type I Methylovulum-like strain (M200) contains a remarkable combination of BHPs, including a complete suite of mono-unsaturated aminobacteriohopanepentol, -tetrol and -triol. The Methylomonas-like strain (M5) mainly produces aminobacteriohopanepentol, characteristic for type I methanotrophs, and the Methylosinus-like strain (29) contains both aminobacteriohopanetetrol and aminobacteriohopanetriol, typical for a type II methanotroph. The type II methanotroph Methylocella palustris and the verrucomicrobial Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum strain SolV primarily produce aminotriol, which is also produced by many other bacteria. In Sphagnum mosses and underlying peat from a peat bog from Moorhouse, UK, the only detectable BHPs indicative of methanotrophs are aminobacteriohopanepentol (aminopentol) and aminobacteriohopanetetrol (aminotetrol), although both are relatively low in abundance compared to other BHPs. Aminopentol serves as a marker for type I methanotrophs, while aminotetrol may reflect the presence of both type I and type II methanotrophs. The similar quantities of aminotetrol and aminopentol indicate that the methanotrophic community in Sphagnum peat probably consist of a combination of both type I and type II methanotrophs, which is in line with previously published pmoA-based micro-array results.

  7. Evolution of niche preference in Sphagnum peat mosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew G; Granath, Gustaf; Tahvanainen, Teemu; Pouliot, Remy; Stenøien, Hans K; Rochefort, Line; Rydin, Håkan; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Peat mosses (Sphagnum) are ecosystem engineers-species in boreal peatlands simultaneously create and inhabit narrow habitat preferences along two microhabitat gradients: an ionic gradient and a hydrological hummock-hollow gradient. In this article, we demonstrate the connections between microhabitat preference and phylogeny in Sphagnum. Using a dataset of 39 species of Sphagnum, with an 18-locus DNA alignment and an ecological dataset encompassing three large published studies, we tested for phylogenetic signal and within-genus changes in evolutionary rate of eight niche descriptors and two multivariate niche gradients. We find little to no evidence for phylogenetic signal in most component descriptors of the ionic gradient, but interspecific variation along the hummock-hollow gradient shows considerable phylogenetic signal. We find support for a change in the rate of niche evolution within the genus-the hummock-forming subgenus Acutifolia has evolved along the multivariate hummock-hollow gradient faster than the hollow-inhabiting subgenus Cuspidata. Because peat mosses themselves create some of the ecological gradients constituting their own habitats, the classic microtopography of Sphagnum-dominated peatlands is maintained by evolutionary constraints and the biological properties of related Sphagnum species. The patterns of phylogenetic signal observed here will instruct future study on the role of functional traits in peatland growth and reconstruction. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Lead accumulation within nuclei of moss leaf cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaar, H; Ophus, E; Gullvag, B M

    1973-01-19

    Mosses were cultivated in a greenhouse and watered once a day for three weeks with a series of lead acetate solutions providing concentrations of 100-10,000 ppm of lead. Electron micrographs revealed electron-dense inclusions in the cells of lead-treated samples. Within the nuclei of leaf cells we repeatedly found electron-dense particles and damage to the nuclear membrane. Analysis confirmed that the electron-dense particles found within the nuclei contained lead. The findings that lead is incorporated into the nuclei of lead-polluted moss cells agree with previous findings of lead inclusions within the nuclei of tubular cells from the kidneys of lead poisoned men and animals. The binding of lead within the nuclear membrane as a non-diffusible complex has been suggested as the mechanism whereby the cytoplasmic concentration of diffusible lead substances within the cell can be kept below a level that would otherwise be toxic to the mitochondrial and other lead-sensitive functions of the cytoplasm. 13 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  9. Analysis of mosses along Sarp-Samsun highway in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koz, B. [Giresun University, Department of Biology, 28049 Giresun (Turkey); Cevik, U. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)], E-mail: ugurc@ktu.edu.tr; Ozdemir, T. [Giresun University, Department of Biology, 28049 Giresun (Turkey); Duran, C. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Chemistry, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Kaya, S. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Gundogdu, A. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Chemistry, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Celik, N. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2008-05-01

    The elemental analysis of mosses along Sarp-Samsun highway in Turkey was determined using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence method. A radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence analysis using the method of multiple standard additions is applied for the elemental analysis of mosses. An annular 50 mCi {sup 241}Am radioactive source and annular 50 mCi {sup 55}Fe radioactive source were used for excitation of characteristic K X-rays. An Si(Li) detector which has a 147 eV full width at half maximum for 5.9 keV photons was used for intensity measurements. A qualitative analysis of spectral peaks showed that the samples contained phosphates, potassium, calcium, titanium, iron, strontium, tin and barium. Since this study is the elemental analysis along the highway, one can expect to detect Pb. Due to the detection limit of EDXRF, elements were analyzed with Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) for Pb. Evaluation of these elements with their potential hazards for ecology and human is briefly discusse000.

  10. Analysis of mosses along Sarp-Samsun highway in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koz, B.; Cevik, U.; Ozdemir, T.; Duran, C.; Kaya, S.; Gundogdu, A.; Celik, N.

    2008-01-01

    The elemental analysis of mosses along Sarp-Samsun highway in Turkey was determined using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence method. A radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence analysis using the method of multiple standard additions is applied for the elemental analysis of mosses. An annular 50 mCi 241 Am radioactive source and annular 50 mCi 55 Fe radioactive source were used for excitation of characteristic K X-rays. An Si(Li) detector which has a 147 eV full width at half maximum for 5.9 keV photons was used for intensity measurements. A qualitative analysis of spectral peaks showed that the samples contained phosphates, potassium, calcium, titanium, iron, strontium, tin and barium. Since this study is the elemental analysis along the highway, one can expect to detect Pb. Due to the detection limit of EDXRF, elements were analyzed with Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) for Pb. Evaluation of these elements with their potential hazards for ecology and human is briefly discussed

  11. Further promotion of the use of mosses and lichens for studies of atmospheric deposition of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinnes, Eiliv

    2001-01-01

    Some recent and ongoing studies related to the use of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric metal deposition are briefly reviewed. Issues discussed in particular are the conversion of concentration in moss to absolute deposition values, introduction of a second-generation ICP-MS instrument for moss analysis, determination of stable lead isotope ratios in mosses for source apportionment, and temporal trends of lead and cadmium deposition in Norway. A novel nuclear technique for the determination of fluorine in mosses surrounding an aluminium smelter is presented. (author)

  12. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  13. Techno-economic assessment of an off-grid PV system for developing regions to provide electricity for basic domestic needs: A 2020–2040 scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubi, Ghassan; Dufo-López, Rodolfo; Pasaoglu, Guzay; Pardo, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Off-grid PV has a huge potential to provide effective solutions for energy poverty. • Its implementation barrier is economic, but paths to effectively tackle this exist. • The implementation barriers will be reduced by a favourable technological evolution. • Cost reductions to the level of grid-connected power will be eventually achieved. - Abstract: While in the developed countries electrification is paving the way for progress and prosperity, nowadays electricity is still not accessible for about 18% of the world’s population. Lack of power grids is the main reason that prevents millions in remote areas in developing countries from using electricity for the daily basic needs. PV systems provide an effective solution for these regions, but affordability remains an issue. This barrier can be widely overcome on the short term by limiting PV power supply to very high added value applications and by properly exploiting innovations, especially in energy efficiency and cost reductions. Additional to that, the long-term perspectives of off-grid PV are very favourable based on its ongoing technological improvements and cost reductions. This paper studies four off-grid PV cases of which each could cover a combination of basic energy needs regarding light, cooking, food conservation and electronic appliances. Case I considers a system that supplies power for LED lamps and electronic devices. Accordingly, Case II adds a fridge and Case III an electric rice cooker to Case I, while Case IV adds both. The paper elaborates on available technologies and future developments regarding all components in order to assess the long term evolution and potential of these applications, most specifically how their affordability would evolve over time. The modelling and optimization of the four cases are performed using the software iHOGA, which is an efficient tool to provide the lowest cost solution for off-grid PV systems. The use of iHOGA for the four cases and

  14. Atmospheric deposition of trace metals in Romania studied by the moss biomonitoring technique using NAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucaciu, A.; Timofte, L.; Vata, I.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Oprea, C. D.; Culicov, O. A.; Steinnes, E.

    2003-01-01

    To characterize atmospheric deposition of trace elements in Romania, moss samples of Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi and Hypnum cupressiforme were collected at 272 network sites (20 x 20 km) and in different years between 1995 and 2000. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been used for determination of 37 major, minor and trace elements (e.g. Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th and U) in moss samples. Copper, cadmium and lead were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). In order to identify the sources of air pollution in Romania, the principal component analysis was applied on the overall data set, as well as on each data set. At least 74% of the total variance in data sets could be explained by four to six principal components, including soil dust, general pollution, sea-salt, foliar leaching and local point source categories. The highest concentrations of trace metals related to industrial activities were found in Transilvania Plateau (Cr, Fe, Co, Ni Cu, Zn As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Ba, W and U) and in the South of Romania (Ni). Crustal enrichment factors, based on scandium, decrease in the order: Cd, Se, Sb, Pb, I, Cl, Br, Au, Ag, Zn, As, Cu, W, Mn, Zr, Hf, Mo, K, Rb, Ba, Cs, Ca, U, Mg, Th, Ce, La, Tb, Sm, Cr, Sr, Al, Ta, V, Yb, Fe, Ni, Co and Na. Comparison of the data from different surveyed regions revealed the differences in concentrations of air toxic elements related to specific industrial activities concerned. The trace metal levels in Romania were similar to those found by the other East-European countries participating in 2000 European moss survey, but significantly higher compared with Norway. (authors)

  15. Basic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  16. Reduced content of chloroatranol and atranol in oak moss absolute significantly reduces the elicitation potential of this fragrance material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Flemming; Andersen, Kirsten H; Bernois, Armand; Brault, Christophe; Bruze, Magnus; Eudes, Hervé; Gadras, Catherine; Signoret, Anne-Cécile J; Mose, Kristian F; Müller, Boris P; Toulemonde, Bernard; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2015-02-01

    Oak moss absolute, an extract from the lichen Evernia prunastri, is a valued perfume ingredient but contains extreme allergens. To compare the elicitation properties of two preparations of oak moss absolute: 'classic oak moss', the historically used preparation, and 'new oak moss', with reduced contents of the major allergens atranol and chloroatranol. The two preparations were compared in randomized double-blinded repeated open application tests and serial dilution patch tests in 30 oak moss-sensitive volunteers and 30 non-allergic control subjects. In both test models, new oak moss elicited significantly less allergic contact dermatitis in oak moss-sensitive subjects than classic oak moss. The control subjects did not react to either of the preparations. New oak moss is still a fragrance allergen, but elicits less allergic contact dermatitis in previously oak moss-sensitized individuals, suggesting that new oak moss is less allergenic to non-sensitized individuals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effects of volume change on the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of Sphagnum moss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubev, V.; Whittington, P.

    2018-04-01

    Due to the non-vascular nature of Sphagnum mosses, the capitula (growing surface) of the moss must rely solely on capillary action to receive water from beneath. Moss subsides and swells in accordance with water table levels, an effect called "mire-breathing", which has been thought to be a self-preservation mechanism, although no systematic studies have been done to demonstrate exactly how volume change affects hydrophysical properties of moss. In this study, the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (Kunsat) and water content of two different species of Sphagnum moss were measured at different compression rates, up to the maximum of 77%. The findings show that the Kunsat increases by up to an order of magnitude (10×) with compression up to a certain bulk density of the moss, after which higher levels of compression result in lowered unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. This was coupled with an increase in soil water retention with increased compression. The increase of the Kunsat with compression suggests that the mire-breathing effect should be considered a self-preservation mechanism to provide sufficient amount of water to growing moss in times of low water availability.

  18. Peatland water repellency: Importance of soil water content, moss species, and burn severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P. A.; Lukenbach, M. C.; Kettridge, N.; Petrone, R. M.; Devito, K. J.; Waddington, J. M.

    2017-11-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting peatlands, with northern peat reserves expected to become more vulnerable to wildfire as climate change enhances the length and severity of the fire season. Recent research suggests that high water table positions after wildfire are critical to limit atmospheric carbon losses and enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e. Sphagnum). Post-fire recovery of the moss surface in Sphagnum-feathermoss peatlands, however, has been shown to be limited where moss type and burn severity interact to result in a water repellent surface. While in situ measurements of moss water repellency in peatlands have been shown to be greater for feathermoss in both a burned and unburned state in comparison to Sphagnum moss, it is difficult to separate the effect of water content from species. Consequently, we carried out a laboratory based drying experiment where we compared the water repellency of two dominant peatland moss species, Sphagnum and feathermoss, for several burn severity classes including unburned samples. The results suggest that water repellency in moss is primarily controlled by water content, where a sharp threshold exists at gravimetric water contents (GWC) lower than ∼1.4 g g-1. While GWC is shown to be a strong predictor of water repellency, the effect is enhanced by burning. Based on soil water retention curves, we suggest that it is highly unlikely that Sphagnum will exhibit strong hydrophobic conditions under field conditions.

  19. Beryllium-7 and {sup 210}Pb atmospheric deposition measured in moss and dependence on cumulative precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krmar, M., E-mail: krmar@df.uns.ac.rs [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 4, Novi Sad (Serbia); Mihailović, D.T.; Arsenić, I. [Faculty of Agriculture, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 8, Novi Sad (Serbia); Radnović, D. [Faculty of Science, Biology Department, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 4, Novi Sad (Serbia); Pap, I. [Faculty of Agriculture, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 8, Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2016-01-15

    This paper focuses on analysis of the time series of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb activity measured in moss, and the amount, as well as duration of precipitation, to gain a better understanding of the possible relationships between airborne radionuclide deposition and precipitation. Here we consider whether the amount of these airborne radionuclides in moss samples is a cumulative measure of radionuclide deposition and decay, and a new approach for analyses of the relationships between precipitation and moss activity concentrations is suggested. Through these analyses it was shown that comparison of cumulative activity measured at one location using moss, normalized by values of cumulative amount or duration of precipitation, showed different regimes of airborne radionuclide deposition. - Graphical abstract: Correlation between cumulative activity of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb measured in moss samples normalized by the cumulative precipitation. - Highlights: • Use of mosses in measurement of airborne radionuclides deposition was investigated • Prior work indicated {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb activities were not correlated with precipitation • This is unusual since radionuclides moss tissues depends on depositional fluxes. • A new method for study of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb depositional dynamics was developed • Different seasonal regimes of {sup 7}Be deposition are more noticeable in new technique.

  20. Beryllium-7 and 210Pb atmospheric deposition measured in moss and dependence on cumulative precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krmar, M.; Mihailović, D.T.; Arsenić, I.; Radnović, D.; Pap, I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on analysis of the time series of 7 Be and 210 Pb activity measured in moss, and the amount, as well as duration of precipitation, to gain a better understanding of the possible relationships between airborne radionuclide deposition and precipitation. Here we consider whether the amount of these airborne radionuclides in moss samples is a cumulative measure of radionuclide deposition and decay, and a new approach for analyses of the relationships between precipitation and moss activity concentrations is suggested. Through these analyses it was shown that comparison of cumulative activity measured at one location using moss, normalized by values of cumulative amount or duration of precipitation, showed different regimes of airborne radionuclide deposition. - Graphical abstract: Correlation between cumulative activity of 7 Be and 210 Pb measured in moss samples normalized by the cumulative precipitation. - Highlights: • Use of mosses in measurement of airborne radionuclides deposition was investigated • Prior work indicated 7 Be and 210 Pb activities were not correlated with precipitation • This is unusual since radionuclides moss tissues depends on depositional fluxes. • A new method for study of 7 Be and 210 Pb depositional dynamics was developed • Different seasonal regimes of 7 Be deposition are more noticeable in new technique

  1. Methane oxidation associated to submerged brown-mosses buffers methane emissions from Siberian polygonal peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebner, Susanne; Zeyer, Josef; Knoblauch, Christian

    2010-05-01

    Circumpolar peatlands store roughly 18 % of the globally stored carbon in soils [based on 1, 2]. Also, northern wetlands and tundra are a net source of methane (CH4), an effective greenhouse gas (GHG), with an estimated annual CH4 release of 7.2% [3] or 8.1% [4] of the global total CH4 emission. Although it is definite that Arctic tundra significantly contributes to the global methane emissions in general, regional variations in GHG fluxes are enormous. CH4 fluxes of polygonal tundra within the Siberian Lena Delta, for example, were reported to be low [5, 6], particularly at open water polygonal ponds and small lakes [7] which make up around 10 % of the delta's surface. Low methane emissions from polygonal ponds oppose that Arctic permafrost thaw ponds are generally known to emit large amounts of CH4 [8]. Combining tools of biogeochemistry and molecular microbiology, we identified sinks of CH4 in polygonal ponds from the Lena Delta that were not considered so far in GHG studies from Arctic wetlands. Pore water CH4 profiling in polygonal ponds on Samoylov, a small island in the central part of the Lena Delta, revealed a pronounced zone of CH4 oxidation near the vegetation surface in submerged layers of brown-mosses. Here, potential CH4 oxidation was an order of magnitude higher than in non-submerged mosses and in adjacent bulk soil. We could additionally show that this moss associated methane oxidation (MAMO) is hampered when exposure of light is prevented. Shading of plots with submerged Scorpidium scorpioides inhibited MAMO leading to higher CH4 concentrations and an increase in CH4 fluxes by a factor of ~13. Compared to non-submerged mosses, the submerged mosses also showed significantly lower δ13C values indicating that they use carbon dioxide derived from methane oxidation for photosynthesis. Applying stable isotope probing of DNA, type II methanotrophs were identified to be responsible for the oxidation of CH4 in the submerged Scorpidium scorpioides. Our

  2. Sensitivity of the xerophytic moss Syntrichia caninervis to chronic simulated nitrogen deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanming

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts, complex of cyanobacteira, fungi, lichens and mosses, are common in dryland area and act as important elements of these ecosystems. Syntrichia caninervis is the dominant species in moss crusts in many desert ecosystems. Increasing N deposition has lead to great changes in community structure and function in the desert ecosystem worldwide. However, it is unclear how moss crusts respond to increased atmospheric N deposition, especially in term of growth and physiological parameters. The population and individual growth, and physiological responses of S. caninervis to six different doses of simulated N deposition (0, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 3.0 g N m-2 a-1) over three years were studied. Simulated N deposition in the Gurbantunggut Desert affected growth and physiological indices of the xerophytic moss S.caninervis. Low N addition increased individual plant length and leaf size. High N addition was detrimental to almost all growth characteristics monitored, although moss abundance was increased. The photosynthesis-related indices were moderately increased at low N addition rates and significantly decreased by high N addition. Changes in osmotic adjustment substance concentrations and activities of antioxidant enzymes facilitated protection of leaf cells from oxidative damage under N addition. Low rates of N additiondid not significantly affect, and may even stimulate growth and physiological activity of moss crusts. However, high rates of N addition decreased moss vitality and might affect the function of moss crusts. Moss crusts are sensitive to N addition and greater attention should be paid to protection of such kinds of biological complexes in desert ecosystems under increasing N deposition. Key words: antioxidant enzyme, chlorophyll, fluorescence, nitrogen deposition, osmotic substance, Syntrichia caninervis

  3. Moss-cyanobacteria associations as biogenic sources of nitrogen in boreal forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin eRousk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen (N is a major pathway for available N entering ecosystems. In N-limited boreal forests, a significant amount of N2 is fixed by cyanobacteria living in association with mosses, contributing up to 50 % to the total N input. In this review, we synthesize reports on the drivers of N2 fixation in feather moss-cyanobacteria associations to gain a deeper understanding of their role for ecosystem-N-cycling. Nitrogen fixation in moss-cyanobacteria associations is inhibited by N inputs and therefore, significant fixation occurs only in low N-deposition areas. While it has been shown that artificial N additions in the laboratory as well as in the field inhibit N2 fixation in moss-cyanobacteria associations, the type, as well as the amounts of N that enters the system, affect N2 fixation differently. Another major driver of N2 fixation is the moisture status of the cyanobacteria-hosting moss, wherein moist conditions promote N2 fixation. Mosses experience large fluctuations in their hydrological status, undergoing significant natural drying and rewetting cycles over the course of only a few hours, especially in summer, which likely compromises the N input to the system via N2 fixation. Perhaps the most central question, however, that remains unanswered is the fate of the fixed N2 in mosses. The cyanobacteria are likely to leak N, but whether this N is transferred to the soil and if so, at which rates and timescales, is unknown. Despite our increasing understanding of the drivers of N2 fixation, the role moss-cyanobacteria associations play in ecosystem-N-cycling remains unresolved. Further, the relationship mosses and cyanobacteria share is unknown to date and warrants further investigation.

  4. Production of greenhouse-grown biocrust mosses and associated cyanobacteria to rehabilitate dryland soil function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoninka, Anita; Bowker, Matthew A.; Reed, Sasha C.; Doherty, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Mosses are an often-overlooked component of dryland ecosystems, yet they are common members of biological soil crust communities (biocrusts) and provide key ecosystem services, including soil stabilization, water retention, carbon fixation, and housing of N2 fixing cyanobacteria. Mosses are able to survive long dry periods, respond rapidly to precipitation, and reproduce vegetatively. With these qualities, dryland mosses have the potential to be an excellent dryland restoration material. Unfortunately, dryland mosses are often slow growing in nature, and ex situ cultivation methods are needed to enhance their utility. Our goal was to determine how to rapidly produce, vegetatively, Syntrichia caninervis and S. ruralis, common and abundant moss species in drylands of North America and elsewhere, in a greenhouse. We manipulated the length of hydration on a weekly schedule (5, 4, 3, or 2 days continuous hydration per week), crossed with fertilization (once at the beginning, monthly, biweekly, or not at all). Moss biomass increased sixfold for both species in 4 months, an increase that would require years under dryland field conditions. Both moss species preferred short hydration and monthly fertilizer. Remarkably, we also unintentionally cultured a variety of other important biocrust organisms, including cyanobacteria and lichens. In only 6 months, we produced functionally mature biocrusts, as evidenced by high productivity and ecosystem-relevant levels of N2 fixation. Our results suggest that biocrust mosses might be the ideal candidate for biocrust cultivation for restoration purposes. With optimization, these methods are the first step in developing a moss-based biocrust rehabilitation technology.

  5. Are herbarium mosses reliable indicators of historical nitrogen deposition?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tora Finderup; Larsen, Jesper Ruf; Michelsen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Mosses collected decades ago and stored in herbaria are often used to assess historical nitrogen deposition. This method is effectively based on the assumption that tissue N concentration remains constant during storage. The present study raises serious doubt about the generality of that assumption....... We measured tissue N and C concentrations as well as δ15N, δ13C, Pb and Mg in herbarium and present day samples of seven bryophyte species from six sites across Denmark. While an increase in nitrogen deposition during the last century is well-documented for the study site, we surprisingly found...... foliar N concentration to be higher in historical samples than in modern samples. Based on δ15N values and Pb concentration, we find nitrogen contamination of herbarium specimens during storage to be the most likely cause, possibly in combination with dilution though growth and/or decomposition during...

  6. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  7. Achieving superior band gap, refractive index and morphology in composite oxide thin film systems violating the Moss rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, N K; Thakur, S; Tokas, R B

    2006-01-01

    The interrelation between energy gap and high frequency refractive index in semiconductors and dielectrics is manifested by an inverse law which is popularly known as the Moss rule. This semi-empirical relationship is based on the fundamental principle that in a dielectric medium all energy levels are scaled down by a factor of the square of the dielectric constant. Such a rule is obeyed by most pure semiconductors and dielectrics with a few rare violations in composite materials which display several interesting parametric and microstructural evolutions. The present results are based on some specific oxide composite thin films involving Gd 2 O 3 /SiO 2 and ZrO 2 /SiO 2 codeposited systems that have displayed a superior refractive index and energy gaps violating the semi-empirical Moss rule. Also, morphological supremacy is also distinctly noticed in these composites. The novel microstructural and polarizability properties of such composite systems were probed through multi-mode atomic force microscopy and phase modulated spectroscopic ellipsometry using refractive index modelling, autocorrelation and height-height correlation functional analyses. These binary composite thin films have shown their potential as well as the possibility of meeting expectations in satisfying the challenging optical coating requirements of the deep ultraviolet spectral region

  8. Investigation of spatial and temporal metal atmospheric deposition in France through lichen and moss bioaccumulation over one century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnan, Y., E-mail: yannick.agnan@biogeochimie.fr; Séjalon-Delmas, N.; Claustres, A.; Probst, A., E-mail: anne.probst@ensat.fr

    2015-10-01

    Lichens and mosses were used as biomonitors to assess the atmospheric deposition of metals in forested ecosystems in various regions of France. The concentrations of 17 metals/metalloids (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn) indicated overall low atmospheric contamination in these forested environments, but a regionalism emerged from local contributions (anthropogenic activities, as well as local lithology). Taking into account the geochemical background and comparing to Italian data, the elements from both natural and anthropogenic activities, such as Cd, Pb, or Zn, did not show any obvious anomalies. However, elements mainly originating from lithogenic dust (e.g., Al, Fe, Ti) were more prevalent in sparse forests and in the Southern regions of France, whereas samples from dense forests showed an accumulation of elements from biological recycling (Mn and Zn). The combination of enrichment factors and Pb isotope ratios between current and herbarium samples indicated the historical evolution of metal atmospheric contamination: the high contribution of coal combustion beginning 150 years ago decreased at the end of the 20th century, and the influence of car traffic during the latter observed period decreased in the last few decades. In the South of France, obvious local influences were well preserved during the last century. - Highlights: • A century of metal deposition was assessed by lichens and mosses in France. • A regional forest cover-dependent geochemical background signature was evidenced. • The anthropogenic contribution was low but stronger in the North-Eastern region. • Changes in the nature of atmospheric deposition were evidenced since the 19th century. • Pb isotopes traced a conservative specific contamination in SW France over a century.

  9. Investigation of spatial and temporal metal atmospheric deposition in France through lichen and moss bioaccumulation over one century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnan, Y.; Séjalon-Delmas, N.; Claustres, A.; Probst, A.

    2015-01-01

    Lichens and mosses were used as biomonitors to assess the atmospheric deposition of metals in forested ecosystems in various regions of France. The concentrations of 17 metals/metalloids (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn) indicated overall low atmospheric contamination in these forested environments, but a regionalism emerged from local contributions (anthropogenic activities, as well as local lithology). Taking into account the geochemical background and comparing to Italian data, the elements from both natural and anthropogenic activities, such as Cd, Pb, or Zn, did not show any obvious anomalies. However, elements mainly originating from lithogenic dust (e.g., Al, Fe, Ti) were more prevalent in sparse forests and in the Southern regions of France, whereas samples from dense forests showed an accumulation of elements from biological recycling (Mn and Zn). The combination of enrichment factors and Pb isotope ratios between current and herbarium samples indicated the historical evolution of metal atmospheric contamination: the high contribution of coal combustion beginning 150 years ago decreased at the end of the 20th century, and the influence of car traffic during the latter observed period decreased in the last few decades. In the South of France, obvious local influences were well preserved during the last century. - Highlights: • A century of metal deposition was assessed by lichens and mosses in France. • A regional forest cover-dependent geochemical background signature was evidenced. • The anthropogenic contribution was low but stronger in the North-Eastern region. • Changes in the nature of atmospheric deposition were evidenced since the 19th century. • Pb isotopes traced a conservative specific contamination in SW France over a century

  10. Basic concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, B.

    1999-01-01

    The basic concepts of neutron scattering as a tool for studying the structure and the dynamics of condensed matter. Theoretical aspects are outlined, the two different cases of coherent and incoherent scattering are presented. The issue of resolution, coherence volume and the role of monochromators are also discussed. (K.A.)

  11. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learn more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of ... consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Veer, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com.

  12. Basic Thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duthil, P

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a general thermodynamic basis that is useable in the context of superconductivity and particle accelerators. The first part recalls the purpose of thermodynamics and summarizes its important concepts. Some applications, from cryogenics to magnetic systems, are covered. In the context of basic thermodynamics, only thermodynamic equilibrium is considered

  13. Basic Thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duthil, P [Orsay, IPN (France)

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a general thermodynamic basis that is useable in the context of superconductivity and particle accelerators. The first part recalls the purpose of thermodynamics and summarizes its important concepts. Some applications, from cryogenics to magnetic systems, are covered. In the context of basic thermodynamics, only thermodynamic equilibrium is considered.

  14. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  15. The Urban Moss Flora of the Çankırı City (NW, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azize YAVUZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The mosses found in the urban area of Çankırı city was investigated at five zones depending on the human activities. Two hundreds and thirty five specimens were randomly collected in sampling locations within the zones. As a result of the identification, 66 taxa were recorded. The results were compared with the explored urban floras of the other countries. Data on life forms, frequency of occurrence, presence of sporophytes, habitats and substrata preferences of the mosses were discussed. Detailed topographical features including slope, aspect and altitude analysis of the study area were illustrated and taxa occurrence was evaluated based on these properties. Chi-square analysis revealed that 45 moss species of 235 were correlated with the categorical variables at 0.05 significance level. Moss taxa occurrence within the urban area was mainly correlated with life forms and gametophyte structures, respectively.

  16. The potential value of the seaweed Ceylon moss (Gelidium amansii) as an alternative bioenergy resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wi, Seung Gon; Kim, Hyun Joo; Mahadevan, Shobana Arumugam; Yang, Duck-Joo; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2009-12-01

    Sea weed (Ceylon moss) possesses comparable bioenergy production potential to that of land plants. Ceylon moss has high content of carbohydrates, typically galactose (23%) and glucose (20%). We have explored the possibility of sodium chlorite in Ceylon moss pretreatment that can ultimately increase the efficiency of enzymatic saccharification. In an acidic medium, chlorite generates ClO(2) molecules that transform lignin into soluble compounds without any significant loss of carbohydrate content and this procedure is widely used as an analytical method for holocellulose determination. Sodium chlorite-pretreated samples resulted in glucose yield up to 70% with contrast of only 5% was obtained from non-pretreated samples. The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis is significantly improved by sodium chlorite pretreatment, and thus sodium chlorite pretreatment is potentially a very useful tool in the utilisation of Ceylon moss biomass for ethanol production or bioenergy purposes.

  17. Determination and spatial distribution of 137Cs in soils, mosses and lichens near Kavanayen, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBrecque, J.J.; Cordoves, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    The activity of 137 Cs was determined in soils, mosses, lichens and other vegetation along the Caruay River and near the town of Kavanayen. The range of values for the soils was from -1 of 137 Cs (our detection limit) to 14.1 Bq x kg -1 . The range of 137 Cs activities in the mosses ranged from 9.9 to 17.9 Bq x kg -1 with a mean value of 13.4±4 Bq x kg -1 ; all the moss samples were found along the river. While the 137 Cs activities in the lichens ranged from 9.1 to 29.8 Bq x kg -1 ; the two values along the river were about three factors higher than the one near Kavanayen. It was concluded that the 137 Cs activities in the soils, mosses and lichens are much higher along the river in respect to the nearby town of Kavanayen

  18. Evaluation of Species Richness of Acrocarpous Mosses in Imphal District, Manipur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Govindapyari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosses are remarkably successful colonizer on the variety of habitats. They can survive in extreme environmental conditions where only a few other plants grow. The main attributes of mosses are compact growth form, ability to retain moisture, ectohydric nature, poikilohydry and low growing habit. The occurrence of a particular species may reflect the microclimate of the locality. The present study reveals 75 species of acrocarpous mosses belonging to 23 genera and nine families from Imphal district which is an urban site of tropical climate. The most frequently occurring family is observed to be Pottiaceae with 28 species and 11 genera. The genus Bryum with 13 species is found to have highest number of species followed by Fissidens and Physcomitrium. Splachnobryum sp. and Bryum argenteum are found to be distributed on the nitrophilous substrata. It seems that changing climatic conditions and pollution are restricting the sexual reproduction and subsequently the genetic variability and adaptability in the moss taxa.

  19. Atmospheric deposition of trace elements in Norway studied by means of moss analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinnes, E.

    1977-02-01

    The atmospheric deposition of 28 elements in different parts of Norway was studied by means of moss analysis. The species Hylocomium splendens was selected after a comparison of different species. For several elements large regional differences were found. The highest concentration of these elements were found in the southernmost part of the country and in places near the west coast with high annual precipitation. The lowest values were found in places with low annual precipitation in Eastern Norway and the interior parts of the more northerly parts of the country. Within each region the highest deposition was observed in places with high annual precipitation. For the elements Pb, Sb, As, and Se the observed concentration range amounted to a factor of about 20. In the case of Ag, Cd, Cs, and V the range was smaller, but still amounting to a factor of 10 or more. A lower but still distinct spread was observed for Cr, Mo, Cu, and Zn. For all these elements long distance transport from sources in the densely populated and heavily industrialized parts of Europe probably are of importance for the obsreved distribution. (Auth.)

  20. Inter-species and intra-annual variations of moss nitrogen utilization: Implications for nitrogen deposition assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yu-Ping; Liu, Xue-Yan; Sun, Xin-Chao; Song, Wei; Zheng, Xu-Dong; Li, Rui; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2017-11-01

    Moss nitrogen (N) concentrations and natural 15 N abundance (δ 15 N values) have been widely employed to evaluate annual levels and major sources of atmospheric N deposition. However, different moss species and one-off sampling were often used among extant studies, it remains unclear whether moss N parameters differ with species and different samplings, which prevented more accurate assessment of N deposition via moss survey. Here concentrations, isotopic ratios of bulk carbon (C) and bulk N in natural epilithic mosses (Bryum argenteum, Eurohypnum leptothallum, Haplocladium microphyllum and Hypnum plumaeforme) were measured monthly from August 2006 to August 2007 at Guiyang, SW China. The H. plumaeforme had significantly (P < 0.05) lower bulk N concentrations and higher δ 13 C values than other species. Moss N concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in warmer months than in cooler months, while moss δ 13 C values exhibited an opposite pattern. The variance component analyses showed that different species contributed more variations of moss N concentrations and δ 13 C values than different samplings. Differently, δ 15 N values did not differ significantly between moss species, and its variance mainly reflected variations of assimilated N sources, with ammonium as the dominant contributor. These results unambiguously reveal the influence of inter-species and intra-annual variations of moss N utilization on N deposition assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Monitoring of Antarctic moss ecosystems using a high spatial resolution imaging spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malenovsky, Zbynek; Lucieer, Arko; Robinson, Sharon; Harwin, Stephen; Turner, Darren; Veness, Tony

    2013-04-01

    The most abundant photosynthetically active plants growing along the rocky Antarctic shore are mosses of three species: Schistidium antarctici, Ceratodon purpureus, and Bryum pseudotriquetrum. Even though mosses are well adapted to the extreme climate conditions, their existence in Antarctica depends strongly on availability of liquid water from snowmelt during the short summer season. Recent changes in temperature, wind speed and stratospheric ozone are stimulating faster evaporation, which in turn influences moss growing rate, health state and abundance. This makes them an ideal bio-indicator of the Antarctic climate change. Very short growing season, lasting only about three months, requires a time efficient, easily deployable and spatially resolved method for monitoring the Antarctic moss beds. Ground and/or low-altitude airborne imaging spectroscopy (called also hyperspectral remote sensing) offers a fast and spatially explicit approach to investigate an actual spatial extent and physiological state of moss turfs. A dataset of ground-based spectral images was acquired with a mini-Hyperspec imaging spectrometer (Headwall Inc., the USA) during the Antarctic summer 2012 in the surroundings of the Australian Antarctic station Casey (Windmill Islands). The collection of high spatial resolution spectral images, with pixels about 2 cm in size containing from 162 up to 324 narrow spectral bands of wavelengths between 399 and 998 nm, was accompanied with point moss reflectance measurements recorded with the ASD HandHeld-2 spectroradiometer (Analytical Spectral Devices Inc., the USA). The first spectral analysis indicates significant differences in red-edge and near-infrared reflectance of differently watered moss patches. Contrary to high plants, where the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) represents an estimate of green biomass, NDVI of mosses indicates mainly the actual water content. Similarly to high plants, reflectance of visible wavelengths is

  2. Red shift in the spectrum of a chlorophyll species is essential for the drought-induced dissipation of excess light energy in a poikilohydric moss, Bryum argenteum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yutaka; Mohamed, Ahmed; Taniyama, Koichiro; Kanatani, Kentaro; Kosugi, Makiko; Fukumura, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    Some mosses are extremely tolerant of drought stress. Their high drought tolerance relies on their ability to effectively dissipate absorbed light energy to heat under dry conditions. The energy dissipation mechanism in a drought-tolerant moss, Bryum argenteum, has been investigated using low-temperature picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The results are compared between moss thalli samples harvested in Antarctica and in Japan. Both samples show almost the same quenching properties, suggesting an identical drought tolerance mechanism for the same species with two completely different habitats. A global target analysis was applied to a large set of data on the fluorescence-quenching dynamics for the 430-nm (chlorophyll-a selective) and 460-nm (chlorophyll-b and carotenoid selective) excitations in the temperature region from 5 to 77 K. This analysis strongly suggested that the quencher is formed in the major peripheral antenna of photosystem II, whose emission spectrum is significantly broadened and red-shifted in its quenched form. Two emission components at around 717 and 725 nm were assigned to photosystem I (PS I). The former component at around 717 nm is mildly quenched and probably bound to the PS I core complex, while the latter at around 725 nm is probably bound to the light-harvesting complex. The dehydration treatment caused a blue shift of the PS I emission peak via reduction of the exciton energy flow to the pigment responsible for the 725 nm band.

