Sample records for region ii

  1. Photoionization models for giant h ii regions

    Gra´zyna Stasi´nska


    Full Text Available Revisamos las fuentes de incertidumbre en los modelos de fotoionizaci on de regiones H II gigantes. Tambi en discutimos el problema de la temperatura electr onica a la luz de los ajustes de modelos en tres regiones H II gigantes.

  2. U ltracompact H II regions: new challenges

    S. E. Kurtz


    Full Text Available El nombre de \\regi on H II ultracompacta" (UC H II apareci o por primera vez en la literatura hace mas de 30 a~nos. Desde entonces se han identi cado del orden de 103 regiones o candidatos a UC H II y se han propuesto al menos siete modelos para explicarlas. Las evidencias observacionales recientes indican que la clasi caci on usual de UC H II puede ser inadecuada para todas las nebulosas densas y peque~nas que rodean a las estrellas masivas j ovenes. En particular, algunas UC H II parecen ser las regiones densas de estructuras m as grandes a las que llamamos \\UC H II con emisi on extendida". Otras regiones H II parecen ser un orden de magnitud m as peque~nas y dos ordenes de magnitud m as densas que las UC H II tradicionales. Ellas merecen una nueva clasi caci on y las llamamos \\regiones H II super-ultracompactas". Damos un resumen hist orico y cient co de las UC H II, presentamos los nuevos datos observacionales que dan origen a las nuevas clasi caciones y discutimos brevemente las implicaciones para los modelos te oricos.

  3. Regiones H II alrededor de estrellas WR

    Giménez Benitez, S.; Niemela, V.

    En base a observaciones espectroscópicas en el rango óptico, obtenidas en el CASLEO, se estudian las condiciones físicas de tres regiones H II alrededor de estrellas WR: N76 en el entorno de Ab7, en la Nube Menor de Magallanes, N79 alrededor de Br 2, en la Nube Mayor de Magallanes y G2.4+1.4 alrededor de WR 102, en nuestra Galaxia. Estas regiones presentan una alta ionización. Se observa la línea nebular de HeII en 4686 Å . Utilizando líneas nebulares de diagnóstico, se derivan los valores de la densidad y la temperatura electrónica, así como también las abundancias de algunos de los elementos químicos nebulares.

  4. Wasilewski 72 - an extragalactic H II region

    Osterbrock, Donald E.; Tran, Hien D.; Bidelman, William P.


    Was 72 is established as an extragalactic H II region. The reddening of Was 72, as judged from the H-alpha/H-beta/H-gamma ratios, is very nearly zero, and the relative intensity of H-delta suggests a nonzero reddening. It is concluded that Was 72 is either very young or is dominated by very young stars; the age of the stars which dominate its optical spectrum is estimated at not more than 3 x 10 exp yr.

  5. The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS): Pilot Survey

    Brown, C.; Jordan, C.; Dickey, John M.; Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P.; Balser, Dana S.; Bania, T. M.; Dawson, J. R.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Wenger, Trey V.


    The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey is a survey of the third and fourth quadrants of the Galactic plane that will detect radio recombination line (RRL) and continuum emission at cm-wavelengths from several hundred H ii region candidates using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The targets for this survey come from the WISE Catalog of Galactic H ii Regions and were identified based on mid-infrared and radio continuum emission. In this pilot project, two different configurations of the Compact Array Broad Band receiver and spectrometer system were used for short test observations. The pilot surveys detected RRL emission from 36 of 53 H ii region candidates, as well as seven known H ii regions that were included for calibration. These 36 recombination line detections confirm that the candidates are true H ii regions and allow us to estimate their distances.

  6. 30 Years of Extragalactic H II Region Studies

    Garnett, D.


    The study of extragalactic H II regions has provided key data on ISM abundan ces in star-forming galaxies, and on the properties and physical mechanisms associated with starbursts. Manuel Peimbert and Silvia Torres-Peimbert were early pioneers in obtaining high-quality on physical conditions in extragalactic H II regions. In this review I will highlight their contributions to the field and our present-day understanding of giant H II regions and starbursts.

  7. Structure and evolution of fossil H II regions

    Mccray, R.; Schwarz, J.


    The structure and evolution of a fossil H II region created by a burst of ionizing radiation from a supernova is considered. The cooling time scale for the shell is about 10 to the 6th power years. Superposition of million-year-old fossil H II regions may account for the temperature and ionization of the interstellar medium. Fossil H II regions are unstable to growth of thermal condensations. Highly ionized filamentary structures form and dissipate in about 10,000 years. Partially ionized clouds form and dissipate in about 10 to the 6th power years.

  8. Thirty years of extragalactic H II region studies

    D. R. Garnett


    Full Text Available Reviso parcialmente los estudios de regiones H II extragal acticas en los pasados treinta a~nos. Comparando los resultados disponibles en 1975 con lo que sabemos hoy, vemos un enorme incremento de nuestro conocimiento de las condiciones f sicas y abundancias en las regiones H II extragal acticas, la evoluci on qu mica de las galaxias, y la fracci on de helio primordial. Manuel Peimbert y Silvia Torres-Peimbert han hecho contribuciones pioneras a este campo. Aqu delineo el progreso en nuestro entendimiento de las regiones H II extragal acticas y remarco las contribuciones de los Peimbert.

  9. 77 FR 64396 - Order of Succession for HUD Region II


    ... in office, the Regional Administrator for the Department of Housing and Urban Development or the... Indian Housing; b. Director, Community Planning and Development; c. Associate Regional Counsel, Housing... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Order of Succession for HUD Region II AGENCY: Office of Field Policy and Management...

  10. Understanding Spatial and Spectral Morphologies of Ultracompact H II Regions

    Peters, Thomas; /ZAH, Heidelberg; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; /Amer. Museum Natural Hist. /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. Astron.; Banerjee, Robi; /ZAH, Heidelberg; Klessen, Ralf S.; /ZAH, Heidelberg /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. Astron.


    The spatial morphology, spectral characteristics, and time variability of ultracompact H II regions provide strong constraints on the process of massive star formation. We have performed simulations of the gravitational collapse of rotating molecular cloud cores, including treatments of the propagation of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. We here present synthetic radio continuum observations of H II regions from our collapse simulations, to investigate how well they agree with observation, and what we can learn about how massive star formation proceeds. We find that intermittent shielding by dense filaments in the gravitationally unstable accretion flow around the massive star leads to highly variable H II regions that do not grow monotonically, but rather flicker, growing and shrinking repeatedly. This behavior appears able to resolve the well-known lifetime problem. We find that multiple ionizing sources generally form, resulting in groups of ultracompact H II regions, consistent with observations. We confirm that our model reproduces the qualitative H II region morphologies found in surveys, with generally consistent relative frequencies. We also find that simulated spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from our model are consistent with the range of observed H II region SEDs, including both regions showing a normal transition from optically thick to optically thin emission, and those with intermediate spectral slopes. In our models, anomalous slopes are solely produced by inhomogeneities in the H II region, with no contribution from dust emission at millimeter or submillimeter wavelengths. We conclude that many observed characteristics of ultracompact H II regions appear consistent with massive star formation in fast, gravitationally unstable, accretion flows.

  11. On Radiation Pressure in Static, Dusty H II Regions

    Draine, B. T.


    Radiation pressure acting on gas and dust causes H II regions to have central densities that are lower than the density near the ionized boundary. H II regions in static equilibrium comprise a family of similarity solutions with three parameters: β, γ, and the product Q 0 n rms; β characterizes the stellar spectrum, γ characterizes the dust/gas ratio, Q 0 is the stellar ionizing output (photons/s), and n rms is the rms density within the ionized region. Adopting standard values for β and γ, varying Q 0 n rms generates a one-parameter family of density profiles, ranging from nearly uniform density (small Q 0 n rms) to shell-like (large Q 0 n rms). When Q 0 n rms >~ 1052 cm-3 s-1, dusty H II regions have conspicuous central cavities, even if no stellar wind is present. For given β, γ, and Q 0 n rms, a fourth quantity, which can be Q 0, determines the overall size and density of the H II region. Examples of density and emissivity profiles are given. We show how quantities of interest—such as the peak-to-central emission measure ratio, the rms-to-mean density ratio, the edge-to-rms density ratio, and the fraction of the ionizing photons absorbed by the gas—depend on β, γ, and Q 0 n rms. For dusty H II regions, compression of the gas and dust into an ionized shell results in a substantial increase in the fraction of the stellar photons that actually ionize H (relative to a uniform-density H II region with the same dust/gas ratio and density n = n rms). We discuss the extent to which radial drift of dust grains in H II regions can alter the dust-to-gas ratio. The applicability of these solutions to real H II regions is discussed.

  12. Understanding Spatial and Spectral Morphologies of Ultracompact H II Regions

    Peters, Thomas; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S; Dullemond, Cornelis P


    The spatial morphology, spectral characteristics, and time variability of ultracompact H II regions provide strong constraints on the process of massive star formation. We have performed simulations of the gravitational collapse of rotating molecular cloud cores, including treatments of the propagation of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. We here present synthetic radio continuum observations of H II regions from our collapse simulations, to investigate how well they agree with observation, and what we can learn about how massive star formation proceeds. We find that intermittent shielding by dense filaments in the gravitationally unstable accretion flow around the massive star leads to highly variable H II regions that do not grow monotonically, but rather flicker, growing and shrinking repeatedly. This behavior appears able to resolve the well-known lifetime problem. We find that multiple ionizing sources generally form, resulting in groups of ultracompact H II regions, consistent with observations. We c...

  13. Dusty uch II regions: cloud pressures and density distributions

    Stan Kurtz


    Full Text Available Discutimos brevemente el efecto de presi on ambiental y de los gradientes de densidad en las propiedades observadas de las regiones UCH ii con polvo y de la nueva clase de regiones Super-ultra-compactas. La absorci on del polvo puede reducir muy e cientemente el tama~no de las regiones fotoionizadas y los gradientes de densidad pueden modi car el ndice espectral de la emisi on. El efecto de los gradientes tambi en se observa en regiones H ii extragal acticas.

  14. Triggered Star Formation in Six H II Regions

    Dirienzo, William J; Brogan, Crystal; Cyganowski, Claudia J; Churchwell, Edward B; Friesen, Rachel K


    We investigated six H II regions with infrared, bright rimmed bubble or cometary morphology, in search of quantitative evidence for triggered star formation, both collect and collapse and radiatively driven implosion. We identified and classified 458 Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) in and around the H II regions. YSOs were determined by fitting a collection of radiative transfer model spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to infrared photometry for a large sample of point sources. We determined areas where there exist enhanced populations of relatively unevolved YSOs on the bright rims of these regions, suggesting that star formation has been triggered there. We further investigated the physical properties of the regions by using radio continuum emission as a proxy for ionizing flux powering the H II regions, and 13CO (1-0) observations to measure masses and gravitational stability of molecular clumps. We used an analytical model of collect and collapse triggered star formation, as well as a simulation of radiati...

  15. Regional characterization of Western China-II

    Randall, G.E.; Hartse, H.E.; Phillips, W.S.; Taylor, S.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Geophysics Group


    As part of the CTBT Research and Development regional characterization effort, geological, geophysical, and seismic data are being assembled and organized for inclusion in a knowledge base for China. The authors have continued their analysis using data form the station WMQ of the Chinese Digital Seismic Network (CDSN) and the IRIS station AAK. They are also acquiring and analyzing data from stations that are designated as (or near a designated) primary or secondary CTBT monitoring station. Regional seismograms are being analyzed to construct travel time curves, velocity models, attenuation characteristics, and to quantify regional propagation effects such as phase blockages. Using locations from the USGS Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) they have identified Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg phases, constructed travel time curves, and estimated apparent velocities using linear regression. Amplitudes for the seismic phases have been measured using bandpassed waveforms and a series of magnitude relations have been determined for Western China. Studies of path specific propagation efficiency of the seismic phases have mapped blockages and also identified a possible set of observations that can be used to identify intermediate depth (> 100 im) seismic events in the Pamir-Hindu Kush seismic zone. Chinese seismicity catalogs from the USGS and Chinese State Seismological Bureau (SSB) are being used to identify and obtain seismic data (including mine seismicity) and information for lower magnitude events. Clustering analysis has been used to identify seismicity clusters in space with origin times that are distributed during daylight hours which suggest mining operations. These clusters are being investigated with imagery to attempt to identify precise mine locations.

  16. The Green Bank Telescope Galactic H II Region Discovery Survey

    Bania, T M; Balser, Dana S; Rood, R T


    We discovered a large population of previously unknown Galactic H II regions by using the Green Bank Telescope to detect their hydrogen radio recombination line emission. Since recombination lines are optically thin at 3 cm wavelength, we can detect H II regions across the entire Galactic disk. Our targets were selected based on spatially coincident 24 micron and 21 cm continuum emission. For the Galactic zone -16 deg < L_gal < 67 deg and abs(B_gal) < 1 deg, we detected 602 discrete recombination line components from 448 lines of sight, 95% of the sample targets, which more than doubles the number of known H II regions in this part of the Milky Way. We found 25 new first quadrant nebulae with negative LSR velocities, placing them beyond the Solar orbit. Because we can detect all nebulae inside the Solar orbit that are ionized by O-stars, the Discovery Survey targets, when combined with existing H II region catalogs, give a more accurate census of Galactic H II regions and their properties. The distri...

  17. Wind bubbles within H II regions around slowly moving stars

    Mackey, Jonathan; Mohamed, Shazrene; Langer, Norbert


    Interstellar bubbles around O stars are driven by a combination of the star's wind and ionizing radiation output. The wind contribution is uncertain because the boundary between the wind and interstellar medium is difficult to observe. Mid-infrared observations (e.g., of the H II region RCW 120) show arcs of dust emission around O stars, contained well within the H II region bubble. These arcs could indicate the edge of an asymmetric stellar wind bubble, distorted by density gradients and/or stellar motion. We present two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamics simulations investigating the evolution of wind bubbles and H II regions around massive stars moving through a dense (n=3000 cm^{-3}), uniform medium with velocities ranging from 4 to 16 km/s. The H II region morphology is strongly affected by stellar motion, as expected, but the wind bubble is also very aspherical from birth, even for the lowest space velocity considered. Wind bubbles do not fill their H II regions (we find filling factors of 10-20%), at...

  18. [Ne II] Observations of Gas Motions in Compact and Ultracompact H II Regions

    Zhu, Qingfeng; Jaffe, Daniel T; Richter, Matthew J; Greathouse, Thomas K


    We present high spatial and spectral resolution observations of sixteen Galactic compact and ultracompact H II regions in the [Ne II] 12.8 microns fine structure line. The small thermal width of the neon line and the high dynamic range of the maps provide an unprecedented view of the kinematics of compact and ultracompact H II regions. These observations solidify an emerging picture of the structure of ultracompact H II regions suggested in our earlier studies of G29.96-0.02 and Mon R2 IRS1; systematic surface flows, rather than turbulence or bulk expansion, dominate the gas motions in the H II regions. The observations show that almost all of the sources have significant (5-20 km/s) velocity gradients and that most of the sources are limb-brightened. In many cases, the velocity pattern implies tangential flow along a dense shell of ionized gas. None of the observed sources clearly fits into the categories of filled expanding spheres, expanding shells, filled blister flows, or cometary H II regions formed by ...

  19. Effective temperature of ionizing stars of extragalactic H II regions

    Dors, O. L.; Hägele, G. F.; Cardaci, M. V.; Krabbe, A. C.


    The effective temperature (Teff) of the radiation field of the ionizing star(s) of a large sample of extragalactic H II regions was estimated using the R = log([O II] (λλ3726 + 29)/[O III] λ5007) index. We used a grid of photoionization models to calibrate the Teff-R relation finding that it has a strong dependence with the ionizing parameter, while it shows a weak direct dependence with the metallicity (variations in Z imply variations in U) of both the stellar atmosphere of the ionizing star and the gas phase of the H II region. Since the R index varies slightly with the Teff for values larger than 40 kK, the R index can be used to derive the Teff in the 30-40 kK range. A large fraction of the ionization parameter variation is due to differences in the temperature of the ionizing stars and then the use of the (relatively) low Teff dependent S2 = [S II] (λλ6717 + 31)/Hα emission-line ratio to derive the ionization parameter is preferable over others in the literature. We propose linear metallicity dependent relationships between S2 and U. Teff and metallicity estimations for a sample of 865 H II regions, whose emission-line intensities were compiled from the literature, do not show any Teff-Z correlation. On the other hand, it seems to be hints of the presence of an anticorrelation between Teff-U. We found that the majority of the studied H II regions (∼87 per cent) present Teff values in the range between 37 and 40 kK, with an average value of 38.5(±1) kK. We also studied the variation of Teff as a function of the galactocentric distance for 14 spiral galaxies. Our results are in agreement with the idea of the existence of positive Teff gradients along the disc of spiral galaxies.

  20. [C II] and [N II] from dense ionized regions in the Galaxy

    Langer, W D; Pineda, J L


    The interstellar medium (ISM) consists of highly ionized and neutral atomic, as well as molecular, components. Knowledge of their distribution is important for tracing the structure and lifecycle of the ISM. Here we determine the properties of the highly ionized and neutral weakly ionized gas in the Galaxy traced by the fine-structure lines of ionized nitrogen, [N II], and ionized carbon, [C II]. To analyze the ionized ISM we utilize [C II] 158 micron and [N II] 205 micron lines taken with the high spectral resolution Heterodyne Instrument in the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on the Herschel Space Observatory along ten lines of sight towards the inner Galaxy. [N II] emission can be used to estimate the contribution of the highly ionized gas to the [C II] emission and separate the highly ionized and weakly ionized neutral gas. We find that [N II] has strong emission in distinct spectral features along all lines of sight associated with strong [C II] emission. The [N II] arises from moderate density extended HII regions ...

  1. Characterization of recombination in the HLA class II region

    Cullen, M.; Carrington, M. [National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD (United States); Noble, J. [Roche Molecular Systems, Almeda, CA (United States)] [and others


    Studies of linkage disequilibrium across the HLA class II region have been useful in predicting where recombination is most likely to occur. The strong associations between genes within the 85-kb region from DQB1 to DRB1 are consistent with low frequency of recombination in this segment of DNA. Conversely, a lack of association between alleles of TAP1 and TAP2 ({approximately}15 kb) has been observed, suggesting that recombination occurs here with relatively high frequency. Much of the HLA class II region has now been sequenced, providing the tools to undertake detailed analysis of recombination. Twenty-seven families containing one or two recombinant chromosomes within the 500-kb interval between the DPB1 and DRB1 genes were used to determine patterns of recombination across this region. SSCP analysis and microsatellite typing yielded identification of 127 novel polymorphic markers distributed throughout the class II region, allowing refinement of the site of crossover in 30 class II recombinant chromosomes. The three regions where recombination was observed most frequently are as follows: the 45-kb interval between HLA-DNA and RING3 (11 cases), the 50-kb interval between DQB3 and DQB1 (6 cases), and an 8.8-kb segment of the TAP2 gene (3 cases). Six of the 10 remaining recombinants await further characterization, pending identification of additional informative markers, while four recombinants were localized to other intervals (outliers). Analysis of association between markers flanking HLA-DNA to RING3 (45 kb), as well as TAP1 to TAP2 (15 kb), by use of independent CEPH haplotypes indicated little or no linkage disequilibrium, supporting the familial recombination data. A notable sequence motif located within a region associated with increased rates of recombination consisted of a (TGGA){sub 12} tandem repeat within the TAP2 gene. 74 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. The hydrodynamical models of the cometary compact H II region

    Zhu, Feng-Yao; Li, Juan; Zhang, Jiang-Shui; Wang, Jun-Zhi


    We have developed a full numerical method to study the gas dynamics of cometary ultra-compact (UC) H II regions, and associated photodissociation regions (PDRs). The bow-shock and champagne-flow models with a $40.9/21.9 M_\\odot$ star are simulated. In the bow-shock models, the massive star is assumed to move through dense ($n=8000~cm^{-3}$) molecular material with a stellar velocity of $15~km~s^{-1}$. In the champagne-flow models, an exponential distribution of density with a scale height of 0.2 pc is assumed. The profiles of the [Ne II] 12.81\\mum and $H_2~S(2)$ lines from the ionized regions and PDRs are compared for two sets of models. In champagne-flow models, emission lines from the ionized gas clearly show the effect of acceleration along the direction toward the tail due to the density gradient. The kinematics of the molecular gas inside the dense shell is mainly due to the expansion of the H II region. However, in bow-shock models the ionized gas mainly moves in the same direction as the stellar motion...

  3. 75 FR 21979 - NRC Region II Address and Main Telephone Number Changes


    .... * * * * * (b) * * * (2) * * * (ii) If the nuclear power reactor is located in Region II, submissions must be..., 30, 40, 55, 70, and 73 RIN 3150-AI80 NRC Region II Address and Main Telephone Number Changes AGENCY... amending its regulations to update the street address for its Region II office and to update the...

  4. On the formation and expansion of H II regions

    Franco, Jose; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Bodenheimer, Peter


    The evolution of H II regions in spherical clouds with small, constant-density cores and power-law density distributions r exp -w outside the core is described analytically. It is found that there is a critical exponent above which the cloud becomes completely ionized. Its value in the formation phase depends on the initial conditions, but it has a well-defined value w(crit) = 3/2 during the expansion phase. For w less than w(crit), the radius of the H II region grows at a given rate, while neutral mass accumulates in the interphase between the ionization and shock fronts. For w = w(crit), the fronts move together without mass accumulation. Cases with w greater than w(crit) lead to the champagne phase: once the cloud is fully ionized, the expansion becomes supersonic. For self-gravitating disks without magnetic fields, the main features include a new 'variable-size' stage. The initial shape of the H II region has a critical point beyond which the disk becomes completely ionized.

  5. Integral field spectroscopy of a sample of nearby galaxies: II. Properties of the H ii regions

    Sanchez, S F; Marino, R A; Iglesias-Paramo, J; Vilchez, J M; Kennicutt, R C; Diaz, A I; Mast, D; Monreal-Ibero, A; Garcia-Benito, R; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Perez, E; Delgado, R Gonzalez; Husemann, B; Lopez-Sanchez, A R; Fernandes, R Cid; Kehrig, C; Walcher, C J; de Paz, A Gil; Ellis, S


    In this work we analyze the spectroscopic properties of a large number of H ii regions, \\sim2600, located in 38 galaxies. The sample of galaxies has been assembled from the face-on spirals in the PINGS survey and a sample described in M\\'armol-Queralt\\'o (2011, henceforth Paper I). All the galaxies were observed using Integral Field Spectroscopy with a similar setup, covering their optical extension up to \\sim2.4 effective radii within a wavelength range from \\sim3700 to \\sim6900{\\AA}. We develop a new automatic procedure to detect H ii regions, based on the contrast of the H{\\alpha} intensity maps. Once detected, the procedure provides us with the integrated spectra of each individual segmented region. A well-tested automatic decoupling procedure has been applied to remove the underlying stellar population, deriving the main proper- ties of the strongest emission lines in the considered wavelength range (covering from [O ii] {\\lambda}3727 to [S ii] {\\lambda}6731). A final catalogue of the spectroscopic prope...

  6. Herschel observations of the Galactic H II region RCW 79

    Liu, Hong-Li; Figueira, Miguel; Zavagno, Annie; Hill, Tracey; Schneider, Nicola; Men'shchikov, Alexander; Russeil, Delphine; Motte, Frédérique; Tigé, Jérémy; Deharveng, Lise; Anderson, Loren D.; Li, Jin-Zeng; Wu, Yuefang; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Huang, Maohai


    Context. Triggered star formation around H II regions could be an important process. The Galactic H II region RCW 79 is a prototypical object for triggered high-mass star formation. Aims: We aim to obtain a census of the young stellar population observed at the edges of the H II region and to determine the properties of the young sources in order to characterize the star formation processes that take place at the edges of this ionized region. Methods: We take advantage of Herschel data from the surveys HOBYS, "Evolution of Interstellar Dust", and Hi-Gal to extract compact sources. We use the algorithm getsources. We complement the Herschel data with archival 2MASS, Spitzer, and WISE data to determine the physical parameters of the sources (e.g., envelope mass, dust temperature, and luminosity) by fitting the spectral energy distribution. Results: We created the dust temperature and column density maps along with the column density probability distribution function (PDF) for the entire RCW 79 region. We obtained a sample of 50 compact sources in this region, 96% of which are situated in the ionization-compressed layer of cold and dense gas that is characterized by the column density PDF with a double-peaked lognormal distribution. The 50 sources have sizes of 0.1-0.4 pc with a typical value of 0.2 pc, temperatures of 11-26 K, envelope masses of 6-760 M⊙, densities of 0.1-44 × 105 cm-3, and luminosities of 19-12 712 L⊙. The sources are classified into 16 class 0, 19 intermediate, and 15 class I objects. Their distribution follows the evolutionary tracks in the diagram of bolometric luminosity versus envelope mass (Lbol-Menv) well. A mass threshold of 140 M⊙, determined from the Lbol-Menv diagram, yields 12 candidate massive dense cores that may form high-mass stars. The core formation efficiency (CFE) for the 8 massive condensations shows an increasing trend of the CFE with density. This suggests that the denser the condensation, the higher the fraction of its

  7. Spitzer observations of extragalactic H II regions III: NGC 6822 and the hot star, H II region connection

    Rubin, Robert H; Colgan, Sean W J; Dufour, Reginald J; Kader, Justin; McNabb, Ian A; Pauldrach, Adalbert W A; Weber, Johann A


    Using the short-high module of the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have measured the [S IV] 10.51, [Ne II] 12.81, [Ne III] 15.56, and [S III] 18.71-micron emission lines in 9 H II regions in the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822. These lines arise from the dominant ionization states of the elements neon (Ne$^{++}$, Ne$^+$) and sulphur (S$^{3+}$, S$^{++}$), thereby allowing an analysis of the neon to sulphur abundance ratio as well as the ionic abundance ratios Ne$^+$/Ne$^{++}$ and S$^{3+}$/S$^{++}$. By extending our studies of H II regions in M83 and M33 to the lower metallicity NGC 6822, we increase the reliability of the estimated Ne/S ratio. We find that the Ne/S ratio appears to be fairly universal, with not much variation about the ratio found for NGC 6822: the median (average) Ne/S ratio equals 11.6 (12.2$\\pm$0.8). This value is in contrast to Asplund et al.'s currently best estimated value for the Sun: Ne/S = 6.5. In addition, we continue to test the predicted ionizing spectral e...

  8. Chemical distribution of H II regions towards the Galactic anticentre

    Fernández-Martín, A.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Vílchez, J. M.; Mampaso, A.


    Context. The study of the radial variations of metallicity across the Galactic disc is a powerful method for understanding the history of star formation and chemical evolution of the Milky Way. Although several studies about gradients have been performed so far, the knowledge of the Galactic antincentre is still poor. Aims: This work aims to determine accurately the physical and chemical properties of a sample of H ii regions located at RG > 11 kpc and to study the radial distribution of abundances in the outermost part of the Galaxy disc. Methods: We carried out new optical spectroscopic observations of nine H ii regions with the William Herschel Telescope covering the spectral range from 3500 Å to 10 100 Å. In addition, we increased the sample by searching the literature for optical observations of regions towards the Galactic anticentre, re-analysing them to obtain a single sample of 23 objects to be processed in a homogeneous and consistent manner. The total sample distribution covers the Galactocentric radius from 11 kpc to 18 kpc. Results: Emission line ratios were used to determine accurate electron densities and temperatures of several ionic species in 13 H ii regions. These physical parameters were applied to the spectra to determine direct total chemical abundances. For those regions without direct estimations of temperature, chemical abundances were derived by performing tailor-made photoionisation models and/or by using an empirical relation obtained from radio recombination and optical temperatures. We performed weighted least-squares fits to the distribution of the derived abundances along the Galactocentric distances to study the radial gradients of metallicity across the outermost part of the MW. The distributions O/H, N/H, S/H, and Ar/H towards the anticentre can be represented by decreasing linear radial gradients, while in the case of N/O abundances the radial distribution is better fitted with a two-zone model. The He/H radial gradient is

  9. Quantifying the PAH Size Distribution in H II-Regions

    Allamandola, Louis

    We propose to determine the astronomical PAH size distribution for 20 compact H II-regions from the ISO H II-regions spectroscopic archive (catalog). The selected sample includes H IIregions at a range of distances, all with angular sizes captured by the ISO aperture. This is the first time that the PAH size distribution will be put on an accurate, quantitative footing and that a breakdown of the overall PAH population into different size bins is possible. Since the PAH properties that influence the astronomical environment are PAH-size dependent, this new knowledge will provide a deeper understanding of the specific, and sometimes critical, roles that PAHs play in different astronomical environments. This research will be carried out using the PAH spectra and tools that are available through the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database ( The ISO compact, H II-regions spectroscopic catalog contains the 2.3 196 µm spectra from some 45 H II-regions. Of these, 20 capture the PAH spectrum with high enough quality between 2.5 15 µm to carry out the proposed work. From the outset of the PAH hypothesis it has been thought that the 3.3/11.2 µm PAH band strength ratio is a qualitative proxy for PAH size and a rough measure of variations in the astronomical PAH size distribution between objects or within extended objects. However, because of the intrinsic uncertainties for most of the observational data available for these two bands, and the very limited spectroscopic data available for PAHs representative of the astronomical PAH population, only very crude estimates of the astronomical PAH size distribution have been possible up to now. The work proposed here overcomes these two limitations, allowing astronomers to quantitatively and accurately determine the astronomical PAH size distribution for the first time. The spectra and tools from the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database will be used to determine the astronomical PAH size

  10. Spectrophotometric Distances to Galactic H\\,{\\sc{ii}} Regions

    Moisés, A P; Figuerêdo, E; Blum, R D; Conti, P S; Barbosa, C L


    We present a near infrared study of the stellar content of 35 H\\,{\\sc{ii}} regions in the Galactic plane. In this work, we have used the near infrared domain $J-$, $H-$ and $K_{s}-$ band color images to visually inspect the sample. Also, color-color and color-magnitude diagrams were used to indicate ionizing star candidates, as well as, the presence of young stellar objects such as classical TTauri Stars (CTTS) and massive young stellar objects (MYSOs). We have obtained {\\it Spitzer} IRAC images for each region to help further characterize them. {\\it Spitzer} and near infrared morphology to place each cluster in an evolutionary phase of development. {\\it Spitzer} photometry was also used to classify the MYSOs. Comparison of the main sequence in color-magnitude diagrams to each observed cluster was used to infer whether or not the cluster kinematic distance is consistent with brightnesses of the stellar sources. We find qualitative agreement for a dozen of the regions, but about half the regions have near infr...

  11. The H II Region of a Primordial Star

    Abel, Tom; Wise, John H.; Bryan, Greg L.


    The concordance model of cosmology and structure formation predicts the formation of isolated, very massive stars at high redshifts in dark matter-dominated halos of 105-106 Msolar. These stars photoionize their host primordial molecular clouds, expelling all the baryons from their halos. When the stars die, a relic H II region is formed within which large amounts of molecular hydrogen form that will allow the gas to cool efficiently when gravity assembles it into larger dark matter halos. The filaments surrounding the first star-hosting halo are largely shielded and provide the pathway for gas to stream into the halo when the star has died. We present the first fully three-dimensional cosmological radiation hydrodynamical simulations that follow all these effects. A novel adaptive ray-casting technique incorporates the time-dependent radiative transfer around point sources. This approach is fast enough so that radiation transport, kinetic rate equations, and hydrodynamics are solved self-consistently. It retains the time derivative of the transfer equation and is explicitly photon-conserving. This method is integrated with the cosmological adaptive mesh refinement code Enzo and runs on distributed and shared memory parallel architectures. Where applicable, the three-dimensional calculation not only confirms expectations from earlier one-dimensional results but also illustrates the multifold hydrodynamic complexities of H II regions. In the absence of stellar winds, the circumstellar environments of the first supernovae and putative early gamma-ray bursts will be of low density, ~1 cm-3. Albeit marginally resolved, ionization front instabilities lead to cometary- and elephant trunk-like small-scale structures reminiscent of nearby star-forming regions.

  12. Self-similar Champagne Flows in H II Regions

    Shu, Frank H.; Lizano, Susana; Galli, Daniele; Cantó, Jorge; Laughlin, Gregory


    We consider the idealized expansion of an initially self-gravitating, static, singular, isothermal cloud core. For t>=0, the gas is ionized and heated to a higher uniform temperature by the formation of a luminous but massless star in its center. The approximation that the mass and gravity of the central star are negligible for the subsequent motion of the H II region holds for distances r much greater than ~100 AU and for the massive cloud cores that give rise to high-mass stars. If the initial ionization and heating are approximated to occur instantaneously at t=0, then the subsequent flow (for r>>100 AU) caused by the resulting imbalance between self-gravity and thermal pressure is self-similar. Because of the steep density profile (ρ~r-2), pressure gradients produce a shock front that travels into the cloud, accelerating the gas to supersonic velocities in what has been called the ``champagne phase.'' The expansion of the inner region at t>0 is connected to the outer envelope of the now ionized cloud core through this shock, whose strength depends on the temperature of the H II gas. In particular, we find a modified Larson-Penston (L-P) type of solution as part of the linear sequence of self-similar champagne outflows. The modification involves the proper insertion of a shock and produces the right behavior at infinity (v-->0) for an outflow of finite duration, reconciling the long-standing conflict on the correct (inflow or outflow) interpretation for the original L-P solution. For realistic heating due to a massive young central star that ionizes and heats the gas to ~104 K, we show that even the self-gravity of the ionized gas of the massive molecular cloud core can be neglected. We then study the self-similar solutions of the expansion of H II regions embedded in molecular clouds characterized by more general power-law density distributions: ρ~r-n with 3/23. We show that this happens because the model includes an origin where the pressure driving the

  13. Ionization Front Instabilities in Primordial H II Regions

    Whalen, Daniel


    Radiative cooling by metals in shocked gas mediates the formation of ionization front instabilities in the galaxy today that are responsible for a variety of phenomena in the interstellar medium, from the morphologies of nebulae to triggered star formation in molecular clouds. An important question in early reionization and chemical enrichment of the intergalactic medium is whether such instabilities arose in the H II regions of the first stars and primeval galaxies, which were devoid of metals. We present three-dimensional numerical simulations that reveal both shadow and thin-shell instabilities readily formed in primordial gas. We find that the hard UV spectra of Population III stars broadened primordial ionization fronts, causing H2 formation capable of inciting violent thin- shell instabilities in D-type fronts, even in the presence of intense Lyman-Werner flux. The high post- front gas temperatures associated with He ionization sustained and exacerbated shadow instabilities, unaided by molecular hydroge...

  14. Instability of Magnetized Ionization Fronts Surrounding H II Regions

    Kim, Jeong-Gyu


    An ionization front (IF) surrounding an H II region is a sharp interface where a cold neutral gas makes transition to a warm ionized phase by absorbing UV photons from central stars. We investigate the instability of a plane-parallel D-type IF threaded by parallel magnetic fields, by neglecting the effects of recombination within the ionized gas. We find that weak D-type IFs always have the post-IF magnetosonic Mach number $\\mathcal{M}_{\\rm M2} \\leq 1$. For such fronts, magnetic fields increase the maximum propagation speed of the IFs, while reducing the expansion factor $\\alpha$ by a factor of $1+1/(2\\beta_1)$ compared to the unmagnetized case, with $\\beta_1$ denoting the plasma beta in the pre-IF region. IFs become unstable to distortional perturbations due to gas expansion across the fronts, exactly analogous to the Darrieus-Landau instability of ablation fronts in terrestrial flames. The growth rate of the IF instability is proportional linearly to the perturbation wavenumber as well as the upstream flow ...

  15. On the Relationship of UC H II Regions and Class II Methanol Masers: I. Source Catalogs

    Hu, Bo; Wu, Yuanwei; Bartkiewicz, Anna; Rygl, Kazi; Reid, Mark J; Urquhart, James S; Zheng, Xingwu


    We conducted VLA C-configuration observations to measure positions and luminosities of Galactic Class II 6.7 GHz methanol masers and their associated ultra-compact H II regions. The spectral resolution was 3.90625 kHz and the continuum sensitivity reached 45 \\uJypb. We mapped 372 methanol masers with peak flux densities of more than 2 Jy selected from the literature, 367 of them were detected. Absolute positions have nominal uncertainties of 0.3 arcsec. In this first paper on the data analysis, we present three catalogs, the first gives information on the strongest feature of 367 methanol maser sources, and the second on all detected maser spots. The third catalog present derived data of the 279 radio continuum sources found in the vicinity of maser sources. Among them, 140 show evidence of physical association with maser sources. Our catalogs list properties including distance, flux density, radial velocity and the distribution of masers on the Galactic plane is then provided as well. We found no significant...

  16. H II Regions and Protosolar Abundances in Galactic Chemical Evolution

    L. Carigi


    Full Text Available Presentamos modelos de evolución química del disco galáctico con diferentes rendimientos dependientes de Z. Encontramos que una tasa moderada de pérdida de masa en estrellas masivas de metalicidad solar produce un excelente ajuste con los gradientes de C/H y C/O del disco de la Galaxia. El mejor modelo reproduce: las abundancias de H, He, C y O derivadas de líneas de recombinación en M17, las abundancias protosolares y las relaciones C/O-O/H, C/Fe-Fe/H y O/Fe-Fe/H derivadas de estrellas de la vecindad solar. La concordancia del modelo con las abundancias protosolares implica que el Sol se originó a una distancia galactocéntrica similar a la actual. El modelo para r = 3 kpc implica que una fracción de las estrellas en la dirección del bulbo se formó en el disco interno. Nuestro modelo reproduce la relación C/O-O/H derivada de regiones H II extragalácticas en galaxias espirales.

  17. The effects of dust and density distributions in uc H II regions

    José Franco


    Full Text Available La evoluci on y morfolog a iniciales de las regiones H II est an de nidas por la estructura de densidad de las regiones de formaci on estelar. Discutimos brevemente el efecto del polvo y de los gradientes de densidad en las propiedades observadas de las regiones UC H II y de la nueva clase de regiones Super-ultra-compactas. La absorci on del polvo puede reducir muy e cientemente el tama~no de las regiones fotoionizadas y los gradientes de densidad pueden modi car el ndice espectral de la emisi on. El efecto de los gradientes tambi en se observa en regiones H II extragal acticas.

  18. The first H II regions in the universe

    Whalen, Daniel James

    State of the art simulations of primordial star formation suggest that the first stars in the universe were likely very massive, from 30 to 300 solar masses. These metal-free, Population III stars were prodigious sources of ionizing UV radiation that permeated the early intergalactic medium (IGM). As agents of early reionization, Pop III stars likely contributed to the cosmic free electrons recently observed at high redshifts by the WMAP satellite. However, until recently it was unknown what percentage of ionizing photons escaped the cosmological minihalos hosting these luminous objects, seriously hampering the power of large scale reionization calculations to predict the optical depths to electron scattering revealed by WMAP. UV escape from high-redshift minihalos crucially depends on the radiation hydrodynamics of ionization front transitions deep within the halos. I describe a multistep integration scheme for radiative transfer and reactive flow hydrodynamics developed for the accurate propagation of I-fronts and ionized flows from UV point sources or plane waves in cosmological simulations. The algorithm is a photon-conserving method which correctly tracks the position of I-fronts at much lower resolutions than non-conservative techniques. The method applies direct hierarchical updates to ionic species, bypassing the need for the costly matrix solutions required by implicit updates while retaining sufficient accuracy to capture the true evolution of the fronts. This radiation-matter coupling scheme is a significant advance beyond the radiative transfer performed in static media that is the current industry standard in cosmological reionization simulations. I review the major analytical and numerical studies of H II regions performed to date as well as the physics of ionization fronts in uniform and stratified media. My algorithm development greatly benefited from some recent analyses of I-front evolution in radially-symmetric power-law envelopes. These studies

  19. ISO spectroscopy of compact HII regions in the Galaxy - II. Ionization and elemental abundances

    Martin-Hernandez, NL; Peeters, E; Morisset, C; Tielens, AGGM; Cox, P; Roelfsema, PR; Baluteau, JP; Schaerer, D; Mathis, JS; Damour, F; Churchwell, E; Kessler, MF


    Based on the ISO spectral catalogue of compact H II regions by Peeters et al. (2002), we present a first analysis of the hydrogen recombination and atomic fine-structure lines originated in the ionized gas. The sample consists of 34 H II regions located at galactocentric distances between R-Gal = 0

  20. Multi-wavelength study of triggered star formation around 25 H II regions

    Xu, Jin-Long; Zhang, Chuan-peng


    We have investigated 25 H II regions with bubble morphology in 13CO(1-0) and infrared data, to search the quantitative evidence for the triggering star formation by collect and collapse (CC) and radiatively driven implosion (RDI) models. These H II regions display the morphology of the complete or partial bubble at 8 um, which all are associated with the surrounding molecular clouds. We obtained that the electron temperature ranges from 5627 K to 6839 K in these H II regions, and the averaged electron temperature is 6083 K. The age of these H II regions is from 3.0\\times10^{5} yr to 1.7\\times10^{6} yr, and the mean age is 7.7\\times10^{5} yr. Based on the morphology of the associated molecular clouds, we divided these H II regions into three groups, which may support CC and RDI models. We selected 23 young IRAS sources with the infrared luminosity of >10^{3}L_{\\odot} in 19 H II regions. In addition, we identified some young stellar objects (including Class I sources), which are concentrated only in H II region...

  1. Spectroscopy of Outlying H II Regions in Spiral Galaxies Abundances and Radial Gradients

    Van Zee, L; Haynes, M P; O'Donoghue, A A; Balonek, T J


    We present the results of low dispersion optical spectroscopy of 186 H II regions spanning a range of radius in 13 spiral galaxies. Abundances for several elements (oxygen, nitrogen, neon, sulfur, and argon) were determined for 185 of the H II regions. As expected, low metallicities were found for the outlying H II regions of these spiral galaxies. Radial abundance gradients were derived for the 11 primary galaxies; similar to results for other spiral galaxies, the derived abundance gradients are typically -0.04 to -0.07 dex/kpc.


    Jones, C.; Dickey, J. M.; Dawson, J. R. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Private Bag 37, University of Tasmania, Hobart 7001 (Australia); McClure-Griffiths, N. M. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, ATNF, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Anderson, L. D. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Bania, T. M. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)


    We make a comprehensive study of H I absorption toward H II regions located within |l| < 10 Degree-Sign . Structures in the extreme inner Galaxy are traced using the longitude-velocity space distribution of this absorption. We find significant H I absorption associated with the Near and Far 3 kpc Arms, the Connecting Arm, Bania's Clump 1, and the H I Tilted Disk. We also constrain the line-of-sight distances to H II regions, by using H I absorption spectra together with the H II region velocities measured by radio recombination lines.

  3. Spectroscopy of H II Regions in the Late-Type Spiral Galaxy NGC 6946

    Gusev, Alexander S; Dodonov, Sergey N; 10.1134/S1990341313010045


    We present the results of spectroscopy of 39 H II regions in the spiral galaxy NGC 6946. The spectral observations were carried out at the 6-m BTA telescope of the SAO RAS with the SCORPIO focal reducer in the multi-slit mode with the dispersion of 2.1A/px and spectral resolution of 10A. The absorption estimates for 39 H II regions were obtained. Using the "strong line" method (NS-calibration) we determined the electron temperature, and the abundances of oxygen and nitrogen for 30 H II regions. The radial gradients of O/H and N/H were constructed.

  4. Entrepreneurship Education in the Arab States. Component II: Regional Synthesis Report

    El-Kiswani, Abeer


    The UNEVOC-UNESCO International Centre in cooperation with the Regional Bureau for Education-Beirut published the regional synthesis report on Component II of the regional project on entrepreneurship education in the Arab States (2009-2012). With support from the StratREAL Foundation, the project aimed at supporting Arab countries in the…

  5. Turbulent convection model in the overshooting region: II. Theoretical analysis

    Zhang, S Q


    Turbulent convection models are thought to be good tools to deal with the convective overshooting in the stellar interior. However, they are too complex to be applied in calculations of stellar structure and evolution. In order to understand the physical processes of the convective overshooting and to simplify the application of turbulent convection models, a semi-analytic solution is necessary. We obtain the approximate solution and asymptotic solution of the turbulent convection model in the overshooting region, and find some important properties of the convective overshooting: I. The overshooting region can be partitioned into three parts: a thin region just outside the convective boundary with high efficiency of turbulent heat transfer, a power law dissipation region of turbulent kinetic energy in the middle, and a thermal dissipation area with rapidly decreasing turbulent kinetic energy. The decaying indices of the turbulent correlations $k$, $\\bar{u_{r}'T'}$, and $\\bar{T'T'}$ are only determined by the ...


    E. de la Fuente


    Full Text Available We present the results of a morphological study performed to a sample of Ultracompact (UC H II regions with Extended Emission (EE using Spitzer-IRAC imagery and 3.6 cm VLA conf. D radio-continuum (RC maps. Some examples of the comparison between maps and images are presented. Usually there is an IR point source counterpart to the peak(s of RC emission, at the position of the UC H II source. We find that the predominant EE morphology is the cometary, and in most cases is coincident with IR emission at 8.0 ¿m. Preliminary results of Spitzer-IRAC photometry of a sub-sample of 13 UC H II regions with EE (UC H II + EE based on GLIMPSE legacy data are also presented. Besides, individual IRAC photometry was performed to 19 UC H II sources within these 13 regions. We show that UC H II sources lie on specific locus, both in IRAC color-color and AM-product diagnostic diagrams. Counts of young stellar sources are presented for each region, and we conclude that a proportion of ¿2%, ¿10%, and ¿88% of sources in UC H II + EEare, in average, Class I, II, and III, respectively.


    Marinello, M. [Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Rua Doutor Pereira Cabral 1303, 37500-903, Itajubá, MG (Brazil); Rodríguez-Ardila, A.; Garcia-Rissmann, A. [Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Rua Estados Unidos 154, Itajubá, MG, 37504-364 (Brazil); Sigut, T. A. A. [The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Pradhan, A. K., E-mail: [McPherson Laboratory, The Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210-1173 (United States)


    We present a study of Fe ii emission in the near-infrared region (NIR) for 25 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to obtain information about the excitation mechanisms that power it and the location where it is formed. We employ an NIR Fe ii template derived in the literature and find that it successfully reproduces the observed Fe ii spectrum. The Fe ii bump at 9200 Å detected in all objects studied confirms that Lyα fluorescence is always present in AGNs. The correlation found between the flux of the 9200 Å bump, the 1 μm lines, and the optical Fe ii implies that Lyα fluorescence plays an important role in Fe ii production. We determined that at least 18% of the optical Fe ii is due to this process, while collisional excitation dominates the production of the observed Fe ii. The line profiles of Fe ii λ10502, O i λ11287, Ca ii λ8664, and Paβ were compared to gather information about the most likely location where they are emitted. We found that Fe ii, O i and Ca ii have similar widths and are, on average, 30% narrower than Paβ. Assuming that the clouds emitting the lines are virialized, we show that the Fe ii is emitted in a region twice as far from the central source than Paβ. The distance, though, strongly varies: from 8.5 light-days for NGC 4051 to 198.2 light-days for Mrk 509. Our results reinforce the importance of the Fe ii in the NIR to constrain critical parameters that drive its physics and the underlying AGN kinematics, as well as more accurate models aimed at reproducing this complex emission.

  8. Dynamical evolution of star forming regions - II. Basic kinematics

    Parker, Richard J


    We follow the dynamical evolution of young star-forming regions with a wide range of initial conditions and examine how the radial velocity dispersion, $\\sigma$, evolves over time. We compare this velocity dispersion to the theoretically expected value for the velocity dispersion if a region were in virial equilibrium, $\\sigma_{\\rm vir}$ and thus assess the virial state ($\\sigma / \\sigma_{\\rm vir}$) of these systems. We find that in regions that are initially subvirial, or in global virial equilibrium but subvirial on local scales, the system relaxes to virial equilibrium within several million years, or roughly 25 - 50 crossing times, according to the measured virial ratio. However, the measured velocity dispersion, $\\sigma$, appears to be a bad diagnostic of the current virial state of these systems as it suggests that they become supervirial when compared to the velocity dispersion estimated from the virial mass, $\\sigma_{\\rm vir}$. We suggest that this discrepancy is caused by the fact that the regions ar...

  9. Active region upflows. II. Data driven magnetohydrodynamic modelling

    Galsgaard, K.; Madjarska, M. S.; Vanninathan, K.; Huang, Z.; Presmann, M.


    Context. Observations of many active regions show a slow systematic outflow/upflow from their edges lasting from hours to days. At present no physical explanation has been proven, while several suggestions have been put forward. Aims: This paper investigates one possible method for maintaining these upflows assuming, that convective motions drive the magnetic field to initiate them through magnetic reconnection. Methods: We use Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) data to provide an initial potential 3D magnetic field of the active region NOAA 11123 on 2010 November 13 where the characteristic upflow velocities are observed. A simple 1D hydrostatic atmospheric model covering the region from the photosphere to the corona is derived. Local correlation tracking of the magnetic features in the HMI data is used to derive a proxy for the time dependent velocity field. The time dependent evolution of the system is solved using a resistive 3D magnetohydrodynamic code. Results: The magnetic field contains several null points located well above the photosphere, with their fan planes dividing the magnetic field into independent open and closed flux domains. The stressing of the interfaces between the different flux domains is expected to provide locations where magnetic reconnection can take place and drive systematic flows. In this case, the region between the closed and open flux is identified as the region where observations find the systematic upflows. Conclusions: In the present experiment, the driving only initiates magneto-acoustic waves without driving any systematic upflows at any of the flux interfaces. Movie is available in electronic form at

  10. The H II Region/PDR Connection: Self-Consistent Calculations of Physical Conditions in Star-Forming Regions

    Abel, N P; Shaw, G; Van Hoof, P A M


    We have performed a series of calculations designed to reproduce infrared diagnostics used to determine physical conditions in star forming regions. We self-consistently calculate the thermal and chemical structure of an H II region and photodissociation region (PDR) that are in pressure equilibrium. This differs from previous work, which used separate calculations for each gas phase. Our calculations span a wide range of stellar temperatures, gas densities, and ionization parameters. We describe improvements made to the spectral synthesis code Cloudy that made these calculations possible. These include the addition of a molecular network with ~1000 reactions involving 68 molecular species and improved treatment of the grain physics. Data from the Spitzer First Look Survey, along with other archives, are used to derive important physical characteristics of the H II region and PDR. These include stellar temperatures, electron densities, ionization parameters, UV radiation flux, and PDR density. Finally, we cal...

  11. Modelling the Pan-Spectral Energy Distribution of Starburst Galaxies: II. Control of the H II Region Parameters

    Dopita, M A; Fischera, J; Sutherland, R S; Kewley, L J; Tuffs, R J; Popescu, C C; van Breugel, W; Groves, B A; Leitherer, C


    We examine from a theoretical viewpoint how the physical parameters of H II regions are controlled both in normal galaxies and in starburst environments. These parameters are the H II region luminosity function, the time-dependent size, the covering fraction of molecular clouds, the pressure in the ionized gas and the ionization parameter. The factors which control them are the initial mass function of the exciting stars, the cluster mass function, the metallicity and the mean pressure in the surrounding interstellar medium. We investigate the sensitivity of the H{alpha} luminosity to the IMF, and find that this can translate to about 30% variation in derived star formation rates. The molecular cloud dissipation timescale is estimated from a case study of M17 to be {approx} 1 Myr. Based upon H II luminosity function fitting for nearby galaxies, we propose that the cluster mass function has a log-normal form peaking at {approx} 185M{sub {circle_dot}}. This suggests that the cluster mass function is the continuation of the stellar IMF to higher mass. The pressure in the H II regions is controlled by the mechanical luminosity flux from the central cluster. Since this is closely related to the ionizing photon flux, we show that the ionization parameter is not a free variable, and that the diffuse ionized medium may be composed of many large, faint and old H II regions. Finally, we derive theoretical probability distributions for the ionization parameter as a function of metallicity and compare these to those derived for SDSS galaxies.

  12. Active Region Jets II: Triggering and Evolution of Violent Jets

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Martinez, Francisco


    We study a series of X-ray-bright, rapidly evolving active-region coronal jets outside the leading sunspot of AR 12259, using Hinode/XRT, SDO/AIA and HMI, and IRIS/SJ data. The detailed evolution of such rapidly evolving “violent” jets remained a mystery after our previous investigation of active region jets (Sterling et al. 2016, ApJ, 821, 100). The jets we investigate here erupt from three localized subregions, each containing a rapidly evolving (positive) minority-polarity magnetic-flux patch bathed in a (majority) negative-polarity magnetic-flux background. At least several of the jets begin with eruptions of what appear to be thin (thickness ˜Nature, 523, 437). For some jets strands are difficult/ impossible to detect, perhaps due to their thinness, obscuration by surrounding bright or dark features, or the absence of erupting cool-material minifilaments in those jets. Tracing in detail the flux evolution in one of the subregions, we find bursts of strong jetting occurring only during times of strong flux cancelation. Averaged over seven jetting episodes, the cancelation rate was ~1.5×10^19 Mx/hr. An average flux of ~5×10^18 Mx canceled prior to each episode, arguably building up ~10^28—10^29 ergs of free magnetic energy per jet. From these and previous observations, we infer that flux cancelation is the fundamental process responsible for the pre-eruption buildup and triggering of at least many jets in active regions, quiet regions, and coronal holes.

  13. Hii regions in ngc 5055. ii. physical properties

    M. Rozas


    Full Text Available En este artículo usamos las observaciones presentadas en Rozas (2007 de la galaxia NGC 5055 en las líneas Hα y Hβ, junto con observaciones CCD con filtros estrechos en las líneas [OII], [OIII], [SII] y S[III] para calcular las anchuras equivalentes, excitación, grados de ionización, parámetros de ionización y metalicidades de las regiones catalogadas en Rozas (2007.

  14. Politics in the Western Maya Region (II: Emblem Glyphs

    Péter Bíró


    Full Text Available In a series of articles I reflect on the use of various expressions which are connected to what we call the political in the inscriptions of the Classic Maya Western Region. These words express ideas and concepts which help to understand the intricate details of the interactions between the political entities and their internal organisations in the Classic Maya Lowlands. In this article I investigate the meaning of emblem glyphs. I suggest that originally they were toponyms but later on they became titles of origin which indicated descendance from a common origin place.En una serie de artículos investigo el uso de varias palabras en las inscripciones mayas de la época Clásica de la Región Occidental que se conectan con lo que nosotros llamamos "política". Estas palabras expresan ideas y conceptos que ayudan a entender los matices de las relaciones entre las entidades políticas de las Tierras Bajas Mayas y su organización interna. En este artículo investigo el significado de los glifos emblema. Propongo que originalmente fueron topónimos y después llegaron a ser títulos de origen que indicaron descendencia común de un lugar original.