  3. Monitoring of heavy metal concentrations in home outdoor air using moss bags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Marcela, E-mail: arivera@creal.ca [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Zechmeister, Harald [University of Vienna, Faculty of Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Medina-Ramon, Mercedes; Basagana, Xavier [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Foraster, Maria [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Bouso, Laura [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Moreno, Teresa [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Solanas, Pascual; Ramos, Rafael [Research Unit, Family Medicine, Girona, Jordi Gol Institute for Primary Care Research (IDIAP Jordi Gol), Catalan Institute of Health, Catalunya (Spain); Department of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Girona (Spain); Koellensperger, Gunda [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Deltell, Alexandre [Polytechnic School, GREFEMA, University of Girona (Spain); Vizcaya, David [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    One monitoring station is insufficient to characterize the high spatial variation of traffic-related heavy metals within cities. We tested moss bags (Hylocomium splendens), deployed in a dense network, for the monitoring of metals in outdoor air and characterized metals' long-term spatial distribution and its determinants in Girona, Spain. Mosses were exposed outside 23 homes for two months; NO{sub 2} was monitored for comparison. Metals were not highly correlated with NO{sub 2} and showed higher spatial variation than NO{sub 2}. Regression models explained 61-85% of Cu, Cr, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn and 72% of NO{sub 2} variability. Metals were strongly associated with the number of bus lines in the nearest street. Heavy metals are an alternative traffic-marker to NO{sub 2} given their toxicological relevance, stronger association with local traffic and higher spatial variability. Monitoring heavy metals with mosses is appealing, particularly for long-term exposure assessment, as mosses can remain on site many months without maintenance. - Research highlights: > Moss bags can be used to measure the metal's long-term spatial distribution within cities. > Heavy metals in mosses are not highly correlated with ambient NO{sub 2} concentrations. > Heavy metals show higher spatial variation and association with traffic than NO{sub 2}. > Bus lines in the nearest street explain 75-85% of Mo, Cr, Sb, Sn and Cu variability. > Moss bags are useful for long-term at home exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. - The long-term spatial distribution of heavy metals, measured with moss bags, is mainly determined by proximity to bus lines.

  4. Metal and proton adsorption capacities of natural and cloned Sphagnum mosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Aridane G; Pokrovsky, Oleg S; Beike, Anna K; Reski, Ralf; Di Palma, Anna; Adamo, Paola; Giordano, Simonetta; Angel Fernandez, J

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial mosses are commonly used as bioindicators of atmospheric pollution. However, there is a lack of standardization of the biomonitoring preparation technique and the efficiency of metal adsorption by various moss species is poorly known. This is especially true for in vitro-cultivated moss clones, which are promising candidates for a standardized moss-bag technique. We studied the adsorption of copper and zinc on naturally grown Sphagnum peat moss in comparison with in vitro-cultivated Sphagnum palustre samples in order to provide their physico-chemical characterization and to test the possibility of using cloned peat mosses as bioindicators within the protocol of moss-bag technique. We demonstrate that in vitro-grown clones of S. palustre exhibit acid-base properties similar to those of naturally grown Sphagnum samples, whereas the zinc adsorption capacity of the clones is approx. twice higher than that of the samples from the field. At the same time, the field samples adsorbed 30-50% higher amount of Cu(2+) compared to that of the clones. This contrast may be related to fine differences in the bulk chemical composition, specific surface area, morphological features, type and abundance of binding sites at the cell surfaces and in the aqueous solution of natural and cloned Sphagnum. The clones exhibited much lower concentration of most metal pollutants in their tissues relative to the natural samples thus making the former better indicators of low metal loading. Overall, in vitro-produced clones of S. palustre can be considered as an adequate, environmentally benign substitution for protected natural Sphagnum sp. samples to be used in moss-bags for atmospheric monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Concentration and vertical distribution of plutonium and americium in Italian mosses and lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, G.; Desideri, D.; Guerra, F.; Meli, M.A.; Testa, C.

    1997-01-01

    The plutonium and americium concentration and vertical distribution in some Italian mosses and lichens have been determined. The 239,240 Pu, 238 Pu and 241 Am concentration ranges in tree trunk lichens 0.83-1.87, 0.052-0.154 and 0.180-0.770 Bq/kg, respectively. The corresponding values in tree mosses are higher and more scattered ranging from 0.321 to 4.96, from 0.029 to 0.171 and from 0.200 to 1.93 Bq/kg. The mean 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu and 241 Am/ 239,240 Pu ratios are 0.088±0.037 and 0.38 ± 0.13 in lichens and 0.091±0.072 and 0.54±0.16 in tree mosses. The Pu and Am concentrations are relatively low in terrestrial mosses. The 239,240 Pu, 238 Pu and 241 Am vertical distributions in a terrestrial moss core (Neckera Crispa) collected near Urbino (central Italy) show an exponential decrease with the height. On the contrary the 241 Am vertical distribution in another terrestrial moss core (Sphagnum Compactum) collected in the Alps (northern Italy) shows an interesting peak at 16 cm which corresponds to the deposition of fallout from the nuclear weapon tests in 1960's. The 241 Am movement upward and downward in the moss core is also studied. The results show once again that both mosses and lichens are very effective accumulators of Pu and Am and that they can be used as good biological indicators of the radionuclide airborne pollution from nuclear facilities and nuclear weapon tests. They can play a very important role in cycling naturally or artificially enhanced radionuclides in the atmosphere over long time scales. (author)

  6. Proposal for a test using aquatic mosses for the radioecological control of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin-Jaulent, Y.; Descamps, B.

    1985-01-01

    Field experiments demonstrated that a test using aquatic mosses (bags made of plastic netting and containing a small amount of moss) could be considered for the radioecological monitoring of a uranium mining complex. This test has the required qualities: easy operation, reliability and low cost. It also makes it possible to assess inorganic pollution due, for instance, to heavy metals, or organic pollution by products such as chlorinated compounds [fr

  7. Monitoring of heavy metal concentrations in home outdoor air using moss bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, Marcela; Zechmeister, Harald; Medina-Ramon, Mercedes; Basagana, Xavier; Foraster, Maria; Bouso, Laura; Moreno, Teresa; Solanas, Pascual; Ramos, Rafael; Koellensperger, Gunda; Deltell, Alexandre; Vizcaya, David

    2011-01-01

    One monitoring station is insufficient to characterize the high spatial variation of traffic-related heavy metals within cities. We tested moss bags (Hylocomium splendens), deployed in a dense network, for the monitoring of metals in outdoor air and characterized metals' long-term spatial distribution and its determinants in Girona, Spain. Mosses were exposed outside 23 homes for two months; NO 2 was monitored for comparison. Metals were not highly correlated with NO 2 and showed higher spatial variation than NO 2 . Regression models explained 61-85% of Cu, Cr, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn and 72% of NO 2 variability. Metals were strongly associated with the number of bus lines in the nearest street. Heavy metals are an alternative traffic-marker to NO 2 given their toxicological relevance, stronger association with local traffic and higher spatial variability. Monitoring heavy metals with mosses is appealing, particularly for long-term exposure assessment, as mosses can remain on site many months without maintenance. - Research highlights: → Moss bags can be used to measure the metal's long-term spatial distribution within cities. → Heavy metals in mosses are not highly correlated with ambient NO 2 concentrations. → Heavy metals show higher spatial variation and association with traffic than NO 2 . → Bus lines in the nearest street explain 75-85% of Mo, Cr, Sb, Sn and Cu variability. → Moss bags are useful for long-term at home exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. - The long-term spatial distribution of heavy metals, measured with moss bags, is mainly determined by proximity to bus lines.

  8. Using Moss to Detect Fine-Scaled Deposition of Heavy Metals in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovan, S.; Donovan, G.; Demetrios, G.; Monleon, V. J.; Amacher, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Mosses are commonly used as bio-indicators of heavy metal deposition to forests. Their application in urban airsheds is relatively rare. Our objective was to develop fine-scaled, city-wide maps for heavy metals in Portland, Oregon, to identify pollution "hotspots" and serve as a screening tool for more effective placement of air quality monitoring instruments. In 2013 we measured twenty-two elements in epiphytic moss sampled on a 1km x1km sampling grid (n = 346). We detected large hotspots of cadmium and arsenic in two neighborhoods associated with stained glass manufacturers. Air instruments deployed by local regulators measured cadmium concentrations 49 times and arsenic levels 155 times the state health benchmarks. Moss maps also detected a large nickel hotspot in a neighborhood near a forge where air instruments later measured concentrations 4 times the health benchmark. In response, the facilities implemented new pollution controls, air quality improved in all three affected neighborhoods, revision of regulations for stained glass furnace emissions are underway, and Oregon's governor launched an initiative to develop health-based (vs technology-based) regulations for air toxics in the state. The moss maps also indicated a couple dozen smaller hotspots of heavy metals, including lead, chromium, and cobalt, in Portland neighborhoods. Ongoing follow-up work includes: 1) use of moss sampling by local regulators to investigate source and extent of the smaller hotspots, 2) use of lead isotopes to determine origins of higher lead levels observed in moss collected from the inner city, and 3) co-location of air instruments and moss sampling to determine accuracy, timeframe represented, and seasonality of heavy metals in moss.

  9. Gibberellin influence on the morphogenesis of the moss Bryum argenteum Hedw. in in vitro conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Sabovljević Aneta; Sabovljević Marko; Grubišić D.

    2010-01-01

    The moss Bryum argenteum Hedw. was treated with gibberellins as well as some inhibitors of gibberellin biosynthesis in order to investigate their influence on B. argenteum morphogenesis. Generally, gibberellins have not been chemically identified in bryophytes, while other groups of classical phytohormones (auxins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethylene) have been chemically identified in these plants. The in vitro culture of the moss Bryum argenteum was established from sterilized spores. Th...

  10. Dehydration protection provided by a maternal cuticle improves offspring fitness in the moss Funaria hygrometrica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budke, Jessica M; Goffinet, Bernard; Jones, Cynthia S

    2013-05-01

    In bryophytes the sporophyte offspring are in contact with, nourished from, and partially surrounded by the maternal gametophyte throughout their lifespan. During early development, the moss sporophyte is covered by the calyptra, a cap of maternal gametophyte tissue that has a multilayered cuticle. In this study the effects on sporophyte offspring fitness of removing the maternal calyptra cuticle, in combination with dehydration stress, is experimentally determined. Using the moss Funaria hygrometrica, calyptra cuticle waxes were removed by chemical extraction and individuals were exposed to a short-term dehydration event. Sporophytes were returned to high humidity to complete development and then aspects of sporophyte survival, development, functional morphology, and reproductive output were measured. It was found that removal of calyptra cuticle under low humidity results in significant negative impacts to moss sporophyte fitness, resulting in decreased survival, increased tissue damage, incomplete sporophyte development, more peristome malformations, and decreased reproductive output. This study represents the strongest evidence to date that the structure of the calyptra cuticle functions in dehydration protection of the immature moss sporophyte. The investment in a maternal calyptra with a multilayered cuticle increases offspring fitness and provides a functional explanation for calyptra retention across mosses. The moss calyptra may represent the earliest occurance of maternal protection via structural provisioning of a cuticle in green plants.

  11. New methods reveal oldest known fossil epiphyllous moss: Bryiidites utahensis gen. et sp. nov. (Bryidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Richard S; McElwain, Jennifer C; Duckett, Jeffrey G; van Es, Maarten H; Mostaert, Anika S; Pressel, Silvia; Sageman, Bradley B

    2013-12-01

    Epiphyllous bryophytes are a highly characteristic feature of many humid tropical forest ecosystems. In contrast to the extensive fossil record for the leaves of their host plants, the record is virtually nonexistent for the epiphylls themselves, despite a fossil record for mosses that begins in the Middle Carboniferous Period, 330 million years ago. Epifluorescence optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were employed to investigate an intimate association between a newly discovered epiphyllous moss and a Lauraceae plant host from the middle Cretaceous. We describe the oldest fossil specimen of an epiphyllous moss, Bryiidites utahensis gen. et sp. nov., identified from an individual specimen only 450 µm long, situated on an approximately one millimeter square fossil leaf fragment. The moss epiphyll is exquisitely preserved as germinating spores and short-celled protonemata with transverse and oblique cross-walls closely matching those of extant epiphyllous mosses on the surface of the plant-leaf hosts. The extension of the epiphyll record back to the middle Cretaceous provides fossil evidence for the appearance of epiphyllous mosses during the diversification of flowering plants, at least 95 million years ago. It also provides substantive evidence for a tropical maritime climate in central North America during the middle Cretaceous.

  12. Wavelet basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Y T

    1995-01-01

    Since the study of wavelets is a relatively new area, much of the research coming from mathematicians, most of the literature uses terminology, concepts and proofs that may, at times, be difficult and intimidating for the engineer. Wavelet Basics has therefore been written as an introductory book for scientists and engineers. The mathematical presentation has been kept simple, the concepts being presented in elaborate detail in a terminology that engineers will find familiar. Difficult ideas are illustrated with examples which will also aid in the development of an intuitive insight. Chapter 1 reviews the basics of signal transformation and discusses the concepts of duals and frames. Chapter 2 introduces the wavelet transform, contrasts it with the short-time Fourier transform and clarifies the names of the different types of wavelet transforms. Chapter 3 links multiresolution analysis, orthonormal wavelets and the design of digital filters. Chapter 4 gives a tour d'horizon of topics of current interest: wave...

  13. Education: The Basics. The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Everyone knows that education is important, we are confronted daily by discussion of it in the media and by politicians, but how much do we really know about education? "Education: The Basics" is a lively and engaging introduction to education as an academic subject, taking into account both theory and practice. Covering the schooling system, the…

  14. Investigate of atmospheric arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in moss species found around Zilkale, by EDXRF Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akçay, Nilay, E-mail: nilay.akcay@erdogan.edu.tr [Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University, Faculty of Art and Science, Department of Physics, Rize (Turkey); Batan, Nevzat, E-mail: nbatan@ktu.edu.tr [Karadeniz Technical University, Maçka Vocational School, Trabzon (Turkey); Çinar, Yunus, E-mail: yunus.cinar@erdogan.edu.tr [Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University, Vocational School of Technical Studies, Rize (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Zilkale is a castle located in Fırtına Valley and it is one of the most important historical structures in Çamlihemşin district of Rize Province in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. The castle surrounded by very high mountains that poke up into the clouds, and it rains here all year round. Tourism businesses or industrial plants are not so much there yet. In recent years, Zilkale region has begun the attract tourist, people on treaking holidays in the Kaçkar. But many domestic and foreign tourists come to this region by own car or tour buses. The aim of this study is to investigate the atmospheric concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in five different moss species collected around Zilkale by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometry. The average concentrations of heavy metals in moss samples ranged from 0.79-4.63 ppm for arsenic, 54.47-143.39 ppm for chromium, 39.97-81.03 ppm for lead. The values of cadmium and mercury were found below the detection limit. This study has shown that Hypnum cupressiforme, Abietinella abietina, Rhytidium rugosum, Plagiomnium undulate, and Thuidium tamariscinum samples collected around Zilkale were used to assess the potential contamination of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg contamination in the region and made important contributions toward the understanding of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg baseline data can be used for identification of changes in the levels of these heavy metals in the studied area.

  15. Optimization of paper bridge loading for 2-DE analysis in the basic pH region: application to the mitochondrial subproteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Lesley A; Yung, Christina K; Agnetti, Giulio; Neverova, Irina; Van Eyk, Jennifer E

    2006-11-01

    Separation of basic proteins with 2-DE presents technical challenges involving protein precipitation, load limitations, and streaking. Cardiac mitochondria are enriched in basic proteins and difficult to resolve by 2-DE. We investigated two methods, cup and paper bridge, for sample loading of this subproteome into the basic range (pH 6-11) gels. Paper bridge loading consistently produced improved resolution of both analytical and preparative protein loads. A unique benefit of this technique is that proteins retained in the paper bridge after loading basic gels can be reloaded onto lower pH gradients (pH 4-7), allowing valued samples to be analyzed on multiple pH ranges.

  16. Bringing back the rare - biogeochemical constraints of peat moss establishment in restored cut-over bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Peter; Blodau, Christian; Hölzel, Norbert; Kleinebecker, Till; Knorr, Klaus-Holger

    2016-04-01

    In rewetted cut-over bogs in north-western Germany and elsewhere almost no spontaneous recolonization of hummock peat mosses, such as Sphagnum magellanicum, S. papillosum or S. rubellum can be observed. However, to reach goals of climate protection every restoration of formerly mined peatlands should aim to enable the re-establishment of these rare but functionally important plant species. Besides aspects of biodiversity, peatlands dominated by mosses can be expected to emit less methane compared to sites dominated by graminoids. To assess the hydrological and biogeochemical factors constraining the successful establishment of hummock Sphagnum mosses we conducted a field experiment by actively transferring hummock species into six existing restoration sites in the Vechtaer Moor, a large peatland complex with active peat harvesting and parallel restoration efforts. The mosses were transferred as intact sods in triplicate at the beginning of June 2016. Six weeks (mid-July) and 18 weeks later (beginning of October) pore water was sampled in two depths (5 and 20 cm) directly beneath the inoculated Sphagnum sods as well as in untreated control plots and analysed for phosphate, ferrous iron, ammonia, nitrate and total organic carbon (TOC). On the same occasions and additionally in December, the vitality of mosses was estimated. Furthermore, the increment of moss height between July and December was measured by using cranked wires and peat cores were taken for lab analyses of nutrients and major element inventories at the depths of pore water sampling. Preliminary results indicate that vitality of mosses during the period of summer water level draw down was strongly negatively related to plant available phosphate in deeper layers of the residual peat. Furthermore, increment of moss height was strongly negatively related to TOC in the upper pore waters sampled in October. Concentration of ferrous iron in deeper pore waters was in general significantly higher beneath

  17. Interaction between the C-terminal region of human myelin basic protein and calmodulin: analysis of complex formation and solution structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Nobuhiro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The myelin sheath is a multilamellar membrane structure wrapped around the axon, enabling the saltatory conduction of nerve impulses in vertebrates. Myelin basic protein, one of the most abundant myelin-specific proteins, is an intrinsically disordered protein that has been shown to bind calmodulin. In this study, we focus on a 19-mer synthetic peptide from the predicted calmodulin-binding segment near the C-terminus of human myelin basic protein. Results The interaction of native human myelin basic protein with calmodulin was confirmed by affinity chromatography. The binding of the myelin basic protein peptide to calmodulin was tested with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC in different temperatures, and Kd was observed to be in the low μM range, as previously observed for full-length myelin basic protein. Surface plasmon resonance showed that the peptide bound to calmodulin, and binding was accompanied by a conformational change; furthermore, gel filtration chromatography indicated a decrease in the hydrodynamic radius of calmodulin in the presence of the peptide. NMR spectroscopy was used to map the binding area to reside mainly within the hydrophobic pocket of the C-terminal lobe of calmodulin. The solution structure obtained by small-angle X-ray scattering indicates binding of the myelin basic protein peptide into the interlobal groove of calmodulin, while calmodulin remains in an extended conformation. Conclusion Taken together, our results give a detailed structural insight into the interaction of calmodulin with a C-terminal segment of a major myelin protein, the myelin basic protein. The used 19-mer peptide interacts mainly with the C-terminal lobe of calmodulin, and a conformational change accompanies binding, suggesting a novel mode of calmodulin-target protein interaction. Calmodulin does not collapse and wrap around the peptide tightly; instead, it remains in an extended conformation in the solution structure

  18. DETECTING NANOFLARE HEATING EVENTS IN SUBARCSECOND INTER-MOSS LOOPS USING Hi-C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Moore, Ronald; Cirtain, Jonathan; Walsh, Robert W.; De Pontieu, Bart; Title, Alan; Hansteen, Viggo; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly; Weber, Mark; Kobayashi, Ken; DeForest, Craig; Kuzin, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket on 2012 July 11 and captured roughly 345 s of high-spatial and temporal resolution images of the solar corona in a narrowband 193 Å channel. In this paper, we analyze a set of rapidly evolving loops that appear in an inter-moss region. We select six loops that both appear in and fade out of the Hi-C images during the short flight. From the Hi-C data, we determine the size and lifetimes of the loops and characterize whether these loops appear simultaneously along their length or first appear at one footpoint before appearing at the other. Using co-aligned, co-temporal data from multiple channels of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we determine the temperature and density of the loops. We find the loops consist of cool (∼10 5 K), dense (∼10 10 cm –3 ) plasma. Their required thermal energy and their observed evolution suggest they result from impulsive heating similar in magnitude to nanoflares. Comparisons with advanced numerical simulations indicate that such dense, cold and short-lived loops are a natural consequence of impulsive magnetic energy release by reconnection of braided magnetic field at low heights in the solar atmosphere.

  19. Using Moss to Assess Airborne Heavy Metal Pollution in Taizhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bryophytes act as bioindicators and bioaccumulators of metal deposition in the environment. To understand the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals (cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb, and zinc (Zn in Taizhou, East China, samples of moss (Haplocladium microphyllum were collected from 60 sites selected by a systematic sampling method during the summer of 2012, and the concentrations of these heavy metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES. The results suggested that the concentrations of these metals varied moderately among different sites, indicating a similar contamination level for each element throughout the monitoring region. The mean values under investigation were higher than those from neighboring cities, such as Wuxi, Xuzhou, and Nanjing, and much higher than those in Europe based on a 2010 survey. Significant (p < 0.01 correlations were identified among some of the heavy metals, suggesting that these originated from identical sources. There was no statistically significant correlation between Hg and all the other elements. Spatial distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were created using Arc-GIS 9.0. The potential ecological risk index indicated that the air was heavily polluted by Cd and Hg, and that there was a considerable potential ecological risk from all the heavy metals studied.

  20. DETECTING NANOFLARE HEATING EVENTS IN SUBARCSECOND INTER-MOSS LOOPS USING Hi-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Moore, Ronald; Cirtain, Jonathan [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Walsh, Robert W. [University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); De Pontieu, Bart; Title, Alan [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab, 3251 Hanover St., Org. A0215, Bldg. 252, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Hansteen, Viggo [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly; Weber, Mark [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kobayashi, Ken [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Dr, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); DeForest, Craig [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Kuzin, Sergey, E-mail: amy.r.winebarger@nasa.gov [P.N. Lebedev Physical institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii prospekt 53 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket on 2012 July 11 and captured roughly 345 s of high-spatial and temporal resolution images of the solar corona in a narrowband 193 A channel. In this paper, we analyze a set of rapidly evolving loops that appear in an inter-moss region. We select six loops that both appear in and fade out of the Hi-C images during the short flight. From the Hi-C data, we determine the size and lifetimes of the loops and characterize whether these loops appear simultaneously along their length or first appear at one footpoint before appearing at the other. Using co-aligned, co-temporal data from multiple channels of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we determine the temperature and density of the loops. We find the loops consist of cool ({approx}10{sup 5} K), dense ({approx}10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}) plasma. Their required thermal energy and their observed evolution suggest they result from impulsive heating similar in magnitude to nanoflares. Comparisons with advanced numerical simulations indicate that such dense, cold and short-lived loops are a natural consequence of impulsive magnetic energy release by reconnection of braided magnetic field at low heights in the solar atmosphere.

  1. The function of the RNA-binding protein TEL1 in moss reveals ancient regulatory mechanisms of shoot development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivancos, Julien; Spinner, Lara; Mazubert, Christelle; Charlot, Florence; Paquet, Nicolas; Thareau, Vincent; Dron, Michel; Nogué, Fabien; Charon, Céline

    2012-03-01

    The shoot represents the basic body plan in land plants. It consists of a repeated structure composed of stems and leaves. Whereas vascular plants generate a shoot in their diploid phase, non-vascular plants such as mosses form a shoot (called the gametophore) in their haploid generation. The evolution of regulatory mechanisms or genetic networks used in the development of these two kinds of shoots is unclear. TERMINAL EAR1-like genes have been involved in diploid shoot development in vascular plants. Here, we show that disruption of PpTEL1 from the moss Physcomitrella patens, causes reduced protonema growth and gametophore initiation, as well as defects in gametophore development. Leafy shoots formed on ΔTEL1 mutants exhibit shorter stems with more leaves per shoot, suggesting an accelerated leaf initiation (shortened plastochron), a phenotype shared with the Poaceae vascular plants TE1 and PLA2/LHD2 mutants. Moreover, the positive correlation between plastochron length and leaf size observed in ΔTEL1 mutants suggests a conserved compensatory mechanism correlating leaf growth and leaf initiation rate that would minimize overall changes in plant biomass. The RNA-binding protein encoded by PpTEL1 contains two N-terminus RNA-recognition motifs, and a third C-terminus non-canonical RRM, specific to TEL proteins. Removal of the PpTEL1 C-terminus (including this third RRM) or only 16-18 amino acids within it seriously impairs PpTEL1 function, suggesting a critical role for this third RRM. These results show a conserved function of the RNA-binding PpTEL1 protein in the regulation of shoot development, from early ancestors to vascular plants, that depends on the third TEL-specific RRM.

  2. Basic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Some basic explanations are given of the principles underlying the nuclear fuel cycle, starting with the physics of atomic and nuclear structure and continuing with nuclear energy and reactors, fuel and waste management and finally a discussion of economics and the future. An important aspect of the fuel cycle concerns the possibility of ''closing the back end'' i.e. reprocessing the waste or unused fuel in order to re-use it in reactors of various kinds. The alternative, the ''oncethrough'' cycle, discards the discharged fuel completely. An interim measure involves the prolonged storage of highly radioactive waste fuel. (UK)

  3. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  4. Further promotion of the use of mosses and lichens for studies of atmospheric deposition of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinnes, E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a brief survey of biomonitoring work carried out in the author's laboratory during more than 20 years using nuclear and non-nuclear techniques for the determination of over 50 elements. A major part of this work concerns large-scale deposition surveys in Norway and elsewhere using the moss Hylocomium splendens. However, considerable efforts have also been spent on intercalibration of different species of mosses and lichens and transformation of concentrations in moss to absolute deposition rates. Experience from this intercalibration work as well as from the calibration of moss reference samples may be of particular importance to the present co-ordinated research project. (author)

  5. The Impact of Moss Species and Biomass on the Growth of Pinus sylvestris Tree Seedlings at Different Precipitation Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babs M. Stuiver

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Boreal forests are characterized by an extensive moss layer, which may have both competitive and facilitative effects on forest regeneration. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to investigate how variation in moss species and biomass, in combination with precipitation frequency, affect Pinus sylvestris seedling growth. We found that moss species differed in their effects on seedling growth, and moss biomass had negative effects on seedlings, primarily when it reached maximal levels. When moss biomass was maximal, seedling biomass decreased, whereas height and above- relative to below-ground mass increased, due to competition for light. The effect that moss biomass had on seedling performance differed among the moss species. Hylocomium splendens and Polytrichum commune reduced seedling growth the most, likely because of their taller growth form. Seedlings were not adversely affected by Sphagnum girgensohnii and Pleurozium schreberi, possibly because they were not tall enough to compete for light and improved soil resource availability. Reduced precipitation frequency decreased the growth of all moss species, except P. commune, while it impaired the growth of seedlings only when they were grown with P. commune. Our findings suggest that changes in moss species and biomass, which can be altered by disturbance or climate change, can influence forest regeneration.

  6. Influence of canopy drip on the indicative N, S and δ15N content in moss Hypnum cupressiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skudnik, Mitja; Jeran, Zvonka; Batič, Franc; Simončič, Primož; Lojen, Sonja; Kastelec, Damijana

    2014-01-01

    Samples of Hypnum cupressiforme were collected at two types of site in forest areas: within the forest stand and within forest openings, and analyzed for N and S concentrations and δ 15 N. Mosses sampled within forest openings reflect the atmospheric N deposition; however, no influence of throughfall N deposition on the N in the moss that was sampled within the forest stand was found, nor was any influence of S deposition on the S in the moss found. For the N and S concentrations in the mosses sampled within forest openings, the within-site variability was comparable to the between-site variability, and for the δ 15 N, the within-site variability was lower than the between-site. The results showed that a short distance ( 15 N content in moss on atmospheric deposition. • Moss sampled within forest openings reflect the atmospheric N but not S deposition. • Higher N and S content was found in mosses sampled in areas within the forest stand. • Metadata describing the boundary condition of moss sampling location is important. - H. cupressiforme reflects the atmospheric deposition of N but not S; a distance less than 1 m between the sampling site and the nearest tree crown increases the N and S concentrations in the moss

  7. Are herbarium mosses reliable indicators of historical nitrogen deposition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tora Finderup; Larsen, Jesper Ruf; Michelsen, Anders; Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2017-12-01

    Mosses collected decades ago and stored in herbaria are often used to assess historical nitrogen deposition. This method is effectively based on the assumption that tissue N concentration remains constant during storage. The present study raises serious doubt about the generality of that assumption. We measured tissue N and C concentrations as well as δ 15 N, δ 13 C, Pb and Mg in herbarium and present day samples of seven bryophyte species from six sites across Denmark. While an increase in nitrogen deposition during the last century is well-documented for the study site, we surprisingly found foliar N concentration to be higher in historical samples than in modern samples. Based on δ 15 N values and Pb concentration, we find nitrogen contamination of herbarium specimens during storage to be the most likely cause, possibly in combination with dilution though growth and/or decomposition during storage. We suggest ways to assess contamination and recommend caution to be taken when using herbarium specimens to assess historical pollution if exposure during storage cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Moss-associated methylobacteria as phytosymbionts: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornschuh, M.; Grotha, R.; Kutschera, U.

    2006-10-01

    Methylotrophic bacteria inhabit the surface of plant organs, but the interaction between these microbes and their host cells is largely unknown. Protonemata (gametophytes) of the moss Funaria hygrometrica were cultivated in vitro under axenic conditions and the growth of the protonemal filaments recorded. In the presence of methylobacteria (different strains of Methylobacterium), average cell length and the number of cells per filament were both enhanced. We tested the hypothesis that auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA), secreted by the epiphytic bacteria and taken up by the plant cells, may in part be responsible for this promotion of protonema development. The antiauxin parachlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (PCIB) was used as a tool to analyze the role of IAA and methylobacteria in the regulation of cell growth. In the presence of PCIB, cell elongation and protonema differentiation were both inhibited. This effect was compensated for by the addition of different Methylobacterium strains to the culture medium. Biosynthesis and secretion of IAA by methylobacteria maintained in liquid culture was documented via a colorimetric assay and thin layer chromatography. Our results support the hypothesis that the development of Funaria protonemata is promoted by beneficial phytohormone-producing methylobacteria, which can be classified as phytosymbionts.

  9. Moss and soil contributions to the annual net carbon flux of a maturing boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, J.W.; O'Neill, K. P.; Trumbore, S.E.; Veldhuis, H.; Stocks, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    We used input and decomposition data from 14C studies of soils to determine rates of vertical accumulation of moss combined with carbon storage inventories on a sequence of burns to model how carbon accumulates in soils and moss after a stand-killing fire. We used soil drainage - moss associations and soil drainage maps of the old black spruce (OBS) site at the BOREAS northern study area (NSA) to areally weight the contributions of each moderately well drained, feathermoss areas; poorly drained sphagnum - feathermoss areas; and very poorly drained brown moss areas to the carbon storage and flux at the OBS NSA site. On this very old (117 years) complex of black spruce, sphagnum bog veneer, and fen systems we conclude that these systems are likely sequestering 0.01-0.03 kg C m-2 yr-' at OBS-NSA today. Soil drainage in boreal forests near Thompson, Manitoba, controls carbon storage and flux by controlling moss input and decomposition rates and by controlling through fire the amount and quality of carbon left after burning. On poorly drained soils rich in sphagnum moss, net accumulation and long-term storage of carbon is higher than on better drained soils colonized by feathermosses. The carbon flux of these contrasting ecosystems is best characterized by soil drainage class and stand age, where stands recently burned are net sources of CO2, and maturing stands become increasingly stronger sinks of atmospheric CO2. This approach to measuring carbon storage and flux presents a method of scaling to larger areas using soil drainage, moss cover, and stand age information.

  10. Distribution pattern of 137Cs in carpets of the forest-moss Pleurozium schreiberi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, S.; Liden, K.

    1974-11-01

    The accumulation, retention and internal cycling of the fallout radionuclide 137 Cs (physical half-life = 30.2 a) has been studied in forest moss (Pleurozium schreberi) collected in southern Sweden (56.4 deg N, 14.3 deg E) during the period 1961-1973. The highest 137 Cs-concentrations have been found in the green top parts of the living plants. The study shows that a dominating part of the deposited 137 Cs is available for transport from dying to growing parts of the plants. The elimination of 137 Cs from living moss-plants as well as from dead modd during the period 1968-1973 can be characterized by the same mean residence time, (4 +- 1)a. The radionuclide 137 Cs and the naturally occurring stable element potassium show different behaviour in the moss vegetation, so that the 137 Cs/K-ratio is higher by a factor of approximately 2 in the dead parts of the moss than in the living parts. The vertical distribution of 137 Cs in the moss-covered ground has been studied down to a dry-mass depth of about 100 kg m -2 and can theoretically be described by a model which was earlier empirically deduced for lichen-covered ground (Mattsson, 1972). The relative penetration of 137 Cs is around five times higher in the ground covered by moss-carpets than in the ground covered by lichen-carpets. During the period 1969-1973, the total amount of 137 Cs retained in the moss-carpet was found to be 64.2 +- 2.2 nCi m -2 . (author)

  11. The basic helix-loop-helix region of the transcriptional repressor hairy and enhancer of split 1 is preorganized to bind DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popovic, Matija; Wienk, Hans; Coglievina, Maristella; Boelens, Rolf; Pongor, Sándor; Pintar, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Hairy and enhancer of split 1, one of the main downstream effectors in Notch signaling, is a transcriptional repressor of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family. Using nuclear magnetic resonance methods, we have determined the structure and dynamics of a recombinant protein, H1H, which includes an

  12. Occurrence and distribution of old and new halogenated flame retardants in mosses and lichens from the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Tae; Choi, Yun-Jeong; Barghi, Mandana; Yoon, Young-Jun; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Ji Hee; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2018-04-01

    The spatial distribution of old and new halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), and Dechlorane Plus (DPs) and related compounds (Dechloranes), were investigated in the South Shetland Islands of Antarctica, employing mosses (Andreaea depressinervis and Sanionia uncinata) and lichens (Himantormia lugubris and Usnea antarctica) as bioindicators. The levels of PBDEs, HBCDs, and Dechloranes ranged from 3.2 to 71.5, 0.63-960, and 2.04-2400 pg/g dw (dry weight) in the mosses, and from 1.5 to 188, 0.1-21.1, and 1.0-83.8 pg/g dw in the lichens, respectively. HFRs were detected in all of the collected samples, even in those from the remote regions. The dominance of high brominated-BDE, anti-DP fraction, and HBCD diastereomeric ratio in the samples from remote regions suggested the long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) of the HFRs. The relatively high HBCDs and Dechloranes contamination and their similar chemical profile with commercial products in the vicinity of Antarctic research stations indicated that human activities might act as local sources, while PBDEs appeared to be more influenced by LRAT and bioaccumulation rather than local emission. Lastly, the relatively high HFR levels and dominance of more brominated BDEs at the Narębski Point and in the wet lowlands suggested that penguin colonies and melting glacier water could be secondary HFR sources in Antarctica. The HFR levels differed by sample species, suggesting that further research on the factors associated with the HFR accumulation in the different species is necessary. This study firstly reports the alternative HFR levels in a wide area of the Antarctica, which could improve our understanding of the source, transport, and fate of the HFRs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Monitoring of heavy metal load - by mosses or rain water chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruoho-Airola, T. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Maekelae, K. [National Board of Waters and the Environment, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The deposition of heavy metals is usually determined from precipitation chemistry but the moss technique has been increasingly used, particularly in the Nordic countries. Some international monitoring programmes, e.g. UN/ECE Integrated Monitoring, give them as alternative methods. However, their comparability has not been sufficiently determined. This study compares the two monitoring methods for Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn, which have different sources. The metal industry is an important source of Pb and Cd emissions. Long- range transport as well as traffic and local emissions are also important sources for Pb. The use of fertilizers and fossil fuels also result in Cd emissions. Cu and Zn are emitted from metal industries and local sources. Unlike Pb and Cd, Cu and Zn are essential elements for living organisms. Cu and Zn are needed in many enzymes and Zn in proteins. Mosses are thought to take all their nutrients from the air. The deposition of heavy metals is also effectively retained by mosses and may be used to indicate levels of heavy metal deposition. In northern countries the mosses are isolated from air (and therefore also from deposition) by snow in winter. In this study both the bulk deposition of the whole year (later `total deposition`) and the bulk deposition of the snow-free period (later `bare ground deposition`) are compared to the metal concentrations in mosses. (author)

  14. Moss and vascular plant indices in Ohio wetlands have similar environmental predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Schumacher, William; Gara, Brian; Adams, Jean V.; Viau, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Mosses and vascular plants have been shown to be reliable indicators of wetland habitat delineation and environmental quality. Knowledge of the best ecological predictors of the quality of wetland moss and vascular plant communities may determine if similar management practices would simultaneously enhance both populations. We used Akaike's Information Criterion to identify models predicting a moss quality assessment index (MQAI) and a vascular plant index of biological integrity based on floristic quality (VIBI-FQ) from 27 emergent and 13 forested wetlands in Ohio, USA. The set of predictors included the six metrics from a wetlands disturbance index (ORAM) and two landscape development intensity indices (LDIs). The best single predictor of MQAI and one of the predictors of VIBI-FQ was an ORAM metric that assesses habitat alteration and disturbance within the wetland, such as mowing, grazing, and agricultural practices. However, the best single predictor of VIBI-FQ was an ORAM metric that assessed wetland vascular plant communities, interspersion, and microtopography. LDIs better predicted MQAI than VIBI-FQ, suggesting that mosses may either respond more rapidly to, or recover more slowly from, anthropogenic disturbance in the surrounding landscape than vascular plants. These results supported previous predictive studies on amphibian indices and metrics and a separate vegetation index, indicating that similar wetland management practices may result in qualitatively the same ecological response for three vastly different wetland biological communities (amphibians, vascular plants, and mosses).