  15. Phase II NOx controls for the Marama and Nescaum regions. Final report



    This technical report discusses Phase II NOx controls for utility boilers in the Mid-Atlantic Regional Air Management Association (MARAMA) and the Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM) regions. The subject areas include: Utility boiler population profile in the MARAMA and NESCAUM regions; Discussion of RACT controls; Available NOx controls and their levels of performance; and Costs and cost effectiveness of NOx controls.

  16. Studies on chaetognaths off Ubatuba region, Brazil: II. Feeding habits

    Tsui Hua Liang


    Full Text Available The diet of chaetognath species were studied by examining the gut contents of 9466 specimens collected off Ubatuba region, São Paulo State. The greatest proportion of chaetognaths (7119 individuals showed their gut contents empty. Copepods, mollusc eggs, appendicularians, cladocerans and annelids were the most common food items in the gut contents of juveniles and mature stages. Cannibalism occurred in low frequency. In Summer the copepods Temora stylifera and Paracalanus spp were more abundant, whereas Oncaea spp and mollusc eggs were heavily preyed in Winter. There was a clear trend of increasing prey size with the developmental stage.O estudo dos hábitos alimentares das espécies de Chaetognatha foi realizado a partir da análise do trato digestivo de 9466 indivíduos dos estágios 0 - IV. Os quetógnatos foram coletados ao largo da região de Ubatuba, Estado de São Paulo, com o auxílio da rede Bongo (Malha 0,200 mm e 0,303 mm, nos verões de 1985 - 1987 e invernos de 1986 e 1987. Dos 9466 tratos digestivos analisados, 7119 estavam vazios e 2347 apresentaram de 1 a 3 presas. Grande quantidade de material amorfo e semi-digerido também foram detectados. A dieta esteve constituída basicamente de copépodos (Calanoida e Poecilostomatoida, cladóceros, ovos de moluscos, náuplios de crustáceos, apendiculárias e poliquetos, entre outros. O canibalismo foi observado a partir do estágio I, porém com baixa frequência. Os estágios jovens (0-1 mostraram preferência por presas de tamanho pequeno como náuplios e copépodos do gênero Oncaea, enquanto que os estágios maduros por presas maiores como Temora stylifera, Corycaeus sp e Eucalanus pileatus.

  17. Horse-Related Injuries among Agricultural Household Members: Regional Rural Injury Study II (RRIS-II)

    Erkal, Sibel; Gerberich, Susan G.; Ryan, Andrew D.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Renier, Colleen M.


    Purpose: To determine the incidence, associated consequences, and potential risk factors for horse-related injuries among youth and adults residing in Midwestern agricultural households. Methods: Demographic, injury, and exposure data were collected for 1999 and 2001 among randomly selected agricultural households within a 5-state region. A causal…

  18. Horse-Related Injuries among Agricultural Household Members: Regional Rural Injury Study II (RRIS-II)

    Erkal, Sibel; Gerberich, Susan G.; Ryan, Andrew D.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Renier, Colleen M.


    Purpose: To determine the incidence, associated consequences, and potential risk factors for horse-related injuries among youth and adults residing in Midwestern agricultural households. Methods: Demographic, injury, and exposure data were collected for 1999 and 2001 among randomly selected agricultural households within a 5-state region. A causal…

  19. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration Phase II

    James Rutledge


    The Southwest Regional Partnership (SWP) on Carbon Sequestration designed and deployed a medium-scale field pilot test of geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in the Aneth oil field. Greater Aneth oil field, Utah's largest oil producer, was discovered in 1956 and has produced over 455 million barrels of oil (72 million m3). Located in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah, Greater Aneth is a stratigraphic trap producing from the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation. Because it represents an archetype oil field of the western U.S., Greater Aneth was selected as one of three geologic pilots to demonstrate combined enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and CO2 sequestration under the auspices of the SWP on Carbon Sequestration, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. The pilot demonstration focuced on the western portion of the Aneth Unit as this area of the field was converted from waterflood production to CO2 EOR starting in late 2007. The Aneth Unit is in the northwestern part of the field and has produced 149 million barrels (24 million m3) of the estimated 450 million barrels (71.5 million m3) of the original oil in place - a 33% recovery rate. The large amount of remaining oil makes the Aneth Unit ideal to demonstrate both CO2 storage capacity and EOR by CO2 flooding. This report summarizes the geologic characterization research, the various field monitoring tests, and the development of a geologic model and numerical simulations conducted for the Aneth demonstration project. The Utah Geological Survey (UGS), with contributions from other Partners, evaluated how the surface and subsurface geology of the Aneth Unit demonstration site will affect sequestration operations and engineering strategies. The UGS-research for the project are summarized in Chapters 1 through 7, and includes (1) mapping the surface geology including stratigraphy, faulting, fractures, and deformation bands, (2) describing the local Jurassic and Cretaceous stratigraphy, (3) mapping the

  20. Spitzer observations of dust emission from H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Stephens, Ian W. [Now at Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA. (United States); Evans, Jessica Marie; Xue, Rui; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert A.; Segura-Cox, Dominique M., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)


    Massive stars can alter physical conditions and properties of their ambient interstellar dust grains via radiative heating and shocks. The H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) offer ideal sites to study the stellar energy feedback effects on dust because stars can be resolved, and the galaxy's nearly face-on orientation allows us to unambiguously associate H II regions with their ionizing massive stars. The Spitzer Space Telescope survey of the LMC provides multi-wavelength (3.6-160 μm) photometric data of all H II regions. To investigate the evolution of dust properties around massive stars, we have analyzed spatially resolved IR dust emission from two classical H II regions (N63 and N180) and two simple superbubbles (N70 and N144) in the LMC. We produce photometric spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of numerous small subregions for each region based on its stellar distributions and nebular morphologies. We use DustEM dust emission model fits to characterize the dust properties. Color-color diagrams and model fits are compared with the radiation field (estimated from photometric and spectroscopic surveys). Strong radial variations of SEDs can be seen throughout the regions, reflecting the available radiative heating. Emission from very small grains drastically increases at locations where the radiation field is the highest, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) appear to be destroyed. PAH emission is the strongest in the presence of molecular clouds, provided that the radiation field is low.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SN II in host HII regions (Anderson+, 2016)

    Anderson, J. P.; Gutierrez, C. P.; Dessart, L.; Hamuy, M.; Galbany, L.; Morrell, N. I.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Phillips, M. M.; Folatelli, G.; Boffin, H. M. J.; de Jaeger, T.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Prieto, J. L.


    The data analysed in this publication comprise two distinct types of observations. The first is of SN II optical spectroscopy obtained during their photospheric phases, i.e. from discovery to at most ~100 days post explosion. These data are used to extract absorption line pEW measurements. The second data set is emission line spectral observations of host HII regions of SNe II. These are used to estimate SN II environment oxygen abundances, which can be used as metallicity proxies. In the course of this work we compare our observational results with the predictions from the spectral models of Dessart et al. (2014MNRAS.440.1856D). (2 data files).

  2. Density bounded H II regions: ionization of the diffuse interstellar and intergalactic media

    A. Zurita


    Full Text Available Presentamos un estudio del gas difuso ionizado (DIG en una muestra de galaxias espirales cercanas, tras haber construi do el cat alogo de regiones H II para cada una de ellas. La emisi on en H del gas difuso ionizado supone entre un 25% y un 60% de la total en H de las galaxias y es necesario un ujo muy alto de fotones ionizantes para mantener este gas ionizado. Proponemos que los fotones Lyman que escapan de las regiones H II m as luminosas de una galaxia son la principal fuente de ionizaci on del DIG; son m as que su cientes para ionizar el DIG en el modelo en el que las regiones H II con luminosidad en H mayor que LStr = 1038:6 erg s

  3. Density bounding in the H II regions of galactic disks: evidence and consequences

    J. E. Beckman


    Full Text Available Presentamos cuatro tipos de evidencia que conducen a la conclusi on de que una fracci on notable de los fotones ionizantes emitidos por las estrellas que se encuentran en el interior de las regiones H II en los discos de las galaxias espirales normales, escapa de las regiones hacia el medio circundante y m as all a de este. Estas son: (1 La distribuci on de la intensidad de brillo super cial del H difuso emitido por el disco de una galaxia, es bien modelado suponiendo que el continuo de Lyman que lo origina escapa de las regiones H II. (2 La relaci on entre el brillo super cial central en H y la luminosidad total de una regi on H II, se aleja de las predicciones para sistemas uniformes limitados en ionizaci on. (3 La funci on de luminosidad en H de poblaciones completas de regiones H II muestra un cambio de pendiente con par ametros que pueden explicarse con la hip otesis de limitaci on en densidad, pero no mediante hip otesis competidoras. (4 La relaci on entre anchura de velocidad interna en H y la luminosidad de las regiones H II se puede explicar de manera natural mediante la limitaci on en densidad. Una estructura de nube fractal y grumosa proporciona par ametros que pueden explicar las observaciones. Mostramos c omo la fracci on de fotones Lyman que escapan de las regiones H II, nalmente escapa de los discos de las galaxias, y puede ionizar grandes vol umenes del medio de baja densidad interior a los c umulos, en torno a las galaxias.

  4. Detecting stellar-wind bubbles through infrared arcs in H ii regions

    Mackey, Jonathan; Haworth, Thomas J.; Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.; Mohamed, Shazrene; Langer, Norbert; Harries, Tim J.


    Mid-infrared arcs of dust emission are often seen near ionizing stars within H ii regions. A possible explanations for these arcs is that they could show the outer edges of asymmetric stellar wind bubbles. We use two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of wind bubbles within H ii regions around individual stars to predict the infrared emission properties of the dust within the H ii region. We assume that dust and gas are dynamically well-coupled and that dust properties (composition, size distribution) are the same in the H ii region as outside it, and that the wind bubble contains no dust. We post-process the simulations to make synthetic intensity maps at infrared wavebands using the torus code. We find that the outer edge of a wind bubble emits brightly at 24 μm through starlight absorbed by dust grains and re-radiated thermally in the infrared. This produces a bright arc of emission for slowly moving stars that have asymmetric wind bubbles, even for cases where there is no bow shock or any corresponding feature in tracers of gas emission. The 24 μm intensity decreases exponentially from the arc with increasing distance from the star because the dust temperature decreases with distance. The size distribution and composition of the dust grains has quantitative but not qualitative effects on our results. Despite the simplifications of our model, we find good qualitative agreement with observations of the H ii region RCW 120, and can provide physical explanations for any quantitative differences. Our model produces an infrared arc with the same shape and size as the arc around CD -38°11636 in RCW 120, and with comparable brightness. This suggests that infrared arcs around O stars in H ii regions may be revealing the extent of stellar wind bubbles, although we have not excluded other explanations.

  5. Environmental monitoring survey of oil and gas fields in Region II in 2009. Summary report; Miljoeovervaaking av olje- og gassfelt i Region II i 2009. Sammendragsrapport


    The oil companies Statoil ASA, ExxonMobil Exploration and Production Norway AS, Total E&P Norge AS, Talisman Energy Norge AS and Marathon Petroleum Norge AS commissioned Section of Applied Environmental Research at UNI RESEARCH AS to undertake the monitoring survey of Region II in 2009. Similar monitoring surveys in Region II have been carried out in 1996, 2000, 2003 and 2006. The survey in 2009 included in total 18 fields: Rev, Varg, Sigyn, Sleipner Vest, Sleipner Oest, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Vale, Skirne, Byggve, Heimdal, Volve, Vilje og Alvheim. Sampling was conducted from the vessel MV Libas between May 18 and May 27. Samples were collected from in totally 137 sampling sites, of which 15 were regional sampling sites. Samples for chemical analysis were collected at all sites, whereas samples for benthos analysis were collected at 12 fields. As in previous surveys, Region II is divided into natural sub-regions. One sub-region is shallow (77-96 m) sub-region, a central sub-region (107-130 m) and a northern subregion (115-119 m). The sediments of the shallow sub-region had relatively lower content of TOM and pelite and higher content of fine sand than the central and northern sub-regions. Calculated areas of contamination are shown for the sub-regions in Table 1.1. The fields Sigyn, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Skirne, Byggve, Vilje og Alvheim showed no contamination of THC. At the other fields there were minor changes from 2006. The concentrations of barium increased in the central sub-region from 2006 to 2009, also at fields where no drilling had been undertaken during the last years. The same laboratory and methods are used during the three last regional investigations. The changes in barium concentrations may be due to high variability of barium concentrations in the sediments. This is supported by relatively large variations in average barium concentrations at the regional sampling sites in

  6. Environmental monitoring survey of oil and gas fields in Region II in 2009. Summary report; Miljoeovervaaking av olje- og gassfelt i Region II i 2009


    The oil companies Statoil ASA, ExxonMobil Exploration and Production Norway AS, Total E&P Norge AS, Talisman Energy Norge AS and Marathon Petroleum Norge AS commissioned Section of Applied Environmental Research at UNI RESEARCH AS to undertake the monitoring survey of Region II in 2009. Similar monitoring surveys in Region II have been carried out in 1996, 2000, 2003 and 2006. The survey in 2009 included in total 18 fields: Rev, Varg, Sigyn, Sleipner Vest, Sleipner OEst, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Vale, Skirne, Byggve, Heimdal, Volve, Vilje og Alvheim. Sampling was conducted from the vessel MV Libas between May 18 and May 27. Samples were collected from in totally 137 sampling sites, of which 15 were regional sampling sites. Samples for chemical analysis were collected at all sites, whereas samples for benthos analysis were collected at 12 fields. As in previous surveys, Region II is divided into natural sub-regions. One sub-region is shallow (77-96 m) sub-region, a central sub-region (107-130 m) and a northern subregion (115-119 m). The sediments of the shallow sub-region had relatively lower content of TOM and pelite and higher content of fine sand than the central and northern sub-regions. Calculated areas of contamination are shown for the sub-regions in Table 1.1. The fields Sigyn, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Skirne, Byggve, Vilje og Alvheim showed no contamination of THC. At the other fields there were minor changes from 2006. The concentrations of barium increased in the central sub-region from 2006 to 2009, also at fields where no drilling had been undertaken during the last years. The same laboratory and methods are used during the three last regional investigations. The changes in barium concentrations may be due to high variability of barium concentrations in the sediments. This is supported by relatively large variations in average barium concentrations at the regional sampling sites in

  7. The Infrared and Radio Flux Densities of Galactic H ii regions

    Makai, Z.; Anderson, L. D.; Mascoop, J. L.; Johnstone, B.


    We derive infrared and radio flux densities of all ∼1000 known Galactic H ii regions in the Galactic longitude range 17\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 5population is uncertain. Compared to a sample of IR color indices from star-forming galaxies, H ii regions show higher {{log}}10({F}70μ {{m}}/{F}12μ {{m}}) ratios. We find a weak trend of decreasing infrared to ∼20 cm flux density ratios with increasing R gal, in agreement with previous extragalactic results, possibly indicating a decreased dust abundance in the outer Galaxy.

  8. The calibration of the O/H abundance indicators for extragalactic H II regions based on O II recombination lines

    M. Peimbert; A. Peimbert; Esteban, C.; García-Rojas, J.; Bresolin, F.; Carigi, L.; Ruiz, M. T.; A. R. López


    Presentamos una nueva calibración del indicador O23 de Pagel para determinar los cocientes de O/H en regiones H II extra galácticas y galaxias con líneas de emisión. Esta calibración la llamamos O IIRL y esta basada en líneas de recombinación de O II. Nuestra calibración produce abundancias de O/H alrededor de un factor de dos mayores que las obtenidas a partir del método Te(4363) con t2 = 0.00. La calibración O IIRL tiene consecuencias para el estudio de diferentes propiedades de...

  9. The molecular cloud-H II region complexes associated with SH 90 and SH 235

    Lafon, G.; Baudry, A.; de La Noe, J.; Deharveng, L.


    The Sharpless regions Sh 90 and Sh 235 are characterized on the basis of monochromatic photographs (at H-alpha, N III, and O III) and H-alpha photographic interferograms made at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence and of molecular-cloud maps (at 110.201 and 89.189 GHz) made at the Observatoire de Bordeaux. Sh 90, at a distance of 2.4 kpc, is found to have an evolved-H II-region shell structure, with ionized gas flowing both away from and toward a neutral molecular cloud with a mass of about 60,000 solar mass which lies partly in front of the H II region. Sh 235, at 1.6 kpc, has two extended 100,000-300,000-solar-mass neutral clouds which partly overlap. The northern cloud, identified at -20 km/s, is related to the optical nebula; the southern cloud (at -17 km/s) contains three compact H II regions (A, B, and C) and exhibits recent star-formation processes. The 'champagne' model of H II regions proposed by Tenorio-Tagle (1979) is considered applicable to Sh 90 and to Sh 235C.


    Wenger, Trey V.; Bania, T. M. [Astronomy Department, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Balser, Dana S. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA, 22903-2475 (United States); Anderson, L. D. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)


    The Green Bank Telescope H II Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS) found hundreds of previously unknown Galactic regions of massive star formation by detecting hydrogen radio recombination line (RRL) emission from candidate H II region targets. Since the HRDS nebulae lie at large distances from the Sun, they are located in previously unprobed zones of the Galactic disk. Here, we derive the properties of helium and carbon RRL emission from HRDS nebulae. Our target sample is the subset of the HRDS that has visible helium or carbon RRLs. This criterion gives a total of 84 velocity components (14% of the HRDS) with helium emission and 52 (9%) with carbon emission. For our highest quality sources, the average {sup 4}He{sup +}/H{sup +} abundance ratio by number, (y {sup +}), is 0.068 {+-} 0.023(1{sigma}). This is the same ratio as that measured for the sample of previously known Galactic H II regions. Nebulae without detected helium emission give robust y {sup +} upper limits. There are 5 RRL emission components with y {sup +} less than 0.04 and another 12 with upper limits below this value. These H II regions must have either a very low {sup 4}He abundance or contain a significant amount of neutral helium. The HRDS has 20 nebulae with carbon RRL emission but no helium emission at its sensitivity level. There is no correlation between the carbon RRL parameters and the 8 {mu}m mid-infrared morphology of these nebulae.

  11. On the kinematics of h ii regions: yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    H. O. Castañeda,


    Full Text Available El estudio de la cinem atica y din amica de las regiones H II nos provee de informaci on sobre las condiciones f sicas del gas, la interpretaci on de su espectro de emisi on y el intercambio de energ a mec anica entre las estrellas masivas y el gas ionizado. Discutimos en nuestra presentaci on el pasado, presente y futuro de la investigaci on en este campo. Cubrimos brevemente los avances te oricos y observacionales realizados durante las ultimas d ecadas, incluyendo el estudio de los efectos del medio circundante en la cinem atica, el llamado modelo de champagne, los movimientos supers onicos observados en regions H II gigantes, y los efectos de la turbulencia y virializaci on del gas. Finalmente discutimos como observaciones con espectr ografos Fabry-Perot, tanto en regiones individuales como en muestras completas de regiones en galaxias, puede llevarnos a una mejor comprensi on del estado f sico del gas.

  12. Optimization of regional navigation satellite constellation by improved NSGA-II algorithm

    Chang, Hui; Hu, Xiulin; Zhang, Yunyu; Zeng, Yujiang; Wang, Ying


    In this paper, the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) based on the concept of Pareto optimal is improved. A new algorithm with lower O(MNlogN) computational complexity to construct non-dominated set replaces the NSGA-II original fast non-dominated sorting algorithm with O(MN2) com-putational complexity. The new algorithm improves operating efficiency of NSGA-II significantly. Based on the combination of the improved NSGA-II algorithm and regional navigation satellite constellation design, a new idea to design regional navigation satellite constellation is proposed in this paper. The new idea is implemented by Satellite Tool Kits (STK) and Matlab: the improved NSGA-II algorithm is implemented by Matlab and the calculation of the objective function values is implemented by STK. STK/Connect interface is used to integrate STK and Matlab into one simulation. Simulation results show that new idea has some advantages over the traditional methods, being more efficient, more flexible and more comprehensive.

  13. Beyond Str\\"omgren Spheres and Wind-Blown Bubbles: An Observational Perspective on H II Region Feedback

    Povich, Matthew S


    Massive stars produce copious quantities of ultraviolet radiation beyond the Lyman limit, photoionizing the interstellar medium (ISM) and producing H II regions. As strong sources of recombination- and forbidden-line emission, infrared continuum, and thermal (free-free) radio continuum, H II regions serve as readily-observable beacons of massive star formation in the Milky Way and external galaxies. Along with supernovae, H II regions are dominant sources of feedback in star-forming galaxies, injecting radiative and mechanical luminosity into the ISM. H II regions may prove more important than supernovae as triggers of star formation through localized compression of cold cloud cores. In this review, I give a broad overview of the structure and time-evolution of H II regions, emphasizing complications to the theoretical picture revealed by multiwavelength observations. I discuss a recent controversy surrounding the dominant feedback mechanism in 30 Doradus, the most luminous H II region in the Local Group. I s...

  14. Acomprehensive study of high metallicity giant extragalactic h ii regions: chemical abundances

    Marcelo Castellanos; Díaz, Angeles I.; Elena Terlevich


    Hemos realizado observaciones espectrofotom etricas en el optico e infrarrojo cercano de 15 regiones H II en las galaxias espirales NGC 628, NGC 925, NGC 1232 y NGC 1637. Dichas observaciones han sido realizadas con una amplia cobertura espectral y con una resoluci on su ciente para detectar y medir tanto las d ebiles l neas aurorales como las caracter sticas de estrellas Wolf-Rayet (WR). Hemos derivado la temperatura electr onica en las regiones observadas con el n de investi...


    Paladini, R. [NASA Herschel Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200, East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Umana, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Veneziani, M.; Noriega-Crespo, A. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200, East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Anderson, L. D. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Piacentini, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Pinheiro Goncalves, D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto 50 George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Paradis, D.; Bernard, J.-P. [Centre d' Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, 9 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Tibbs, C. T. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200, East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Natoli, P., E-mail: [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione Ferrara, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)


    We have analyzed a uniform sample of 16 evolved H II regions located in a 2 Degree-Sign Multiplication-Sign 2 Degree-Sign Galactic field centered at (l,b) = (30 Degree-Sign , 0 Degree-Sign ) and observed as part of the Herschel Hi-GAL survey. The evolutionary stage of these H II regions was established using ancillary radio-continuum data. By combining Hi-GAL PACS (70 {mu}m, 160 {mu}m) and SPIRE (250 {mu}m, 350 {mu}m, and 500 {mu}m) measurements with MIPSGAL 24 {mu}m data, we built spectral energy distributions of the sources and showed that a two-component gray-body model is a good representation of the data. In particular, wavelengths >70 {mu}m appear to trace a cold dust component, for which we estimated an equilibrium temperature of the big grains (BGs) in the range 20-30 K, while for {lambda} < 70 {mu}m, the data indicate the presence of a warm dust component at temperatures of the order of 50-90 K. This analysis also revealed that dust is present in the interior of H II regions, although likely not in a large amount. In addition, the data seem to corroborate the hypothesis that the main mechanism responsible for the (partial) depletion of dust in H II regions is radiation-pressure-driven drift. In this framework, we speculated that the 24 {mu}m emission that spatially correlates with ionized gas might be associated with either very small grain or BG replenishment, as recently proposed for the case of wind-blown bubbles. Finally, we found that evolved H II regions are characterized by distinctive far-IR and submillimeter colors, which can be used as diagnostics for their identification in unresolved Galactic and extragalactic regions.

  16. Re-analysis of the Radio Luminosity Function of Galactic H II Regions

    Paladini, R.; De Zotti, G.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Carey, S. J.


    We have re-analyzed continuum and recombination lines radio data available in the literature in order to derive the luminosity function (LF) of Galactic H II regions. The study is performed by considering the first and fourth Galactic quadrants independently. We estimate the completeness level of the sample in the fourth quadrant at 5 Jy, and the one in the first quadrant at 2 Jy. We show that the two samples (fourth or first quadrant) include, as well as giant and supergiant H II regions, a significant number of subgiant sources. The LF is obtained, in each Galactic quadrant, with a generalized Schmidt's estimator using an effective volume derived from the observed spatial distribution of the considered H II regions. The re-analysis also takes advantage of recently published ancillary absorption data allowing to solve the distance ambiguity for several objects. A single power-law fit to the LFs retrieves a slope equal to -2.23 ± 0.07 (fourth quadrant) and to -1.85 ± 0.11 (first quadrant). We also find marginal evidence of a luminosity break at L knee = 1023.45 erg s-1 Hz-1 for the LF in the fourth quadrant. We convert radio luminosities into equivalent Hα and Lyman continuum luminosities to facilitate comparisons with extragalactic studies. We obtain an average total H II regions Lyman continuum luminosity of 0.89 ± 0.23 × 1053 s-1, corresponding to 30% of the total ionizing luminosity of the Galaxy.

  17. Acomprehensive study of high metallicity giant extragalactic h ii regions: chemical abundances

    Marcelo Castellanos


    Full Text Available Hemos realizado observaciones espectrofotom etricas en el optico e infrarrojo cercano de 15 regiones H II en las galaxias espirales NGC 628, NGC 925, NGC 1232 y NGC 1637. Dichas observaciones han sido realizadas con una amplia cobertura espectral y con una resoluci on su ciente para detectar y medir tanto las d ebiles l neas aurorales como las caracter sticas de estrellas Wolf-Rayet (WR. Hemos derivado la temperatura electr onica en las regiones observadas con el n de investigar la estructura de ionizaci on de las mismas y la composici on qu mica del gas. De esta manera, hemos seleccionado de la muestra de Van Zee et al. (1998, aquellas regiones H II gigantes cuya metalicidad, obtenida a partir de calibraciones emp ricas basadas en las l neas prohibidas del ox geno, es solar o sobresolar.

  18. Star Formation Activity in the Galactic H II Region Sh2-297

    Mallick, K. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Samal, M. R.; Pandey, A. K.; Bhatt, B. C.; Ghosh, S. K.; Dewangan, L. K.; Tamura, M.


    We present a multiwavelength study of the Galactic H II region Sh2-297, located in the Canis Major OB1 complex. Optical spectroscopic observations are used to constrain the spectral type of ionizing star HD 53623 as B0V. The classical nature of this H II region is affirmed by the low values of electron density and emission measure, which are calculated to be 756 cm-3 and 9.15 × 105 cm-6 pc using the radio continuum observations at 610 and 1280 MHz, and Very Large Array archival data at 1420 MHz. To understand local star formation, we identified the young stellar object (YSO) candidates in a region of area ~7farcm5 × 7farcm5 centered on Sh2-297 using grism slitless spectroscopy (to identify the Hα emission line stars), and near infrared (NIR) observations. NIR YSO candidates are further classified into various evolutionary stages using color-color and color-magnitude (CM) diagrams, giving 50 red sources (H - K > 0.6) and 26 Class II-like sources. The mass and age range of the YSOs are estimated to be ~0.1-2 M ⊙ and 0.5-2 Myr using optical (V/V-I) and NIR (J/J-H) CM diagrams. The mean age of the YSOs is found to be ~1 Myr, which is of the order of dynamical age of 1.07 Myr of the H II region. Using the estimated range of visual extinction (1.1-25 mag) from literature and NIR data for the region, spectral energy distribution models have been implemented for selected YSOs which show masses and ages to be consistent with estimated values. The spatial distribution of YSOs shows an evolutionary sequence, suggesting triggered star formation in the region. The star formation seems to have propagated from the ionizing star toward the cold dark cloud LDN1657A located west of Sh2-297.

  19. Linkage relationships in the bovine MHC region. High recombination frequency between class II subregions.

    Andersson, L; Lundén, A; Sigurdardottir, S; Davies, C J; Rask, L


    Class II genes of the bovine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been investigated by Southern blot analysis using human DNA probes. Previous studies revealed the presence of bovine DO beta, DQ alpha, DQ beta, DR alpha, and DR beta genes, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms for each of these genes were documented. In the present study, the presence of three additional class II genes, designated DZ alpha, DY alpha, and DY beta, are reported. DZ alpha was assumed to correspond to the human DZ alpha gene while the other two were designated DY because their relationship to human class II genes could not be firmly established. The linkage relationships among bovine class II genes and two additional loci, TCP1B and C4, were investigated by family segregation analysis and analysis of linkage disequilibrium. The results clearly indicated that all these loci belong to the same linkage group. This linkage group is divided into two subregions separated by a fairly high recombination frequency. One region includes the C4, DQ alpha, DQ beta, DR alpha, and DR beta loci and the other one is composed of the DO beta, DY alpha, DY beta, and TCP1B loci. No recombinant was observed within any of these subregions and there was a strong or fairly strong linkage disequilibrium between loci within groups. In contrast, as many as five recombinants among three different families were detected in the interval between these subregions giving a recombination frequency estimate of 0.17 +/- 0.07. The fairly high recombination frequency observed between class II genes in cattle is strikingly different from the corresponding recombination estimates in man and mouse. The finding implies either a much larger molecular distance between some of the bovine class II genes or alternatively the presence of a recombinational "hot spot" in the bovine class II region.

  20. Triggered star formation at the borders of the H ii region Sh 2-217

    Brand, J.; Massi, F.; Zavagno, A.; Deharveng, L.; Lefloch, B.


    Context. This paper is part of our ongoing study of star formation at the borders of Galactic H ii regions. In this paper, we report our observations and analysis of Sharpless 217 (Sh 2-217). Aims: We study the stars and gas in and around H ii regions to see if the various physical parameters derived from the data (such as column densities, masses, sizes, and timescales) are consistent with the predictions of a simple model of the collect-and-collapse mechanism. This should indicate whether stars forming in molecular gas at the borders of the H ii regions could have been triggered by the expansion of the ionized gas. Methods: We observed the emission of various molecules and transitions towards Sh 2-217, and obtained both near-infrared photometry in the H and K bands, and near-infrared images in [Fe ii] and H2 narrow-band filters of the stars in a molecular condensation at the edge of the H ii region, where an UC H ii region is also located. For the atomic and ionized hydrogen gas, we used literature data. Results: Several molecular condensations are found on the borders of Sh 2-217 and both behind and in front of the ionized emission. We find signs of star formation (an UC H ii region, outflows, and water masers). The masses of the larger molecular condensations, derived from 13CO-data, are ≳330-1100 M⊙, while smaller clumps or cores within them have up to several tens of solar masses. The morphology of the atomic and molecular gas associated with Sh 2-217, especially the condensations of molecular gas on its border, and the presence of star forming activity within them, is strongly indicative of it being the result of star formation triggered by the expansion of the ionized region, following the collect-and-collapse scenario. Application of a simple model illustrates that the present radii of both Sh 2-217 and the UC H ii region, the masses of the condensations, and the timescales needed to sweep up these amounts of gas and allow massive stars to form in them

  1. The Green Bank Telescope H II Region Discovery Survey: IV. Helium and Carbon Recombination Lines

    Wenger, Trey V; Balser, Dana S; Anderson, L D


    The Green Bank Telescope H II Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS) found hundreds of previously unknown Galactic regions of massive star formation by detecting hydrogen radio recombination line (RRL) emission from candidate H II region targets. Since the HRDS nebulae lie at large distances from the Sun, they are located in previously unprobed zones of the Galactic disk. Here we derive the properties of helium and carbon RRL emission from HRDS nebulae. Our target sample is the subset of the HRDS that has visible helium or carbon RRLs. This criterion gives a total of 84 velocity components (14% of the HRDS) with helium emission and 52 (9%) with carbon emission. For our highest quality sources, the average ionic He-4+/H+ abundance ratio by number, , is 0.068 +/- 0.023 (1-sigma). This is the same ratio as that measured for the sample of previously known Galactic H II regions. Nebulae without detected helium emission give robust y+ upper limits. There are 5 RRL emission components with y+ less than 0.04 and another ...

  2. Mirror therapy in patients with causalgia (complex regional pain syndrome type II) following peripheral nerve injury: Two cases

    R.W. Selles (Ruud); A.R. Schreuders (Ton); H.J. Stam (Henk)


    textabstractObjective: To describe the use of mirror therapy in 2 patients with complex regional pain syndrome type II following traumatic nerve injury. Design: Two case reports. Subjects: Two patients with complex regional pain syndrome type II. Methods: Two patients received mirror therapy with

  3. Mirror therapy in patients with causalgia (complex regional pain syndrome type II) following peripheral nerve injury: Two cases

    R.W. Selles (Ruud); A.R. Schreuders (Ton); H.J. Stam (Henk)


    textabstractObjective: To describe the use of mirror therapy in 2 patients with complex regional pain syndrome type II following traumatic nerve injury. Design: Two case reports. Subjects: Two patients with complex regional pain syndrome type II. Methods: Two patients received mirror therapy with th

  4. The Optical Depth of H II Regions in the Magellanic Clouds

    Pellegrini, E W; Winkler, P F; Points, S D; Smith, R C


    We exploit ionization-parameter mapping as a powerful tool to measure the optical depth of star-forming H II regions. Our simulations based on the C LOUDY photoionization code and our new, SURFBRIGHT surface brightness simulator demonstrate that this technique can directly diagnose most density-bounded, optically thin nebulae with spatially resolved emission line data. We apply this method to the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, using the data from the Magellanic Clouds Emission Line Survey. We generate new H II region catalogs based on photoionization criteria set by the observed ionization structure in the [SII]/[OIII] ratio and H{\\alpha} surface brightness. The luminosity functions from these catalogs generally agree with those from H{\\alpha}-only surveys. We then use ionization-parameter mapping to crudely classify all the nebulae into optically thick vs optically thin categories, yielding fundamental new insights into the Lyman continuum radiation transfer. We find that in both galaxies, the frequency ...

  5. Microstructural analysis of the type-II boundary region in Alloy 152 weld

    Yoo, Seung Chang; Choi, Kyoung Joon; Kim, Ji Hyun [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)


    The weld metals are more susceptible to SCC growth and that most cracks are blunted by the fusion boundary. However, they also found that some cracking occurs along the fusion boundary, often in an area with high hardness. Nelson et al. investigated a DMW of Monel 409 stainless steel and American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 1080 alloy and found a type-II boundary, which exists parallel to the fusion boundary in the dilution zone. They conclude that the type-II boundary is a potential path for crack growth. While there are several theories for the mechanisms of the type-II boundary formation, they conclude that the type-II boundary forms from the allotropic δ-γ transformation at the base metal in the elevated austenitic temperature range. As the operation time of nuclear power plants using DMWs of Alloy 152 and A533 Gr. B increases, these DMWs must be evaluated for their resistance to SCC for long-term operations. However, only few studies have investigated the thermal aging effects induced by long-term operations at high temperature. Type-II boundary is known as a potential crack path from the results of crack growth test at DMW without any heat treatment. So the analysis about type-II boundary with applying heat treatment could be helpful to evaluate the susceptibility to SCC of structural materials. The objective of this study is to analyze the detailed microstructure of the type-II boundary region in the DMW of Alloy 152 and A533 Gr. B, after applying heat treatment simulating thermal aging effect of a nuclear power plant operation condition to evaluate the susceptibility of this region to SCC. The microstructure of the type-II boundary region in the DMW of Alloy 152 and A533 Gr. B were analyzed with an energy dispersive x-ray spectroscope attached to a scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and a nanoindentation test. Microstructural, grain boundary orientation, nanohardness analysis were conducted in the type-II

  6. Internal motions in H II regions. XI. The emission nebula sharpless 206

    Pismis, P.; Hasse, I.


    Radial velocities at 142 points are obtained on the H II region S206 by photographic Fabry-Perot interferometry using the reflectors with apertures of 2.1 meters at San Pedro Martir and 1 m at Tonantzintla. The overall velocity agrees with previous determinations. Our velocities cover the western faint extensions of the nebula not studied hitherto. The velocity field is consistent with a directional expansion of S206.

  7. Structure on Interplanetary Shock Fronts: Type II Radio Burst Source Regions

    Pulupa, M


    We present \\emph{in situ} observations of the source regions of interplanetary (IP) type II radio bursts, using data from the Wind spacecraft during the period 1996-2002. We show the results of this survey as well as in-depth analysis of several individual events. Each event analyzed in detail is associated with an interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) and an IP shock driven by the ICME. Immediately prior to the arrival of each shock, electron beams along the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and associated Langmuir waves are detected, implying magnetic connection to a quasiperpendicular shock front acceleration site. These observations are analogous to those made in the terrestrial foreshock region, indicating that a similar foreshock region exists on IP shock fronts. The analogy suggests that the electron acceleration process is a fast Fermi process, and this suggestion is borne out by loss cone features in the electron distribution functions. The presence of a foreshock region requires nonplanar st...

  8. Disruption of Molecular Clouds by Expansion of Dusty H II Regions

    Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Ostriker, Eve C


    Dynamical expansion of H II regions around star clusters plays a key role in dispersing the surrounding dense gas and therefore in limiting the efficiency of star formation in molecular clouds. We use a semi-analytic method and numerical simulations to explore expansion of spherical dusty H II regions and surrounding neutral shells and the resulting cloud disruption. Our model for shell expansion adopts the static solutions of Draine (2011) for dusty H II regions and considers the contact outward forces on the shell due to radiation and thermal pressures as well as the inward gravity from the central star and the shell itself. We show that the internal structure we adopt and the shell evolution from the semi-analytic approach are in good agreement with the results of numerical simulations. Strong radiation pressure in the interior controls the shell expansion indirectly by enhancing the density and pressure at the ionization front. We calculate the minimum star formation efficiency $\\epsilon_{min}$ required f...

  9. Star formation activity in the Galactic H II region Sh2-297

    Mallick, K K; Samal, M R; Pandey, A K; Bhatt, B C; Ghosh, S K; Dewangan, L K; Tamura, M


    We present a multiwavelength study of the Galactic H II region Sh2-297, located in Canis Major OB1 complex. Optical spectroscopic observations are used to constrain the spectral type of ionizing star HD 53623 as B0V. The classical nature of this H II region is affirmed by the low values of electron density and emission measure, which are calculated to be 756 cm^-3 and 9.15 x 10^5 cm^-6 pc using the radio continuum observations at 610 and 1280 MHz, and VLA archival data at 1420 MHz. To understand local star formation, we identified the young stellar object (YSO) candidates in a region of area ~ 7.5' x 7.5' centered on Sh2-297 using grism slitless spectroscopy (to identify the Halpha emission line stars), and near infrared (NIR) observations. NIR YSO candidates are further classified into various evolutionary stages using color-color (CC) and color-magnitude (CM) diagrams, giving 50 red sources (H-K > 0.6) and 26 Class II-like sources. The mass and age range of the YSOs are estimated to be ~ 0.1 - 2 Msolar and ...

  10. The PNe and H II regions in NGC 6822 revisited. Hints on AGB nucleosynthesis

    García-Rojas, Jorge; Flores-Durán, Sheila; Hernández-Martínez, Liliana


    (Abridged) The chemical behaviour of an ample sample of PNe in NGC6822 is analyzed. Spectrophotometric data of 11 PNe and two H II regions were obtained with the OSIRIS spectrograph attached to the Gran Telescopio Canarias. Data for other 13 PNe and three H II regions were retrieved from the literature. Physical conditions and chemical abundances of O, N, Ne, Ar and S were derived for 19 PNe and 4 H II regions. Abundances in the PNe sample are widely distributed showing 12+log(O/H) from 7.4 to 8.2 and 12+log(Ar/H) from 4.97 to 5.80. Two groups of PNe can be differentiated: one old, with low metallicity (12+log(O/H)30%) was found to be highly N-rich (Type I PNe). Such PNe occur at any metallicity. In addition, about 60% of the sample presents high ionization (He++/He >= 0.1), possessing a central star with effective temperature larger than 10^6 K. Possible bias in the sample are discussed. From comparison with stellar evolution models by A. Karakas's group of the observed N/O abundance ratios, our PNe should h...

  11. Photoionization models of the CALIFA H II regions. I. Hybrid models

    Morisset, C.; Delgado-Inglada, G.; Sánchez, S. F.; Galbany, L.; García-Benito, R.; Husemann, B.; Marino, R. A.; Mast, D.; Roth, M. M.


    Photoionization models of H ii regions require as input a description of the ionizing spectral energy distribution (SED) and of the gas distribution, in terms of ionization parameter U and chemical abundances (e.g., O/H and N/O).A strong degeneracy exists between the hardness of the SED and U, which in turn leads to high uncertainties in the determination of the other parameters, including abundances. One way to resolve the degeneracy is to fix one of the parameters using additional information. For each of the ~20 000 sources of the CALIFA H ii regions catalog, a grid of photoionization models is computed assuming the ionizing SED to be described by the underlying stellar population obtained from spectral synthesis modeling. The ionizing SED is then defined as the sum of various stellar bursts of different ages and metallicities. This solves the degeneracy between the shape of the ionizing SED and U. The nebular metallicity (associated with O/H) is defined using the classical strong line method O3N2 (which gives our models the status of "hybrids"). The remaining free parameters are the abundance ratio N/O and the ionization parameter U, which are determined by looking for the model fitting [N ii]/Hα and [O iii]/Hβ. The models are also selected to fit [O ii]/Hβ. This process leads to a set of ~3200 models that reproduce the three observations simultaneously. We find that the regions associated with young stellar bursts (i.e., ionized by OB stars) are affected by leaking of ionizing photons,the proportion of escaping photons having a median of 80%. The set of photoionization models satisfactorily reproduces the electron temperature derived from the [O iii]λ4363/5007 line ratio. We determine new relations between the nebular parameters, like the ionization parameter U and the [O ii]/[O iii] or [S ii]/[S iii] line ratios. A new relation between N/O and O/H is obtained, mostly compatible with previous empirical determinations (and not with previous results obtained

  12. Massive Star Formation of the SGR a East H (sub II) Regions Near the Galactic Center

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Lacy, J. H.; Wardle, M.; Whitney, B.; Bushouse, H.; Roberts, D. A.; Arendt, R. G.


    A group of four compact H II regions associated with the well-known 50 km/s molecular cloud is the closest site of on-going star formation to the dynamical center of the Galaxy, at a projected distance of approximately 6 pc. We present a study of ionized gas based on the [Ne II] (12.8 micron) line, as well as multi-frequency radio continuum, Hubble Space Telescope Pa alpha, and Spitzer Infrared Array Camera observations of the most compact member of the H II group, Sgr A East H II D. The radio continuum image at 6 cm shows that this source breaks up into two equally bright ionized features, D1 and D2. The spectral energy distribution of the D source is consistent with it being due to a 25 =/- 3 solar mass star with a luminosity of 8 +/- 3 x 10(exp 4) Solar luminosity . The inferred mass, effective temperature of the UV source, and the ionization rate are compatible with a young O9-B0 star. The ionized features D1 and D2 are considered to be ionized by UV radiation collimated by an accretion disk. We consider that the central massive star photoevaporates its circumstellar disk on a timescale of 3x (exp 4) years giving a mass flux approximately 3 x 10(exp -5) Solar Mass / year and producing the ionized material in D1 and D2 expanding in an inhomogeneous medium. The ionized gas kinematics, as traced by the [Ne II] emission, is difficult to interpret, but it could be explained by the interaction of a bipolar jet with surrounding gas along with what appears to be a conical wall of lower velocity gas. The other H II regions, Sgr A East A-C, have morphologies and kinematics that more closely resemble cometary flows seen in other compact H II regions, where gas moves along a paraboloidal surface formed by the interaction of a stellar wind with a molecular cloud.

  13. Helium Ionization in the Diffuse Ionized Gas Surrounding UCH ii Regions

    Anish Roshi, D.; Churchwell, E.; Anderson, L. D.


    We present measurements of the singly ionized helium-to-hydrogen ratio ({n}{{He}+}/{n}{{{H}}+}) toward diffuse gas surrounding three ultracompact H ii (UCH ii) regions: G10.15-0.34, G23.46-0.20, and G29.96-0.02. We observe radio recombination lines of hydrogen and helium near 5 GHz using the GBT to measure the {n}{{He}+}/{n}{{{H}}+} ratio. The measurements are motivated by the low helium ionization observed in the warm ionized medium and in the inner Galaxy diffuse ionized regions. Our data indicate that the helium is not uniformly ionized in the three observed sources. Helium lines are not detected toward a few observed positions in sources G10.15-0.34 and G23.46-0.20, and the upper limits of the {n}{{He}+}/{n}{{{H}}+} ratio obtained are 0.03 and 0.05, respectively. The selected sources harbor stars of type O6 or hotter as indicated by helium line detection toward the bright radio continuum emission from the sources with mean {n}{{He}+}/{n}{{{H}}+} value 0.06 ± 0.02. Our data thus show that helium in diffuse gas located a few parsecs away from the young massive stars embedded in the observed regions is not fully ionized. We investigate the origin of the nonuniform helium ionization and rule out the possibilities (a) that the helium is doubly ionized in the observed regions and (b) that the low {n}{{He}+}/{n}{{{H}}+} values are due to additional hydrogen ionizing radiation produced by accreting low-mass stars. We find that selective absorption of ionizing photons by dust can result in low helium ionization but needs further investigation to develop a self-consistent model for dust in H ii regions.

  14. The role of stellar feedback in the dynamics of H II regions

    Lopez, Laura A.; Castro, Daniel [MIT-Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 37-664H, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Krumholz, Mark R.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States); Bolatto, Alberto D., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)


    Stellar feedback is often cited as the biggest uncertainty in galaxy formation models today. This uncertainty stems from a dearth of observational constraints as well as the great dynamic range between the small scales (≲1 pc) where the feedback originates and the large scales of galaxies (≳1 kpc) that are shaped by this feedback. To bridge this divide, in this paper we aim to assess observationally the role of stellar feedback at the intermediate scales of H II regions (∼10-100 pc). In particular, we employ multiwavelength data to examine several stellar feedback mechanisms in a sample of 32 H II regions (with ages ∼3-10 Myr) in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, respectively. Using optical, infrared, radio, and X-ray images, we measure the pressures exerted on the shells from the direct stellar radiation, the dust-processed radiation, the warm ionized gas, and the hot X-ray-emitting gas. We find that the warm ionized gas dominates over the other terms in all of the sources, although two have comparable dust-processed radiation pressures to their warm gas pressures. The hot gas pressures are comparatively weak, while the direct radiation pressures are one to two orders of magnitude below the other terms. We discuss the implications of these results, particularly highlighting evidence for hot gas leakage from the H II shells and regarding the momentum deposition from the dust-processed radiation to the warm gas. Furthermore, we emphasize that similar observational work should be done on very young H II regions to test whether direct radiation pressure and hot gas can drive the dynamics at early times.

  15. Optical, radio, and infrared observations of compact H II regions. V. The hourglass in M8

    Woodward, C.E.; Pipher, J.L.; Helfer, H.L.; Sharpless, S.; Moneti, A.; Kozikowski, D.; Oliveri, M.; Willner, S.P.; Lacasse, M.G.; Herter, T.


    Multiwavelength observations of the inner core of the M8 Hourglass region are presented, including VLA interferometric maps, 2--4 and 8--13 spectroscopy, photometric mapping in the K (2.2 and L (3.45 bands and in the 3.28 dust-emission feature, optical CCD imaging, and optical and infrared polarimetry. The compact H II region is excited by the O7 V star Herschel 36, and its apparent bipolar structure at optical wavelengths may be due to variable line-of-sight extinction and scattered light. Standard reddening laws are not applicable in the Hourglass region. A power law extinction lambda/sup -0.78/ yields consistent agreement between ultraviolet, optical, and infrared extinction estimates and suggests that one component of the total grain distribution is on the average larger than that found in the interstellar medium. The spatial distribution of the 3.28 dust-emission feature shows that the feature emission is associated with the boundary layer in the H II region/molecular cloud interface. The observations favor models in which feature emission comes from small refractory grains rather than from fluorescence or thermal emission from volatile mantles.

  16. Environmental monitoring survey of oil and gas fields in Region II in 2009. Summary report


    The oil companies Statoil ASA, ExxonMobil Exploration and Production Norway AS, Total E&P Norge AS, Talisman Energy Norge AS and Marathon Petroleum Norge AS commissioned Section of Applied Environmental Research at UNI RESEARCH AS to undertake the monitoring survey of Region II in 2009. Similar monitoring surveys in Region II have been carried out in 1996, 2000, 2003 and 2006. The survey in 2009 included in total 18 fields: Rev, Varg, Sigyn, Sleipner Vest, Sleipner OEst, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Vale, Skirne, Byggve, Heimdal, Volve, Vilje og Alvheim. Sampling was conducted from the vessel MV Libas between May 18 and May 27. Samples were collected from in totally 137 sampling sites, of which 15 were regional sampling sites. Samples for chemical analysis were collected at all sites, whereas samples for benthos analysis were collected at 12 fields. As in previous surveys, Region II is divided into natural sub-regions. One sub-region is shallow (77-96 m) sub-region, a central sub-region (107-130 m) and a northern subregion (115-119 m). The sediments of the shallow sub-region had relatively lower content of TOM and pelite and higher content of fine sand than the central and northern sub-regions. Calculated areas of contamination are shown for the sub-regions in Table 1.1. The fields Sigyn, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Skirne, Byggve, Vilje og Alvheim showed no contamination of THC. At the other fields there were minor changes from 2006. The concentrations of barium increased in the central sub-region from 2006 to 2009, also at fields where no drilling had been undertaken during the last years. The same laboratory and methods are used during the three last regional investigations. The changes in barium concentrations may be due to high variability of barium concentrations in the sediments. This is supported by relatively large variations in average barium concentrations at the regional sampling sites in

  17. Spitzer Observations of M33 and the Hot Star, H II Region Connection

    Rubin, Robert H; Colgan, Sean W J; Dufour, Reginald J; Brunner, Gregory; McNabb, Ian A; Pauldrach, Adalbert W A; Erickson, Edwin F; Haas, Michael R; Citron, Robert I


    We have observed emission lines of [S IV] 10.51, H(7-6) 12.37, [Ne II] 12.81, [Ne III] 15.56, and [S III] 18.71 um in a number of extragalactic H II regions with the Spitzer Space Telescope. A previous paper presented our data and analysis for the substantially face-on spiral galaxy M83. Here we report our results for the local group spiral galaxy M33. The nebulae selected cover a wide range of galactocentric radii (R_G). The observations were made with the Infrared Spectrograph with the short wavelength, high resolution module. The above set of five lines is observed cospatially, thus permitting a reliable comparison of the fluxes. From the measured fluxes, we determine the ionic abundance ratios including Ne++/Ne+, S3+/S++, and S++/Ne+ and find that there is a correlation of increasingly higher ionization with larger R_G. By sampling the dominant ionization states of Ne (Ne+, Ne++) and S (S++, S3+) for H II regions, we can estimate the Ne/H, S/H, and Ne/S ratios. We find from linear least-squares fits that ...

  18. A single H II region model of the strong interstellar scattering towards Sgr A*

    Sicheneder, Egid; Dexter, Jason


    Until recently, the strong interstellar scattering observed towards the Galactic centre (GC) black hole, Sgr A*, was thought to come from dense gas within the GC region. The pulse broadening towards the transient magnetar SGR J1745-2900 near Sgr A* has shown that the source of the scattering is instead located much closer to Earth, possibly in a nearby spiral arm. We show that a single H II region along the line of sight, 1.5-4.8 kpc away from Earth with density ne of a few ≃ 100 cm^{-3} and radius R ≃ 1.8-3.2 pc can explain the observed angular broadening of Sgr A*. Clouds closer to the GC overproduce the observed disperson measure, providing an independent location constraint that agrees with that from the magnetar pulse broadening. Our model predicts that sources within ≲10 pc should show the same scattering origin as the magnetar and Sgr A*, while the nearest known pulsars with separations >20 pc should not. The radio spectrum of Sgr A* should show a cut-off from free-free absorption at 0.2 ≲ ν ≲ 1 GHz. For a magnetic field strength B ≃ 15-70 μG, the H II region could produce the rotation measure of the magnetar, the largest of any known pulsar, without requiring the gas near Sgr A* to be strongly magnetized.

  19. W40 region in the Gould Belt : An embedded cluster and H II region at the junction of filaments

    Mallick, K K; Ojha, D K; Bachiller, Rafael; Samal, M R; Pirogov, L


    We present a multiwavelength study of W40 star-forming region using IR observations in UKIRT JHK bands, Spitzer IRAC bands & Herschel PACS bands; 2.12 micron H2 narrow-band imaging; & radio observations from GMRT (610 & 1280 MHz), in a FoV of ~34'x40'. Spitzer observations along with NIR observations are used to identify 1162 Class II/III & 40 Class I sources in the FoV. The NN stellar surface density analysis shows that majority of these YSOs constitute the embedded cluster centered on the source IRS1A South. Some YSOs, predominantly younger population, are distributed along & trace the filamentary structures at lower stellar surface density. The cluster radius is obtained as 0.44pc - matching well with the extent of radio emission - with a peak density of 650pc^-2. The JHK data is used to map the extinction which is subsequently used to compute the cloud mass. It has resulted in 126 Msun & 71 Msun for the central cluster & the northern IRS5 region, respectively. H2 narrow-band im...

  20. Interaction between the H II region and AFGL 333-Ridge: Implications for the star formation scenario

    Nakano, Makoto; Soejima, Takashi; Chibueze, James O.; Nagayama, Takumi; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Handa, Toshihiro; Sunada, Kazuyoshi; Kamezaki, Tatsuya; Burns, Ross A.