  15. Trace element similarity groups in north Florida Spanish moss: evidence for direct uptake of aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheline, J.; Akselsson, R.; Winchester, J.W.

    1976-02-20

    The elemental composition of 10 samples of Spanish moss Tillandsia usneoides L. collected mainly in forested areas near Tallahassee, Florida, has been compared to the composition of the ambient aerosol particle background in the forest measured as a function of particle size. For forest samples, moss composition is similar to the composition of aerosol particles greater than about 0.5-..mu..m diameter for the elements S, Cl, Ti, V, Fe, Ni, Zn, Br, Pb, and possibly Cu. Elements relatively enriched in the moss fall into two groups, K, Rb, Zr and Ca, Sr, Mn, based on detailed association patterns. No evidence is found for an enrichment, relative to the ambient aerosol, of pollution-derived elements Pb, Br, V, and Ni, although those elements are found at higher concentrations in moss samples from locations nearer roadways or oil-fired power plants. The moss appears to have potential value as an indicator of time average aerosol composition for particles of greater than or equal to 0.5 ..mu..m, except for the enriched elements, which may have longer biological retention times. (auth)

  16. Historical and current use of spanish moss as a monitor of atmospheric trace metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitten, M.L.; Mossler, M.A.; Kosalwat, P.; Newman, J.R. [KBN Engineering and Applied Sciences, Inc., Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Spanish moss (Tillandsia usnesoides) is an epiphytic member of the pineapple family, Historically, tissue levels in this plant have illustrated the elevated concentration of lead near well traveled roads, as well as nickel and tin in the vicinity of battery fabrication or smelting facilities, respectively. From a survey of Spanish moss plants growing throughout the Southeast, mercury at or slightly above the limit of detection was present in eight of 128 samples. Five of these samples were collected in Florida. As part of a biomonitoring project, Spanish moss was collected from 1991 to 1993 around a waste-to-energy facility in Lake County, Florida, After three years, the percentage of Spanish moss samples which contained detectable levels of arsenic and cadmium decreased over time. Lead was detected in all samples collected throughout the monitoring period, but the mean concentration decreased from 3.7 mg/kg on a dry weight basis (1991) to 1.4 mg/kg (1993). This trend in lead levels may indicate clearance that is occurring due to the discontinuation of leaded gasoline. The percentage of moss samples containing mercury above the limit of detection increased from 67% (1991) to 97% (1993); however, mean concentrations do not support a trend in increasing concentration of this element (0.30 mg/kg on a fresh weight basis in 1991 vs. 0.19 mg/kg in 1993). Apparently, atmospheric metal concentrations are not increasing in the vicinity of the facility at this time.

  17. Monitoring of heavy metal load - by mosses or rain water chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruoho-Airola, T [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Maekelae, K [National Board of Waters and the Environment, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The deposition of heavy metals is usually determined from precipitation chemistry but the moss technique has been increasingly used, particularly in the Nordic countries. Some international monitoring programmes, e.g. UN/ECE Integrated Monitoring, give them as alternative methods. However, their comparability has not been sufficiently determined. This study compares the two monitoring methods for Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn, which have different sources. The metal industry is an important source of Pb and Cd emissions. Long- range transport as well as traffic and local emissions are also important sources for Pb. The use of fertilizers and fossil fuels also result in Cd emissions. Cu and Zn are emitted from metal industries and local sources. Unlike Pb and Cd, Cu and Zn are essential elements for living organisms. Cu and Zn are needed in many enzymes and Zn in proteins. Mosses are thought to take all their nutrients from the air. The deposition of heavy metals is also effectively retained by mosses and may be used to indicate levels of heavy metal deposition. In northern countries the mosses are isolated from air (and therefore also from deposition) by snow in winter. In this study both the bulk deposition of the whole year (later `total deposition`) and the bulk deposition of the snow-free period (later `bare ground deposition`) are compared to the metal concentrations in mosses. (author)

  18. Immobilization of Lead from Pb-Contaminated Soil Amended with Peat Moss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seul-Ji Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immobilization of lead (Pb using soil amendments can reduce Pb toxicity and bioavailability in soil. This study evaluated Pb immobilization in a Pb-contaminated soil by using peat moss through various tests. The Pb-contaminated soil (2000 mg Pb·kg−1 was amended with 1%, 5%, and 10% of peat moss to immobilize Pb in the soil. The immobilization properties of Pb in the contaminated soil were evaluated by a column leaching experiment, a microcosm test, and a batch incubation test. Peat moss significantly reduced the Pb leaching in all of the experiments and more effectively reduced mobility and toxicity of Pb in the column leaching and microcosm tests than bioavailability in the batch incubation test. The immobilized lead from the soils amended with 1%, 5%, and 10% of peat moss was 37.9%, 87.1%, and 95.4% from the column leaching test, 18.5%, 90.9%, and 96.4% from the microcosm test, and 2.0%, 36.9%, and 57.9% from the NH4NO3 extraction method, respectively, indicating that peat moss can be effectively used for the remediation of Pb-contaminated soil.

  19. Bioindicating potential of strontium contamination with Spanish moss Tillandsia usneoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Guiling; Pemberton, Robert; Li, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Tillandsia species have been recognized as efficient biomonitors of air pollution, but rarely exploited in bioindicating of strontium, an important nuclide. We exposed Tillandsia usneoides, colloquially known as Spanish moss due to its filamentous morphology but is an atypical angiosperm in the family Bromeliaceae, to the solutions with different Sr concentrations (0.1–100 mmol/L). The results showed that plants were able to endure Sr stress for a relatively long period, which suggests that T. usneoides is able to resist this toxic element. T. usneoides had the highest uptake ratio of Sr (82.21 ± 0.12%) when the plants were exposed to 0.1 mmol/L Sr solutions. Sr contents in T. usneoides increased significantly with the increase in applied metal solution concentrations. Low Sr stimulated the formation of chlorophyll, but high Sr decreased the contents of chlorophyll, and no significant effect on the total biomass was found in T. usneoides. In contrast, the permeability of plasma membrane based on the relative electronic conductivity in T. usneoides increased significantly under Sr stress, indicating that Sr probably caused oxidative stress. Moreover, correlation analysis showed that the leaf relative conductivity was significantly positively correlated with Sr contents in the plants after Sr treatments. Therefore, T. usneoides has considerable potential for monitoring Sr polluted environments through measuring Sr contents in the plant directly or exploiting the leaf relative conductivity as an indirect biomarker. - Highlights: • Sr contents in T. usneoides increase significantly with the increase of Sr concentrations. • Leaf relative conductivity is significantly positively correlated with Sr contents in the plant. • Tillandsia has high potential for monitoring Sr.

  20. Bioindicating potential of strontium contamination with Spanish moss Tillandsia usneoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guiling; Pemberton, Robert; Li, Peng

    2016-02-01

    Tillandsia species have been recognized as efficient biomonitors of air pollution, but rarely exploited in bioindicating of strontium, an important nuclide. We exposed Tillandsia usneoides, colloquially known as Spanish moss due to its filamentous morphology but is an atypical angiosperm in the family Bromeliaceae, to the solutions with different Sr concentrations (0.1-100 mmol/L). The results showed that plants were able to endure Sr stress for a relatively long period, which suggests that T. usneoides is able to resist this toxic element. T. usneoides had the highest uptake ratio of Sr (82.21 ± 0.12%) when the plants were exposed to 0.1 mmol/L Sr solutions. Sr contents in T. usneoides increased significantly with the increase in applied metal solution concentrations. Low Sr stimulated the formation of chlorophyll, but high Sr decreased the contents of chlorophyll, and no significant effect on the total biomass was found in T. usneoides. In contrast, the permeability of plasma membrane based on the relative electronic conductivity in T. usneoides increased significantly under Sr stress, indicating that Sr probably caused oxidative stress. Moreover, correlation analysis showed that the leaf relative conductivity was significantly positively correlated with Sr contents in the plants after Sr treatments. Therefore, T. usneoides has considerable potential for monitoring Sr polluted environments through measuring Sr contents in the plant directly or exploiting the leaf relative conductivity as an indirect biomarker. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rendimiento de dos variedades mejoradas de frijol, sembrados al voleo y al espeque, en Moss Pam, Waspam, rio Coco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankara Narvaez Ismael

    2012-10-01

    sea sembrada al voleo y la variedad DOR-364 sembrada al espeque, por presentar los mejores rendimientos con 77.63 y 71.33 qq/mz.SummaryThis article presents the agronomic behavior of the beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in two varieties: (DOR-364 and M-46, that were established through the analysis of two planting methods (broadcast and handspike to measure the production. The experiment was conducted in the academic farm of Snaky/URACCAN, located in the community of Moss Pam, municipality of Waspam, Rio Coco, North Autonomous Atlantic Region (RAAN. The bean crop is of great importance in the lives of indigenous communities, since just as the rice, it constitutes the most important grain in the family’s diets. It should be noted that the indigenous communities of the RAAN basically used two methods of planting (broadcast and handspike, however, productions is always low, so is necessary to make the study with the conditions that have been described.    A bifactorial design in randomized complete blocks was used, where the factor A: is equivalent to the two varieties of beans (DOR-364 and H-46, and factor B, is equivalent to two methods of planting (broadcast and handspike. The evaluation was made on the morphometric characteristics presented in the vegetative and reproductive phase of the crop. The information processing was done with the statistical program InfoStat, making an investigation from the analysis of ANAVA and Kruskal-Wallis test.The results showed high germination viability (95%, with statistical differences between treatments in the variables: height and diameter, in the vegetative stage. In the reproductive stage the variables: number of pods/plants and seeds/pods/plants, were the one that presented statistical differences between treatments, contrary to the variables: number of flowers/plants and length of pods/plants, that showed no differences. Finally, the ANAVA with 95 percent of reliability found differences in the variable: performance

  2. Air pollution studies in Macedonia using the moss biomonitoring technique, NAA, AAS and GIS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barandovski, L.; Urumov, V.; Cekova, M.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.; Stafilov, T.; Steinnes, E.

    2006-01-01

    For the first time the moss biomonitoring technique was applied to air pollution studies in the Republic of Macedonia, in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula. Samples of the terrestrial mosses Hypnum cupressiforme, Campothecium lutescens, and Homolothecium sericium were collected in September-October 2002 in accordance with the sampling strategy of the European moss survey programme. The sampling network included 73 sites evenly distributed over the territory of the country. A total of 43 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Pb, Th, and U) were determined by instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis and flame

  3. Lichens and mosses as monitors of industrial activity associated with uranium mining in northern Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieboer, E.; Boileau, L.J.R.; Beckett, P.J.; Lavoie, P.; Padovan, D.

    1982-01-01

    Strong linear regressions (P < 0.001) were observed between background concentrations of iron and titanium in lichens and mosses. For these same samples, the Fe/Ti content ratio was remarkably constant: 8.7 +- 1.8 for fifty-four lichen samples and 10.5 +- 1.5 for thirty-eight mosses. The Fe/Ti concentration ratio for cryptogams collected near uranium mine-exhaust vents accurately reflected the values of this same ratio for the rocks characterising the local ore body. Plant samples exhibiting the largest levels of Fe and Ti also had high mineral ash contents. The various associations and observations reported were interpreted as evidence that particulate trapping is an important elemental accumulation mechanism for lichens and mosses. (author)

  4. MOSSES AND LICHENS – BIOINDICATORS OF HEAVY METALS POLLUTION OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEGU A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is a comparative investigation of the content of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn and Cr in mosses and lichens recorded in ten deciduous forests in the Republic of Moldova included in a transnational grid (16x16 km of forest monitoring throughout Europe. The content of heavy metals doesn’t differ significant by depending on the location of studied forest ecosystems. The trends of larger accumulation are observed near the local stationary and mobile sources of pollution. Mosses were confirmed as good indicators of air pollution with heavy metals to forest ecosystems located near sources of pollution and lichens show good bio-indicators particularities for background pollution. The good correlation between the concentrations of moss and lichen were Cr, Cu and Ni, and the low correlation between Pb and Zn, which are considered to be metals which are amenable to long-distance dispersal.

  5. Using of Hylocomium Splendeus moss as radiation bio indicator in Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.H.; Elshames, E.E.; Biri, Y.M.; Kikli, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1982, environmental surveillance of radioactivity, around the 10 MW swimming pool reactor at the Renewable Energies and Water Distillation Research Centre (REWDRC), Libya, has been carried out by measuring aerosol, fallout on plan sheet, water samples, soil and vegetation.Recently, Hylocomium Splendeus moss, which is abundant within the vicinity area of REWDRC and its surrounding, has been used as radiation bio indicator for radioactive contamination measurements by using gamma spectroscopy technique.The data obtained from the moss samples collected from the studied area showed significant values of Cs-137 and K-40, while soil and grass samples collected from the same area showed negligible value of Cs-137. The data in study indicated that moss sample could be used as environmental surveillance tool to assess the impact of radioactivity in the environment

  6. Gibberellin influence on the morphogenesis of the moss Bryum argenteum Hedw. in in vitro conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabovljević Aneta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The moss Bryum argenteum Hedw. was treated with gibberellins as well as some inhibitors of gibberellin biosynthesis in order to investigate their influence on B. argenteum morphogenesis. Generally, gibberellins have not been chemically identified in bryophytes, while other groups of classical phytohormones (auxins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethylene have been chemically identified in these plants. The in vitro culture of the moss Bryum argenteum was established from sterilized spores. The apical shoots of untreated gametophytes grown in vitro were used to investigate the influence of different substances on secondary protonema and on the growth and multiplication of the gametophytes. B. argenteum reacts differently to the growth regulators applied. Both gibberellins applied in vitro (GA3 and GA7 have a positive effect on B. argenteum morphogenesis. Shoot multiplication was negatively affected by three tested growth retardants (ancymidol, BX-112 and chlorocholine chloride, while these substances did not have such strong effects on the moss protonema development.

  7. 78 FR 23843 - Special Local Regulations; Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; Robertson Lake & O'Leary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; Robertson Lake & O'Leary... Festival high speed boat races. Entry into, transiting or anchoring in this area is prohibited to all... Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; Robertson Lake & O'Leary Lake; Moss Point, MS. (a) Location. The...

  8. 78 FR 9866 - Special Local Regulation; Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; Robertson Lake & O'Leary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; Robertson Lake & O... Riverfront Festival high speed boat races. Entry into, transiting or anchoring in this area is prohibited to... Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; Robertson Lake & O'Leary Lake; Moss Point, MS. (a) Location. The...

  9. The contribution of mosses to the carbon and water exchange of artic ecosystems: quantification and relationships with system properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, J.C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Lang, S.I.; Shaver, G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Water vapour and CO2 exchange were measured in moss-dominated vegetation using a gas analyser and a 0.3 × 0.3 m chamber at 17 sites near Abisko, Northern Sweden and 21 sites near Longyearbyen, Svalbard, to quantify the contribution of mosses to ecosystem level fluxes. With the help of a simple

  10. Using NLDAS-2 for initializing integrated watershed models: Model spin-up for the AirMOSS Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS) investigation has been developed for high-resolution in time and space root-zone soil moisture and carbon estimation. AirMOSS will build an ultra-high frequency (UHF) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that has the capability to penetr...

  11. Interaction between the moss Physcomitrella patens and Phytophthora : a novel pathosystem for live-cell imaging of subcellular defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overdijk, Elysa J R; DE Keijzer, Jeroen; DE Groot, Deborah; Schoina, Charikleia; Bouwmeester, K.; Ketelaar, Tijs; Govers, Francine

    Live-cell imaging of plant-pathogen interactions is often hampered by the tissue complexity and multicell layered nature of the host. Here, we established a novel pathosystem with the moss Physcomitrella patens as host for Phytophthora. The tip-growing protonema cells of this moss are ideal for

  12. BASIC LAWS OF DISTRIBUTION AND GENESIS OF PSAMMOPHILOUS COLEOPTERA OF PONTO-CASPIAN REGION IN THE CASE OF TENEBRIONIDAE AND SCARABAEOIDEA (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Nabozhenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deal with migration ways of psammophilous Tenebrionidae and Scarabaeoidea of Ponto-Caspian region since the Pliocene. Reconstruction of genesis of the fauna is made after analyses of contemporary distribution. Zoogeographical analyses of fauna showed the share of species with different distribution in 3 zoogeographical big regions and bassins of Caspian sea, Sea of Azov and Black sea.

  13. BASIC LAWS OF DISTRIBUTION AND GENESIS OF PSAMMOPHILOUS COLEOPTERA OF PONTO-CASPIAN REGION IN THE CASE OF TENEBRIONIDAE AND SCARABAEOIDEA (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA)

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. Nabozhenko; I. V. Shokhin; G. M. Abdurahmanov; A. M. Klicheva; A. V. Morakhonich; D. I. Oleinik

    2012-01-01

    The paper deal with migration ways of psammophilous Tenebrionidae and Scarabaeoidea of Ponto-Caspian region since the Pliocene. Reconstruction of genesis of the fauna is made after analyses of contemporary distribution. Zoogeographical analyses of fauna showed the share of species with different distribution in 3 zoogeographical big regions and bassins of Caspian sea, Sea of Azov and Black sea.

  14. Assessment of 210Po deposition in moss species and soil around coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nita Salina Abu Bakar; Ahmad Saat

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the depositions of 210 Po were assessed in the surface soil and some mosses species found in the area around coal fired power plant using radiochemical deposition and alpha spectrometry counting system. The purposes of the study were to determine activity concentrations of 210 Po in mosses and surface soil collected around coal-fired power plant in relation to trace the potential source of 210 Po and to identify most suitable moss species as a bio-indicator for 210 Po deposition. In this study, different species of mosses, Orthodontium imfractum, Campylopus serratus and Leucobryum aduncum were collected in May 2011 at the area around 15 km radius from Tanjung Bin coal-fired power plant located in Pontian, Johor. The 210 Po activity concentrations in mosses and soil varied in the range 102 ± 4 to 174 ± 8 Bq/kg dry wt. and 37 ± 2 to 184 ± 8 Bq/kg dry wt., respectively. Corresponding highest activity concentration of 210 Po observed in L. aduncum, therefore, this finding can be concluded this species was the most suitable as a bio-indicator for 210 Po deposition. On the other hand, it is clear the accumulation of 210 Po in mosses might be supplied from various sources of atmospheric deposition such as coal-fired power plant operation, industrial, plantation, agriculture and fertilizer activities, burned fuel fossil and forest; and other potential sources. Meanwhile, the main source of 210 Po in surface soil is supplied from the in situ deposition of radon decay and its daughters in the soil itself. (author)

  15. Identifying the change in atmospheric sulfur sources in China using isotopic ratios in mosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hua-Yun; Tang, Cong-Guo; Xiao, Hong-Wei; Liu, Xue-Yan; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2009-08-01

    A considerable number of studies on rainwater sulfur isotopic ratios (δ34Srain) have been conducted to trace sulfur sources at a large number of sites in the past. If longitudinal studies on the isotope composition of precipitation sulfate were conducted, it is possible to relate that to changes in sulfur emissions. But direct measurement needs considerable labor and time. So, in this study, sulfur isotopic ratios in rainwater and mosses were analyzed at Guiyang and Nanchang to evaluate the possibility of using mosses as a substitute for rainwater. We found that present moss sulfur isotopic ratios were comparable to those of present rainwater. Additionally, we investigated the changes of atmospheric sulfur sources and sulfur concentrations using an isotopic graphic analysis at five industrial cities, two forested areas, and two remote areas in China. Mosses in industrial cities show a wide range of δ34S values, with the highest occurring at Chongqing (+3.9‰) and the lowest at Guiyang (-3.1‰). But as compared to those in forested and remote areas, δ34S values of mosses in all the five industrial cities are lower. On the basis of isotopic comparisons between past rainwater (reported in the literature) and present mosses, in the plot of δ34Smoss versus δ34Srain, six zones indicating different atmospheric sulfur change are separated by the 1:1 line and δ34S values of potential sulfur sources. Our results indicate that atmospheric sulfur pollution in most of the industrial cities decreased, while at the two forested areas, no significant changes were observed, and a new anxiousness coming from new energy sources (e.g., oil) appeared in some cities. Studies on the change of ambient SO2 concentrations support these results.

  16. Basic concepts in oceanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    Basic concepts in oceanography include major wind patterns that drive ocean currents, and the effects that the earth's rotation, positions of land masses, and temperature and salinity have on oceanic circulation and hence global distribution of radioactivity. Special attention is given to coastal and near-coastal processes such as upwelling, tidal effects, and small-scale processes, as radionuclide distributions are currently most associated with coastal regions. (author)

  17. Active Sphagnum girgensohnii Russow Moss Biomonitoring of an Industrial Site in Romania: Temporal Variation in the Elemental Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culicov, Otilia A; Zinicovscaia, Inga; Duliu, O G

    2016-05-01

    The moss-bag transplant technique was used to investigate the kinetics of the accumulation of 38 elements in Sphagnum girgensohni moss samples in the highly polluted municipality of Baia Mare, Romania. The moss samples collected from the unpolluted Vitosha Mountain Natural Reserve, Bulgaria, were analyzed after 1, 2, 3, and 4 months of exposure, respectively. The ANOVA method was used to assay the statistical significance of the observed changes in elemental content, as determined by neutron activation analysis. The content of Zn, Se, As, Ag, Cd, and Sb increased steadily, while that of physiologically active K and Cl, as well as Rb and Cs, decreased exponentially. The study showed that an adequate application of the moss transplant technique in an urban environment should consider the exposure time as a critical parameter, since particular elements are depleted in the moss at sites with high atmospheric loading of metals.

  18. Bags with oven-dried moss for the active monitoring of airborne trace elements in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, S.; Adamo, P.; Monaci, F.; Pittao, E.; Tretiach, M.; Bargagli, R.

    2009-01-01

    To define a harmonized methodology for the use of moss and lichen bags as active monitoring devices of airborne trace elements in urban areas, we evaluated the element accumulation in bags exposed in Naples in different spring weather conditions for 6- and 12-weeks. Three different pre-exposure treatments were applied to moss and lichen materials: water-washing, acid-washing and oven-drying. During the different exposure periods in the Naples urban environment the moss accumulated always higher amounts of elements (except Hg) than lichens and the element accumulation increased during wetter weather and higher PM 10 conditions. The oven pre-treatment did not substantially modify the morphology and element composition of moss and the exposure in bags of this material for 6-weeks was sufficient to detect the pattern of airborne trace elements. - A 6-week exposure with oven-dried moss bags resulted a suitable approach to evaluate airborne trace elements in a Mediterranean urban environment.

  19. Development of calibration factors of moss (Hylocomium splendens); Utvikling av kalibreringsfaktorer for mose (Hylocomium splendens)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, T

    1996-01-01

    The present paper relates to atmospheric deposition of trace elements in Norway. These elements are mapped geographically in every fifth year by analysing bio-monitored mosses. This is a part of an original Scandinavian monitoring program which gradually expanded to other parts of Europe. In 1995, 32 countries participated in the program. The investigation of mosses in Norway has also been used as a basis for the development of special environment indicators for monitoring atmospheric long-range transported heavy metals. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Alternative substrates to the sphagnum moss in the acclimatization of arundina graminifolia “alba”(Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Zandoná; Ricardo Tadeu de Faria; Alessandro Borini Lone; Rodrigo Thibes Hoshino

    2014-01-01

    The Arundina graminifolia, is popularly known as bamboo orchid, by having their stems quite extensive. It is widely used in the business landscape, with a very rustic plant. Sphagnum moss is the most widely used substrate in the acclimatization of orchids, but environmental issues have led to an increase in the search for alternative substrates. The objective of this study was to evaluate substrates that can replace all or part of the use of sphagnum moss on the acclimatization of A. graminif...

  1. PROTECTED SPECIES OF MOSSES IN THE URBAN AREA OF ŁÓDŹ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Staniaszek-Kik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents of protected moss species which occur within the administrative boundaries of the city of Łódź. Łódź is the second largest city of Poland with regard to population. It is located close to the geographical centre of the country. Distribution of 27 species has been presented in the aspect of their occurrence in four structural-functional zones. The most frequent species in the study area are: Dicranum scoparium, Pleurozium schreberi, Pseudoscleropodium purum and Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus. The large number of protected mosses were noted in suburbs on lowered urbanization pressure area.

  2. Phototolerance of lichens, mosses and higher plants in an alpine environment: analysis of photoreactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, U; Bilger, W; Bligny, R; Lange, O L

    2000-11-01

    Adaptation to excessive light is one of the requirements of survival in an alpine environment particularly for poikilohydric organisms which in contrast to the leaves of higher plants tolerate full dehydration. Changes in modulated chlorophyll fluorescence and 820-nm absorption were investigated in the lichens Xanthoria elegans (Link) Th. Fr. and Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC, in the moss Grimmia alpestris Limpr. and the higher plants Geum montanum L., Gentiana lutea L. and Pisum sativum L., all collected at altitudes higher than 2000 m above sea level. In the dehydrated state, chlorophyll fluorescence was very low in the lichens and the moss, but high in the higher plants. It increased on rehydration in the lichens and the moss, but decreased in the higher plants. Light-induced charge separation in photosystem II was indicated by pulse-induced fluorescence increases only in dried leaves, not in the dry moss and dry lichens. Strong illumination caused photodamage in the dried leaves, but not in the dry moss and dry lichens. Light-dependent increases in 820-nm absorption revealed formation of potential quenchers of chlorophyll fluorescence in all dehydrated plants, but energy transfer to quenchers decreased chlorophyll fluorescence only in the moss and the lichens, not in the higher plants. In hydrated systems, coupled cyclic electron transport is suggested to occur concurrently with linear electron transport under strong actinic illumination particularly in the lichens because far more electrons became available after actinic illumination for the reduction of photo-oxidized P700 than were available in the pool of electron carriers between photosystems II and I. In the moss Grimmia, but not in the lichens or in leaves, light-dependent quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence was extensive even under nitrogen, indicating anaerobic thylakoid acidification by persistent cyclic electron transport. In the absence of actinic illumination, acidification by ca. 8% CO2 in

  3. Chernobyl-derived radiocesium in mosses in the Black Sea area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topcuoglu, S.; Bulut, A.M.; Gueven, K.C.; Sauer, E.

    1993-01-01

    Radiocesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) activity levels in mosses from the Black Sea area, northern Turkey, are reported following the Chernobyl accident during the period of 1989-1991. The cesium radionuclides were detected and measured in all the samples but other long-lived radionuclides such as 144 Ce and 106 Ru were measured in only one sample. The present data support the fact that radioactivity monitoring in mosses can be useful to determine the lasting effect of radioactive contamination. (author) 13 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  4. A preliminary study of the moss genus Isopterygium in Latin America A preliminary study of the moss genus Isopterygium in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireland Robert R.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el estudio taxonómico preliminar del género Isopterygium (Hypnaceae, musgo pleurocárpico, en Latinoamérica. Se localizaron y examinaron 78 ejemplares tipo de los 92 taxa reconocidos, de acuerdo con el Index Muscorum, para México, Centro y Sur América. El detallado estudio nomenclatural permitió reconocer para la región siete especies: Isopterygium affusum Mitt., I. byssobolax (C. Müll. Par, I. miradoricum (C. Müll. Jaeg. & Sauerb, I. subbrevisetum (Hampe Broth., I. sobglobosum Herz., I. tenerifolium Mitt. e I. tenerum (Sw. Mitt. Se provee una clave para la identificación de las especies, su distribución conocida y la lista de sinónimos para cada una de ellas.  Algunos taxa anteriormente ubicados en Isopterygium fue necesario transferirlos a otros taxa, lo cual requiere las siguientes combinaciones nuevas: Wijkia alstonii (Bartr. Irel. (Isopterygium alstonii Bartr., Pseudotaxiphyllum homomallifolium (Redf. Irel. (Isopereygium homomallifolium Redf., Pseudotaxiphyllum machrisianum (Crum Irel. (Taxiphyllum machrisianum Crum, Pseudotaxiphyllum richardsii (Bartr. Irel. (Isopterygium richardsii Bartr. A preliminary taxonomic study was conducted on the pleurocarpous moss genus Isopterygium in Latin America. The types of 78 the 92 taxa recognized for Mexico, Central and South America by Index Muscorum were located and examined. Synonymy was found to be extensive with only seven species presently being recognized for the region, including Isopterygium affusum Mitt., I. byssobolax (C. Müll. Par .. I. miradoricum (C. Müll. Jaeg. & Sauerb., I. subbrevisetum (Hampe Broth., I. subglobosum Herz., I. tenerifolium Mitt. and I. tenerum (Sw. Mitt. A key to the identification of the species, their known distribution and a list of synonyms for each species is provided. It was necessary to transfer some of the taxa formerly placed in Isopterygium into other genera which required the following new combinations: Wijkia alstonii (Bartr. Irel

  5. Gravi-photomorphogenesis of the moss Pottia intermedia protonemata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkiv, O. T.; Kyjak, N. Y.; Khorkavtsiv, Y. D.; Kit, N. A.

    The protonemata development proceeds in the process of gradual differentiation of growing apical cells and intercalar cells the shortened lateral branches of the latters being transformed into three-dimensional gametophore buds (Demkiv et al., 1991). Normal course of plant development needs favourable external conditions. Sometimes, however, external environment agents can accelerate the development of organism. So, apical protonema cells of darkgrown gravitropic P. intermedia differentiate gametophore-buds in light of low intensity (Ripetskyj, 1999). We investigate the influence of gravistimulation on bud formation in haploid and diploid P. intermedia protonema. Diploid protonema was found to react on light weaker than haploid one. Under the influence of light the darkgrown apical cells and lateral branches of haploid protonema were directly transformed into buds, while in diploid protonema at first the formation of bundles of rhizoid type filaments takes place on the tips of caulonema and buds appeared in center of such bundles. The participation of gravity in gametophore bud formation was assessed by clinorotating protonema in darkness. Being illuminated such protonema also developed buds quickly the latters being formed along all stolon. It can be suggested that at 1g the growth zone of apical cells actively attract inductors of bud formation. During clinorotation the inductors probably are transferred much more slower than under stationary state and that is why the buds arised not only at the tips of stolons but along all their length. It is known that gametophore bud formation can be stimulated by exogenous phytohormones. As M. Bopp (1980) has shown, that kinetin selectively promotes bud formation on moss protonema. Our observations have shown 0,5 -- 50 μ M of kinetin stimulate the bud formation on diploid aposporic protonema much more effectively that on haploid one. It can be concluded that the amount of endogenous cytokinins in haploid protonemal cells is

  6. Basic concept of the nuclear emergency preparedness and response in Japan after the accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station. The plain explanation for regional officials and emergency workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Sohei; Yamamoto, Kazuya

    2013-07-01

    After the accident of TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station occurred on March 11, 2011, actions for controlling the accident and protective actions for the residents like evacuation were taken. In parallel with this, it has been developed to reform the nuclear regulatory systems and the emergency preparedness and response systems in Japan. Especially the Nuclear Regulation Authority's Nuclear Emergency Preparedness and Response Guidelines were adopted with the introducing the basic concepts and the criteria on the basis of the IAEA's safety standards and differed greatly from the prior guidelines. Thus the arrangement of emergency response systems, resources and the operational procedures will be developed complying with according to the guidelines in municipalities around the nuclear power station sites. This work attempts to provide a plain explanation as possible for the regional officials and emergency workers about the basic concepts of the new guidelines. (author)

  7. Moss-specific changes in nitrogen fixation following two decades of warming, shading, and fertilizer addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Pernille Lærkedal; Lett, Signe; Michelsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    temperature increase induced by the warming treatment was low and insignificant as vegetation height and total vascular plant cover of the warmed plots increased, and moss cover decreased. Hence, truly long-term studies lasting more than two decades provide insights on changes in key biogeochemical processes...

  8. Seasonal comparison of moss bag technique against vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Hanna; Berisha, Anna-Kaisa; Mäkinen, Joni

    2016-03-01

    This is the first study seasonally applying Sphagnum papillosum moss bags and vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution. Moss bags, exposed in January, were collected together with snow samples by early March 2012 near the Harjavalta Industrial Park in southwest Finland. Magnetic, chemical, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), K-means clustering, and Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) data showed parallel spatial trends of pollution dispersal for both materials. Results strengthen previous findings that concentrate and slag handling activities were important (dust) emission sources while the impact from Cu-Ni smelter's pipe remained secondary at closer distances. Statistically significant correlations existed between the variables of snow and moss bags. As a summary, both methods work well for sampling and are efficient pollutant accumulators. Moss bags can be used also in winter conditions and they provide more homogeneous and better controlled sampling method than snow samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. The first survey of airborne trace elements at airport using moss bag technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Gordana; Urošević, Mira Aničić; Škrivanj, Sandra; Vergel, Konstantin; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2017-06-01

    Air traffic represents an important way of social mobility in the world, and many ongoing discussions are related to the impacts that air transportation has on local air quality. In this study, moss Sphagnum girgensohnii was used for the first time in the assessment of trace element content at the international airport. The moss bags were exposed during the summer of 2013 at four sampling sites at the airport 'Nikola Tesla' (Belgrade, Serbia): runway (two), auxiliary runway and parking lot. According to the relative accumulation factor (RAF) and the limit of quantification of the moss bag technique (LOQ T ), the most abundant elements in the samples were Zn, Na, Cr, V, Cu and Fe. A comparison between the element concentrations at the airport and the corresponding values in different land use classes (urban central, suburban, industrial and green zones) across the city of Belgrade did not point out that the air traffic and associated activities significantly contribute to the trace element air pollution. This study emphasised an easy operational and robust (bio)monitoring, using moss bags as a suitable method for assessment of air quality within various microenvironments with restriction in positioning referent instrumental devices.

  10. Mosses as indicators of the air pollution by radionuclides in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovic, D.; Popovic, D.; Ajtic, J.; Todorovic, D.)

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents preliminary results on the contents of radionuclides in mosses exposed to air pollution in central urban area (a Belgrade city park). Activity of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides ( 40 K, 210 Pb, 137 Cs, 7 Be) was determined on two HPGe detectors (Canberra, relative efficiency 20% and 23%) by standard gamma spectrometry. (author) [sr

  11. Restoring sedges and mosses into frost heaving iron fens, San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Chimner

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Rare iron fens in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado are frequently in poor condition due to mining, roads and ditches, which have left much of the fen completely bare of vegetation. Natural revegetation is slow to occur in the bare areas because of severe frost heave in the cold mountain climate. Therefore, experimental revegetation plots were conducted in a factorial design with mulching and no mulching, crossed with moss diaspores, sedge transplants, and moss and sedge combined. Mulching influenced surface soil temperatures by reducing the midday highs and increasing the night-time lows, which decreased the frequency and amount of frost heave. Peat moisture also modified frost heave, with the greatest frost heaving occurring near 75 % peat moisture content (water table 10–20 cm below the surface and the least when soils were either wetter or drier. Moss survival was dependent on mulch, with no moss surviving in plots without mulch. Mulching also increased sedge transplant survival. In summary, mulching significantly increased the success of vegetation restoration efforts for frost heave areas in mountain fens.

  12. Detection, Isolation, and Characterization of Acidophilic Methanotrophs from Sphagnum Mosses ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kip, Nardy; Ouyang, Wenjing; van Winden, Julia; Raghoebarsing, Ashna; van Niftrik, Laura; Pol, Arjan; Pan, Yao; Bodrossy, Levente; van Donselaar, Elly G.; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Sphagnum peatlands are important ecosystems in the methane cycle. Methane-oxidizing bacteria in these ecosystems serve as a methane filter and limit methane emissions. Yet little is known about the diversity and identity of the methanotrophs present in and on Sphagnum mosses of peatlands, and only a few isolates are known. The methanotrophic community in Sphagnum mosses, originating from a Dutch peat bog, was investigated using a pmoA microarray. A high biodiversity of both gamma- and alphaproteobacterial methanotrophs was found. With Sphagnum mosses as the inoculum, alpha- and gammaproteobacterial acidophilic methanotrophs were isolated using established and newly designed media. The 16S rRNA, pmoA, pxmA, and mmoX gene sequences showed that the alphaproteobacterial isolates belonged to the Methylocystis and Methylosinus genera. The Methylosinus species isolated are the first acid-tolerant members of this genus. Of the acidophilic gammaproteobacterial strains isolated, strain M5 was affiliated with the Methylomonas genus, and the other strain, M200, may represent a novel genus, most closely related to the genera Methylosoma and Methylovulum. So far, no acidophilic or acid-tolerant methanotrophs in the Gammaproteobacteria class are known. All strains showed the typical features of either type I or II methanotrophs and are, to the best of our knowledge, the first isolated (acidophilic or acid-tolerant) methanotrophs from Sphagnum mosses. PMID:21724892

  13. Effects of Reduced and Oxidised Nitrogen on Rich-Fen Mosses: a 4-Year Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulissen, Maurice P.C.P.; Bobbink, Roland; Robat, Sandra A.; Verhoeven, Jos T.A.

    2016-01-01

    Dutch fens, subjected to high nitrogen (N) deposition levels with reduced N (NHy) highly dominating over oxidised N (NOx), have since the second half of the past century seen a significant decline of Scorpidium and other characteristic brown moss species, while several Sphagnum species have

  14. Spatio-temporal patterns of Cu contamination in mosses using geostatistical estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Anabela; Figueira, Rui; Sousa, António Jorge; Sérgio, Cecília

    2012-01-01

    Several recent studies have reported temporal trends in metal contamination in mosses, but such assessments did not evaluate uncertainty in temporal changes, therefore providing weak statistical support for time comparisons. Furthermore, levels of contaminants in the environment change in both space and time, requiring space-time modelling methods for map estimation. We propose an indicator of spatial and temporal variation based on space-time estimation by indicator kriging, where uncertainty at each location is estimated from the local distribution function, thereby calculating variability intervals for comparison between several biomonitoring dates. This approach was exemplified using copper concentrations in mosses from four Portuguese surveys (1992, 1997, 2002 and 2006). Using this approach, we identified a general decrease in copper contamination, but spatial patterns were not uniform, and from the uncertainty intervals, changes could not be considered significant in the majority of the study area. - Highlights: ► We estimated copper contamination in mosses by spatio-temporal kriging between 1992 and 2006. ► We determined local distribution functions to define variation intervals at each location. ► Significance of temporal changes is assessed using an indicator based on uncertainty interval. ► There is general decrease in copper contamination, but spatial patterns are not uniform. - The contamination of copper in mosses was estimated by spatio-temporal kriging, with determination of uncertainty classes in the temporal variation.

  15. Description of a new moss frog from the south-western Cape (Anura ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new species of moss frog, genus Arthroleptella, is described from the Kleinrivier mountains of the south-western Cape. It is morphologically indistinguishable from the other three species in the area. The four Cape species are allopatric, each has a unique male advertisement call, and preliminary molecular data shows ...

  16. Mosses of d’Entrecasteaux group & Louisiade Archipelago, Papua, New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartram, Edwin B.

    1960-01-01

    The moss collections made by L. J. Brass in connection with the 5th, Archbold Expedition to New Guinea to New Guinea in 1956 to the islands off the eastern tip of Papua comprise 166 numbers representing 87 species as outlined in the following list. Three species are described as new and 22 preceeded

  17. Was the 4th largest Danish Lake (Mossø) once much larger?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Søren Munch; Søe, Niels Emil; Kroon, Aart

    actions, antecedent topography and lake level changes on the Holocene development of the present-day Danish lake, Mossø. A variety of methods were used: coring, intensive profile digging and remote sensing, geophysical mapping by seismic reflection and electromagnetic induction, and dating by radiocarbon...

  18. Molecular phylogeny and systematic revision of the pleurocarpous moss genus Plagiothecium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wynns, Justin Thomas

    A systematic investigation of the pleurocarpous moss genus Plagiothecium Bruch & Schimp. was performed as a part of the author’s PhD study at the University of Copenhagen. Plagiothecium is mostly a well-defined genus, but the species limits and the interspecific relationships are poorly understood...

  19. Evaluating carbon stores at the earth-atmosphere interface: moss and lichen mats of subarctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Smith; Sarah Jovan; Bruce. McCune

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental goal of the forest inventory in interior Alaska is to accurately estimate carbon pools in a way that sheds light on the feedbacks between forests and climate. In boreal forests, moss and lichen mats often serve as the interface between soils and the atmosphere, therefore characterizing the biomass and composition of mats is essential for understanding how...

  20. Nitrogen immobilization in plant growth substrates: clean chip residual, pine bark and peat moss

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was undertaken to determine the extent of nitrogen (N) immobilization and microbial respiration in a high wood-fiber content substrate (clean chip residual (CCR)). Control treatments of pine bark (PB) and peat moss (PM) were compared to two screen sizes (0.95 cm and 0.48 cm) of CCR for micro...

  1. Direct and Indirect Drivers of Moss Community Structure, Function, and Associated Microfauna Across a Successional Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micael Jonsson; Paul Kardol; Michael J. Gundale; Sheel Bansal; Marie-Charlotte Nilsson; Daniel B. Metcalfe; David A. Wardle

    2015-01-01

    Relative to vascular plants, little is known about what factors control bryophyte communities or how they respond to successional and environmental changes. Bryophytes are abundant in boreal forests, thus changes in moss community composition and functional traits (for example, moisture and nutrient content; rates of photosynthesis and respiration) may have important...

  2. The cellular wall role of different mosses species in Cs 137 sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobchenko, V.A.; Khramchenkova, O.M.; Perevolockij, A.N.

    2001-01-01

    In studying experiment with live and modified mosses (Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt., Dicranum polysetum Sw., Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. and Ptilium crista-castrensis (Hedw.) De Not.) had shown the cellular wall main role in Cs 137 sorption

  3. Moss antheridia are desiccation tolerant: Rehydration dynamics influence sperm release in Bryum argenteum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Lloyd R; McLetchie, D Nicholas; Greenwood, Joshua L; Eppley, Sarah M

    2016-05-01

    Free-living sperm of mosses are known to be partially desiccation tolerant. We hypothesized that mature moss antheridia should also tolerate desiccation and that rehydration to partial turgor (prehydration) or rehydration to full turgor (rehydration) before immersion in water is required for full recovery from any damaging effects of prior desiccation. Bryum argenteum (silvery-thread moss) was grown in continuous culture for several months, produced mature perigonia (clusters of antheridia), and these were subjected to a slow rate of drying (∼36 h from full turgor to desiccation) and equilibration with 50% relative humidity. Perigonia were prehydrated (exposed to a saturated atmosphere) or rehydrated (planted upright in saturated media) for 0, 45, 90, 135, 180, and 1440 min, then immersed in sterile water. Time to first sperm mass release, number of antheridia releasing sperm masses, and the integrity of the first sperm mass released were assessed. Rehydration of dried antheridia for at least 3 h before immersion in water resulted in antheridia functioning similar to control undried antheridia. Compared with rehydration, prehydration was not effective in the recovery of antheridia from desiccation. For the first time, moss antheridia are shown to be fully desiccation tolerant at a functional level, capable of releasing fully functional sperm following a slow drying event provided the antheridia are allowed to rehydrate at least 3 h before immersion in water. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  4. Natural and anthropogenic radioactivity of feedstuffs, mosses and soil in the Belgrade environment, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grdović Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available By gamma spectroscopic measurement a content of natural radio-nuclides (40K, 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs was determined in samples of soil, alfalfa, maize and moss on six sites in the surroundings of Belgrade. Natural radionuclides in the soil were at the level characteristic for Serbia, whereas a relatively high level of activity of 137Cs (around 30 Bq kg-1 was determined. On the other hand, in plant samples mostly used as feed (such as alfalfa and maize the concentration of natural radio-nuclide activity and 137Cs was relatively low, i.e. below the range of detection. The content of natural radio-nuclides in moss was within the standard range of values specific for Serbia. However, the activity level of 137Cs in moss gathered from the wider area around Belgrade, was high, the highest measured level being in the Avala-Zuce area (158-221 Bq kg-1. Our results show that this radio-nuclide is still present in the living environment of Belgrade even 20 years after the Chernobyl disaster, and that moss is a good indicator of living environment 137Cs contamination.

  5. Gravity regulation in tuber-bearing moss Leptobryum pyriforme (Hedw.) Wilson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobachevska, Oksana

    Considerable number of moss species is propagated asexually, and asexual reproduction is the key factor of their life strategy and effective mechanism of rapid population and attaching plants to habitats with great environmental fluctuations (Velde et al., 2001; Frey, Kűrshner, 2010). It has been shown for the first time for gravisensitive species Leptobryum pyriforme (Hedw.) Wilson that the development of propagules as organs of vegetative reproduction and accumulation of nutrient substances is gravidependent phenomenon. L. pyriforme differs from other moss species in higher growth and development rate. In darkness the greatest bundle of gravisensitive negatively gravitropic filaments (above 50 filaments) of both caulonemal and chloronemal type arised from 1 protonemal ball of moss. Perhaps, it is caused by high protonema gravisensitivity and morphogenetic effectiveness of gravitation force. It has been shown that propagules of L. pyriforme are formed much faster in darkness and their number is twice higher than on light. After five-day clinorotation of the L. pyriforme turfs the number of propagules is lower in darkness compared to gravistimulated turfs and higher than on the light. Thus, vegetative reproduction of L. pyriforme is the gravidependent process and gravitation force has stimulating influence on the formation of propagula. In L. pyriforme rhizoid tubers from round to oval (93-116 x ({) } (x) 120-148 muμm) are formed from 5-6 big cells (70 x ({) } (x) 80 muμm). Due to small capsules, L{it pyriforme }does not have a lot of big spores which are spread to insignificant distances, the mass formation of brood organs promotes moss survival and its preservation. The results of investigation prove the participation of rhizoids and rhizoid tubers as imperceptible but important phase of vital cycle of moss species - settlers in realization of vital tolerance strategy to extreme conditions of temporarily available habitats: due to rapid method of spatial

  6. Biogeomorphic relationships between slope processes and globular Grimmia mosses in Haleakala's Crater (Maui, Hawai’i)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Francisco L.

    2010-04-01

    Globular mosses were found in Haleakala's crater (Maui) at five locations between 2175 and 2725 m; the highest-altitude site, with abundant epilithic mosses growing on alkali-olivine basalt outcrops and a large mossball population, was studied. Mossballs form when moss cushions are dislodged from rocks but continue growing unattached to substrate; detachment agents include rainsplash, desiccation, wind, frost, and disturbance by birds (dark-rumped petrels) that burrow nests under outcrops, or by goats. When loosened, moss polsters are transported down steep (26-34°) slopes by different geomorphic processes, including frost—mainly needle ice—activity, runoff, and wind. Mossballs contained two species, Grimmia trichophylla Grev. and Grimmia torquata Drumm., growing separately or commingled. Weight, size, and various shape indices were determined for 260 specimens. Shape and size were correlated; larger mosses become less spheroidal because heavier specimens are less disturbed by needle ice, remaining immobile for increasingly longer time periods, thus becoming flattened. Distance of downslope transport from source rockwalls was measured for 330 specimens; 83% shifted ≤ 100 cm, but only ˜ 5% had moved > 200-839 cm. Heavier mossballs moved short distances, thus ˜ 88% of all biomass remained within 200 cm from outcrops. Substrate soils were compared with those within globoids; surface site soils were much coarser than mossball grains. Twelve substrate samples had, on average, 21.3% gravel (≥ 2 mm), 6.1% fines (≤ 0.063 mm) and 2.1% organic matter; in contrast, 12 mossballs contained particles measured ≤ 0.25 mm. Such fine texture, along with abundant organic matter contributed by moss growth, generates greater water-storage capacity in globoids (˜ 310%) than in site soils (16.8%); this is ecologically significant for mossball development and survival during drought periods. This area is frequently subjected to freezing temperatures, while fog interception

  7. Effect of crustose lichen on soil CO2 efflux in sphagnum moss regime of tundra, west Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Park, S. J.; Suzuki, R.; Lee, B. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing ambient temperatures across the Arctic have induced changes in plant extent and phenology, degradation of permafrost, snow depth and covered extent, decomposition of soil organic matter, and subsequently, soil carbon emission to the atmosphere. However, there is fully not understood on the effect of crustose lichen on soil CO2 emission to the atmosphere. Although the spores of lichen are spread by wind and animals, the crustose lichen is infected to the only sphagnum moss widely distributed in the Arctic, and is terminally killed the moss. Here, we report the research findings on the soil CO2 efflux-measurement with forced diffusion (FD) chamber system that is continuously monitored in sphagnum moss regime of west Alaska for the growing season of 2016. The environmental parameters (e.g., soil temperature and moisture) were measured at intact and infected sphagnum moss regime. The FD chamber is measured at an interval of 10-min and 30-min, which is not significant difference between both intervals (R2 = 0.94; n = 1360; RMSE = 0.043; p sphagnum moss, and 0.27(0.47), 0.45(0.17), 0.50(0.22), and 0.31(0.49) in intact sphagnum moss, respectively. This finding demonstrates that 1) soil CO2 in infected sphagnum moss is one of atmospheric CO2 source in June and July, and 2) soil CO2 efflux is not significant difference between both regimes for August and September of 2016.

  8. Assessing the recovery potential of alpine moss-sedge heath: Reciprocal transplants along a nitrogen deposition gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armitage, Heather F., E-mail: h.armitage@abdn.ac.u [Macaulay Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Britton, Andrea J. [Macaulay Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Woodin, Sarah J. [Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Wal, Rene van der [Aberdeen Centre for Environmental Sustainability (ACES), School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    The potential of alpine moss-sedge heath to recover from elevated nitrogen (N) deposition was assessed by transplanting Racomitrium lanuginosum shoots and vegetation turfs between 10 elevated N deposition sites (8.2-32.9 kg ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) and a low N deposition site, Ben Wyvis (7.2 kg ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}). After two years, tissue N of Racomitrium shoots transplanted from higher N sites to Ben Wyvis only partially equilibrated to reduced N deposition whereas reciprocal transplants almost matched the tissue N of indigenous moss. Unexpectedly, moss shoot growth was stimulated at higher N deposition sites. However, moss depth and biomass increased in turfs transplanted to Ben Wyvis, apparently due to slower shoot turnover (suggested to result partly from decreased tissue C:N slowing decomposition), whilst abundance of vascular species declined. Racomitrium heath has the potential to recover from the impacts of N deposition; however, this is constrained by the persistence of enhanced moss tissue N contents. - Alpine moss-sedge heath, dominated by Racomitrium lanuginosum, from across the UK has the potential to recover from the impacts of N pollution; however, this is constrained by persistence of enhanced moss tissue N contents.

  9. Assessing the recovery potential of alpine moss-sedge heath: Reciprocal transplants along a nitrogen deposition gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armitage, Heather F.; Britton, Andrea J.; Woodin, Sarah J.; Wal, Rene van der

    2011-01-01

    The potential of alpine moss-sedge heath to recover from elevated nitrogen (N) deposition was assessed by transplanting Racomitrium lanuginosum shoots and vegetation turfs between 10 elevated N deposition sites (8.2-32.9 kg ha -1 yr -1 ) and a low N deposition site, Ben Wyvis (7.2 kg ha -1 yr -1 ). After two years, tissue N of Racomitrium shoots transplanted from higher N sites to Ben Wyvis only partially equilibrated to reduced N deposition whereas reciprocal transplants almost matched the tissue N of indigenous moss. Unexpectedly, moss shoot growth was stimulated at higher N deposition sites. However, moss depth and biomass increased in turfs transplanted to Ben Wyvis, apparently due to slower shoot turnover (suggested to result partly from decreased tissue C:N slowing decomposition), whilst abundance of vascular species declined. Racomitrium heath has the potential to recover from the impacts of N deposition; however, this is constrained by the persistence of enhanced moss tissue N contents. - Alpine moss-sedge heath, dominated by Racomitrium lanuginosum, from across the UK has the potential to recover from the impacts of N pollution; however, this is constrained by persistence of enhanced moss tissue N contents.

  10. Biomonitoring of 210Po and 210Pb using lichens and mosses around coal-fired power plants in Western Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sert, Emel; Ugur, Aysun; Ozden, Banu; Sac, Mueslim Murat; Camgoez, Berkay

    2011-01-01

    Mosses and lichens are useful biological indicators of environmental contamination for a variety of metals and radionuclides of both natural and artificial origin. These plants lack a well-developed root system and rely largely on atmospheric deposition for nourishment. Therefore in the study, different lichens (Cladonia convoluta, Cladonia foliacea) and mosses (Homalothecium sericeum, Hypnum lacunosum, Hypnum cupressiforme, Tortella tortuosa, Didymodon acutus, Syntrichia ruralis, Syntrichia intermedia, Pterogonium graciale, Isothecium alopecuroides, Pleurochatae squarrosa) were collected around the Yatagan (Mugla), Soma (Manisa), Seyitoemer - Tuncbilek (Kuetahya) coal-fired power plants and investigated for potential use as biomonitors for 210 Po and 210 Pb deposition. While the activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb in lichens are in the ranges of 151 ± 7-593 ± 21 and 97 ± 5-364 ± 13 Bq kg -1 , for mosses the ranges for 210 Po and 210 Pb are 124 ± 5-1125 ± 38 and 113 ± 4-490 ± 17 Bq kg -1 , respectively. In the study, the moss samples were observed to accumulate more 210 Po and 210 Pb compared to lichens. While the most suitable biomonitor was a moss species (H. lacunosum) for Yatagan (Mugla), it was another moss species (S. intermedia) for Soma (Manisa) and Seyitoemer - Tuncbilek (Kuetahya) sites. 210 Po concentrations were found higher than 210 Pb concentrations at the all sampling stations. - Highlights: → Lichens and mosses have been used as biomonitors of 210Po and 210Pb deposition. → The morphology of lichens and mosses does not vary with seasons. → Lichens and mosses retain and accumulate pollutants deposited from the atmosphere. → Canopy is an important factor causing differences in the concentrations of radionuclides.

  11. The role of Sphagnum mosses in the methane cycling of a boreal mire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmola, Tuula; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Tiirola, Marja; Nykänen, Hannu; Martikainen, Pertti J; Yrjälä, Kim; Tuomivirta, Tero; Fritze, Hannu

    2010-08-01

    Peatlands are a major natural source of atmospheric methane (CH4). Emissions from Sphagnum-dominated mires are lower than those measured from other mire types. This observation may partly be due to methanotrophic (i.e., methane-consuming) bacteria associated with Sphagnum. Twenty-three of the 41 Sphagnum species in Finland can be found in the peatland at Lakkasuo. To better understand the Sphagnum-methanotroph system, we tested the following hypotheses: (1) all these Sphagnum species support methanotrophic bacteria; (2) water level is the key environmental determinant for differences in methanotrophy across habitats; (3) under dry conditions, Sphagnum species will not host methanotrophic bacteria; and (4) methanotrophs can move from one Sphagnum shoot to another in an aquatic environment. To address hypotheses 1 and 2, we measured the water table and CH4 oxidation for all Sphagnum species at Lakkasuo in 1-5 replicates for each species. Using this systematic approach, we included Sphagnum spp. with narrow and broad ecological tolerances. To estimate the potential contribution of CH4 to moss carbon, we measured the uptake of delta13C supplied as CH4 or as carbon dioxide dissolved in water. To test hypotheses 2-4, we transplanted inactive moss patches to active sites and measured their methanotroph communities before and after transplantation. All 23 Sphagnum species showed methanotrophic activity, confirming hypothesis 1. We found that water level was the key environmental factor regulating methanotrophy in Sphagnum (hypothesis 2). Mosses that previously exhibited no CH4 oxidation became active when transplanted to an environment in which the microbes in the control mosses were actively oxidizing CH4 (hypothesis 4). Newly active transplants possessed a Methylocystis signature also found in the control Sphagnum spp. Inactive transplants also supported a Methylocystis signature in common with active transplants and control mosses, which rejects hypothesis 3. Our

  12. Restoration of floodplain meadows: Effects on the re-establishment of mosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolski, Grzegorz J.; Harnisch, Matthias; Otte, Annette; Bomanowska, Anna; Donath, Tobias W.

    2017-01-01

    Vascular plants serve as target species for the evaluation of restoration success as they account for most of the plant species diversity and vegetation cover. Although bryophytes contribute considerably to the species diversity of meadows, they are rarely addressed in restoration projects. This project is a first step toward making recommendations for including mosses in alluvial floodplain restoration projects. The opportunity to assess the diversity and ecological requirements of mosses on floodplain meadows presented itself within the framework of a vegetation monitoring that took place in 2014 on meadows located along the northern Upper Rhine. In this area, large-scale meadow restoration projects have taken place since 1997 in both the functional and fossil floodplains. Other studies have shown that bryophytes are generally present in green hay used in restoration, providing inadvertent bryophyte introduction. We compared bryophyte communities in donor and restored communities and correlated these communities with environmental variables—taking into account that the mosses on the restoration sites possibly developed from green hay. This analysis provided insights as to which species of bryophytes should be included in future restoration projects, what diaspores should be used, and how they should be transferred. Data on bryophyte occurrence were gathered from old meadows, and from restoration sites. We found distinct differences in bryophyte composition (based on frequency) in restored communities in functional flood plains compared to donor communities. Generally, restoration sites are still characterized by a lower species-richness, with a significantly lower occurrence of rare and red listed species and a lower species-heterogeneity. In conclusion, our research establishes what mosses predominate in donor and restored alluvial meadows along the northern Upper River, and what microsite conditions favour particular species. This points the way to deliberate

  13. Symplasmic and apoplasmic transport inside feather moss stems of Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowska, K; Turzanska, M; Nilsson, M-C

    2017-11-10

    The ubiquitous feather mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens form a thick, continuous boundary layer between the soil and the atmosphere, and play important roles in hydrology and nutrient cycling in tundra and boreal ecosystems. The water fluxes among these mosses and environmental factors controlling them are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether feather mosses are capable of internal transport and to provide a better understanding of species-specific morphological traits underlying this function. The impacts of environmental conditions on their internal transport rates were also investigated. Cells involved in water and food conduction in P. schreberi and H. splendens were identified by transmission electron microscopy. Symplasmic and apoplasmic fluorescent tracers were applied to the moss stems to determine the routes of internal short- and long-distance transport and the impact of air humidity on the transport rates. Symplasmic transport over short distances occurs via food-conducting cells in both mosses. Pleurozium schreberi is also capable of apoplasmic internal long-distance transport via a central strand of hydroids. These are absent in H. splendens. Reduced air humidity significantly increased the internal transport of both species, and the increase was significantly faster for P. schreberi than for H. splendens. Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens are capable of internal transport but the pathway and conductivity differ due to differences in stem anatomy. These results help explain their varying desiccation tolerance and possibly their differing physiology and autecology and, ultimately, their impact on ecosystem functioning. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Investigation of spatial and temporal metal atmospheric deposition in France through lichen and moss bioaccumulation over one century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnan, Y; Séjalon-Delmas, N; Claustres, A; Probst, A

    2015-10-01

    Lichens and mosses were used as biomonitors to assess the atmospheric deposition of metals in forested ecosystems in various regions of France. The concentrations of 17 metals/metalloids (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn) indicated overall low atmospheric contamination in these forested environments, but a regionalism emerged from local contributions (anthropogenic activities, as well as local lithology). Taking into account the geochemical background and comparing to Italian data, the elements from both natural and anthropogenic activities, such as Cd, Pb, or Zn, did not show any obvious anomalies. However, elements mainly originating from lithogenic dust (e.g., Al, Fe, Ti) were more prevalent in sparse forests and in the Southern regions of France, whereas samples from dense forests showed an accumulation of elements from biological recycling (Mn and Zn). The combination of enrichment factors and Pb isotope ratios between current and herbarium samples indicated the historical evolution of metal atmospheric contamination: the high contribution of coal combustion beginning 150 years ago decreased at the end of the 20th century, and the influence of car traffic during the latter observed period decreased in the last few decades. In the South of France, obvious local influences were well preserved during the last century. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Northern Vietnam: Hanoi and Thainguyen case study using the moss biomonitoring technique, INAA and AAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viet, Hung Nguyen; Frontasyeva, Marina Vladimirovna; Thi, Thu My Trinh; Gilbert, Daniel; Bernard, Nadine

    2010-06-01

    The moss technique is widely used to monitor atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in many countries in Europe, whereas this technique is scarcely used in Asia. To implement this international reliable and cheap methodology in the Asian countries, it is necessary to find proper moss types typical for the Asian environment and suitable for the biomonitoring purposes. Such a case study was undertaken in Vietnam for assessing the environmental situation in strongly contaminated areas using local species of moss Barbula indica. The study is focused on two areas characterized by different pollution sources: the Hanoi urban area and the Thainguyen metallurgical zone. Fifty-four moss samples were collected there according to standard sampling procedure adopted in Europe. Two complementary analytical techniques, atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), were used for determination of elemental concentrations in moss samples. To characterize the pollution sources, multivariate statistical analysis was applied. A total of 38 metal elements were determined in the moss by the two analytical techniques. The results of descriptive statistics of metal concentration in moss from the city center and periphery of Hanoi determined by AAS are presented. The similar results for moss from Thainguyen province determined by INAA and AAS are given also. A comparison of mean elemental concentrations in moss of this work with those in different environmental conditions of other authors provides reasonable information on heavy metal atmospheric deposition levels. Factor loadings and factor scores were used to identify and apportion contamination sources at the sampling sites. The values of percentage of total of factors show two highly different types of pollution in the two examined areas-the Hanoi pollution composition with high portion of urban-traffic activity and soil dust (62%), and the one of Thainguyen with factors related to industrial

  16. Distinct accessory cell requirements define two types of rat T cell hybridomas specific for unique determinants in the encephalitogenic 68-86 region of myelin basic protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannie, M.D.; Paterson, P.Y.; Thomas, D.W.; Nairn, R.

    1990-01-01

    Six clonotypically unique T cell hybridomas from Lewis rats were used to study accessory cell activities required for class II MHC restricted T cell responses to the 68-86 encephalitogenic sequence of myelin basic protein (MBP). T cell hybrids which were cultured with GP68-86 68-86 sequence of guinea pig MBP (GPMBP) and naive splenocytes (SPL) were induced to produce IL-2 as measured by the CTLL indicator cell line. The hybrids were categorized into two subsets (designated THYB-1 and THYB-2), because two distinct subset-specific pathways of communication between accessory cells and T cells were involved in GPMBP-induced IL-2 production. These pathways were distinguished by the following six observations. First, when the duration of a pulse of SPL with GPMBP was lengthened from 1 to 4 h, these SPL lost their ability to induce IL-2 production by THYB-2 hybrids yet nevertheless retained full stimulatory activity for THYB-1 hybrids. Second, paraformaldehyde fixation of GPMBP-pulsed SPL abrogated an activity necessary for Ag-induced IL-2 production by THYB-2 hybrids. These fixed SPL were nevertheless able to stimulate THYB-1 hybrids, albeit to a lesser extent than viable unfixed SPL. Third, the addition of either cycloheximide, cytochalasin B, or 2-deoxyglucose to an Ag pulse of SPL with GPMBP dramatically inhibited the subsequent responses of THYB-2 hybrids yet had little or no effect upon the reactivity of THYB-1 hybrids. Fourth, thymocytes lacked necessary activities for GPMBP evoked IL-2 production by THYB-2 hybrids yet strongly promoted THYB-1 hybrid responses. Fifth, exposure of SPL to as little as 500 rad of gamma-irradiation markedly attenuated THYB-2 hybrid response to GPMBP but did not affect THYB-1 responses. Sixth, anti-GPMBP responses by THYB-2 hybrids were observed only in the presence of both radioresistant adherent SPL and a distinct population of radiosensitive nonadherent SPL

  17. Multilocus dataset reveals demographic histories of two peat mosses in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hock Zsófia

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Revealing the past and present demographic history of populations is of high importance to evaluate the conservation status of species. Demographic data can be obtained by direct monitoring or by analysing data of historical and recent collections. Although these methods provide the most detailed information they are very time consuming. Another alternative way is to make use of the information accumulated in the species' DNA over its history. Recent development of the coalescent theory makes it possible to reconstruct the demographic history of species using nucleotide polymorphism data. To separate the effect of natural selection and demography, multilocus analysis is needed because these two forces can produce similar patterns of polymorphisms. In this study we investigated the amount and pattern of sequence variability of a Europe wide sample set of two peat moss species (Sphagnum fimbriatum and S. squarrosum with similar distributions and mating systems but presumably contrasting historical demographies using 3 regions of the nuclear genome (appr. 3000 bps. We aimed to draw inferences concerning demographic, and phylogeographic histories of the species. Results All three nuclear regions supported the presence of an Atlantic and Non-Atlantic clade of S. fimbriatum suggesting glacial survival of the species along the Atlantic coast of Europe. Contrarily, S. squarrosum haplotypes showed three clades but no geographic structure at all. Maximum likelihood, mismatch and Bayesian analyses supported a severe historical bottleneck and a relatively recent demographic expansion of the Non-Atlantic clade of S. fimbriatum, whereas size of S. squarrosum populations has probably decreased in the past. Species wide molecular diversity of the two species was nearly the same with an excess of replacement mutations in S. fimbriatum. Similar levels of molecular diversity, contrasting phylogeographic patterns and excess of replacement

  18. A Heavy Metal Atmospheric Deposition Study Around the Lead and Copper-Zinc Smelters in Baia Mare, Romania, Employing the Moss Biomonitoring Technique, ENAA and FAAS

    CERN Document Server

    Culicov, O A; Steinnes, E; Okina, O S; Santa, Z; Todoran, R

    2001-01-01

    The mosses Pleurozium schreberi, Pseudoscleropodium purum and Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus were used as biomonitors to study the atmospheric deposition of metals around the lead and copper-zinc smelters in Baia Mare. Samples representing the last three years' growth of moss or its green part, collected on the ground at 28 sites located 2-20 km from the source area, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) and by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). A total of 30 elements were determined, including most of the heavy metals known to be released into the air from this kind of industry. Obtained concentrations for As and Cu are comparable with those observed in Karabash, South Ural Mountains, one of the most polluted regions in Europe. Besides, these two elements correlate very well with each other. The mean values for Zn (136 ppm) and Pb (41 ppm) are substantially higher than those normally found in the literature. The highest value for Pb (175 ppm) was obs...

  19. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in transilvanian plateau of romania studied by the moss bio monitoring Technique employing nuclear and related analytical Techniques and gis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucaciu, Adriana; Craciun, L.; Cuculeanu, V.; Eseanu, D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents data for 39 elements of 69 moss samples (Hypnum cupressiforme) collected in the Transilvanian Plateau of Romania. This results have obtained in the framework of the project Atmospheric Deposition of Heavy Metals in Rural and Urban Areas of Romania Studied by the Moss Bio monitoring Technique Employing Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques and GIS Technology carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.The samples collected have been analyzed by ENAA with the exception of Cu, Cd, and Pb which were determined by AAS. IAEA certified materials were used to ensure the quality of the measurements. The regional concentration variations of selected elements are presented in the form of maps constructed by GIS technology. Extremely high values are observed for elements such as Cu, Zn, As and Sb in parts of this territory affected by local metal industries. The levels are among the highest observed in the world, and could be partly responsible for the unfortunate health situation in some of these areas

  20. Gravity-induced buds formation from protonemata apical cells in the mosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyyak, Natalia; Khorkavtsiv, Yaroslava

    The acceleration of moss protonemata development after the exit it to light from darkness is important gravidependent morphogenetic manifestation of the moss protonemata. The accelerated development of mosses shows in transformation of apical protonemata cells into the gametophores buds (Ripetskyj et al., 1999). In order to establish, that such reaction on gravitation is general property of gravisensity species, or its typical only for single moss species, experiments with the following moss species - Bryum intermedium (Ludw.) Brig., Bryum caespiticium Hedw., Bryum argenteum Hedw., Dicranodontium denudatum (Brid.) Britt. were carried out. All these species in response to influence of gravitation were capable to form rich bunches of gravitropical protonemata in darkness, that testified to their gravisensity. After the transference of Petri dishes with gravitropical protonemata from darkness on light was revealed, that in 3 of the investigated species the gametophores buds were absent. Only B. argenteum has reacted to action of gravitation by buds formation from apical cells of the gravitropical protonemata. With the purpose of strengthening of buds formation process, the experiments with action of exogenous kinetin (in concentration of 10 (-6) M) were carried out. Kinetin essentially stimulated apical buds formation of B. argenteum. The quantity of apical buds has increased almost in three times in comparison with the control. Besides, on separate stolons a few (3-4) buds from one apical cell were formed. Experimentally was established, that the gametophores buds formation in mosses is controlled by phytohormones (Bopp, 1985; Demkiv et al., 1991). In conditions of gravity influence its essentially accelerated. Probably, gravity essentially strengthened acropetal transport of phytohormones and formation of attractive center in the protonemata apical cell. Our investigations have allowed to make the conclusion, that gravi-dependent formation of the apical buds is

  1. Atmospheric deposition of trace elements around Ulan Bator city studied by moss and lichen biomonitoring technique and INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganbold, G.; Gehrbish, Sh.; Tsehndehehkhuu, Ts.; Gundorina, S.F.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Ostrovnaya, T.M.; Pavlov, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    For the first time the moss and lichen biomonitoring technique has been applied to air pollution in Mongolia (Ulan-Bator, the capital city). INAA at the IBR-2 reactor has made it possible to determine the content of 35 elements in moss and lichen biomonitors. Samples collected at sites located 10-15 km from the center of Ulan-Bator were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using epithermal neutrons. The mosses (Rhytidium rugosum, Thuidium abietinum, Entodon concinnus) and lichens (Cladonia stellaris, Parmelia separata) were used to study the atmospheric deposition of trace elements. It was shown that the suggested types of mosses could be used as suitable biomonitors to estimate the concentration levels of heavy metals and trace elements in Ulan-Bator atmospheric deposition. The results are compared to the data of atmospheric deposition of some European countries

  2. Atmospheric Deposition of Trace Elements Around Ulan-Bator City Studied by Moss and Lichen Biomonitoring Technique and INAA

    CERN Document Server

    Ganbold, G; Gundorina, S F; Frontasyeva, M V; Ostrovnaya, T M; Pavlov, S S; Tsendeekhuu, T

    2005-01-01

    For the first time the moss and lichen biomonitoring technique has been applied to air pollution in Mongolia (Ulan-Bator, the capital city). INAA at the IBR-2 reactor has made it possible to determine the content of 35 elements in moss and lichen biomonitors. Samples collected at sites located 10-15 km from the center of Ulan-Bator were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using epithermal neutrons. The mosses (\\textit{Rhytidium rugosum}, \\textit{Thuidium abietinum}, \\textit{Entodon concinnus}) and lichens (\\textit{Cladonia stellaris}, \\textit{Parmelia separata}) were used to study the atmospheric deposition of trace elements. It was shown that the suggested types of mosses could be used as suitable biomonitors to estimate the concentration levels of heavy metals and trace elements in Ulan-Bator atmospheric deposition. The results are compared to the data of atmospheric deposition of some European countries.

  3. Use of aquatic mosses for monitoring artificial radionuclides downstream of the nuclear power plant of Bugey (River Rhone, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Brottet, D.

    1994-01-01

    The detection of radionuclides in water, downstream of nuclear installations located on river banks, is often very difficult notably because of their low concentrations. Thus the use of biological indicators is an interesting process to detect radioactive contamination of an aquatic ecosystem. From 1986 to 1990, artificial radionuclides were measured in freshwater mosses sampled downstream of the nuclear power station of Bugey. These field data on the whole, have shown a comparatively good qualitative and quantitative relationship between radioactive composition of liquid waste and radionuclides detected in mosses. In other respects, the results showed up a relatively clear hierarchical structure in the affinity of the different radionuclides for the mosses. To specify these relations, mesh bags containing allochtonous mosses were immersed at four stations downstream of the power plant and regularly sampled during a 10-h waste discharge period. (author)

  4. Decreasing concentrations of metals in Sphagnum mosses in ombrotrophic mires of the Sudety mountains (SW Poland) since late 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtuń, Bronisław; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J

    2013-06-01

    In this investigation we focus on the evaluation of changes in metal pollution between 1986 until 2011 by Sphagnum species as bioindicators in 100 km part of the Sudety mountains influenced by the former Black Triangle Region. Concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured in various Sphagnum species all from ombrotrophic bogs in the Sudety mountains (SW Poland). The tested hypothesis was that overall improvements in pollution control in the former Black Triangle Region between 1986 until recent reduced the amount of metals deposited and accumulated by these plants. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn in Sphagnum species were very high in 1986 indicating a heavy pollution of the examined bogs in this period, and significantly higher than in samples collected in 2011. The PCCA ordination showed the similar pattern in all bogs. In 2011 concentration of the Co was significantly higher in hollow species and concentration of Mn was significantly higher in those from hummocks. Differences between hollow/hummock sites were more important than species-specific abilities of Sphagnum mosses to accumulate metals. Species from hollows were better bioindicators of Co and those from hummocks were better bioindicators of Mn pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Basic studies on application of vegetable factory in Tohoku region; Tohoku chiho ni okeru yasai kojo no jitsuyoka ni kansuru kiso kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okano, T; Terazoe, H; Shoji, K; Nakaya, K [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, M; Miura, K [Tohoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Sendai (Japan)

    1995-08-01

    To construct vegetable factories in the Touhoku region, items of information have been collected with respect to items to be cultured and market conditions. Experimental discussions have also been given on new culture items and methods for utilizing snow. Using the results of investigations on the market conditions and weather environments, the following three kinds of spicy vegetables were selected: water cress which grows in about 46 culture days after seeding and in about 36 days by herbaceous cutting to a harvest of about 700 g/m{sup 2}, green perilla which grows in about 85 culture days to a number of salable leaves of 100 per stock, with an average leaf area of about 55 cm{sup 2}, and trefoil which grows in about 56 culture days to a harvest of about 5100 g/m{sup 2}. According to a storage experiment using snow, lettuce packed with snow in a box retained at a temperature of 5{degree}C and a humidity of 100%, pre-cooled for one day and then stored for six days in a refrigerator at 5{degree}C presented very little decrease in fresh weight and no decrease in freshness. The same result was obtained also for the Sunny Lettuce. 9 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Basic survey on the residence using hybrid energy in snowy cold regions; Sekisetsu kanreichi ni okeru hybrid energy katsuyogata jutaku nado ni kansuru kiso chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The conceptual model and feasibility of the hybrid energy system for residences and public facilities in snowy cold regions were studied. Based on the existing data, the existing and available amounts of natural energy and unused energy in the target area, Sapporo were estimated. Based on the predicted energy demands of 4 kinds of building models, the energy systems for such models were studied. The use of the following energies was considered: photovoltaic power generation and solar heat for all the models, household sewage energy for the multiple-dwelling house model, and wind power generation for the public facility model. The annual energy balance was calculated to evaluate it. The use of additional commercial electricity was necessary, while surplus solar heat energy was found in summer which can push up the self-sufficiency rates of the residence and public facility models to 70% and 44%, respectively. The multiple- dwelling house model which can use a large amount of household sewage energy could utilize 80% of new energy, while the other 3 models utilized only 60-70% of that. 81 figs., 42 tabs.