    We investigated the star formation activities in the AFGL 333 region, which is in the vicinity of the W 4 expanding bubble, by conducting NH3 (1,1), (2,2), and (3,3) mapping observations with the 45 m Nobeyama Radio Telescope an angular resolution of 75″. The morphology of the NH3 (1,1) map shows a bow-shaped structure with the size of 2.0 × 0.6 pc as seen in the dust continuum. At the interface between the W 4 bubble and the dense NH3 cloud, the compact H II region G134.2+0.8, associated with IRAS 02245+6115, is located. Interestingly, just at the north and south of G134.2+0.8 we found NH3 emission exhibiting large velocity widths of ˜2.8 km s-1, compared to 1.8 km s-1 at the other positions. As the possibility of mechanical energy injection through the activity of young stellar objects (YSOs) is low, we considered the origin of the large turbulent gas motion as an indication of interaction between the compact H II region and the periphery of the dense molecular cloud. We also found expanding motion of the CO emission associated with G134.2+0.8. The overall structure of the AFGL 333-Ridge might have been formed by the expanding bubble of W 4. However, the small velocity widths observed to the west of IRAS 02245+6115, around the center of the dense molecular cloud, suggest that interaction with the compact H II region is limited. Therefore the YSOs (dominantly Class 0/I) in the core of the AFGL 333-Ridge dense molecular cloud most likely formed in quiescent mode. As previously suggested for the large-scale star formation in the W 3 giant molecular cloud, our results show an apparent coexistence of induced and quiescent star formations in this region. It appears that star formation in the AFGL 333 region has proceeded without significant external triggers, but accompanying stellar feedback environment.

  1. Immunological Functions of the Membrane Proximal Region of MHC Class II Molecules [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Jonathan Harton


    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II molecules present exogenously derived antigen peptides to CD4 T cells, driving activation of naïve T cells and supporting CD4-driven immune functions. However, MHC class II molecules are not inert protein pedestals that simply bind and present peptides. These molecules also serve as multi-functional signaling molecules delivering activation, differentiation, or death signals (or a combination of these to B cells, macrophages, as well as MHC class II-expressing T cells and tumor cells. Although multiple proteins are known to associate with MHC class II, interaction with STING (stimulator of interferon genes and CD79 is essential for signaling. In addition, alternative transmembrane domain pairing between class II α and β chains influences association with membrane lipid sub-domains, impacting both signaling and antigen presentation. In contrast to the membrane-distal region of the class II molecule responsible for peptide binding and T-cell receptor engagement, the membrane-proximal region (composed of the connecting peptide, transmembrane domain, and cytoplasmic tail mediates these “non-traditional” class II functions. Here, we review the literature on the function of the membrane-proximal region of the MHC class II molecule and discuss the impact of this aspect of class II immunobiology on immune regulation and human disease.

  2. Chronic pain and evoked responses in the brain: A magnetoencephalographic study in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I and II

    Theuvenet, P.J.


    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) type I and II are chronic pain syndromes with comparable symptoms, only in CRPS II a peripheral nerve injury is present. No objective tests are currently available to differentiate the two types which hampers diagnosis and treatment. Non-invasive brain imaging t

  3. Multi-wavelength study of the star-formation in the S237 H II region

    Dewangan, L K; Zinchenko, I; Janardhan, P; Luna, A


    We present a detailed multi-wavelength study of observations from X-ray, near-infrared to centimeter wavelengths to probe the star formation processes in the S237 region. Multi-wavelength images trace an almost sphere-like shell morphology of the region, which is filled with the 0.5--2 keV X-ray emission. The region contains two distinct environments - a bell-shaped cavity-like structure containing the peak of 1.4 GHz emission at center, and elongated filamentary features without any radio detection at edges of the sphere-like shell - where {\\it Herschel} clumps are detected. Using the 1.4 GHz continuum and $^{12}$CO line data, the S237 region is found to be excited by a radio spectral type of B0.5V star and is associated with an expanding H{\\sc ii} region. The photoionized gas appears to be responsible for the origin of the bell-shaped structure. The majority of molecular gas is distributed toward a massive {\\it Herschel} clump (M$_{clump}$ $\\sim$260 M$_{\\odot}$), which contains the filamentary features and ...

  4. Optimizing Transmission Service Cost of Khuzestan Regional Grid Based on Nsga-Ii Algorithm

    Shooshtari, Alireza Tavakoli; Joorabian, Mahmood; Milani, Armin Ebrahimi; Gholamzadeh, Arash


    Any plan for modeling the components of transmission service costs should be able to consider congestion as well as loss cost. Assessing the real value of congestion and loss costs in each network has a substantial contribution to analyze the grid's weaknesses in order to release capacity of power network. As much as the amount of congestion and loss costs in the transmission grid reduces the amount of power passing through transmission lines increases. Therefore, the transmission service cost will be optimized and revenues of the regional electricity company from transmission services will be increased. In this paper, a new power flow algorithm with congestion and loss considerations of a power network is presented. Thus, optimal power flow and a multi-objectives optimization algorithm, called NSGA-II, is used in this work. The real data of Khuzestan regional power grid is implemented to confirm the efficiency of proposed method.

  5. The very low-mass population of the Corona Australis and Chamaeleon II star forming regions

    Martí-Bonmatí, L; Mundt, R; Mart\\'{\\i}, Bel\\'en L\\'opez; Eisl\\"offel, Jochen; Mundt, Reinhard


    We present the results of a deep optical survey in the Corona Australis and Chamaeleon II star forming regions. Our optical photometry is combined with available near- and mid-infrared photometry to identify very low-mass candidate members in these dark clouds. In our Chamaeleon II field, only one object exhibits clear H-alpha emission, but the discrepancy between its optical and near-infrared colours suggests that it might be a foreground star. We also identify two objects without H-alpha emission that could be planetary mass members of Chamaeleon II. In Corona Australis, we find ten stars and three brown dwarf candidates in the Coronet cluster. Five of our new members are identified with ISOCAM sources. Only two of them have a mid-infrared excess, indicating the presence of an accretion disk. On the other hand, one brown dwarf candidate has a faint close companion, seen only in our deepest I-band image. For many of the candidates in both clouds, membership could not be inferred from their H-alpha emission o...

  6. Mirror therapy in patients with causalgia (complex regional pain syndrome type II) following peripheral nerve injury: Two cases

    Selles, Ruud; Schreuders, Ton; Stam, Henk


    textabstractObjective: To describe the use of mirror therapy in 2 patients with complex regional pain syndrome type II following traumatic nerve injury. Design: Two case reports. Subjects: Two patients with complex regional pain syndrome type II. Methods: Two patients received mirror therapy with the painful hand hidden behind the mirror while the non-painful hand was positioned so that, from the perspective of the patient, the reflection of this hand was "superimposed" on the painful hand. P...


    Tibbs, C. T.; Compiegne, M.; Carey, S. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Paladini, R. [NASA Herschel Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dickinson, C.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Alves, M. I. R. [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, Universite Paris Sud XI, Batiment 121, 91405 Orsay (France); Flagey, N. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Shenoy, S. [Space Science Division, NASA Ames Research Center, M/S 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Noriega-Crespo, A. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Casassus, S. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Molinari, S.; Elia, D.; Pestalozzi, M.; Schisano, E., E-mail: [INAF-Istituto Fisica Spazio Interplanetario, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy)


    Using infrared, radio continuum, and spectral observations, we performed a detailed investigation of the H II region RCW175. We determined that RCW175, which actually consists of two separate H II regions, G29.1-0.7 and G29.0-0.6, is located at a distance of 3.2 {+-} 0.2 kpc. Based on the observations we infer that the more compact G29.0-0.6 is less evolved than G29.1-0.7 and was possibly produced as a result of the expansion of G29.1-0.7 into the surrounding interstellar medium. We compute a star formation rate for RCW175 of (12.6 {+-} 1.9) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, and identified six possible young stellar object candidates within its vicinity. Additionally, we estimate that RCW175 contains a total dust mass of 215 {+-} 53 M{sub Sun }. RCW175 has previously been identified as a source of anomalous microwave emission (AME), an excess of emission at centimeter wavelengths often attributed to electric dipole radiation from the smallest dust grains. We find that the AME previously detected in RCW175 is not correlated with the smallest dust grains (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or small carbonaceous dust grains), but rather with the exciting radiation field within the region. This is a similar result to that found in the Perseus molecular cloud, another region which harbors AME, suggesting that the radiation field may play a pivotal role in the production of this new Galactic emission mechanism. Finally, we suggest that these observations may hint at the importance of understanding the role played by the major gas ions in spinning dust models.

  8. [Fe II] 1.64 um Imaging Observations of the Outflow Features around Ultracompact H II Regions in the 1st Galactic Quadrant

    Shinn, Jong-Ho; Lee, Jae-Joon; Lee, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Koo, Bon-Chul; Kyeong, Jaemann; Hwang, Narae; Park, Byeong-Gon


    We present [Fe II] 1.644 um features around ultracompact H II regions (UCHIIs) found on a quest for the "footprint" outflow features of UCHIIs---the feature produced by the outflowing materials ejected during the earlier, active accretion phase of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs). We surveyed 237 UCHIIs in the 1st Galactic quadrant, employing the CORNISH UCHII catalog and UWIFE data which is an imaging survey in [Fe II] 1.644 um performed with UKIRT-WFCAM under ~ 0.8" seeing condition. The [Fe II] features were found around five UCHIIs, one of which is of low plausibility. We interpret that the [Fe II] features are shock-excited by outflows from YSOs, and estimate the outflow mass loss rates from the [Fe II] flux, which are ~ 1 x 10^-6 - 4 x 10^-5 Ms yr^-1. We propose that the [Fe II] features might be the "footprint" outflow features, but more studies are required to clarify it. This is based on the morphological relation between the [Fe II] and 5 GHz radio features, the outflow mass loss rate, the trav...

  9. Transition Region Explosive Events in He II 304Å: Observation and Analysis

    Rust, Thomas; Kankelborg, Charles C.


    We present examples of transition region explosive events observed in the He II 304Å spectral line with the Multi Order Solar EUV Spectrograph (MOSES). With small (thermal (100-150 km/s) velocities these events satisfy the observational signatures of transition region explosive events. Derived line profiles show distinct blue and red velocity components with very little broadening of either component. We observe little to no emission from low velocity plasma, making the plasmoid instability reconnection model unlikely as the plasma acceleration mechanism for these events. Rather, the single speed, bi-directional jet characteristics suggested by these data are consistent with acceleration via Petschek reconnection.Observations were made during the first sounding rocket flight of MOSES in 2006. MOSES forms images in 3 orders of a concave diffraction grating. Multilayer coatings largely restrict the passband to the He II 303.8Å and Si XI 303.3Å spectral lines. The angular field of view is about 8.5'x17', or about 20% of the solar disk. These images constitute projections of the volume I(x,y,λ), the intensity as a function of sky plane position and wavelength. Spectral line profiles are recovered via tomographic inversion of these projections. Inversion is carried out using a multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique.

  10. Images in the rocket ultraviolet - Young clusters in H II regions of M83

    Bohlin, Ralph C.; Cornett, Robert H.; Hill, Jesse K.; Stecher, Theodore P.


    UV images of M83 at 1540 and 2360 A reveal 18 compact sources that are associated with H II regions. E(B - V) values were estimated individually from the observed UV and optical colors and the Galactic UV extinction curve, using theoretical flux distributions. The dereddened colors are consistent with ages up to 3 x 10 to the 6th yr. A maximum possible age of 6.5 x 10 to the 6th yr is obtained assuming foreground reddening only. The distribution of observed colors is consistent with the Galactic reddening curve but not with enhanced far-UV extinction, as in the LMC 30 Dor curve. The H-alpha fluxes suggest either that dust within the H II regions absorbs up to 70 percent of the Lyman continuum radiation or that a similar fraction of the H-alpha flux is below the surface brightness detection limit. Cluster mass estimates depend on the range of stellar masses present but are probably in the range 10,000-100,000 solar masses.

  11. Three Dimensional Structure and Time Evolution of a Transition Region Explosive Event Observed in He II

    Fox, J. L.; Kankelborg, C. C.; Thomas, R. J.; Longcope, D.


    Transition Region Explosive Events (TREEs) have been observed with slit spectrographs since at least 1975, most commonly in lines of C IV (1548A,1550A) and Si IV (1393A, 1402A). We report what we believe to be the first observation of a TREE in He II 304A. With the MOSES sounding rocket, a novel type of imaging spectrograph, we are able to see the spatial and spectral structure of the event. It consists of a bright core expelling two jets, oppositely directed but not collinear, which curve away from the axis of the core. The jets have both line-of-sight and sky-plane motion. The core is a region of high non-thermal doppler broadening, characteristic of TREEs. It is possible to resolve the core broadening into red and blue line-of-sight components. MOSES captured approximately 150 sec of time evolution before the rocket flight ended. We see the beginning (core activation) and middle (jet ejection), but not the end. It is clear from our data-set that TREEs in He II 304A are much less common than observed in other wavelengths.

  12. North-south asymmetry of Ca II K regions determined from OAUC spectroheliograms: 1996 - 2006

    Dorotovič, I.; Rybák, J.; Garcia, A.; Journoud, P.


    The solar activity (SA) evolution levels are not identical in the northern and southern Sun's hemispheres. This fact was repeatedly confirmed in the past by the analysis of a number of long-term observations of various SA indices in individual atmospheric layers of the Sun and in different bandwidths. The north-south asymmetry (NSA) is thus a significant tool in investigation of long-term SA variations. This paper presents a software tool to determine the NSA of the area of bright chromospheric plages, as measured in the Ca II K3 spectroheliograms registered since 1926 in the Observatário Astronómico da Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal, as well as evolution of sizes of these areas in the period 1996 - 2006. The algorithm of the program is limited to determining the total area of bright features in the Ca II K3 emission line based on the definition of the threshold value for relative brightness and, therefore, it does not resolve brightness of individual chromospheric features. A comparison and cross-correlation of this NSA with the NSAs found for the sunspots and coronal green line brightness have been added. In the near future we intend to 1) determine the NSA of the area of bright chromospheric Ca II K3 regions back to the year 1926, and 2) compare the evolution of the surface area of these regions in the period 1970-2006 with the evolution of the magnetic index obtained at Mt. Wilson Observatory, which would also help in setting up a proxy reconstruction of the magnetic index back to 1926. Since 2007 new spectroheliograms have been recorded using a CCD camera and, therefore, in the future we will also address this issue for the period 2007 - present.

  13. The Ionization Structure of Sharpless 2-264: Multiwavelength Observations of the {\\lambda} Ori H II Region

    Sahan, M


    We present velocity-resolved maps taken with the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) in H{\\alpha}, [S II] {\\lambda}6716, and [N II] {\\lambda}6583 around the well-known O8 III star {\\lambda} Ori A (HD 36861) (l = 185{\\deg} to 205{\\deg}, b = -24{\\deg} to -1{\\deg}). The integrated intensity (v(LSR) = -80 to +80 km/s), I(H{\\alpha}), within WHAM's one-degree beams varies from ~ 190 R near the center to ~ 10 R on the periphery of the nebula where it becomes comparable to foreground and/or background emission in this complex region. Intensity ratios for [N II]/H{\\alpha} and [S II]/H{\\alpha} average 0.28 and 0.35, respectively. In both ratios, higher values are found preferentially at larger radii from {\\lambda} Ori, although the behavior of [N II]/H{\\alpha} is complicated near the edges of the nebula. The [S II]/[N II] intensity ratio ranges from ~ 0.5 to ~ 1.0, with the value increasing toward larger radii (and lower H{\\alpha} intensities). Variations of [S II]/H{\\alpha}, [N II]/H{\\alpha}, and [S II]/[N II] line ratios...

  14. Primordial 4He abundance: a determination based on the largest sample of H II regions with a methodology tested on model H II regions

    Izotov, Y. I.; Stasińska, G.; Guseva, N. G.


    We verified the validity of the empirical method to derive the 4He abundance used in our previous papers by applying it to CLOUDY (v13.01) models. Using newly published He i emissivities for which we present convenient fits as well as the output CLOUDY case B hydrogen and He i line intensities, we found that the empirical method is able to reproduce the input CLOUDY 4He abundance with an accuracy of better than 1%. The CLOUDY output data also allowed us to derive the non-recombination contribution to the intensities of the strongest Balmer hydrogen Hα, Hβ, Hγ, and Hδ emission lines and the ionisation correction factors for He. With these improvements we used our updated empirical method to derive the 4He abundances and to test corrections for several systematic effects in a sample of 1610 spectra of low-metallicity extragalactic H ii regions, the largest sample used so far. From this sample we extracted a subsample of 111 H ii regions with Hβ equivalent width EW(Hβ) ≥ 150 Å, with excitation parameter x = O2+/O ≥ 0.8, and with helium mass fraction Y derived with an accuracy better than 3%. With this subsample we derived the primordial 4He mass fraction Yp = 0.254 ± 0.003 from linear regression Y - O/H. The derived value of Yp is higher at the 68% confidence level (CL) than that predicted by the standard big bang nucleosynthesis (SBBN) model, possibly implying the existence of different types of neutrino species in addition to the three known types of active neutrinos. Using the most recently derived primordial abundances D/H = (2.60 ± 0.12) × 10-5 and Yp = 0.254 ± 0.003 and the χ2 technique, we found that the best agreement between abundances of these light elements is achieved in a cosmological model with baryon mass density Ωbh2 = 0.0234 ± 0.0019 (68% CL) and an effective number of the neutrino species Neff = 3.51 ± 0.35 (68% CL). Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, programs 073.B-0283(A), 081.C-0113(A

  15. From forced collapse to H ii region expansion in Mon R2: Envelope density structure and age determination with Herschel⋆

    Didelon, P.; Motte, F.; Tremblin, P.; Hill, T.; Hony, S.; Hennemann, M.; Hennebelle, P.; Anderson, L. D.; Galliano, F.; Schneider, N.; Rayner, T.; Rygl, K.; Louvet, F.; Zavagno, A.; Könyves, V.; Sauvage, M.; André, Ph.; Bontemps, S.; Peretto, N.; Griffin, M.; González, M.; Lebouteiller, V.; Arzoumanian, D.; Bernard, J.-P.; Benedettini, M.; Di Francesco, J.; Men'shchikov, A.; Minier, V.; Nguyên Luong, Q.; Palmeirim, P.; Pezzuto, S.; Rivera-Ingraham, A.; Russeil, D.; Ward-Thompson, D.; White, G. J.


    Context. The surroundings of H ii regions can have a profound influence on their development, morphology, and evolution. This paper explores the effect of the environment on H ii regions in the MonR2 molecular cloud. Aims: We aim to investigate the density structure of envelopes surrounding H ii regions and to determine their collapse and ionisation expansion ages. The Mon R2 molecular cloud is an ideal target since it hosts an H ii region association, which has been imaged by the Herschel PACS and SPIRE cameras as part of the HOBYS key programme. Methods: Column density and temperature images derived from Herschel data were used together to model the structure of H ii bubbles and their surrounding envelopes. The resulting observational constraints were used to follow the development of the Mon R2 ionised regions with analytical calculations and numerical simulations. Results: The four hot bubbles associated with H ii regions are surrounded by dense, cold, and neutral gas envelopes, which are partly embedded in filaments. The envelope's radial density profiles are reminiscent of those of low-mass protostellar envelopes. The inner parts of envelopes of all four H ii regions could be free-falling because they display shallow density profiles: ρ(r) ∝ r- q with q ≤slant 1.5. As for their outer parts, the two compact H ii regions show a ρ(r) ∝ r-2 profile, which is typical of the equilibrium structure of a singular isothermal sphere. In contrast, the central UCH ii region shows a steeper outer profile, ρ(r) ∝ r-2.5, that could be interpreted as material being forced to collapse, where an external agent overwhelms the internal pressure support. Conclusions: The size of the heated bubbles, the spectral type of the irradiating stars, and the mean initial neutral gas density are used to estimate the ionisation expansion time, texp ~ 0.1 Myr, for the dense UCH ii and compact H ii regions and ~ 0.35 Myr for the extended H ii region. Numerical simulations with and


    Paladini, Roberta [Infrared Processing Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Ave., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ingallinera, Adriano; Agliozzo, Claudia; Umana, Grazia; Trigilio, Corrado [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania Italy (Italy); Tibbs, Christopher T. [Scientific Support Office, Directorate of Science and Robotic Exploration,European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Noriega-Crespo, Alberto [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Dickinson, Clive [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)


    The detection of an excess of emission at microwave frequencies with respect to the predicted free–free emission has been reported for several Galactic H ii regions. Here, we investigate the case of RCW 49, for which the Cosmic Background Imager tentatively (∼3σ) detected Anomalous Microwave Emission (AME) at 31 GHz on angular scales of 7′. Using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we carried out a multi-frequency (5, 19, and 34 GHz) continuum study of the region, complemented by observations of the H109α radio recombination line. The analysis shows that: (1) the spatial correlation between the microwave and IR emission persists on angular scales from 3.′4 to 0.″4, although the degree of the correlation slightly decreases at higher frequencies and on smaller angular scales; (2) the spectral indices between 1.4 and 5 GHz are globally in agreement with optically thin free–free emission, however, ∼30% of these are positive and much greater than −0.1, consistent with a stellar wind scenario; and (3) no major evidence for inverted free–free radiation is found, indicating that this is likely not the cause of the Anomalous Emission in RCW 49. Although our results cannot rule out the spinning dust hypothesis to explain the tentative detection of AME in RCW 49, they emphasize the complexity of astronomical sources that are very well known and studied, such as H ii regions, and suggest that, at least in these objects, the reported excess of emission might be ascribed to alternative mechanisms such as stellar winds and shocks.

  17. [Ne II] 12.8 Micron Images of Four Galactic Ultracompact H II Regions Ionized Neon Abundance as a Tracer of the Ionizing Stars

    Takahashi, H; Watarai, H; Matsumoto, T


    We present the results of ground-based imaging spectroscopy of the [Ne II] 12.8 micron line emitted from the ultracompact (UC) H II regions; W51d, G45.12+0.13, G35.20-1.74 and Monoceros R2, with 2arcsec spatial resolution. We found that the overall distribution of the [Ne II] emission is generally in good agreement with the radio (5 or 15 GHz) VLA distribution for each source. The Ne+ abundance ([Ne+/H+]) distributions are also derived from the [Ne II] and the radio maps. As for G45.12+0.13 and W51d, the Ne+ abundance decreases steeply from the outer part of the map toward the radio peak. On the other hand, the Ne+ abundance distributions of G35.20-1.74 and Mon R2 appear rather uniform. These results can be interpreted by the variation of ionizing structures of neon, which is primarily determined by the spectral type of the ionizing stars. We have evaluated the effective temperature of the ionizing star by comparing the Ne+ abundance averaged over the whole observed region with that calculated by H II region ...

  18. A signal processing approach for enriched region detection in RNA polymerase II ChIP-seq data


    Background RNA polymerase II (PolII) is essential in gene transcription and ChIP-seq experiments have been used to study PolII binding patterns over the entire genome. However, since PolII enriched regions in the genome can be very long, existing peak finding algorithms for ChIP-seq data are not adequate for identifying such long regions. Methods Here we propose an enriched region detection method for ChIP-seq data to identify long enriched regions by combining a signal denoising algorithm with a false discovery rate (FDR) approach. The binned ChIP-seq data for PolII are first processed using a non-local means (NL-means) algorithm for purposes of denoising. Then, a FDR approach is developed to determine the threshold for marking enriched regions in the binned histogram. Results We first test our method using a public PolII ChIP-seq dataset and compare our results with published results obtained using the published algorithm HPeak. Our results show a high consistency with the published results (80-100%). Then, we apply our proposed method on PolII ChIP-seq data generated in our own study on the effects of hormone on the breast cancer cell line MCF7. The results demonstrate that our method can effectively identify long enriched regions in ChIP-seq datasets. Specifically, pertaining to MCF7 control samples we identified 5,911 segments with length of at least 4 Kbp (maximum 233,000 bp); and in MCF7 treated with E2 samples, we identified 6,200 such segments (maximum 325,000 bp). Conclusions We demonstrated the effectiveness of this method in studying binding patterns of PolII in cancer cells which enables further deep analysis in transcription regulation and epigenetics. Our method complements existing peak detection algorithms for ChIP-seq experiments. PMID:22536865

  19. Pillars and globules at the edges of H ii regions, Confronting Herschel observations and numerical simulations

    Tremblin, P; Schneider, N; Audit, E; Hill, T; Didelon, P; Peretto, N; Arzoumanian, D; Motte, F; Zavagno, A; Bontemps, S; Anderson, L D; Andre, Ph; Bernard, J P; Csengeri, T; Di Francesco, J; Elia, D; Hennemann, M; Konyves, V; Marston, A P; Luong, Q Nguyen; Rivera-Ingraham, A; Roussel, H; Sousbie, T; Spinoglio, L; White, G J; Williams, J


    Pillars and globules are present in many high-mass star-forming regions, such as the Eagle nebula (M16) and the Rosette molecular cloud, and understanding their origin will help characterize triggered star formation. The formation mechanisms of these structures are still being debated. Recent numerical simulations have shown how pillars can arise from the collapse of the shell in on itself and how globules can be formed from the interplay of the turbulent molecular cloud and the ionization from massive stars. The goal here is to test this scenario through recent observations of two massive star-forming regions, M16 and Rosette. The column density structure of the interface between molecular clouds and H ii regions was characterized using column density maps obtained from far-infrared imaging of the Herschel HOBYS key programme. Then, the DisPerSe algorithm was used on these maps to detect the compressed layers around the ionized gas and pillars in different evolutionary states. Finally, their velocity structu...


    Cecco, Alessandra Di [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, Via Mentore Maggini snc, I-64100 Teramo (Italy); Faustini, Fabiana; Calzoletti, Luca [ASDC-ASI Science Data Center, Via G. Galilei snc, I-00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Paresce, Francesco [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Via Piero Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Correnti, Matteo, E-mail: [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    We observed the giant H II region around the NGC 3603 YC with the five broad bands (70, 160, 250, 350, 500 μm) of the SPIRE and PACS instruments, on board the Herschel Space Observatory. Together with what is currently known of the stellar, atomic, molecular, and warm dust components, this additional and crucial information should allow us to better understand the details of the star-formation history in this region. The main objective of the investigation is to study, at high spatial resolution, the distribution and main physical characteristics of the cold dust. By reconstructing the temperature and density maps, we found, respectively, a mean value of 36 K and log{sub 10} N {sub H} = 22.0 ± 0.1 cm{sup –2}. We carried out a photometric analysis detecting 107 point-like sources, mostly confined to the north and south of the cluster. By comparing our data with spectral energy distribution models, we found that 35 sources are well represented by young stellar objects in early evolutionary phases, from Class 0 to Class I. The Herschel detections also provided far-IR counterparts for 4 H{sub 2}O masers and 11 objects previously known from mid-IR observations. The existence of so many embedded sources confirms the hypothesis of intense and ongoing star-formation activity in the region around NGC 3603 YC.

  1. Type II supernovae as probes of environment metallicity: observations of host HII regions

    Anderson, J P; Dessart, L; Hamuy, M; Galbany, L; Morrell, N I; Stritzinger, M D; Phillips, M M; Folatelli, G; Boffin, H M J; de Jaeger, T; Kuncarayakti, H; Prieto, J L


    Spectral modelling of SNII atmospheres indicates a clear dependence of metal line strengths on progenitor metallicity. This motivates further work to evaluate the accuracy with which these SNe can be used as metallicity indicators. To assess this accuracy we present a sample of SNII HII-region spectroscopy, from which environment abundances are derived. These environment abundances are compared to the observed strength of metal lines in SN spectra. Combining our sample with measurements from the literature, we present oxygen abundances of 119 host HII regions, by extracting emission line fluxes and using abundance diagnostics. Then, following Dessart et al., these abundances are compared to equivalent widths of Fe 5018 A at various time and colour epochs. Our distribution of inferred SNII host HII-region abundances has a range of ~0.6 dex. We confirm the dearth of SNeII exploding at metallicities lower than those found (on average) in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The equivalent width of Fe 5018 A at 50 days po...

  2. A Transition Region Explosive Event Observed in He II with the MOSES Sounding Rocket

    Fox, J. Lewis; Kankelborg, Charles C.; Thomas, Roger J.


    Transition region explosive events (EEs) have been observed with slit spectrographs since at least 1975, most commonly in lines of C IV (1548 Å, 1550 Å) and Si IV (1393 Å, 1402 Å). We report what we believe to be the first observation of a transition region EE in He II 304 Å. With the Multi-Order Solar EUV Spectrograph (MOSES) sounding rocket, a novel slitless imaging spectrograph, we are able to see the spatial structure of the event. We observe a bright core expelling two jets that are distinctly non-collinear, in directions that are not anti-parallel. The jets have sky-plane velocities of order 75 km s-1 and line-of-sight velocities of +75 km s-1 (blue) and -30 km s-1 (red). The core is a region of high non-thermal Doppler broadening, characteristic of EEs, with maximal broadening 380 km s-1 FWHM. It is possible to resolve the core broadening into red and blue line-of-sight components of maximum Doppler velocities +160 km s-1 and -220 km s-1. The event lasts more than 150 s. Its properties correspond to the larger, long-lived, and more energetic EEs observed in other wavelengths.

  3. Herbig-Haro Jets Emerging from a Neutral Cloud into a H II region

    A. C. Raga


    Full Text Available Presentamos simulaciones numéricas de un flujo Herbig-Haro que sale de una nube densa hacia una región H II. Este tipo de "salidas" de nubes densas han sido observadas recientemente en varias regiones de formación estelar, y aquí exploramos las propiedades de estos flujos variando algunos de los parámetros libres del modelo. Presentamos series temporales de la temperatura, densidad, fracción de ionización y de la emisión en H. Encontramos que la emisión en H de los flujos está mayormente controlada por el flujo incidente de fotones ionizantes, en lugar de por las propiedades intrínsecas del flujo.

  4. Dynamical Models for the Formation of Elephant Trunks in H II Regions

    Mackey, Jonathan


    The formation of pillars of dense gas at the boundaries of H II Regions is investigated with hydrodynamical numerical simulations including ionising radiation from a point source. We show that shadowing of ionising radiation by an inhomogeneous density field is capable of forming so-called elephant trunks (pillars of dense gas as in e.g. M16) without the assistance of self-gravity, or of ionisation front and cooling instabilities. A large simulation of a density field containing randomly generated clumps of gas is shown to naturally generate elephant trunks with certain clump configurations. These configurations are simulated in isolation and analysed in detail to show the formation mechanism and determine possible observational signatures. Pillars formed by the shadowing mechanism are shown to have rather different velocity profiles depending on the initial gas configuration, but asymmetries mean that the profiles also vary significantly with perspective, limiting their ability to discriminate between format...

  5. Extinction and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Intensity Variations across the H II Region IRAS 12063-6259

    Stock, D. J.; Peeters, E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Otaguro, J. N.; Bik, A.


    The spatial variations in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) band intensities are normally attributed to the physical conditions of the emitting PAHs, however in recent years it has been suggested that such variations are caused mainly by extinction. To resolve this question, we have obtained near-infrared (NIR), mid-infrared (MIR), and radio observations of the compact H II region IRAS 12063-6259. We use these data to construct multiple independent extinction maps and also to measure the main PAH features (6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.2 μm) in the MIR. Three extinction maps are derived: the first using the NIR hydrogen lines and case B recombination theory; the second combining the NIR data with radio data; and the third making use of the Spitzer/IRS MIR observations to measure the 9.8 μm silicate absorption feature using the Spoon method and PAHFIT (as the depth of this feature can be related to overall extinction). The silicate absorption over the bright, southern component of IRAS 12063-6259 is almost absent while the other methods find significant extinction. While such breakdowns of the relationship between the NIR extinction and the 9.8 μm absorption have been observed in molecular clouds, they have never been observed for H II regions. We then compare the PAH intensity variations in the Spitzer/IRS data after dereddening to those found in the original data. It was found that in most cases, the PAH band intensity variations persist even after dereddening, implying that extinction is not the main cause of the PAH band intensity variations.

  6. Candidate regions for Waardenburg syndrome type II: Search for a second WS locus

    Nance, W.E.; Pandya, A.; Blanton, S.H. [VA Commonwealth Univ, Richmond, VA (United States)] [and others


    Waardenburg syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by deafness and pigmentary abnormalities such as heterochromia of irides, hypopigmented skin patches, white forlock and premature graying. Clinically the syndrome has been classified into three types. Type II differs from type I in that dystopia canthorum is generally absent, and type III has associated limb anomalies. Recently linkage analysis localized the gene for WSI to chromosome 2q. PAX-3, which is a human analogue of the murine pax-3 locus, maps to this region and mutations in this gene have been found to segregate with WSI. However genetic heterogeneity clearly exists: most if not all WSII families are unlinked to PAX-3 while most if not all WSI cases are linked. We ascertained a four-year-old female child with an interstitial deletion of chromosome 13 who had features of WS including bilateral congenital sensorineural hearing loss, pale blue irides and pinched nostrils as well as hypertelorism microcephaly, bilateral eyelid ptosis, digitalization of thumbs and fifth finger clinodactyly. High resolution chromosomal analysis revealed a de novo interstitial deletion of 13q22-33.2. There was no family history of WS or retardation. A similar deletion in the region of 13q21-32 has been described in a 13-year-old boy with features of WSII. These two cases strongly suggested that this chromosomal region may include a second locus for WS. We have identified eight families with clinical features of WS type I which have been excluded from linkage to the PAX-3 locus. We have typed these families for microsatellite markers spanning chromosome 13. Linkage between WSII and the chromosome 13 markers was excluded in these families. Hirschsprung disease has been associated with WS and it has recently been mapped to chromosome 10q11.2-q21.1. We are currently typing the 8 families for microsatellites in this region.

  7. Age, size, and position of H ii regions in the Galaxy. Expansion of ionized gas in turbulent molecular clouds

    Tremblin, P; Didelon, P; Raga, A C; Minier, V; Ntormousi, E; Pettitt, A; Pinto, C; Samal, M; Schneider, N; Zavagno, A


    This work aims at improving the current understanding of the interaction between H ii regions and turbulent molecular clouds. We propose a new method to determine the age of a large sample of OB associations by investigating the development of their associated H ii regions in the surrounding turbulent medium. Using analytical solutions, one-dimensional (1D), and three-dimensional (3D) simulations, we constrained the expansion of the ionized bubble depending on the turbulent level of the parent molecular cloud. A grid of 1D simulations was then computed in order to build isochrone curves for H ii regions in a pressure-size diagram. This grid of models allowed to date large sample of OB associations and was used on the H ii Region Discovery Survey (HRDS). Analytical solutions and numerical simulations showed that the expansion of H ii regions is slowed down by the turbulence up to the point where the pressure of the ionized gas is in a quasi-equilibrium with the turbulent ram pressure. Based on this result, we ...

  8. Spitzer Observations of M83 and the Hot Star, H II Region Connection

    Rubin, R H; Colgan, S W J; Dufour, R J; Ray, K L; Erickson, E F; Haas, M R; Pauldrach, A W A; Citron, R I; Rubin, Robert H.; Simpson, Janet P.; Colgan, Sean W.J.; Dufour, Reginald J.; Ray, Katherine L.; Erickson, Edwin F.; Haas, Michael R.; Pauldrach, Adalbert W.A.; Citron, Robert I.


    We have undertaken a program to observe emission lines of SIV 10.5, NeII 12.8, NeIII 15.6, & SIII 18.7 um in a number of extragalactic HII regions with the Spitzer Space Telescope. We report our results for the nearly face-on spiral galaxy M83. The nebulae selected cover a wide range of galactocentric radii (R_G). The observations were made with the Infrared Spectrograph in the short wavelength, high dispersion configuration. The above set of 4 lines is observed cospatially, thus permitting a reliable comparison of the fluxes. From the measured fluxes, we determine the ionic abundance ratios including Ne++/Ne+, S3+/S++, and S++/Ne+ and find that there is a correlation of increasingly higher ionization with larger R_G. By sampling the dominant ionization states of Ne and S for HII regions, Ne/S ~ (Ne+ + Ne++)/(S++ + S3+). Our findings of ratios that exceed the benchmark Orion value are more likely due to other effects than a true gradient in Ne/S. Both Ne and S are primary elements produced in alpha- chain...

  9. Magnetic fields, stellar feedback, and the geometry of H II Regions

    Ferland, Gary J


    Magnetic pressure has long been known to dominate over gas pressure in atomic and molecular regions of the interstellar medium. Here I review several recent observational studies of the relationships between the H^+, H^0 and H_2 regions in M42 (the Orion complex) and M17. A simple picture results. When stars form they push back surrounding material, mainly through the outward momentum of starlight acting on grains, and field lines are dragged with the gas due to flux freezing. The magnetic field is compressed and the magnetic pressure increases until it is able to resist further expansion and the system comes into approximate magnetostatic equilibrium. Magnetic field lines can be preferentially aligned perpendicular to the long axis of quiescent cloud before stars form. After star formation and pushback occurs ionized gas will be constrained to flow along field lines and escape from the system along directions perpendicular to the long axis. The magnetic field may play other roles in the physics of the H II r...

  10. Collisional excitation of hydrogen and the determination of the primordial helium abundance from H II regions

    Stasinska, G


    This paper investigates the effect of collisional enhancement of the hydrogen lines on the derivation of the helium abundances in low metallicity H II regions. For this, we have constructed a grid of photoionization models relevant for the analysis of giant \\hii regions in blue compact galaxies. We show that the effect of collisional excitation on the Halpha/Hbeta ratio can be quite important (up to 8% or more). The impact of this effect on the determination of the helium mass fraction has been tracked on four low-metallicity blue compact galaxies for which Keck spectra are available and which are among the best objects for the quest of the pregalactic helium abundance. We find that taking into account the effects of collisional excitation of hydrogen results in an upward correction of the helium mass fraction Y by up to 5%. However, combining with other systematic effects usually not considered in the determination of the helium abundance in low-metallicity galaxies, the resulting uncertainty should be much ...

  11. Gas kinematics in the H II regions G351.69-1.15 and G351.63-1.25

    Veena, V. S.; Vig, S.; Tej, A.; Kantharia, N. G.; Ghosh, S. K.


    We probe the structure and kinematics of two neighbouring H II regions identified as cometary and bipolar, using radio recombination lines (RRLs). The H172α RRLs from these H II regions: G351.69-1.15 and G351.63-1.25, are mapped using Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, India. We also detect carbon RRLs C172α towards both these regions. The hydrogen RRLs display the effects of pressure and dynamical broadening in the line profiles, with the dynamical broadening (∼15 km s-1) playing a major role in the observed profile of G351.69-1.15. We investigate the kinematics of molecular gas species towards this H II region from the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Pilot Survey. The molecular gas is mostly distributed towards the north and north-west of the cometary head. The molecular line profiles indicate signatures of turbulence and outflow in this region. The ionized gas at the cometary tail is blueshifted by ∼8 km s-1 with respect to the ambient molecular cloud, consistent with the earlier proposed champagne flow scenario. The relative velocity of ∼5 km s-1 between the northern and southern lobes of the bipolar H II region G351.63-1.25 is consistent with the premise that the bipolar morphology is a result of the expanding ionized lobes within a flat molecular cloud.

  12. Dynamical Expansion of H II Regions from Ultracompact to Compact Sizes in Turbulent, Self-Gravitating Molecular Clouds

    MacLow, M M; Oishi, J S; Abel, T; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac; Toraskar, Jayashree; Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Abel, Tom


    The nature of ultracompact H II regions (UCHRs) remains poorly determined. In particular, they are about an order of magnitude more common than would be expected if they formed around young massive stars and lasted for one dynamical time, around 10^4 yr. We here perform three-dimensional numerical simulations of the expansion of an H II region into self-gravitating, radiatively cooled gas, both with and without supersonic turbulent flows. In the laminar case, we find that H II region expansion in a collapsing core produces nearly spherical shells, even if the ionizing source is off-center in the core. This agrees with analytic models of blast waves in power-law media. In the turbulent case, we find that the H II region does not disrupt the central collapsing region, but rather sweeps up a shell of gas in which further collapse occurs. Although this does not constitute triggering, as the swept-up gas would eventually have collapsed anyway, it does expose the collapsing regions to ionizing radiation. We suggest...

  13. Stellar Population and Star Formation History of the Distant Galactic H II Regions NGC 2282 and Sh2-149

    Dutta, S.; Mondal, S.; Jose, J.; Das, R. K.


    We present here the recent results on two distant Galactic H II regions, namely NGC 2282 and Sh2-149, obtained with multiwavelength observations. Our optical spectroscopic analysis of the bright sources have been used to identify the massive members, and to derive the fundamental parameters such as age and distance of these regions. Using IR color-color criteria and Hα-emission properties, we have identified and classified the candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in these regions. The 12CO(1-0) continuum maps along with the K-band extinction maps, and spatial distribution of YSOs are used to investigate the structure and morphology of the molecular cloud associated with these H II regions. Overall analysis of these regions suggests that the star formation occurs at the locations of the denser gas, and we also find possible evidences of the induced star formation due to the feedback from massive stars to its surrounding molecular medium.

  14. Regulation of Islamic art in confessional policy of Catherine II (on materials of the Tyumen region

    Yulia A. Bortnikova


    Full Text Available Prevention of the religious conflicts and Islamic extremism, education of confessional tolerance, – these and other questions became the most actual political and scientific problem now. Art reflects outlook of people and is an ideological lever on society. In article the policy on use of Islamic art for education of confessional tolerance is analyzed. This policy began by Catherine II in 1773, had the content of reform and extended on religious art and architecture of all gentiles in the Russian Empire. Article is written on the basis of materials of the Central historical archive of the Republic of Bashkortostan and exhibits of the museums. The Tyumen region (the South of the modern Tyumen region was an optimum basis for carrying out this policy because of the mixed option of Islam which arose there. Muslim art included a complex of the subjects intended for execution of a religious cult. It reflected elements of Shamanism and Tengriism, and after carrying out reform – Judaism and Christianity. Thus, at it there were forms and images of all religions of the Tyumen region. Syncretism of Islamic art was shown in a typology of cult objects, their ornament and mission. The most unusual phenomenon was existence of a religious sculpture which was forbidden in Islam and Orthodoxy, but existed in both religions, and also in Catholicism, Tengriism and Shamanism. In article ways of impact on Muslim art which were used by the Orenburg Mohammedan spiritual meeting are considered. It didn't interfere in preservation of religious syncretism, and also executed orders of the government on Christianization of Islamic art. Authors come to a conclusion that reform carried lines of policy of multiculturalism for gentiles.

  15. New susceptibility variants to narcolepsy identified in HLA class II region.

    Miyagawa, Taku; Toyoda, Hiromi; Hirataka, Akane; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Imanishi, Aya; Sagawa, Yohei; Kotorii, Nozomu; Kotorii, Tatayu; Hashizume, Yuji; Ogi, Kimihiro; Hiejima, Hiroshi; Kamei, Yuichi; Hida, Akiko; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Imai, Makoto; Fujimura, Yota; Tamura, Yoshiyuki; Ikegami, Azusa; Wada, Yamato; Moriya, Shunpei; Furuya, Hirokazu; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Omata, Naoto; Kojima, Hiroto; Kashiwase, Koichi; Saji, Hiroh; Khor, Seik-Soon; Yamasaki, Maria; Wada, Yuji; Ishigooka, Jun; Kuroda, Kenji; Kume, Kazuhiko; Chiba, Shigeru; Yamada, Naoto; Okawa, Masako; Hirata, Koichi; Uchimura, Naohisa; Shimizu, Tetsuo; Inoue, Yuichi; Honda, Yutaka; Mishima, Kazuo; Honda, Makoto; Tokunaga, Katsushi


    Narcolepsy, a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy and rapid eye movement sleep abnormalities, is tightly associated with human leukocyte antigen HLA-DQB1*06:02. DQB1*06:02 is common in the general population (10-30%); therefore, additional genetic factors are needed for the development of narcolepsy. In the present study, HLA-DQB1 in 664 Japanese narcoleptic subjects and 3131 Japanese control subjects was examined to determine whether HLA-DQB1 alleles located in trans of DQB1*06:02 are associated with narcolepsy. The strongest association was with DQB1*06:01 (P = 1.4 × 10(-10), odds ratio, OR = 0.39), as reported in previous studies. Additional predisposing effects of DQB1*03:02 were also found (P = 2.5 × 10(-9), OR = 1.97). A comparison between DQB1*06:02 heterozygous cases and controls revealed dominant protective effects of DQB1*06:01 and DQB1*05:01. In addition, a single-nucleotide polymorphism-based conditional analysis controlling for the effect of HLA-DQB1 was performed to determine whether there were other independent HLA associations outside of HLA-DQB1. This analysis revealed associations at HLA-DPB1 in the HLA class II region (rs3117242, P = 4.1 × 10(-5), OR = 2.45; DPB1*05:01, P = 8.1 × 10(-3), OR = 1.39). These results indicate that complex HLA class II associations contribute to the genetic predisposition to narcolepsy.

  16. 5 CFR Appendix II to Part 1201 - Appropriate Regional or Field Office for Filing Appeals


    ... ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES Pt. 1201, App. II Appendix II to Part 1201—Appropriate...-5109, (Arizona; Colorado; Kansas—except Kansas City; Montana; Nebraska; New Mexico; North Dakota; South...

  17. Observational studies on the near-infrared unidentified emission bands in galactic H II regions

    Mori, Tamami I.; Onaka, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki; Ohsawa, Ryou; Bell, Aaron C. [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ishihara, Daisuke [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Shimonishi, Takashi, E-mail: [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada Kobe 657-8501 Japan (Japan)


    Using a large collection of near-infrared spectra (2.5-5.4 μm) of Galactic H II regions and H II region-like objects, we perform a systematic investigation of astronomical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features. Thirty-six objects were observed using the infrared camera on board the AKARI satellite as a part of a director's time program. In addition to the well known 3.3-3.6 μm features, most spectra show a relatively weak emission feature at 5.22 μm with sufficient signal-to-noise ratios, which we identify as the PAH 5.25 μm band (previously reported). By careful analysis, we find good correlations between the 5.25 μm band and both the aromatic hydrocarbon feature at 3.3 μm and the aliphatic hydrocarbon features at around 3.4-3.6 μm. The present results give us convincing evidence that the astronomical 5.25 μm band is associated with C-H vibrations, as suggested by previous studies, and show its potential to probe the PAH size distribution. The analysis also shows that the aliphatic-to-aromatic ratio of I {sub 3.4-3.6} {sub μm}/I {sub 3.3} {sub μm} decreases against the ratio of the 3.7 μm continuum intensity to the 3.3 μm band, I {sub cont,} {sub 3.7} {sub μm}/I {sub 3.3} {sub μm}, which is an indicator of the ionization fraction of PAHs. The midinfrared color of I {sub 9} {sub μm}/I {sub 18} {sub μm} also declines steeply against the ratio of the hydrogen recombination line Brα at 4.05 μm to the 3.3 μm band, I {sub Brα}/I {sub 3.3} {sub μm}. These facts indicate possible dust processing inside or at the boundary of ionized gas.

  18. From forced collapse to H ii region expansion in Mon R2: Envelope density structure and age determination with Herschel

    Didelon, P; Tremblin, P; Hill, T; Hony, S; Hennemann, M; Hennebelle, P; Anderson, L D; Galliano, F; Schneider, N; Rayner, T; Rygl, K; Louvet, F; Zavagno, A; Konyves, V; Sauvage, M; Andre, Ph; Bontemps, S; Peretto, N; Griffin, M; Gonzalez, M; Lebouteiller, V; Arzoumanian, D; Benedettini, M; Di Francesco, J; Menshchikov, A; Minier, V; Luong, Q Nguyen; Bernard, J -P; Palmeirim, P; Pezzuto, S; Rivera-Ingraham, A; Russeil, D; Ward-Thompson, D; White, G J


    The surroundings of HII regions can have a profound influence on their development, morphology, and evolution. This paper explores the effect of the environment on H II regions in the MonR2 molecular cloud. We aim to investigate the density structure of envelopes surrounding HII regions and to determine their collapse and ionisation expansion ages. The Mon R2 molecular cloud is an ideal target since it hosts an H II region association. Column density and temperature images derived from Herschel data were used together to model the structure of HII bubbles and their surrounding envelopes. The resulting observational constraints were used to follow the development of the Mon R2 ionised regions with analytical calculations and numerical simulations. The four hot bubbles associated with H II regions are surrounded by dense, cold, and neutral gas envelopes. The radial density profiles are reminiscent of those of low-mass protostellar envelopes. The inner parts of envelopes of all four HII regions could be free-fal...

  19. Evaluation of Class II treatment by cephalometric regional superpositions versus conventional measurements.

    Efstratiadis, Stella; Baumrind, Sheldon; Shofer, Frances; Jacobsson-Hunt, Ulla; Laster, Larry; Ghafari, Joseph


    The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate cephalometric changes in subjects with Class II Division 1 malocclusion who were treated with headgear (HG) or Fränkel function regulator (FR) and (2) to compare findings from regional superpositions of cephalometric structures with those from conventional cephalometric measurements. Cephalographs were taken at baseline, after 1 year, and after 2 years of 65 children enrolled in a prospective randomized clinical trial. The spatial location of the landmarks derived from regional superpositions was evaluated in a coordinate system oriented on natural head position. The superpositions included the best anatomic fit of the anterior cranial base, maxillary base, and mandibular structures. Both the HG and the FR were effective in correcting the distoclusion, and they generated enhanced differential growth between the jaws. Differences between cranial and maxillary superpositions regarding mandibular displacement (Point B, pogonion, gnathion, menton) were noted: the HG had a more horizontal vector on maxillary superposition that was also greater (.0001 < P < .05) than the horizontal displacement observed with the FR. This discrepancy appeared to be related to (1) the clockwise (backward) rotation of the palatal and mandibular planes observed with the HG; the palatal plane's rotation, which was transferred through the occlusion to the mandibular plane, was factored out on maxillary superposition; and (2) the interaction between the inclination of the maxillary incisors and the forward movement of the mandible during growth. Findings from superpositions agreed with conventional angular and linear measurements regarding the basic conclusions for the primary effects of HG and FR. However, the results suggest that inferences of mandibular displacement are more reliable from maxillary than cranial superposition when evaluating occlusal changes during treatment.

  20. Testing the existence of non-Maxwellian electron distributions in H II regions after assessing atomic data accuracy

    Mendoza, C


    The classic optical nebular diagnostics [N II], [O II], [O III], [S II], [S III], and [Ar III] are employed to search for evidence of non-Maxwellian electron distributions, namely $\\kappa$~distributions, in a sample of well-observed Galactic H II regions. By computing new effective collision strengths for all these systems and A-values when necessary (e.g. S II), and by comparing with previous collisional and radiative datasets, we have been able to obtain realistic estimates of the electron-temperature dispersion caused by the atomic data, which in most cases are not larger than $\\sim 10$%. If the uncertainties due to both observation and atomic data are then taken into account, it is plausible to determine for some systems a representative average temperature while in others there are at least two plasma excitation regions. For the latter, it is found that the diagnostic temperature differences in the high-excitation region, e.g. $T_e$(O III), $T_e$(S III), and $T_e$(Ar III), cannot be conciliated by invoki...

  1. BOND: Bayesian Oxygen and Nitrogen abundance Determinations in giant H II regions using strong and semi-strong lines

    Asari, N Vale; Morisset, C; Fernandes, R Cid


    We present BOND, a Bayesian code to simultaneously derive oxygen and nitrogen abundances in giant H II regions. It compares observed emission lines to a grid of photoionization models without assuming any relation between O/H and N/O. Our grid spans a wide range in O/H, N/O and ionization parameter U, and covers different starburst ages and nebular geometries. Varying starburst ages accounts for variations in the ionizing radiation field hardness, which arise due to the ageing of H II regions or the stochastic sampling of the initial mass function. All previous approaches assume a strict relation between the ionizing field and metallicity. The other novelty is extracting information on the nebular physics from semi-strong emission lines. While strong lines ratios alone ([O III]/Hbeta, [O II]/Hbeta and [N II]/Hbeta) lead to multiple O/H solutions, the simultaneous use of [Ar III]/[Ne III] allows one to decide whether an H II region is of high or low metallicity. Adding He I/Hbeta pins down the hardness of the ...


    Brown, C.; Dickey, J. M.; Dawson, J. R. [School of Physical Sciences, Private Bag 37, University of Tasmania, Hobart 7001 (Australia); McClure-Griffiths, N. M. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, ATNF, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)


    We present a complete catalog of H I emission and absorption spectrum pairs, toward H II regions, detectable within the boundaries of the Southern Galactic Plane Survey (SGPS I), a total of 252 regions. The catalog is presented in graphical, numerical, and summary formats. We demonstrate an application of this new data set through an investigation of the locus of the Near 3 kpc Arm.

  3. Radiation-MHD models of elephant trunks and globules in H II regions

    Mackey, Jonathan


    We study the formation and evolution of pillars of dense gas, known as elephant trunks, at the boundaries of H II regions, formed by shadowing of ionising radiation by dense clumps. The effects of magnetic fields on this process are investigated using 3D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics simulations. For a simulation in which an initially uniform magnetic field of strength |B|=50 uG is oriented perpendicular to the radiation propagation direction, the field is swept into alignment with the pillar during its dynamical evolution, in agreement with observations of the "Pillars of Creation" in M16, and of some cometary globules. This effect is significantly enhanced when the simulation is re-run with a weaker field of 18 uG. A stronger field with |B|=160 uG is sufficient to prevent this evolution completely, also significantly affecting the photoionisation process. Using a larger simulation domain it is seen that the pillar formation models studied in Mackey & Lim (2010) ultimately evolve to cometary structures ...

  4. [Epidemiological status of Chagas disease in the endemic area from Region II of Antofagasta].

    Cáceres, J; Burchard, L; Bahamonde, M I; Contreras, M C; García, A; Rojas, A; Schenone, H; Lorca, M


    During 1997 a seroepidemiological study on Chagas' disease was carried out in 18 localities of three provinces (Tocopilla, El Loa and Antofagasta) of Region II (20 degrees 56'-26 degrees South Lat.; 70 degrees 38'-67 degrees West Long.), in order to assess the impact of the control program against Triatoma infestans launched in 1988, based on insecticide spraying of dwellings. By means of ELISA and an indirect hemagglutination test for Chagas' disease blood samples from 1,034 children under 10 years of age were examined, arising a 0.5% (3 cases) positivity. Test resulted positive in 2 (0.9%) children from the locality of San Pedro de Atacama and 1 (0.4%) from Calama city, all in the age group 6-10 year-old. However, none of their dwellings were found infested with T. infestants. These results indicate that the control program has a good possibility to prevent new human infections. It is advisable to continue the seroepidemiological and entomological vigilance and remark the necessity of increasing the effort in the study of transmission through other routes, to adopt or reinforce the pertinent preventive measures.

  5. Magnetic field structure of IC 63 and IC 59 associated to H II region - Sh 185

    Soam, A; Lee, Chang Won; Neha, S; Andersson, B-G


    Bright-rimmed clouds (BRCs) are formed at the periphery of H$~$II regions as the radiation from the central star interacts with dense gas. The ionization and resulting compression of the clouds may lead to cloud disruption causing secondary star formation depending on the stellar and gas parameters. Here we use R-band polarimetry to probe the plane-of-the sky magnetic field in the two near-by BRCs IC\\,59 and IC\\,63. Both nebulae are illuminated by $\\gamma$ Cas with the direction of ionizing radiation being orientated parallel or perpendicular to the local magnetic field, allowing us to probe the importance of magnetic field pressure in the evolution of BRCs. Because of the proximity of the system ($\\sim$200pc) we have acquired a substantial sample of over 500 polarization measurements for stars background to the nebulae. On large scales, the magnetic field geometries of both clouds are anchored to the ambient magnetic field. For IC 63, the magnetic field is aligned parallel to the head-tail morphology of the ...


    Bellazzini, M. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Magrini, L. [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Mucciarelli, A.; Fraternali, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat, 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Beccari, G. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura Santiago (Chile); Ibata, R.; Martin, N. [Obs. astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l’Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Battaglia, G. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Testa, V. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio (Italy); Fumana, M.; Marchetti, A. [INAF—IASF, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133, Milano (Italy); Correnti, M., E-mail: [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    Within the SECCO survey we identified a candidate stellar counterpart to the Ultra Compact High Velocity Cloud (UCHVC) HVC274.68+74.70-123 that was suggested by Adams et al. to be a possible mini halo within the Local Group of galaxies. The spectroscopic follow-up of the brightest sources within the candidate reveals the presence of two H ii regions whose radial velocity is compatible with a physical association with the UVHVC. The available data do not allow us to give a definite answer on the nature of the newly identified system. A few alternative hypotheses are discussed. However, the most likely possibility is that we have found a new faint dwarf galaxy residing in the Virgo cluster of galaxies, which we name SECCO 1. Independently of its actual distance, SECCO 1 displays a ratio of neutral hydrogen mass to V luminosity of M{sub H} {sub I}/L{sub V}≳20, by far the largest among local dwarfs. Hence, it appears to be a nearly starless galaxy and it may be an example of the missing links between normal dwarfs and the dark mini halos that are predicted to exist in large numbers according to the currently accepted cosmological model.

  7. Amplification of magnetic fields in a primordial H II region and supernova

    Koh, Daegene; Wise, John H.


    Magnetic fields permeate the Universe on all scales and play a key role during star formation. We study the evolution of magnetic fields around a massive metal-free (Population III) star at z ˜ 15 during the growth of its H II region and subsequent supernova explosion by conducting three cosmological magnetohydrodynamics simulations with radiation transport. Given the theoretical uncertainty and weak observational constraints of magnetic fields in the early universe, we initialize the simulations with identical initial conditions only varying the seed field strength. We find that magnetic fields grow as ρ2/3 during the gravitational collapse preceding star formation, as expected from ideal spherical collapse models. Massive Population III stars can expel a majority of the gas from the host halo through radiative feedback, and we find that the magnetic fields are not amplified above the spherical collapse scaling relation during this phase. However, afterwards when its supernova remnant can radiatively cool and fragment, the turbulent velocity field in and around the shell causes the magnetic field to be significantly amplified on average by ˜100 in the shell and up to 6 orders of magnitude behind the reverse shock. Within the shell, field strengths are on the order of a few nG at a number density of 1 cm-3. We show that this growth is primarily caused by small-scale dynamo action in the remnant. These strengthened fields will propagate into the first generations of galaxies, possibly affecting the nature of their star formation.

  8. Star forming activity in the H II regions associated with IRAS 17160-3707 complex

    Nandakumar, G; Vig, S; Tej, A; Ghosh, S K; Ojha, D K


    We present a multiwavelength investigation of star formation activity towards the southern H II regions associated with IRAS 17160-3707, located at a distance of 6.2 kpc with a bolometric luminosity of 830000 Lsun.The ionised gas distribution and dust clumps in the parental molecular cloud are examined in detail using measurements at infrared, submillimeter and radio wavelengths.The radio continuum images at 1280 and 610 MHz obtained using Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope reveal the presence of multiple compact sources as well as nebulous emission.At submillimeter wavelengths, we identify seven dust clumps and estimate their physical properties like temperature: 24 - 30 K, mass: 300 - 4800 Msun and luminosity: 900 - 31700 Lsun using modified blackbody fits to the spectral energy distributions between 70 and 870 um.We find 24 young stellar objects in the mid-infrared, with few of them coincident with the compact radio sources.The spectral energy distributions of young stellar objects have been fitted by the Rob...

  9. Far and mid infrared observations of two ultracompact H II regions and one compact CO clump

    Verma, R P; Mookerjea, B; Rengarajan, T N


    Two ultracompact H II regions (IRAS 19181+1349 and 20178+4046) and one compact molecular clump (20286+4105) have been observed at far infrared wavelengths using the TIFR 1 m balloon-borne telescope and at mid infrared wavelengths using ISO. Far infrared observations have been made simultaneously in two bands with effective wavelengths of ~ 150 and ~ 210 micron, using liquid 3He cooled bolometer arrays. ISO observations have been made in seven spectral bands using the ISOCAM instrument; four of these bands cover the emission from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. In addition, IRAS survey data for these sources in the four IRAS bands have been processed using the HIRES routine. In the high resolution mid infrared maps as well as far infrared maps multiple embedded energy sources have been resolved. There are structural similarities between the images in the mid infrared and the large scale maps in the far infrared bands, despite very different angular resolutions of the two. Dust temperature and ...

  10. H II regions, infrared dark molecular clouds and the local geometry of the Milky Way's nuclear star-forming ring

    Liszt, H S


    To interpret the galactic center H II region complexes as constituents of a barred galaxy's nuclear star-forming ring, we compare 18cm VLA radiocontinuumm, $8-22\\mu$ MSX IR and 2.6mm BTL and ARO12m CO emission in the inner few hundred pc. Galactic center H II regions are comparable in their IR appearance, luminosity and SED to M17 or N!0, but the IR light distribution is strongly modified by extinction at 8-22$\\mu$, locally and overall. In Sgr B2 at $l > 0.6$\\degr strong radio H II regions are invisible in the IR. In two favorable cases, extinction from individual galactic center molecular clouds is shown to have $\\tau \\ga 1$ at 8-22$\\mu$ independent of wavelength. The gas kinematics are mostly rotational but with systematic $\\pm 30-50$ \\kms non-circular motion. Sgr B and C both show the same shell and high-velocity cap structure. The H II regions lie in a slightly-inclined ring of radius $\\approx$ 180 pc (1.2\\degr) whose near side appears at higher latitude and lower velocity and contains Sgr B. Sgr C is on ...

  11. The molecular environment of the pillar-like features in the H ii region G46.5-0.2

    Paron, S.; Celis Peña, M.; Ortega, M. E.; Fariña, C.; Petriella, A.; Rubio, M.; Ashley, R. P.


    At the interface of H ii regions and molecular gas, peculiar structures appear, some of them with pillar-like shapes. Understanding their origin is important for characterizing triggered star formation and the impact of massive stars on the interstellar medium. In order to study the molecular environment and influence of radiation on two pillar-like features related to the H ii region G46.5-0.2, we performed molecular line observations with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment and spectroscopic optical observations with the Isaac Newton Telescope. From the optical observations, we identified the star that is exciting the H ii region as spectral type O4-6. The molecular data allowed us to study the structure of the pillars and an HCO+ cloud lying between them. In this HCO+ cloud, which has no well-defined 12CO counterpart, we found direct evidence of star formation: two molecular outflows and two associated near-IR nebulosities. The outflow axis orientation is perpendicular to the direction of the radiation flow from the H ii region. Several Class I sources are also embedded in this HCO+ cloud, showing that it is usual that young stellar objects (YSOs) form large associations occupying a cavity bounded by pillars. On the other hand, it was confirmed that the radiation-driven implosion (RDI) process is not occurring in one of the pillar tips.

  12. Interaction-Point Phase-Space Characterization using Single-Beam and Luminous-Region Measurements at PEP-II

    Kozanecki, W; /Saclay; Bevan, A.J.; /Queen Mary, U. of London; Viaud, B.F.; /Montreal U.; Cai, Y.; Fisher, A.S.; O' Grady, C.; Lindquist, B.; Roodman, A.; J.M.Thompson, M.Weaver; /SLAC


    We present an extensive experimental characterization of the e{sup {+-}} phase space at the interaction point of the SLAC PEP-II B-Factory, that combines a detailed mapping of luminous-region observables using the BABAR detector, with stored-beam measurements by accelerator techniques.

  13. Structure and polymorphism of the major histocompatibility complex class II region in the Japanese Crested Ibis, Nipponia nippon.

    Yukio Taniguchi

    Full Text Available The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is a highly polymorphic genomic region that plays a central role in the immune system. Despite its functional consistency, the genomic structure of the MHC differs substantially among organisms. In birds, the MHC-B structures of Galliformes, including chickens, have been well characterized, but information about other avian MHCs remains sparse. The Japanese Crested Ibis (Nipponia nippon, Pelecaniformes is an internationally conserved, critically threatened species. The current Japanese population of N. nippon originates from only five founders; thus, understanding the genetic diversity among these founders is critical for effective population management. Because of its high polymorphism and importance for disease resistance and other functions, the MHC has been an important focus in the conservation of endangered species. Here, we report the structure and polymorphism of the Japanese Crested Ibis MHC class II region. Screening of genomic libraries allowed the construction of three contigs representing different haplotypes of MHC class II regions. Characterization of genomic clones revealed that the MHC class II genomic structure of N. nippon was largely different from that of chicken. A pair of MHC-IIA and -IIB genes was arranged head-to-head between the COL11A2 and BRD2 genes. Gene order in N. nippon was more similar to that in humans than to that in chicken. The three haplotypes contained one to three copies of MHC-IIA/IIB gene pairs. Genotyping of the MHC class II region detected only three haplotypes among the five founders, suggesting that the genetic diversity of the current Japanese Crested Ibis population is extremely low. The structure of the MHC class II region presented here provides valuable insight for future studies on the evolution of the avian MHC and for conservation of the Japanese Crested Ibis.

  14. The oxygen abundance gradient in M81 and the robustness of abundance determinations in H II regions

    Arellano-Córdova, K Z; Mayya, Y D; Rosa-González, D


    We study the sensitivity of the methods available for abundance determinations in H II regions to potential observational problems. We compare the dispersions they introduce around the oxygen and nitrogen abundance gradients when applied to 5 different sets of spectra of H II regions in the galaxy M81. Our sample contains 116 H II regions with galactocentric distances of 3 to 33 kpc, including 48 regions observed by us with the OSIRIS long-slit spectrograph at the 10.4-m GTC telescope. The direct method can be applied to 31 regions, where we can get estimates of the electron temperature. The different methods imply oxygen abundance gradients with slopes of -0.010 to -0.002 dex kpc-1, and dispersions in the range 0.06-0.25 dex. The direct method produces the shallowest slope and the largest dispersion, illustrating the difficulty of obtaining good estimates of the electron temperature. Three of the strong-line methods, C, ONS, and N2, are remarkably robust, with dispersions of ~ 0.06 dex, and slopes in the ran...

  15. Imprints of galaxy evolution on H ii regions Memory of the past uncovered by the CALIFA survey

    Sanchez, S F; Rosales-Ortega, F F; Miralles-Caballero, D; Lopez-Sanchez, A R; Iglesias-Páramo, J; Marino, R A; Sánchez-Menguiano, L; García-Benito, R; Mast, D; Mendoza, M A; Papaderos, P; Ellis, S; Galbany, L; Kehrig, C; Monreal-Ibero, A; Delgado, R González; Mollá, M; Ziegler, B; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A; Mendez-Abreu, J; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Bekeraite, S; Roth, M M; Pasquali, A; Díaz, A; Bomans, D; van de Ven, G; Wisotzki, L


    H ii regions in galaxies are the sites of star formation and thus particular places to understand the build-up of stellar mass in the universe. The line ratios of this ionized gas are frequently used to characterize the ionization conditions. We use the Hii regions catalogue from the CALIFA survey (~5000 H ii regions), to explore their distribution across the classical [OIII]/Hbeta vs. [NII]/Halpha diagnostic diagram, and how it depends on the oxygen abundance, ionization parameter, electron density, and dust attenuation. We compared the line ratios with predictions from photoionization models. Finally, we explore the dependences on the properties of the host galaxies, the location within those galaxies and the properties of the underlying stellar population. We found that the location within the BPT diagrams is not totally predicted by photoionization models. Indeed, it depends on the properties of the host galaxies, their galactocentric distances and the properties of the underlying stellar population. Thes...

  16. Dusty cradles in a turbulent nursery: the SGR A east H II region complex at the galactic center

    Lau, R. M.; Herter, T. L.; Adams, J. D. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, 202 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Morris, M. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)


    We present imaging at 19, 25, 31, and 37 μm of the compact H II region complex G-0.02-0.07 located 6 pc in projection from the center of the Galaxy obtained with SOFIA using FORCAST. G-0.02-0.07 contains three compact H II regions (A, B, and C) and one ultra-compact H II region (D). Our observations reveal the presence of two faint, infrared sources located 23'' and 35'' to the east of region C (FIRS 1 and 2) and detect dust emission in two of the three 'ridges' of ionized gas west of region A. The 19/37 color temperature and 37 μm optical depth maps of regions A-C are used to characterize the dust energetics and morphology. Regions A and B exhibit average 19/37 color temperatures of ∼105 K, and regions C and D exhibit color temperatures of ∼115 K and ∼130 K, respectively. Using the DustEM code, we model the SEDs of regions A-D and FIRS 1, all of which require populations of very small, transiently heated grains and large, equilibrium-heated grains. We also require the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in regions A-C in order to fit the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm fluxes observed by Spitzer/IRAC. The location of the heating source for region A is determined by triangulation from distances and temperatures derived from DustEM models fit to SEDs of three different points around the region, and it is found to be displaced to the northeast of the center of curvature near the color temperature peak. Based on total luminosity, expected 1.90 μm fluxes, and proximity to the mid-IR color temperature peaks, we identify heating source candidates for regions A, B, and C. However, for region D, the observed fluxes at 1.87 and 1.90 μm of the previously proposed ionizing star are a factor of ∼40 times too bright to be the heating source and hence is likely just a star lying along the line of sight toward region D.

  17. Biosorption of Cu(II) onto agricultural materials from tropical regions

    Acheampong, Mike A.


    Background: In Ghana, the discharge of untreated gold mine wastewater contaminates the aquatic systems with heavy metals such as copper (Cu), threatening ecosystem and human health. The undesirable effects of these pollutants can be avoided by treatment of the mining wastewater prior to discharge. In this work, the sorption properties of agricultural materials, namely coconut shell, coconut husk, sawdust and Moringa oleifera seeds for Cu(II) were investigated. Results: The Freundlich isotherm model described the Cu(II) removal by coconut husk (R2 = 0.999) and sawdust (R2 = 0.993) very well and the Cu(II) removal by Moringa oleifera seeds (R2 = 0.960) well. The model only reasonably described the Cu(II) removal by coconut shell (R2 = 0.932). A maximum Cu(II) uptake of 53.9 mg g-1 was achieved using the coconut shell. The sorption of Cu(II) onto coconut shell followed pseudo-second-order kinetics (R2 = 0.997). FTIR spectroscopy indicated the presence of functional groups in the biosorbents, some of which were involved in the sorption process. SEM-EDX analysis confirmed an exchange of Mg(II) and K(I) for Cu(II) on Moringa oleifera seeds and K(I) for Cu(II) on coconut shell. Conclusion: This study shows that coconut shell can be an important low-cost biosorbent for Cu(II) removal. The results indicate that ion exchange, precipitation and electrostatic forces were involved in the Cu(II) removal by the biosorbents investigated. © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Magnetic field structure of IC 63 and IC 59 associated with H II region Sh 185

    Soam, A.; Maheswar, G.; Lee, Chang Won; Neha, S.; Andersson, B.-G.


    Bright-rimmed clouds (BRCs) are formed at the periphery of H II regions as the radiation from the central star interacts with dense gas. The ionization and resulting compression of the clouds may lead to cloud disruption causing secondary star formation depending on the stellar and gas parameters. Here we use R-band polarimetry to probe the plane-of-the sky magnetic field for two nearby BRCs, IC 59 and IC 63. Both nebulae are illuminated by γ Cas with the direction of the ionizing radiation being orientated parallel or perpendicular to the local magnetic field, allowing us to probe the importance of magnetic field pressure in the evolution of BRCs. Because of the proximity of the system (˜200 pc), we have acquired a substantial sample of over 500 polarization measurements for stars that form the background to the nebulae. On large scales, the magnetic field geometries of both clouds are anchored to the ambient magnetic field. For IC 63, the magnetic field is aligned parallel to the head-tail morphology of the main condensation, with a convex morphology relative to the direction of the ionizing radiation. We estimate the plane-of-the-sky magnetic field strength in IC 63 to be ˜ 90 μG. In IC 59, the projected magnetic field follows the M-shape morphology of the cloud. Here, field lines present a concave shape with respect to the direction of the ionizing radiation from γ Cas. Comparing our observations to published theoretical models, we find good general agreement, supporting the importance of magnetic fields in BRC evolution.

  19. IRTF/TEXES observations of the H ii regions H1 and H2 in the Galactic Centre

    Dong, Hui; Lacy, John H.; Schödel, Rainer; Nogueras-Lara, Francisco; Gallego-Calvente, Teresa; Mauerhan, Jon; Wang, Q. Daniel; Cotera, Angela; Gallego-Cano, Eulalia


    We present new [Ne ii] (12.8 μm) IRTF/TEXES observations of the Galactic Center H ii regions H1 and H2, which are at a projected distance of ∼11 pc from the centre of the Galaxy. The new observations allow us to map the radial velocity distributions of ionized gas. The high spectroscopic resolution (∼4 km s-1) helps us to disentangle different velocity components and enables us to resolve previous ambiguity regarding the nature of these sources. The spatial distributions of the intensity and radial velocity of the [Ne ii] line are mapped. In H1, the intensity distributions of the Paschen-α (1.87 μm) and [Ne ii] lines are significantly different, which suggests a strong variation of extinction across the H ii region of AK ∼ 0.56. The radial velocity distributions across these H ii regions are consistent with the predictions of a bow-shock model for H1 and the pressure-driven model for H2. Furthermore, we find a concentration of bright stars in H2. These stars have similar H - Ks colours and can be explained as part of a 2-Myr-old stellar cluster. H2 also falls on the orbit of the molecular clouds, suggested to be around Sgr A*. Our new results confirm what we had previously suggested: The O supergiant P114 in H1 is a runaway star, moving towards us through the -30 to 0 km s-1 molecular cloud, whereas the O If star P35 in H2 formed in situ, and may mark the position of a so-far unknown small star cluster formed within the central 30 pc of the Galaxy.

  20. The Effects of Japan's Apology for World War II Atrocities on Regional Relations

    Cathey, Emily A


    This thesis explores the impact of atrocities that Japan committed against its neighbors during and prior to World War II on Japan's relationships with its neighbors, China and the Republic of Korea...

  1. Sejong Open Cluster Survey (SOS). II. IC 1848 Cluster in the H II Region W5 West

    Lim, Beomdu; Kim, Jinyoung S; Bessell, Michael S; Karimov, Rivkat


    IC 1848 is one of the young open clusters in the giant star forming Cas OB6 association. Several interesting aspects relating to star formation processes in giant star forming regions attracted us to study the initial mass function (IMF), star formation mode, and properties of pre-main sequence stars (PMS). A UBVI and H alpha photometric study of the young open cluster IC 1848 was conducted as part of the "Sejong Open cluster Survey" (SOS). We have selected 105 early-type members from photometric diagrams. Their mean reddening is = 0.660 +/- 0.054 mag. Using the published photometric data with near- and mid-infrared archival data we confirmed the normal reddening law (R_V = 3.1) toward the cluster (IC 1848). A careful zero-age main sequence fitting gives a distance modulus of V_0 - M_V = 11.7 +/- 0.2 mag, equivalent to 2.2 +/- 0.2 kpc. H alpha photometry and the list of young stellar objects identified by Koenig et al. permitted us to select a large number of PMS stars comprising 196 H alpha emission stars, ...

  2. Postmastectomy radiation in supraclavicular and internal mammary regions of patients with breast cancer of stage II/III

    MEI Xin; GUO Xiao-mao; ZHANG Zhen; CHEN Jia-yi


    @@ Adjuvant radiotherapy plays a vital role in the treatment of breast cancer, but irradiated area was not standardized. The ipsilateral chest wall and supraclavicular regions with or without internal mammary lymph nodes were reported in patients receiving postmastectomy radiotherapy.1,2 In our study, 133 consecutive patients with breast cancer of stage II/III who had received postmastectomy radiotherapy of supraclavicular and internal mammary regions at Cancer Hospital of Fudan University were analyzed for their survival and locoregional control as well as their relative prognostic predicator.

  3. Transplantation of adult fibroblast nuclei into the central region of metaphase II eggs resulted in mid-blastula transition embryos.

    Pérez-Camps, Mireia; Cardona-Costa, Jose; García-Ximénez, Fernando


    Recently, a novel technical method to perform somatic nuclear transplantation (NT) in zebrafish using nonactivated eggs as recipients without the need to detect the micropyle was developed in our lab. However, the use of spermatozoa as an activating agent prevented to know whether the inserted nucleus compromised embryonic and early larval developmental ability. The aim of the present work was to test the developmental ability of the embryos reconstructed by transplanting adult fibroblast nuclei into the central region of the metaphase II egg but subsequently activated by only water. In addition, because an oocyte aging facilitates the activation in mammalian oocytes, this work also pursued to test whether the use of limited-aged eggs (2 h) as recipients improved the activation process in zebrafish NT. The adult somatic nucleus located in the central region of the nonactivated egg resulted in the 12% of mid-blastula transition embryos versus the 20% when the transplant is in the animal pole (p >or= 0.05). This suggests that the central region of the nonactivated metaphase II eggs can be a suitable place for nucleus deposition in NT in zebrafish. These results reinforce the possibility to use nonactivated metaphase II eggs in subsequent reprogramming studies by adult somatic NT in zebrafish. Unfortunately, in contrast to mammals, a limited egg aging (2 h) did not improve the activation process in zebrafish NT.

  4. Image patch analysis of sunspots and active regions. II. Clustering via dictionary learning

    Moon, Kevin R; Li, Jimmy J; De Visscher, Ruben; Watson, Fraser; Hero, Alfred O


    Separating active regions that are quiet from potentially eruptive ones is a key issue in Space Weather applications. Traditional classification schemes such as Mount Wilson and McIntosh have been effective in relating an active region large scale magnetic configuration to its ability to produce eruptive events. However, their qualitative nature prevents systematic studies of an active region's evolution for example. We introduce a new clustering of active regions that is based on the local geometry observed in Line of Sight magnetogram and continuum images. We use a reduced-dimension representation of an active region that is obtained by factoring (i.e. applying dictionary learning to) the corresponding data matrix comprised of local image patches. Two factorizations can be compared via the definition of appropriate metrics on the resulting factors. The distances obtained from these metrics are then used to cluster the active regions. We find that these metrics result in natural clusterings of active regions...

  5. Star formation in bright-rimmed clouds and cluster associated with W5 E H{\\sc ii} region

    Chauhan, Neelam; Ogura, K; Jose, J; Ojha, D K; Samal, M R; Mito, H


    The aim of this paper is to present the results of photometric investigations of the central cluster of the W5 E region as well as a follow-up study of the triggered star formation in and around bright-rimmed clouds (BRCs). We have carried out wide field $UBVI_c$ and deep $VI_c$ photometry of the W5 E H{\\sc ii} region. A distance of $\\sim$2.1 kpc and a mean age of $\\sim$1.3 Myr have been obtained for the central cluster. The young stellar objects (YSOs) associated with the region are identified on the basis of near-infrared and mid-infrared observations. We confirmed our earlier results that the average age of the YSOs lying on/inside the rim are younger than those lying outside the rim. The global distribution of the YSOs shows an aligned distribution from the ionising source to the BRCs. These facts indicate that a series of radiation driven implosion processes proceeded from near the central ionising source towards the periphery of the W5 E H{\\sc ii} region. We found that, in general, the age distributions...


    Liu, Tie; Wu, Yuefang; Zhang, Huawei, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China)


    Gas accretion is a key process in star formation. However, gas infall detections in high-mass, star-forming regions with high spatial resolution observations are rare. Here, we report the detection of gas infall toward a cometary ultracompact H II region ({sup C)} in the G34.26+0.15 complex. The observations were made with the IRAM 30 m, the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope 15 m telescope, and the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The hot core associated with 'C' has a mass of ∼76 ± 11 M{sub ☉} and a volume density of (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10{sup 8} cm{sup –3}. The HCN (3-2) and HCO{sup +} (1-0) lines observed by single dishes and the CN (2-1) lines observed by the SMA show redshifted absorption features, indicating gas infall. We found a linear relationship between the line width and optical depth of the CN (2-1) lines. Those transitions with larger optical depths and line widths have larger absorption areas. However, the infall velocities measured from different lines seem to be constant, indicating that the gas infall is uniform. We also investigated the evolution of gas infall in high-mass, star-forming regions. A tight relationship was found between the infall velocity and the total dust/gas mass. At stages prior to the hot core phase, the typical infall velocity and mass infall rate are ∼1 km s{sup –1} and ∼10{sup –4} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, respectively. While in more evolved regions, the infall velocity and mass infall rates can reach as high as several km s{sup –1} and ∼10{sup –3}-10{sup –2} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, respectively. Accelerated infall has been detected toward some hypercompact H II and ultracompact H II regions. However, the acceleration phenomenon is not seen in more evolved ultracompact H II regions (e.g., G34.26+0.15)

  7. Line Emission from Radiation-Pressurized HII Region II: Dynamics and Population Synthesis

    Verdolini, Silvia; Krumholz, Mark R; Matzner, Christopher D; Tielens, Alexander G G M


    Optical and infrared emission lines from HII regions are an important diagnostic used to study galaxies, but interpretation of these lines requires significant modeling of both the internal structure and dynamical evolution of the emitting regions. Most of the models in common use today assume that HII region dynamics are dominated by the expansion of stellar wind bubbles, and have neglected the contribution of radiation pressure to the dynamics, and in some cases also to the internal structure. However, recent observations of nearby galaxies suggest that neither assumption is justified, motivating us to revisit the question of how HII region line emission depends on the physics of winds and radiation pressure. In a companion paper we construct models of single HII regions including and excluding radiation pressure and winds, and in this paper we describe a population synthesis code that uses these models to simulate galactic collections of HII regions with varying physical parameters. We show that the choice...

  8. Mapping autonomously replicating sequence elements in a 73-kb region of chromosome II of the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    Vinay Kumar Srivastava; Dharani Dhar Dubey


    Autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) elements are the genetic determinants of replication origin function in yeasts. They can be easily identified as the plasmids containing them transform yeast cells at a high frequency. As the first step towards identifying all potential replication origins in a 73-kb region of the long arm of fission yeast chromosome II, we have mapped five new ARS elements using systematic subcloning and transformation assay. 2D analysis of one of the ARS plasmids that showed highest transformation frequency localized the replication origin activity within the cloned genomic DNA. All the new ARS elements are localized in two clusters in centromere proximal 40 kb of the region. The presence of at least six ARS elements, including the previously reported ars727, is suggestive of a higher origin density in this region than that predicted earlier using a computer based search.

  9. A study of four galactic small H II regions: Searching for spontaneous and sequential star formation scenarios

    Kang, Sung-Ju

    This thesis describes observational studies of four small star-forming H II regions (KR 7, KR 81, KR 120 and KR 140) and star-formation scenario associated with the Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) in each region. In addition to that, we also present an analysis of HCO+ (J=3→2) and H13CO+ (J=3→2) observations of the Massive (M ˜ 20 M[special character omitted] ) submillimeter/infrared source IRAS 01202+6133 located on the periphery of the H II region. In this research, we improved existing 1-D radiative transfer model for a collapsing core that happens in the early phase -- Class I protostar -- of star formation. The molecular gas surrounding an H II region is thought to be a place where star formation can be induced. We selected four small H II region in order to minimize the feedbacks and dynamics from multiple exciting sources. These regions are very young and ionized by the single O or B spectral type stars. A space based telescope Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) used for identifying and classifying the YSOs population surrounding a sample of H II regions. First, we used WISE data from AllWISE catalog with some constrains such as spatial coordinates, signal-to-noise ratio and contaminations. After we retrieved sources from catalog in each region, we classified YSOs with two different methods; color-color diagram and spectral index (alpha). Based on the color-color diagram using WISE 3.4 mum, 4.6 mum and 12 mum bands, we classified the YSOs as Class I, Class II and using 3.4 mum, 4.6 mum and 22 mum, we were able to classify Transition Disks and Class III YSOs. 2MASS and WISE combined color-color diagram also used in order to compare the classification only use of WISE color-color diagram. Considering a reddening effect from 2MASS Ks band, the classification from both WISE only and 2MASS, WISE combined color-colordiagram. A spectral index (alpha) also can be used as classifying YSOs. Based on the WISE magnitude, spectral index (alpha) can be derived

  10. The theory of globulettes: candidate precursors of brown dwarfs and free floating planets in H II regions

    Haworth, Thomas J; Clarke, Cathie J


    Large numbers of small opaque dust clouds - termed 'globulettes' by Gahm et al - have been observed in the H II regions surrounding young stellar clusters. With masses typically in the planetary (or low mass brown dwarf) regime, these objects are so numerous in some regions (e.g. the Rosette) that, if only a small fraction of them could ultimately collapse, then they would be a very significant source of free floating planets. Here we review the properties of globulettes and present a theoretical framework for their structure and evolution. We demonstrate that their interior structure is well described by a pressure confined isothermal Bonnor-Ebert sphere and that the observed mass-radius relation (mass approximately proportional to the radius squared) is a systematic consequence of a column density threshold below which components of the globulette are not identified. We also find that globulettes with this interior structure are very stable against collapse within H II regions. We follow Gahm et al in assum...

  11. A VLA Study of Ultracompact and Hypercompact H II Regions from 0.7 to 3.6 cm

    Sewilo, M; Kurtz, S; Goss, W M; Hofner, P


    We report multi-frequency Very Large Array observations of three massive star formation regions (MSFRs) containing radio continuum components that were identified as broad radio recombination line (RRL) sources and hypercompact (HC) H II region candidates in our previous H92alpha and H76alpha study: G10.96+0.01 (component W), G28.20-0.04 (N), and G34.26+0.15 (B). An additional HC H II region candidate, G45.07+0.13, known to have broad H66alpha and H76alpha lines, small size, high electron density and emission measure, was also included. We observed with high spatial resolution (0.9" to 2.3") the H53alpha, H66alpha, H76alpha, and H92alpha RRLs and the radio continuum at the corresponding wavelengths (0.7 to 3.6 cm). The motivation for these observations was to obtain RRLs over a range of principal quantum states to look for signatures of pressure broadening and macroscopic velocity structure. We find that pressure broadening contributes significantly to the line widths, but it is not the sole cause of the broa...

  12. Upper crustal structure from the Santa Monica Mountains to the Sierra Nevada, Southern California: Tomographic results from the Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment, Phase II (LARSE II)

    Lutter, W.J.; Fuis, G.S.; Ryberg, T.; Okaya, D.A.; Clayton, R.W.; Davis, P.M.; Prodehl, C.; Murphy, J.M.; Langenheim, V.E.; Benthien, M.L.; Godfrey, N.J.; Christensen, N.I.; Thygesen, K.; Thurber, C.H.; Simila, G.; Keller, Gordon R.


    In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) collected refraction and low-fold reflection data along a 150-km-long corridor extending from the Santa Monica Mountains northward to the Sierra Nevada. This profile was part of the second phase of the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE II). Chief imaging targets included sedimentary basins beneath the San Fernando and Santa Clarita Valleys and the deep structure of major faults along the transect, including causative faults for the 1971 M 6.7 San Fernando and 1994 M 6.7 Northridge earthquakes, the San Gabriel Fault, and the San Andreas Fault. Tomographic modeling of first arrivals using the methods of Hole (1992) and Lutter et al. (1999) produces velocity models that are similar to each other and are well resolved to depths of 5-7.5 km. These models, together with oil-test well data and independent forward modeling of LARSE II refraction data, suggest that regions of relatively low velocity and high velocity gradient in the San Fernando Valley and the northern Santa Clarita Valley (north of the San Gabriel Fault) correspond to Cenozoic sedimentary basin fill and reach maximum depths along the profile of ???4.3 km and >3 km , respectively. The Antelope Valley, within the western Mojave Desert, is also underlain by low-velocity, high-gradient sedimentary fill to an interpreted maximum depth of ???2.4 km. Below depths of ???2 km, velocities of basement rocks in the Santa Monica Mountains and the central Transverse Ranges vary between 5.5 and 6.0 km/sec, but in the Mojave Desert, basement rocks vary in velocity between 5.25 and 6.25 km/sec. The San Andreas Fault separates differing velocity structures of the central Transverse Ranges and Mojave Desert. A weak low-velocity zone is centered approximately on the north-dipping aftershock zone of the 1971 San Fernando earthquake and possibly along the deep projection of the San Gabriel Fault. Modeling of gravity data, using

  13. Using SOFIA to Unveil the Star Formation History of the Massive Galactic Center H II Region Sagittarius B1

    Simpson, Janet

    The proximity of the center of our Galaxy enables us to study star formation under conditions commonly found in other galaxies, but at spatial resolutions unachievable elsewhere. In the past few years, numerous large scale surveys of the inner regions of the Galaxy ( 100 pc) have helped to create a possible unified picture of star formation in the Galactic Center (GC) as arising from streams of gas passing near the super massive black hole, Sgr A*, located at the center. The proposed model envisions sequential star formation within the streams, with age a function of time since closest approach to Sgr A*. The 15 pc diameter H II region, Sgr B1, long thought to be associated with the more active and embedded region Sgr B2, however, does not fit well within this emerging picture, being either too old or in the wrong place. We propose to expand our ongoing investigation of star formation within Sgr B1 by adding additional FIFI-LS spectroscopy to our Cycle 3 FORCAST and Cycle 4 FIFI-LS observations of the region. By combining observations of the [O III] (52 and 88 micron), [O I] (146 micron), and [C II] (158 micron) lines, with spectra of other emission lines available from the Spitzer Space Telescope archive and our Cycles 3 and 4 SOFIA observations, we will be able to create a complete picture of the stellar population within this problematic region. We will therefore be able to address outstanding questions on the age and nature of Sgr B1, and its role in the large star formation history of the GC.

  14. AUTH Regional Climate Model Contributions to EURO-CORDEX. Part II

    Katragkou, E.; Gkotovou, I.; Kartsios, S.; Pavlidis, V.; Tsigaridis, K.; Trail, M.; Nazarenko, L.; Karacostas, Theodore S.


    Regional climate downscaling techniques are being increasingly used to provide higher-resolution climate information than is available directly from contemporary global climate models. The Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) initiative was build to foster communication and knowledge exchange between regional climate modelers. The Department of Meteorology and Climatology of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki has been contributing to the CORDEX initiative since 2010, with regional climate model simulations over the European domain (EURO-CORDEX). Results of this work are presented here, including two hindcasts and a historical simulation with the Weather Research Forecasting model (WRF), driven by ERA-interim reanalysis and the NASA Earth System Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) ModelE2, respectively. Model simulations are evaluated with the EOBS climatology and the model performance is assessed.

  15. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS Type II After Carpal Tunnel Release Surgery: Case Report

    Hakan Tunç


    Full Text Available Summary Complex regional pain syndrome is a chronic syndrome characterised with dystrophic changes and neurovascular disordes of bone and skin of extremities. The most common etiological factors are trauma, ischemic heart disease, cerebral lesions, servical region disorders, infections, and surgical treatments. Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common compressive neuropaty of the upper extremity. There are various surgical and conservative alternatives in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. Complex regional pain syndrome has been reported as a complication of surgical carpal tunnel release in 2-5% of patients. In this case report clinical characteristics and rehabilitation outcomes of a patient with complex regional pain syndrome after carpal tunnel release surgery is presented. (Osteoporoz Dünyasından 2010;16:41-3

  16. AUTH Regional Climate Model Contributions to EURO-CORDEX. Part II

    Katragkou, E.; Gkotovou, I.; Kartsios, S.; Pavlidis, V.; Tsigaridis, K.; Trail, M.; Nazarenko, L.; Karacostas, Theodore S.


    Regional climate downscaling techniques are being increasingly used to provide higher-resolution climate information than is available directly from contemporary global climate models. The Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) initiative was build to foster communication and knowledge exchange between regional climate modelers. The Department of Meteorology and Climatology of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki has been contributing to the CORDEX initiative since 2010, with regional climate model simulations over the European domain (EURO-CORDEX). Results of this work are presented here, including two hindcasts and a historical simulation with the Weather Research Forecasting model (WRF), driven by ERA-interim reanalysis and the NASA Earth System Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) ModelE2, respectively. Model simulations are evaluated with the EOBS climatology and the model performance is assessed.

  17. Analysis of regional banks' efforts to promote energy conservation among commercial customers. Task II


    The study approach explored the hypothesis that regional banks can play an important role in disseminating energy conservation information to their commercial/industrial customers. The four phases of the study are described in detail. (MCW)

  18. Constraining the escape fraction of ionizing photons from H ii regions within NGC 300: A concept paper

    Niederhofer, F.; Hilker, M.; Bastian, N.; Ercolano, B.


    Using broadband photometry from the Hubble Space Telescope in combination with Very Large Telescope narrowband Hα observations of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 300, we explore a method for estimating the escape fractions of hydrogen-ionizing photons from H ii regions within this galaxy. Our goal in this concept study is to evaluate the spectral types of the most massive stars using the broadband data and estimating their ionizing photon output with the help of stellar atmosphere models. A comparison with the Hα flux that gives the amount of ionized gas in the H ii region provides a measure of the escape fraction of ionizing photons from that region. We performed some tests with a number of synthetic young clusters with varying parameters to assess the reliability of the method. However, we found that the derived stellar spectral types and consequently the expected ionizing photon luminosity of a region is highly uncertain. The tests also show that on one hand we tended to overestimate the integrated photon output of a region for young ages and low numbers of stars, and on the other hand we mostly underestimated the combined ionizing luminosity for a large stellar number and older cluster ages. We conclude that the proposed method of using stellar broadband photometry to infer the leakage of ionizing photons from H ii regions is highly uncertain and dominated by the errors of the resulting stellar spectral types. Therefore this method is not suitable. Stellar spectra are needed to reliably determine the stellar types and escape fractions. Studies to this end have been carried out for the Magellanic Clouds. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, and obtained from the Hubble Legacy Archive, which is a collaboration between the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI/NASA), the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF/ESA) and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC/NRC/CSA).Based on observations made with ESO telescopes

  19. Giant panda BAC library construction and assembly of a 650-kb contig spanning major histocompatibility complex class II region

    Pan Hui-Juan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giant panda is rare and endangered species endemic to China. The low rates of reproductive success and infectious disease resistance have severely hampered the development of captive and wild populations of the giant panda. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC plays important roles in immune response and reproductive system such as mate choice and mother-fetus bio-compatibility. It is thus essential to understand genetic details of the giant panda MHC. Construction of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library will provide a new tool for panda genome physical mapping and thus facilitate understanding of panda MHC genes. Results A giant panda BAC library consisting of 205,800 clones has been constructed. The average insert size was calculated to be 97 kb based on the examination of 174 randomly selected clones, indicating that the giant panda library contained 6.8-fold genome equivalents. Screening of the library with 16 giant panda PCR primer pairs revealed 6.4 positive clones per locus, in good agreement with an expected 6.8-fold genomic coverage of the library. Based on this BAC library, we constructed a contig map of the giant panda MHC class II region from BTNL2 to DAXX spanning about 650 kb by a three-step method: (1 PCR-based screening of the BAC library with primers from homologous MHC class II gene loci, end sequences and BAC clone shotgun sequences, (2 DNA sequencing validation of positive clones, and (3 restriction digest fingerprinting verification of inter-clone overlapping. Conclusion The identifications of genes and genomic regions of interest are greatly favored by the availability of this giant panda BAC library. The giant panda BAC library thus provides a useful platform for physical mapping, genome sequencing or complex analysis of targeted genomic regions. The 650 kb sequence-ready BAC contig map of the giant panda MHC class II region from BTNL2 to DAXX, verified by the three-step method, offers a

  20. Treatment outcome for a sample of patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion treated at a regional hospital orthodontic department.

    Burden, D J


    This retrospective study assessed the outcome of orthodontic treatment of 264 patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion (overjet greater than 6 mm). The sample comprised patients who had completed their fixed appliance orthodontic treatment at a regional hospital orthodontic unit in the Republic of Ireland. The PAR Index (Peer Assessment Rating) was used to evaluate treatment outcome using before and after treatment study casts. The results revealed that treatment for this particular type of malocclusion was highly effective with a very few patients failing to benefit from their orthodontic treatment.

  1. Characterization of the hypothalamus of Xenopus laevis during development. II. The basal regions.

    Domínguez, Laura; González, Agustín; Moreno, Nerea


    The expression patterns of conserved developmental regulatory transcription factors and neuronal markers were analyzed in the basal hypothalamus of Xenopus laevis throughout development by means of combined immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques. The connectivity of the main subdivisions was investigated by in vitro tracing techniques with dextran amines. The basal hypothalamic region is topologically rostral to the basal diencephalon and is composed of the tuberal (rostral) and mammillary (caudal) subdivisions, according to the prosomeric model. It is dorsally bounded by the optic chiasm and the alar hypothalamus, and caudally by the diencephalic prosomere p3. The tuberal hypothalamus is defined by the expression of Nkx2.1, xShh, and Isl1, and rostral and caudal portions can be distinguished by the distinct expression of Otp rostrally and Nkx2.2 caudally. In the mammillary region the xShh/Nkx2.1 combination defined the rostral mammillary area, expressing Nkx2.1, and the caudal retromammillary area, expressing xShh. The expression of xLhx1, xDll4, and Otp in the mammillary area and Isl1 in the tuberal region highlights the boundary between the two basal hypothalamic territories. Both regions are strongly connected with subpallial regions, especially those conveying olfactory/vomeronasal information, and also possess abundant intrahypothalamic connections. They show reciprocal connections with the diencephalon (mainly the thalamus), project to the midbrain tectum, and are bidirectionally related to the rhombencephalon. These results illustrate that the basal hypothalamus of anurans shares many features of specification, regionalization, and hodology with amniotes, reinforcing the idea of a basic bauplan in the organization of this prosencephalic region in all tetrapods. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Green Bank Telescope HII Region Discovery Survey II. The Source Catalog

    Anderson, L D; Balser, Dana S; Rood, Robert T


    The Green Bank Telescope HII Region Discovery Survey has doubled the number of known HII regions in the Galactic zone 343deg.\\leql\\leq67deg. with |b|\\leq1deg. We detected 603 discrete hydrogen radio recombination line (RRL) components at 9GHz (3cm) from 448 targets. Our targets were selected based on spatially coincident mid-infrared and 20cm radio continuum emission. Such sources are almost invariably HII regions; we detected hydrogen RRL emission from 95% of our target sample. The sensitivity of the Green Bank Telescope and the power of its spectrometer together made this survey possible. Here we provide a catalog of the measured properties of the RRL and continuum emission from the survey nebulae. The derived survey completeness limit, 180mJy at 9GHz, is sufficient to detect all HII regions ionized by single O-stars to a distance of 12kpc. These recently discovered nebulae share the same distribution on the sky as does the previously known census of Galactic HII regions. On average, however, the new nebula...

  3. From Ultracompact to Extended HII Regions. II: Cloud Gravity and Stellar Motion

    Franco, J; Kurtz, S; Franco, Jose; Garcia-Segura, Guillermo; Kurtz, Stan


    The dynamical evolution of HII regions with and without stellar motion in dense, structured molecular clouds is studied. Clouds are modeled in hydrostatic equilibrium, with gaussian central cores and external halos that obey r**-2 and r**-3 density power laws. The cloud gravity is included as a time-independent, external force. Stellar velocities of 0, 2, 8, and 12 km/s are considered. When stellar motion is included, stars move from the central core to the edge of the cloud, producing transitions from ultracompact to extended HII regions as the stars move into lower density regions. The opposite behavior occurs when stars move toward the cloud cores. The main conclusion of our study is that ultracompact HII regions are pressure-confined entities while they remain embedded within dense cores. The confinement comes from ram and/or ambient pressures. The survival of ultracompact regions depends on the position of the star with respect to the core, the stellar life-time, and the core crossing time. Stars with ve...


    WangJianmin; Du Pu; Ge Junqiang; Hu Chen [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Baldwin, Jack A. [Physics and Astronomy Department, 3270 Biomedical Physical Sciences Building, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Ferland, Gary J., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 177 Chemistry/Physics Building, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)


    This is the second in a series of papers discussing the process and effects of star formation in the self-gravitating disk around the supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We have previously suggested that warm skins are formed above the star-forming (SF) disk through the diffusion of warm gas driven by supernova explosions. Here we study the evolution of the warm skins when they are exposed to the powerful radiation from the inner part of the accretion disk. The skins initially are heated to the Compton temperature, forming a Compton atmosphere (CAS) whose subsequent evolution is divided into four phases. Phase I is the duration of pure accumulation supplied by the SF disk. During phase II clouds begin to form due to line cooling and sink to the SF disk. Phase III is a period of preventing clouds from sinking to the SF disk through dynamic interaction between clouds and the CAS because of the CAS overdensity driven by continuous injection of warm gas from the SF disk. Finally, phase IV is an inevitable collapse of the entire CAS through line cooling. This CAS evolution drives the episodic appearance of broad-line regions (BLRs). We follow the formation of cold clouds through the thermal instability of the CAS during phases II and III, using linear analysis. Since the clouds are produced inside the CAS, the initial spatial distribution of newly formed clouds and angular momentum naturally follow the CAS dynamics, producing a flattened disk of clouds. The number of clouds in phases II and III can be estimated, as well as the filling factor of clouds in the BLR. Since the cooling function depends on the metallicity, the metallicity gradients that originate in the SF disk give rise to different properties of clouds in different radial regions. We find from the instability analysis that clouds have column density N{sub H} {approx}< 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} in the metal-rich regions whereas they have N{sub H} {approx}> 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} in the

  5. Source Regions of the Type II Radio Burst Observed During a CME-CME Interaction on 2013 May 22

    Gopalswamy, P Mäkelä N; Akiyama, S; Krupar, V


    We report on our study of radio source regions during the type II radio burst on 2013 May 22 based on direction finding (DF) analysis of the Wind/WAVES and STEREO/WAVES (SWAVES) radio observations at decameter-hectometric (DH) wavelengths. The type II emission showed an enhancement that coincided with interaction of two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) launched in sequence along closely spaced trajectories. The triangulation of the SWAVES source directions posited the ecliptic projections of the radio sources near the line connecting the Sun and the STEREO-A spacecraft. The WAVES and SWAVES source directions revealed shifts in the latitude of the radio source indicating that the spatial location of the dominant source of the type II emission varies during the CME-CME interaction. The WAVES source directions close to 1 MHz frequencies matched the location of the leading edge of the primary CME seen in the images of the LASCO/C3 coronagraph. This correspondence of spatial locations at both wavelengths confirms tha...

  6. Kmt5a Controls Hepatic Metabolic Pathways by Facilitating RNA Pol II Release from Promoter-Proximal Regions.

    Nikolaou, Kostas C; Moulos, Panagiotis; Harokopos, Vangelis; Chalepakis, George; Talianidis, Iannis


    H4K20 monomethylation maintains genome integrity by regulating proper mitotic condensation, DNA damage response, and replication licensing. Here, we show that, in non-dividing hepatic cells, H4K20Me1 is specifically enriched in active gene bodies and dynamically regulated by the antagonistic action of Kmt5a methylase and Kdm7b demethylase. In liver-specific Kmt5a-deficient mice, reduced levels of H4K20Me1 correlated with reduced RNA Pol II release from promoter-proximal regions. Genes regulating glucose and fatty acid metabolism were most sensitive to impairment of RNA Pol II release. Downregulation of glycolytic genes resulted in an energy starvation condition partially compensated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and increased mitochondrial activity. This metabolic reprogramming generated a highly sensitized state that, upon different metabolic stress conditions, quickly aggravated into a senescent phenotype due to ROS overproduction-mediated oxidative DNA damage. The results illustrate how defects in the general process of RNA Pol II transition into a productive elongation phase can trigger specific metabolic changes and genome instability. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. SAMRAI: a novel variably polarized angle-resolved photoemission beamline in the VUV region at UVSOR-II.

    Kimura, Shin-Ichi; Ito, Takahiro; Sakai, Masahiro; Nakamura, Eiken; Kondo, Naonori; Horigome, Toshio; Hayashi, Kenji; Hosaka, Masahito; Katoh, Masahiro; Goto, Tomohiro; Ejima, Takeo; Soda, Kazuo


    A novel variably polarized angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy beamline in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) region has been installed at the UVSOR-II 750 MeV synchrotron light source. The beamline is equipped with a 3 m long APPLE-II type undulator with horizontally/vertically linear and right/left circular polarizations, a 10 m Wadsworth type monochromator covering a photon energy range of 6-43 eV, and a 200 mm radius hemispherical photoelectron analyzer with an electron lens of a +/-18 degrees acceptance angle. Due to the low emittance of the UVSOR-II storage ring, the light source is regarded as an entrance slit, and the undulator light is directly led to a grating by two plane mirrors in the monochromator while maintaining a balance between high-energy resolution and high photon flux. The energy resolving power (hnu/Deltahnu) and photon flux of the monochromator are typically 1 x 10(4) and 10(12) photons/s, respectively, with a 100 microm exit slit. The beamline is used for angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with an energy resolution of a few meV covering the UV-to-VUV energy range.

  8. Kmt5a Controls Hepatic Metabolic Pathways by Facilitating RNA Pol II Release from Promoter-Proximal Regions

    Kostas C. Nikolaou


    Full Text Available H4K20 monomethylation maintains genome integrity by regulating proper mitotic condensation, DNA damage response, and replication licensing. Here, we show that, in non-dividing hepatic cells, H4K20Me1 is specifically enriched in active gene bodies and dynamically regulated by the antagonistic action of Kmt5a methylase and Kdm7b demethylase. In liver-specific Kmt5a-deficient mice, reduced levels of H4K20Me1 correlated with reduced RNA Pol II release from promoter-proximal regions. Genes regulating glucose and fatty acid metabolism were most sensitive to impairment of RNA Pol II release. Downregulation of glycolytic genes resulted in an energy starvation condition partially compensated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation and increased mitochondrial activity. This metabolic reprogramming generated a highly sensitized state that, upon different metabolic stress conditions, quickly aggravated into a senescent phenotype due to ROS overproduction-mediated oxidative DNA damage. The results illustrate how defects in the general process of RNA Pol II transition into a productive elongation phase can trigger specific metabolic changes and genome instability.

  9. Cubic Polynomial Maps with Periodic Critical Orbit, Part II: Escape Regions

    Bonifant, Araceli; Milnor, John


    The parameter space $\\mathcal{S}_p$ for monic centered cubic polynomial maps with a marked critical point of period $p$ is a smooth affine algebraic curve whose genus increases rapidly with $p$. Each $\\mathcal{S}_p$ consists of a compact connectedness locus together with finitely many escape regions, each of which is biholomorphic to a punctured disk and is characterized by an essentially unique Puiseux series. This note will describe the topology of $\\mathcal{S}_p$, and of its smooth compactification, in terms of these escape regions. It concludes with a discussion of the real sub-locus of $\\mathcal{S}_p$.

  10. Bipolar H II regions - Morphology and star formation in their vicinity. I. G319.88+00.79 and G010.32-00.15

    Deharveng, L.; Zavagno, A.; Samal, M. R.; Anderson, L. D.; LeLeu, G.; Brevot, D.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Molinari, S.; Pestalozzi, M.; Foster, J. B.; Rathborne, J. M.; Jackson, J. M.


    Aims: Our goal is to identify bipolar H ii regions and to understand their morphology, their evolution, and the role they play in the formation of new generations of stars. Methods: We use the Spitzer-GLIMPSE, -MIPSGAL, and Herschel-Hi-GAL surveys to identify bipolar H ii regions, looking for (ionized) lobes extending perpendicular to dense filamentary structures. We search for their exciting star(s) and estimate their distances using near-IR data from the 2MASS or UKIDSS surveys. Dense molecular clumps are detected using Herschel-SPIRE data, and we estimate their temperature, column density, mass, and density. MALT90 observations allow us to ascertain their association with the central H ii region (association based on similar velocities). We identify Class 0/I young stellar objects (YSOs) using their Spitzer and Herschel-PACS emissions. These methods will be applied to the entire sample of candidate bipolar H ii regions to be presented in a forthcoming paper. Results: This paper focuses on two bipolar H ii regions, one that is especially interesting in terms of its morphology, G319.88+00.79, and one in terms of its star formation, G010.32-00.15. Their exciting clusters are identified and their photometric distances estimated to be 2.6 kpc and 1.75 kpc, respectively; thus G010.32-00.15 (known as W31 north) lies much closer than previously assumed. We suggest that these regions formed in dense and flat structures that contain filaments. They have a central ionized region and ionized lobes extending perpendicular to the parental cloud. The remains of the parental cloud appear as dense (more than 104 cm-3) and cold (14-17 K) condensations. The dust in the photodissociation regions (in regions adjacent to the ionized gas) is warm (19-25 K). Dense massive clumps are present around the central ionized region. G010.32-00.14 is especially remarkable because five clumps of several hundred solar masses surround the central H ii region; their peak column density is a few


    Santos, Fabio P.; Franco, Gabriel A. P. [Departamento de Fisica - ICEx - UFMG, Caixa Postal 702, 30.123-970 Belo Horizote - MG (Brazil); Roman-Lopes, Alexandre, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica - Universidad de La Serena, Cisternas 1200, La Serena (Chile)


    The RCW41 star-forming region is embedded within the Vela Molecular Ridge, hosting a massive stellar cluster surrounded by a conspicuous H II region. Understanding the role of interstellar magnetic fields and studying the newborn stellar population is crucial to building a consistent picture of the physical processes acting on this kind of environment. We carried out a detailed study of the interstellar polarization toward RCW41 with data from an optical and near-infrared polarimetric survey. Additionally, deep near-infrared images from the 3.5 meter New Technology Telescope were used to study the photometric properties of the embedded young stellar cluster, revealing several YSO candidates. By using a set of pre-main-sequence isochrones, a mean cluster age in the range 2.5-5.0 million years was determined, and evidence of sequential star formation was revealed. An abrupt decrease in R-band polarization degree was noticed toward the central ionized area, probably due to low grain alignment efficiency caused by the turbulent environment and/or the weak intensity of magnetic fields. The distortion of magnetic field lines exhibits dual behavior, with the mean orientation outside the area approximately following the borders of the star-forming region and directed radially toward the cluster inside the ionized area, in agreement with simulations of expanding H II regions. The spectral dependence of polarization allowed a meaningful determination of the total-to-selective extinction ratio by fittings of the Serkowski relation. Furthermore, a large rotation of polarization angle as a function of wavelength was detected toward several embedded stars.