  7. HYGIENIC AND SANITARY-EDUCATIONAL BASICS OF THE RADIATION ANXIETY PREVENTION AMONG THE POPULATION IN THE REGIONS WITH NUCLEAR-ENERGY COMPLEX ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko O. A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The development of nuclear power in the countries affected by the Chernobyl accident is accompanied by a high level of radiation anxiety among the local population. The purpose of the work is the scientific substantiation of methodological approaches to determine the level and prevalence of radiation anxiety among residents of regions with enterprises of the nuclear power complex, and the development of a system of measures for their prevention. Material and methods. The features of the subjective assessment of the health and psychological status of residents of the cities of Kirovograd, ZholtyeVody (n = 387 and Volnogorsk (control group, n = 208 were studied. An original method was developed to determine the level of radiation anxiety by qualitative characteristics. Results. A low level of radiation anxiety was found in 52.5% of respondents, an average – in 27.6%, a high level – in 3.9%, it directly correlated with self-esteem of the state of health (rs = 0.134; p <0.10, presence of oncological pathologies in family (rs = 0.209, p <0.001 and the respondent's conviction that there is a direct relationship between cancer and radiation (rs = 0.302, p <0.001. Conclusions. The developed method makes it possible to determine the respondents' attitude to the problem of the effect of ionizing radiation on the health status and group people according to the level of anxiety for further planning of health improvement measures.

  8. Basic research report for drawing up regional new energy vision (provisional name) for Gunma Prefecture; Gunmaken chiiki shin energy vision (kasho) sakutei kiso chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In view of relatively good solar radiation that the prefecture enjoys and of a result of the investigations of this time conducted into the amount of new energy in existence, it is concluded that a fairly large amount of solar energy is collectable as the regional new energy for Gunma Prefecture. As for wind power energy, since there is no proper location in the prefecture where the annual wind speed average of not less than 5m/s is available, the value generally accepted as necessary for wind power generation, it is inferred that conditions in the prefecture in general are disadvantageous when it comes to wind power generation. As for hydraulic energy of small and medium dimensions, a result of the investigations shows that in the prefecture this energy is next to solar energy in terms of the amount expected to be collectable. In this prefecture, the prefectural project bureau makes use of the rich water resources and generates electric power, and supplied approximately 850-million kWh in fiscal 1998. Since it is feared that it will be difficult to find new sites for power generation in the area now remaining to be developed, however, prudence should be exercised in estimating the expected collectable amount of hydraulic energy. (NEDO)

  9. Trace element content and molecular biodiversity in the epiphytic moss Leptodon smithii: two independent tracers of human disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnuolo, Valeria; Terracciano, Stefano; Giordano, Simonetta

    2009-03-01

    This paper focuses on chemical composition of the epiphytic moss Leptodon smithii, gathered on Quercus ilex bark, assessed in seven sites located in urban and extra-urban/remote areas of southern Italy, a poorly surveyed geographic area. The concentrations of Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in moss tissue are generally more abundant in moss gathered in the urban sites; among extra-urban/remote sites Valle delle Ferriere showed the highest metal concentrations, mostly related to an industrial activity occurred in the past. L. smithii chemistry seems influenced by airborne dust locally enhanced by erosion phenomena, long-range transport of pollutants and marine aerosols. Element content in moss is compared with genetic variability of L. smithii estimated in the same sites. Pearson's correlation coefficient between gene diversity and total element load (r=-0.851; p=0.03) suggests that anthropogenic pressure, determining habitat disturbance and fragmentation, leads both to genetic impoverishment consequent to population shrink, and to a higher accumulation in moss tissues, as a consequence of increased airborne major/trace elements. Thus, the coupled evaluation of chemical composition in mosses and gene diversity may prove a useful tool to highlight environmental disturbance in a gradient of land use.

  10. The coastal environment affects lead and sodium uptake by the moss Hypnum cupressiforme used as an air pollution biomonitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaudin, Marie; Leblond, Sébastien; Meyer, Caroline; Rose, Christophe; Lequy, Emeline

    2018-02-01

    Several studies suggest that potential competition exists between marine cations and heavy metals for binding sites on the cell wall of mosses. This competition would impact the heavy metal concentration measured in mosses by biomonitoring programs, which may underestimate air pollution by heavy metals in a coastal environment. In the present study, we aim to identify possible mechanisms affecting lead uptake by mosses in a coastal environment, specifically, the competition between lead (Pb 2+ ) and sodium (Na + ) for binding sites in Hypnum cupressiforme (Hc). We also compared the response of continental and coastal Hc populations to Pb 2+ exposure by immersing the moss samples in artificial solutions that comprised six experimental treatments and subsequently locating and quantifying Pb 2+ and Na + using the sequential elution technique and X-ray microanalyses with a scanning electron microscope. We demonstrated that high concentrations of Pb 2+ prevented Na + from binding to the cell wall. We also examined the effect of the salt acclimation of Hc on Pb 2+ and Na + accumulation. Coastal Hc populations accumulated more Na and less Pb than continental Hc populations in all treatments. Moreover, our results showed treatment effects on the intra/extracellular distribution of Na + , as well as site. This feedback on the influence of salt stress tolerance on Pb 2+ uptake by mosses requires further study and can be investigated for other heavy metals, leading to a better use of mosses as biomonitoring tools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... Basics » Stem Cell Basics I. Back to top Stem Cell Basics I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and ...

  12. Mineral content in Sphagnum mosses from ombrotrophic bogs of southwestern Poland: pattern in species and elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronisław Wojtuń

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Major elements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe were analyzed in 11 Sphagnum species from ombrotrophic bogs in southwestern Poland. The material included species from wet to dry microsites. The highest levels of elements were recorded for S. lindbergii, whereas S. balticum and S. cuspidatum were poorest in elements. The microhabitat gradient from hummock to hollow species is clearly reflected by decreasing concentrations of Ca and Mg, and increasing concentration of Na. Phosphorus, K and N were much more enriched into moss tissues than the remaining elements. These three nutrients were also accumulated in the upper green parts of mosses, while the concentrations of Na and Fe were higher in the bottom brown parts. There were no differences in Ca and Mg between the green and brown segments.

  13. New results from air pollution studies in Bulgaria (moss survey 2000-2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamenov, J.; Jovchev, M.; Vachev, B.

    2002-01-01

    New results of moss survey 2000 of systematic study of air pollution with heavy metals and other toxic elements in Bulgaria are reported. The moss samples collected at 103 sites in Bulgaria, along the borders with Yugoslavia, Macedonia, Greece and Turkey were analyzed by instrumental activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 pulsed fast reactor for a wide set of elements including heavy metals and rare earth elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, and U). The results obtained are consistent with the mean European values for most of elements. The principle component analysis is applied to distinguish heavy and light crust elements and vegetation ones from those of anthropogenic origin

  14. Peatland restoration in Canada by the sphagnum moss layer transfer method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochefort, L.; Boismenu, C. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Phytologie, Peatland Ecology and Research Group; Quinty, F. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2009-04-01

    This article described a peatland restoration approach that has received international recognition for restoring the ecological functions of cutover sphagnum dominated peatlands. The Peatland Ecology Research Group (PERG) conducted a long-term study at the Bois-des-Bel (BDB) peatland site in Quebec to restore plant composition to a peat accumulating ecosystem. The sphagnum moss layer transfer restoration method includes 5 obligatory steps and one optional. These include planning; surface preparation; plant collection and spreading; straw mulch spreading; blocking drainage ditches; and fertilization if needed. Variable moisture conditions throughout the restoration site contribute to the spatial variability in the development of the sphagnum layer. The site has been monitored each year since its restoration. sphagnum cover reached 60 per cent in the restored zone in 2005, a value close to the range of sphagnum cover found in natural sites. In addition, a new moss layer has developed with an average of 25 cm in thickness. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Effect of fire on phosphorus forms in Sphagnum moss and peat soils of ombrotrophic bogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoping; Yu, Xiaofei; Bao, Kunshan; Xing, Wei; Gao, Chuanyu; Lin, Qianxin; Lu, Xianguo

    2015-01-01

    The effect of burning Sphagnum moss and peat on phosphorus forms was studied with controlled combustion in the laboratory. Two fire treatments, a light fire (250 °C) and a severe fire (600 °C), were performed in a muffle furnace with 1-h residence time to simulate the effects of different forest fire conditions. The results showed that fire burning Sphagnum moss and peat soils resulted in losses of organic phosphorus (Po), while inorganic phosphorus (Pi) concentrations increased. Burning significantly changed detailed phosphorus composition and availability, with severe fires destroying over 90% of organic phosphorus and increasing the availability of inorganic P by more than twofold. Our study suggest that, while decomposition processes in ombrotrophic bogs occur very slowly, rapid changes in the form and availability of phosphorus in vegetation and litter may occur as the result of forest fires on peat soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sphagnum moss as a growing media constituent: some effects of harvesting, processing and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Sphagnum material used in horticulture so far has been harvested manually, and most of the available data about Sphagnum properties have been obtained from this material. A question that remains unanswered is how changes during harvesting and processing, as well as the use of mechanical methods, affect the important properties of Sphagnum moss as a growing media constituent. Some of the effects have been evaluated in Sphagnum farming projects in Germany during the past ten years, and are described in this article. Different possibilities for drying, screening and cleaning the Sphagnum material are described. The results obtained indicate that Sphagnum moss can be dried and processed using mechanical methods without negative impacts on its quality as a growing media constituent.

  17. Oxidation of atmospheric molecular tritium in plant leaves, lichens and mosses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimasa, Michiko; Ichimasa, Yusuke; Yagi, Yoshimi; Ko, Rinkei [Ibaraki Univ., Mito (Japan). Faculty of Science; Suzuki, Masatomo; Akita, Yasukazu

    1989-12-01

    The oxidation of atmospheric molecular tritium (HT) in vegetation was determined by in vitro experiments for pine needles, pine bark, lichens attached to pine trees, taken from a coastal pine forest in Ibaraki prefecture and comparison of such measurements was made with those in soil. The oxidation of HT in pine needles was extremely low, being only about 1/40000 that in the surface soil of a pine forest, whereas its oxidation in pine bark with a lichen was almost 1000-7000 times higher than that in pine needles. HT oxidation in pine bark, a lichen and a moss was determined in each case under light and dark conditions and was found to be essentially the same. All mosses and lichens examined in the present study were found to have unusually high levels of HT oxidation whether their habitat was tree or ground surface. (author).

  18. Transplants of aquatic mosses as biomonitors of metals released by a mine effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueira, Rui; Ribeiro, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Transplants of the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw. were used to assess the contamination of an industrial effluent discharge on a river located in south Portugal. The sampling program was run for 2 years, using a newly developed transplant device in ten stations, and the elements analysed were Cu, Zn, Pb, Fe, Ni, Ca, K, and Mg. An increase of water contamination by Cu, Zn was detected, and to a lesser extent, Pb. The increase was verified in the extra and intracellular moss fraction, especially for soluble Cu in the first 4 km after the discharge point, and also for particulate metal at the first station after the discharge. The effects of metal contamination could be related to changes in the intracellular concentrations of Mg, indicating possible stress effects. - Effects of metal contamination could be related to changes in intracellular concentrations of Mg

  19. New Results from Air Pollution Studies in Bulgaria (Moss Survey 2000-2001)

    CERN Document Server

    Stamenov, J N; Vachev, B; Gueleva, E; Yurukova, L; Ganeva, A; Mitrikov, M; Antonov, A; Srentz, A; Varbanov, Z; Batov, I V; Damov, K; Marinova, E; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S; Strelkova, L P

    2002-01-01

    New results of moss survey 2000 of systematic study of air pollution with heavy metals and other toxic elements in Bulgaria are reported. The moss samples collected at 103 sites in Bulgaria, along the borders with Yugoslavia, Macedonia, Greece and Turkey were analyzed by instrumental activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 pulsed fast reactor for a wide set of elements including heavy metals and rare earth elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, and U). The results obtained are consistent with the mean European values for most of elements. The principle component analysis is applied to distinguish heavy and light crust elements and vegetation ones from those of anthropogenic origin.

  20. Oxidation of atmospheric molecular tritium in plant leaves, lichens and mosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimasa, Michiko; Ichimasa, Yusuke; Yagi, Yoshimi; Ko, Rinkei; Suzuki, Masatomo; Akita, Yasukazu.

    1989-01-01

    The oxidation of atmospheric molecular tritium (HT) in vegetation was determined by in vitro experiments for pine needles, pine bark, lichens attached to pine trees, taken from a coastal pine forest in Ibaraki prefecture and comparison of such measurements was made with those in soil. The oxidation of HT in pine needles was extremely low, being only about 1/40000 that in the surface soil of a pine forest, whereas its oxidation in pine bark with a lichen was almost 1000-7000 times higher than that in pine needles. HT oxidation in pine bark, a lichen and a moss was determined in each case under light and dark conditions and was found to be essentially the same. All mosses and lichens examined in the present study were found to have unusually high levels of HT oxidation whether their habitat was tree or ground surface. (author)

  1. Moss cushions facilitate water and nutrient supply for plant species on bare limestone pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Sand; Hammer, Kathrine

    2012-01-01

    declined by the -0.36 power of cushion diameter, and were not significantly different from -0.50 for the square root function previously predicted for the increasing thickness of the boundary layer, with greater linear dimensions for smooth flat objects at low wind velocities. Size dependence vanished...... richness, and evaluated duration of plant activity during desiccation as a function of ground area, for a large collection of moss cushions. We found that lower evaporation and higher water storage contributed equally to extending the desiccation period with increasing cushion size. Evaporation rates......Dense moss cushions of different size are distributed across the bare limestone pavements on Øland, SE Sweden. Increasing cushion size is predicted to physically protect and improve performance and colonization by vascular plants. Therefore, we tested water balance, phosphorus supply, and species...

  2. Assessment of trace metal air pollution in Paris using slurry-TXRF analysis on cemetery mosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, Marco; Zanella, Augusto; Rankovic, Aleksandar; Banas, Damien; Cantaluppi, Chiara; Abbadie, Luc; Lata, Jean -Christophe

    2016-12-01

    Mosses are useful, ubiquitous accumulation biomonitors and as such can be used for biomonitoring surveys. However, the biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution can be compromised in urban contexts if the targeted biomonitors are regularly disturbed, irregularly distributed, or are difficult to access. Here, we test the hypothesis that cemeteries are appropriate moss sampling sites for the evaluation of air pollution in urban areas. We sampled mosses growing on gravestones in 21 urban and peri-urban cemeteries in the Paris metropolitan area. We focused on Grimmia pulvinata (Hedwig) Smith, a species abundantly found in all studied cemeteries and very common in Europe. The concentration of Al, As, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, V, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sr, Ti, and Zn was determined by a total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique coupled with a slurry sampling method (slurry-TXRF). This method avoids a digestion step, reduces the risk of sample contamination, and works even at low sample quantities. Elemental markers of road traffic indicated that the highest polluted cemeteries were located near the highly frequented Parisian ring road and under the influence of prevailing winds. The sites with the lowest pollution were found not only in the peri-urban cemeteries, adjoining forest or farming landscapes, but also in the large and relatively wooded cemeteries located in the center of Paris. Our results suggest that (1) slurry-TXRF might be successfully used with moss material, (2) G. pulvinata might be a good biomonitor of trace metals air pollution in urban context, and (3) cemetery moss sampling could be a useful complement for monitoring urban areas. Graphical abstract We tested the hypothesis that cemeteries are appropriate moss sampling sites for the evaluation of air pollution in urban areas. We sampled 110 moss cushions (Grimmia pulvinata) growing on gravestones in 21 urban and peri-urban cemeteries in the Paris metropolitan area. The concentration of 20

  3. Patterns in moss element concentrations in fens across species, habitats, and regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Michal; Plesková, Z.; Syrovátka, V.; Peterka, T.; Laburdová, J.; Kintrová, K.; Jiroušek, M.; Hájek, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 5 (2014), s. 203-218 ISSN 1433-8319 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/0638 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : bryophyte * calcicole-calcifuge behaviour * ionome Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.606, year: 2014

  4. Testing inter-regional variation in pH niches of fen mosses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plesková, Z.; Jiroušek, M.; Peterka, T.; Hájek, Tomáš; Dítě, D.; Hájková, Petra; Navrátilová, Jana; Šímová, A.; Syrovátka, V.; Hájek, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2016), s. 352-364 ISSN 1100-9233 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/0638 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : calcium tolerance * realized niche * Sphagnum Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.924, year: 2016

  5. Relation between industrialization and the distribution and growth of epiphytic lichens and mosses in Montreal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblanc, F; DeSloover, J

    1970-01-01

    Epiphytic mosses and lichens are very sensitive to air pollution. Their gradual disappearance from large cities and from the vicinity of industrialized complexes is due, mostly, to phytotoxicants. A simple method to map the long-range effect of air pollution on corticolous epiphytes is described. An I.A.P. or index of atmospheric pollution based on the number of species present, their coverage and frequency, and their specific tolerance to pollutants can be expressed quantitatively.

  6. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H; Jovan, Sarah E; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Burstyn, Igor; Michael, Yvonne L; Amacher, Michael C; Monleon, Vicente J

    2016-07-15

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon-Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4ng/m(3), which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6ng/m(3), and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #2. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Unsaturated hydraulic properties of Sphagnum moss and peat reveal trimodal pore-size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Tobias K. D.; Iden, Sascha C.; Durner, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    In ombrotrophic peatlands, the moisture content of the vadose zone (acrotelm) controls oxygen diffusion rates, redox state, and the turnover of organic matter. Whether peatlands act as sinks or sources of atmospheric carbon thus relies on variably saturated flow processes. The Richards equation is the standard model for water flow in soils, but it is not clear whether it can be applied to simulate water flow in live Sphagnum moss. Transient laboratory evaporation experiments were conducted to observe evaporative water fluxes in the acrotelm, containing living Sphagnum moss, and a deeper layer containing decomposed moss peat. The experimental data were evaluated by inverse modeling using the Richards equation as process model for variably-saturated flow. It was tested whether water fluxes and time series of measured pressure heads during evaporation could be simulated. The results showed that the measurements could be matched very well providing the hydraulic properties are represented by a suitable model. For this, a trimodal parametrization of the underlying pore-size distribution was necessary which reflects three distinct pore systems of the Sphagnum constituted by inter-, intra-, and inner-plant water. While the traditional van Genuchten-Mualem model led to great discrepancies, the physically more comprehensive Peters-Durner-Iden model which accounts for capillary and noncapillary flow, led to a more consistent description of the observations. We conclude that the Richards equation is a valid process description for variably saturated moisture fluxes over a wide pressure range in peatlands supporting the conceptualization of the live moss as part of the vadose zone.

  8. Sphagnum moss as a growing media constituent: some effects of harvesting, processing and storage

    OpenAIRE

    S. Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The Sphagnum material used in horticulture so far has been harvested manually, and most of the available data about Sphagnum properties have been obtained from this material. A question that remains unanswered is how changes during harvesting and processing, as well as the use of mechanical methods, affect the important properties of Sphagnum moss as a growing media constituent. Some of the effects have been evaluated in Sphagnum farming projects in Germany during the past ten years, and are ...

  9. Assessing cadmium distribution applying neutron radiography in moss trophical levels, located in Szarvasko, Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, J.; Koroesi, F. E-mail: fkorosi@hotmail.com; Balasko, M. E-mail: balasko@sunserv.kfki.hu; Naar, Z

    2004-10-01

    The measuring station of the 10 MW VVR-SM research reactor at the Budapest Neutron Centre (Hungary) was used to perform dynamic neutron radiography (DNR), which was, to our best knowledge, the first time, in a Tortella tortuosa biotope. In the conducted study, two trophical levels, moss and spider Thomisidae sp. juv., were examined. Cadmium penetration routes, distribution and accumulation zones were visualized in the leafy gametophyte life cycle of Tortella tortuosa and in the organs of the spider.

  10. Effect of sulfite and fluoride on carbon dioxide uptake by mosses in the light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inglis, F.; Hill, D.J.

    1974-01-01

    Four mosses, Bryum argenteum, Grimmia pulvinata, Hypnum cupressiforme and Tortula muralis were exposed to sulfite, and their uptake of radioactive bicarbonate measured. About 50% reduction in /sup 14/C uptake was caused by 0.01-0.1 mM sulfite. The effect of pH indicated that SO/sub 2/ (or H/sub 2/SO/sub 3/) was the active molecular species. Fluoride had little effect on /sup 14/C uptake.

  11. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; Sarah E. Jovan; Demetrios Gatziolis; Igor Burstyn; Yvonne L. Michael; Michael C. Amacher; Vicente J. Monleon

    2016-01-01

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting....

  12. Similar diversity of Alphaproteobacteria and nitrogenase gene amplicons on two related Sphagnum mosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia eBragina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sphagnum mosses represent a main component in ombrotrophic wetlands. They harbor a specific and diverse microbial community with essential functions for the host. To understand extend and degree of host specificity, Sphagnum fallax and S. angustifolium, two phylogenetically closely related species, which show distinct habitat preference with respect to the nutrient level, were analyzed by a multifaceted approach. Microbial fingerprints obtained by PCR-SSCP (single-strand conformation polymorphism using universal, group-specific and functional primers were highly similar. Similarity was confirmed for colonization patterns obtained by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH coupled with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM: Alphaproteobacteria were the main colonizers inside the hyaline cells of Sphagnum leaves. A deeper survey of Alphaproteobacteria by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing reveals a high diversity with Acidocella, Acidisphaera, Rhodopila and Phenylobacterium as major genera for both mosses. Pathogen defense and nitrogen fixation are important functions of Sphagnum-associated bacteria, which are fulfilled by microbial communities of both Sphagna in a similar way. NifH libraries of Sphagnum-associated microbial communities were characterized by high diversity and abundance of Alphaproteobacteria but contained also diverse amplicons of other taxa, e.g. Cyanobacteria, Geobacter and Spirochaeta. Statistically significant differences between the microbial communities of both Sphagnum species could not be discovered in any of the experimental approach. Our results show that the same close relationship, which exists between the physical, morphological and chemical characteristics of Sphagnum mosses and the ecology and function of bog ecosystems, also connects moss plantlets with their associated bacterial communities.

  13. Moss bags as sentinels for human safety in mercury-polluted groundwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesa, Mattia; Nimis, Pier Luigi; Buora, Clara; Lorenzonetto, Alberta; Pozzobon, Alessandro; Raris, Marina; Rosa, Maria; Salvadori, Michela

    2014-05-01

    An equation to estimate Hg concentrations of monitoring, (3) comparing the performances of two populations of moss collected from different sites, and (4) assessing the environmental impact of Hg contamination on a small river. The main factors affecting Hg uptake in the field were-as expected-water concentration and time of exposure, even though the uptake kinetics in the field were slightly different from those which were previously observed in the lab, since the redox environmental conditions influence the solubility of cationic Fe, which is a negative competitor of Hg(2+). The equation was improved by including the variable 'dissolved oxygen concentration'. A numerical parameter depending on the moss collection site was also provided, since the differences in uptake efficiency were observed between the two populations tested. Predicted Hg concentrations well fitted the values measured in situ (approximately ±50%), while a notable underestimation was observed when the equation was used to predict Hg concentration in a neighbouring river (-96%), probably due to the organic pollution which hampers metal uptake by mosses.

  14. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution by moss bags: Discriminating urban-rural structure in a fragmented landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, F; Giordano, S; Di Palma, A; Spagnuolo, V; De Nicola, F; Adamo, P

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we investigated the possibility to use moss bags to detect pollution inputs - metals, metalloids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - in sites chosen for their different land use (agricultural, urban/residential scenarios) and proximity to roads (sub-scenarios), in a fragmented conurbation of Campania (southern Italy). We focused on thirty-nine elements including rare earths. For most of them, moss uptake was higher in agricultural than in urban scenarios and in front road sites. Twenty PAHs were analyzed in a subset of agricultural sites; 4- and 5-ringed PAHs were the most abundant, particularly chrysene, fluoranthene and pyrene. Overall results indicated that investigated pollutants have a similar spatial distribution pattern over the entire study area, with road traffic and agricultural practices as the major diffuse pollution sources. Moss bags proved a very sensitive tool, able to discriminate between different land use scenarios and proximity to roads in a mixed rural-urban landscape. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. North American origin and recent European establishments of the amphi-Atlantic peat moss Sphagnum angermanicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenøien, Hans K; Shaw, A Jonathan; Shaw, Blanka; Hassel, Kristian; Gunnarsson, Urban

    2011-04-01

    Genetic and morphological similarity between populations separated by large distances may be caused by frequent long-distance dispersal or retained ancestral polymorphism. The frequent lack of differentiation between disjunct conspecific moss populations on different continents has traditionally been explained by the latter model, and has been cited as evidence that many or most moss species are extremely ancient and slowly diverging. We have studied intercontinental differentiation in the amphi-Atlantic peat moss Sphagnum angermanicum using 23 microsatellite markers. Two major genetic clusters are found, both of which occur throughout the distributional range. Patterns of genetic structuring and overall migration patterns suggest that the species probably originated in North America, and seems to have been established twice in Northern Europe during the past 40,000 years. We conclude that similarity between S. angermanicum populations on different continents is not the result of ancient vicariance and subsequent stasis. Rather, the observed pattern can be explained by multiple long-distance dispersal over limited evolutionary time. The genetic similarity can also partly be explained by incomplete lineage sorting, but this appears to be caused by the short time since separation. Our study adds to a growing body of evidence suggesting that Sphagnum, constituting a significant part of northern hemisphere biodiversity, may be more evolutionary dynamic than previously assumed. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Holocene climate variability revealed by oxygen isotope analysis of Sphagnum cellulose from Walton Moss, northern England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, T. J.; Barber, K. E.; Street-Perrott, F. A.; Loader, N. J.; Marshall, J. D.; Crowley, S. F.; Fisher, E. H.

    2010-07-01

    Stable isotope analyses of Sphagnum alpha-cellulose, precipitation and bog water from three sites across northwestern Europe (Raheenmore, Ireland, Walton Moss, northern England and Dosenmoor, northern Germany) over a total period of 26 months were used to investigate the nature of the climatic signal recorded by Sphagnum moss. The δ18O values of modern alpha-cellulose tracked precipitation more closely than bog water, with a mean isotopic fractionation factor αcellulose-precipitation of 1.0274 ± 0.001 (1 σ) (≈27‰). Sub-samples of isolated Sphagnum alpha-cellulose were subsequently analysed from core WLM22, Walton Moss, northern England yielding a Sphagnum-specific isotope record spanning the last 4300 years. The palaeo-record, calibrated using the modern data, provides evidence for large amplitude variations in the estimated oxygen isotope composition of precipitation during the mid- to late Holocene. Estimates of palaeotemperature change derived from statistical relationships between modern surface air temperatures and δ18O precipitation values for the British Isles give unrealistically large variation in comparison to proxies from other archives. We conclude that use of such relationships to calibrate mid-latitude palaeo-data must be undertaken with caution. The δ18O record from Sphagnum cellulose was highly correlated with a palaeoecologically-derived index of bog surface wetness (BSW), suggesting a common climatic driver.

  17. Immuno and affinity cytochemical analysis of cell wall composition in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Berry

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to homeohydric vascular plants, mosses employ a poikilohydric strategy for surviving in the dry aerial environment. A detailed understanding of the structure, composition, and development of moss cell walls can contribute to our understanding of not only the evolution of overall cell wall complexity, but also the differences that have evolved in response to selection for different survival strategies. The model moss species Physcomitrella patens has a predominantly haploid lifecycle consisting of protonemal filaments that regenerate from protoplasts and enlarge by tip growth, and leafy gametophores composed of cells that enlarge by diffuse growth and differentiate into several different types. Advantages for genetic studies include methods for efficient targeted gene modification and extensive genomic resources. Immuno and affinity cytochemical labeling were used to examine the distribution of polysaccharides and proteins in regenerated protoplasts, protonemal filaments, rhizoids, and sectioned gametophores of P. patens. The cell wall composition of regenerated protoplasts was also characterized by flow cytometry. Crystalline cellulose was abundant in the cell walls of regenerating protoplasts and protonemal cells that developed on media of high osmolarity, whereas homogalacturonan was detected in the walls of protonemal cells that developed on low osmolarity media and not in regenerating protoplasts. Mannan was the major hemicellulose detected in all tissues tested. Arabinogalactan proteins were detected in different cell types by different probes, consistent with structural heterogeneity. The results reveal developmental and cell type specific differences in cell wall composition and provide a basis for analyzing cell wall phenotypes in knockout mutants.

  18. Changes to dryland rainfall result in rapid moss mortality and altered soil fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sasha C.; Coe, Kirsten K.; Sparks, Jed P.; Housman, David C.; Zelikova, Tamara J.; Belnap, Jayne

    2012-01-01

    Arid and semi-arid ecosystems cover ~40% of Earth’s terrestrial surface, but we know little about how climate change will affect these widespread landscapes. Like many drylands, the Colorado Plateau in southwestern United States is predicted to experience elevated temperatures and alterations to the timing and amount of annual precipitation. We used a factorial warming and supplemental rainfall experiment on the Colorado Plateau to show that altered precipitation resulted in pronounced mortality of the widespread moss Syntrichia caninervis. Increased frequency of 1.2 mm summer rainfall events reduced moss cover from ~25% of total surface cover to fertility. Mosses are important members in many dryland ecosystems and the community changes observed here reveal how subtle modifications to climate can affect ecosystem structure and function on unexpectedly short timescales. Moreover, mortality resulted from increased precipitation through smaller, more frequent events, underscoring the importance of precipitation event size and timing, and highlighting our inadequate understanding of relationships between climate and ecosystem function in drylands.

  19. First report of modern pollen deposition in moss polsters in a semiarid area of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Alves dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that pollen analyses of natural substrates can produce data valuable for understanding the local pollen productivity and dispersal, deposition, and preservation potential of pollen grains. In this study, we aimed to acquire novel information about the dynamics and preservation of pollen in Caatinga environment through the palynological study of moss polsters. Samples of moss polsters in soil (MPS and on rock (MPR were collected from the Canudos Biological Station in the Bahia State (Brazil and subjected to standard chemical treatments for the extraction of pollen residues. In total, 372 pollen types were recorded from the samples of which the taxonomical affinity of 140 was determined. The most represented families were Fabaceae (23 pollen types/16.42% and Asteraceae (12 pollen types/8.57%. The MPS samples had a higher pollen concentration (21,042.04 pollen grains/cm² than the MPR samples (7,829.35 pollen grains/cm². On the other hand, the MPR samples had a greater diversity (68.26% of the identified pollen types. Qualitative analysis showed that the plants of shrub and subshrub habits had the greatest representation among the pollen types (35.0%. Overall, moss polsters proved to be excellent natural air pollen collectors in Caatinga environment, provided they had moist microhabitats for their development.

  20. Atmospheric deposition study in the area of Kardzhali lead-zinc plant based on moss analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristozova, G.; Marinova, S.; Strelkova, L.P.; Goryajnova, Z.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Stafilov, T.

    2015-01-01

    For the first time the moss biomonitoring technique was used to assess the environmental situation in the area affected by the lead-zinc plant as one of the most hazardous enterprises in Bulgaria. 77 Hypnum cupressiforme moss samples were collected in the Kardzhali municipality in the summer and autumn of 2011. The concentrations of a total of 47 elements were determined by means of instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Multivariate statistics was applied to characterize the sources of elements detected in the samples. Four groups of elements were found. In comparison to the data averaged for the area outside of the town, the atmospheric deposition loads for the elements of industrial origin in Kardzhali, where the smelter chimney is located, were found to be much higher. Median levels of the measured concentrations of the most toxic metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, As, Cu, In, Sb) were extremely high in this hot spot when compared to the median Bulgarian cross-country data from the 2010-2011 European moss survey. GIS technology was used to produce element distribution maps illustrating deposition patterns of element pollutants in the study area. The results obtained contribute to the Bulgarian environmental research used to study and control the manufacturing processes of the lead-zinc plant in the town of Kardzhali.

  1. Comparative use of lichens, mosses and tree bark to evaluate nitrogen deposition in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boltersdorf, Stefanie H.; Pesch, Roland; Werner, Willy

    2014-01-01

    To compare three biomonitoring techniques for assessing nitrogen (N) pollution in Germany, 326 lichen, 153 moss and 187 bark samples were collected from 16 sites of the national N deposition monitoring network. The analysed ranges of N content of all investigated biomonitors (0.32%–4.69%) and the detected δ 15 N values (−15.2‰–1.5‰), made it possible to reveal species specific spatial patterns of N concentrations in biota to indicate atmospheric N deposition in Germany. The comparison with measured and modelled N deposition data shows that particularly lichens are able to reflect the local N deposition originating from agriculture. - Highlights: • We investigated N pollution with the help of bioindicators in Germany. • The N load was monitored with lichens, mosses and bark by tissue N content. • Main source of N pollution was revealed by tissue δ 15 N values. • Particularly the N content and δ 15 N in lichens reflected agriculture-related N deposition. - First nationwide comparison of lichens, mosses and tree bark to assess the N deposition in Germany by analysing N content and δ 15 N values

  2. Guidelines for biomonitoring persistent organic pollutants (POPs), using lichens and aquatic mosses – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusto, Sofia; Máguas, Cristina; Branquinho, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    During the last decades, awareness regarding persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), has become a cutting-edge topic, due to their toxicity, bioaccumulation and persistency in the environment. Monitoring of PCDD/Fs and PAHs in air and water has proven to be insufficient to capture deposition and effects of these compounds in the biota. To overcome this limitation, environmental biomonitoring using lichens and aquatic mosses, have aroused as promising tools. The main aim of this work is to provide a review of: i) factors that influence the interception and accumulation of POPs by lichens; ii) how lichens and aquatic bryophytes can be used to track different pollution sources and; iii) how can these biomonitors contribute to environmental health studies. This review will allow designing a set of guidelines to be followed when using biomonitors to assess environmental POP pollution. -- Highlights: •We've reviewed the use of lichens and mosses as POP biomonitors. •We've discussed the factors that influence accumulation of POPs in lichens. •We've shown how biomonitors have been used to track pollution sources. •We've designed guidelines for the use of biomonitors to assess POP pollution. -- This review fulfils the lack of knowledge regarding the use of lichens and aquatic mosses as biomonitors of POPs, providing a set of guidelines to be followed

  3. Richness and epiphytic mosses cover variation on ironwood trees (Parrotia persica Pojark trunks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Rahimeh Yavarynik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determination and assess changes in richness and cover of epiphytic mosses on ironwood trees(Parrotia persica Pojark trunks along trunk elevation and slope aspect gradients, in lowland and protected forest of Natural Resource College of Tarbiat Modares University (Parts of western limit of Noor forest reserved. To do this, a number of 20 individual of ironwood trees with a diamerter higher than 40 cm were selected randomly in the study area. A rectangle with 40*30 cm in two geographical directions (Northern and Southern, in 4 height classes (from 0 to 160cm on the trunks was sampled and related characteristics were recorded. Results of floristic study showed that presence of 17 epiphytic mosses species and the endemic species Palamocladium euchloron among the species with highest presence and Brachytheciaceae family with 7 species were the most important taxa and family in the forest. Richness and cover percentage of epiphytic mosses had the highest averages in northern and lower parts of the trees trunk, this could be due to higher moisture in northern direction and lower parts of the trunk. Result of the study, well clarified the changes of distribution and abundance of the most important forest elements in relationship changes of geographical situation of Parrotia persica trunks.

  4. [Heavy metals contents and Hg adsorption characteristics of mosses in virgin forest of Gongga Mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Peng; Yang, Yong-Kui; He, Lei; Wang, Ding-Yong

    2008-06-01

    Seven main moss species in the Hailuogou virgin forest of Gongga Mountain were sampled to determine their heavy metals (Hg, Cr, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe) content, and two widely distributed species, Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. and Racomitrium laetum Besch., were selected to study their Hg adsorption characteristics. The results showed that the heavy metals contents in the mosses were lower than the background values in Europe and America, except that the Cd had a comparable value, which indicated that the atmosphere in study area was not polluted by heavy metals and good in quality. The Hg adsorption by P. schreberi and R. laetum was an initiative and rapid process, with the equilibrium reached in about two hours, and could be well fitted by Freundlich and Langmuir equations. Based on Langmuir equation, the maximum Hg adsorption capacities of P. schreberi and R. laetum were 15.24 and 8.19 mg x g(-1), respectively, suggesting that the two mosses had a good capacity of Hg adsorption, and could be used as the bio-monitors of atmospheric Hg pollution.

  5. Nitrogen multitemporal monitoring through mosses in urban areas affected by mud volcanoes around Mt. Etna, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Nitrogen emissions were assessed by using mosses as bioindicators in a densely inhabited area affected by mud volcanoes. Such volcanoes, locally called Salinelle, are phenomena that occur around Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy), and are interpreted as the surface outflow of a hydrothermal system located below Mt. Etna, which releases sedimentary fluids (hydrocarbons and Na-Cl brines) along with magmatic gases (mainly CO2 and He). To date, N emissions from such mud volcanoes have been only quantitatively assessed, and no biomonitoring campaigns are reported about the cumulative effects of these emissions. This study analyzed N concentrations in moss, water and soil samples, collected in a 4-year monitoring campaign. The bryophyte Bryum argenteum, a species widely adopted in surveys of atmospheric pollution, was used as a biological indicator. N concentrations in biomonitors showed relatively low values in the study sites. However, the results of this study suggest that N emissions from Salinelle may have an impact on surrounding ecosystems because N values in moss and water showed a significant correlation. N oxides, in particular, contribute to acidification of ecosystems, thus multitemporal biomonitoring is recommended, especially in those areas where N emitting sources are anthropogenic and natural.