  12. Regional Issue Identification and Assessment program (RIIA). Environmental impacts and issues of the EIA MID-MID scenario: Federal Region II (New York and New Jersey)

    Brainard, J.; Munson, J.S.


    The impacts described for 1985 and 1990 are based on a national energy projection (scenario) which assumes medium energy demand and fuel supply through 1990 but does not incorporate the policies of the National Energy Act (NEA). This scenario, referred to as the Projection Series C or the TRENDLONG MID-MID scenario, is one of six possible energy futures developed by the DOE Energy Information Administration for the Department's 1977 Annual Report to Congress. It was chosen as representative of the official DOE national energy projections when this project was initiated, prior to the passage of the National Energy Act. The environmental impacts discussed in this volume are for Federal Region II, comprising New York and New Jersey.

  13. H II Region G46.5-0.2: The Interplay between Ionizing Radiation, Molecular Gas, and Star Formation

    Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E.; Dubner, G.; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Petriella, A.; Giacani, E.; Zeng Li, Jin; Wu, Yuefang; Liu, Hongli; Huang, Ya Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju


    H ii regions are particularly interesting because they can generate dense layers of gas and dust, elongated columns or pillars of gas pointing toward the ionizing sources, and cometary globules of dense gas where triggered star formation can occur. Understanding the interplay between the ionizing radiation and the dense surrounding gas is very important to explain the origin of these peculiar structures, and hence to characterize triggered star formation. G46.5-0.2 (G46), a poorly studied galactic H ii region located at about 4 kpc, is an excellent target for performing this kind of study. Using public molecular data extracted from the Galactic Ring Survey (13CO J = 1-0) and from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope data archive (12CO, 13CO, C18O J = 3-2, HCO+, and HCN J = 4-3), and infrared data from the GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL surveys, we perform a complete study of G46, its molecular environment, and the young stellar objects (YSOs) placed around it. We found that G46, probably excited by an O7V star, is located close to the edge of the GRSMC G046.34-00.21 molecular cloud. It presents a horse-shoe morphology opening in the direction of the cloud. We observed a filamentary structure in the molecular gas likely related to G46 and not considerable molecular emission toward its open border. We found that about 10‧ to the southwest of G46 there are some pillar-like features, shining at 8 μm and pointing toward the H ii region open border. We propose that the pillar-like features were carved and sculpted by the ionizing flux from G46. We found several YSOs likely embedded in the molecular cloud grouped in two main concentrations: one, closer to the G46 open border consisting of Class II type sources, and another mostly composed of Class I type YSOs located just ahead of the pillar-like features, strongly suggesting an age gradient in the YSO distribution.


    Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E.; Dubner, G.; Petriella, A.; Giacani, E. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Yuan, Jing-Hua; Li, Jin Zeng; Liu, Hongli; Huang, Ya Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Wu, Yuefang, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China)


    H ii regions are particularly interesting because they can generate dense layers of gas and dust, elongated columns or pillars of gas pointing toward the ionizing sources, and cometary globules of dense gas where triggered star formation can occur. Understanding the interplay between the ionizing radiation and the dense surrounding gas is very important to explain the origin of these peculiar structures, and hence to characterize triggered star formation. G46.5-0.2 (G46), a poorly studied galactic H ii region located at about 4 kpc, is an excellent target for performing this kind of study. Using public molecular data extracted from the Galactic Ring Survey ({sup 13}CO J = 1–0) and from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope data archive ({sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, C{sup 18}O J = 3–2, HCO{sup +}, and HCN J = 4–3), and infrared data from the GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL surveys, we perform a complete study of G46, its molecular environment, and the young stellar objects (YSOs) placed around it. We found that G46, probably excited by an O7V star, is located close to the edge of the GRSMC G046.34-00.21 molecular cloud. It presents a horse-shoe morphology opening in the direction of the cloud. We observed a filamentary structure in the molecular gas likely related to G46 and not considerable molecular emission toward its open border. We found that about 10′ to the southwest of G46 there are some pillar-like features, shining at 8 μm and pointing toward the H ii region open border. We propose that the pillar-like features were carved and sculpted by the ionizing flux from G46. We found several YSOs likely embedded in the molecular cloud grouped in two main concentrations: one, closer to the G46 open border consisting of Class II type sources, and another mostly composed of Class I type YSOs located just ahead of the pillar-like features, strongly suggesting an age gradient in the YSO distribution.

  15. A multiwavelength study of the star forming H II region Sh2-82

    Wang, Nai-Ping Yu Jun-Jie


    Based on a multiwavelength study, the interstellar medium and young stellar objects (YSOs) around the HII region Sh2-82 have been analyzed. Two molecular clumps were found from the archival data of the Galactic Ring Survey, and using the Two Micron All-Sky Survey catalog, we found two corresponding young clusters embedded in the molecular clumps. The very good relations between CO emission, infrared shells and YSOs suggest that it is probably a triggered star formation region from the expansion of Sh2-82. We further used the data from the Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire from Spitzer to study the YSOs within the two clumps, confirming star formation in this region. By spectral energy distribution fits to each YSO candidate with infrared excess, we derived the slope of the initial mass function. Finally, comparing the HII region's dynamical age and the fragmentation time of the molecular shell, we discard the "collect and collapse" process as being the triggering mechanism for YSO forma...

  16. Effects of the stellar component on derived physical parameters of galactic H II regions

    Víctor Robledo Rella


    Full Text Available Presentamos resultados de espectroscop a espacialmente integrada de rendija larga en las regiones centrales de Carina, M8 y M20. Obtuvimos dos tipos de espectros: :neb (nebular y :all (nebular m as estelar. Las abundancias :neb de (O/H son menores ( 0:10

  17. Analysis of mtDNA hypervariable region II for increasing the ...



    Mar 11, 2015 ... genome located within the mitochondria in the cytoplasm of the cell. .... noncoding region of mtDNA of human populations from. Iraq. The study ..... from the Institution of medico-legal for all time put in to discuss the project and ...

  18. Outflow and Infall in a Sample of Massive Star Forming Regions II: Large Scale Kinematics

    Klaassen, P D


    We present maps of seven sources selected from Klaassen & Wilson (2007a) in SiO (J=8-7) and HCO$^+$ and H$^{13}$CO$^+$ (J=4-3) which were obtained using HARP-B on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. We find that four out of our seven sources have infall signatures based on their HCO$^+$ emission profiles. From our maps, we have determined the extent of both the outflowing and infalling regions towards these sources, and constrained the amount of infalling and outflowing mass as well as the mass infall rate for each massive star forming region. From our SiO observations, we estimate the source luminosity required to shock the surroundings of these massive star forming regions and find luminosities similar to those of the HII regions themselves. We find that the ratio between our infall and outflow masses is less than one, suggesting high mass entrainment rates in the molecular outflows. We also find that the large scale molecular infall rate towards G10.6-0.4 is comparable to the small scale molecular infal...




    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to evaluate dermatoglyphics as an effective and economical screening method for diabetes mellitus type II patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Dermatoglyphic patterns were recorded by Cummins ink method. Dermatoglyphic patterns of both hands of 200 persons, i.e., 100 each of patients and normal persons were recorded. Each group was divided into male and female group to avoid any variations. Controls were carefully selected to be free from any disease as disease could influence the dermatoglyphic pattern. OBSERVATIONS: Observations were tabulated to find out distribution of finger-tip patterns, TFRC (Total finger ridge countand AFRC (Absolute finger ridge count values, Various angles in palm i.e. atd angle, tad angle, tda angle, deviation of t, C-Line patterns, t’ and t” in both the males and females. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Statistical difference in fingertip patterns distribution, TFRC and AFRC values, atd angle, tad angle, tda angle were found. Dermot glyphic patterns observed in study of Type II diabetic patients may prove to be a useful, simple and economical screening method for early diagnosis of individuals in poor socio economic region with dense population like Udaipur region. Such individuals may be subjected later for further specific elaborative investigation to confirm the diagnosis.

  20. Operational forecasting of daily temperatures in the Valencia Region. Part II: minimum temperatures in winter.

    Gómez, I.; Estrela, M.


    Extreme temperature events have a great impact on human society. Knowledge of minimum temperatures during winter is very useful for both the general public and organisations whose workers have to operate in the open, e.g. railways, roadways, tourism, etc. Moreover, winter minimum temperatures are considered a parameter of interest and concern since persistent cold-waves can affect areas as diverse as public health, energy consumption, etc. Thus, an accurate forecasting of these temperatures could help to predict cold-wave conditions and permit the implementation of strategies aimed at minimizing the negative effects that low temperatures have on human health. The aim of this work is to evaluate the skill of the RAMS model in determining daily minimum temperatures during winter over the Valencia Region. For this, we have used the real-time configuration of this model currently running at the CEAM Foundation. To carry out the model verification process, we have analysed not only the global behaviour of the model for the whole Valencia Region, but also its behaviour for the individual stations distributed within this area. The study has been performed for the winter forecast period from 1 December 2007 - 31 March 2008. The results obtained are encouraging and indicate a good agreement between the observed and simulated minimum temperatures. Moreover, the model captures quite well the temperatures in the extreme cold episodes. Acknowledgement. This work was supported by "GRACCIE" (CSD2007-00067, Programa Consolider-Ingenio 2010), by the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, contract number CGL2005-03386/CLI, and by the Regional Government of Valencia Conselleria de Sanitat, contract "Simulación de las olas de calor e invasiones de frío y su regionalización en la Comunidad Valenciana" ("Heat wave and cold invasion simulation and their regionalization at Valencia Region"). The CEAM Foundation is supported by the Generalitat Valenciana and BANCAIXA (Valencia

  1. Solar Active Region Coronal Jets. II. Triggering and Evolution of Violent Jets

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Martinez, Francisco


    We study a series of X-ray-bright, rapidly evolving active region coronal jets outside the leading sunspot of AR 12259, using Hinode/X-ray telescope, Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), and Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) data. The detailed evolution of such rapidly evolving “violent” jets remained a mystery after our previous investigation of active region jets. The jets we investigate here erupt from three localized subregions, each containing a rapidly evolving (positive) minority-polarity magnetic-flux patch bathed in a (majority) negative-polarity magnetic-flux background. At least several of the jets begin with eruptions of what appear to be thin (thickness ≲ 2\\prime\\prime ) miniature-filament (minifilament) “strands” from a magnetic neutral line where magnetic flux cancelation is ongoing, consistent with the magnetic configuration presented for coronal-hole jets in Sterling et al. (2016). Some jets strands are difficult/impossible to detect, perhaps due to, e.g., their thinness, obscuration by surrounding bright or dark features, or the absence of erupting cool-material minifilaments in those jets. Tracing in detail the flux evolution in one of the subregions, we find bursts of strong jetting occurring only during times of strong flux cancelation. Averaged over seven jetting episodes, the cancelation rate was ˜ 1.5× {10}19 Mx hr-1. An average flux of ˜ 5× {10}18 Mx canceled prior to each episode, arguably building up ˜1028-1029 erg of free magnetic energy per jet. From these and previous observations, we infer that flux cancelation is the fundamental process responsible for the pre-eruption build up and triggering of at least many jets in active regions, quiet regions, and coronal holes.

  2. Star Formation in Self-gravitating Disks in Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Episodic Formation of Broad-line Regions

    Wang, Jian-Min; Du, Pu; Baldwin, Jack A.; Ge, Jun-Qiang; Hu, Chen; Ferland, Gary J.


    This is the second in a series of papers discussing the process and effects of star formation in the self-gravitating disk around the supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We have previously suggested that warm skins are formed above the star-forming (SF) disk through the diffusion of warm gas driven by supernova explosions. Here we study the evolution of the warm skins when they are exposed to the powerful radiation from the inner part of the accretion disk. The skins initially are heated to the Compton temperature, forming a Compton atmosphere (CAS) whose subsequent evolution is divided into four phases. Phase I is the duration of pure accumulation supplied by the SF disk. During phase II clouds begin to form due to line cooling and sink to the SF disk. Phase III is a period of preventing clouds from sinking to the SF disk through dynamic interaction between clouds and the CAS because of the CAS overdensity driven by continuous injection of warm gas from the SF disk. Finally, phase IV is an inevitable collapse of the entire CAS through line cooling. This CAS evolution drives the episodic appearance of broad-line regions (BLRs). We follow the formation of cold clouds through the thermal instability of the CAS during phases II and III, using linear analysis. Since the clouds are produced inside the CAS, the initial spatial distribution of newly formed clouds and angular momentum naturally follow the CAS dynamics, producing a flattened disk of clouds. The number of clouds in phases II and III can be estimated, as well as the filling factor of clouds in the BLR. Since the cooling function depends on the metallicity, the metallicity gradients that originate in the SF disk give rise to different properties of clouds in different radial regions. We find from the instability analysis that clouds have column density N H ~ 1022 cm-2 in the metal-poor regions. The metal-rich clouds compose the high-ionization line regions whereas the metal-poor clouds

  3. A Tale of Two Emergences: Sunrise II Observations of Emergence Sites in a Solar Active Region

    Centeno, Rebecca; Iniesta, Jose Carlos Del Toro; Solanki, Sami K; Barthol, Peter; Gandorfer, Achim; Gizon, Laurent; Hirzberger, Johann; Riethmuller, Tino L; van Noort, Michiel; Suarez, David Orozco; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Pillet, Valentin Martinez; Knolker, Michael


    In June 2013, the two scientific instruments onboard the second Sunrise mission witnessed, in detail, a small-scale magnetic flux emergence event as part of the birth of an active region. The Imaging Magnetograph Experiment (IMaX) recorded two small (~5 arcsec) emerging flux patches in the polarized filtergrams of a photospheric Fe I spectral line. Meanwhile, the Sunrise Filter Imager (SuFI) captured the highly dynamic chromospheric response to the magnetic fields pushing their way through the lower solar atmosphere. The serendipitous capture of this event offers a closer look at the inner workings of active region emergence sites. In particular, it reveals in meticulous detail how the rising magnetic fields interact with the granulation as they push through the Sun's surface, dragging photospheric plasma in their upward travel. The plasma that is burdening the rising field slides along the field lines, creating fast downflowing channels at the footpoints. The weight of this material anchors this field to the...

  4. ICT in Universities of the Western Himalayan Region of India II: A Comparative SWOT Analysis

    Sharma, Dhirendra


    This study presents a comparative SWOT analysis to comprehend the pattern of development of ICT within six universities of western Himalayan region of India. With the objective of achieving quality and excellence in higher education system in the region, this study provides a basis to decision makers to exploit opportunities and minimize the external threats. The SWOT analysis of different universities, placed under three categories, has been undertaken within the four-tier framework used earlier by the authors. Guided by the initiatives of National Mission on Education through ICT (NMEICT) for SWOT analysis, findings of this paper reveal, relative consistency of these three categories of universities, with the earlier study. A few suggestions, as opportunities, with an emphasis on problem solving orientation in higher education, have been made to strengthen the leadership of universities in the field of ICT.

  5. Optical spectrophotometry of the nuclear region of M51. II - Further evidence for nuclear activity

    Rose, J. A.; Cecil, G.


    Spectrophotometric observations of the spiral galaxy M51 conducted by Rose and Searle (1982) have revealed that the ionized gas within the central region exhibits a peculiar emission-line spectrum and is undergoing large chaotic motions. These phenomena appear to result from low-level nuclear activity qualitatively similar to that seen in Seyfert galaxy nuclei and QSOs. It has been proposed that the gas is photoionized by a central nonstellar ultraviolet continuum. The present study is concerned with a further investigation of the ionization source in the nuclear region of M51, taking into account high signal-to-noise spectra obtained with an intensified Reticon detector on the 2.24 m telescope at the Mauna Kea Observatory. It is found that photoionization by a central nonstellar ionizing continuum source provides the most consistent explanation for the observed anomalous emission-line spectrum.

  6. Transition Region and Chromospheric Signatures of Impulsive Heating Events. II. Modeling

    Reep, Jeffrey W; Crump, Nicholas A; Simoes, Paulo J A


    Results from the Solar Maximum Mission showed a close connection between the hard X-ray and transition region emission in solar flares. Analogously, the modern combination of RHESSI and IRIS data can inform the details of heating processes in ways never before possible. We study a small event that was observed with RHESSI, IRIS, SDO, and Hinode, allowing us to strongly constrain the heating and hydrodynamical properties of the flare, with detailed observations presented in a previous paper. Long duration red-shifts of transition region lines observed in this event, as well as many other events, are fundamentally incompatible with chromospheric condensation on a single loop. We combine RHESSI and IRIS data to measure the energy partition among the many magnetic strands that comprise the flare. Using that observationally determined energy partition, we show that a proper multi-threaded model can reproduce these red-shifts in magnitude, duration, and line intensity, while simultaneously being well constrained by...

  7. Millimetre spectral line mapping observations towards four massive star-forming H II regions

    Li, Shanghuo; Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Fang, Min; Li, Juan; Zhang, Jiangshui; Fan, Junhui; Zhu, Qingfeng; Li, Fei


    We present spectral line mapping observations towards four massive star-forming regions - Cepheus A, DR21S, S76E and G34.26+0.15 - with the IRAM 30-m telescope at the 2 and 3 mm bands. In total, 396 spectral lines from 51 molecules, one helium recombination line, 10 hydrogen recombination lines and 16 unidentified lines were detected in these four sources. An emission line of nitrosyl cyanide (ONCN, 140, 14-130, 13) was detected in G34.26+0.15, as the first detection in massive star-forming regions. We found that c-C3H2 and NH2D show enhancement in shocked regions, as suggested by the evidence of SiO and/or SO emission. The column density and rotational temperature of CH3CN were estimated with the rotational diagram method for all four sources. Isotope abundance ratios of 12C/13C were derived using HC3N and its 13C isotopologue, which were around 40 in all four massive star-forming regions and slightly lower than the local interstellar value (∼65). The 14N/15N and 16O/18O abundance ratios in these sources were also derived using the double isotopic method, which were slightly lower than in the local interstellar medium. Except for Cep A, the 33S/34S ratios in the other three targets were derived, which were similar to that in the local interstellar medium. The column density ratios of N(DCN)/N(HCN) and N(DCO+)/N(HCO+) in these sources were more than two orders of magnitude higher than the elemental [D]/[H] ratio, which is 1.5 × 10-5. Our results show that the later stage sources, G34.26+0.15 in particular, present more molecular species than earlier stage sources. Evidence of shock activity is seen in all stages studied.

  8. A bright-rimmed cloud sculpted by the H ii region Sh2-48

    Ortega, M E; Giacani, E; Rubio, M; Dubner, G


    To characterize a bright-rimmed cloud embedded in the HII region Sh2-48 searching for evidence of triggered star formation. We carried out observations towards a region of 2'x2' centered at RA=18h 22m 11.39s, dec.=-14deg 35m 24.81s (J2000) using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE; Chile) in the 12CO J=3-2,13CO J=3-2, HCO+ J=4-3, and CS J=7-6 lines with an angular resolution of about 22". We also present radio continuum observations at 5 GHz carried out with the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA; EEUU) interferometer with a synthetized beam of 7"x5". The analysis of our molecular observations reveals the presence of a relatively dense clump with n(H_2)~3x10^3 cm^-3, located in projection onto the interior of the HII region Sh2-48. The emission distribution of the four observed molecular transitions has, at VLSR~38 kms^-1, morphological anti-correlation with the bright-rimmed cloud as seen in the optical emission. From the new radio continuum observations we identify a thin layer of ionized gas lo...

  9. The Gould's Belt Very Large Array Survey II: The Serpens region

    Ortíz-León, Gisela N; Mioduszewski, Amy J; Dzib, Sergio A; Rodríguez, Luis F; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana; Torres, Rosa M; Boden, Andrew; Hartmann, Lee W; Evans, Neal J; Briceño, Cesar; Tobin, John J; Kounkel, Marina A; González-Lópezlira, Rosa A


    We present deep ($\\sim 17~\\mu$Jy) radio continuum observations of the Serpens molecular cloud, the Serpens south cluster, and the W40 region obtained using the Very Large Array in its A configuration. We detect a total of 146 sources, 29 of which are young stellar objects (YSOs), 2 are BV stars and 5 more are associated with phenomena related to YSOs. Based on their radio variability and spectral index, we propose that about 16 of the remaining 110 unclassified sources are also YSOs. For approximately 65% of the known YSOs detected here as radio sources, the emission is most likely non-thermal, and related to stellar coronal activity. As also recently observed in Ophiuchus, our sample of YSOs with X-ray counterparts lies below the fiducial G\\"udel & Benz relation. Finally, we analyze the proper motions of 9 sources in the W40 region. This allows us to better constrain the membership of the radio sources in the region.


    Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Loinard, Laurent; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L.; González-Lópezlira, Rosa A. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Morelia 58089 (Mexico); Mioduszewski, Amy J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Domenici Science Operations Center, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dzib, Sergio A. [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Torres, Rosa M. [Instituto de Astronomía y Meteorología, Universidad de Guadalajara, Av. Vallarta 2602, Col. Arcos Vallarta, 44130, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México (Mexico); Boden, Andrew F. [Division of Physics, Math and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hartmann, Lee; Kounkel, Marina A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); II, Neal J. Evans [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Briceño, Cesar [Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Tobin, John, E-mail: [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)


    We present deep (∼17 μJy) radio continuum observations of the Serpens molecular cloud, the Serpens south cluster, and the W40 region obtained using the Very Large Array in its A configuration. We detect a total of 146 sources, 29 of which are young stellar objects (YSOs), 2 of which are BV stars, and 5 more of which are associated with phenomena related to YSOs. Based on their radio variability and spectral index, we propose that about 16 of the remaining 110 unclassified sources are also YSOs. For approximately 65% of the known YSOs detected here as radio sources, the emission is most likely non-thermal and related to stellar coronal activity. As also recently observed in Ophiuchus, our sample of YSOs with X-ray counterparts lies below the fiducial Güdel and Benz relation. Finally, we analyze the proper motions of nine sources in the W40 region. This allows us to better constrain the membership of the radio sources in the region.

  11. In-situ measurements of seismic velocities in the San Francisco Bay region...part II

    Gibbs, James F.; Fumal, Thomas E.; Borcherdt, Roger D.


    Seismic wave velocities (compressional and shear) are important parameters for determining the seismic response characteristics of various geologic units when subjected to strong earthquake ground shaking. Seismic velocities of various units often show a strong correlation with the amounts of damage following large earthquakes and have been used as a basis for certain types of seismic zonation studies. Currently a program is in progress to measure seismic velocities in the San Francisco Bay region at an estimated 150 sites. At each site seismic travel times are measured in drill holes, normally at 2.5-m intervals to a depth of 30 m. Geologic logs are determined from drill hole cuttings, undisturbed samples, and penetrometer samples. The data provide a detailed comparison of geologic and seismic characteristics and provide parameters for estimating strong earthquake ground motions quantitatively at each of the site. A major emphasis of this program is to obtain a detailed comparison of geologic and seismic data on a regional scale for use in seismic zonation. The broad data base available in the San Francisco Bay region suggests using the area as a pilot area for the development of general techniques applicable to other areas.

  12. Encircling endocardial ventriculotomy for refractory ischemic ventricular tachycardia. II. Effects on regional myocardial blood flow.

    Ungerleider, R M; Holman, W L; Stanley, T E; Lofland, G K; Williams, J M; Smith, P K; Quick, G; Cox, J L


    Previous experimental studies of the encircling endocardial ventriculotomy (EEV) have shown a significant alteration of normal local electrical activity within the encompassed region. Although this procedure may result in isolation of ventricular arrhythmias, the data are more suggestive of a less specific effect on regional myocardial blood flow. This study examines the effect of EEV on local myocardial blood flow using the radioactive tracer microsphere technique in 10 dogs. Flows were determined before and after an EEV with the animals on cardiopulmonary bypass at controlled perfusion pressures, temperatures, and heart rates. Blood flow was studied at subepicardial and subendocardial levels inside, outside, and bordering the EEV. Prior to performance of the EEV, subepicardial blood flow in the left ventricular myocardium ranged from 0.81 +/- 0.07 to 0.89 +/- 0.08 ml/gm/min. Subendocardial flows ranged from 0.80 +/- 0.07 to 0.91 +/- 0.09 ml/gm/min. There was no significant difference between any of the flows across each respective layer of myocardium. Following the EEV procedure, blood flow to the subendocardium within the EEV fell to 0.33 +/- 0.07 ml/gm/min, while flow to the subendocardium of the normal regions of the same hearts actually increased to 1.21 +/- 0.23 ml/gm/min. Similar changes occurred at subepicardial levels, with flow at the center of the EEV falling to 0.66 +/- 0.10 ml/gm/min despite a tendency for normal subepicardial flow to increase to 1.78 +/- 0.24 ml/gm/min. Superimposed ischemia to the EEV-encompassed myocardium, created by occlusion of the distal left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), accentuated this abnormality by demonstrating that the region continues to receive some flow from epicardially based coronary vessels. The data from this study show that the EEV decreased regional blood flow to the encompassed myocardium and suggests that myocardial ischemia may be responsible for ablation of the delicate re-entrant mechanisms

  13. Theoretical Insight of Physical Adsorption for a Single Component Adsorbent + Adsorbate System: II. The Henry Region

    Chakraborty, Anutosh


    The Henry coefficients of a single component adsorbent + adsorbate system are calculated from experimentally measured adsorption isotherm data, from which the heat of adsorption at zero coverage is evaluated. The first part of the papers relates to the development of thermodynamic property surfaces for a single-component adsorbent + adsorbate system1 (Chakraborty, A.; Saha, B. B.; Ng, K. C.; Koyama, S.; Srinivasan, K. Langmuir 2009, 25, 2204). A thermodynamic framework is presented to capture the relationship between the specific surface area (Ai) and the energy factor, and the surface structural and the surface energy heterogeneity distribution factors are analyzed. Using the outlined approach, the maximum possible amount of adsorbate uptake has been evaluated and compared with experimental data. It is found that the adsorbents with higher specific surface areas tend to possess lower heat of adsorption (ΔH°) at the Henry regime. In this paper, we have established the definitive relation between Ai and ΔH° for (i) carbonaceous materials, metal organic frameworks (MOFs), carbon nanotubes, zeolites + hydrogen, and (ii) activated carbons + methane systems. The proposed theoretical framework of At and AH0 provides valuable guides for researchers in developing advanced porous adsorbents for methane and hydrogen uptake. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  14. Discovery of periodic class II methanol masers associated with G339.986-0.425 region

    Maswanganye, J P; Goedhart, S; Gaylard, M J


    Ten new class II methanol masers from the 6.7-GHz Methanol Multibeam survey catalogues III and IV were selected for a monitoring programme at both 6.7 and 12.2 GHz with the 26m Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) radio telescope for two years and nine months, from August 2012 to May 2015. In the sample, only masers associated with G339.986-0.425 were found to show periodic variability at both 6.7 and 12.2 GHz. The existence of periodic variation was tested with four independent methods. The analytical method gave the best estimation of the period, which was 246 $\\pm$ 1 days. The time series of G339.986-0.425 show strong correlations across velocity channels and between the 6.7 and 12.2 GHz masers. The time delay was also measured across channels and shows structure across the spectrum which is continuous between different maser components.

  15. Vacuum ultraviolet of hydrogenated amorphous carbons. II. Small hydrocarbons production in Photon Dominated Regions

    Alata, I.; Jallat, A.; Gavilan, L.; Chabot, M.; Cruz-Diaz, G. A.; Munoz Caro, G. M.; Béroff, K.; Dartois, E.


    Context. Hydrogenated amorphous carbons (a-C:H) are a major component of the carbonaceous solids present in the interstellar medium. The production and existence of these grains is connected in particular with the balance between their photolysis, radiolysis, and hydrogenation. During grain processing, H2 and other small organic molecules, radicals, and fragments are released into the gas phase. Aims: We perform photolytic experiments on laboratory produced interstellar a-C:H analogues to monitor and quantify the release of species and compare to relevant observations in the interstellar medium. Methods: Hydrogenated amorphous carbon analogues at low temperature are exposed to ultraviolet (UV) photons, under ultra-high vacuum conditions. The species produced are monitored using mass spectrometry and post irradiation temperature-programmed desorption. Additional experiments are performed using deuterated analogues and the species produced are unambiguously separated from background contributions. We implement the laboratory measured yields for the released species in a time dependent model to investigate the effect of the UV photon irradiation of hydrogenated amorphous carbons in a photon dominated region, and estimate the associated time scale. Results: The UV photolysis of hydrogenated amorphous carbons leads to the production of H2 molecules and small hydrocarbons. The model shows that the photolytic evolution of a-C:Hs in photon dominated regions, such as the Horsehead Nebula, can raise the abundance of carbonaceous molecules by several orders of magnitude at intermediate visual extinctions, i.e., after the C+ maximum and before the dense cloud conditions prevail where models generally show a minimum abundance for such carbonaceous species. The injection time peak ranges from a thousand to ten thousand years in the models, considering only the destruction of such grains and no re-hydrogenation. This time scale is consistent with the estimated advection front of

  16. Arecibo radar imagery of Mars: II. Chryse-Xanthe, polar caps, and other regions

    Harmon, John K.; Nolan, Michael C.


    We conclude our radar imaging survey of Mars, which maps spatial variations in depolarized radar reflectivity using Arecibo S-band (λ12.6 cm) observations from 2005-2012. Whereas our earlier paper (Harmon et al., 2012, Arecibo radar imagery of Mars: the major volcanic provinces. Icarus 220, 990-1030) covered the volcanic regions of Tharsis, Elysium, and Amazonis, this paper includes non-volcanic regions where hydrologic and impact processes can be the dominant resurfacing agents affecting radar backscatter. Many of the more prominent and interesting radar-bright features outside the major volcanic provinces are located in and around Chryse Planitia and Xanthe Terra. These features are identified with: a basin in northeast Lunae Planum containing the combined deposits from Maja Vallis and Ganges Catena outflows; channel outwash plains in western and southern Chryse basin; plateaus bordering chasma/chaos zones, where surface modification may have resulted from hydrologic action associated with incipient chaos formation; and some bright-ejecta craters in Chryse basin, of a type otherwise rare on Mars. Dark-halo craters have also been identified in Chryse and elsewhere that are similar to those seen in the volcanic provinces. Although the cratered highlands are relatively radar-bland, they do exhibit some bright depolarized features; these include eroded crater rims, several unusual ejecta flows and impact melts, and terrain-softened plains. The rims of large impact basins (Hellas, Argyre, Isidis) show a variety of radar-bright features provisionally identified with massif slopes, erosion sediments, eroded pyroclastics, impact melts, and glacial deposits. The interiors of these basins are largely radar-dark, which is consistent with coverage by rock-free sediments. Tempe Terra and Acheron Fossae show bright features possibly associated with rift volcanism or eroded tectonic structures, and northwest Tempe Terra shows one very bright feature associated with glacial or

  17. The Nuclear Region of Low Luminosity Flat Radio Spectrum Sources. II. Emission-Line Spectra

    Gonçalves, A C


    We report on the spectroscopic study of 19 low luminosity Flat Radio Spectrum (LL FRS) sources selected from Marcha's et al. (1996) 200 mJy sample. In the optical, these objects are mainly dominated by the host galaxy starlight. After correcting the data for this effect, we obtain a new set of spectra clearly displaying weak emission lines; such features carry valuable information concerning the excitation mechanisms at work in the nuclear regions of LL FRS sources. We have used a special routine to model the spectra and assess the intensities and velocities of the emission lines; we have analyzed the results in terms of diagnostic diagrams. Our analysis shows that 79% of the studied objects harbour a Low Ionization Nuclear Emission-line Region (or LINER) whose contribution was swamped by the host galaxy starlight. The remaining objects display a higher ionization spectrum, more typical of Seyferts; due to the poor quality of the spectra, it was not possible to identify any possible large Balmer components. T...

  18. XMM-Newton observations of the Galactic Centre Region - II: The soft thermal emission

    Heard, V


    We have extended our earlier study (Heard & Warwick 2013, Paper I) of the X-ray emission emanating from the central 100 pc x 100 pc region of our Galaxy to an investigation of several features prominent in the soft X-ray (2-4.5 keV) band. We focus on three specific structures: a putative bipolar outflow from the vicinity of Sgr A*; a high surface brightness region located roughly 12 arcmin to the north-east of Sgr A*; and a lower surface-brightness extended loop feature seen to the south of Sgr A*. We show that all three structures are thermal in nature and have similar temperatures (kT ~ 1 keV). The inferred X-ray luminosities lie in the range (2 - 10) x 10^34 erg s^-1. In the case of the bipolar feature we suggest that the hot plasma is produced by the shock-heating of the winds from massive stars within the Central Cluster, possibly collimated by the Circumnuclear Disc. Alternatively the outflow may be driven by outbursts on Sgr A*, which follow tidal disruption events occurring at a rate of roughly 1 ...

  19. Physical Conditions in the Narrow-Line Region of Markarian 3. II. Photoionization Modeling Results

    Collins, Nicholas R; Crenshaw, D Michael; Bruhweiler, Frederick C; Mélendez, Marcio


    We have examined the physical conditions in the narrow-line region (NLR) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy Markarian 3, using long-slit spectra obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and photoionization models. We find three components of photoionized gas in the NLR. Two of these components, characterized by emission lines such as [NeV] 3426 and [OIII] 5007, lie within the envelope of the bi-conical region described in our previous kinematic study. A component of lower ionization gas, in which lines such as [OII] 3727 arise, is found to lie outside the bi-cone. Each of these components is irradiated by a power-law continuum which is attenuated by intervening gas, presumably closer to the central source. The radiation incident upon the low ionization gas, external to the bi-cone, is much more heavily absorbed. These absorbers are similar to the intrinsic UV and X-ray absorbers detected in many Seyfert 1 galaxies, which suggests that the collimation of the ionizing radiation occurs ...

  20. A Tale of Two Emergences: Sunrise II Observations of Emergence Sites in a Solar Active Region

    Centeno, R.; Blanco Rodríguez, J.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J.; Riethmüller, T. L.; van Noort, M.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Berkefeld, T.; Schmidt, W.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Knölker, M.


    In 2013 June, the two scientific instruments on board the second Sunrise mission witnessed, in detail, a small-scale magnetic flux emergence event as part of the birth of an active region. The Imaging Magnetograph Experiment (IMaX) recorded two small (∼ 5\\prime\\prime ) emerging flux patches in the polarized filtergrams of a photospheric Fe i spectral line. Meanwhile, the Sunrise Filter Imager (SuFI) captured the highly dynamic chromospheric response to the magnetic fields pushing their way through the lower solar atmosphere. The serendipitous capture of this event offers a closer look at the inner workings of active region emergence sites. In particular, it reveals in meticulous detail how the rising magnetic fields interact with the granulation as they push through the Sun’s surface, dragging photospheric plasma in their upward travel. The plasma that is burdening the rising field slides along the field lines, creating fast downflowing channels at the footpoints. The weight of this material anchors this field to the surface at semi-regular spatial intervals, shaping it in an undulatory fashion. Finally, magnetic reconnection enables the field to release itself from its photospheric anchors, allowing it to continue its voyage up to higher layers. This process releases energy that lights up the arch-filament systems and heats the surrounding chromosphere.

  1. Radiation pressure confinement - II. Application to the broad line region in active galactic nuclei

    Baskin, Alexei; Stern, Jonathan


    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are characterized by broad emission lines. The lines show similar properties from the lowest luminosity (10^39 erg/s) to the highest luminosity (10^47 erg/s) AGN. What produces this similarity over such a vast range of 10^8 in luminosity? Photoionization is inevitably associated with momentum transfer to the photoionized gas. Yet, most of the photoionized gas in the Broad Line Region (BLR) follows Keplerian orbits, which suggests that the BLR originates from gas clouds with a large enough column for gravity to dominate. The photoionized surface layer of these clouds must develop a pressure gradient which balances the incident radiation force. We present solutions for the structure of such a hydrostatic photoionized gas layer in the BLR. The gas is stratified, with a low-density highly-ionized surface layer, set by the ambient pressure, a density rise inwards, and a uniform density cooler inner region, where the gas pressure, 2n_ekT, reaches the incident radiation pressure n_gamma,...

  2. VLBA Survey of OH Masers in Star-Forming Regions II: Satellite Lines

    Ruiz-Velasco, A E; Migenes, V; Wiggins, B K


    Using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) we performed a high resolution OH maser survey in Galactic star-forming regions (SFRs). We observed all the ground state spectral lines: the main lines at 1665 and 1667 MHz and the satellite lines at 1612 and 1720 MHz. Due to the exceptionality of finding satellite lines in SFRs, we will focus our discussion on those lines. In our sample of 41 OH maser sources, five (12%) showed the 1612 MHz line and ten (24%) showed the 1720 MHz line, with only one source showing both lines. We find that 1720 MHz emission is correlated with the presence of HII regions, suggesting that this emission could be used to diagnose or trace high-mass star formation. We include an analysis of the possible mechanisms that could be causing this correlation as well as assessing the possible relationships between lines in our sample. In particular, the presence of magnetic fields seems to play an important role, as we found Zeeman splitting in four of our sources (W75 N, W3(OH), W51 and NGC 7538)...

  3. The young stellar cluster [DBS2003] 157 associated with the H II region GAL 331.31-00.34

    Pinheiro, M. C.; Abraham, Z.; Copetti, M. V. F.; Ortiz, R.; Falceta-Gonçalves, D. A.; Roman-Lopes, A.


    We report a study of the stellar content of the near-infrared (NIR) cluster [DBS2003] 157 embedded in the extended H II region GAL 331.31-00.34, which is associated with the IRAS source 16085-5138. JHK photometry was carried out in order to identify potential ionizing candidates, and the follow-up NIR spectroscopy allowed the spectral classification of some sources, including two O-type stars. A combination of NIR photometry and spectroscopy data was used to obtain the distance of these two stars, with the method of spectroscopic parallax: IRS 298 (O6 V, 3.35 ± 0.61 kpc) and IRS 339 (O9 V, 3.24 ± 0.56 kpc). Adopting the average distance of 3.29 ± 0.58 kpc and comparing the Lyman continuum luminosity of these stars with that required to account for the radio continuum flux of the H II region, we conclude that these two stars are the ionizing sources of GAL 331.31-00.34. Young stellar objects (YSOs) were searched by using our NIR photometry and mid-infrared (MIR) data from the Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) survey. The analysis of NIR and MIR colour-colour diagrams resulted in 47 YSO candidates. The GLIMPSE counterpart of IRAS 16085-5138, which presents IRAS colour indices compatible with an ultracompact H II region, has been identified. The analysis of its spectral energy distribution between 2 and ?m revealed that this source shows a spectral index α= 3.6 between 2 and ?m, which is typical of a YSO immersed in a protostellar envelope. Lower limits to the bolometric luminosity and the mass of the embedded protostar have been estimated as L= 7.7 × 103 L⊙ and M= 10 M⊙, respectively, which correspond to a B0-B1 V zero-age main sequence star. Based on observations carried at the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research (SOAR) observatory, a joint project of the Ministério de Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (MCTI) of the República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the

  4. Uniform infall towards the cometary H{\\sc ii} region in G34.26+0.15 complex?

    Liu, Tie; Zhang, Huawei


    Gas accretion is a key process in star formation. However, the gas infall detections in high-mass star forming regions with high-spatial resolution observations are rare. Here we report the detection of gas infall towards a cometary ultracompact H{\\sc ii} region "C" in G34.26+0.15 complex. The hot core associated with "C" has a mass of $\\sim$76 M$_{\\sun}$ and a volume density of 1.1$\\times 10^{8}$ cm$^{-3}$. The HCN (3--2), HCO$^{+}$ (1--0) lines observed by single-dishes and the CN (2--1) lines observed by the SMA show redshifted absorption features, indicating gas infall. We found a linear relationship between the line width and optical depth of the CN (2--1) lines. Those transitions with larger optical depth and line width have larger absorption area. However, the infall velocities measured from different lines seem to be constant, indicating the gas infall is uniform. We also investigated the evolution of gas infall in high-mass star forming regions. At stages prior to hot core phase, the typical infall v...

  5. XMM-Newton observations of the Galactic Centre Region - II. The soft-thermal emission

    Heard, V.; Warwick, R. S.


    We have extended our earlier study of the X-ray emission emanating from the central 100 pc × 100 pc region of our Galaxy to an investigation of several features prominent in the soft X-ray (2-4.5 keV) band. We focus on three specific structures: a putative bipolar outflow from the vicinity of Sgr A*; a high surface brightness region located roughly 12 arcmin (25 pc) to the north-east of Sgr A* and a lower surface brightness extended loop feature seen to the south of Sgr A*. We show, unequivocally, that all three structures are thermal in nature and have similar temperatures (kT ≈ 1 keV). The inferred X-ray luminosities lie in the range (2-10) × 1034 erg s-1. In the case of the bipolar feature we suggest that the hot plasma is produced by the shock heating of the winds from massive stars within the Central Cluster, possibly collimated by the Circumnuclear Disc. Alternatively the outflow may be driven by outbursts on Sgr A*, which follow tidal disruption events occurring at a rate of roughly one every 4000 yr. The north-east enhancement is centred on a candidate pulsar wind nebula which has a relatively hard non-thermal X-ray spectrum. We suggest that the coincident soft-thermal emission traces the core of a new thermal-composite supernova remnant, designated as SNR G0.13-0.12. There is no clear evidence for an associated radio shell but such a feature may be masked by the bright emission of the nearby Radio Arc and other filamentary structures. SNR G0.13-0.12 is very likely interacting with the nearby molecular cloud, G0.11-0.11, and linked to the Fermi source, 2FGL J1746.4-2851c. Finally we explore a previous suggestion that the elliptically shaped X-ray loop to the south of Sgr A*, of maximum extent ˜45 pc, represents the shell of a superbubble located in the GC region. Although plausible, the interpretation of this feature in terms a coherent physical structure awaits confirmation.

  6. Four Highly Luminous Massive Star Forming Regions in the Norma Spiral Arm II. Deep NIR imaging

    Chavarria, L; Garay, G; Escala, A; Bronfman, L; Lizano, S


    We present sensitive NIR (J, H and K) imaging observations toward four luminous massive star forming regions in the Norma Spiral Arm: G324.201+0.119, G328.307+0.432, G329.337+0.147 and G330.949-0.174. We identify three clusters of young stellar objects (YSO) based on surface density diagnostics. We also find that sources detected only in the H and K-bands and with colors corresponding to spectral types earlier than B2, are likely YSOs. We analyze the spatial distribution of stars of different masses and find signatures in two clusters of primordial mass segregation which can't be explained as due to incompleteness effects. We show that dynamic interactions of cluster members with the dense gas from the parent core can explain the observed mass segregation, indicating that the gas plays an important role in the dynamics of young clusters.

  7. Optical properties of urban aerosols in the region Bratislava-Vienna—II: Comparisons and results

    Kocifaj, M.; Horvath, H.; Hrvoľ, J.

    The optical and microphysical properties of aerosols in highly urbanized region Bratislava-Vienna were determined by means of ground-based optical methods during campaign in August and September 2004. Although both cities are close to each other forming a common metropolitan region, the features of their aerosol systems are distinct. While urban and suburban zones around Vienna have mostly a clean air without major influences of emissions from industry, Bratislava itself need to be classified as polluted area—the optical data collected in the measuring site are influenced mainly by Technické Sklo factory (NW positioned), Matador (SSE), Istrochem (ENE) and Slovnaft (ESE). In contrary to an observed smooth evolution of the aerosol system in Vienna, the aerosol environment is quite unstable in Bratislava and usually follows the day changes of the wind directions (as they correspond to the position of individual sources of pollution). The particle sizes in Bratislava are predominately larger compared to Vienna. A subsidiary mode within surface size distribution frequently occurs at radius about 0.7 μm in Bratislava but not in Vienna. The size distribution of airborne particles in Vienna is more dependent on relative humidity than in Bratislava. It suggests the particles in Bratislava are larger whenever, or non-deliquescent to a great extent. The spectral attenuation of solar radiation by aerosol particles shows a typical mode at λ≈0.4μm in Bratislava, which is not observed in the spectral aerosol extinction coefficient in Vienna. In Bratislava, the average aerosol optical thickness grows from morning hours to the evening, while an opposite effect can be observed in Vienna in the same time.

  8. Gap winds and their effects on regional oceanography Part II: Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Ladd, Carol; Cheng, Wei; Salo, Sigrid


    Frequent gap winds, defined here as offshore-directed flow channeled through mountain gaps, have been observed near Kodiak Island in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). Gap winds from the Iliamna Lake gap were investigated using QuikSCAT wind data. The influence of these wind events on the regional ocean was examined using satellite and in situ data combined with Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model runs. Gap winds influence the entire shelf width (> 200 km) northeast of Kodiak Island and extend an additional ~150 km off-shelf. Due to strong gradients in the along-shelf direction, they can result in vertical velocities in the ocean of over 20 m d-1 due to Ekman pumping. The wind events also disrupt flow of the Alaska Coastal Current (ACC), resulting in decreased flow down Shelikof Strait and increased velocities on the outer shelf. This disruption of the ACC has implications for freshwater transport into the Bering Sea. The oceanographic response to gap winds may influence the survival of larval fishes as Arrowtooth Flounder recruitment is negatively correlated with the interannual frequency of gap-wind events, and Pacific Cod recruitment is positively correlated. The frequency of offshore directed winds exhibits a strong seasonal cycle averaging ~7 days per month during winter and ~2 days per month during summer. Interannual variability is correlated with the Pacific North America Index and shows a linear trend, increasing by 1.35 days per year. An accompanying paper discusses part I of our study (Ladd and Cheng, 2016) focusing on gap-wind events flowing out of Cross Sound in the eastern GOA.


    Teodoro, M.; Damineli, A. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil); Arias, J. I. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de La Serena, Av. Cisternas 1200 Norte, La Serena (Chile); De Araujo, F. X.; Borges Fernandes, M.; Pereira, C. B. [Observatorio Nacional, Rua General Jose Cristino 77, Sao Cristovao, Rio de Janeiro 20921-400 (Brazil); Barba, R. H.; Gonzalez, J. F. [Instituto de Ciencias Astronomicas, de la Tierra, y del Espacio (ICATE-CONICET), Avenida Espana Sur 1512, J5402DSP San Juan (Argentina); Corcoran, M. F. [CRESST and X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Fernandez-Lajus, E.; Gamen, R. C.; Solivella, G. R. [Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n, La Plata, BA, B1900FWA (Argentina); Fraga, L. [Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research, Colina El Pino s/n, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Groh, J. H. [Max-Planck-Institute fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Marshall, J. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); McGregor, P. J.; Nicholls, D. C.; Parkin, E. R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics (RSAA), Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Morrell, N.; Phillips, M. M., E-mail: [Las Campanas Observatory, Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); and others


    The periodic spectroscopic events in {eta} Carinae are now well established and occur near the periastron passage of two massive stars in a very eccentric orbit. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the variations of different spectral features, such as an eclipse by the wind-wind collision (WWC) boundary, a shell ejection from the primary star or accretion of its wind onto the secondary. All of them have problems explaining all the observed phenomena. To better understand the nature of the cyclic events, we performed a dense monitoring of {eta} Carinae with five Southern telescopes during the 2009 low-excitation event, resulting in a set of data of unprecedented quality and sampling. The intrinsic luminosity of the He II {lambda}4686 emission line (L {approx} 310 L{sub Sun }) just before periastron reveals the presence of a very luminous transient source of extreme UV radiation emitted in the WWC region. Clumps in the primary's wind probably explain the flare-like behavior of both the X-ray and He II {lambda}4686 light curves. After a short-lived minimum, He II {lambda}4686 emission rises again to a new maximum, when X-rays are still absent or very weak. We interpret this as a collapse of the WWC onto the 'surface' of the secondary star, switching off the hard X-ray source and diminishing the WWC shock cone. The recovery from this state is controlled by the momentum balance between the secondary's wind and the clumps in the primary's wind.

  10. A novel approach to rapid determination of betaS-globin haplotypes: sequencing of the Agamma-IVS-II region.

    Vinson, Amy E; Walker, Aisha; Elam, Dedrey; Glendenning, Michele; Kutlar, Ferdane; Clair, Betsy; Harbin, Jeanette; Kutlar, Abdullah


    beta-Globin gene cluster haplotypes were originally determined by restriction endonuclease mapping with Southern blots of polymorphic sites around the gene cluster. Over the years, haplotyping has been found to be useful, not only in population genetics but also in predicting the severity of hemoglobinopathies such as sickle cell disease. The sickle mutation occurs on five distinct haplotypes. The hitherto used methods are cumbersome and time-consuming, making haplotype determination a tedious procedure. We report our experience with a novel, rapid approach to haplotyping based on sequence polymorphisms in the Agamma-IVS-II region. We provide an algorithm that allows rapid assignment of the four African haplotypes carrying the sickle mutation.


    De Pree, C. G.; Monsrud, A. [Agnes Scott College, 141 East College Avenue, Decatur, GA 30030 (United States); Peters, T. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Zürich, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Mac Low, M.-M. [American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Wilner, D. J.; Keto, E. R. [Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Goss, W. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Galván-Madrid, R. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Klessen, R. S. [Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)


    Accretion flows onto massive stars must transfer mass so quickly that they are themselves gravitationally unstable, forming dense clumps and filaments. These density perturbations interact with young massive stars, emitting ionizing radiation, alternately exposing and confining their H II regions. As a result, the H II regions are predicted to flicker in flux density over periods of decades to centuries rather than increase monotonically in size as predicted by simple Spitzer solutions. We have recently observed the Sgr B2 region at 1.3 cm with the Very Large Array in its three hybrid configurations (DnC, CnB, and BnA) at a resolution of ∼0.''25. These observations were made to compare in detail with matched continuum observations from 1989. At 0.''25 resolution, Sgr B2 contains 41 ultracompact (UC) H II regions, 6 of which are hypercompact. The new observations of Sgr B2 allow comparison of relative peak flux densities for the H II regions in Sgr B2 over a 23 year time baseline (1989-2012) in one of the most source-rich massive star forming regions in the Milky Way. The new 1.3 cm continuum images indicate that four of the 41 UC H II regions exhibit significant changes in their peak flux density, with one source (K3) dropping in peak flux density, and the other three sources (F10.303, F1, and F3) increasing in peak flux density. The results are consistent with statistical predictions from simulations of high mass star formation, suggesting that they offer a solution to the lifetime problem for UC H II regions.

  12. Projects from Federal Region IX: Department of Energy Appropriate Energy Technology Program. Part II

    Case, C.W.; Clark, H.R.; Kay, J.; Lucarelli, F.B.; Rizer, S.


    Details and progress of appropriate energy technology programs in Region IX are presented. In Arizona, the projects are Solar Hot Water for the Prescott Adult Center and Solar Prototype House for a Residential Community. In California, the projects are Solar AquaDome Demonstration Project; Solar Powered Liquid Circulating Pump; Appropriate Energy Technology Resource Center; Digester for Wastewater Grown Aquatic Plants; Performance Characteristics of an Anaerobic Wastewater Lagoon Primary Treatment System; Appropriate Energy/Energy Conservation Demonstration Project; Solar Energy for Composting Toilets; Dry Creek Rancheria Solar Demonstration Projects; Demonstration for Energy Retrofit Analysis and Implementation; and Active Solar Space Heating System for the Integral Urban House. In Hawaii, the projects are: Java Plum Electric; Low-Cost Pond Digesters for Hawaiian Pig Farm Energy Needs; Solar Beeswax Melter; Methane Gas Plant for Operating Boilers and Generating Steam; and Solar Water Heating in Sugarcane Seed-Treatment Plants. A Wind-Powered Lighted Navigation Buoys Project for Guam is also described. A revised description of the Biogas Energy for Hawaiian Small Farms and Homesteads is given in an appendix.

  13. Interferometric Mapping of Magnetic Fields in Star-forming Regions II. NGC2024 FIR5

    Lai, S P; Girart, J M; Rao, R; Lai, Shih-Ping; Crutcher, Richard M.; Girart, Jose M.; Rao, Ramprasad


    We present the first interferometric polarization maps of the NGC2024 FIR5 molecular core obtained with the BIMA array at approximately 2 arcsec resolution. We measure an average position angle of -60+-6 degrees in the main core of FIR5 and 54+-9 degrees in the eastern wing of FIR5. The morphology of the polarization angles in the main core of FIR5 suggests that the field lines are parabolic with a symmetry axis approximately parallel to the major axis of the putative disk in FIR5, which is consistent with the theoretical scenario that the gravitational collapse pulled the field lines into an hour-glass shape. The polarization percentage decreases toward regions with high intensity and close to the center of the core, suggesting that the dust alignment efficiency may decrease at high density. The plane-of-sky field strength can be estimated with the modified Chandrasekhar-Fermi formula, and the small dispersion of the polarization angles in FIR5 suggests that the magnetic field is strong ($\\gtrsim$ 2mG) and p...

  14. Cosmic-Ray Transport in Heliospheric Magnetic Structures. II. Modeling Particle Transport through Corotating Interaction Regions

    Kopp, Andreas; Wiengarten, Tobias; Fichtner, Horst; Effenberger, Frederic; Kühl, Patrick; Heber, Bernd; Raath, Jan-Louis; Potgieter, Marius S.