  6. Dependence on epiphytic bacteria for freezing protection in an Antarctic moss, Bryum argenteum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, James A

    2016-02-01

    Mosses are the dominant flora of Antarctica, but their mechanisms of survival in the face of extreme low temperatures are poorly understood. A variety of Bryum argenteum from 77° S was previously shown to have strong ice-pitting activity, a sign of the presence of ice-binding proteins (IBPs) that mitigate freezing damage. Here, using samples that had been stored at -25(o) C for 10 years, it is shown that much if not all of the activity is due to bacterial ice-binding proteins secreted on the leaves of the moss. Sequencing of the leaf metagenome revealed the presence of hundreds of genes from a variety of bacteria (mostly Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes) that encode a domain (DUF3494) that is associated with ice binding. The frequency of occurrence of this domain is one to two orders of magnitude higher than it is in representative mesophilic bacterial metagenomes. Genes encoding 42 bacterial IBPs with N-terminal secretion signals were assembled. There appears to be a commensal relationship in which the moss provides sustenance to the bacteria in return for freezing protection. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Biomonitoring chromium III or VI soluble pollution by moss chlorophyll fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang-Er; Mao, Hao-Tian; Ma, Jie; Wu, Nan; Zhang, Chao-Ming; Su, Yan-Qiu; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Yuan, Ming; Zhang, Huai-Yu; Zeng, Xian-Yin; Yuan, Shu

    2018-03-01

    We systematically compared the impacts of four Cr salts (chromic chloride, chromic nitrate, potassium chromate and potassium bichromate) on physiological parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence in indigenous moss Taxiphyllum taxirameum. Among the four Cr salts, K 2 Cr 2 O 7 treatment resulted in the most significant decrease in photosynthetic efficiency and antioxidant enzymes, increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), and obvious cell death. Different form the higher plants, although hexavalent Cr(VI) salt treatments resulted in higher accumulation levels of Cr and were more toxic than Cr(III) salts, Cr(III) also induced significant changes in moss physiological parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence. Our results showed that Cr(III) and Cr(VI) could be monitored distinguishably according to the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) fluorescence of sporadic purple and sporadic lavender images respectively. Then, the valence states and concentrations of Cr contaminations could be evaluated according to the image of maximum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm) and the quantum yield of PSII electron transport (ΦPSII). Therefore, this study provides new ideas of moss's sensibility to Cr(III) and a new method to monitor Chromium contaminations rapidly and non-invasively in water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pollutant deposition impacts on lichens, mosses, wood and soil in the Athabasca oil sands area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauls, R.W.; Abboud, S.A.; Turchenek, L.W.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to monitor the accumulation and impact on the environment of emissions from oil sands processing plants. SO 2 , H 2 S, NO x and hydrocarbon concentrations in the air were monitored. Syncrude Canada Ltd. conducted surveys to determine elemental levels in lichens and mosses. The objective of the study was to monitor the pattern of accumulation of emissions by oil sand plants in, and their effects on, lichens and mosses, and examine changes in wood induced by soil acidity. The moss, lichen and wood samples were analyzed for total elemental content. Soils were analyzed for pH, soluble sulphate and other properties related to soil acidity and soil composition. Little or no evidence was found to indicate that wood tissue chemistry has been affected by atmospheric deposition of substances originating from oil sands plants. These results led to the inference that no large changes in soil acidity have resulted from oil sands plant emissions either. 66 refs., 21 tabs., 124 figs

  9. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H., E-mail: gdonovan@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 620 SW Main, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Jovan, Sarah E., E-mail: sjovan@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 620 SW Main, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Gatziolis, Demetrios, E-mail: dgatziolis@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 620 SW Main, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Burstyn, Igor, E-mail: igor.burstyn@drexel.edu [Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Nesbitt Hall, 3215 Market St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Michael, Yvonne L., E-mail: ylm23@drexel.edu [Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Nesbitt Hall, 3215 Market St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Amacher, Michael C., E-mail: mcamacher1@outlook.com [USDA Forest Service, Logan Forest Sciences Laboratory, 860 North 1200 East, Logan, UT 84321 (United States); Monleon, Vicente J., E-mail: vjmonleon@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 3200 SW Jefferson Way, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50 m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon–Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500 m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500 m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120 m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4 ng/m{sup 3}, which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6 ng/m{sup 3}, and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1 ng/m{sup 3} for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67 ng/m{sup 3} for stained-glass manufacturer #2. - Highlights: • Bio-indicators are a valid method for measuring atmospheric pollutants • We used moss to map atmospheric cadmium in Portland, Oregon • Using a spatial linear model, we identified two

  10. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H.; Jovan, Sarah E.; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Burstyn, Igor; Michael, Yvonne L.; Amacher, Michael C.; Monleon, Vicente J.

    2016-01-01

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50 m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon–Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500 m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500 m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120 m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4 ng/m"3, which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6 ng/m"3, and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1 ng/m"3 for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67 ng/m"3 for stained-glass manufacturer #2. - Highlights: • Bio-indicators are a valid method for measuring atmospheric pollutants • We used moss to map atmospheric cadmium in Portland, Oregon • Using a spatial linear model, we identified two stained

  11. Determination of heavy metal deposition in the county of Obrenovac (Serbia using mosses as bioindicators II: Cadmium (CD, cobalt (CO, and chromium (CR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukojević V.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the deposition of three heavy metals (Cd, Co and Cr in the county of Obrenovac (Serbia is determined using four moss taxa (Bryum argenteum, Bryum capillare, Brachythecium sp. and Hypnum cupressiforme as bioindicators. Distribution of average heavy metal content in all mosses in the county of Obrenovac is presented in maps, while long term atmospheric deposition (in the mosses Bryum argenteum and B. capillare and short term atmospheric deposition (in the mosses Brachythecium sp. and Hypnum cupressiforme are discussed and in tables. Areas of the highest contaminations are highlighted.

  12. Determination of heavy metal deposition in the county of Obrenovac (Serbia using mosses as bioindicators, IV: Manganese (Mn, Molybdenum (Mo, and Nickel (Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukojević V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the deposition of three heavy metals (Mn, Mo, and Ni in the county of Obrenovac (Serbia in four moss taxa (Bryum argenteum, Bryum capillare, Brachythecium sp., and Hypnum cupressiforme is presented. The distribution of average heavy metal content in all mosses in the county of Obrenovac is presented on maps, while the long-term atmospheric deposition (in the mosses Bryum argenteum and B. capillare and short term atmospheric deposition (in the mosses Brachythecium sp. and Hypnum cupressiforme are discussed and given in tabular form. Areas of the highest contaminations are highlighted.

  13. Determination of heavy metal deposition in the county of Obrenovac (Serbia using mosses as bioindicators: I. Aluminum (Al, arsenic (As, and boron (B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabovljević M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the deposition of three heavy metals (Al, As and B in the county of Obrenovac (Serbia is determined using four moss taxa (Bryum argenteum, Bryum capillare, Brachythecium sp., and Hypnum cupressiforme as bioindicators. Distribution of average heavy metal content in all mosses in the county of Obrenovac is presented in maps, while long-term atmospheric deposition (in the mosses Bryum argenteum and B. capillare and short-term atmospheric deposition (in the mosses Brachythecium sp. and Hypnum cupressiforme are discussed and given in tables. Areas of the highest contaminations are highlighted.

  14. Determination of heavy metal deposition in the county of Obrenovac (Serbia using mosses as bioindicators, III: Copper (Cu, Iron (Fe and Mercury (Hg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabovljević M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the deposition of three heavy metals (Cu, Fe and Hg in four moss taxa (Bryum argenteum, Bryum capillare, Brachythecium sp. and Hypnum cupressiforme in the county of Obrenovac (Serbia is presented. The distribution of average heavy metal content in all mosses in the county of Obrenovac is presented on maps, while long-term atmospheric deposition (in the mosses Bryum argenteum and B. capillare and short-term atmospheric deposition (in the mosses Brachythecium sp. and Hypnum cupressiforme are discussed and given in a table. Areas of the highest contaminations are highlighted.

  15. Basic semiconductor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hamaguchi, Chihiro

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a detailed description of basic semiconductor physics. The text covers a wide range of important phenomena in semiconductors, from the simple to the advanced. Four different methods of energy band calculations in the full band region are explained: local empirical pseudopotential, non-local pseudopotential, KP perturbation and tight-binding methods. The effective mass approximation and electron motion in a periodic potential, Boltzmann transport equation and deformation potentials used for analysis of transport properties are discussed. Further, the book examines experiments and theoretical analyses of cyclotron resonance in detail. Optical and transport properties, magneto-transport, two-dimensional electron gas transport (HEMT and MOSFET) and quantum transport are reviewed, while optical transition, electron-phonon interaction and electron mobility are also addressed. Energy and electronic structure of a quantum dot (artificial atom) are explained with the help of Slater determinants. The...

  16. Tangled history of the European uses of Sphagnum moss and sphagnol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnik, Jacek; Stebel, Adam

    2017-09-14

    Sphagnum mosses and peat could have been utilized as wound dressings for centuries, however reliable data on this subject are ambiguous; sometimes even no distinction between peat moss (Sphagnum spp.) and peat is made or these terms become confused. The first scientific account on surgical use of peat comes from 1882: a peat digger who successfully, by himself and in the way unknown to the then medicine, cured an open fracture of his forearm with peat. The peat, and very soon the peat moss itself (which is the major constituent of peat) drew attention of the 19th-century surgeons. We search for reliable information on: (1) inspirations for Sphagnum usage for medical purposes and its beginnings in the 19th century, (2) substances or products named sphagnol and their connections with (1); (3) on the origin of this name, (4) and on the occurrence of this name in medical sources. We have identified and studied published sources on the uses of peat-based and Sphagnum-based preparations and products of any processing level (including herbal stock, distillate, isolated pure or impure active principle, or a mixture of such) in surgery, pharmacy or cosmetics. A special attention was paid to the name sphagnol, which appeared many a time, in more than one context since 1899. Source publications were critically analysed from the taxonomical, pharmacognostical and ethnopharmacological points of view. Gathered data were cross-checked with the modern knowledge of the biologically active principles of Sphagnum and the prospects of their medical use. The application of peat in surgery started 1882. The use of peat moss as dressings was developed in the 1880's. It returned to surgical practice during WW1. The name sphagnol has two meanings: (1) A chemical substance isolated from the cell walls of Sphagnum mosses in 1899. A post-1950 research showed it to be a mixture of phenols dominated by sphagnum acid. (2) A product of dry distillation of peat contains solid and liquid fractions

  17. Mosses Are Better than Leaves of Vascular Plants in Monitoring Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanbin; Fan, Miao; Hu, Ronggui; Zhao, Jinsong; Wu, Yupeng

    2018-05-29

    Mosses and leaves of vascular plants have been used as bioindicators of environmental contamination by heavy metals originating from various sources. This study aims to compare the metal accumulation capabilities of mosses and vascular species in urban areas and quantify the suitability of different taxa for monitoring airborne heavy metals. One pleurocarpous feather moss species, Haplocladium angustifolium , and two evergreen tree species, Cinnamomum bodinieri Osmanthus fragrans , and substrate soil were sampled in the urban area of different land use types in Wuhan City in China. The concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, V, Pb, and Zn in these samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The differences of heavy metals concentration in the three species showed that the moss species was considerably more capable of accumulating heavy metals than tree leaves (3 times to 51 times). The accumulated concentration of heavy metals in the moss species depended on the metal species and land use type. The enrichment factors of metals for plants and the correlations of metals in plants with corresponding metals in soil reflected that the accumulated metals in plants stemmed mostly from atmospheric deposition, rather than the substrate soil. Anthropogenic factors, such as traffic emissions from automobile transportation and manufacturing industries, were primarily responsible for the variations in metal pollutants in the atmosphere and subsequently influenced the metal accumulation in the mosses. This study elucidated that the moss species H. angustifolium is relatively more suitable than tree leaves of C. bodinieri and O. fragrans in monitoring heavy metal pollution in urban areas, and currently Wuhan is at a lower contamination level of atmospheric heavy metals than some other cities in China.

  18. Role of RNA interference (RNAi) in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    KAUST Repository

    Arif, Muhammad Asif; Frank, Wolfgang; Khraiwesh, Basel

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism that regulates genes by either transcriptional (TGS) or posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS), required for genome maintenance and proper development of an organism. Small non-coding RNAs are the key players in RNAi and have been intensively studied in eukaryotes. In plants, several classes of small RNAs with specific sizes and dedicated functions have evolved. The major classes of small RNAs include microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which differ in their biogenesis. miRNAs are synthesized from a short hairpin structure while siRNAs are derived from long double-stranded RNAs (dsRNA). Both miRNA and siRNAs control the expression of cognate target RNAs by binding to reverse complementary sequences mediating cleavage or translational inhibition of the target RNA. They also act on the DNA and cause epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation and histone modifications. In the last years, the analysis of plant RNAi pathways was extended to the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens, a non-flowering, non-vascular ancient land plant that diverged from the lineage of seed plants approximately 450 million years ago. Based on a number of characteristic features and its phylogenetic key position in land plant evolution P. patens emerged as a plant model species to address basic as well as applied topics in plant biology. Here we summarize the current knowledge on the role of RNAi in P. patens that shows functional overlap with RNAi pathways from seed plants, and also unique features specific to this species. 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  19. Role of RNA interference (RNAi) in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    KAUST Repository

    Arif, Muhammad Asif

    2013-01-14

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism that regulates genes by either transcriptional (TGS) or posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS), required for genome maintenance and proper development of an organism. Small non-coding RNAs are the key players in RNAi and have been intensively studied in eukaryotes. In plants, several classes of small RNAs with specific sizes and dedicated functions have evolved. The major classes of small RNAs include microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which differ in their biogenesis. miRNAs are synthesized from a short hairpin structure while siRNAs are derived from long double-stranded RNAs (dsRNA). Both miRNA and siRNAs control the expression of cognate target RNAs by binding to reverse complementary sequences mediating cleavage or translational inhibition of the target RNA. They also act on the DNA and cause epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation and histone modifications. In the last years, the analysis of plant RNAi pathways was extended to the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens, a non-flowering, non-vascular ancient land plant that diverged from the lineage of seed plants approximately 450 million years ago. Based on a number of characteristic features and its phylogenetic key position in land plant evolution P. patens emerged as a plant model species to address basic as well as applied topics in plant biology. Here we summarize the current knowledge on the role of RNAi in P. patens that shows functional overlap with RNAi pathways from seed plants, and also unique features specific to this species. 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  20. Radiation induced processes in moss cells. Short term and long term radiation responses of special interest after microbeam uv irradiation of the haploid moss cells of Funaria hygrometrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doehren, R v [Mainz Univ. (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Biochemie

    1975-01-01

    The moss F.h. shows apical growth in the protonema cells which spread radially from the spor. Every apical daughter cell during the state of 'Caulonema' and just before in the state of 'Caulonema Primanen' initiates cell division as soon as more than twice the length of the mother cell is reached. All this allows to follow radiation effects in single cells conveniently. UV irradiation on the range of 254 nm and 280 nm delivered at different parts of the cell area delays cell division markedly may suppress it, and is able to stop the process of growing in relation to the delivered dose and to the irradiated area as well. In case of irradiation of the area next to where the membrane is just being formed - that is to say next to the phragmoplast - the new membrane will be wrongly oriented. In particular giant cells are occurring in the case of nucleus irradiation during early prophase.

  1. Biocrust-forming mosses mitigate the impact of aridity on soil microbial communities in drylands: observational evidence from three continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Maestre, Fernando T; Eldridge, David J; Bowker, Matthew A; Jeffries, Thomas C; Singh, Brajesh K

    2018-04-02

    Recent research indicates that increased aridity linked to climate change will reduce the diversity of soil microbial communities and shift their community composition in drylands, Earth's largest biome. However, we lack both a theoretical framework and solid empirical evidence of how important biotic components from drylands, such as biocrust-forming mosses, will regulate the responses of microbial communities to expected increases in aridity with climate change. Here we report results from a cross-continental (North America, Europe and Australia) survey of 39 locations from arid to humid ecosystems, where we evaluated how biocrust-forming mosses regulate the relationship between aridity and the community composition and diversity of soil bacteria and fungi in dryland ecosystems. Increasing aridity was negatively related to the richness of fungi, and either positively or negatively related to the relative abundance of selected microbial phyla, when biocrust-forming mosses were absent. Conversely, we found an overall lack of relationship between aridity and the relative abundance and richness of microbial communities under biocrust-forming mosses. Our results suggest that biocrust-forming mosses mitigate the impact of aridity on the community composition of globally distributed microbial taxa, and the diversity of fungi. They emphasize the importance of maintaining biocrusts as a sanctuary for soil microbes in drylands. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Interaction between the moss Physcomitrella patens and Phytophthora: a novel pathosystem for live-cell imaging of subcellular defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overdijk, Elysa J R; DE Keijzer, Jeroen; DE Groot, Deborah; Schoina, Charikleia; Bouwmeester, Klaas; Ketelaar, Tijs; Govers, Francine

    2016-08-01

    Live-cell imaging of plant-pathogen interactions is often hampered by the tissue complexity and multicell layered nature of the host. Here, we established a novel pathosystem with the moss Physcomitrella patens as host for Phytophthora. The tip-growing protonema cells of this moss are ideal for visualizing interactions with the pathogen over time using high-resolution microscopy. We tested four Phytophthora species for their ability to infect P. patens and showed that P. sojae and P. palmivora were only rarely capable to infect P. patens. In contrast, P. infestans and P. capsici frequently and successfully penetrated moss protonemal cells, showed intracellular hyphal growth and formed sporangia. Next to these successful invasions, many penetration attempts failed. Here the pathogen was blocked by a barrier of cell wall material deposited in papilla-like structures, a defence response that is common in higher plants. Another common response is the upregulation of defence-related genes upon infection and also in moss we observed this upregulation in tissues infected with Phytophthora. For more advanced analyses of the novel pathosystem we developed a special set-up that allowed live-cell imaging of subcellular defence processes by high-resolution microscopy. With this set-up, we revealed that Phytophthora infection of moss induces repositioning of the nucleus, accumulation of cytoplasm and rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton, but not of microtubules. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  3. Towards the methodological optimization of the moss bag technique in terms of contaminants concentrations and replicability values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, A.; Fernández, J. A.; Carballeira, A.; Aboal, J. R.

    2014-09-01

    The moss bag technique is a simple and economical environmental monitoring tool used to monitor air quality. However, routine use of the method is not possible because the protocols involved have not yet been standardized. Some of the most variable methodological aspects include (i) selection of moss species, (ii) ratio of moss weight to surface area of the bag, (iii) duration of exposure, and (iv) height of exposure. In the present study, the best option for each of these aspects was selected on the basis of the mean concentrations and data replicability of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn measured during at least two exposure periods in environments affected by different degrees of contamination. The optimal choices for the studied aspects were the following: (i) Sphagnum denticulatum, (ii) 5.68 mg of moss tissue for each cm-2 of bag surface, (iii) 8 weeks of exposure, and (iv) 4 m height of exposure. Duration of exposure and height of exposure accounted for most of the variability in the data. The aim of this methodological study was to provide data to help establish a standardized protocol that will enable use of the moss bag technique by public authorities.

  4. Assessment of radionuclides (uranium and thorium) atmospheric pollution around Manjung district, Perak using moss as bio-indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arshad, Nursyairah, E-mail: nursyairah1990@gmail.com; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia); Saat, Ahmad [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Bio-monitoring method using mosses have been widely done around the world and the effectiveness has been approved. Mosses can be used to assess the levels of atmospheric pollution as mosses pick up nutrients from the atmosphere and deposition retaining many trace elements. In this study, the deposition of two radionuclides; uranium (U) and thorium (Th) around Manjung districts have been evaluated using Leucobryum aduncum as bio-monitoring medium. The samples were collected from 24 sampling sites covering up to 40 km radius to the North, North-East and South-East directions from Teluk Rubiah. The concentrations of U and Th in moss samples were analysed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer. The concentrations of Th are in the range of 0.07-2.09 mg/kg. Meanwhile, the concentrations of U in the moss are in the range of 0.03-0.18 mg/kg. The Enrichment Factor (EF) was calculated to determine the origin of the radionuclides distributions. Other than that, the distribution maps were developed to observe the distribution of the radionuclides around the study area.

  5. Residential heating contribution to level of air pollutants (PAHs, major, trace, and rare earth elements): a moss bag case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Pergal, Miodrag; Janković, Milan; Goryainova, Zoya; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2015-12-01

    In areas with moderate to continental climates, emissions from residential heating system lead to the winter air pollution peaks. The EU legislation requires only the monitoring of airborne concentrations of particulate matter, As, Cd, Hg, Ni, and B[a]P. Transition metals and rare earth elements (REEs) have also arisen questions about their detrimental health effects. In that sense, this study examined the level of extensive set of air pollutants: 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 41 major elements, trace elements, and REEs using Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bag technique. During the winter of 2013/2014, the moss bags were exposed across Belgrade (Serbia) to study the influence of residential heating system to the overall air quality. The study was set as an extension to our previous survey during the summer, i.e., non-heating season. Markedly higher concentrations of all PAHs, Sb, Cu, V, Ni, and Zn were observed in the exposed moss in comparison to the initial values. The patterns of the moss REE concentrations normalized to North American Shale Composite and Post-Archean Australian Shales were identical across the study area but enhanced by anthropogenic activities. The results clearly demonstrate the seasonal variations in the moss enrichment of the air pollutants. Moreover, the results point out a need for monitoring of air quality during the whole year, and also of various pollutants, not only those regulated by the EU Directive.

  6. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  7. The physiology mechanisms on drought tolerance and adaptation of biological soil crust moss Bryum argenteum and Didymodon vinealis in Tenger Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X.; Shi, Y.; Chen, C.; Jia, R.; Li, X.

    2012-04-01

    Bryum argenteum Hedw. and Didymodon vinealis Brid are two dominant moss species in the restored vegetation area in Tenger Desert, which sampled from biological soil crusts and where is an extreme drought regions. We found that they resorted to different osmotic adjustment strategies to mitigate osmotic stress. Under the gradual drought stress, both Bryum argenteum and Didymodon vinealis accumulated K+ and soluble sugar such as sucrose and trehalose. Their glycine betaine contents both decreased, while their proline content had no significant change. With enhanced drought stress, Bryum argenteum's Na+ content was low and decreased significantly, whereas Didymodon vinealis's Na+ content increased sharply and reached to a high level. We found the different of the mechanism of between active oxygen scavenging on Enzymatic and non - enzymatic system in two species moss of Bryum argenteum Hedw and Didymodon vinealis Brid under extreme drought stress. The result showed that two species of Moss of SOD activity gradually enhanced, and they have the material basis for effectively eliminates in vivo of Superoxide free radical. POD in Didymodon nigrescen and CAT in Bryum argeneum are major resistance o oxidative stress effects. The content of GSH rise with the stress also enhanced. The mechanism of finding Bryum argenteum Hedw and Didymodon vinealis Brid tolerance of dehydration ability were focus on different direction, but they are all given positive response to stress and enhance resistance. We investigated the responses of signal transduction substances to gradual drought stress in Didymodon vinealis and Bryum argenteum. The results suggested that: under gradual drought stress, the activities of TP H+-ATPase and PM H+-ATPase of Didymodon vinealis and Bryum argenteum both increased, resulting in their increase of K+ contents and turgor pressures, and triggered biosynthesis of signal transduction substances. ABA had no obvious effect in signal transduction of Bryum argenteum

  8. Trace element accumulation by moss and lichen exposed in bags in the city of Naples (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, P.; Giordano, S.; Vingiani, S.; Castaldo Cobianchi, R.; Violante, P.

    2003-01-01

    Trace element accumulation by lichen in bags is more affected by meteorological conditions compared with moss. - This paper presents the results of a bioaccumulation study of trace elements in the Naples urban area based on the use of the moss Sphagnum capillifolium (Ehrh.) Hedw. and the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf exposed in bags in 23 sites. Moss and lichen bags were exposed for 4 months starting from the beginning of July 1999. Bags gathering was carried out after 10 weeks of exposure, at the end of the dry season, and after 17 weeks, during the wet season. The elements Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn were analysed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry ICP-MS in both biomonitors. For the majority of the elements the total amounts found in S. capillifolium were higher than in P. furfuracea whether considering the whole period of exposure or the weekly uptake. It was observed that there was a much greater difference in metal accumulation by P. furfuracea between the dry and wet seasons compared with S. capillifolium. In the wet period, the lichen seems to accumulate a larger quantity of metals. With the exception of Mn, trace element concentrations did not appear to be significantly affected by the washing away of rainfall. K loss during exposure suggested cell membrane damage in both organisms. For P. furfuracea the K leakage was limited to the dry period of exposure. A clear distinction between 'lithophilic' and 'anthropogenic' elements was achieved by cluster analysis. Significant correlations were found among Fe-Cu-Cr-Ni, Pb-Cd-Co, V-Cr-Ni, Zn-Ni-Pb, suggesting a common source for each group of elements

  9. Preliminary enviromagnetic comparison of the moss, lichen, and filter fabric bags to air pollution monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Salo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Air quality and anthropogenic air pollutants are usually investigated by passive biomonitoring which utilizes native species. Active biomonitoring, instead, refers to the use of transplants or bags in areas lacking native species. In Finland, the standardized moss bag technique SFS 5794 is commonly applied in active monitoring but there is still need for simpler and labor-saving sample material even on international scale. This article focuses on a preliminary comparison of the usability and collection efficiency of bags made of moss Sphagnum papillosum, lichen Hypogymnia physodes, and filter fabric (Filtrete™ in active biomonitoring of air pollutants around an industrial site in Harjavalta, SW Finland. The samples are analyzed with magnetic (i.e. magnetic susceptibility, isothermal remanent magnetization, hysteresis loop and hysteresis parameters methods highly suitable as a first-step tool for pollution studies. The results show that the highest magnetic susceptibility of each sample material is measured close to the industrial site. Furthermore, moss bags accumulate more magnetic material than lichen bags which, on the contrary, perform better at further distances. Filter fabric bags are tested only at 1 km sites indicating a good accumulation capability near the source. Pseudo-single-domain (PSD magnetite is identified as the main magnetic mineral in all sample materials and good correlations are found between different bag types. To conclude, all three materials effectively accumulate air pollutants and are suitable for air quality studies. The results of this article provide a base for later studies which are needed in order to fully determine a new, efficient, and easy sample material for active monitoring.

  10. Alternative substrates to the sphagnum moss in the acclimatization of arundina graminifolia “alba”(Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Zandoná

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Arundina graminifolia, is popularly known as bamboo orchid, by having their stems quite extensive. It is widely used in the business landscape, with a very rustic plant. Sphagnum moss is the most widely used substrate in the acclimatization of orchids, but environmental issues have led to an increase in the search for alternative substrates. The objective of this study was to evaluate substrates that can replace all or part of the use of sphagnum moss on the acclimatization of A. graminifolia. The substrates used were: sphagnum moss, rice hulls, rice hulls + coir 1:1 (v / v sphagnum + carbonized rice husk, 1:1 (v / v. Seedlings were kept in a greenhouse and after seven months were evaluated for survival rate (%, shoot height (cm, average root length (cm, number of leaves and roots, dry leaves, pseudobulbs and roots (g and leaf area (mm2. Also evaluated were pH, conductivity (uS.cm-1, density (g.cm-3 and water holding capacity (mL.L-1 were evaluated. The results showed high levels of survival (80% and the number of leaves (4.3 grown plants in rice hulls + coconut fiber 1:1 (v / v. The same with respect to pH (5.9 within the optimal range of nutrient availability. It is concluded that the mixture of rice hulls + coconut fiber 1:1 (v / v, is a suitable substrate for plant growth A. graminifolia during the acclimatization phase, which may replace the sphagnum, and the use of carbonized rice husk alone unfeasible during this period.

  11. Atmospheric metal deposition in France: Estimation based on moss analysis. First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galsomies, L.; Letrouit-Galinou, M.A.; Avnaim, M.; Duclaux, G.; Deschamps, C.; Savanne, D.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this programme set up by University Pierre and Marie Curie-Paris VI and ADEME (French Agency for the Environment and Energy Management) is to obtain information on the atmospheric deposition of 36 elements (most being heavy metals) all over France, using 5 common mosses as bioaccumulators: Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens, Hypnum cupressiforme, Scleropodium purum and Thuidium tamariscinum. Sampling was performed in 1996 from April to November thanks to 43 collectors. One sample of moss at least has been collected in 512 sites distributed over France, with an average density of one site each 1000 km 2 . Procedures for sampling, drying, cleaning, sorting are strictly codified based on Scandinavian guidelines. Analyses are performed according to two procedures: ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma, Mass Spectrometry) for Pb, Ni specialty and INAA (instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis for other elements. Data concerning As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb. Ni, V, Zn will be incorporated into the 1995-1996 European Programme 'Atmospheric Heavy Metal Deposition in Europe - estimation based on moss analysis' coordinated by the Nordic Council. The analyses are in progress, but preliminary results from Ile-de-France have been achieved for 34 elements in INAA. A preliminary study has shown that interspecies calibration could be possible for some heavy metals and that saturation effects in one species could be present when the intercalibration between species is not possible. Such a programme is made possible thanks to the financial support of the French Ministry of Environment and ADEME and with the active cooperation of several national organisations, especially the Laboratory Pierre Sue (CNRS-CEA). (author)

  12. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  13. Profiling Abscisic Acid-Induced Changes in Fatty Acid Composition in Mosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Suhas; Devaiah, Shivakumar; Kilaru, Aruna

    2017-01-01

    In plants, change in lipid composition is a common response to various abiotic stresses. Lipid constituents of bryophytes are of particular interest as they differ from that of flowering plants. Unlike higher plants, mosses have high content of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Such lipids are considered to be important for survival of nonvascular plants. Here, using abscisic acid (ABA )-induced changes in lipid composition in Physcomitrella patens as an example, a protocol for total lipid extraction and quantification by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with flame ionization detector (FID) is described.

  14. Analysis by neutron activation in moss samples for the determination of Cr, Se, As and Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia C, R.; Garcia R, G.; Lopez R, C.; Avila P, P.; Longoria G, L. C.

    2012-10-01

    This research work, presents a study of environmental monitoring in the Metropolitan Area of Toluca Valley using as bio-monitors to the mosses (bryophytes) native of different sites, analyzing the concentrations of As, Cr, Hg and Se, present in its structure. The analysis technique used to identify and to quantify to these elements was the Analysis by Neutron Activation, a nuclear analytic technique that allowed determining the concentrations at track level for its great versatility. Likewise the morphological study of the bryophyte Leskea angustata is presented by scanning electron microscopy. (Author)

  15. Optimisation of the German moss monitoring network; Optimierung des Moosmonitoring-Messnetzes in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesch, R.; Schroeder, W. [Hochschule Vechta (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Landschaftsoekologie; Dieffenbach-Fries, H. [Umweltbundesamt, Langen (Germany). Fachgebiet II 5.4; Genssler, L. [Landesamt fuer Natur, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz Nordrhein-Westfalen, Recklinghausen (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    Germany participated in the Europen Heavy Metals in Mosses Surveys 1990, 1995 and 2000. The goal was to map the spatial distribution of the metal accumulation as a comparative measure for the metal deposition in terrestrial ecosystems. In the campaign in 2005, additionally nitrogen was monitored for the first time. It should be investigated how the monitoring network could be reduced from 1028 to 720 sites without any significant influence on chosen statistical criteria. Furthermore, the new network should be linked to other environmental monitoring programmes. (orig.)

  16. Sphagnum mosses--masters of efficient N-uptake while avoiding intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Christian; Lamers, Leon P M; Riaz, Muhammad; van den Berg, Leon J L; Elzenga, Theo J T M

    2014-01-01

    Peat forming Sphagnum mosses are able to prevent the dominance of vascular plants under ombrotrophic conditions by efficiently scavenging atmospherically deposited nitrogen (N). N-uptake kinetics of these mosses are therefore expected to play a key role in differential N availability, plant competition, and carbon sequestration in Sphagnum peatlands. The interacting effects of rain N concentration and exposure time on moss N-uptake rates are, however, poorly understood. We investigated the effects of N-concentration (1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 µM), N-form ((15)N-ammonium or nitrate) and exposure time (0.5, 2, 72 h) on uptake kinetics for Sphagnum magellanicum from a pristine bog in Patagonia (Argentina) and from a Dutch bog exposed to decades of N-pollution. Uptake rates for ammonium were higher than for nitrate, and N-binding at adsorption sites was negligible. During the first 0.5 h, N-uptake followed saturation kinetics revealing a high affinity (Km 3.5-6.5 µM). Ammonium was taken up 8 times faster than nitrate, whereas over 72 hours this was only 2 times. Uptake rates decreased drastically with increasing exposure times, which implies that many short-term N-uptake experiments in literature may well have overestimated long-term uptake rates and ecosystem retention. Sphagnum from the polluted site (i.e. long-term N exposure) showed lower uptake rates than mosses from the pristine site, indicating an adaptive response. Sphagnum therefore appears to be highly efficient in using short N pulses (e.g. rainfall in pristine areas). This strategy has important ecological and evolutionary implications: at high N input rates, the risk of N-toxicity seems to be reduced by lower uptake rates of Sphagnum, at the expense of its long-term filter capacity and related competitive advantage over vascular plants. As shown by our conceptual model, interacting effects of N-deposition and climate change (changes in rainfall) will seriously alter the functioning of Sphagnum peatlands.

  17. Sphagnum Mosses - Masters of Efficient N-Uptake while Avoiding Intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Christian; Lamers, Leon P. M.; Riaz, Muhammad; van den Berg, Leon J. L.; Elzenga, Theo J. T. M.

    2014-01-01

    Peat forming Sphagnum mosses are able to prevent the dominance of vascular plants under ombrotrophic conditions by efficiently scavenging atmospherically deposited nitrogen (N). N-uptake kinetics of these mosses are therefore expected to play a key role in differential N availability, plant competition, and carbon sequestration in Sphagnum peatlands. The interacting effects of rain N concentration and exposure time on moss N-uptake rates are, however, poorly understood. We investigated the effects of N-concentration (1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 µM), N-form (15N - ammonium or nitrate) and exposure time (0.5, 2, 72 h) on uptake kinetics for Sphagnum magellanicum from a pristine bog in Patagonia (Argentina) and from a Dutch bog exposed to decades of N-pollution. Uptake rates for ammonium were higher than for nitrate, and N-binding at adsorption sites was negligible. During the first 0.5 h, N-uptake followed saturation kinetics revealing a high affinity (Km 3.5–6.5 µM). Ammonium was taken up 8 times faster than nitrate, whereas over 72 hours this was only 2 times. Uptake rates decreased drastically with increasing exposure times, which implies that many short-term N-uptake experiments in literature may well have overestimated long-term uptake rates and ecosystem retention. Sphagnum from the polluted site (i.e. long-term N exposure) showed lower uptake rates than mosses from the pristine site, indicating an adaptive response. Sphagnum therefore appears to be highly efficient in using short N pulses (e.g. rainfall in pristine areas). This strategy has important ecological and evolutionary implications: at high N input rates, the risk of N-toxicity seems to be reduced by lower uptake rates of Sphagnum, at the expense of its long-term filter capacity and related competitive advantage over vascular plants. As shown by our conceptual model, interacting effects of N-deposition and climate change (changes in rainfall) will seriously alter the functioning of Sphagnum peatlands

  18. Mechanochemical treatment of amorphous carbon from brown sphagnum moss for the preparation of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishchenko, D.V.

    2013-01-01

    Under consideration is the mechanism of multiwalled nanotubes formation during mechanical activation of amorphous carbon synthesized by pyrolysis of sphagnum moss. The formation of nanotubes has been shown to take place in the array of carbon particles. A complex study of the sorption characteristics of carbon nanotubes has been carried out. The dependence of the sorption capacity of carbon nanotubes on their storage time, as well as the effect of the process parameters of nanotubes formation on their ability for oxidative modification, is represented. (authors)

  19. The history of the peat manufacturing industry in The Netherlands: Peat moss litter and active carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.W. Gerding

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of three major forms of peat processing by the manufacturing industry in The Netherlands since the last quarter of the 19th century. At a time when peat as a fuel was gradually being replaced by coal, the first form was the peat moss litter industry. Peat moss litter was made from white peat that was ground and sieved in factories which were located mainly in bog areas in the south-east of the province of Drenthe. It served as excellent bedding for horses and cattle. The second form of industrial peat processing was the manufacture, from 1921 onwards, of active carbon made from black peat. The Purit (Norit factory, now part of the Cabot Corporation, is still the only active carbon factory using peat as a raw material. The third form of peat processing was the production of garden peat and potting soil. This is still a widespread activity in peat areas all over the world. The peat moss litter industry thrived from the 1880s until shortly after the First World War. The arrival of the horse-drawn tram in all of the major cities of Europe created a great demand for animal bedding to be used in the vast stables of the tramway companies. Peat moss litter was cleaner, healthier and easier to handle than straw. There was similar demand from the armies, which used millions of horses during the First World War. Owing to the development of motorised vehicles, the peat market collapsed after the war and this plunged the industry into a prolonged crisis which was not overcome until peat was found to be a suitable growing medium for horticulture in the 1950s. Living and working conditions in peatlands were harsh, earnings irregular and labourers’ rights limited. The peat manufacturing industry was the first to introduce collective labour agreements, medical benefits and pension plans. Nonetheless massive unemployment, poverty and the necessity to migrate to other parts of the country were clear signs that the era of

  20. Cytotoxic Cytochalasins and Other Metabolites from Xylariaceae sp. FL0390, a Fungal Endophyte of Spanish Moss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ya-Ming; Bashyal, Bharat P; Liu, Mangping X; Espinosa-Artiles, Patricia; U'Ren, Jana M; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2015-10-01

    Two new metabolites, 6-oxo-12-norcytochalasin D (1) and 4,5-di-isobutyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinone (2), together with seven known metabolites, cytochalasins D (3), Q (4), and N (5), 12-hydroxyzygosporin G (6), heptelidic acid chlorohydrin (7), (+)-heptelidic acid (8), and trichoderonic acid A (9), were isolated from Xylariaceae sp. FL0390, a fungal endophyte inhabiting Spanish moss, Tillandsia usneoides. Metabolite 1 is the first example of a 12-norcytochalasin. All metabolites, except 2 and 9, showed cytotoxic activity in a panel of five human tumor cell lines with IC50S of 0.2-5.0 μM.

  1. Radionuclides fallout on lichens and mosses and their leaching by rain in a forest ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillitte, Olivier; Kirchmann, Rene; Gelder, E. van; Hurtgen, Christian

    1990-01-01

    In the framework of the Belgian radioecological surveillance programme around nuclear power plants and of research into the impact of fallout from the nuclear accident of Chernobyl on the Ardennes forests, samples of lichens and mosses were collected and measured for radioactive content. It was observed that there is a larger variation between the samples of the same species than between various species but collected from the same ecological niche. The ecological half-life of radionuclides is also dependent on location of these organisms in the forest biotope. Some suggestions regarding the sampling standards are proposed. (author)

  2. Real World SharePoint 2007 Indispensable Experiences From 16 MOSS and WSS MVPs

    CERN Document Server

    Hillier, Scot; Buenz, Adam; Connell, Andrew; Draper, Stacy; Solier Grinda, Luis Du; Klindt, Todd; Medero, Jason; Miller, Dustin; Perran, Shane; Poelmans, Joris; Solomon, Heather; Swan, Nick; Tielens, Jan; Walsh, Mike; Young, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Microsoft recognizes key individuals who contribute significantly to the community of technologists through the Microsoft Most Valuable Professional (MVP) award. These individuals are active authors, speakers, bloggers, and innovators. They are also skilled network engineers, developers, trainers, designers, and architects. In the SharePoint community, these MVPs are recognized for their expertise in either Windows SharePoint Services (WSS) or Microsoft Office SharePoint Server (MOSS). This book represents the efforts of 16 MVPs in the SharePoint community to present core areas of SharePoint 2

  3. Reconstructing historical trends of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon deposition in a remote area of Spain using herbarium moss material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foan, L.; Sablayrolles, C.; Elustondo, D.; Lasheras, E.; González, L.; Ederra, A.; Simon, V.; Santamaría, J. M.

    2010-08-01

    Herbarium mosses from 1879-1881, 1973-1975 and 2006-2007 were used to investigate the historical changes of atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at a remote site in Northern Spain. Natural abundance of nitrogen and carbon isotopes was also measured in order to assess the evolution of emissions from anthropogenic sources. Nitrogen and PAH concentrations as well as δ 13C and δ 15N ratios were significantly higher in 19th century samples compared to present century samples. Moreover, PAH distribution varied over the centuries, with the trend towards enrichment in light PAHs. The carbon, nitrogen and PAH concentrations measured in the mosses tally with the historical evolution of anthropogenic emissions in the area, mainly influenced by changes in economic activities, domestic heating and road traffic density. Mosses provided by herbaria seem to offer the possibility of studying long-term temporal evolution of atmospheric PAH deposition.

  4. Characterization of freshwater mosses as indicators of radioactive contamination; Caracterisation de mousses dulcaquicoles comme indicateurs de contamination radioactive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K

    1994-12-16

    The necessity of indicators of freshwater contamination has developed the interest for aquatic mosses. From a fundamental point of view, studying the influence of some biotic and abiotic factors has permitted to better know the mechanisms of radionuclides accumulation by these bryophytes. From a radioecological point of view, simulating real cases of water contamination has allowed to give results a very interesting representativeness. The use of mosses as bio-indicators was applied for two in situ experiments, the results of which have been interpreted from those obtained in laboratory. Finally, an approach by a mathematical model has showed that it is possible to have, in a middle term, an evaluation tool of freshwater contamination, based on the radionuclides concentrations measured in aquatic mosses. (author). refs., 57 figs., 24 tabs.

  5. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of biochemist William D. Moss, conducted November 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This report is a transcript of an interview with William D. Moss by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Mr. Moss was selected for this interview because of his work at Los Alamos National Laboratory concerning analytical methods in the chemical determination of plutonium in biological materials. After a brief biographical sketch, Mr. Moss relates his understanding of how occupational exposure limits were determined for the Manhattan Project, how data from those workers who were exposed to plutonium was collected and analyzed, how the experiments were planned and data was gathered from plutonium or polonium injections in man, how problems with analytical procedures compounded health physics aspects of the project, and problems remaining in the interpretation of these data

  6. Ecological half-life of 137Cs in mosses and lichens in the Ordu province, Turkey by Cevik and Celik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cevik, Ugur; Celik, Necati

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-one years after the Chernobyl accident, lichen and moss samples were collected from the Ordu province, which was already chosen for a related study some years ago. It was observed that 137 Cs activity concentration ranged from 31 to 469 Bq kg -1 in the moss and from 132 to 1508 Bq kg -1 in the lichen samples. The decrease of the activity concentrations in the present measurements (2007) relative to those in 1997 (over a period of 10 y) indicated ecological half-lives between 1.8 and 10.4 y for the moss and between 2.1 and 13.7 y for the lichen samples. It was observed that 137 Cs was still eminent in the area studied. Moreover, 40 K activity concentrations and K element concentrations were measured and their relationships were discussed

  7. Atmospheric pollution with copper around the copper mine and flotation, 'Buchim', Republic of Macedonia, using biomonitoring moss and lichen technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balabanova, Biljana; Bacheva, Katerina; Shajn, Robert; Stafilov, Trajche

    2009-01-01

    This paper has studied the atmospheric pollution with copper due to copper mining and flotation 'Buchim' near Radovish, Republic of Macedonia. The copper ore and ore tailings continually are exposed to open air, which occur winds carry out the fine particles in to atmosphere. Moss (Hyloconium splendens and Pleurozium schrebery) and lichen (Hypogymnia physodes and Parmelia sulcata) samples were used for biomonitoring the possible atmospheric pollution with copper in the mine vicinity. Moss and lichen samples were digested by using of microwave digestion system and copper was analyzed by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICPAES). The obtained values for the content of copper in moss and lichen samples were statistically processed using the nonparametric and parametric analysis. Maps of areal deposition of copper show an increase content of copper in the vicinity of mine, but long distance distribution of this element is not established yet.

  8. Spatially valid data of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and nitrogen derived by moss surveys for pollution risk assessments of ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Winfried; Nickel, Stefan; Schönrock, Simon; Meyer, Michaela; Wosniok, Werner; Harmens, Harry; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Alber, Renate; Aleksiayenak, Julia; Barandovski, Lambe; Carballeira, Alejo; Danielsson, Helena; de Temmermann, Ludwig; Godzik, Barbara; Jeran, Zvonka; Karlsson, Gunilla Pihl; Lazo, Pranvera; Leblond, Sebastien; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Liiv, Siiri; Magnússon, Sigurður H; Mankovska, Blanka; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier; Piispanen, Juha; Poikolainen, Jarmo; Popescu, Ion V; Qarri, Flora; Santamaria, Jesus Miguel; Skudnik, Mitja; Špirić, Zdravko; Stafilov, Trajce; Steinnes, Eiliv; Stihi, Claudia; Thöni, Lotti; Uggerud, Hilde Thelle; Zechmeister, Harald G

    2016-06-01

    For analysing element input into ecosystems and associated risks due to atmospheric deposition, element concentrations in moss provide complementary and time-integrated data at high spatial resolution every 5 years since 1990. The paper reviews (1) minimum sample sizes needed for reliable, statistical estimation of mean values at four different spatial scales (European and national level as well as landscape-specific level covering Europe and single countries); (2) trends of heavy metal (HM) and nitrogen (N) concentrations in moss in Europe (1990-2010); (3) correlations between concentrations of HM in moss and soil specimens collected across Norway (1990-2010); and (4) canopy drip-induced site-specific variation of N concentration in moss sampled in seven European countries (1990-2013). While the minimum sample sizes on the European and national level were achieved without exception, for some ecological land classes and elements, the coverage with sampling sites should be improved. The decline in emission and subsequent atmospheric deposition of HM across Europe has resulted in decreasing HM concentrations in moss between 1990 and 2010. In contrast, hardly any changes were observed for N in moss between 2005, when N was included into the survey for the first time, and 2010. In Norway, both, the moss and the soil survey data sets, were correlated, indicating a decrease of HM concentrations in moss and soil. At the site level, the average N deposition inside of forests was almost three times higher than the average N deposition outside of forests.

  9. Spatial analysis of trace elements in a moss bio-monitoring data over France by accounting for source, protocol and environmental parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequy, Emeline; Saby, Nicolas P A; Ilyin, Ilia; Bourin, Aude; Sauvage, Stéphane; Leblond, Sébastien

    2017-07-15

    Air pollution in trace elements (TE) remains a concern for public health in Europe. For this reasons, networks of air pollution concentrations or exposure are deployed, including a moss bio-monitoring programme in Europe. Spatial determinants of TE concentrations in mosses remain unclear. In this study, the French dataset of TE in mosses is analyzed by spatial autoregressive model to account for spatial structure of the data and several variables proven or suspected to affect TE concentrations in mosses. Such variables include source (atmospheric deposition and soil concentrations), protocol (sampling month, collector, and moss species), and environment (forest type and canopy density, distance to the coast or the highway, and elevation). Modeled atmospheric deposition was only available for Cd and Pb and was one of the main explanatory variables of the concentrations in mosses. Predicted soil content was also an important explanatory variable except for Cr, Ni, and Zn. However, the moss species was the main factor for all the studied TE. The other environmental variables affected differently the TE. In particular, the forest type and canopy density were important in most cases. These results stress the need for further research on the effect of the moss species on the capture and retention of TE, as well as for accounting for several variables and the spatial structure of the data in statistical analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Polonium (²¹⁰Po), uranium (²³⁴U, ²³⁸U) isotopes and trace metals in mosses from Sobieszewo Island, northern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boryło, Alicja; Nowicki, Waldemar; Olszewski, Grzegorz; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    The activity of polonium (210)Po and uranium (234)U, (238)U radionuclides, as well as trace metals in mosses, collected from Sobieszewo Island area (northern Poland), were determined using the alpha spectrometry, AAS (atomic absorption spectrometry) and OES-ICP (atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma). The concentrations of mercury (directly from the solid sample) were determined by the cold vapor technique of CV AAS. The obtained results revealed that the concentrations of (210)Po, (234)U, and (238)U in the two analyzed kinds of mosses: schrebers big red stem moss (Pleurozium schreberi) and broom moss (Dicranum scoparium) were similar. The higher polonium concentrations were found in broom moss (Dicranum scoparium), but uranium concentrations were relatively low for both species of analyzed mosses. Among the analyzed trace metals the highest concentration in mosses was recorded for iron, while the lowest for nickel, cadmium and mercury. The obtained studies showed that the sources of polonium and uranium isotopes, as well as trace metals in analyzed mosses are air city contaminations transported from Gdańsk and from existing in the vicinity the phosphogypsum waste heap in Wiślinka (near Gdańsk).

  11. Studies on sphagnum peat. III. A quantitative study on the carbohydrate constituents of sphagnum mosses and sphagnum peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theander, O

    1954-01-01

    A qualitative and a quantitative investigation of the carbohydrates in two sphagnum mosses and five samples of sphagnum peat of different age and degree of huminosity has been performed. The two mosses investigated showed no significant differences. Samples of very different age but with the same degree of physical huminosity were very similar, indicating that the chief changes occur at the top of the bog and/or are determined by the conditions at the start of the humification. The total amount of carbohydrates was about 90% of the organic material in the mosses and about 65% and 35% in peats with a degree of huminosity of 3-4 and 6-7 respectively. Of the constituent sugars, fructose which occurred in the mosses, was completely absent in the peat. Another sugar, which occurs in nature as a furanoside, arabinose, disappeared almost completely during the humification. The uronic acids and galactose decreased faster, while ylose and glucose decreased at about the same rate as the total carbohydrates. Mannose and probably also rhamnose are the most stable components and accumulate during the humification. The polysaccharides in mosses and peat seem to constitute a very complex mixture. The presence of a fructan in the living moss, of a polyuronide (pectin) and a large amount of more complex polysaccharides built up of galactose, xylose, rhamnose and uronic acids is indicated. The glucose, the most important constituent, probably occurs chiefly as cellulose, the presence of which has been demonstrated by other workers. Finally the behaviour of mannose during the humification indicates the presence of a stable mannan. There is no evidence of polysaccharides formed by microorganisms in the peat.

  12. Using mosses as biomonitors to study trace element emissions and their distribution in six different volcanic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Julia; Calabrese, Sergio; D'Alessandro, Walter; Planer-Friedrich, Britta

    2017-09-01

    Volcanoes emit SO2, CO2, and H2S, but also trace elements gases and particles such as As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Sb. Active moss bag biomonitoring, an easy to apply and low budget method, was used to determine trace element release from volcanic areas of different geological context and climates. Exposure height variations (0.7-1.6 m above ground) due to different availability of natural tie points did not affect the results. Accumulation was linear for exposure durations from three days to nine weeks, so values were comparable by normalization to moss exposure time. Uncovered moss bags showed higher accumulation than co-exposed covered ones because of additional dust and wet deposition while washout by rain was negligible. The selection of a specific moss significantly affected element accumulation with moss of lower shoot compactness accumulating more. For all volcanic areas, highest accumulation was found for S (1-1000 μmol·(g·d)- 1), followed by Fe and Mg (0.1-10 μmol·(g·d)- 1), Sr, Ba, Pb, Cr, Li (10- 4-10- 1 μmol·(g·d)- 1), then Co, Mo and the volatile elements As, Sb, Se, Tl, Bi (10- 6-10- 2 μmol·(g·d)- 1). For most elements, open conduit volcanoes (Etna, Stromboli, Nyiragongo) showed higher moss accumulation rates than more quiescent hydrothermal areas (Vulcano > Nisyros > Yellowstone National Park) and a correlation of S, Fe, and Pb from eruptive ash and lava emissions. For some volatile elements (S, As, Se), higher accumulation was observed within fumarolic fields compared to crater rims of open conduit volcanoes which is a relevant information for risk assessment of tourist exposure to volcanic gases.

  13. A single exposure to cocaine during development elicits regionally-selective changes in basal basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF-2) gene expression and alters the trophic response to a second injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotti, Giuseppe; Caffino, Lucia; Malpighi, Chiara; Melfi, Simona; Racagni, Giorgio; Fumagalli, Fabio

    2015-02-01

    During adolescence, the brain is maturing and more sensitive to drugs of abuse that can influence its developmental trajectory. Recently, attention has been focused on basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) given that its administration early in life enhances the acquisition of cocaine self-administration and sensitization at adulthood (Turner et al. (Pharmacol Biochem Behav 92:100-4, 2009), Clinton et al. (Pharmacol Biochem Behav103:6-17, 2012)). Additionally, we found that abstinence from adolescent cocaine exposure long lastingly dysregulates FGF-2 transcription (Giannotti et al. (Psychopharmacology (Berl) 225:553-60, 2013 ). The objectives of the study are to evaluate if (1) a single injection of cocaine (20 mg/kg) at postnatal day 35 alters FGF-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels and (2) the first injection influences the trophic response to a second injection (10 mg/kg) provided 24 h or 7 days later. We found regional differences in the FGF-2 expression pattern as either the first or the second injection of cocaine by themselves upregulated FGF-2 mRNA in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens while downregulating it in the hippocampus. The first injection influences the trophic response of the second. Of note, 24 h after the first injection, accumbal and hippocampal FGF-2 changes produced by cocaine in saline-pretreated rats were prevented in cocaine-pretreated rats. Conversely, in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus 7 days after the first injection, the cocaine-induced FGF-2 changes were modified by the subsequent exposure to the psychostimulant. These findings show that a single cocaine injection is sufficient to produce enduring changes in the adolescent brain and indicate that early cocaine priming alters the mechanisms regulating the trophic response in a brain region-specific fashion.

  14. Experimental study of 22Na fixation and decontamination by a fresh water moss: Platyhypnidium riparioides (Hedw). Dix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulquier, L.

    1976-01-01

    In investigating possible applications of radioecology research to sanitation control, the 22 Na uptake by a fresh-water moss: Platyhypnidium riparioides is examined. A silty/sandy sediment retains at most only 5% of the 22 Na introduced in the water. In case of radioactive discharge, the 22 Na remains essentially in solution in the water. Radioelement uptake by the mosses occurs rapidly, and an equilibrium condition is very quickly established with the water activity level. The concentration factor ranges from the 1.4 to 2 [fr

  15. Changes in the atmospheric deposition of minor and rare elements between 1975 and 2000 in south Sweden, as measured by moss analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühling, Ake; Tyler, Germund

    2004-10-01

    Elements emitted to the atmosphere are partly exported to more remote areas and contribute to the regional and territorial deposition rates. This study is based on the principle that carpet-forming bryophytes (pleurocarpic mosses) absorb elements and particles from rain, melting snow and dry deposition. We compare the concentrations of 60 elements in carpets of the forest moss Pleurozium schreberi sampled in 1975 and 2000 within a sparsely inhabited area dominated by forest and bogland in south Sweden. As an average for all the 60 elements, the median concentration was 2.7 times higher in 1975 than in 2000. The greatest difference was measured for Pb, although In, Bi, Ge, V, Sn, As and Ag had more than 5 times higher concentrations in 1975 than in 2000. Somewhat lower 1975/2000 concentration ratios (3.0-3.8) were measured for U, Sb, Cd, W, Ga, Fe, Li, and Be. The rare-earth elements (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu), except Eu as well as Th, Ni, Al, Ti, Hf, Nb, and Zr, had concentration ratios around the average (2.5-2.8). Possible causes of these changes are discussed. We conclude that reductions in anthropogenic dust emissions during recent decades have decreased the atmospheric deposition over northern Europe of most elements in the periodical system, as previously reported for a limited number of transition and heavy metals. Changes in the deposition of soil dust would be of minor importance to the decreased deposition rates.

  16. Changes in the atmospheric deposition of minor and rare elements between 1975 and 2000 in south Sweden, as measured by moss analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehling, Aake; Tyler, Germund

    2004-01-01

    Elements emitted to the atmosphere are partly exported to more remote areas and contribute to the regional and territorial deposition rates. This study is based on the principle that carpet-forming bryophytes (pleurocarpic mosses) absorb elements and particles from rain, melting snow and dry deposition. We compare the concentrations of 60 elements in carpets of the forest moss Pleurozium schreberi sampled in 1975 and 2000 within a sparsely inhabited area dominated by forest and bogland in south Sweden. As an average for all the 60 elements, the median concentration was 2.7 times higher in 1975 than in 2000. The greatest difference was measured for Pb, although In, Bi, Ge, V, Sn, As and Ag had more than 5 times higher concentrations in 1975 than in 2000. Somewhat lower 1975/2000 concentration ratios (3.0-3.8) were measured for U, Sb, Cd, W, Ga, Fe, Li, and Be. The rare-earth elements (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu), except Eu as well as Th, Ni, Al, Ti, Hf, Nb, and Zr, had concentration ratios around the average (2.5-2.8). Possible causes of these changes are discussed. We conclude that reductions in anthropogenic dust emissions during recent decades have decreased the atmospheric deposition over northern Europe of most elements in the periodical system, as previously reported for a limited number of transition and heavy metals. Changes in the deposition of soil dust would be of minor importance to the decreased deposition rates

  17. Basic Information about Your Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Offices Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Ground Water and Drinking Water Contact Us Share Basic Information about Your Drinking Water Infographic: How does your water system work? The ...

  18. Gamma emitters in lichens and mosses from lands along the Northwest Passage (Arctic)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cwanek, A.; Lokas, E.; Mietelski, J.W. [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, E. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Olech, M.A. [Institute of Botany, Jagiellonian University, Zdzislaw Czeppe Department of Polar Research and Documentation, Kopernika 27, 31-501 Krakow (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    The Northwest Passage in the Arctic is a sea rout from Greenland through the straits of the Canadian Arctic to the Bering Strait. The passage can only by navigated during the short polar summer, the rest of the year it is entirely frozen. For many years lands (islands and peninsulas) along it were not accessible from the sea for sampling of lichens and mosses due the ice covering it even in summer or due to serious danger of collision with massive ice pack. In last summers it become available for travel even using small yacht 'Marguerite' with the French-Polish crew (capt. Janusz Kurbiel, Joelle Kurbiel, Maria Olech, Tomasz Kosinski), which crossed the Northern Passage within 28 days, reaching the Bering Strait on 16 September 2012. Samples of lichens and mosses were collected in this expedition from coastal zones of western Greenland, north Canada and Alaska. They were collected in several locations on islands and peninsulas along the rout. After identification of species samples are dried, homogenized and analyzed by means of low background gamma spectrometry in aim of determination of gamma emitters, mostly the {sup 137}Cs, activity. The measurements are in initial state during writing this abstract. They scheduled for first half of 2014. Next we intend to do radiochemical analysis for determination {sup 238,239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 90}Sr. This measurement will start before September 2014, so initial results will be also presented. (authors)

  19. Elevational patterns of genetic variation in the cosmopolitan moss Bryum argenteum (Bryaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisa, Sergio; Werner, Olaf; Vanderpoorten, Alain; Magdy, Mahmoud; Ros, Rosa M

    2013-10-01

    The Baas Becking tenet posits that 'everything is everywhere, but the environment selects' to explain cosmopolitan distributions in highly vagile taxa. Bryophyte species show wider distributions than vascular plants and include examples of truly cosmopolitan ranges, which have been interpreted as a result of high dispersal capacities and ecological plasticity. In the current study, we documented patterns of genetic structure and diversity in the cosmopolitan moss Bryum argenteum along an elevational gradient to determine if genetic diversity and structure is homogenized by intense migrations in the lack of ecological differentiation. • 60 specimens were collected in the Sierra Nevada Mountains (Spain) between 100 and 2870 m and sequenced for ITS and rps4. Comparative analyses, genetic diversity estimators, and Mantel's tests were employed to determine the relationship between genetic variation, elevation, and geographic distance and to look for signs of demographic shifts. • Genetic diversity peaked above 1900 m and no signs of demographic shifts were detected at any elevation. There was a strong phylogenetic component in elevational variation. Genetic variation was significantly correlated with elevation, but not with geographic distance. • The results point to the long-term persistence of Bryum argenteum in a range that was glaciated during the Late Pleistocene. Evidence for an environmentally driven pattern of genetic differentiation suggests adaptive divergence. This supports the Baas Becking tenet and indicates that ecological specialization might play a key role in explaining patterns of genetic structure in cosmopolitan mosses.

  20. A Phytosociological Study on the Moss and Lichen Communities in Cape Hinode, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Kobayashi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Under the project of the 15th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition, the field investigation was carried out between December 30, 1973 and January 6, 1974 in Cape Hinode. This paper was undertaken to classify and describe the moss and lichen communities in Cape Hinode according to the vegetation concept and method of the Zrich-Montpellier (Z-M school of phytosociology. The following vegetation units of moss and lichen communities were classified: A. Ceratodontetum purpurei ass. nov.: 1. Subass. of typicum, 2. Subass. of Protoblastenia citrina, 3. Subass. of Protoblastenia citrina-Rinodina olivaceobrunnea, 4. Subass. of Rinodina olivaceobrunnea, 5. Subass. of Alectoria minuscula, 6. Subass. of Alectoria minuscula-Buellia frigida, 7. Subass. of Buellia frigida; B. Buellietum frigidae ass. nov.: 8. Subass. of typicum, 9. Subass. of Caloplaca elegans var. pulvinata; C. Alectorietum minusculae ass. nov.: 10. Subass. of Buellia frigida, 11. Subass. of typicum. Each vegetation unit classified was described with an association table showing floristic composition and data on growing habitat. The distribution of each subassociation was shown on the map. The relationships among 11 classified subassociations were examined using the similarity index.

  1. Crown Group Lejeuneaceae and Pleurocarpous Mosses in Early Eocene (Ypresian Indian Amber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Heinrichs

    Full Text Available Cambay amber originates from the warmest period of the Eocene, which is also well known for the appearance of early angiosperm-dominated megathermal forests. The humid climate of these forests may have triggered the evolution of epiphytic lineages of bryophytes; however, early Eocene fossils of bryophytes are rare. Here, we present evidence for lejeuneoid liverworts and pleurocarpous mosses in Cambay amber. The preserved morphology of the moss fossil is inconclusive for a detailed taxonomic treatment. The liverwort fossil is, however, distinctive; its zig-zagged stems, suberect complicate-bilobed leaves, large leaf lobules, and small, deeply bifid underleaves suggest a member of Lejeuneaceae subtribe Lejeuneinae (Harpalejeunea, Lejeunea, Microlejeunea. We tested alternative classification possibilities by conducting divergence time estimates based on DNA sequence variation of Lejeuneinae using the age of the fossil for corresponding age constraints. Consideration of the fossil as a stem group member of Microlejeunea or Lejeunea resulted in an Eocene to Late Cretaceous age of the Lejeuneinae crown group. This reconstruction is in good accordance with published divergence time estimates generated without the newly presented fossil evidence. Balancing available evidence, we describe the liverwort fossil as the extinct species Microlejeunea nyiahae, representing the oldest crown group fossil of Lejeuneaceae.

  2. Multielement atmospheric deposition study in Croatia using moss biomonitoring, NAA, AAS and GIS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiric, Z.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Gundorina, S.F.; Ostrovnaya, T.M.; Stafilov, T.; Enimiteva, V.; Steinnes, E.; Bukovec, D.

    2009-01-01

    For the first time the moss biomonitoring technique and two complementary analytical techniques - neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) - were applied to study multielement atmospheric deposition in the Republic of Croatia. Moss samples were collected during the summer 2006 from 98 sites evenly distributed over the country. Sampling was performed in accordance with the LRTAP Convention - ICP Vegetation protocol and sampling strategy of the European Programme on Biomonitoring of Heavy Metal Atmospheric Deposition. Conventional and epithermal neutron activation analyses made it possible to determine concentrations of 41 elements including key heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Hg, and Cu determined by AAS. Principal component analysis (factor analysis with VARIMAX rotation) was applied to distinguish elements mainly of anthropogenic origin from those predominantly originating from natural sources. Geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using GIS technology. The median values for Croatia are consistent with the corresponding values for all Europe for most elements. It was shown that the Adriatic coastline of Croatia may be considered as an environmentally pristine area. This study was conducted for providing reliable assessment of air quality throughout Croatia and producing information needed for better identification of pollution sources and improving the potential for assessing environmental and health risks in Croatia associated with toxic metals

  3. Crown Group Lejeuneaceae and Pleurocarpous Mosses in Early Eocene (Ypresian) Indian Amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Jochen; Scheben, Armin; Bechteler, Julia; Lee, Gaik Ee; Schäfer-Verwimp, Alfons; Hedenäs, Lars; Singh, Hukam; Pócs, Tamás; Nascimbene, Paul C; Peralta, Denilson F; Renner, Matt; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2016-01-01

    Cambay amber originates from the warmest period of the Eocene, which is also well known for the appearance of early angiosperm-dominated megathermal forests. The humid climate of these forests may have triggered the evolution of epiphytic lineages of bryophytes; however, early Eocene fossils of bryophytes are rare. Here, we present evidence for lejeuneoid liverworts and pleurocarpous mosses in Cambay amber. The preserved morphology of the moss fossil is inconclusive for a detailed taxonomic treatment. The liverwort fossil is, however, distinctive; its zig-zagged stems, suberect complicate-bilobed leaves, large leaf lobules, and small, deeply bifid underleaves suggest a member of Lejeuneaceae subtribe Lejeuneinae (Harpalejeunea, Lejeunea, Microlejeunea). We tested alternative classification possibilities by conducting divergence time estimates based on DNA sequence variation of Lejeuneinae using the age of the fossil for corresponding age constraints. Consideration of the fossil as a stem group member of Microlejeunea or Lejeunea resulted in an Eocene to Late Cretaceous age of the Lejeuneinae crown group. This reconstruction is in good accordance with published divergence time estimates generated without the newly presented fossil evidence. Balancing available evidence, we describe the liverwort fossil as the extinct species Microlejeunea nyiahae, representing the oldest crown group fossil of Lejeuneaceae.

  4. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  5. Hydromechanics - basic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Tak; Lee, Je Geun

    1987-03-01

    This book tells of hydromechanics, which is about basic properties of hydromechanics such as conception, definition, mass, power and weight, and perfect fluid and perfect gas, hydrostatics with summary, basic equation of hydrostatics, relative balance of hydrostatics, and kinematics of hydromechanics, description method of floating, hydromechanics about basic knowledge, equation of moment, energy equation and application of Bernoulli equation, application of momentum theory, inviscid flow and fluid measuring.

  6. Basic molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gorry, PA

    1985-01-01

    BASIC Molecular Spectroscopy discusses the utilization of the Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) programming language in molecular spectroscopy. The book is comprised of five chapters that provide an introduction to molecular spectroscopy through programs written in BASIC. The coverage of the text includes rotational spectra, vibrational spectra, and Raman and electronic spectra. The book will be of great use to students who are currently taking a course in molecular spectroscopy.

  7. Effects of leaf hair points of a desert moss on water retention and dew formation: implications for desiccation tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ye; Zhang, Yuan Ming

    2012-05-01

    Leaf hair points (LHPs) are important morphological structures in many desiccation-tolerant mosses, but study of their functions has been limited. A desert moss, Syntrichia caninervis, was chosen for examination of the ecological effects of LHPs on water retention and dew formation at individual and population (patch) levels. Although LHPs were only 4.77% of shoot weight, they were able to increase absolute water content (AWC) by 24.87%. The AWC of samples with LHPs was always greater than for those without LHPs during dehydration. The accumulative evaporation ratio (AER) showed an opposite trend. AWC, evaporation ratio and AER of shoots with LHPs took 20 min longer to reach a completely dehydrated state than shoots without LHPs. At the population level, dew formation on moss crusts with LHPs was faster than on crusts without LHPs, and the former had higher daily and total dew amounts. LHPs were able to improve dew amounts on crusts by 10.26%. Following three simulated rainfall events (1, 3 and 6 mm), AERs from crusts with LHPs were always lower than from crusts without LHPs. LHPs can therefore significantly delay and reduce evaporation. We confirm that LHPs are important desiccation-tolerant features of S. caninervis at both individual and population levels. LHPs greatly aid moss crusts in adapting to arid conditions.

  8. Stevesaltica, a new genus of moss and leaf-litter inhabiting flea beetles from Bolivia (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new genus (Stevesaltica) with two new species (S. normi and S. perdita) from Bolivia is described and illustrated. It is similar to Exoceras Jacoby. An identification key for all flea beetle genera known to occur in mosses in the Western Hemisphere is provided....

  9. Rare Moss-Built Microterraces in a High-Altitude, Acid Mine Drainage-Polluted Stream (Cordillera Negra, Peru)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevink, J.; Verstraten, J.M.; Kooijman, A.M.; Loayza-Muro, R.A.; Hoitinga, L.; Palomino, E.J.; Jansen, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Rio Santiago in the Cordillera Negra of Peru is severely contaminated by acid mine drainage in its headwaters. In a strongly acid stream, at about 3800 m above sea level (masl), microterraces were found with terrace walls built up of dead moss, with encrustations and interstitial fine, creamy

  10. Predicting Calcite (CaCO3) Requirements of Sphagnum Peat Moss from pH Titration Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming materials are required to neutralize acidity in peat moss to make it a suitable substrate for growing container crops. A series of time-consuming incubations of peat:lime mixtures are typically used to determine the liming rate to achieve a desired pH. Our objective was to evaluate the util...

  11. Atmospheric trace metal pollution in the Naples urban area based on results from moss and lichen bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, S.; Adamo, P.; Sorbo, S.; Vingiani, S.

    2005-01-01

    The results of trace element content analysed in Sphagnum capillifolium and Pseudevernia furfuracea exposed in bags in 1999 are reconsidered to evaluate the reliability of moss and lichen transplants to detect urban trace element atmospheric pollution, using Naples as a case example. After 4 months' exposure, trace element concentrations were at least twice as high as the pre-exposure values and in general higher in Sphagnum than in Pseudevernia. Moss samples were enriched in the following order: As = Cu > Mo > Pb > V > Co > Cr > Zn; lichen samples in the order: Mo > Cu > As = Co = Ni > V > Pb. Based on the calculation of a cumulative load factor, all sites located along the coast had higher trace element loads compared to sites in the hilly inland area. Complementary SEM, TEM and EDS observations showed, despite significant damage to tissue and cell integrity, the recurrent presence of particulate matter in moss and lichen, indicating the considerable presence of dust in the urban atmosphere which, according to chemical composition, may be due both to anthropogenic and natural sources such as volcanic rock and soil and sea salts. - Despite significant damage to tissue and cell integrity, moss and lichen in bags efficiently intercept airborne trace elements

  12. Comparative radiocarbon dating of terrestrial plant macrofossils and aquatic moss from the ice-free corridor of western Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, G.M.; Beukens, R.P.; Kieser, W.E.; Vitt, D.H.

    1987-09-01

    In order to assess the reliability of aquatic moss for radiocarbon dating, /sup 14/C analyses were performed on a stratigraphic series of terrestrial plant macrofossils and samples of Drepanocladus crassicostatus from a small, hard-water lake (pH = 8.2) in the ice-free corridor of Alberta. All /sup 14/C dating was done by using accelerator mass spectrometry. Mazama Ash provided an independent chronological control. The aquatic bryophyte samples consistently produced /sup 14/C ages significantly older than the terrestrial macrofossils. The relation between the radiocarbon dates from the macrofossils and the moss was not linear, and age differences ranged from approximately 1400 to 6400 yr. The /sup 14/C content of D. crassicostatus growing in the lake at present was less than 85% modern. Despite the apparent inability to take up /sup 14/C-deficient carbon by the direct incorporation of bicarbonate, the bryophytes clearly do not provide reliable material /sup 14/C dating. The /sup 14/C deficiency of aquatic mosses may be explained by the generation of /sup 14/C-deficient CO/sub 2/ through isotopic exchange, the formation of CO/sub 2/ from bicarbonate by chemical processes, and metabolic CO/sub 2/ production. These results demonstrate the potential unreliability of /sup 14/C dates from aquatic mosses and raise serious concerns about the deglaciation dates from the ice-free corridor that were obtained from aquatic Drepanocladus.

  13. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric method for the determination of oak moss allergens atranol and chloroatranol in perfumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossi, Rossana; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Bernard, Guillaume

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a validated liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method for quantitative analysis of the potential oak moss allergens atranol and chloroatranol in perfumes and similar products. The method employs LC-MS-MS with electrospray ionization (ESI) in negative mode...

  14. Nitrogen deposition drives loss of moss cover in alpine moss-sedge heath via lowered C : N ratio and accelerated decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Andrea J; Mitchell, Ruth J; Fisher, Julia M; Riach, David J; Taylor, Andy F S

    2018-04-01

    In alpine ecosystems, nitrogen (N) deposition has been linked to plant community composition change, including loss of bryophytes and increase of graminoids. Since bryophyte growth is stimulated by increased N availability, it has been hypothesized that loss of bryophyte cover is driven by enhanced decomposition. As bryophyte mats are a significant carbon (C) store, their loss may impact C storage in these ecosystems. We used an N deposition gradient across 15 sites in the UK to examine effects of N deposition on bryophyte litter quality, decomposition and C and N stocks in Racomitrium moss-sedge heath. Increasing N deposition reduced C : N in bryophyte litter, which in turn enhanced decomposition. Soil N stocks increased significantly in response to increased N deposition, and soil C : N declined. However, depletion of the bryophyte mat and its replacement by graminoids under high N deposition was not associated with a change in total ecosystem C stocks. We conclude that decomposition processes in Racomitrium heath are very sensitive to N deposition and provide a mechanism by which N deposition drives depletion of the bryophyte mat. Nitrogen deposition did not measurably alter C stocks, but changes in soil N stocks and C : N suggest the ecosystem is becoming N saturated. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Finding Basic Writing's Place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan-Rabideau, Mary P.; Brossell, Gordon

    1995-01-01

    Posits that basic writing serves a vital function by providing writing support for at-risk students and serves the needs of a growing student population that universities accept yet feel needs additional writing instruction. Concludes that the basic writing classroom is the most effective educational support for at-risk students and their writing.…

  16. Biomass Energy Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass Energy Basics Biomass Energy Basics We have used biomass energy, or "bioenergy" keep warm. Wood is still the largest biomass energy resource today, but other sources of biomass can landfills (which are methane, the main component in natural gas) can be used as a biomass energy source. A

  17. Wind Energy Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind Energy Basics Wind Energy Basics We have been harnessing the wind's energy for hundreds of grinding grain. Today, the windmill's modern equivalent-a wind turbine can use the wind's energy to most energy. At 100 feet (30 meters) or more aboveground, they can take advantage of the faster and

  18. Solar Energy Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar Energy Basics Solar Energy Basics Solar is the Latin word for sun-a powerful source of energy that can be used to heat, cool, and light our homes and businesses. That's because more energy from the technologies convert sunlight to usable energy for buildings. The most commonly used solar technologies for

  19. Learning Visual Basic NET

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Learning Visual Basic .NET is a complete introduction to VB.NET and object-oriented programming. By using hundreds of examples, this book demonstrates how to develop various kinds of applications--including those that work with databases--and web services. Learning Visual Basic .NET will help you build a solid foundation in .NET.