    The transport of cosmic rays (CRs) in the heliosphere is determined by the properties of the solar wind plasma. The heliospheric plasma environment has been probed by spacecraft for decades and provides a unique opportunity for testing transport theories. Of particular interest for the three-dimensional (3D) heliospheric CR transport are structures such as corotating interaction regions (CIRs), which, due to the enhancement of the magnetic field strength and magnetic fluctuations within and due to the associated shocks as well as stream interfaces, do influence the CR diffusion and drift. In a three-fold series of papers, we investigate these effects by modeling inner-heliospheric solar wind conditions with the numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) framework Cronos (Wiengarten et al., referred as Paper I), and the results serve as input to a transport code employing a stochastic differential equation approach (this paper). While, in Paper I, we presented results from 3D simulations with Cronos, the MHD output is now taken as an input to the CR transport modeling. We discuss the diffusion and drift behavior of Galactic cosmic rays using the example of different theories, and study the effects of CIRs on these transport processes. In particular, we point out the wide range of possible particle fluxes at a given point in space resulting from these different theories. The restriction of this variety by fitting the numerical results to spacecraft data will be the subject of the third paper of this series.

  15. Transition Region and Chromospheric Signatures of Impulsive Heating Events. II. Modeling

    Reep, Jeffrey W.; Warren, Harry P.; Crump, Nicholas A.; Simões, Paulo J. A.


    Results from the Solar Maximum Mission showed a close connection between the hard X-ray (HXR) and transition region (TR) emission in solar flares. Analogously, the modern combination of RHESSI and IRIS data can inform the details of heating processes in ways that were never before possible. We study a small event that was observed with RHESSI, IRIS, SDO, and Hinode, allowing us to strongly constrain the heating and hydrodynamical properties of the flare, with detailed observations presented in a previous paper. Long duration redshifts of TR lines observed in this event, as well as many other events, are fundamentally incompatible with chromospheric condensation on a single loop. We combine RHESSI and IRIS data to measure the energy partition among the many magnetic strands that comprise the flare. Using that observationally determined energy partition, we show that a proper multithreaded model can reproduce these redshifts in magnitude, duration, and line intensity, while simultaneously being well constrained by the observed density, temperature, and emission measure. We comment on the implications for both RHESSI and IRIS observations of flares in general, namely that: (1) a single loop model is inconsistent with long duration redshifts, among other observables; (2) the average time between energization of strands is less than 10 s, which implies that for a HXR burst lasting 10 minutes, there were at least 60 strands within a single IRIS pixel located on the flare ribbon; (3) the majority of these strands were explosively heated with an energy distribution well described by a power law of slope ≈ -1.6; (4) the multi-stranded model reproduces the observed line profiles, peak temperatures, differential emission measure distributions, and densities.

  16. A single nucleotide in stem loop II of 5'-untranslated region contributes to virulence of enterovirus 71 in mice.

    Ming-Te Yeh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 (EV71 has emerged as a neuroinvasive virus responsible for several large outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region while virulence determinant remains unexplored. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, we investigated increased virulence of unadapted EV71 clinical isolate 237 as compared with isolate 4643 in mice. A fragment 12 nucleotides in length in stem loop (SL II of 237 5'-untranslated region (UTR visibly reduced survival time and rate in mice was identified by constructing a series of infectious clones harboring chimeric 5'-UTR. In cells transfected with bicistronic plasmids, and replicon RNAs, the 12-nt fragment of isolate 237 enhanced translational activities and accelerated replication of subgenomic EV71. Finally, single nucleotide change from cytosine to uridine at base 158 in this short fragment of 5'-UTR was proven to reduce viral translation and EV71 virulence in mice. Results collectively indicated a pivotal role of novel virulence determinant C158 on virus translation in vitro and EV71 virulence in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: These results presented the first reported virulence determinant in EV71 5'-UTR and first position discovered from unadapted isolates.

  17. Ten Million Degree Gas in M 17 and the Rosette Nebula: X-ray Flows in Galactic H II Regions

    Townsley, L K; Montmerle, T; Broos, P S; Chu, Y H; Garmire, G P


    We present the first high-spatial-resolution X-ray images of two high-mass star forming regions, the Omega Nebula (M 17) and the Rosette Nebula (NGC 2237--2246), obtained with the Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) instrument. The massive clusters powering these H II regions are resolved at the arcsecond level into >900 (M 17) and >300 (Rosette) stellar sources similar to those seen in closer young stellar clusters. However, we also detect soft diffuse X-ray emission on parsec scales that is spatially and spectrally distinct from the point source population. The diffuse emission has luminosity L_x ~ 3.4e33 ergs/s in M~17 with plasma energy components at kT ~0.13 and ~0.6 keV (1.5 and 7 MK), while in Rosette it has L_x \\~ 6e32 ergs/s with plasma energy components at kT ~0.06 and ~0.8 keV (0.7 and 9 MK). This extended emission most likely arises from the fast O-star winds thermalized either by wind-wind collisions or by a termination shock against the surrounding media. We establ...

  18. Dose-Response Relationship between Radiation Dose and Loco-regional Control in Patients with Stage II-III Esophageal Cancer Treated with Definitive Chemoradiotherapy.

    Kim, Hyun Ju; Suh, Yang-Gun; Lee, Yong Chan; Lee, Sang Kil; Shin, Sung Kwan; Cho, Byung Chul; Lee, Chang Geol


    The correlation between radiation dose and loco-regional control (LRC) was evaluated in patients with stage II-III esophageal cancer treated with definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Medical records of 236 stage II-III esophageal cancer patients treated with definitive CRT at Yonsei Cancer Center between 1994 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Among these, 120 received a radiation dose of 60 Gy) is associated with increased LRC, PFS, and OS in patients with stage II-III esophageal cancer treated with definitive CRT.

  19. Crystal Structure of the C-terminal Region of Streptococcus mutans Antigen I/II and Characterization of Salivary Agglutinin Adherence Domains

    Larson, Matthew R.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Crowley, Paula J.; Kelly, Charles; Mitchell, Tim J.; Brady, L. Jeannine; Deivanayagam, Champion (King); (Cornell); (UAB); (Glasgow); (Florida)


    The Streptococcus mutans antigen I/II (AgI/II) is a cell surface-localized protein that adheres to salivary components and extracellular matrix molecules. Here we report the 2.5 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the complete C-terminal region of AgI/II. The C-terminal region is comprised of three major domains: C{sub 1}, C{sub 2}, and C{sub 3}. Each domain adopts a DE-variant IgG fold, with two {beta}-sheets whose A and F strands are linked through an intramolecular isopeptide bond. The adherence of the C-terminal AgI/II fragments to the putative tooth surface receptor salivary agglutinin (SAG), as monitored by surface plasmon resonance, indicated that the minimal region of binding was contained within the first and second DE-variant-IgG domains (C{sub 1} and C{sub 2}) of the C terminus. The minimal C-terminal region that could inhibit S. mutans adherence to SAG was also confirmed to be within the C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} domains. Competition experiments demonstrated that the C- and N-terminal regions of AgI/II adhere to distinct sites on SAG. A cleft formed at the intersection between these C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} domains bound glucose molecules from the cryo-protectant solution, revealing a putative binding site for its highly glycosylated receptor SAG. Finally, electron microscopy images confirmed the elongated structure of AgI/II and enabled building a composite tertiary model that encompasses its two distinct binding regions.

  20. The changes of regional cerebral blood flow: successful pain relief of intractable CRPS type II patients by motor cortex stimulation

    Jung, J. A.; Son, H. S.; Kim, S. H.; Jung, S. G [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Authors report the effectiveness of MCS in extraordinarily extended pain due to intractable CRPS type II and rCBF study result for mechanism of pain control by MCS. A 43-year-old male presented severe spontaneous burning pain in his left hand and forearm and allodynia over the left arm and left hemibody. Authors planned MCS as a neuromodulation therapy for this intractable peripheral neuropathic pain patient because further neurodestructive procedure did not work anymore and have a potential risk of further aggrevation of neuopathic pain. We performed baseline and stimulation brain perfusion SPECT using 20 mCi of Tc-99m ECD. The baseline CBD studies were done with stimulator 'off' state and stimulation studies were done after stimulator 'on' with satisfactory pain relief. For the stimulation study, the radioisotope was injected immediately after pain-relief and the images were taken about 50 minutes after injection of radioisotope. In resting rCBF in the patient was compared with normal control datas, we found significant increase in rCBF in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right superior temporal gyrus, left temporooccipital area. When rCBF datas obtained after alleviation of pain with stimulator 'on' . there were significant increase in rCBF in bilateral prefrontal cortex and left temporoocipital area. After subtraction of ECD SPECT, we found significant increase in rCBF in the right premotor and supplementary motor cortex left sensorimotor cortex, right cingulated cortex, right posterior insular cortex, right anterior limb of internal capsule. left orbitofrontal cortex and right pyramidal tract in cerebral peduncle. Authors report exellent pain control by MCS in a case of severe CRPS type II with hemibody involvement and regional cerebral blood flow changes according to successful pain control.


    Grandi, P.; Torresi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica-IASFBO, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129, Bologna (Italy); Stanghellini, C., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica-IRA, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129, Bologna (Italy)


    The broad-line radio galaxy 3C 111, characterized by a Fanaroff-Riley II (FRII) radio morphology, is one of the sources of the misaligned active galactic nucleus sample, consisting of radio galaxies and steep spectrum radio quasars, recently detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Our analysis of the 24 month {gamma}-ray light curve shows that 3C 111 was only occasionally detected at high energies. It was bright at the end of 2008 and faint, below the Fermi-LAT sensitivity threshold, for the rest of the time. A multifrequency campaign of 3C 111, ongoing in the same period, revealed an increase of the millimeter, optical, and X-ray fluxes in 2008 September-November, interpreted by Chatterjee et al. as due to the passage of a superluminal knot through the jet core. The temporal coincidence of the millimeter-optical-X-ray outburst with the GeV activity suggests a cospatiality of the events, allowing, for the first time, the localization of the {gamma}-ray dissipative zone in an FRII jet. We argue that the GeV photons of 3C 111 are produced in a compact region confined within 0.1 pc and at a distance of about 0.3 pc from the black hole.

  2. Sejong Open Cluster Survey (SOS). III. The Young Open Cluster NGC 1893 in the H II Region W8

    Lim, Beomdu; Kim, Jinyoung S; Bessell, Michael S; Park, Byeong-Gon


    We present a UBV I and H alpha photometric study of the young open cluster NGC 1893 in the H II region W8 (IC 410 or Sh 2-236). A total of 65 early-type members are selected from photometric diagrams. A mean reddening of the stars is = 0.563 +/- 0.083 mag. The published photometric data in the near- and mid-infrared passbands are used to test the reddening law toward the cluster, and we confirm that the reddening law is normal (R_V = 3.1). Zero-age main sequence fitting gives a distance modulus of V_0 - M_V = 12.7 +/- 0.2 mag, equivalent to 3.5 +/- 0.3 kpc. From H alpha photometry 125 H alpha emission stars and candidates are identified as pre-main sequence (PMS). The lists of young stellar objects and X-ray sources published by previous studies allow us to select a large number of PMS members down to 1 M_sun. Isochrone fitting in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram gives a turn-off age of 1.5 Myr and the median age of 1.9 Myr from the PMS members with a spread of 5 Myr. We derive the initial mass function (IMF)...

  3. Association analysis of urotensin II gene (UTS2 and flanking regions with biochemical parameters related to insulin resistance.

    María E Sáez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urotensin II (UII is a potent vasoconstrictor peptide, which signals through a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR known as GPR14 or urotensin receptor (UTR. UII exerts a broad spectrum of actions in several systems such as vascular cell, heart muscle or pancreas, where it inhibits insulin release. OBJECTIVE: Given the reported role of UII in insulin secretion, we have performed a genetic association analysis of the UTS2 gene and flanking regions with biochemical parameters related to insulin resistance (fasting glucose, glucose 2 hours after a glucose overload, fasting insulin and insulin resistance estimated as HOMA. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We have identified several polymorphisms associated with the analysed clinical traits, not only at the UTS2 gene, but also in thePER3 gene, located upstream from UTS2. Our results are compatible with a role for UII in glucose homeostasis and diabetes although we cannot rule out the possibility that PER3 gene may underlie the reported associations.

  4. Prospective phase II trial of regional hyperthermia and whole liver irradiation for numerous chemorefratory liver metastases from colerectal cancer

    Yu, Jeong Il; Park, Hee Chul; Choi, Doo Ho [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others


    A prospective phase II trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and toxicity of regional hyperthermia and whole liver irradiation (WLI) for numerous chemorefractory liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Enrolled patients had numerous chemorefractory hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer. Five sessions of hyperthermia and seven fractions of 3-gray WLI were planned. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was determined using the Korean version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaire C-30 and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Hepatobiliary version 4.0. Objective and pain response was evaluated. A total of 12 patients consented to the study and the 10 who received WLI and hyperthermia were analyzed. WLI was completed as planned in nine patients and hyperthermia in eight. Pain response was partial in four patients and stable in four. Partial objective response was achieved in three patients (30.0%) and stable disease was seen in four patients at the 1-month follow-up. One patient died 1 month after treatment because of respiratory failure related to pleural metastasis progression. Other grade III or higher toxicities were detected in three patients; however, all severe toxicities were related to disease progression rather than treatment. No significant difference in HRQoL was noted at the time of assessment for patients who were available for questionnaires. Combined WLI and hyperthermia were well tolerated without severe treatment-related toxicity with a promising response from numerous chemorefractory hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer.

  5. Comparative in vivo analysis of recombinant type II feline coronaviruses with truncated and completed ORF3 region.

    Ádám Bálint

    Full Text Available Our previous in vitro comparative study on a feline coronavirus (FCoV pair, differing only in the intactness of their ORF3abc regions, showed that the truncated ORF3abc plays an important role in the efficient macrophage/monocyte tropism of type II feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV. In the present study, we describe a challenge experiment with the same recombinant FCoVs in order to gain data on the in vivo characteristics on these viruses. While parent virus FIPV DF-2 developed feline infectious peritonitis in all the infected cats, its recombinant virus PBFIPV-DF-2, differing only in seven nucleotides, proved to be surprisingly low virulent, although caused an acute febrile episode similarly to the original FIPV DF-2. PBFIPV-DF-2 infection induced significantly lower virus neutralization titers than its parent virus, and lacked the second phase of viremia and development of fatal course of the disease. The recombinant PBFIPV-DF-2-R3i with completed ORF3abc gained biological properties that differentiate between the feline enteric coronavirus (FECV and FIPV biotypes such as intensive replication in the gut, absence of viremia and weak or no serological response. Using reverse genetic approaches our study is the first experimental proof that ORF3abc is indeed responsible for the restriction of FECV replication to the intestine in vivo.

  6. Fourier transform spectrometer observations of solar carbon monoxide. II - Simultaneous cospatial measurements of the fundamental and first-overtone bands, and Ca II K, in quiet and active regions

    Ayres, T. R.; Testerman, L.; Brault, J. W.


    Fourier transform spectrometry has yielded simultaneous cospatial measurements of important diagnostics of thermal structure in the high solar photosphere and low chromosphere. It is noted that the anomalous behavior of the fundamental bands of CO in quiet areas near the limb is accentuated in an active region plage observed close to the limb. The difference between the core temperatures of the CO fundamental bands in a plage and a nearby quiet region at the limb is larger than the corresponding brightness temperature differences in the inner wings of the Ca II line measured in a quiet region and several plages closer to the disk center. Numerical simulations indicate that the disparate behavior of the CO bands with respect to Ca II K cannot be reconciled with existing single component thermal structure models; a two-component atmosphere is required.

  7. MHC II-β chain gene expression studies define the regional organization of the thymus in the developing bony fish Dicentrarchus labrax (L.).

    Picchietti, S; Abelli, L; Guerra, L; Randelli, E; Proietti Serafini, F; Belardinelli, M C; Buonocore, F; Bernini, C; Fausto, A M; Scapigliati, G


    MHC II-β chain gene transcripts were quantified by real-time PCR and localised by in situ hybridization in the developing thymus of the teleost Dicentrarchus labrax, regarding the specialization of the thymic compartments. MHC II-β expression significantly rose when the first lymphoid colonization of the thymus occurred, thereafter increased further when the organ progressively developed cortex and medulla regions. The evolving patterns of MHC II-β expression provided anatomical insights into some mechanisms of thymocyte selection. Among the stromal cells transcribing MHC II-β, scattered cortical epithelial cells appeared likely involved in the positive selection, while those abundant in the cortico-medullary border and medulla in the negative selection. These latter most represent dendritic cells, based on typical localization and phenotype. These findings provide further proofs that efficient mechanisms leading to maturation of naïve T cells are operative in teleosts, strongly reminiscent of the models conserved in more evolved gnathostomes.

  8. Dietary sodium deprivation evokes activation of brain regional neurons and down-regulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and angiotensin-convertion enzyme mRNA expression.

    Lu, B; Yang, X J; Chen, K; Yang, D J; Yan, J Q


    Previous studies have indicated that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is implicated in the induction of sodium appetite in rats and that different dietary sodium intakes influence the mRNA expression of central and peripheral RAAS components. To determine whether dietary sodium deprivation activates regional brain neurons related to sodium appetite, and changes their gene expression of RAAS components of rats, the present study examined the c-Fos expression after chronic exposure to low sodium diet, and determined the relationship between plasma and brain angiotensin I (ANG I), angiotensin II (ANG II) and aldosterone (ALD) levels and the sodium ingestive behavior variations, as well as the effects of prolonged dietary sodium deprivation on ANG II type 1 (AT1) and ANG II type 2 (AT2) receptors and angiotensin-convertion enzyme (ACE) mRNA levels in the involved brain regions using the method of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results showed that the Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) expression in forebrain areas such as subfornical organ (SFO), paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei (PVN), supraoptic nucleus (SON) and organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) all increased significantly and that the levels of ANG I, ANG II and ALD also increased in plasma and forebrain in rats fed with low sodium diet. In contrast, AT1, ACE mRNA in PVN, SON and OVLT decreased significantly in dietary sodium depleted rats, while AT2 mRNA expression did not change in the examined areas. These results suggest that many brain areas are activated by increased levels of plasma and/or brain ANG II and ALD, which underlies the elevated preference for hypertonic salt solution after prolonged exposure to low sodium diet, and that the regional AT1 and ACE mRNA are down-regulated after dietary sodium deprivation, which may be mediated by increased ANG II in plasma and/or brain tissue.

  9. 'Chemical abundances in H II regions and their implications -- Retrospective on: M. Peimbert & R. Costero, Boletin de los Observatorios de Tonantzintla y Tacubaya, Vol. 5, 3, 1969'

    Peimbert, M


    We present a review about the relevance of the paper by Peimbert and Costero (1969), on the chemical abundance determinations of H II regions. We analize the observational evidence in favor of the presence of temperature variations inside gaseous nebulae. We make a brief mention of the methods used to estimate the contribution of the unobserved ions to the total chemical abundances.

  10. A GMOS-N IFU study of the central H ii region in the blue compact dwarf galaxy NGC 4449: kinematics, nebular metallicity and star formation

    Kumari, Nimisha; James, Bethan L.; Irwin, Mike J.


    We use integral field spectroscopic (IFS) observations from the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph North (GMOS-N) to study the central H ii region in a nearby blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy NGC 4449. The IFS data enable us to explore the variation of physical and chemical conditions of the star-forming region and the surrounding gas on spatial scales as small as 5.5 pc. Our kinematical analysis shows possible signatures of shock ionization and shell structures in the surroundings of the star-forming region. The metallicity maps of the region, created using direct Te and indirect strong line methods (R23, O3N2 and N2), do not show any chemical variation. From the integrated spectrum of the central H ii region, we find a metallicity of 12 + log(O/H) = 7.88 ± 0.14 ({˜ }0.15^{+0.06}_{-0.04} Z⊙) using the direct method. Comparing the central H ii region metallicity derived here with those of H ii regions throughout this galaxy from previous studies, we find evidence of increasing metallicity with distance from the central nucleus. Such chemical inhomogeneities can be due to several mechanisms, including gas loss via supernova blowout, galactic winds or metal-poor gas accretion. However, we find that the localized area of decreased metallicity aligns spatially with the peak of star-forming activity in the galaxy, suggesting that gas accretion may be at play here. Spatially resolved IFS data for the entire galaxy are required to confirm the metallicity inhomogeneity found in this study and determine its possible cause.

  11. Star-forming Activity in the H II Regions Associated with the IRAS 17160–3707 Complex

    Nandakumar, G.; Veena, V. S.; Vig, S.; Tej, A.; Ghosh, S. K.; Ojha, D. K.


    We present a multiwavelength investigation of star formation activity toward the southern H ii regions associated with IRAS 17160–3707, located at a distance of 6.2 kpc with a bolometric luminosity of 8.3 × 105 L ⊙. The ionized gas distribution and dust clumps in the parental molecular cloud are examined in detail using measurements at infrared, submillimeter and radio wavelengths. The radio continuum images at 1280 and 610 MHz obtained using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope reveal the presence of multiple compact sources as well as nebulous emission. At submillimeter wavelengths, we identify seven dust clumps and estimate their physical properties such as temperature: 24–30 K, mass: 300–4800 M ⊙ and luminosity: 9–317 × 102 L ⊙ using modified blackbody fits to the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) between 70 and 870 μm. We find 24 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the mid-infrared, with a few of them coincident with the compact radio sources. The SEDs of the YSOs have been fitted by the Robitaille models and the results indicate that those having radio compact sources as counterparts host massive objects in early evolutionary stages with best fit age ≤0.2 Myr. We compare the relative evolutionary stages of clumps using various signposts such as masers, ionized gas, presence of YSOs and infrared nebulosity, and find six massive star-forming clumps and one quiescent clump. Of the former, five are in a relatively advanced stage and one in an earlier stage.

  12. Preclinical assessment of viral vectored and protein vaccines targeting the Duffy-binding protein region II of Plasmodium vivax

    Simone C de Cassan


    Full Text Available Malaria vaccine development has largely focused on Plasmodium falciparum; however a reawakening to the importance of P. vivax has spurred efforts to develop vaccines against this difficult to treat and at times severe form of relapsing malaria, which constitutes a significant proportion of human malaria cases worldwide. The almost complete dependence of P. vivax red blood cell invasion on the interaction of the P. vivax Duffy-binding protein region II (PvDBP_RII with the human Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC, makes this antigen an attractive vaccine candidate against blood-stage P. vivax. Here, we generated both preclinical and clinically-compatible adenoviral and poxviral vectored vaccine candidates expressing the Salvador I allele of PvDBP_RII – including human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV5, chimpanzee adenovirus serotype 63 (ChAd63 and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA vectors. We report on the antibody and T cell immunogenicity of these vaccines in mice or rabbits, either used alone in a viral vectored prime-boost regime, or in ‘mixed-modality’ adenovirus prime – protein-in-adjuvant boost regimes (using a recombinant protein PvDBP_RII protein antigen formulated in Montanide®ISA720 or Abisco®100 adjuvants. Antibodies induced by these regimes were found to bind to native parasite antigen from P. vivax infected Thai patients and were capable of inhibiting the binding of PvDBP_RII to its receptor DARC using an in vitro binding inhibition assay. In recent years, recombinant ChAd63 and MVA vectors have been quickly translated into human clinical trials for numerous antigens from P. falciparum as well as a growing number of other pathogens. The vectors reported here are immunogenic in small animals, elicit antibodies against PvDBP_RII and have recently entered clinical trials which will provide the first assessment of the safety and immunogenicity of the PvDBP_RII antigen in humans.

  13. Immunogenicity and prediction of epitopic region of antigen Ag I/II and glucosyltransferase from Streptococcus mutans.

    Cao, Xi-Xi; Fan, Jian; Chen, Jiang; Li, Yu-Hong; Fan, Ming-Wen


    The levels of Streptococcus (S.) mutans infections in saliva were evaluated and a comparison for specific antibody levels among children with different levels of S. mutans infection was made. The promising epitopic regions of antigen AgI/II (PAc) and glucosyltransferase (GTF) for potential vaccine targets related to S. mutans adherence were screened. A total of 94 children aged 3-4 years were randomly selected, including 53 caries-negative and 41 caries-positive children. The values of S. mutans and those of salivary total secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), anti-PAc and anti-Glucan binding domain (anti-GLU) were compared to determine the correlation among them. It was found the level of s-IgA against specific antigens did not increase with increasing severity of S. mutans infection, and the complete amino acid sequence of PAc and GTFB was analyzed using the DNAStar Protean system for developing specific anti-caries vaccines related to S. mutans adherence. A significantly positive correlation between the amount of S. mutans and children decayed, missing, and filled teeth index was observed. No significant difference was detected in specific sIgA against PAc or GLU between any two groups. No significant correlation was found between such specific sIgA and caries index. A total of 16 peptides from PAc as well as 13 peptides from GTFB were chosen for further investigation. S. mutans colonization contributed to early children caries as an important etiological factor. The level of sIgA against specific antigens did not increase with increasing severity of S. mutans infection in children. The epitopes of PAc and GTF have been screened to develop the peptide-based or protein-based anti-caries vaccines.

  14. Strain of Synechocystis PCC 6803 with Aberrant Assembly of Photosystem II Contains Tandem Duplication of a Large Chromosomal Region.

    Tichý, Martin; Bečková, Martina; Kopečná, Jana; Noda, Judith; Sobotka, Roman; Komenda, Josef


    Cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 represents a favored model organism for photosynthetic studies. Its easy transformability allowed construction of a vast number of Synechocystis mutants including many photosynthetically incompetent ones. However, it became clear that there is already a spectrum of Synechocystis "wild-type" substrains with apparently different phenotypes. Here, we analyzed organization of photosynthetic membrane complexes in a standard motile Pasteur collection strain termed PCC and two non-motile glucose-tolerant substrains (named here GT-P and GT-W) previously used as genetic backgrounds for construction of many photosynthetic site directed mutants. Although, both the GT-P and GT-W strains were derived from the same strain constructed and described by Williams in 1988, only GT-P was similar in pigmentation and in the compositions of Photosystem II (PSII) and Photosystem I (PSI) complexes to PCC. In contrast, GT-W contained much more carotenoids but significantly less chlorophyll (Chl), which was reflected by lower level of dimeric PSII and especially trimeric PSI. We found that GT-W was deficient in Chl biosynthesis and contained unusually high level of unassembled D1-D2 reaction center, CP47 and especially CP43. Another specific feature of GT-W was a several fold increase in the level of the Ycf39-Hlip complex previously postulated to participate in the recycling of Chl molecules. Genome re-sequencing revealed that the phenotype of GT-W is related to the tandem duplication of a large region of the chromosome that contains 100 genes including ones encoding D1, Psb28, and other PSII-related proteins as well as Mg-protoporphyrin methylester cyclase (Cycl). Interestingly, the duplication was completely eliminated after keeping GT-W cells on agar plates under photoautotrophic conditions for several months. The GT-W strain without a duplication showed no obvious defects in PSII assembly and resembled the GT-P substrain. Although, we do not exactly

  15. Loss of lager specific genes and subtelomeric regions define two different Saccharomyces cerevisiae lineages for Saccharomyces pastorianus Group I and II strains.

    Monerawela, Chandre; James, Tharappel C; Wolfe, Kenneth H; Bond, Ursula


    Lager yeasts, Saccharomyces pastorianus, are interspecies hybrids between S. cerevisiae and S. eubayanus and are classified into Group I and Group II clades. The genome of the Group II strain, Weihenstephan 34/70, contains eight so-called 'lager-specific' genes that are located in subtelomeric regions. We evaluated the origins of these genes through bioinformatic and PCR analyses of Saccharomyces genomes. We determined that four are of cerevisiae origin while four originate from S. eubayanus. The Group I yeasts contain all four S. eubayanus genes but individual strains contain only a subset of the cerevisiae genes. We identified S. cerevisiae strains that contain all four cerevisiae 'lager-specific' genes, and distinct patterns of loss of these genes in other strains. Analysis of the subtelomeric regions uncovered patterns of loss in different S. cerevisiae strains. We identify two classes of S. cerevisiae strains: ale yeasts (Foster O) and stout yeasts with patterns of 'lager-specific' genes and subtelomeric regions identical to Group I and II S. pastorianus yeasts, respectively. These findings lead us to propose that Group I and II S. pastorianus strains originate from separate hybridization events involving different S. cerevisiae lineages. Using the combined bioinformatic and PCR data, we describe a potential classification map for industrial yeasts.

  16. Triggered massive and clustered stars formation by together H II regions G38.91-0.44 and G39.30-1.04

    Xu, Jin-Long; Liu, Xiao-Lan


    We present the radio continuum, infrared, and CO molecular observations of infrared dark cloud (IRDC) G38.95-0.47 and its adjacent H II regions G38.91-0.44 (N74), G38.93-0.39 (N75), and G39.30-1.04. The Purple Mountain Observation (PMO) 13.7 m radio telescope was used to detect12CO J=1-0,13CO J=1-0 and C18O J=1-0 lines. The carbon monoxide (CO) molecular observations can ensure the real association between the ionized gas and the neutral material observed nearby. To select young stellar objects (YSOs) associated this region, we used the GLIMPSE I catalog. The13CO J=1-0 emission presents two large cloud clumps. The clump consistent with IRDC G38.95-0.47 shows a triangle- like shape, and has a steep integrated-intensity gradient toward H II regions G38.91-0.44 and G39.30-1.04, suggesting that the two H II regions have expanded into the IRDC. Four submillmeter continuum sources have been detected in the IRDC G38.95-0.47. Only the G038.95-00.47-M1 source with a mass of 117 Msun has outflow and infall motions, ind...

  17. Switch control pocket inhibitors of p38-MAP kinase. Durable type II inhibitors that do not require binding into the canonical ATP hinge region.

    Ahn, Yu Mi; Clare, Michael; Ensinger, Carol L; Hood, Molly M; Lord, John W; Lu, Wei-Ping; Miller, David F; Patt, William C; Smith, Bryan D; Vogeti, Lakshminarayana; Kaufman, Michael D; Petillo, Peter A; Wise, Scott C; Abendroth, Jan; Chun, Lawrence; Clark, Robin; Feese, Michael; Kim, Hidong; Stewart, Lance; Flynn, Daniel L


    Switch control pocket inhibitors of p38-alpha kinase are described. Durable type II inhibitors were designed which bind to arginines (Arg67 or Arg70) that function as key residues for mediating phospho-threonine 180 dependant conformational fluxing of p38-alpha from an inactive type II state to an active type I state. Binding to Arg70 in particular led to potent inhibitors, exemplified by DP-802, which also exhibited high kinase selectivity. Binding to Arg70 obviated the requirement for binding into the ATP Hinge region. X-ray crystallography revealed that DP-802 and analogs induce an enhanced type II conformation upon binding to either the unphosphorylated or the doubly phosphorylated form of p38-alpha kinase.

  18. Chemical abundances in the protoplanetary disc LV 2 (Orion): clues to the causes of the abundance anomaly in H II regions

    Tsamis, Y. G.; Walsh, J. R.; Vílchez, J. M.; Péquignot, D.


    Optical integral field spectroscopy of the archetype protoplanetary disc LV 2 in the Orion nebula is presented, taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) FLAMES/Argus fibre array. The detection of recombination lines (RLs) of C II and O II from this class of objects is reported, and the lines are utilized as abundance diagnostics. The study is complemented with the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Faint Object Spectrograph ultraviolet and optical spectra of the target contained within the Argus field of view. By subtracting the local nebula background the intrinsic spectrum of the proplyd is obtained and its elemental composition is derived for the first time. The proplyd is found to be overabundant in carbon, oxygen and neon compared to the Orion nebula and the Sun. The simultaneous coverage over LV 2 of the C III]λ1908 and [O III]λ5007 collisionally excited lines (CELs) and C II and O II RLs has enabled us to measure the abundances of C2 + and O2 + for LV 2 with both sets of lines. The two methods yield consistent results for the intrinsic proplyd spectrum, but not for the proplyd spectrum contaminated by the generic nebula spectrum, thus providing one example where the long-standing abundance anomaly plaguing metallicity studies of H II regions has been resolved. These results would indicate that the standard forbidden-line methods used in the derivation of light metal abundances in H II regions in our own and other galaxies underestimate the true gas metallicity.

  19. A deletion in the proximal untranslated pX region of human T-cell leukemia virus type II decreases viral replication but not infectivity in vivo.

    Cockerell, G L; Rovnak, J; Green, P L; Chen, I S


    The function of untranslated (UT) nucleotide sequences in the proximal portion of the pX region of the human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) family of retroviruses remains enigmatic. Previous studies have shown that these sequences are not necessary for the expression of viral proteins or for the induction, transmission, or maintenance of the transformed cell type in vitro. To determine the effect of the UT region in vivo, separate groups of rabbits were inoculated with lethally irradiated, stable clones of the human B-lymphoblastoid cell line, 729, transfected with either a full-length wild-type HTLV-II clone (pH6neo) or a mutant clone containing a 324-bp deletion in the proximal UT portion of pX (pH6neo delta UT[6661-6984]), or nontransfected 729 cells. All rabbits inoculated with either wild-type or pX-deleted HTLV-II developed a similar profile and titer of serum antibodies against HTLV-II antigens, as determined by Western immunoblots, by 4 weeks postinoculation (PI). Antibody titers, as determined by enzyme immunoassay, were similar between the two groups of rabbits and increased over the 18-week period of study. All rabbits were killed at 18 weeks PI, and spleen, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBMC), bone marrow, and mesenteric lymph node were assayed for HTLV-II tax/rex sequences by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Virus was detected in all tissues tested from all rabbits inoculated with 729pH6neo cells containing wild-type HTLV-II, which contained between 1.4 and 0.3 mean copies of provirus per cell. In contrast, the distribution and number of provirus copies were more limited in rabbits inoculated with 729pH6neo delta UT(6661-6984) cells containing UT-deleted HTLV-II; in most tissues, there was a fivefold to sevenfold reduction in mean provirus copies per cell as compared with rabbits inoculated with wild-type HTLV-II. All rabbits inoculated with control 729 cells remained negative for HTLV-II infection, as determined by the same techniques. It was

  20. The population of planetary nebulae and H II regions in M 81. A study of radial metallicity gradients and chemical evolution

    Stanghellini, L.; Magrini, L.; Villaver, E.; Galli, D.


    Context. M 81 is an ideal laboratory to investigate the galactic chemical and dynamical evolution through the study of its young and old stellar populations. Aims: We analyze the chemical abundances of planetary nebulae and H ii regions in the M 81 disk for insight on galactic evolution, and compare it with that of other galaxies, including the Milky Way. Methods: We acquired Hectospec/MMT spectra of 39 PNe and 20 H ii regions, with 33 spectra viable for temperature and abundance analysis. Our PN observations represent the first PN spectra in M 81 ever published, while several H ii region spectra have been published before, although without a direct electron temperature determination. We determine elemental abundances of helium, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, sulfur, and argon in PNe and H ii regions, and determine their averages and radial gradients. Results: The average O/H ratio of PNe compared to that of the H ii regions indicates a general oxygen enrichment in M 81 in the last ~10 Gyr. The PN metallicity gradient in the disk of M 81 is Δlog(O/H)/ΔRG = -0.055 ± 0.02 dex/kpc. Neon and sulfur in PNe have a radial distribution similar to that of oxygen, with similar gradient slopes. If we combine our H ii sample with the one in the literature we find a possible mild evolution of the gradient slope, with results consistent with gradient steepening with time. Additional spectroscopy is needed to confirm this trend. There are no type I PNe in our M 81 sample, consistently with the observation of only the brightest bins of the PNLF, the galaxy metallicity, and the evolution of post-AGB shells. Conclusions: Both the young and the old populations of M 81 disclose shallow but detectable negative radial metallicity gradient, which could be slightly steeper for the young population, thus not excluding a mild gradients steepening with the time since galaxy formation. During its evolution M 81 has been producing oxygen; its total oxygen enrichment exceeds that of other nearby

  1. Study of the Mn-binding sites in photosystem II using antibodies raised against lumenal regions of the D1 and D2 reaction center proteins

    Dalmasso, Enrique Agustin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The experiments discussed in this thesis focus on identifying the protein segments or specific amino acids which provide ligands to the Mn cluster of photosystem II (PS II). This Mn cluster plays a central role in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PS II. The Mn cluster is thought to be bound by lumenal regions of the PS II reaction center proteins known as D1 and D2. First, several peptides were synthesized which correspond to specific lumenal segments of the D1 and D2 proteins. Next, polyclonal antibodies were successfully elicited using three of these peptides. The peptides recognized by these antibodies correspond to protein segments of the spinach reaction center proteins: Ile-321 to Ala-344 of D1 (D1-a), Asp-319 to Arg-334 of D1 (D1-b), and Val-300 to Asn-319 of D2 (D2-a). These antibodies were then used in assays which were developed to structurally or functionally probe the potential Mn-binding regions of the D1 and D2 proteins.

  2. Study of the Mn-binding sites in photosystem II using antibodies raised against lumenal regions of the D1 and D2 reaction center proteins

    Dalmasso, E.A.


    The experiments discussed in this thesis focus on identifying the protein segments or specific amino acids which provide ligands to the Mn cluster of photosystem II (PS II). This Mn cluster plays a central role in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PS II. The Mn cluster is thought to be bound by lumenal regions of the PS II reaction center proteins known as D1 and D2. First, several peptides were synthesized which correspond to specific lumenal segments of the D1 and D2 proteins. Next, polyclonal antibodies were successfully elicited using three of these peptides. The peptides recognized by these antibodies correspond to protein segments of the spinach reaction center proteins: Ile-321 to Ala-344 of D1 (D1-a), Asp-319 to Arg-334 of D1 (D1-b), and Val-300 to Asn-319 of D2 (D2-a). These antibodies were then used in assays which were developed to structurally or functionally probe the potential Mn-binding regions of the D1 and D2 proteins.

  3. Tropospheric mixing ratios of NO and NOy obtained during TROPOZ II in the latitude region 67 deg N-56 deg S

    Rohrer, F.; Bruening, D.; Ehhalt, D.H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Chemie


    Tropospheric mixing ratios of NO and NOy were measured along the flight track of the TROPOZ II aircraft campaign. These measurements cover regions along the east coast of North America, the Pacific and Atlantic coast of South America and the Atlantic coast of North Africa and Europe. The meteorological conditions are close to the climatological mean: westerly winds at high and mid latitudes, variable and weak winds at low latitudes. (author) 2 refs.

  4. Copper(II) ions increase plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 dynamics in key structural regions that govern stability

    Bucci, Joel C; Trelle, Morten Beck; McClintock, Carlee S;


    demonstrated that Cu(II) and other transition metals modulate the stability of PAI-1, exhibiting effects that are dependent on the presence or absence of the somatomedin B (SMB) domain of VN. The study presented here dissects the changes in molecular dynamics underlying the destabilizing effects of Cu...... effects are not a result of coordination of Cu(II) to these histidine residues. Finally, addition of Cu(II) results in an acceleration of the local unfolding kinetics of PAI-1 presumed to be on pathway to the latency conversion. The effect of ligands on the dynamics of PAI-1 adds another intriguing......Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) regulates the fibrinolysis pathway by inhibiting the protease activity of plasminogen activators. PAI-1 works in concert with vitronectin (VN), an extracellular protein that aids in localization of active PAI-1 to tissues. The Peterson laboratory...

  5. Single-conformation infrared spectra of model peptides in the amide I and amide II regions: experiment-based determination of local mode frequencies and inter-mode coupling.

    Buchanan, Evan G; James, William H; Choi, Soo Hyuk; Guo, Li; Gellman, Samuel H; Müller, Christian W; Zwier, Timothy S


    Single-conformation infrared spectra in the amide I and amide II regions have been recorded for a total of 34 conformations of three α-peptides, three β-peptides, four α/β-peptides, and one γ-peptide using resonant ion-dip infrared spectroscopy of the jet-cooled, isolated molecules. Assignments based on the amide NH stretch region were in hand, with the amide I/II data providing additional evidence in favor of the assignments. A set of 21 conformations that represent the full range of H-bonded structures were chosen to characterize the conformational dependence of the vibrational frequencies and infrared intensities of the local amide I and amide II modes and their amide I/I and amide II/II coupling constants. Scaled, harmonic calculations at the DFT M05-2X/6-31+G(d) level of theory accurately reproduce the experimental frequencies and infrared intensities in both the amide I and amide II regions. In the amide I region, Hessian reconstruction was used to extract local mode frequencies and amide I/I coupling constants for each conformation. These local amide I frequencies are in excellent agreement with those predicted by DFT calculations on the corresponding (13)C = (18)O isotopologues. In the amide II region, potential energy distribution analysis was combined with the Hessian reconstruction scheme to extract local amide II frequencies and amide II/II coupling constants. The agreement between these local amide II frequencies and those obtained from DFT calculations on the N-D isotopologues is slightly worse than for the corresponding comparison in the amide I region. The local mode frequencies in both regions are dictated by a combination of the direct H-bonding environment and indirect, "backside" H-bonds to the same amide group. More importantly, the sign and magnitude of the inter-amide coupling constants in both the amide I and amide II regions is shown to be characteristic of the size of the H-bonded ring linking the two amide groups. These amide I/I and

  6. 77 FR 72291 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Region 4 States; Section 110(a)(2)(D)(i)(II...


    ...)(2)(D)(i)(II) Infrastructure Requirement for the 1997 and 2006 Fine Particulate Matter National... and 2006 24-hour fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS.... Certain other material, such as copyrighted material, is not placed on the Internet and will be...

  7. Brain Region-Specific Effects of cGMP-Dependent Kinase II Knockout on AMPA Receptor Trafficking and Animal Behavior

    Kim, Seonil; Pick, Joseph E.; Abera, Sinedu; Khatri, Latika; Ferreira, Danielle D. P.; Sathler, Matheus F.; Morison, Sage L.; Hofmann, Franz; Ziff, Edward B.


    Phosphorylation of GluA1, a subunit of AMPA receptors (AMPARs), is critical for AMPAR synaptic trafficking and control of synaptic transmission. cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII) mediates this phosphorylation, and cGKII knockout (KO) affects GluA1 phosphorylation and alters animal behavior. Notably, GluA1 phosphorylation in the KO…

  8. Memory Disrupting Effects of Nonmuscle Myosin II Inhibition Depend on the Class of Abused Drug and Brain Region

    Briggs, Sherri B.; Blouin, Ashley M.; Young, Erica J.; Rumbaugh, Gavin; Miller, Courtney A.


    Depolymerizing actin in the amygdala through nonmuscle myosin II inhibition (NMIIi) produces a selective, lasting, and retrieval-independent disruption of the storage of methamphetamine-associated memories. Here we report a similar disruption of memories associated with amphetamine, but not cocaine or morphine, by NMIIi. Reconsolidation appeared…

  9. Enhancement of Cry19Aa Mosquitocidal Activity against Aedes aegypti by Mutations in the Putative Loop Regions of Domain II

    Abdullah, Mohd Amir F.; Donald H Dean


    Improvements in the mosquitocidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry19Aa were achieved by protein engineering of putative surface loop residues in domain II through rational design. The improvement of Aedes toxicity in Cry19Aa was 42,000-fold and did not affect its toxicity against Anopheles or Culex.

  10. Brain Region-Specific Effects of cGMP-Dependent Kinase II Knockout on AMPA Receptor Trafficking and Animal Behavior

    Kim, Seonil; Pick, Joseph E.; Abera, Sinedu; Khatri, Latika; Ferreira, Danielle D. P.; Sathler, Matheus F.; Morison, Sage L.; Hofmann, Franz; Ziff, Edward B.


    Phosphorylation of GluA1, a subunit of AMPA receptors (AMPARs), is critical for AMPAR synaptic trafficking and control of synaptic transmission. cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII) mediates this phosphorylation, and cGKII knockout (KO) affects GluA1 phosphorylation and alters animal behavior. Notably, GluA1 phosphorylation in the KO…

  11. Memory Disrupting Effects of Nonmuscle Myosin II Inhibition Depend on the Class of Abused Drug and Brain Region

    Briggs, Sherri B.; Blouin, Ashley M.; Young, Erica J.; Rumbaugh, Gavin; Miller, Courtney A.


    Depolymerizing actin in the amygdala through nonmuscle myosin II inhibition (NMIIi) produces a selective, lasting, and retrieval-independent disruption of the storage of methamphetamine-associated memories. Here we report a similar disruption of memories associated with amphetamine, but not cocaine or morphine, by NMIIi. Reconsolidation appeared…

  12. Testing the universality of star formation - II. Comparing separation distributions of nearby star-forming regions and the field

    King, Robert R; Parker, Richard J; Patience, Jenny


    We have measured the multiplicity fractions and separation distributions of seven young star-forming regions using a uniform sample of young binaries. Both the multiplicity fractions and separation distributions are similar in the different regions. A tentative decline in the multiplicity fraction with increasing stellar density is apparent, even for binary systems with separations too close (19-100au) to have been dynamically processed. The separation distributions in the different regions are statistically indistinguishable over most separation ranges, and the regions with higher densities do not exhibit a lower proportion of wide (300-620au) relative to close (62-300au) binaries as might be expected from the preferential destruction of wider pairs. Only the closest (19-100au) separation range, which would be unaffected by dynamical processing, shows a possible difference in separation distributions between different regions. The combined set of young binaries, however, shows a distinct difference when comp...

  13. Insights from Synthetic Star-forming Regions: II. Verifying Dust Surface Density, Dust Temperature & Gas Mass Measurements with Modified Blackbody Fitting

    Koepferl, Christine M; Dale, James E


    We use a large data-set of realistic synthetic observations (PaperI) to assess how observational techniques affect the measurement of physical properties of star-forming regions. In this paper (PaperII), we explore the reliability of the measured total gas mass, dust surface density and dust temperature maps derived from modified blackbody fitting of synthetic Herschel observations. We found from our pixel-by-pixel analysis of the measured dust surface density and dust temperature a worrisome error spread especially close to star-formation sites and low-density regions, where for those "contaminated" pixels the surface densities can be under/overestimated by up to three orders of magnitude. In light of this, we recommend to treat the pixel-based results from this technique with caution in regions with active star formation. In regions of high background typical in the inner Galactic plane, we are not able to recover reliable surface density maps of individual synthetic regions, since low-mass regions are lost...


    Dopita, Michael A.; Davies, Rebecca; Kewley, Lisa; Hampton, Elise; Sutherland, Ralph [RSAA, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Shastri, Prajval; Kharb, Preeti; Jose, Jessy; Bhatt, Harish; Ramya, S. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala 2 B Block, Bangalore 560034 (India); Scharwächter, Julia [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UMR 8112, 61 Avenue de l’Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Jin, Chichuan [Qian Xuesen Laboratory for Space Technology, Beijing (China); Banfield, Julie [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW, 1710 Australia (Australia); Zaw, Ingyin [New York University (Abu Dhabi), 70 Washington Square South, New York, NY 10012 (United States); Juneau, Stéphanie [CEA-Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); James, Bethan [Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge University, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Srivastava, Shweta, E-mail: [Astronomy and Astrophysics Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380009 (India)


    Here we describe the Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7) and present results on 64 galaxies drawn from the first data release. The S7 uses the Wide Field Spectrograph mounted on the ANU 2.3 m telescope located at the Siding Spring Observatory to deliver an integral field of 38 × 25 arcsec at a spectral resolution of R = 7000 in the red (530–710 nm), and R = 3000 in the blue (340–560 nm). From these data cubes we have extracted the narrow-line region spectra from a 4 arcsec aperture centered on the nucleus. We also determine the Hβ and [O iii] λ5007 fluxes in the narrow lines, the nuclear reddening, the reddening-corrected relative intensities of the observed emission lines, and the Hβ and [O iii] λ5007 luminosities determined from spectra for which the stellar continuum has been removed. We present a set of images of the galaxies in [O iii] λ5007, [N ii] λ6584, and Hα, which serve to delineate the spatial extent of the extended narrow-line region and also to reveal the structure and morphology of the surrounding H ii regions. Finally, we provide a preliminary discussion of those Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies that display coronal emission lines in order to explore the origin of these lines.

  15. Energy balance in the solar transition region. II - Effects of pressure and energy input on hydrostatic models

    Fontenla, J. M.; Avrett, E. H.; Loeser, R.


    The radiation of energy by hydrogen lines and continua in hydrostatic energy-balance models of the transition region between the solar chromosphere and corona is studied using models which assume that mechanical or magnetic energy is dissipated in the hot corona and is then transported toward the chromosphere down the steep temperature gradient of the transition region. These models explain the average quiet sun and also the entire range of variability of the Ly-alpha lines. The relations between the downward energy flux, the pressure of the transition region, and the different hydrogen emission are described.

  16. The Magnitude and Regional Distribution of Needs for Hydropower - Phase II Future Electric Power Supply and Demand. Volume 4



  17. A study of genetic polymorphisms in mitochondrial DNA hypervariable regions I and II of the five major ethnic groups and Vedda population in Sri Lanka.

    Ranasinghe, Ruwandi; Tennekoon, Kamani H; Karunanayake, Eric H; Lembring, Maria; Allen, Marie


    Diversity of the hypervariable regions (HV) I and II of the mitochondrial genome was studied in maternally unrelated Sri Lankans (N=202) from six ethnic groups (i.e.: Sinhalese, Sri Lankan Tamil, Muslim, Malay, Indian Tamil and Vedda). DNA was extracted from blood and buccal swabs and HVI and HVII regions were PCR amplified and sequenced. Resulting sequences were aligned and edited between 16024-16365 and 73-340 regions and compared with revised Cambridge reference sequences (rCRS). One hundred and thirty-five unique haplotypes and 22 shared haplotypes were observed. A total of 145 polymorphic sites and 158 polymorphisms were observed. Hypervariable region I showed a higher polymorphic variation than hypervariable region II. Nucleotide diversities were quite low and similar for all ethnicities apart from a slightly higher value for Indian Tamils and a much lower value for the Vedda population compared to the other groups. When the total population was considered South Asian (Indian) haplogroups were predominant, but there were differences in the distribution of phylo-geographical haplogroups between ethnic groups. Sinhalese, Sri Lankan Tamil and Vedda populations had a considerable presence of West Eurasian haplogroups. About 2/3rd of the Vedda population comprised of macro-haplogroup N or its subclades R and U, whereas macro-haplogroup M was predominant in all other populations. The Vedda population clustered separately from other groups and Sri Lankan Tamils showed a closer genetic affiliation to Sinhalese than to Indian Tamils. Thus this study provides useful information for forensic analysis and anthropological studies of Sri Lankans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ionization Parameter as a Diagnostic of Radiation and Wind Pressures in H II Regions and Starburst Galaxies

    Yeh, Sherry C C


    The ionization parameter U is potentially useful for measuring radiation pressure feedback from massive star clusters, as it reflects the radiation-to-gas-pressure ratio and is readily derived from mid-infrared line ratios. We consider several effects which determine the apparent value of U in HII regions and galaxies. An upper limit is set by the compression of gas by radiation pressure. The pressure from stellar winds and the presence of neutral clumps both reduce U for a given radiation intensity. The most intensely irradiated regions are selectively dimmed by internal dust absorption of ionizing photons, inducing observational bias on galactic scales. We explore these effects analytically and numerically, and use them to interpret previous observational results. We find that radiation confinement sets the upper limit log_10 U = -1 seen in individual regions. Unresolved starbursts display a maximum value of ~ -2.3. While lower, this is also consistent with a large portion of their HII regions being radiati...

  19. Cuantification poblacional de lobo marino Comun (Otaria flavescens) en el litoral de la XV, I y II Regiones.

    Contreras Von Meyer, Francisco; Bartheld Villagra, José Luis; Moreno Gómez, Felipe; Torres, Juan Pablo; Montecinos, Mario


    Este informe fue desarrollado en respuesta al censo de Lobos Marinos desarrollado en la XV Región de Arica y Parinacota, I Región de Tarapacá y II Región de Antofagasta.Con el fin de actualizar la información que existe de las poblaciones de Otaria flavescens en la zona Norte de Chile (se efectuaron dos censos, el primero durante la temporada post-reproductiva del año 2012 y el segundo durante la temporada reproductiva del año 2013. Los censos fueron ejecutados mediante dos metodo...

  20. [Development of pharmacy in the Leskovac region for the period from liberation from the Turks until World War II].

    Milić, Petar; Milić, Slavica


    From the historical point of view, there are three time periods when the process of modernization of Serbian society took place. First period includes the interval from the beginning of the 19th century until the end of World War I, when the Serbian country was reestablished as Serbian Knezevina (princedom) and in 1882 as Serbian Kingdom. Second period includes an interval from the unity of Serbia into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croatians and Slovenians, which was established at the end of World War I (1918) and in 1929 changed the name into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, which lasted until the end of World War II. The third period includes time after World War II. In this paper, the social-economical conditions in the Leskovac area during the first two periods of modernization were described, as well as the pharmacy development emphasizing the characteristic of the pharmaceutics. The Leskovac area belongs to most recently liberated areas in Serbia, i.e. Leskovac was liberated at the end of 1877. Nevertheless, the first pharmacy was opened in Leskovac in 1862, during the reign of the Turks. The authors being the people from Leskovac as well as the pharmacists believe that they contributed to better overview of the activities of people from modernization period, paying them well-deserved recognition.

  1. Kinetics modelling of Cu(II) biosorption on to coconut shell and Moringa oleifera seeds from tropical regions.

    Acheampong, Mike A; Pereira, Joana P C; Meulepas, Roel J W; Lens, Piet N L


    Adsorption kinetic studies are of great significance in evaluating the performance of a given adsorbent and gaining insight into the underlying mechanism. This work investigated the sorption kinetics of Cu(II) on to coconut shell and Moringa oleifera seeds using batch techniques. To understand the mechanisms of the biosorption process and the potential rate-controlling steps, kinetic models were used to fit the experimental data. The results indicate that kinetic data were best described by the pseudo-second-order model with correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.9974 and 0.9958 for the coconut shell and Moringa oleifera seeds, respectively. The initial sorption rates obtained for coconut shell and Moringa oleifera seeds were 9.6395 x 10(-3) and 8.3292 x 10(-2) mg g(-1) min(-1), respectively. The values of the mass transfer coefficients obtained for coconut shell (1.2106 x 10(-3) cm s(-1)) and Moringa oleifera seeds (8.965 x 10(-4) cm s(-1)) indicate that the transport of Cu(II) from the bulk liquid to the solid phase was quite fast for both materials investigated. The results indicate that intraparticle diffusion controls the rate of sorption in this study; however, film diffusion cannot be neglected, especially at the initial stage of sorption.