  20. Health Insurance Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Health Insurance Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Health Insurance Basics What's ... thought advanced calculus was confusing. What Exactly Is Health Insurance? Health insurance is a plan that people buy ...

  1. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Body Basics articles explain just how each body system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ... Teeth Skin, Hair, and Nails Spleen and Lymphatic System ... Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  2. Interactive effects of moss-dominated crusts and Artemisia ordosica on wind erosion and soil moisture in Mu Us sandland, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongsheng; Bu, Chongfeng; Mu, Xingmin; Shao, Hongbo; Zhang, Kankan

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the effects of biological soil crusts (BSCs) on soil moisture and wind erosion and study the necessity and feasibility of disturbance of BSCs in the Mu Us sandland, the effects of four treatments, including moss-dominated crusts alone, Artemisia ordosica alone, bare sand, and Artemisia ordosica combined with moss-dominated crusts, on rainwater infiltration, soil moisture, and annual wind erosion were observed. The major results are as follows. (1) The development of moss-dominated crusts exacerbated soil moisture consumption and had negative effects on soil moisture in the Mu Us sandland. (2) Moss-dominated crusts significantly increased soil resistance to wind erosion, and when combined with Artemisia ordosica, this effect became more significant. The contribution of moss-dominated crusts under Artemisia ordosica was significantly lower than that of moss-dominated crusts alone in sites where vegetative coverage > 50%. (3) Finally, an appropriate disturbance of moss-dominated crusts in the rainy season in sites with high vegetative coverage improved soil water environment and vegetation succession, but disturbance in sites with little or no vegetative cover should be prohibited to avoid the exacerbation of wind erosion.

  3. Air pollution biomonitoring using terrestrial mosses; Il biomonitoraggio di pollutanti nell`aria mediante i muschi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenci, R. M. [C.C.R. Ispra, Istituto dell`Ambiente, La Spezia (Italy); Palmieri, F.; Mousty, F. [U.S.L. n.5, La Spezia (Italy)

    1998-06-01

    The spatial-temporal concentration of elements harmful for life has been investigated using terrestrial mosses of the Hypnum cupressiforme species. The results obtained have been implemented with elements of soil collected in the same area, for a wider information. Concerning the mosses, the investigated elements are: Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, Ti, V, and Zn. The elements investigated on soil samples, collected only once, are: As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu and Pb. The results obtained allowed to identify an area of about 100 Kmq, located North-West with regard to La Spezia city (Italy), where the concentrations are higher than the remaining area. In the smaller investigation area, a surface of 0,12 kmq was found where the fall out rate for Pb is 0,21 g m-2 y-1, a value three times greater than the maximal european value tested in Rumania area (Ruehling, 1994). Mosses, which are highly efficient indicators of atmospheric pollution, have permitted to identify anthropogenic polluted areas and to evaluate the fall out rate. [Italiano] Mediante l`utilizzo del muschio appartenente alla specie Hypnum cupressiforme e` stata valutata la distribuzione nello spazio e nel tempo della concentrazione di elementi dannosi per la salute dell`uomo. I dati raccolti sono stati ampliati analizzando campioni di suolo raccolti nelle medesime localita`. Complessivamente sono state approntate 32 stazioni. Dopo il posizionamento i talli di muschio venivano raccolti per tre volte con cadenza quadrimestrale. per quanto riguarda i muschi sono state integrate le concentrazioni dei seguenti elementi: Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, Ti, V, e Zn. Nei suoli, raccolti una sola volta, l`elenco degli elementi e` stato il seguente: As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu e Pb. I risultati ottenuti hanno permesso l`identificazione di un`area di circa 100 kmq posta a Nord-Ovest della citta` di La Spezia, dove le concentrazioni di As, Co, Ni, Cu, Ti e V sono superiori rispetto alla restante area. Nella piccola area

  4. Assessment of species-specific and temporal variations of major, trace and rare earth elements in vineyard ambient using moss bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milićević, Tijana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Vuković, Gordana; Škrivanj, Sandra; Relić, Dubravka; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Popović, Aleksandar

    2017-10-01

    Since the methodological parameters of moss bag biomonitoring have rarely been investigated for the application in agricultural areas, two mosses, Sphagnum girgensohnii (a species of the most recommended biomonitoring genus) and Hypnum cupressiforme (commonly available), were verified in a vineyard ambient. The moss bags were exposed along transects in six vineyard parcels during the grapevine season (March‒September 2015). To select an appropriate period for the reliable 'signal' of the element enrichment in the mosses, the bags were simultaneously exposed during five periods (3 × 2 months, 1 × 4 months, and 1 × 6 months). Assuming that vineyard is susceptible to contamination originated from different agricultural treatments, a wide range of elements (41) were determined in the moss and topsoil samples. The mosses were significantly enriched by the elements during the 2-month bag exposure which gradually increasing up to 6 months, but Cu and Ni exhibited the noticeable fluctuations during the grapevine season. However, the 6-month exposure of moss bags could be recommended for comparative studies among different vineyards because it reflects the ambient pollution comprising unpredictable treatments of grapevine applied during the whole season. Although higher element concentrations were determined in S. girgensohnii than H. cupressiforme, both species reflected the spatio-temporal changes in the ambient element content. Moreover, the significant correlation of the element (Cr, Cu, Sb, and Ti) concentrations between the mosses, and the same pairs of the elements correlated within the species, imply the comparable use of S. girgensohnii and H. cupressiforme in the vineyard (agricultural) ambient. Finally, both the moss bags and the soil analyses suggest that vineyard represents a dominant diffuse pollution source of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Fe, and V. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Biomonitoring of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb using lichens and mosses around coal-fired power plants in Western Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sert, Emel, E-mail: emel.sert@mail.ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Ugur, Aysun, E-mail: aysun.ugur@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Ozden, Banu, E-mail: banu.ozden@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Sac, Mueslim Murat, E-mail: muslum.murat.sac@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Camgoez, Berkay, E-mail: berkay.camgoz@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    2011-06-15

    Mosses and lichens are useful biological indicators of environmental contamination for a variety of metals and radionuclides of both natural and artificial origin. These plants lack a well-developed root system and rely largely on atmospheric deposition for nourishment. Therefore in the study, different lichens (Cladonia convoluta, Cladonia foliacea) and mosses (Homalothecium sericeum, Hypnum lacunosum, Hypnum cupressiforme, Tortella tortuosa, Didymodon acutus, Syntrichia ruralis, Syntrichia intermedia, Pterogonium graciale, Isothecium alopecuroides, Pleurochatae squarrosa) were collected around the Yatagan (Mugla), Soma (Manisa), Seyitoemer - Tuncbilek (Kuetahya) coal-fired power plants and investigated for potential use as biomonitors for {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb deposition. While the activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in lichens are in the ranges of 151 {+-} 7-593 {+-} 21 and 97 {+-} 5-364 {+-} 13 Bq kg{sup -1}, for mosses the ranges for {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb are 124 {+-} 5-1125 {+-} 38 and 113 {+-} 4-490 {+-} 17 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. In the study, the moss samples were observed to accumulate more {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb compared to lichens. While the most suitable biomonitor was a moss species (H. lacunosum) for Yatagan (Mugla), it was another moss species (S. intermedia) for Soma (Manisa) and Seyitoemer - Tuncbilek (Kuetahya) sites. {sup 210}Po concentrations were found higher than {sup 210}Pb concentrations at the all sampling stations. - Highlights: > Lichens and mosses have been used as biomonitors of 210Po and 210Pb deposition. > The morphology of lichens and mosses does not vary with seasons. > Lichens and mosses retain and accumulate pollutants deposited from the atmosphere. > Canopy is an important factor causing differences in the concentrations of radionuclides.

  6. The Contribution of Mosses to the Complex Pattern of Diurnal and Seasonal Metabolism the wet Coastal Tundra Ecosystems Near Barrow Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zona, D.; Oechel, W.; Hastings, S.; Oberbauer, S.; Kopetz, I.; Ikawa, H.

    2006-12-01

    Despite the abundance and importance bryophytes in the Alaskan Arctic tundra there is relatively little information on the role of these plants in determining the CO2 fluxes of Arctic tundra and, in particular, the environmental controls and climate change sensitivities of current and future photosynthesis in Arctic mosses. Studies in the tundra biome during the IBP program implicated high light together with high temperature as causes of decreases in photosynthesis in arctic mosses. Several authors have reported midday depression of moss photosynthesis due to high irradiance, even under optimum temperature and fully hydrated conditions. The focus of this study is to understand the role of Sphagnum ssp. mosses of various species, the dominant moss in the Alaska coastal wet Tundra on the total ecosystem carbon exchange throughout the season and in particular soon after snowmelt when the ecosystem is a carbon source. Our hypothesis is that the ecosystem carbon source activity during this critical period may be a result of sensitivity of mosses to light and photoinhibition in the absence of the protective canopy layer of vascular plants. In this study we measured daily courses of photosynthesis and fluorescence in the moss layer and we compare it to the total ecosystem carbon fluxes determined by the eddy covariance technique. The measurements were conducted in wet coastal tundra from June 2006, right after the snow melt, to August 2006 in the Biological Experimental Observatory (BEO) in Barrow, Alaska. The photosynthesis in the moss layer was found to be strongly inhibited when the radiation exceeded 800 ìmol m-2 s-1. Mosses remained fully hydrated throughout the season, precluding drying as a cause of decreased photosynthesis. Dark-adapted fluorescence measurements (Fv/Fm) showed a relatively low value (0.6) right after the snow melt, and remained fairly stable throughout the season. This low value was previously reported as characteristic of photoinhibited

  7. Interactive effects of fire, soil climate, and moss on CO2 fluxes in black spruce ecosystems of interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Jonathan A.; Turetsky, Merritt R.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Manies, Kristen L.; Pruett, L.E.; Shetler, Gordon; Neff, Jason C.

    2009-01-01

    Fire is an important control on the carbon (C) balance of the boreal forest region. Here, we present findings from two complementary studies that examine how fire modifies soil organic matter properties, and how these modifications influence rates of decomposition and C exchange in black spruce (Picea mariana) ecosystems of interior Alaska. First, we used laboratory incubations to explore soil temperature, moisture, and vegetation effects on CO2 and DOC production rates in burned and unburned soils from three study regions in interior Alaska. Second, at one of the study regions used in the incubation experiments, we conducted intensive field measurements of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and ecosystem respiration (ER) across an unreplicated factorial design of burning (2 year post-fire versus unburned sites) and drainage class (upland forest versus peatland sites). Our laboratory study showed that burning reduced the sensitivity of decomposition to increased temperature, most likely by inducing moisture or substrate quality limitations on decomposition rates. Burning also reduced the decomposability of Sphagnum-derived organic matter, increased the hydrophobicity of feather moss-derived organic matter, and increased the ratio of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) in both the upland and peatland sites. At the ecosystem scale, our field measurements indicate that the surface organic soil was generally wetter in burned than in unburned sites, whereas soil temperature was not different between the burned and unburned sites. Analysis of variance results showed that ER varied with soil drainage class but not by burn status, averaging 0.9 ± 0.1 and 1.4 ± 0.1 g C m−2 d−1 in the upland and peatland sites, respectively. However, a more complex general linear model showed that ER was controlled by an interaction between soil temperature, moisture, and burn status, and in general was less variable over time in the burned than in the

  8. Study on accumulation mechanism of Cu and Pb in moss, Scopelophila cataractae, by micro-XRF imaging and XAFS analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Yuichi; Nakai, Izumi; Hokura, Akiko; Abe, Tomoko; Itouga, Misao; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Terada, Yasuko

    2011-01-01

    Scopelophila cataractae is known as a 'copper moss'. It is known as a peculiar moss which can accumulate high level of metals (Cu, Pb, etc.) in its plant body. This moss is expected as a material to collect metals from water. In this study, gametophyte's leaf of the moss was examined by μ-XRF imaging, and Cu K-edge and Pb L 1 -, L 3 -edge XAFS analyses to reveal the accumulation behavior of Cu and Pb. μ-XRF imaging was carried out utilizing X-ray microbeam at BL37XU, SPring-8 from the undulator source, and at BL-4A, Photon Factory KEK from the bending magnet. The results have revealed that Cu and Pb were accumulated on the cell wall of the leaf, and especially at the stereid cells of midrib. It was found that Cu-XANES spectra of the leaf were similar to that of copper(II) acetate, a reference substance. On the other hand, Pb XANES spectra of the leaf were similar to that of a reference, lead(II) stearate. These results suggested that these metals were bound to oxygen of carboxyl group in the plant. Consequently, it is assumed that Cu and Pb could be bound to acidic sugar which is a component of its cell wall such as pectic acid, polygalacturonic acid and others. Furthermore, to compare with other heavy-metal accumulating moss (Scopelophila ligulata and Sphagnum palustre), their gametophyte's leaves were also examined by μ-XRF imaging. S. ligulata accumulated Pb in its stereid cells of midlib, while S. palustre accumulated Pb in its hyaline cells. (author)

  9. Monitoring Heavy Metal Contents with Sphagnum Junghuhnianum Moss Bags in Relation to Traffic Volume in Wuxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Hu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite its small size, a moss bag can reveal the different temporal and spatial deposition patterns of pollutants at a particular site; therefore, researchers can use moss bags to determine pollution sources and to put forward strategies for pollution control. Although the use of moss bags to monitor atmospheric pollution has been widely reported in Europe, there are few such empirical studies in China. Thus, in this study, bags containing the moss Sphagnum junghuhnianum were used to assess the concentrations of heavy metals (chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, vanadium (V, and zinc (Zn at five sampling sites (four roads and a forest park during the summer and winter of 2012. According to the relative accumulation factor (RAF and contamination factor (CF results, pollution in winter was heavier than that in summer, and Cr was found to be the most contaminating, having the highest mean CF. There was a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05 between traffic volume and concentration for three heavy metals (Cr, Cu, and V in winter, whereas a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05 was observed between traffic volume and concentrations for four heavy metal elements (Cr, Pb, V, and Zn in summer, indicating a close relationship between heavy metal contents and traffic volume. Although there was substantial variation in the concentrations of the five heavy metals in the moss bags, significant correlations between heavy metals suggested that the contaminants originated from a common source, namely vehicle emissions. The results demonstrated that the four roads were subject to different degrees of pollution depending on the volume of traffic using each road. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that traffic volume is a major reason for heavy metal pollution.

  10. Response of photosynthetic carbon gain to ecosystem retrogression of vascular plants and mosses in the boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sheel; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Wardle, David A

    2012-07-01

    In the long-term absence of rejuvenating disturbances, forest succession frequently proceeds from a maximal biomass phase to a retrogressive phase characterized by reduced nutrient availability [notably nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)] and net primary productivity. Few studies have considered how retrogression induces changes in ecophysiological responses associated with photosynthetic carbon (C) gain, and only for trees. We tested the hypothesis that retrogression would negatively impact photosynthetic C gain of four contrasting species, and that this impact would be greater for vascular plants (i.e., trees and shrubs) than for non-vascular plants (i.e., mosses). We used a 5,000-year-old chronosequence of forested islands in Sweden, where retrogression occurs in the long-term absence of lightning-ignited wildfires. Despite fundamental differences in plant form and ecological niche among species, vascular plants and mosses showed similar ecophysiological responses to retrogression. The most common effects of retrogression were reductions in photosynthesis and respiration per unit foliar N, increases in foliar N, δ(13)C and δ(15)N, and decreases in specific leaf areas. In contrast, photosynthesis per unit mass or area generally did not change along the chronosequence, but did vary many-fold between vascular plants and mosses. The consistent increases in foliar N without corresponding increases in mass- or area-based photosynthesis suggest that other factor(s), such as P co-limitation, light conditions or water availability, may co-regulate C gain in retrogressive boreal forests. Against our predictions, traits of mosses associated with C and N were generally highly responsive to retrogression, which has implications for how mosses influence ecosystem processes in boreal forests.

  11. Monitoring Heavy Metal Contents with Sphagnum Junghuhnianum Moss Bags in Relation to Traffic Volume in Wuxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rong; Yan, Yun; Zhou, Xiaoli; Wang, Yanan; Fang, Yanming

    2018-02-22

    Despite its small size, a moss bag can reveal the different temporal and spatial deposition patterns of pollutants at a particular site; therefore, researchers can use moss bags to determine pollution sources and to put forward strategies for pollution control. Although the use of moss bags to monitor atmospheric pollution has been widely reported in Europe, there are few such empirical studies in China. Thus, in this study, bags containing the moss Sphagnum junghuhnianum were used to assess the concentrations of heavy metals (chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)) at five sampling sites (four roads and a forest park) during the summer and winter of 2012. According to the relative accumulation factor (RAF) and contamination factor (CF) results, pollution in winter was heavier than that in summer, and Cr was found to be the most contaminating, having the highest mean CF. There was a significant positive correlation ( p heavy metals (Cr, Cu, and V) in winter, whereas a significant positive correlation ( p heavy metal elements (Cr, Pb, V, and Zn) in summer, indicating a close relationship between heavy metal contents and traffic volume. Although there was substantial variation in the concentrations of the five heavy metals in the moss bags, significant correlations between heavy metals suggested that the contaminants originated from a common source, namely vehicle emissions. The results demonstrated that the four roads were subject to different degrees of pollution depending on the volume of traffic using each road. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that traffic volume is a major reason for heavy metal pollution.

  12. DNA molecular markers in mosses and their use for the characterization of a Sphagnum palustre clone, for its exploitation as a passive contaminant sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo Pardo, David

    2015-01-01

    The control of the air quality is often assessed by the use of terrestrial mosses. However, due to the lack of standardization in the used techniques, the comparison between the available studies is difficult. My PhD thesis was related to the European project FP7-Mossclone. The aim of this project is the development of a standardized method for biomonitoring the level of atmospheric pollution through the use of a devitalized moss clone of Sphagnum palustre, using the moss bags technique. My p...

  13. From basic needs to basic rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facio, A

    1995-06-01

    After arriving at an understanding that basic rights refer to all human needs, it is clear that a recognition of the basic needs of female humans must precede the realization of their rights. The old Women in Development (WID) framework only understood women's needs from an androcentric perspective which was limited to practical interests. Instead, women's primary need is to be free from their subordination to men. Such an understanding places all of women's immediate needs in a new light. A human rights approach to development would see women not as beneficiaries but as people entitled to enjoy the benefits of development. Discussion of what equality before the law should mean to women began at the Third World Conference on Women in Nairobi where the issue of violence against women was first linked to development. While debate continues about the distinction between civil and political rights and economic, social, and cultural rights, the realities of women's lives do not permit such a distinction. The concept of the universality of human rights did not become codified until the UN proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. The declaration has been criticized by feminists because the view of human rights it embodies has been too strongly influenced by a liberal Western philosophy which stresses individual rights and because it is ambiguous on the distinction between human rights and the rights of a citizen. The protection of rights afforded by the Declaration, however, should not be viewed as a final achievement but as an ongoing struggle. International conferences have led to an analysis of the human-rights approach to sustainable development which concludes that women continue to face the routine denial of their rights. Each human right must be redefined from the perspective of women's needs, which must also be redefined. Women must forego challenging the concept of the universality of human rights in order to overcome the argument of cultural

  14. Basic rocks in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piirainen, T.; Gehoer, S.; Iljina, M.; Kaerki, A.; Paakkola, J.; Vuollo, J.

    1992-10-01

    Basic igneous rocks, containing less than 52% SiO 2 , constitute an important part of the Finnish Archaean and Proterozoic crust. In the Archaean crust exist two units which contain the majority of the basic rocks. The Arcaean basic rocks are metavolcanics and situated in the Greenstone Belts of Eastern Finland. They are divided into two units. The greenstones of the lower one are tholeiites, komatiites and basaltic komatiites. The upper consists of bimodal series of volcanics and the basic rocks of which are Fe-tholeiites, basaltic komatiites and komatiites. Proterozoic basic rocks are divided into seven groups according to their ages. The Proterozoic igneous activity started by the volominous basic magmatism 2.44 Ga ago. During this stage formed the layered intrusions and related dykes in the Northern Finland. 2.2 Ga old basic rocks are situated at the margins of Karelian formations. 2.1 Ga aged Fe-tholeiitic magmatic activity is widespread in Eastern and Northern Finland. The basic rocks of 1.97 Ga age group are met within the Karelian Schist Belts as obducted ophiolite complexes but they occur also as tholeiitic diabase dykes cutting the Karelian schists and Archean basement. The intrusions and the volcanics of the 1.9 Ga old basic igneous activity are mostly encountered around the Granitoid Complex of Central Finland. Subjotnian, 1.6 Ga aged tholeiitic diabases are situated around the Rapakivi massifs of Southern Finland, and postjotnian, 1.2 Ga diabases in Western Finland where they form dykes cutting Svecofennian rocks

  15. Flora and Fauna on Backs of Large Papuan Moss-Forest Weevils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressitt, J L; Sedlacek, J; Szent-Ivany, J J

    1965-12-31

    Large, living, flightless weevils feeding on leaves of woody plants high moss forest on various New Guinea mountain ranges have plant growth on their backs. Fungi and algae have been found on 11 species of Gymnopholus, lichens on six species, and liverworts on one species. In other genera of weevils, on the same mountains, there are additional specific associations with fungi, algae, lichens, and liverworts. The fungi and lichens, at least, are inhabited by oribatid mites of a new family, which may spread the plants from beetle to beetle. Also, nematodes, rotifers, psocids, and diatoms occur among the plants. Specialized scales or hairs, and a secretion, in depressions on the weevils' backs, appear to be associated with cpcouragement of the plant growth. Mutualistic symbiotic relationships seem to be clearly indicated.

  16. Use of Spanish Moss as an atmospheric monitor for trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padaki, P.M.; McWilliams, E.L.; James, W.D

    1992-01-01

    Samples of Spanish Moss (Tillandsia usneoides L.) were analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and inductively coupled argon plasma emission spectrometry (ICP) for trace elements as atmospheric environmental monitors. The plant material was collected at a single location in east Texas, then deployed along a 6*6 matrix gridwork in the extreme northeastern corner of the state. The study area includes several possible pollution sources including fossil fuel fired power plants. Two separate study periods were conducted, one during the summer months of 1989 and the other the following winter. Concentrations of about 35 elements were determined and contour plots for each element were prepared for each study period. Concentration ranges were found to be somewhat lower than those reported in other studies using epihytic plants as environmental indicators. Initial correlations between elements and the possible relationships to pollution sources are discussed. (author) 10 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  17. PREFACE: The 4th Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures (MoSS2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dengqing; Kaczmarczyk, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains papers presented at the 4th Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures (MoSS2013) run under the auspices of the Institute of Physics Applied Mechanics Group and hosted by Harbin Institute of Technology (China) from 7-9 January 2013. The conference has been organized in collaboration with the Technical Committee on Vibration and Sound of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and follows a one day seminar on Ropes, Cables, Belts and Chains: Theory and Applications and the MoSS2006 symposium held at the University of Northampton (UK) in 2004 and 2006, respectively, the MoSS2008 symposium held at the University of Maryland Baltimore County (USA) in 2008 and the MoSS2010 symposium hosted by Mondragon University and held in San Sebastian (Spain) in 2010. The remit of the Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures series involves a broad range of scientific areas. Applications of slender structures include terrestrial, marine and space systems. Moving elastic elements such as ropes, cables, belts and tethers are pivotal components of many engineering systems. Their lengths often vary when the system is in operation. The applications include vertical transportation installations and, more recently, space tether propulsion systems. Traction drive elevator installations employ ropes and belts of variable length as a means of suspension, and also for the compensation of tensile forces over the traction sheave. In cranes and mine hoists, cables and ropes are subject to length variation in order to carry payloads. Tethers experiencing extension and retraction are important components of offshore and marine installations, as well as being proposed for a variety of different space vehicle propulsion systems based on different applications of momentum exchange and electrodynamic interactions with planetary magnetic fields. Furthermore, cables and slender rods are used extensively in civil engineering

  18. Three ancient hormonal cues co-ordinate shoot branching in a moss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudert, Yoan; Palubicki, Wojtek; Ljung, Karin; Novak, Ondrej; Leyser, Ottoline; Harrison, C Jill

    2015-03-25

    Shoot branching is a primary contributor to plant architecture, evolving independently in flowering plant sporophytes and moss gametophytes. Mechanistic understanding of branching is largely limited to flowering plants such as Arabidopsis, which have a recent evolutionary origin. We show that in gametophytic shoots of Physcomitrella, lateral branches arise by re-specification of epidermal cells into branch initials. A simple model co-ordinating the activity of leafy shoot tips can account for branching patterns, and three known and ancient hormonal regulators of sporophytic branching interact to generate the branching pattern- auxin, cytokinin and strigolactone. The mode of auxin transport required in branch patterning is a key divergence point from known sporophytic pathways. Although PIN-mediated basipetal auxin transport regulates branching patterns in flowering plants, this is not so in Physcomitrella, where bi-directional transport is required to generate realistic branching patterns. Experiments with callose synthesis inhibitors suggest plasmodesmal connectivity as a potential mechanism for transport.

  19. Participation of IAA in transduction of gravistimulus in apical cells of moss protonema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksyniuk, U. A.; Khorkavtsiv, O. Y.; Lesniak, Y. I.

    Growth movements of vascular plant axis organs -- photo-, gravi- and other tropisms -- are tightly connected with IAA transport (Hertel, 1983; Medvedev, 1996; Kiss, 2000). Moss protonema synthesizes IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) and transports it basipetally favouring growth and differentiation of caulonema (Bopp, 1979; Rose, Bopp, 1983; Rose et al., 1983). We aimed at studying the role of IAA in moss protonema gravitropism using exogenous IAA, 1-NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid), 2,4D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and inhibitors of polar IAA transport -- phytotropins NPA (N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid) and TIBA (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid). Six-day gravitropic protonema of Ceratodon purpureus and Pohlia nutans were taken for experiments. Auxin and phytotropins solutions were laid on protonema mats the latters being kept in solutions for 30 min. Then the surplus of solutions were poured off and Petri dishes were placed vertically for 6 h. 20 μ M of IAA and of other synthetic auxins did not significantly influence the angle of protonema gravity bending, 40 μ M of the agents, howewer, reduced the per cent of apical cells bendings and their angles. The most expressed influence on the angles of bending had the inhibitors of polar IAA transport -- NPA. 0,1 -- 3,0 μ M of this phytotropin did not change the form of apical cell, did not disturb the general distribution of amyloplasts and did not significantly lower the per cent and the value of gravity bending angle, though 10 μ M of the phytotropin - inhibited gravity bending. The mixture of 1-NAA and NPA having been added into the medium the influence of NPA was lowered and gravitropic growth renewed in course of time. 10 μ M of other phytopropin TIBA also inhibited gravitropism of Ceratodon purpureus and Pohlia nutans protonema. The analysis of basipetal transport of IAA in moss rhizoids and protonema may indicate the availability of special IAA transport in these structures (Bopp, Cerier, 1988). On the basis of the

  20. Quantum electronics basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    1969-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

  1. Basic stress analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Iremonger, M J

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Stress Analysis aims to help students to become proficient at BASIC programming by actually using it in an important engineering subject. It also enables the student to use computing as a means of learning stress analysis because writing a program is analogous to teaching-it is necessary to understand the subject matter. The book begins by introducing the BASIC approach and the concept of stress analysis at first- and second-year undergraduate level. Subsequent chapters contain a summary of relevant theory, worked examples containing computer programs, and a set of problems. Topics c

  2. Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in the Epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides L. (Spanish Moss) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Craig E.; Siedow, James N.

    1981-01-01

    Patterns of CO2 exchange in Spanish moss under various experimental conditions were measured using an infrared gas analysis system. Plants were collected from a study site in North Carolina and placed in a gas exchange chamber for several days of continuous measurements. No substantial seasonal effects on CO2 exchange were observed. High rates of nocturnal CO2 uptake were observed under day/night temperature regimes of 25/10, 25/15, 25/20, 30/20, and 35/20 C; however, daytime temperatures of 40 C eliminated nighttime CO2 uptake and a nighttime temperature of 5 C eliminated nocturnal CO2 uptake, regardless of day temperature. Constant chamber conditions also inhibited nocturnal CO2 uptake. Constant high relative humidity (RH) slightly stimulated CO2 uptake while low nighttime RH reduced nocturnal CO2 uptake. Reductions in daytime irradiance to approximately 25% full sunlight had no effect on CO2 exchange. Continuous darkness resulted in continuous CO2 loss by the plants, but a CO2 exchange pattern similar to normal day/night conditions was observed under constant illumination. High tissue water content inhibited CO2 uptake. Wetting of the tissue at any time of day or night resulted in net CO2 loss. Abrupt increases in temperature or decreases in RH resulted in sharp decreases in net CO2 uptake. The results indicate that Spanish moss is tolerant of a wide range of temperatures, irradiances, and water contents. They also indicate that high nighttime RH is a prerequisite for high rates of CO2 uptake. PMID:16661912

  3. In vitro and in vivo anti-cancer effects of tillandsia recurvata (ball moss) from Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, H I C; Toyang, N J; Bryant, J

    2013-03-01

    Tillandsia recurvata, also commonly known as Ball Moss, is endemic to Jamaica and some parts of the Caribbean and South America. The plant, despite being reported to be used in folk medicine, had not previously been evaluated for its anti-cancer potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-cancer activity ofBall Moss. The anti-proliferation activity of the crude methanolic extract of the T recurvata was evaluated in vitro in five different histogenic cancer cell lines (prostate cancer - PC-3, breast cancer Kaposi sarcoma, B-16 melanoma and a B-cell lymphoma from a transgenic mouse strain) using the trypan blue assay. The crude extract was also evaluated in vivo in tumour-bearing mice. Immunohistochemistry staining with Apoptag was used for histology and determination of apoptosis. The crude methanolic extract of T recurvata demonstrated anti-proliferation activity against all the cell lines, killing > 50% of the cells at a concentration of 2.5 microg/ml. Kaposi sarcoma xenograft tumours were inhibited by up to 75% compared to control in the in vivo study (p < 0.05). There was evidence of DNA fragmentation and a decrease in cell viability on histological studies. The methanolic extract showed no toxic effect in the mice at a dose of 200 mg/kg. Our data suggest that T recurvata has great potential as an anti-cancer agent and that one of its mechanisms of cell kill and tumour inhibition is by the induction of apoptosis.

  4. Estimation of plant sampling uncertainty: an example based on chemical analysis of moss samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dołęgowska, Sabina

    2016-11-01

    In order to estimate the level of uncertainty arising from sampling, 54 samples (primary and duplicate) of the moss species Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. were collected within three forested areas (Wierna Rzeka, Piaski, Posłowice Range) in the Holy Cross Mountains (south-central Poland). During the fieldwork, each primary sample composed of 8 to 10 increments (subsamples) was taken over an area of 10 m 2 whereas duplicate samples were collected in the same way at a distance of 1-2 m. Subsequently, all samples were triple rinsed with deionized water, dried, milled, and digested (8 mL HNO 3 (1:1) + 1 mL 30 % H 2 O 2 ) in a closed microwave system Multiwave 3000. The prepared solutions were analyzed twice for Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn using FAAS and GFAAS techniques. All datasets were checked for normality and for normally distributed elements (Cu from Piaski, Zn from Posłowice, Fe, Zn from Wierna Rzeka). The sampling uncertainty was computed with (i) classical ANOVA, (ii) classical RANOVA, (iii) modified RANOVA, and (iv) range statistics. For the remaining elements, the sampling uncertainty was calculated with traditional and/or modified RANOVA (if the amount of outliers did not exceed 10 %) or classical ANOVA after Box-Cox transformation (if the amount of outliers exceeded 10 %). The highest concentrations of all elements were found in moss samples from Piaski, whereas the sampling uncertainty calculated with different statistical methods ranged from 4.1 to 22 %.

  5. Studying the atmospheric chemistry: Statististical study of epiphyte plant Spanish Moss in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S.; Parker, W.; Odom, L.

    2003-04-01

    The detrimental influence which airborne contaminants has on vegetation in many parts of the world has become of increasing interest and concern in recent years. The use of suitable plants such as epiphytes (vegetation which grows on another plant) for measuring concentrations of airborne materials provides the advantages of (a) an integration of the periodic fluctuations in amounts of these materials that occur over relatively long periods of time and (b) economy in sampling. This class of plants, which are mosses and lichens, are somewhat less dependent on their substrates and may act more purely as air indicators. The epiphytes do not derive nutrients from soil, but depend on airborne moisture and particulates for elemental sources. The way with which they absorb nutrients from these external sources gives rise to an uncommon sensitivity to the harmful effects of air pollution. Also in addition, plants of this class absorb constituents of airborne particulates which may not be directly toxic to the plant but of environmental concern to humans. In particular, trace element accumulation in epiphytic Tillandsia usneoides L. (Spanish Moss) common in Atlantic and Gulf Coastal plains has been used in air pollution studies. Recent studies have also evaluated Spanish moss as an indicator of contamination of pesticides and other organic aromatic compounds. Two hundred and six samples of Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides L.) were collected from over its geographic range in Florida for this study. The samples were analyzed for a variety of major and minor elements, and the resulting data were statistically analyzed for pertinent geochemical associations. Three statistical methods have been used on the geochemical data of Spanish moss to evaluate the nature of probable sources for each of the elements. This kind of work is being done because the exact nature and location of each specimen is unknown. So, the three different statistical methods have been used to classify or

  6. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects...

  7. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV Treatment: The Basics Last Reviewed: March 22, 2018 ...

  8. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children ...

  9. Powassan (POW) Virus Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professionals Related Topics For International Travelers Powassan Virus Disease Basics Download this fact sheet formatted for ... Virus Disease Fact Sheet (PDF) What is Powassan virus? Powassan virus is a tickborne flavivirus that is ...

  10. Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep Anatomy of Sleep Sleep Stages ... t form or maintain the pathways in your brain that let you learn and create new memories, ...

  11. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of ... injury? What is a Spinal Cord Injury? SCI Medical Experts People Living With SCI Personal Experiences By ...

  12. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  13. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation ... Rogers, PT Recreational Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Jennifer Piatt, PhD Kristine Cichowski, MS Read Bio Founding ...

  14. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 ...

  15. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation ...

  16. Physical Activity Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How much physical activity do you need? Regular physical activity helps improve ...

  17. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Radionuclide Basics: Iodine Iodine (chemical symbol I) is a chemical element. ... in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the Environment All 37 isotopes of iodine ...

  18. Basic Finite Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byeong Hae

    1992-02-01

    This book gives descriptions of basic finite element method, which includes basic finite element method and data, black box, writing of data, definition of VECTOR, definition of matrix, matrix and multiplication of matrix, addition of matrix, and unit matrix, conception of hardness matrix like spring power and displacement, governed equation of an elastic body, finite element method, Fortran method and programming such as composition of computer, order of programming and data card and Fortran card, finite element program and application of nonelastic problem.

  19. Development NGOs: Basic Facts

    OpenAIRE

    Aldashev, Gani; Navarra, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    This paper systematizes the results of the empirical literature on development non-governmental organizations (NGOs), drawing both from quantitative and qualitative analyses, and constructs a set of basic facts about these organizations. These basic facts concern the size of the development NGO sector and its evolution, the funding of NGOs, the allocation of NGO aid and projects across beneficiary countries, the relationship of NGOs with beneficiaries, and the phenomenon of globalization of d...

  20. Nitrogen Addition Exacerbates the Negative Effects of Low Temperature Stress on Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism in Moss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Yang Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Global environmental changes are leading to an increase in localized abnormally low temperatures and increasing nitrogen (N deposition is a phenomenon recognized worldwide. Both low temperature stress (LTS and excess N induce oxidative stress in plants, and excess N also reduces their resistance to LTS. Mosses are primitive plants that are generally more sensitive to alterations in environmental factors than vascular species. To study the combined effects of N deposition and LTS on carbon (C and N metabolism in moss, two moss species, Pogonatum cirratum subsp. fuscatum, and Hypnum plumaeforme, exposed to various concentrations of nitrate (KNO3 or ammonium (NH4Cl, were treated with or without LTS. C/N metabolism indices were then monitored, both immediately after the stress and after a short recovery period (10 days. LTS decreased the photosystem II (PSII performance index and inhibited non-cyclic photophosphorylation, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, and glutamine synthetase activities, indicating damage to PSII and reductions in C/N assimilation in these mosses. LTS did not affect cyclic photophosphorylation, sucrose synthase, sucrose-phosphate synthase, and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase activities, suggesting a certain level of energy and C skeleton generation were maintained in the mosses to combat LTS; however, LTS inhibited the activity of glycolate oxidase. As predicted, N supply increased the sensitivity of the mosses to LTS, resulting in greater damage to PSII and a sharper decrease in C/N assimilation. After the recovery period, the performance of PSII and C/N metabolism, which were inhibited by LTS increased significantly, and were generally higher than those of control samples not exposed to LTS, suggesting overcompensation effects; however, N application reduced the extent of compensation effects. Both C and N metabolism exhibited stronger compensation effects in H. plumaeforme than in P. cirratum subsp. fuscatum. The