  2. Surgical excision of the breast giant fibroadenoma under regional anesthesia by Pecs II and internal intercostal plane block: a case report and brief technical description: a case report.

    Kim, Hyungtae; Shim, Junho; Kim, Ikthae


    A 22-years-old female patient at 171 cm and 67 kg visited the Department of Breast Surgery of the hospital with a mass accompanied with pain on the left side breast as chief complaints. Since physical examination revealed a suspected huge mass, breast surgeon decided to perform surgical excision and requested anesthesia to our department. Surgery of breast tumor is often under local anesthesia. However, in case of big size tumor, surgery is usually performed under general anesthesia. The patient feared general anesthesia. Unlike abdominal surgery, there is no need to control visceral pain for breast and anterior thoracic wall surgery. Therefore, we decided to perform resection under regional anesthesia. Herein, we report a successful anesthetic and pain management of the patient undergoing excision of a huge breast fibroadenoma under regional anesthesia using Pecs II and internal intercostal plane block.

  3. Transient behavior of flare-associated solar wind. II - Gas dynamics in a nonradial open field region

    Nagai, F.


    Transient behavior of flare-associated solar wind in the nonradial open field region is numerically investigated, taking into account the thermal and dynamical coupling between the chromosphere and the corona. A realistic steady solar wind is constructed which passes through the inner X-type critical point in the rapidly diverging region. The wind speed shows a local maximum at the middle, O-type, critical point. The wind's density and pressure distributions decrease abruptly in the rapidly diverging region of the flow tube. The transient behavior of the wind following flare energy deposition includes ascending and descending conduction fronts. Thermal instability occurs in the lower corona, and ascending material flows out through the throat after the flare energy input ceases. A local density distribution peak is generated at the shock front due to the pressure deficit just behind the shock front.

  4. Studies on the parietal region of the cervid skull. II. The parietooccipital region in the skull of the fallow deer (Dama dama L.).

    Kierdorf, U; Kierdorf, H


    In contrast to the situation in roe deer (Kierdorf and Kierdorf, in press) and other cervid species, an os interparietale was missing in the fallow deer cranium. Absence of this skull element in Dama dama is regarded as an apomorphic character state. The area covered by the interparietals in Capreolus was occupied by the parietals in Dama. This condition (loss of interparietals, enlargement of parietals) is in accord with a trend seen in vertebrate evolution, that is, progressive reduction in the number of skull elements concomitant with enlargement of the remaining bones. Synostosis of the parietals in Dama started a few days post partum and was completed at about 7 to 8 months of age. In males, obliteration of the sutura parietooccipitalis commenced in adult life, whereas in females only closure of the central region of this suture was occasionally observed.

  5. Specialized consultant in radiological safety to the Salamanca regional hospital, PEMEX. II. - August of 2001; Asesoria especializada en seguridad radiologica al hospital regional Salamanca, PEMEX. II.- Agosto de 2001

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J. A.; Garcia A, J.; Rodriguez A, F


    The Salamanca regional hospital, dependent of PEMEX, It request consultant of the ININ to be able to maintain their sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment for the radiologic diagnostic.The proposal of the ININ was to be a program of technical attendance, schedule monthly to be able to solve the observations that are presented in the use of those equipment, and that the hospital can conserve its respective sanitary license.(Author)

  6. Preliminary environmental assessment of selected geopressured - geothermal prospect areas: Louisiana Gulf Coast Region. Volume II. Environmental baseline data

    Newchurch, E.J.; Bachman, A.L.; Bryan, C.F.; Harrison, D.P.; Muller, R.A.; Newman, J.P. Jr.; Smith, C.G. Jr.; Bailey, J.I. Jr.; Kelly, G.G.; Reibert, K.C.


    A separate section is presented for each of the six prospect areas studied. Each section includes a compilation and discussion of environmental baseline data derived from existing sources. The data are arranged as follows: geology and geohydrology, air quality, water resources and flood hazards, ecological systems, and land use. When data specific to the prospect were not available, regional data are reported. (MHR)

  7. Mutations within enhancer II and BCP regions of hepatitis B virus in relation to advanced liver diseases in patients infected with subgenotype B3 in Indonesia.

    Heriyanto, Didik Setyo; Yano, Yoshihiko; Utsumi, Takako; Anggorowati, Nungki; Rinonce, Hanggoro Tri; Lusida, Maria Inge; Soetjipto; Triwikatmani, Catharina; Ratnasari, Neneng; Maduseno, Sutanto; Purnama, Putut Bayu; Nurdjanah, Siti; Hayashi, Yoshitake


    Studies on the characteristics of mutations within the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome, their roles in the pathogenesis of advanced liver diseases, and the involvement of host properties of HBV-infected individuals have not been conducted in subgenotype B3-infected populations. For addressing this issue, 40 cases with HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive advanced liver diseases, including advanced liver cancer and cirrhosis (male 31, female 9, age 54.4 ± 11.6-year-old), were collected and compared with 109 cases with chronic hepatitis B (male 71, female 38, age 38.0 ± 13.4-year-old). Mutations in enhancer II (Enh II) and basal core promoter (BCP)/precore regions were analyzed by PCR-direct sequencing method. HBV viral load was examined by real-time PCR. For all examined regions, the prevalence of mutation was significantly higher in cases with advanced liver diseases. Multivariate analysis showed that, in patients older than 45 years, C1638T and T1753V mutations constituted independent risk factors for the advancement of liver diseases. The presence of C1638T and T1753V mutations may serve as predictive markers for the progression of liver diseases in Indonesia and other countries, where subgenotype B3 infection is prevalent.

  8. The nuclear regions of NGC 7582 from [NeII] spectroscopy at 12.8 microns - an estimate of the black hole mass

    Wold, M; Käufl, H U; Siebenmorgen, R


    We present a high-resolution (R~16,000) spectrum and a narrow-band image centered on the [NeII]12.8 micron line of the central kpc region of the starburst/Seyfert2 galaxy NGC 7582. The galaxy has a rotating circum-nuclear starburst disk, shown at great detail at a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.4 arcsec. The high spatial resolution allows us to probe the dynamics of the [NeII] gas in the nuclear regions, and to estimate the mass of the central black hole. We construct models of gas disks rotating in the combined gravitational potential from the stellar bulge and a central black hole, and derive a black hole mass of 5.5 x 10^7 solar masses with a 95% confidence interval of [3.6,8.1] x 10^7 solar masses. The black hole mass combined with stellar velocity dispersion measurements from the literature shows that the galaxy is consistent with the local M-sigma relation. This is the first time that a black hole mass in a galaxy except our own Milky Way system has been estimated from gas dynamics in the mid-infra...

  9. IRAS 18153-1651: an H II region with a possible wind bubble blown by a young main-sequence B star

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Mackey, J.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Langer, N.; Chené, A.-N.; Castro, N.; Haworth, T. J.; Grebel, E. K.


    We report the results of spectroscopic observations and numerical modelling of the H II region IRAS 18153-1651. Our study was motivated by the discovery of an optical arc and two main-sequence stars of spectral type B1 and B3 near the centre of IRAS 18153-1651. We interpret the arc as the edge of the wind bubble (blown by the B1 star), whose brightness is enhanced by the interaction with a photoevaporation flow from a nearby molecular cloud. This interpretation implies that we deal with a unique case of a young massive star (the most massive member of a recently formed low-mass star cluster) caught just tens of thousands of years after its stellar wind has begun to blow a bubble into the surrounding dense medium. Our 2D, radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the wind bubble and the H II region around the B1 star provide a reasonable match to observations, both in terms of morphology and absolute brightness of the optical and mid-infrared emission, and verify the young age of IRAS 18153-1651. Taken together our results strongly suggest that we have revealed the first example of a wind bubble blown by a main-sequence B star.

  10. SOFIA/FORCAST and Spitzer/IRAC Imaging of the Ultra Compact H II Region W3(OH) and Associated Protostars in W3

    Hirsch, Lea; Herter, Terry L; Hora, Joseph L; De Buizer, James M; Megeath, S Thomas; Gull, George E; Henderson, Charles P; Keller, Luke D; Schoenwald, Justin; Vacca, William


    We present infrared observations of the ultra-compact H II region W3(OH) made by the FORCAST instrument aboard SOFIA and by Spitzer/IRAC. We contribute new wavelength data to the spectral energy distribution, which constrains the optical depth, grain size distribution, and temperature gradient of the dusty shell surrounding the H II region. We model the dust component as a spherical shell containing an inner cavity with radius ~ 600 AU, irradiated by a central star of type O9 and temperature ~ 31,000 K. The total luminosity of this system is 71,000 L_solar. An observed excess of 2.2 - 4.5 microns emission in the SED can be explained by our viewing a cavity opening or clumpiness in the shell structure whereby radiation from the warm interior of the shell can escape. We claim to detect the nearby water maser source W3 (H2O) at 31.4 and 37.1 microns using beam deconvolution of the FORCAST images. We constrain the flux densities of this object at 19.7 - 37.1 microns. Additionally, we present in situ observations ...

  11. Specific mutations in the enhancer II/core promoter/precore regions of hepatitis B virus subgenotype C2 in Korean patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Kim, Ja Kyung; Chang, Hye Young; Lee, Jung Min; Baatarkhuu, Oidov; Yoon, Young Joon; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, Do Young; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Chon, Chae Yoon; Ahn, Sang Hoon


    Recently, hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes and mutations have been reported to be related to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This cross-sectional case-control study examined the relationship between HCC and mutations in the enhancer II/core promoter and precore regions of HBV by comparing 135 Korean HCC patients infected with HBV genotype C2 (HBV/C2; HCC group) with 135 age-, sex-, and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) status-matched patients without HCC (non- HCC group). Age and sex were also matched between HBeAg-positive and -negative patients. The prevalence of T1653, A1689, V1753, T1762/A1764, T1846, A1850, C1858, and A1896 mutations was evaluated in this population. The prevalence of the T1653 mutation in the box alpha region, the T1689 [corrected] mutation in between the box alpha and beta regions, and the T1762/A1764 mutations in the basal core promoter region was significantly higher in the HCC group compared to the non-HCC group (8.9% vs. 2.2%, P = 0.017; 19.3% vs. 4.4%, P HBV/C2.

  12. Thorium concentrations in the lunar surface. II - Deconvolution modeling and its application to the regions of Aristarchus and Mare Smythii

    Haines, E. L.; Etchegaray-Ramirez, M. I.; Metzger, A. E.


    The broad angular response which characterized the Apollo gamma ray spectrometer resulted in a loss of spatial resolution and some of the contrast in determining surface concentrations within lunar regions small compared to the field of view. A deconvolution technique has been developed which removes much of this instrumental effect, thereby improving both spatial resolution and accuracy at the cost of a loss in precision. Geometric models of regional thorium distribution are convoluted through the response function of the instrument to yield a predicted distribution which is compared with the observed data field for quality of fit. Application to areas which include Aristarchus and Mare Smythii confirm some geological relationships and fail to support others.

  13. Physiotherapy for pain and disability in adults with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) types I and II


    Background   Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful and disabling condition that usually manifests in response to trauma or surgery. When it occurs, it is associated with significant pain and disability. It is thought to arise and persist as a consequence of a maladaptive pro-inflammatory response and disturbances in sympathetically-mediated vasomotor control, together with maladaptive peripheral and central neuronal plasticity. CRPS can be classified into two types: type I (CRPS ...

  14. Regional climate change experiments over southern South America. II: Climate change scenarios in the late twenty-first century

    Nunez, Mario N.; Solman, Silvina A. [Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera (CIMA-CONICET/UBA) DCAO (FCEyN-UBA), Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon II, Piso 2, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cabre, Maria Fernanda [Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera (CIMA-CONICET/UBA), Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon II, Piso 2, Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    We present an analysis of climate change over southern South America as simulated by a regional climate model. The regional model MM5 was nested within time-slice global atmospheric model experiments conducted by the HadAM3H model. The simulations cover a 10-year period representing present-day climate (1981-1990) and two future scenarios for the SRESA2 and B2 emission scenarios for the period 2081-2090. There are a few quantitative differences between the two regional scenarios. The simulated changes are larger for the A2 than the B2 scenario, although with few qualitative differences. For the two regional scenarios, the warming in southern Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia and northeastern Argentina is particularly large in spring. Over the western coast of South America both scenarios project a general decrease in precipitation. Both the A2 and B2 simulations show a general increase in precipitation in northern and central Argentina especially in summer and fall and a general decrease in precipitation in winter and spring. In fall the simulations agree on a general decrease in precipitation in southern Brazil. This reflects changes in the atmospheric circulation during winter and spring. Changes in mean sea level pressure show a cell of increasing pressure centered somewhere in the southern Atlantic Ocean and southern Pacific Ocean, mainly during summer and fall in the Atlantic and in spring in the Pacific. In relation to the pressure distribution in the control run, this indicates a southward extension of the summer mean Atlantic and Pacific subtropical highs. (orig.)

  15. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project. II. The Star-formation History of the Starburst Region NGC 2070 in 30 Doradus

    Cignoni, M.; Sabbi, E.; van der Marel, R. P.; Tosi, M.; Zaritsky, D.; Anderson, J.; Lennon, D. J.; Aloisi, A.; de Marchi, G.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grebel, E. K.; Smith, L. J.; Zeidler, P.


    We present a study of the recent star formation (SF) of 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using the panchromatic imaging survey Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project. In this paper we focus on the stars within 20 pc of the center of 30 Doradus, the starburst region NGC 2070. We recovered the SF history by comparing deep optical and near-infrared color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with state-of-the-art synthetic CMDs generated with the latest PAdova and TRieste Stellar Evolution Code (PARSEC) models, which include all stellar phases from pre-main-sequence to post-main-sequence. For the first time in this region we are able to measure the SF using intermediate- and low-mass stars simultaneously. Our results suggest that NGC 2070 experienced prolonged activity. In particular, we find that the SF in the region (1) exceeded the average LMC rate ≈ 20 Myr ago, (2) accelerated dramatically ≈ 7 Myr ago, and (3) reached a peak value 1-3 Myr ago. We did not find significant deviations from a Kroupa initial mass function down to 0.5 {M}⊙ . The average internal reddening E(B-V) is found to be between 0.3 and 0.4 mag. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  16. Photon-dominated region modeling of the [C I], [C II], and CO Line Emission From A Boundary In The Taurus molecular cloud

    Orr, Matthew E. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Pineda, Jorge L.; Goldsmith, Paul F. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States)


    We present [C I] and [C II] observations of a linear edge region in the Taurus molecular cloud, and model this region as a cylindrically symmetric photon-dominated region (PDR) exposed to a low-intensity UV radiation field. The sharp, long profile of the linear edge makes it an ideal case to test PDR models and determine cloud parameters. We compare observations of the [C I], {sup 3} P {sub 1} → {sup 3} P {sub 0} (492 GHz), [C I] {sup 3} P {sub 2} → {sup 3} P {sub 1} (809 GHz), and [C II] {sup 2} P {sub 3/2} → {sup 2} P {sub 1/2} (1900 GHz) transitions, as well as the lowest rotational transitions of {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO, with line intensities produced by the RATRAN radiative transfer code from the results of the Meudon PDR code. We constrain the density structure of the cloud by fitting a cylindrical density function to visual extinction data. We study the effects of variation of the FUV field, {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C isotopic abundance ratio, sulfur depletion, cosmic ray ionization rate, and inclination of the filament relative to the sky-plane on the chemical network of the PDR model and resulting line emission. We also consider the role of suprathermal chemistry and density inhomogeneities. We find good agreement between the model and observations, and that the integrated line intensities can be explained by a PDR model with an external FUV field of 0.05 G {sub 0}, a low ratio of {sup 12}C to {sup 13}C ∼43, a highly depleted sulfur abundance (by a factor of at least 50), a cosmic ray ionization rate (3-6) × 10{sup –17} s{sup –1}, and without significant effects from inclination, clumping or suprathermal chemistry.

  17. Multidimensional Chemical Modeling of Young Stellar Objects. II. Irradiated Outflow Walls in a High-Mass Star-Forming Region

    Bruderer, S.; Benz, A. O.; Doty, S. D.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Bourke, T. L.


    Observations of the high-mass star-forming region AFGL 2591 reveal a large abundance of CO+, a molecule known to be enhanced by far-ultraviolet (FUV) and X-ray irradiation. In chemical models assuming a spherically symmetric envelope, the volume of gas irradiated by protostellar FUV radiation is very small due to the high extinction by dust. The abundance of CO+ is thus underpredicted by orders of magnitude. In a more realistic model, FUV photons can escape through an outflow region and irradiate gas at the border to the envelope. Thus, we introduce the first two-dimensional axisymmetric chemical model of the envelope of a high-mass star-forming region to explain the CO+ observations as a prototypical FUV tracer. The model assumes an axisymmetric power-law density structure with a cavity due to the outflow. The local FUV flux is calculated by a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code taking scattering on dust into account. A grid of precalculated chemical abundances, introduced in the first part of this series of papers, is used to quickly interpolate chemical abundances. This approach allows us to calculate the temperature structure of the FUV-heated outflow walls self-consistently with the chemistry. Synthetic maps of the line flux are calculated using a raytracer code. Single-dish and interferometric observations are simulated and the model results are compared to published and new JCMT and Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations. The two-dimensional model of AFGL 2591 is able to reproduce the JCMT single-dish observations and also explains the nondetection by the SMA. We conclude that the observed CO+ line flux and its narrow width can be interpreted by emission from the warm and dense outflow walls irradiated by protostellar FUV radiation.

  18. The Carboxy Terminal Region of the Human Cytomegalovirus Immediate Early 1 (IE1 Protein Disrupts Type II Inteferon Signaling

    Bindu Raghavan


    Full Text Available Interferons (IFNs activate the first lines of defense against viruses, and promote innate and adaptive immune responses to viruses. We report that the immediate early 1 (IE1 protein of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV disrupts signaling by IFNγ. The carboxyl-terminal region of IE1 is required for this function. We found no defect in the initial events in IFNγ signaling or in nuclear accumulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1 in IE1-expressing cells. Moreover, we did not observe an association between disruption of IFNγ signaling and nuclear domain 10 (ND10 disruption. However, there is reduced binding of STAT1 homodimers to target gamma activated sequence (GAS elements in the presence of IE1. Co-immunoprecipitation studies failed to support a direct interaction between IE1 and STAT1, although these studies revealed that the C-terminal region of IE1 was required for interaction with STAT2. Together, these results indicate that IE1 disrupts IFNγ signaling by interfering with signaling events in the nucleus through a novel mechanism.

  19. NuSTAR Hard X-ray Survey of the Galactic Center Region II: X-ray Point Sources

    Hong, JaeSub; Hailey, Charles J; Nynka, Melania; Zhang, Shuo; Gotthelf, Eric; Fornasini, Francesca M; Krivonos, Roman; Bauer, Franz; Perez, Kerstin; Tomsick, John A; Bodaghee, Arash; Chiu, Jeng-Lun; Clavel, Maïca; Stern, Daniel; Grindlay, Jonathan E; Alexander, David M; Aramaki, Tsuguo; Baganoff, Frederick K; Barret, David; Barrière, Nicolas; Boggs, Steven E; Canipe, Alicia M; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William W; Desai, Meera A; Forster, Karl; Giommi, Paolo; Grefenstette, Brian W; Harrison, Fiona A; Hong, Dooran; Hornstrup, Allan; Kitaguchi, Takao; Koglin, Jason E; Madsen, Kristen K; Mao, Peter H; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Perri, Matteo; Pivovaroff, Michael J; Puccetti, Simonetta; Rana, Vikram; Westergaard, Niels J; Zhang, William W; Zoglauer, Andreas


    We present the first survey results of hard X-ray point sources in the Galactic Center (GC) region by NuSTAR. We have discovered 70 hard (3-79 keV) X-ray point sources in a 0.6 deg^2 region around Sgr A* with a total exposure of 1.7 Ms, and 7 sources in the Sgr B2 field with 300 ks. We identify clear Chandra counterparts for 58 NuSTAR sources and assign candidate counterparts for the remaining 19. The NuSTAR survey reaches X-ray luminosities of ~4 x and ~8 x 10^32 erg s^-1 at the GC (8 kpc) in the 3-10 and 10-40 keV bands, respectively. The source list includes three persistent luminous X-ray binaries and the likely run-away pulsar called the Cannonball. New source-detection significance maps reveal a cluster of hard (>10 keV) X-ray sources near the Sgr A diffuse complex with no clear soft X-ray counterparts. The severe extinction observed in the Chandra spectra indicates that all the NuSTAR sources are in the central bulge or are of extragalactic origin. Spectral analysis of relatively bright NuSTAR sources ...

  20. Determining Inclinations of Active Galactic Nuclei Via Their Narrow-Line Region Kinematics - II. Correlation With Observed Properties

    Fischer, T C; Kraemer, S B; Schmitt, H R; Turner, T J


    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are axisymmetric systems to first order; their observed properties are likely strong functions of inclination with respect to our line of sight, yet the specific inclinations of all but a few AGN are generally unknown. By determining the inclinations and geometries of nearby Seyfert galaxies using the kinematics of their narrow-line regions (NLRs), and comparing them with observed properties, we find strong correlations between inclination and total hydrogen column density, infrared color, and H-beta full-width at half maximum (FWHM). These correlations provide evidence that the orientation of AGN with respect to our line of sight affects how we perceive them, beyond the Seyfert type dichotomy. They can also be used to constrain 3D models of AGN components such as the broad-line region and torus. Additionally, we find weak correlations between AGN luminosity and several modeled NLR parameters, which suggests that the NLR geometry and kinematics are dependent to some degree on the ...

  1. Photometric and Spectroscopic Survey of the Cluster [DBS2003] 156 Associated with the H II Region G331.1-0.5

    Pinheiro, M. C.; Ortiz, R.; Abraham, Z.; Copetti, M. V. F.


    The Norma section of the Milky Way is especially interesting because it crosses three spiral arms: Sagittarius-Carina, Scutum-Crux and the Norma arm itself. Distance determinations of embedded young stellar clusters can contribute to define the spiral structure in this part of the Galaxy. However, spectrophotometric distances were obtained for only a few of these clusters in Norma. We present a photometric and spectroscopic study in the NIR of the [DBS2003] 156 stellar cluster, associated with the H II region G331.1-0.5. We aim to find the ionizing sources of the H II region and determine its distance. The cluster was observed in the J, H, and {K}{{s}} bands and eight potential massive stars were chosen among the detected sources according to color criteria; subsequent spectroscopy of these candidates was performed with the Ohio State Infrared Imager/Spectrometer spectrograph attached to the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research 4.1 m telescope. We identified and classified spectroscopically four early-type stars: IRS 176 (O8 V), IRS 308 (O-type), IRS 310 (O6 V), and IRS 71 (B1 Iab). Based on the proximity of IRS 176 and 308 with the radio continuum emission peaks and their relative positions with respect to the warm dust mid-infrared emission, we concluded that these two stars are the main ionizing sources of the H ii region G331.1-0.5. The mean spectrophotometric distance of IRS 176 and 310 of 3.38 ± 0.58 kpc is similar to that obtained in a previous work for two early-type stars of the neighbor cluster [DBS2003] 157 of 3.29 ± 0.58 kpc. The narrow range of radial velocities of radio sources in the area of the clusters [DBS2003] 156 and 157 and their similar visual extinction indicate that these clusters are physically associated. A common distance of 3.34 ± 0.34 kpc is derived for the system [DBS2003] 156 and 157. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research (SOAR), a joint project of the Ministério de Ci

  2. Climate change impact assessment in Veneto and Friuli Plain groundwater. Part II: a spatially resolved regional risk assessment.

    Pasini, S; Torresan, S; Rizzi, J; Zabeo, A; Critto, A; Marcomini, A


    Climate change impact assessment on water resources has received high international attention over the last two decades, due to the observed global warming and its consequences at the global to local scale. In particular, climate-related risks for groundwater and related ecosystems pose a great concern to scientists and water authorities involved in the protection of these valuable resources. The close link of global warming with water cycle alterations encourages research to deepen current knowledge on relationships between climate trends and status of water systems, and to develop predictive tools for their sustainable management, copying with key principles of EU water policy. Within the European project Life+ TRUST (Tool for Regional-scale assessment of groundwater Storage improvement in adaptation to climaTe change), a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was developed in order to identify impacts from climate change on groundwater and associated ecosystems (e.g. surface waters, agricultural areas, natural environments) and to rank areas and receptors at risk in the high and middle Veneto and Friuli Plain (Italy). Based on an integrated analysis of impacts, vulnerability and risks linked to climate change at the regional scale, a RRA framework complying with the Sources-Pathway-Receptor-Consequence (SPRC) approach was defined. Relevant impacts on groundwater and surface waters (i.e. groundwater level variations, changes in nitrate infiltration processes, changes in water availability for irrigation) were selected and analyzed through hazard scenario, exposure, susceptibility and risk assessment. The RRA methodology used hazard scenarios constructed through global and high resolution model simulations for the 2071-2100 period, according to IPCC A1B emission scenario in order to produce useful indications for future risk prioritization and to support the addressing of adaptation measures, primarily Managed Artificial Recharge (MAR) techniques. Relevant

  3. Computational modeling of elastic properties of carbon nanotube/polymer composites with interphase regions. Part II: Mechanical modeling

    Han, Fei


    We present two modeling approaches for predicting the macroscopic elastic properties of carbon nanotubes/polymer composites with thick interphase regions at the nanotube/matrix frontier. The first model is based on local continuum mechanics; the second one is based on hybrid local/non-local continuum mechanics. The key computational issues, including the peculiar homogenization technique and treatment of periodical boundary conditions in the non-local continuum model, are clarified. Both models are implemented through a three-dimensional geometric representation of the carbon nanotubes network, which has been detailed in Part I. Numerical results are shown and compared for both models in order to test convergence and sensitivity toward input parameters. It is found that both approaches provide similar results in terms of homogenized quantities but locally can lead to very different microscopic fields. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Radial metallicity gradients in spiral galaxies from H II regions and planetary nebulae: probing galactic chemical evolution

    Stanghellini, Letizia


    Radial metallicity gradients, typically observed in spiral galaxies, are excellent constraints for chemical evolution models. The contemporary studies of the two stellar populations, whose progenitors have formed at different times, yield to the chemical and time constraining of the models. In this context, planetary nebula and HII region analysis proved to be ideal two-epochs test populations. We present an assortment of galaxies whose oxygen abundances have been determined both with weak- and strong-line methods, and whose radial metallicity gradients and their evolution in time have disclosed very interesting correlations with the galaxy characteristics. New results from our Gemini/GMOS observations, and a review of the best literature data, set the stage for a better understanding of spiral galaxy evolution.

  5. Evaluation of near-surface temperature, humidity, and equivalent temperature from regional climate models applied in type II downscaling

    Pryor, S. C.; Schoof, J. T.


    Atmosphere-surface interactions are important components of local and regional climates due to their key roles in dictating the surface energy balance and partitioning of energy transfer between sensible and latent heat. The degree to which regional climate models (RCMs) represent these processes with veracity is incompletely characterized, as is their ability to capture the drivers of, and magnitude of, equivalent temperature (Te). This leads to uncertainty in the simulation of near-surface temperature and humidity regimes and the extreme heat events of relevance to human health, in both the contemporary and possible future climate states. Reanalysis-nested RCM simulations are evaluated to determine the degree to which they represent the probability distributions of temperature (T), dew point temperature (Td), specific humidity (q) and Te over the central U.S., the conditional probabilities of Td|T, and the coupling of T, q, and Te to soil moisture and meridional moisture advection within the boundary layer (adv(Te)). Output from all RCMs exhibits discrepancies relative to observationally derived time series of near-surface T, q, Td, and Te, and use of a single layer for soil moisture by one of the RCMs does not appear to substantially degrade the simulations of near-surface T and q relative to RCMs that employ a four-layer soil model. Output from MM5I exhibits highest fidelity for the majority of skill metrics applied herein, and importantly most realistically simulates both the coupling of T and Td, and the expected relationships of boundary layer adv(Te) and soil moisture with near-surface T and q.

  6. The Diversity of Languages in the Alpine-Adriatic Region II. Linguistic Minorities and Enclaves in Austria and Western Hungary

    Herta Maurer-Lausegger


    Full Text Available Die ethnischen Volksgruppen und kleinere Sprachgemeinschaften im multikulturellen Alpen-Adria Raum stellen seit jeher eine bedeutende Schnittstelle zwischen Sprachen und Kulturen mit vielfältiger Tradition dar. In diesem Raum befinden sich national homogene und national gemischte Gebiete. Zu den Minoritäten der Italiener, Kroaten, Österreicher, Slowenen und Ungarn, die in Mehrheits- und Minderheitssituationen leben, kommen noch die Gruppen der Roma und Sinti sowie die so genannten “neuen“ Bevölkerungsgruppen aus dem südslawischen Raum (Bosnier, Kroaten, Serben u. a., die sich in einigen Gebieten nach dem Zerfall des ehemaligen Jugoslawien angesiedelt haben. Sie alle stellen räumlich, politisch und sozioökonomisch ein Wesenselement dieser Region dar. Der vorliegende Beitrag behandelt die autochtonen slowenischen Minderheiten in Kärnten und der Steiermark, die Volksgruppen der Kroaten, Ungarn und Roma im Burgenland sowie die ethnischen Minderheiten der Ungarndeutschen, Kroaten und Roma im Komitat Győr-Moson-Sopron in Westungarn. Alle diese Minoritäten machten eine mehr oder minder gemeinsame geschichtliche und kulturelle Entwicklung durch, litten unter Diskriminierung, Verfolgung und Vertreibung, waren aber voneinander durch politische Grenzen getrennt. Die Rechte der Volksgruppen und kleineren Sprachgemeinschaften sind heute in nationalen und europäischen Gesetzen und Verordnungen verankert. Die Europäische Charta der Regional- oder Minderheitensprachen von 1992, der wohl bedeutendste Markstein für die Geschichte und Gegenwart der europäischen Sprachminderheiten, schaffte wichtige Grundlagen für den Schutz und Fortbestand von Volksgruppen und kleineren Sprachgemeinschaften. Durch die Öffnung der Grenzen und den europäischen Integrationsprozess sind nun verstärkte wechselseitige Kooperationen möglich. Die gegenseitige Unterstützung und Stärkung des Identitätsbewusstseins einzelner Minoritäten eröffnet zukunftsweisende

  7. CHEERS Results from NGC 3393, II: Investigating the Extended Narrow Line Region using Deep Chandra Observations and Hubble Narrow Line Imaging

    Maksym, W Peter; Elvis, Martin; Karovska, Margarita; Paggi, Alessandro; Raymond, John; Wang, Junfeng; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa


    The CHandra Extended Emission Line Region Survey (CHEERS) is an X-ray study of nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) designed to take full advantage of Chandra's unique angular resolution by spatially resolving feedback signatures and effects. In the second paper of a series on CHEERS target NGC 3393, we examine deep high-resolution Chandra images and compare them with Hubble narrow line images of [O III], [S II] and H$\\alpha$, as well as previously-unpublished mid-ultraviolet (MUV) images. We find evidence for a complex multi-phase structure in the circumnuclear ISM, with no single simple correlation between X-rays and high-ionization ([O III]/H$\\alpha$-dominated) and low-ionization ([S II]-dominated) features. We also find X-ray structures ~50-pc in extent, H$\\alpha$ evidence for gas compression, and extended MUV emission associated with the S-shaped arms that envelope the radio jets. In conjunction with existing STIS kinematics, these findings support a role for shock contributions to the feedback, driven by...

  8. Heterogeneously integrated III-V-on-silicon 2.3x μm distributed feedback lasers based on a type-II active region

    Wang, Ruijun; Sprengel, Stephan; Malik, Aditya; Vasiliev, Anton; Boehm, Gerhard; Baets, Roel; Amann, Markus-Christian; Roelkens, Gunther


    We report on 2.3x μm wavelength InP-based type-II distributed feedback (DFB) lasers heterogeneously integrated on a silicon photonics integrated circuit. In the devices, a III-V epitaxial layer stack with a "W"-shaped InGaAs/GaAsSb multi-quantum-well active region is adhesively bonded to the first-order silicon DFB gratings. Single mode laser emission coupled to a single mode silicon waveguide with a side mode suppression ratio of 40 dB is obtained. In continuous-wave regime, the 2.32 μm laser operates close to room temperature (above 15 °C) and emits more than 1 mW output power with a threshold current density of 1.8 kA/cm2 at 5 °C. A tunable diode laser absorption measurement of CO is demonstrated using this source.

  9. InAs/GaSb Type-II superlattice photodiode array inter-pixel region blue-shift by femtosecond (fs) laser anneal

    Das, Sona; Das, Utpal


    A post-growth blue-shift in the band gap of an undoped InAs/GaSb Type-II superlattice (5.5 μm cutoff wavelength), as a result of 775 nm, 150 fs laser annealing, is presented. A band gap blue-shift of ∼72 meV in the {{{p}}}+- and p-layer etched inter-pixel region, laser annealed superlattice is achieved. Using an inter-diffusion model, the dominant group-III and group-V diffusion coefficients are found to be 1.33× {10}-21 {{{m}}}2 {{{s}}}-1 and 4.8× {10}-22 {{{m}}}2 {{{s}}}-1 respectively. Confirmation of the unaltered condition of the superlattice in a Ti/Au masked pixel area establishes this blue-shifted superlattice band gap to be the reason behind the improved inter-pixel isolation resulting from the fs laser annealing technique.

  10. A Large-Scale Genetic Analysis Reveals a Strong Contribution of the HLA Class II Region to Giant Cell Arteritis Susceptibility

    Carmona, F. David; Mackie, Sarah L.; Martín, Jose-Ezequiel; Taylor, John C.; Vaglio, Augusto; Eyre, Stephen; Bossini-Castillo, Lara; Castañeda, Santos; Cid, Maria C.; Hernández-Rodríguez, José; Prieto-González, Sergio; Solans, Roser; Ramentol-Sintas, Marc; González-Escribano, M. Francisca; Ortiz-Fernández, Lourdes; Morado, Inmaculada C.; Narváez, Javier; Miranda-Filloy, José A.; Martínez-Berriochoa, Agustín; Unzurrunzaga, Ainhoa; Hidalgo-Conde, Ana; Madroñero-Vuelta, Ana B.; Fernández-Nebro, Antonio; Ordóñez-Cañizares, M. Carmen; Escalante, Begoña; Marí-Alfonso, Begoña; Sopeña, Bernardo; Magro, César; Raya, Enrique; Grau, Elena; Román, José A.; de Miguel, Eugenio; López-Longo, F. Javier; Martínez, Lina; Gómez-Vaquero, Carmen; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Luis; Díaz-López, J. Bernardino; Caminal-Montero, Luis; Martínez-Zapico, Aleida; Monfort, Jordi; Tío, Laura; Sánchez-Martín, Julio; Alegre-Sancho, Juan J.; Sáez-Comet, Luis; Pérez-Conesa, Mercedes; Corbera-Bellalta, Marc; García-Villanueva, M. Jesús; Fernández-Contreras, M. Encarnación; Sanchez-Pernaute, Olga; Blanco, Ricardo; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Ríos-Fernández, Raquel; Callejas, José L.; Fanlo-Mateo, Patricia; Martínez-Taboada, Víctor M.; Beretta, Lorenzo; Lunardi, Claudio; Cimmino, Marco A.; Gianfreda, Davide; Santilli, Daniele; Ramirez, Giuseppe A.; Soriano, Alessandra; Muratore, Francesco; Pazzola, Giulia; Addimanda, Olga; Wijmenga, Cisca; Witte, Torsten; Schirmer, Jan H.; Moosig, Frank; Schönau, Verena; Franke, Andre; Palm, Øyvind; Molberg, Øyvind; Diamantopoulos, Andreas P.; Carette, Simon; Cuthbertson, David; Forbess, Lindsy J.; Hoffman, Gary S.; Khalidi, Nader A.; Koening, Curry L.; Langford, Carol A.; McAlear, Carol A.; Moreland, Larry; Monach, Paul A.; Pagnoux, Christian; Seo, Philip; Spiera, Robert; Sreih, Antoine G.; Warrington, Kenneth J.; Ytterberg, Steven R.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Pease, Colin T.; Gough, Andrew; Green, Michael; Hordon, Lesley; Jarrett, Stephen; Watts, Richard; Levy, Sarah; Patel, Yusuf; Kamath, Sanjeet; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Worthington, Jane; Koeleman, Bobby P.C.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Barrett, Jennifer H.; Salvarani, Carlo; Merkel, Peter A.; González-Gay, Miguel A.; Morgan, Ann W.; Martín, Javier


    We conducted a large-scale genetic analysis on giant cell arteritis (GCA), a polygenic immune-mediated vasculitis. A case-control cohort, comprising 1,651 case subjects with GCA and 15,306 unrelated control subjects from six different countries of European ancestry, was genotyped by the Immunochip array. We also imputed HLA data with a previously validated imputation method to perform a more comprehensive analysis of this genomic region. The strongest association signals were observed in the HLA region, with rs477515 representing the highest peak (p = 4.05 × 10−40, OR = 1.73). A multivariate model including class II amino acids of HLA-DRβ1 and HLA-DQα1 and one class I amino acid of HLA-B explained most of the HLA association with GCA, consistent with previously reported associations of classical HLA alleles like HLA-DRB1∗04. An omnibus test on polymorphic amino acid positions highlighted DRβ1 13 (p = 4.08 × 10−43) and HLA-DQα1 47 (p = 4.02 × 10−46), 56, and 76 (both p = 1.84 × 10−45) as relevant positions for disease susceptibility. Outside the HLA region, the most significant loci included PTPN22 (rs2476601, p = 1.73 × 10−6, OR = 1.38), LRRC32 (rs10160518, p = 4.39 × 10−6, OR = 1.20), and REL (rs115674477, p = 1.10 × 10−5, OR = 1.63). Our study provides evidence of a strong contribution of HLA class I and II molecules to susceptibility to GCA. In the non-HLA region, we confirmed a key role for the functional PTPN22 rs2476601 variant and proposed other putative risk loci for GCA involved in Th1, Th17, and Treg cell function. PMID:25817017

  11. Feedback from Mass Outflows in Nearby Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Outflows in the Narrow-Line Region of NGC 4151

    Crenshaw, D M; Kraemer, S B; Schmitt, H R


    We present a detailed study of AGN feedback in the narrow-line region (NLR) of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151. We illustrate the data and techniques needed to determine the mass outflow rate and kinetic luminosity of the outflowing ionized gas as a function of position in the NLR. We find that the mass outflow rate peaks at a value of 3 solar masses per year at a distance of 70 pc from the central supermassive black hole (SMBH), which is about 10 times the outflow rate coming from inside 13 pc, and 230 times the mass accretion rate inferred from the bolometric luminosity of NGC 4151. Thus, most of the outflow must arise from "in situ" acceleration of ambient gas throughout the NLR. The kinetic luminosity peaks at 90 pc and drops rapidly thereafter, indicating that most of the kinetic energy is deposited within about 100 pc from the SMBH. Both values exceed the mass outflow rate and kinetic luminosity determined for the UV/X-ray absorber outflows in NGC 4151, indicating the importance of NLR outflows in providi...

  12. The Massive Star Forming Region Cygnus OB2. II. Integrated Stellar Properties and the Star Formation History

    Wright, Nicholas J; Drew, Janet E; Vink, Jorick S


    Cygnus OB2 is the nearest example of a massive star forming region, containing over 50 O-type stars and hundreds of B-type stars. We have analysed the properties of young stars in two fields in Cyg OB2 using the recently published deep catalogue of Chandra X-ray point sources with complementary optical and near-IR photometry. Our sample is complete to 1 Msun (excluding A and B-type stars that do not emit X-rays), making this the deepest study of the stellar properties and star formation history in Cyg OB2 to date. From Siess et al. (2000) isochrone fits to the near-IR color-magnitude diagram, we derive ages of 3.5 (+0.75/-1.0) and 5.25 (+1.5/-1.0) Myrs for sources in the two fields, both with considerable spreads around the pre-MS isochrones. The presence of a stellar population somewhat older than the present-day O-type stars, also fits in with the low fraction of sources with inner circumstellar disks (as traced by the K-band excess) that we find to be very low, but appropriate for a population of age ~5 My...

  13. Inference of Heating Properties from "Hot" Non-flaring Plasmas in Active Region Cores. II. Nanoflare Trains

    Barnes, W T; Bradshaw, S J


    Despite its prediction over two decades ago, the detection of faint, high-temperature ("hot") emission due to nanoflare heating in non-flaring active region cores has proved challenging. Using an efficient two-fluid hydrodynamic model, this paper investigates the properties of the emission expected from repeating nanoflares (a nanoflare train) of varying frequency as well as the separate heating of electrons and ions. If the emission measure distribution ($\\mathrm{EM}(T)$) peaks at $T = T_m$, we find that $\\mathrm{EM}(T_m)$ is independent of details of the nanoflare train, and $\\mathrm{EM}(T)$ above and below $T_m$ reflects different aspects of the heating. Below $T_m$ the main influence is the relationship of the waiting time between successive nanoflares to the nanoflare energy. Above $T_m$ power-law nanoflare distributions lead to an extensive plasma population not present in a monoenergetic train. Furthermore, in some cases characteristic features are present in $\\mathrm{EM}(T)$. Such details may be detec...

  14. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)


    ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and copper (II) complexes of N, N' – ... temperature and coordinated water were determined ... indicating fairly stable complex compounds (Table 1). The complex compounds are insoluble [Table 2] in water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in ...

  15. Mesoscale structure of a morning sector ionospheric shear flow region determined by conjugate Cluster II and MIRACLE ground-based observations

    O. Amm

    Full Text Available We analyse a conjunction event of the Cluster II spacecraft with the MIRACLE ground-based instrument net-work in northern Fennoscandia on 6 February 2001, between 23:00 and 00:00 UT. Shortly after the spacecraft were located at perigee, the Cluster II satellites’ magnetic footpoints move northwards over Scandinavia and Svalbard, almost perfectly aligned with the central chain of the IMAGE magnetometer network, and cross a morning sector ionospheric shear zone during this passage. In this study we focus on the mesoscale structure of the ionosphere. Ionospheric conductances, true horizontal currents, and field-aligned currents (FAC are calculated from the ground-based measurements of the IMAGE magnetometers and the STARE coherent scatter radar, using the 1-D method of characteristics. An excellent agreement between these results and the FAC observed by Cluster II is reached after averaging the Cluster measurements to mesoscales, as well as between the location of the convection reversal boundary (CRB, as observed by STARE and by the Cluster II EFW instrument. A sheet of downward FAC is observed in the vicinity of the CRB, which is mainly caused by the positive divergence of the electric field there. This FAC sheet is detached by 0.5°–2° of latitude from a more equatorward downward FAC sheet at the poleward flank of the westward electrojet. This latter FAC sheet, as well as the upward FAC at the equatorward flank of the jet, are mainly caused by meridional gradients in the ionospheric conductances, which reach up to 25 S in the electrojet region, but only ~ 5 S poleward of it, with a minimum at the CRB. Particle measurements show that the major part of the downward FAC is carried by upward flowing electrons, and only a small part by downward flowing ions. The open-closed field line boundary is found to be located 3°–4° poleward of the CRB, implying significant errors if the latter is used as a proxy of the former.

    Key words

  16. An Infrared Study of the Dust Properties and Geometry of the Arched Filaments H ii Region with SOFIA/FORCAST

    Hankins, M. J.; Lau, R. M.; Morris, M. R.; Herter, T. L.


    Massive stellar clusters provide radiation (∼ {10}7{--}{10}8 {L}ȯ ) and winds (∼1000 km s‑1) that act to heat dust and shape their surrounding environment. In this paper, the Arched Filaments in the Galactic center were studied to better understand the influence of the Arches cluster on its nearby interstellar medium (ISM). The Arched Filaments were observed with the Faint Object InfraRed CAMera for the SOFIA Telescope at 19.7, 25.2, 31.5, and 37.1 μm. Color–temperature maps of the region created with the 25.2 and 37.1 μm data reveal relatively uniform dust temperatures (70–100 K) over the extent of the filaments (∼25 pc). Distances between the cluster and the filaments were calculated assuming equilibrium heating of standard-size ISM dust grains (∼0.1 μm). The distances inferred by this method are in conflict with the projected distance between the filaments and the cluster, although this inconsistency can be explained if the characteristic grain size in the filaments is smaller (∼0.01 μm) than typical values. DustEM models of selected locations within the filaments show evidence of depleted abundances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by factors of ∼1.6–10 by mass compared to the diffuse ISM. The evidence for both PAH depletion and a smaller characteristic grain size points to processing of the ISM within the filaments. We argue that the eroding of dust grains within the filaments is not likely attributable to the radiation or winds from the Arches cluster, but may be related to the physical conditions in the Galactic center.

  17. Ifosfamide plus etoposide combined with regional hyperthermia in patients with locally advanced sarcomas: a phase II study.

    Issels, R D; Prenninger, S W; Nagele, A; Boehm, E; Sauer, H; Jauch, K W; Denecke, H; Berger, H; Peter, K; Wilmanns, W


    From July 1986 to July 1989, 40 patients (92% pretreated) with deep-seated, advanced soft tissue sarcomas (STS, 25 patients), Ewing's sarcomas (ES, eight patients), osteosarcomas (OS, three patients) and chondrosarcomas (ChS, four patients) were treated at the University of Munich in a protocol involving regional hyperthermia (RHT) combined with ifosfamide plus etoposide. A total of 265 RHT treatments (mean, 6.6 RHT per patient) were applied including 33 pelvic, four extremity, and three abdominal sites. The mean tumor volume was 537 cc (range, 50 to 2,980 cc). For systemic chemotherapy, all patients received ifosfamide (1.5 g/m2, days 1 to 5), etoposide (100 mg/m2, days 1, 3, and 5), and mesna (300 mg/m2 x 4, days 1 to 5) with RHT given only on days 1 and 5 in repeated cycles every 4 weeks. Acute toxicity consisted primarily of pain (57%) combined with local discomfort within the annular phased array applicator (AA) of the BSD hyperthermia system (BSD Medical Corp, Salt Lake City, UT). The average maximum systemic temperature was 37.4 +/- 0.5 degrees C, and there was no indication of enhanced bone marrow toxicity due to the addition of RHT to the systemic chemotherapy. Detailed thermal mapping by invasive thermometry was performed in all patients. In 38 assessable patients, the overall objective response rate was 37%: six complete responses (CRs), four partial responses (PRs), and four favorable histologic responses (FHRs) (95% confidence limits, 22% to 54%). Complete responders are alive and disease-free at 40, 35, 23, 19, 19, and 8 months. Of patients with PR and FHR, two died from metastatic disease after 4 and 17 months and one died from other disease after 27 months. The remaining five patients are stable at 37, 25, 21, 13, and 8 months. Eleven patients showed no change (NC), and 13 patients showed local tumor progression (PD). The mean observation time for all patients was 11.6 months. The time-averaged temperatures (Ts) of all RHT treatments calculated as

  18. Physical and chemical variations within the W3 star-forming region. II. The 345 GHz spectral line survey.

    Helmich, F. P.; van Dishoeck, E. F.


    Results are presented of the 345 GHz spectral survey toward three sources in the W3 Giant Molecular Cloud: W3 IRS4, W3 IRS5 and W3(H_2O). Nearly 90% of the atmospheric window between 334 and 365 GHz has been scanned using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope down to a noise level of ~80 mK per resolution element. These observations are complemented by a large amount of data in the 230 GHz atmospheric window. From this data set physical conditions and beam-averaged column densities are derived for more than 14 chemically different species (over 24 different isotopes). The physical parameters derived in Paper I (\\cite[Helmich et al. 1994]{ref36}) are confirmed by the analysis of the excitation of other species, although there is evidence that the silicon- and sulfur-bearing molecules exist in a somewhat denser and warmer environment. The densities are high, >= 10^6 cm^{-3}, in the three sources and the kinetic temperatures for the bulk of the gas range from 55 K for IRS4 to 220 K for W3(H_2O). The chemical differences between the three sources are very striking: silicon- and sulfur-bearing molecules such as SiO and SO_2 are prominent toward IRS5, whereas organic molecules like CH_3OH, CH_3OCH_3 and CH_3OCHO are at least an order of magnitude more abundant toward W3(H_2O). Vibrationally excited molecules are also detected toward this source. Only simple molecules are found toward IRS4. The data provide constraints on the amount of deuterium fractionation and the ionization fraction in the observed regions as well. These chemical characteristics are discussed in the context of an evolutionary sequence, in which IRS5 is the youngest, W3(H_2O) somewhat older and IRS4, although still enigmatic, the oldest. The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope is operated by the The Joint Astronomy Centre on behalf of the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, and the National Research Council of Canada

  19. Search for OB stars running away from young star clusters. II. The NGC 6357 star-forming region

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Kroupa, P.; Oh, S.


    Dynamical few-body encounters in the dense cores of young massive star clusters are responsible for the loss of a significant fraction of their massive stellar content. Some of the escaping (runaway) stars move through the ambient medium supersonically and can be revealed via detection of their bow shocks (visible in the infrared, optical or radio). In this paper, which is the second of a series of papers devoted to the search for OB stars running away from young ( ≲ several Myr) Galactic clusters and OB associations, we present the results of the search for bow shocks around the star-forming region NGC 6357. Using the archival data of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite and the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the preliminary data release of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we discovered seven bow shocks, whose geometry is consistent with the possibility that they are generated by stars expelled from the young (~1-2 Myr) star clusters, Pismis 24 and AH03 J1725-34.4, associated with NGC 6357. Two of the seven bow shocks are driven by the already known OB stars, HD 319881 and [N78] 34. Follow-up spectroscopy of three other bow-shock-producing stars showed that they are massive (O-type) stars as well, while the 2MASS photometry of the remaining two stars suggests that they could be B0 V stars, provided that both are located at the same distance as NGC 6357. Detection of numerous massive stars ejected from the very young clusters is consistent with the theoretical expectation that star clusters can effectively lose massive stars at the very beginning of their dynamical evolution (long before the second mechanism for production of runaway stars, based on a supernova explosion in a massive tight binary system, begins to operate) and lends strong support to the idea that probably all field OB stars have been dynamically ejected from their birth clusters. A by-product of our search for bow shocks around NGC 6357 is the detection of three circular

  20. Mapping of the human dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein gene (DMP1) to the dentinogenesis imperfecta type II critical region at chromosome 4q21

    Aplin, H.M.; Hirst, K.L.; Crosby, A.H.; Dixon, M.J. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)


    Dentinogenesis imperfecta type II (DGI1) is an autosomal dominant disorder of dentin formation, which has been mapped to human chromosome 4q12-q21. The region most likely to contain the DGI1 locus is a 3.2-cM region surrounding the osteopontin (SPP1) locus. Recently, a novel dentin-specific acidic phosphoprotein (dmp1) has been cloned in the rat and mapped to mouse chromosome 5q21. In the current investigation, we have isolated a cosmid containing the human DMP1 gene. The isolation of a short tandem repeat polymorphism at this locus has allowed us to map the DMP1 locus to human chromosome 4q21 and demonstrate that it is tightly linked to DGI1 in two families (Z{sub max} = 11.01, {theta} = 0.001). The creation of a yeast artificial chromosome contig around SPP1 has further allowed us to demonstrate that DMP1 is located within 150 kb of the bone sialoprotein and 490 kb of the SPP1 loci, respectively. DMP1 is therefore a strong candidate for the DGI1 locus. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Human mtDNA hypervariable regions, HVR I and II, hint at deep common maternal founder and subsequent maternal gene flow in Indian population groups.

    Sharma, Swarkar; Saha, Anjana; Rai, Ekta; Bhat, Audesh; Bamezai, Ramesh


    We have analysed the hypervariable regions (HVR I and II) of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in individuals from Uttar Pradesh (UP), Bihar (BI) and Punjab (PUNJ), belonging to the Indo-European linguistic group, and from South India (SI), that have their linguistic roots in Dravidian language. Our analysis revealed the presence of known and novel mutations in both hypervariable regions in the studied population groups. Median joining network analyses based on mtDNA showed extensive overlap in mtDNA lineages despite the extensive cultural and linguistic diversity. MDS plot analysis based on Fst distances suggested increased maternal genetic proximity for the studied population groups compared with other world populations. Mismatch distribution curves, respective neighbour joining trees and other statistical analyses showed that there were significant expansions. The study revealed an ancient common ancestry for the studied population groups, most probably through common founder female lineage(s), and also indicated that human migrations occurred (maybe across and within the Indian subcontinent) even after the initial phase of female migration to India.

  2. Spectroscopic and photometric analysis of the early-type spectroscopic binary HD 161853 in the centre of an H II region

    Gamen, R; Barbá, R H; Arias, J I; Apellániz, J Maíz; Walborn, N R; Sota, A; Alfaro, E J


    We study the O-type star HD 161853, which has been noted as a probable double-lined spectroscopic binary system. We secured high-resolution spectra of HD 161853 during the past nine years. We separated the two components in the system and measured their respective radial velocities for the first time. We confirm that HD 161853 is an $\\sim$1 Ma old binary system consisting of an O8 V star ($M_{\\rm A,RV} \\geq 22$ M$_\\odot$) and a B1--3 V star ($M_{\\rm B,RV} \\geq 7.2$ M$_\\odot$) at about 1.3 kpc. From the radial velocity curve, we measure an orbital period $P$ = 2.66765$\\pm$0.00001 d and an eccentricity $e$ = 0.121$\\pm$0.007. Its $V$-band light curve is constant within 0.014 mag and does not display eclipses, from which we impose a maximum orbital inclination $i=54$ deg. HD 161853 is probably associated with an H II region and a poorly investigated very young open cluster. In addition, we detect a compact emission region at 50 arcsec to HD 161853 in 22$\\mu$m-WISE and 24$\\mu$m-Spitzer images, which may be identif...

  3. Report for borehole explosion data acquired in the 1999 Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE II), Southern California: Part I, description of the survey

    Fuis, Gary S.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Davis, Paul M.; Thygesen, Kristina; Baher, Shirley A.; Ryberg, Trond; Benthien, Mark L.; Simila, Gerry; Perron, J. Taylor; Yong, Alan K.; Reusser, Luke; Lutter, William J.; Kaip, Galen; Fort, Michael D.; Asudeh, Isa; Sell, Russell; Van Schaack, John R.; Criley, Edward E.; Kaderabek, Ronald; Kohler, Will M.; Magnuski, Nickolas H.


    The Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE) is a joint project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC). The purpose of this project is to produce seismic images of the subsurface of the Los Angeles region down to the depths at which earthquakes occur, and deeper, in order to remedy a deficit in our knowledge of the deep structure of this region. This deficit in knowledge has persisted despite over a century of oil exploration and nearly 70 years of recording earthquakes in southern California. Understanding the deep crustal structure and tectonics of southern California is important to earthquake hazard assessment. Specific imaging targets of LARSE include (a) faults, especially blind thrust faults, which cannot be reliably detected any other way; and (b) the depths and configurations of sedimentary basins. Imaging of faults is important in both earthquake hazard assessment but also in modeling earthquake occurrence. Earthquake occurrence cannot be understood unless the earthquake-producing "machinery" (tectonics) is known (Fuis and others, 2001). Imaging the depths and configurations of sedimentary basins is important because earthquake shaking at the surface is enhanced by basin depth and by the presence of sharp basin edges (Wald and Graves, 1998, Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1995; Field and others, 2001). (Sedimentary basins are large former valleys now filled with sediment eroded from nearby mountains.) Sedimentary basins in the Los Angeles region that have been investigated by LARSE include the Los Angeles, San Gabriel Valley, San Fernando Valley, and Santa Clarita Valley basins. The seismic imaging surveys of LARSE include recording of earthquakes (both local and distant earthquakes) along several corridors (or transects) through the Los Angeles region and also recording of man-made sources along these same corridors. Man-made sources have included airguns offshore and borehole


    Hirsch, Lea; Adams, Joseph D.; Herter, Terry L.; Gull, George E.; Henderson, Charles P.; Schoenwald, Justin [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 105 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Hora, Joseph L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 65, Cambridge, MA 02138-1516 (United States); De Buizer, James M.; Vacca, William [SOFIA-University Space Research Association, NASA Ames Reseach Center, Mail Stop N211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Megeath, S. Thomas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Mailstop 111, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Keller, Luke D. [Ithaca College, Physics Department, 264 Center for Natural Sciences, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States)


    We present infrared observations of the ultracompact H II region W3(OH) made by the FORCAST instrument aboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and by the Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera. We contribute new wavelength data to the spectral energy distribution (SED), which constrains the optical depth, grain size distribution, and temperature gradient of the dusty shell surrounding the H II region. We model the dust component as a spherical shell containing an inner cavity with radius {approx}600 AU, irradiated by a central star of type O9 and temperature {approx}31, 000 K. The total luminosity of this system is 7.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} L{sub Sun }. An observed excess of 2.2-4.5 {mu}m emission in the SED can be explained by our viewing a cavity opening or clumpiness in the shell structure whereby radiation from the warm interior of the shell can escape. We claim to detect the nearby water maser source W3 (H{sub 2}O) at 31.4 and 37.1 {mu}m using beam deconvolution of the FORCAST images. We constrain the flux densities of this object at 19.7-37.1 {mu}m. Additionally, we present in situ observations of four young stellar and protostellar objects in the SOFIA field, presumably associated with the W3 molecular cloud. Results from the model SED fitting tool of Robitaille et al. suggest that two objects (2MASS J02270352+6152357 and 2MASS J02270824+6152281) are intermediate-luminosity ({approx}236-432 L{sub Sun }) protostars; one object (2MASS J02270887+6152344) is either a high-mass protostar with luminosity 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} L{sub Sun} or a less massive young star with a substantial circumstellar disk but depleted envelope; and the other (2MASS J02270743+6152281) is an intermediate-luminosity ({approx}768 L{sub Sun }) protostar nearing the end of its envelope accretion phase or a young star surrounded by a circumstellar disk with no appreciable circumstellar envelope.

  5. Analysis of genetic variants of class II cytokine and their receptor genes in psoriasis patients of two ethnic groups from the Volga-Ural region of Russia.

    Galimova, Elvira; Akhmetova, Vita; Latipov, Boris; Kingo, Külli; Rätsep, Ranno; Traks, Tanel; Kõks, Sulev; Khusnutdinova, Elza


    The molecular basis of pathogenesis of psoriasis remains unclear, but one unifying hypothesis of disease aetiology is the cytokine network model. The class II cytokines (CF2) and their receptors (CRF2) are all involved in the inflammatory processes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in respective genes have been associated with psoriasis in a previous study of the Estonian population. We performed a replication study of 47 SNPs in CF2 and CRF2 genes in independent cohorts of psoriasis patients of two ethnic groups (Russians and Bashkirs) from the Volga-Ural region of Russia. DNA was obtained from 395 psoriasis patients of two ethnic groups from the Volga-Ural region of Russia and 476 ethnically matched controls. 47 SNPs in the loci of the genes encoding Class II cytokines and their receptors were selected by SNPbrowser version 3.5. Genotyping was performed using the SNPlex™ (Applied Biosystems) platform. The genetic variant rs30461 previously associated in original case-control study in Estonians, was also associated in Russians (corrected P-value (Pc=0.008, OR=0.44), but did not reach statistical significance in the Bashkir population. Additionally, the haplotype analysis provided that CC haplotype formed by the SNPs rs30461 and rs955155 had a protective effect in Russians (Pc=0.0024, OR=0.44), supporting the involvement of this locus in the protection against psoriasis. Combined meta-analysis of three populations, including 943 psoriasis patients and 812 healthy controls, showed that the IL29 rs30461 C-allele was not associated with decreased risk of psoriasis (P=0.165, OR=0.68). Moreover, stratification of studies by ethnicity revealed a significant association in the European cohort (P=9.506E-006, OR=0.53). Therefore, there is no overall evidence of association between psoriasis and SNP rs30461 of the IL29 gene, but there is some evidence to suggest that an association exists in Europeans. However, this current concept should be considered as

  6. Integral Field Spectroscopy of Massive Young Stellar Objects in the N113 H\\,{\\sc ii} Region in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Ward, J L; van Loon, J Th; Sewilo, M


    The \\textit{Spitzer} SAGE survey has allowed the identification and analysis of significant samples of Young Stellar Object (YSO) candidates in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). However the angular resolution of \\textit{Spitzer} is relatively poor meaning that at the distance of the LMC, it is likely that many of the \\textit{Spitzer} YSO candidates in fact contain multiple components. We present high resolution \\textit{K}-band integral field spectroscopic observations of the three most prominent massive YSO candidates in the N113 H\\,{\\sc ii} region using VLT/SINFONI. We have identified six \\textit{K}-band continuum sources within the three \\textit{Spitzer} sources and we have mapped the morphology and velocity fields of extended line emission around these sources. Br$\\gamma$, He\\,{\\sc i} and H$_2$ emission is found at the position of all six \\textit{K}-band sources; we discuss whether the emission is associated with the continuum sources or whether it is ambient emission. H$_2$ emission appears to be mostly a...

  7. The chemical composition of the galactic H II regions M8 and M17. A revision based on deep vlt echelle spectrophotometry

    Jorge García-Rojas


    Full Text Available Presentamos nuevos datos espectrofotométricos de las regiones H II Galácticas M8 y M17. Los datos se obtuvieron a través del espectrógrafo echelle UVES del VLT en el intervalo entre los 3100 y los 10400 Ă. Medimos las intensidades de 375 y 260 líneas de emisión en M8 y M17, respectivamente, incrementando de forma significativa el número de líneas identificadas en estas nebulosas. La mayoría de las líneas detectadas son permitidas. Calculamos las temperaturas y densidades electrónicas usando diferentes diagnósticos, y determinamos las abundancias iónicas de He+, C++, O+ and O++ a partir de líneas debidas únicamente a recombinación, así como las abundancias de un gran número de iones de diferentes elementos usando líneas de excitación colisional. Obtuvimos estimaciones consistentes de t2 usando diferentes indicadores independientes. Detectamos líneas de emisión de la serie de Balmer de deuterio en M8, hasta DÎ; también mostramos que sus intensidades son consistentes con el hecho de que la fluorescencia del continuo es el principal mecanismo de excitación de estas líneas.

  8. Development and characterization of type-II semiconductor structures for the tuning region in tunable laser diodes; Entwicklung und Charakterisierung von Typ-II-Heterostrukturen fuer die Abstimmregion in abstimmbaren Laserdioden

    Roesel, G.


    In this thesis the most important criteria for the design of type-II superlattices for a tuning layer in tunable laser diodes are stated. For the experimental realization and verification of the theoretical results different type-II heterostructures were fabricated and characterized. These structures thereby differ mainly in the reached band discontinuities.

  9. Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the human class II alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH4) gene affect both transcriptional activity and ethanol metabolism in Japanese subjects.

    Kimura, Yukiko; Nishimura, Fusae T; Abe, Shuntaro; Fukunaga, Tatsushige; Tanii, Hideji; Saijoh, Kiyofumi


    Class II alcohol dehydrogenase (pi-ADH), encoded by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH4), is considered to contribute to ethanol (EtOH) oxidation in the liver at high concentration. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found in the promoter region of this gene. Analysis of genotype distribution in 102 unrelated Japanese subjects revealed that four loci were in strong linkage disequilibrium and could be classified into three haplotypes. The effects of these polymorphisms on transcriptional activity were investigated in HepG2 cells. Transcriptional activity was significantly higher in cells with the -136A allele than in those with the -136C allele. To investigate whether this difference in transcriptional activity caused a difference in EtOH elimination, previous data on blood EtOH changes after 0.4 g/kg body weight alcohol ingestion were analyzed. When analyzed based on aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 gene (ALDH2) (487)Glu/Lys genotype, the significantly lower level of EtOH at peak in subjects with -136C/A and -136A/A genotype compared with subjects with -136C/C genotype indicated that -136 bp was a suggestive locus for differences in EtOH oxidation. This effect was observed only in subjects with ALDH2 (487)Glu/Glu. These results suggested that the SNP at -136bp in the ADH4 promoter had an effect on transcriptional regulation, and that the higher activity of the -136A allele compared with the -136C allele caused a lower level of blood EtOH after alcohol ingestion; that is, individuals with the -136A allele may consume more EtOH and might have a higher risk for development of alcohol dependence than those without the -136A allele.

  10. He i in the central giant H ii region of NGC 5253. A 2D observational approach to collisional and radiative transfer effects

    Monreal-Ibero, A.; Walsh, J. R.; Westmoquette, M. S.; Vílchez, J. M.


    -Rayet (WR) stars in the main GH iiR. Data are marginally consistent with an excess in the N/He ratio in the nitrogen-enriched area. This excess would be close to both the atmospheric N/He ratios in WR stars and the uncertainties estimated for the N/He ratios. We explored the influence of the kinematics in the evaluation of the He i radiative transfer effects. Our data empirically support the use of the traditional assumption that motions in an extragalactic H ii region have a negligible effect in the estimation of the global optical depths. Individually, the broad kinematic component (associated with an outflow) is affected by radiative transfer effects in a much more significant way than the narrow one. We find a relation between the amount of extra nitrogen and the upper limit of the contribution from radiative transfer effects that requires further investigation. We suggest that the electron temperature could be a common agent causing this relation. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (ESO Programme 078.B-0043 and 383.B-0043) and at the Gemini South Telescope (Programme GS-2008A-Q-25).

  11. Ocean Margin EXchange II database from the upwelling region of the narrow Iberian margin from 1997 to 2000 (NODC Accession 0000560)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean Margin EXchange (OMEX) II aims at studying, measuring and modeling the processes and fluxes occurring along and across the European shelf break facing the...

  12. Investigation and control of a Plasmodium falciparum malaria outbreak in Shan Special Region II of Myanmar along the China-Myanmar Border from June to December 2014.

    Liu, Hui; Xu, Jian-Wei; Yang, Heng-Lin; Li, Mei; Sun, Cheng-De; Yin, Yi-Jie; Zheng, Zhi-Liang; Zhang, Guang-Yun; Yu, Ai-Shui; Yang, Yong-Hui; Li, Chun-Hui; Ai, Shui


    From 2007 to 2013, intensive control measures reduced malaria burden by 90 % along the China-Myanmar border. However, despite these measures a P. falciparum malaria outbreak was reported in the Shan Special Region II of Myanmar in June of 2014. Epidemiological, parasitological and entomological investigations were performed. Dihydroartemisinin piperaquine (DAPQ) was immediately administered to treat parasite positive individuals. Long lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN), indoor residual spraying (IRS) with insecticides and behavior change communication (BCC) were also provided for outbreak control. An embedded efficacy study was conducted evaluating DP. Molecular genotyping via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on the Kelch gene on chromosome 13. All infections were identified as Plasmodium falciparum by RDT and microscopy. Two fatalities resulted from the outbreak. The attack rate was 72.8 % (67/92) and the incidence density rate was 14.2 per 100 person-weeks. The positive rate of rapid diagnostic test (RDT) was 72.2 % (65/90) and microscopically-determine parasite rate 42.2 % (38/90). Adjusted odds ratio (OR) of multivariate logistic regression analysis for aged <15 years, 15-45 years, inappropriate treatment from a private healer and lack of bed nets were 13.51 (95 % confidence interval, 2.21-105.89), 7.75 (1.48-44.97), 3.78 (1.30-46.18) and 3.21(1.21-15.19) respectively. In the six surrounding communities of the outbreak site, positive RDT rate was 1.2 % (4/328) and microscopically-determine parasite rate 0.6 % (2/328). Two light traps collected a total of 110 anopheline mosquitoes including local vectors, An. minimus, An. sinensis and An. maculates. After intensive control, the detection of malaria attacks, parasites and antigen were reduced to zero between July 1 and December 1, 2014. The cure rate of P. falciparum patients at day 42 was 94.3 % (95 % CI, 80.8-99.3 %). The PCR did not detect K13-propeller mutations. Imported P. falciparum caused the

  13. Co-infection of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus spp. among livestock in Malaysia as revealed by amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer II DNA region


    Background Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus spp. are reported to be the most prevalent and highly pathogenic parasites in livestock, particularly in small ruminants. However, the routine conventional tool used in Malaysia could not differentiate the species accurately and therefore limiting the understanding of the co-infections between these two genera among livestock in Malaysia. This study is the first attempt to identify the strongylids of veterinary importance in Malaysia (i.e., H. contortus and Trichostrongylus spp.) by amplification and sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer II DNA region. Results Overall, 118 (cattle: 11 of 98 or 11.2%; deer: 4 of 70 or 5.7%; goats: 99 of 157 or 63.1%; swine: 4 of 91 or 4.4%) out of the 416 collected fecal samples were microscopy positive with strongylid infection. The PCR and sequencing results demonstrated that 93 samples (1 or 25.0% of deer; 92 or 92.9% of goats) contained H. contortus. In addition, Trichostrongylus colubriformis was observed in 75 (75.8% of 99) of strongylid infected goats and Trichostrongylus axei in 4 (4.0%) of 99 goats and 2 (50.0%) of 4 deer. Based on the molecular results, co-infection of H. contortus and Trichostrongylus spp. (H. contortus + T. colubriformis denoted as HTC; H. contortus + T. axei denoted as HTA) were only found in goats. Specifically, HTC co-infections have higher rate (71 or 45.2% of 157) compared to HTA co-infections (3 or 1.9% of 157). Conclusions The present study is the first molecular identification of strongylid species among livestock in Malaysia which is essential towards a better knowledge of the epidemiology of gastro-intestinal parasitic infection among livestock in the country. Furthermore, a more comprehensive or nationwide molecular-based study on gastro-intestinal parasites in livestock should be carried out in the future, given that molecular tools could assist in improving diagnosis of veterinary parasitology in Malaysia due to its high

  14. Endemicity and phylogeny of the human T cell lymphotropic virus type II subtype A from the Kayapo Indians of Brazil: evidence for limited regional dissemination.

    Switzer, W M; Black, F L; Pieniazek, D; Biggar, R J; Lal, R B; Heneine, W


    Long terminal repeat (LTR)-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of human T cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) from 17 seropositive Kayapo Indians from Brazil showed that all 17 samples contained a unique HTLV-IIa subtype (A-II). Additional RFLP screening demonstrated the presence of this subtype in two of three Brazilian blood donors and a Mexican prostitute and her child. In contrast, 129 samples from blood donors and intravenous drug users (IDUs) from the United States, two Pueblo Indian samples, five samples from Norwegian IDUs, and two samples from blood donors from Denmark were all found to be a different HTLV-IIa subtype (A-III). Phylogenetic analysis of two Kayapo and one Mexican LTR sequences showed that they cluster with a subtype A-II sequence from a Brazilian blood donor and with sequences from two prostitutes from Ghana and Cameroon. These results demonstrate that infection with the A-II subtype is endemic among the Kayapo Amerindians, has disseminated to non-Indian populations in Brazil, and is also present in Mexico. Furthermore, the A-II subtype does not appear to represent an origin for the HTLV-IIa infection in urban areas of the United States and Europe. This study provides evidence that HTLV-IIa may be a Paleo-Indian subtype as previously suggested for HTLV-IIb.

  15. Balloon catheter hypoxic pelvic perfusion with mitomycin C and melphalan for locally advanced tumours in the pelvic region : A phase I-II trial

    van Ijken, MGA; van Etten, B; Guetens, G; de Bruijn, EA; ten Hagen, TLM; Wiggers, T; Eggermont, AMM


    Aims: To investigate the feasibility of hypoxic pelvic perfusion (HPP), using balloon catheter techniques as treatment modality for locally advanced pelvic malignancies. Methods: In a phase I-II study, 16 patients with various non-resectabte pelvic tumours were treated with two HIPP with MMC and mel

  16. Zn(II) ions bind very efficiently to tandem repeat region of "prion related protein" (PrP-rel-2) of zebra-fish. MS and potentiometric evidence.

    Szyrwiel, Lukasz; Jankowska, Elzbieta; Janicka-Klos, Anna; Szewczuk, Zbigniew; Valensin, Daniela; Kozlowski, Henryk


    Multi-histidine peptide fragments of zebra-fish prion protein are effective ligands for Zn(II) ions. Moreover the formation of a dinuclear complex species with a longer peptide can suggest the existence of the cooperative effect in the metal ion binding.

  17. Oscillations in G-band and Ca II H wing in the active region NOAA AR10789. (Slovak Title: Oscilácie v G páse a Ca II H krídle v aktívnej oblasti NOAA AR10789)

    Karlovský, V.


    Variations of the area of a sunspot in G-band and in Ca II H line wing were analyzed based on observations obtained on 13 July, 2005 by DOT Telescope (La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain) in the active region NOAA 10789. Change of the area at the threshold value of 0.4 was analyzed using wavelet transform in order to determine the significance of the derived periods. Because of the different time dependence of the period distributions in these two spectral regions coherence between the two time series of observations was investigated.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Tristram's Bunting, Emberiza tristrami (Aves: Passeriformes): the first representative of the family Emberizidae with six boxes in the central conserved domain II of control region.

    Kan, Xianzhao; Yuan, Jian; Zhang, Liqin; Li, Xifeng; Yu, Lei; Chen, Lei; Guo, Zhichun; Yang, Jianke


    Mitochondrial genome has proven to be a powerful tool for phylogenetic inference, phylogeography, and molecular evolution. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Emberiza tristrami (Passeriformes: Emberizidae) for use in future phylogenetic analyses. This circular mitochondrial genome is 16,789 bp in length and composed of 13 typical protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 putative control region (CR). One extra nucleotide "C" of nad3 is not detected in the mitogenome of E. tristrami. The CR of E. tristrami can be divided into three domains: ETAS (extended termination-associated sequence) domain I (nt 1-431), central conserved domain II (nt 432-847), and CSB (conserved sequence block) domain III (nt 848-1217). Six conserved sequence boxes in the central conserved domain II were identified as boxes F, E, D, C, b, and B.

  19. Sequence variations in the 5' flanking and IVS-II regions of the G gamma- and A gamma-globin genes of beta S chromosomes with five different haplotypes.

    Lanclos, K D; Oner, C; Dimovski, A J; Gu, Y C; Huisman, T H


    We have amplified and sequenced the 5' flanking and the second intervening sequence (IVS-II) regions of both the G gamma- and A gamma-globin genes of the beta S chromosomes from sickle cell anemia (SS) patients with homozygosities for five different haplotypes. The sequencing data, compared with previously published sequences for the normal chromosomes A and B, show many similarities to chromosome B for haplotypes 19, 20, and 17, while haplotypes 3 and 31 are remarkably similar to chromosome A and also similar to each other. Several unique mutations were found in the 5' flanking regions (G gamma and A gamma) of haplotypes 19 and 20 and in the IVS-II segments of the same genes of haplotypes 19, 20, and 17; the IVS-II of haplotypes 3 and 31 were identical to those of chromosome A. Dot-blot analyses of amplified DNA from additional SS patients with specific probes have confirmed that these mutations are unique for each haplotype. The two general patterns that have been observed among the five haplotypes have most probably arisen by gene conversion events between the A and B type chromosomes in the African population. These patterns correlate with high and low fetal hemoglobin expression, and it is speculated that these and other yet unknown gene conversions may contribute to the variations in hemoglobin F and G gamma levels observed among SS patients. In vitro expression experiments involving the approximately 1.3-kb 5' flanking regions of the G gamma- and A gamma-globin genes of the beta S chromosomes with the five different haplotypes failed to detect differences between the levels of expression, suggesting that the sequence variations observed between these segments of DNA are not the primary cause of the differences in hemoglobin F levels among the SS patients.

  20. Impact of initial models and variable accretion rates on the pre-main-sequence evolution of massive and intermediate-mass stars and the early evolution of H II regions

    Haemmerlé, Lionel; Peters, Thomas


    Massive star formation requires the accretion of gas at high rate while the star is already bright. Its actual luminosity depends sensitively on the stellar structure. We compute pre-main-sequence tracks for massive and intermediate-mass stars with variable accretion rates and study the evolution of stellar radius, effective temperature and ionizing luminosity, starting at 2 M⊙ with convective or radiative structures. The radiative case shows a much stronger swelling of the protostar for high accretion rates than the convective case. For radiative structures, the star is very sensitive to the accretion rate and reacts quickly to accretion bursts, leading to considerable changes in photospheric properties on time-scales as short as 100-1000 yr. The evolution for convective structures is much less influenced by the instantaneous accretion rate, and produces a monotonically increasing ionizing flux that can be many orders of magnitude smaller than in the radiative case. For massive stars, it results in a delay of the H II region expansion by up to 10 000 yr. In the radiative case, the H II region can potentially be engulfed by the star during the swelling, which never happens in the convective case. We conclude that the early stellar structure has a large impact on the radiative feedback during the pre-main-sequence evolution of massive protostars and introduces an important uncertainty that should be taken into account. Because of their lower effective temperatures, our convective models may hint at a solution to an observed discrepancy between the luminosity distribution functions of massive young stellar objects and compact H II regions.

  1. G359.87+0.18: An FR II Radio Galaxy 15 Arcminutes from Sgr A*. Implications for the Scattering Region in the Galactic Center

    Lazio, T. Joseph W.; Anantharamaiah, K. R.; W. M. Goss; Kassim, Namir E.; Cordes, James M.


    G359.87+0.18 is an enigmatic object located 15' from Sgr A*. It has been variously classified as an extragalactic source, Galactic jet source, and young supernova remnant. We present new observations of G359.87+0.18 between 0.33 and 15 GHz and use these to argue that this source is an Faranoff-Riley II radio galaxy. We are able to place a crude limit on its redshift of z > 0.1. The source has a spectral index \\alpha ...

  2. Normal incidence X-ray telescope power spectra of X-ray emission from solar active regions. I - Observations. II - Theory

    Gomez, Daniel O.; Martens, Petrus C. H.; Golub, Leon


    Fourier analysis is applied to very high resolution image of coronal active regions obtained by the Normal Incidence X-Ray Telescope is used to find a broad isotropic power-law spectrum of the spatial distribution of soft X-ray intensities. Magnetic structures of all sizes are present down to the resolution limit of the instrument. Power spectra for the X-ray intensities of a sample of topologically different active regions are found which fall off with increasing wavenumber as 1/k-cubed. A model is presented that relates the basic features of coronal magnetic fluctuations to the subphotospheric hydrodynamic turbulence that generates them. The model is used to find a theoretical power spectrum for the X-ray intensity which falls off with increasing wavenumber as 1/k-cubed. The implications of a turbulent regime in active regions are discussed.

  3. Benchmarking Fast-to-Alfv\\'en Mode Conversion in a Cold MHD Plasma. II. How to get Alfv\\'en waves through the Solar Transition Region

    Hansen, Shelley C


    Alfv\\'en waves may be difficult to excite at the photosphere due to low ionization fraction and suffer near-total reflection at the transition region (TR). Yet they are ubiquitous in the corona and heliosphere. To overcome these difficulties, we show that they may instead be generated high in the chromosphere by conversion from reflecting fast magnetohydrodynamic waves, and that Alfv\\'enic transition region reflection is greatly reduced if the fast reflection point is within a few scale heights of the TR. The influence of mode conversion on the phase of the reflected fast wave is also explored. This phase can potentially be misinterpreted as a travel speed perturbation, with implications for the practical seismic probing of active regions.

  4. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Liviu C. Andrei


    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  5. A catalogue of galaxies behind the southern Milky Way. - II. The Crux and Great Attractor regions (l = 289deg - 338deg)

    Woudt, P A; Woudt, Patrick A.; Kraan-Korteweg, Renee C.


    In this second paper of the catalogue series of galaxies behind the southern Milky Way, we report on the deep optical galaxy search in the Crux region (289deg = 0.2 arcmin were identified in this ~850 square degree area: 3759 galaxies in the Crux region and 4423 galaxies in the Great Attractor region. Of the 8182 galaxies, 229 (2.8%) were catalogued before in the optical (3 in radio) and 251 galaxies have a reliable (159), or likely (92) cross-identification in the IRAS Point Source Catalogue (3.1%). A number of prominent overdensities and filaments of galaxies are identified. They are not correlated with the Galactic foreground extinction and hence indicative of extragalactic large-scale structures. Redshifts obtained at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) for 518 of the newly catalogued galaxies in the Crux and Great Attractor regions (Fairall et al. 1998; Woudt et al. 1999) confirm distinct voids and clusters in the area here surveyed. With this optical galaxy search, we have reduced the widt...


    The purpose of this report is to assist Region H by providing a statistical analysis identifying the areas with minority and below poverty populations known as "Community of Concern" (COC). The aim was to find a cutoff value as a threshold to identify a COC using demographic data...

  7. Distance Education in Asia and the Pacific. Volume II. Proceedings of the Regional Seminar on Distance Education (Bangkok, Thailand, November 26-December 3, 1986).

    Asian Development Bank, Manila (Philippines).

    The paper presented in this three-part conference report trace the growth and development of distance education in the Asian and Pacific region. Part 1 provides a general review. Part 2 contains the following case studies: "Distance Education in India" (S. P. Mullick); "Distance Education in Indonesia" (Professor Setijadi);…

  8. Contribution to the Diatom flora of Southern Africa. II. Diatoms from the Hog's Back Region of the Amatola Mountains, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Malcolm, HG


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the diatoms flora of the Hog's Back region of the Amatola Mountains in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. These mountains form part of the Great winterberg Range which constitutes a portion of the escarpment...

  9. WFCAM, Spitzer-IRAC and SCUBA observations of the massive star forming region DR21/W75: II. Stellar content and star formation

    Kumar, M S N; Grave, J M C; Froebrich, B F D


    Wide field near-infrared observations and Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC observations of the DR21/W75 star formation regions are presented. The photometric data are used to analyse the extinction, stellar content and clustering in the entire region by using standard methods. A young stellar population is identified all over the observed field, which is found to be distributed in embedded clusters that are surrounded by a distributed halo population extending over a larger projected area. The Spitzer/IRAC data are used to compute a spectral index value, "alpha", for each YSO in the field. We use these data to separate pure photospheres from disk excess sources. We find a small fraction of sources with "alpha" in excess of 2 to 3 (plus a handful with "alpha"~4), which is much higher than the values found in the low mass star forming region IC348 ("alpha" < 2). The sources with high values of "alpha" spatially coincide with the densest regions of the filaments and also with the sites of massive star formation. ...

  10. A global land-cover validation data set, II: augmenting a stratified sampling design to estimate accuracy by region and land-cover class

    Stehman, S.; Olofsson, P.; Woodcock, C.; Herold, M.; Friedl, M.A.


    A global validation database that can be used to assess the accuracy of multiple global and regional land-cover maps would yield significant cost savings and enhance comparisons of accuracy of different maps. Because the global validation database should expand over time as new validation data are c

  11. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) : II. Evolution of 557 GHz 1(10)-1(01) emission in low-mass protostars

    Kristensen, L. E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Bergin, E. A.; Visser, R.; Yildiz, U. A.; Jose-Garcia, I. San; Jorgensen, J. K.; Herczeg, G. J.; Johnstone, D.; Wampfler, S. F.; Benz, A. O.; Bruderer, S.; Cabrit, S.; Caselli, P.; Doty, S. D.; Harsono, D.; Herpin, F.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Karska, A.; van Kempen, T. A.; Liseau, R.; Nisini, B.; Tafalla, M.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.


    Context. Water is a key tracer of dynamics and chemistry in low-mass star-forming regions, but spectrally resolved observations have so far been limited in sensitivity and angular resolution, and only data from the brightest low-mass protostars have been published. Aims. The first systematic survey

  12. Diurnal variability of regional cloud and clear-sky radiative parameters derived from GOES data. I - Analysis method. II - November 1978 cloud distributions. III - November 1978 radiative parameters

    Minnis, P.; Harrison, E. F.


    Cloud cover is one of the most important variables affecting the earth radiation budget (ERB) and, ultimately, the global climate. The present investigation is concerned with several aspects of the effects of extended cloudiness, taking into account hourly visible and infrared data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satelite (GOES). A methodology called the hybrid bispectral threshold method is developed to extract regional cloud amounts at three levels in the atmosphere, effective cloud-top temperatures, clear-sky temperature and cloud and clear-sky visible reflectance characteristics from GOES data. The diurnal variations are examined in low, middle, high, and total cloudiness determined with this methodology for November 1978. The bulk, broadband radiative properties of the resultant cloud and clear-sky data are estimated to determine the possible effect of the diurnal variability of regional cloudiness on the interpretation of ERB measurements.

  13. Paleoecological crisis in the steppes of the Lower Volga region in the Middle of the Bronze Age (III-II centuries BC)

    Demkina, T. S.; Borisov, A. V.; Demkin, V. A.; Khomutova, T. E.; Kuznetsova, T. V.; El'tsov, M. V.; Udal'tsov, S. N.


    Diagnostic features of a catastrophic aridization of climate, desertification, and paleoecological crisis in steppes of the Lower Volga region have been identified on the basis of data on the morphological, chemical, and microbiological properties of paleosols under archeological monuments (burial mounds) of the Middle Bronze Age. These processes resulted in a certain convergence of the soil cover with transformation of zonal chestnut (Kastanozems) paleosols and paleosolonetzes (Solonetz Humic) into specific chestnut-like eroded saline calcareous paleosols analogous to the modern brown desert-steppe soils (Calcisols Haplic) that predominated in this region 4300-3800 years ago.1 In the second millennium BC, humidization of the climate led to the divergence of the soil cover with secondary formation of the complexes of chestnut soils and solonetzes. This paleoecological crisis had a significant effect on the economy of the tribes in the Late Catacomb and Post-Catacomb time stipulating their higher mobility and transition to the nomadic cattle breeding.

  14. 9/11, Act II: a fine-grained analysis of regional variations in traffic fatalities in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks.

    Gaissmaier, Wolfgang; Gigerenzer, Gerd


    Terrorists can strike twice--first, by directly killing people, and second, through dangerous behaviors induced by fear in people's minds. Previous research identified a substantial increase in U.S. traffic fatalities subsequent to the September 11 terrorist attacks, which were accounted for as due to a substitution of driving for flying, induced by fear of dread risks. Here, we show that this increase in fatalities varied widely by region, a fact that was best explained by regional variations in increased driving. Two factors, in turn, explained these variations in increased driving. The weaker factor was proximity to New York City, where stress reactions to the attacks were previously shown to be greatest. The stronger factor was driving opportunity, which was operationalized both as number of highway miles and as number of car registrations per inhabitant. Thus, terrorists' second strike exploited both fear of dread risks and, paradoxically, an environmental structure conducive to generating increased driving, which ultimately increased fatalities.

  15. Crossover from Weakly to Strongly Correlated Regions in the Two-dimensional Hubbard Model — Off-diagonal Wave Function Monte Carlo Studies of Hubbard Model II

    Yanagisawa, Takashi


    The ground state of the two-dimensional (2D) Hubbard model is investigated by adopting improved wave functions that take into account intersite electron correlation beyond the Gutzwiller ansatz. The ground-state energy is lowered considerably, giving the best estimate of the ground-state energy for the 2D Hubbard model. There is a crossover from weakly to strongly correlated regions as the on-site Coulomb interaction U increases. The antiferromagnetic correlation induced by U is reduced for hole doping when U is large, being greater than the bandwidth, thus increasing the kinetic energy gain. The spin and charge fluctuations are induced in the strongly correlated region. These antiferromagnetic and kinetic charge fluctuations induce electron pairings, which results in high-temperature superconductivity.

  16. Estudo da cultura canavieira na região de Piracicaba por fotointerpretação: Parte II A study on sugarcane cultures in the Piracicaba region by means of photointerpretation: Part II

    Raul Audi


    Full Text Available Dando prosseguimento ao Estudo da Cultura Canavieira na região de Piracicaba, são apresentadas, com base no estudo de fotografias aéreas, as principais características dessa cultura no ano de 1962. Considerando-se os municípios de Rio das Pedras, Mombuca, Capivari e Rafard, foram determinados os dados de áreas cultivadas, localização das culturas e usinas, aspectos das culturas e dos terrenos empregados.Pursuing research work about sugarcane cultures in the region of Piracicaba, their main characteristics were studied in this paper, for the year 1962, based on aerial photographs. Taking into consideration such districts as Rio das Pedras, Mombuca, Capivari and Rafard, a large number of data was determined, of areas under cultivation, localization of cultures and factories, aspects of cultures and of lands used for this crop.

  17. Characterizing and sourcing ambient PM2.5 over key emission regions in China II: Organic molecular markers and CMB modeling

    Zhou, Jiabin; Xiong, Ying; Xing, Zhenyu; Deng, Junjun; Du, Ke


    From November 2012 to July 2013, a sampling campaign was completed for comprehensive characterization of PM2.5 over four key emission regions in China: Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH), Yangzi River Delta (YRD), Pearl River Delta (PRD), and Sichuan Basin (SB). A multi-method approach, adopting different analytical and receptor modeling methods, was employed to determine the relative abundances of region-specific air pollution constituents and contributions of emission sources. This paper is focused on organic molecular marker based source apportionment using chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor modeling. Analyses of the organic molecular markers revealed that vehicle emission, coal combustion, biomass burning, meat cooking and natural gas combustion were the major contributors to organic carbon (OC) in PM2.5. The vehicle emission dominated the sources contributing to OC in spring at four sampling sites. During wintertime, the coal combustion had highest contribution to OC at BTH site, while the major source contributing to OC at YRD and PRD sites was vehicle emission. In addition, the relative contributions of different emission sources to PM2.5 mass at a specific location site and in a specific season revealed seasonal and spatial variations across all four sampling locations. The largest contributor to PM2.5 mass was secondary sulfate (14-17%) in winter at the four sites. The vehicle emission was found to be the major source (14-21%) for PM2.5 mass at PRD site. The secondary ammonium has minor variation (4-5%) across the sites, confirming the influences of regional emission sources on these sites. The distinct patterns of seasonal and spatial variations of source apportionment observed in this study were consistent with the findings in our previous paper based upon water-soluble ions and carbonaceous fractions. This makes it essential for the local government to make season- and region-specific mitigation strategies for abating PM2.5 pollution in China.

  18. The influence of synoptic airflow on UK daily precipitation extremes. Part II: regional climate model and E-OBS data validation

    Maraun, Douglas [Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences (IFM-GEOMAR), Duesternbrooker Weg 20, 24105, Kiel (Germany); Osborn, Timothy J. [School of Environmental Sciences, Climatic Research Unit, Norwich (United Kingdom); Rust, Henning W. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Meteorologie, Berlin (Germany)


    We investigate how well the variability of extreme daily precipitation events across the United Kingdom is represented in a set of regional climate models and the E-OBS gridded data set. Instead of simply evaluating the climatologies of extreme precipitation measures, we develop an approach to validate the representation of physical mechanisms controlling extreme precipitation variability. In part I of this study we applied a statistical model to investigate the influence of the synoptic scale atmospheric circulation on extreme precipitation using observational rain gauge data. More specifically, airflow strength, direction and vorticity are used as predictors for the parameters of the generalised extreme value (GEV) distribution of local precipitation extremes. Here we employ this statistical model for our validation study. In a first step, the statistical model is calibrated against a gridded precipitation data set provided by the UK Met Office. In a second step, the same statistical model is calibrated against 14 ERA40 driven 25 km resolution RCMs from the ENSEMBLES project and the E-OBS gridded data set. Validation indices describing relevant physical mechanisms are derived from the statistical models for observations and RCMs and are compared using pattern standard deviation, pattern correlation and centered pattern root mean squared error as validation measures. The results for the different RCMs and E-OBS are visualised using Taylor diagrams. We show that the RCMs adequately simulate moderately extreme precipitation and the influence of airflow strength and vorticity on precipitation extremes, but show deficits in representing the influence of airflow direction. Also very rare extremes are misrepresented, but this result is afflicted with a high uncertainty. E-OBS shows considerable biases, in particular in regions of sparse data. The proposed approach might be used to validate other physical relationships in regional as well as global climate models. (orig.)

  19. Spectra calculations in central and wing regions of CO{sub 2} IR bands between 10 and 20 {mu}m. II. Atmospheric solar occultation spectra

    Niro, F.; Hase, F.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Payan, S.; Hartmann, J.-M. E-mail:


    The theoretical approach based on the Energy Corrected Sudden Approximation presented in the previous companion paper is used in order to account for line-mixing effects in infrared bands of CO{sub 2}. Its performance, which was demonstrated using laboratory spectra is confirmed here by considering atmospheric transmission in the 10-14 {mu}m region. Comparisons are made between forward calculations of atmospheric transmission spectra and values measured using two different solar occultation experiments based on high resolution Fourier transform instruments. The results demonstrate that neglecting line-mixing and using a Voigt model can lead to a very large overestimation of absorption that may extend over more than 300 cm{sup -1} in the wing of the CO{sub 2} {nu}{sub 2} band. They also demonstrate the capability of our model to represent accurately the absorption in the entire region for a variety of atmospheric paths. Among positive consequences of the quality of the model, the possibility of retrieving amounts of (heavy) trace gases with weak and broad absorption features is demonstrated.

  20. Thermodynamic structure of the marine atmosphere over the region 80-87°E along 13°N during August (phase II) BOBMEX-99

    Savita B Morwal; P Seetaramayya


    Thermodynamic structure of the marine atmosphere in the region between 80 and 87°E along 13°N over the Bay of Bengal was studied using 13 high resolution radiosonde profiles from surface −400 hPa collected onboard ORV Sagar Kanya during the period 27th-30th August, during BOBMEX-99. Saturation point concept, mixing line analysis and conserved variable diagrams have been used to identify boundary layer characteristics such as air mass movement and stability of the atmosphere. The results showed relatively dry air near the ocean surface between 1000 and 950 hPa. This feature is confirmed by the conserved v structure in this layer. Further, v seldom showed any inversions in this region. The e and es profiles showed persistent low cloud layers between 900 and 700 hPa. The conserved variable diagrams (e-q) showed the existence of double mixing line structures approximately at 950 and 700 hPa levels.

  1. Photon-Dominated Region Modeling of the [C I],[C II], and CO Line Emission from a Boundary in the Taurus Molecular Cloud

    Orr, Matthew; Goldsmith, Paul


    We present [Ci] and [Cii] observations of a linear edge region in the Taurus molecular cloud, and model this region as a cylindrically symmetric PDR exposed to a low-intensity UV radiation field. The sharp, long profile of the linear edge makes it an ideal case to test PDR models and determine cloud parameters. We compare observations of the [C i], 3P1 -> 3P0 (492 GHz), [C i] 3P2 -> 3P1 (809 GHz), and [Cii] 2P3/2 -> 2P1/2 (1900 GHz) transitions, as well as the lowest rotational transitions of 12CO and 13CO, with line intensities produced by the RATRAN radiative transfer code from the results of the Meudon PDR code. We constrain the density structure of the cloud by fitting a cylindrical density function to visual extinction data. We study the effects of variation of the FUV field, 12C/13C isotopic abundance ratio, sulfur depletion, cosmic ray ionization rate, and inclination of the filament relative to the sky-plane on the chemical network of the PDR model and resulting line emission. We also consider the rol...

  2. Parkes HI observations of galaxies behind the southern Milky Way. II. The Crux and Great Attractor regions (l ~ 289 degree to 338 degree)

    Schroeder, Anja C; Henning, Patricia A


    As part of our programme to map the large-scale distribution of galaxies behind the southern Milky Way, we observed 314 optically-selected, partially-obscured galaxies in the Zone of Avoidance (ZOA) in the Crux and Great Attractor (GA) regions. The observations were conducted with the Parkes 64m radio telescope, in a single-pixel pointed mode, reaching an rms noise level of typically 2-6 mJy over the velocity search range of 400regions, which leads to a relatively higher fraction of nearby galaxies. It is also evident from the quite narrow velocity distribution (largely confined to 3000-6000km/s) and deviates significantly from the expectation of a uniform galaxy distribution for the given sensitivity and velocity range. No systematic differences were found between detections and non-detections, in terms of latitude, foreground extinction, or environment, except for the very c...

  3. Novel point mutations and mutational complexes in the enhancer II, core promoter and precore regions of hepatitis B virus genotype D1 associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in Saudi Arabia.

    Khan, Anis; Al Balwi, Mohammed A; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Hajeer, Ali; Sanai, Faisal M; Al Abdulkarim, Ibrahim; Al Ayyar, Latifah; Badri, Motasim; Saudi, Dib; Tamimi, Waleed; Mizokami, Masashi; Al Knawy, Bandar


    In this study, a cohort of 182 patients [55 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 127 non-HCC] infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Saudi Arabia was investigated to study the relationship between sequence variation in the enhancer II (EnhII), basal core promoter (BCP) and precore regions of HBV genotype D (HBV/D) and the risk of HCC. HBV genotypes were determined by sequencing analysis and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Variations in the EnhII, BCP and precore regions were compared between 107 non-HCC and 45 HCC patients infected with HBV/D, followed by age-matched analysis of 40 cases versus equal number of controls. Age and male gender were significantly associated with HCC (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.03, respectively). Serological markers such as aspartate aminotransferase, albumin and anti-HBe were significantly associated with HCC (p = 0.0001 for all), whereas HBeAg positivity was associated with non-HCC (p = 0.0001). The most prevalent HBV genotype was HBV/D (94%), followed by HBV/E (4%), HBV/A (1.6%) and HBV/C (0.5%). For HBV/D1, genomic mutations associated with HCC were T1673/G1679, G1727, C1741, C1761, A1757/T1764/G1766, T1773, T1773/G1775 and C1909. Age- and gender-adjusted stepwise logistic regression analysis indicated that mutations G1727 [odds ratio (OR) = 18.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.8-118.4; p = 0.002], A1757/T1764/G1766 (OR = 4.7; 95% CI = 1.3-17.2; p = 0.01) and T1773 (OR = 14.06; 95% CI = 2.3-84.8; p = 0.004) are independent predictors of HCC development. These results implicate novel individual and combination patterns of mutations in the X/precore region of HBV/D1 as predictors of HCC. Risk stratification based on these mutation complexes would be useful in determining high-risk patients and improving diagnostic and treatment strategies for HBV/D1.

  4. Phase field theory of interfaces and crystal nucleation in a eutectic system of fcc structure: II. Nucleation in the metastable liquid immiscibility region.

    Tóth, Gyula I; Gránásy, László


    In the second part of our paper, we address crystal nucleation in the metastable liquid miscibility region of eutectic systems that is always present, though experimentally often inaccessible. While this situation resembles the one seen in single component crystal nucleation in the presence of a metastable vapor-liquid critical point addressed in previous works, it is more complex because of the fact that here two crystal phases of significantly different compositions may nucleate. Accordingly, at a fixed temperature below the critical point, six different types of nuclei may form: two liquid-liquid nuclei: two solid-liquid nuclei; and two types of composite nuclei, in which the crystalline core has a liquid "skirt," whose composition falls in between the compositions of the solid and the initial liquid phases, in addition to nuclei with concentric alternating composition shells of prohibitively high free energy. We discuss crystalline phase selection via exploring/identifying the possible pathways for crystal nucleation.

  5. National / regional / transnational: the Catalan Diaspora and the humanitarian assistance from the Spanish Civil War at the end of World War II

    Silvina Jensen


    Full Text Available This article aims to examine the relationship between Catalan diasporic community in the Southern Cone and solidary regional practices, emphasizing projects and initiatives that were articulated on both sides for help to the desplazed persons (first moved into the peninsula during the Civil War, then moved to France after the "withdrawal" and finally evacuated from France to Latin America. Also, try to think from a set of individual and group trajectories of exile which had as destinations to Chile and Argentina, to what extent these countries functioned as a porous space transits, of fluid relationships, information exchange and joint projects for both individuals and groups receiving assistance to local e internacional institutions that generated it. And all this under the activation of complex family networks, partisan political, professional and ideological border and transnational


    Salgado, F.; Berne, O.; Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Adams, J. D.; Herter, T. L.; Gull, G.; Schoenwald, J. [Astronomy Department, 202 Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Keller, L. D. [Department of Physics, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); De Buizer, J. M.; Vacca, W. D.; Becklin, E. E.; Shuping, R. Y. [SOFIA-USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, MS N211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Zinnecker, H. [SOFIA Science Center, NASA Ames Research Center, MS N211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)


    The massive star-forming region W3 was observed with the faint object infrared camera for the SOFIA telescope as part of the Short Science program. The 6.4, 6.6, 7.7, 19.7, 24.2, 31.5, and 37.1 {mu}m bandpasses were used to observe the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, very small grains, and big grains. Optical depth and color temperature maps of W3A show that IRS2 has blown a bubble devoid of gas and dust of {approx}0.05 pc radius. It is embedded in a dusty shell of ionized gas that contributes 40% of the total 24 {mu}m emission of W3A. This dust component is mostly heated by far-ultraviolet, rather than trapped Ly{alpha} photons. This shell is itself surrounded by a thin ({approx}0.01 pc) photodissociation region where PAHs show intense emission. The infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) of three different zones located at 8'', 20'', and 25'' from IRS2 shows that the peak of the SED shifts toward longer wavelengths, when moving away from the star. Adopting the stellar radiation field for these three positions, DUSTEM model fits to these SEDs yield a dust-to-gas mass ratio in the ionized gas similar to that in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). However, the ratio of the IR-to-UV opacity of the dust in the ionized shell is increased by a factor of {approx_equal}3 compared to the diffuse ISM.

  7. Photospheric Magnetic Field Properties of Flaring vs. Flare-Quiet Active Regions II: A Magnetic Charge Topology Model and Statistical Results

    Barnes, G.; Leka, K. D.; Longcope, D. W.


    The complexity of the coronal magnetic field extrapolated from a Magnetic Charge Topology (MCT) model, is examined for pre-event signatures unique to solar energetic phenomena. Although extensive use has been made of quantities measured at the photosphere, it is important to consider the magnetic field in the corona, where (for example) the hard X-ray signatures of energy release in solar flares are observed. By quantifying the inferred coronal magnetic topology we are no longer limited to considering solely the magnetic state of the photosphere. MCT is applied to temporally sampled photospheric magnetic data from the U. Hawai`i Imaging Vector Magnetograph, for 24 flare-event and flare-quiet epochs from seven active regions. We outline the methodology employed for automating the application of MCT to large data sets of complex active regions: partitioning the observed Bz at the photosphere, assigning a charge to each partition, and using this charge distribution to extrapolate the field in the corona. From the resulting field we compute the connectivity matrix ψ ij, the location of null points and the intersection of separatrix surfaces, i.e. separator field lines. Parameters are constructed to describe, for example, the magnetic connectivities, the magnetic flux in those connections, and the number of separators. Examining particular events results in no obvious trends in the magnitude and temporal evolution of the parameters just prior to flare events. Thus, we employ the same quantitative statistical approach outlined in Leka and Barnes [this session], i.e. applying discriminant analysis and Hotelling's T2-test, and ranking all four-variable discriminant functions as a proxy for a single all-variable discriminant function. We present those parameters which consistently appear in the best combinations, indicating that they may play an important role in defining a pre-event coronal state. This work was performed under Air Force Office of Scientific Research

  8. Endogenous oscillations of electric potential difference in the cambial region of the pine stem. II. Possible involvement of the oscillations in xylogenesis

    Wojciech Kurek


    Full Text Available Direct and indirect interrelations between xylogenic processes and the endogenous electric potential difference (PD oscillations generated in the cambial region of isolated tissue blocks from pine trunks were investigated. The frequency of transient PD changes varied during the season and displayed three minima which were concurrent with periods of initiation and termination of cambial activity and with the time of transition from early- to late-wood production. The oscillations were damped by TIBA - an inhibitor of polar auxin transport and stimulated by IAA, but only when the hormone was supplied to the apical end of the tissue block. This suggests that the polar transport of auxin may be involved in generation of the transient PD changes. Results of 2-channel recordings in one tissue block suggest that a part of the recorded oscillations (10-25 % exhibit coordination in space and time: a wave-like pattern along the trunk axis is created by PD changes. The pattern might be a physical carrier of information coordinating processes of growth and differentiation in distant parts of the tree.

  9. Probing the Physics of Narrow Line Regions in Active Galaxies II: The Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7)

    Dopita, Michael A; Davies, Rebecca; Kewley, Lisa; Hampton, Elise; Scharwächter, Julia; Sutherland, Ralph; Kharb, Preeti; Jose, Jessy; Bhatt, Harish; Ramya, S; Jin, Chichuan; Banfield, Julie; Zaw, Ingyin; Juneau, Stéphanie; James, Bethan; Srivastava, Shweta


    Here we describe the \\emph{Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey} (S7) and present results on 64 galaxies drawn from the first data release. The S7 uses the Wide Field Spectrograph (WiFeS) mounted on the ANU 2.3m telescope located at the Siding Spring Observatory to deliver an integral field of $38\\times25$~ arcsec at a spectral resolution of $R=7000$ in the red ($530-710$nm), and $R=3000$ in the blue ($340-560$nm). {From these data cubes we have extracted the Narrow Line Region (NLR) spectra from a 4 arc sec aperture centred on the nucleus. We also determine the H$\\beta$ and [OIII]~$\\lambda$5007 fluxes in the narrow lines, the nuclear reddening, the reddening-corrected relative intensities of the observed emission lines, and the H$\\beta$ and \\lOIII\\ luminosities {determined from spectra for which the stellar continuum has been removed.} We present a set of images of the galaxies in [OIII]~$\\lambda$5007, [NII]~$\\lambda$6584 and H$\\alpha$ which serve to delineate the spatial extent of th...

  10. Isolated limb infusion with melphalan and dactinomycin for regional melanoma and soft-tissue sarcoma of the extremity: final report of a phase II clinical trial.

    Brady, Mary S; Brown, Karen; Patel, Ami; Fisher, Charles; Marx, Will


    Isolated limb infusion (ILI) is a minimally invasive technique of delivering regional chemotherapy in patients with advanced melanoma or soft-tissue sarcoma of the limb. We report the final results of the first clinical trial of ILI in North America (NCT00004250). Eligible patients had recurrent melanoma or unresectable soft-tissue sarcoma of the limb. Angiographic catheters were positioned just above the knee or elbow of the extremity. General anesthesia was performed, a proximal tourniquet inflated, and a normothermic, low flow, hypoxic infusion of melphalan and dactinomycin circulated through the involved limb for 20 min. Tumor response and morbidity were assessed using standard criteria. Thirty-seven patients were accrued to the trial and 44 ILIs were performed (eight patients had two ILIs); one patient was not treated. Of the 32 evaluable patients, 17 (53%) had a significant response at 3 months: 25% of patients had a complete response and 28% of patients had a partial response. The median duration of complete response was 1 year (5-32 months). Morbidity was acceptable, with peak erythema, edema, and pain experienced at 2 weeks and considered 'moderate' in most patients. No patients developed compartment syndrome or required amputation because of ILI. ILI is well tolerated. More than half of the treated patients experienced a complete or partial response.

  11. Outer Rotation Curve of the Galaxy with VERA II: Annual Parallax and Proper Motion of the Star-Forming Region IRAS21379+5106

    Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Kurayama, Tomoharu; Matsuo, Mitsuhiro; Imai, Hiroshi; Burns, Ross A; Ozawa, Takeaki; Honma, Mareki; Shibata, Katsunori; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki


    We conducted astrometric VLBI observations of water-vapor maser emission in the massive star forming region IRAS 21379+5106 to measure the annual parallax and proper motion, using VERA. The annual parallax was measured to be $0.262 \\pm 0.031$ mas corresponding to a trigonometric distance of $3.82^{+0.51}_{-0.41}$ kpc. The proper motion was $(\\mu_\\alpha\\cos{\\delta}, \\mu_\\delta)=(-2.74 \\pm 0.08, -2.87 \\pm 0.18)$ mas yr$^{-1}$. Using this result, the Galactic rotational velocity was estimated to be $V_\\theta=218\\pm 19$ km s$^{-1}$ at the Galactocentric distance $R=9.22\\pm0.43$ kpc, when we adopted the Galactic constants $R_0=8.05\\pm 0.45$ kpc and $V_0=238\\pm 14$ km s$^{-1}$. With newly determined distance, {the bolometric luminosity of the central young stellar object was re-evaluated to $(2.15\\pm 0.54)\\times 10^3 L_\\odot$, which corresponds to spectral type of} B2--B3. Maser features were found to be distributed along a straight line from south-west to north-east. In addition, a vector map of the internal motio...

  12. A Systematic Search for Corotating Interaction Regions in Apparently Single Galactic Wolf-Rayet Stars. II. A Global View of the Wind Variability

    Chené, André-Nicolas


    This study is the second part of a survey searching for large-scale spectroscopic variability in apparently single Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars. In a previous paper (Paper I), we described and characterized the spectroscopic variability level of 25 WR stars observable from the northern hemisphere and found 3 new candidates presenting large-scale wind variability, potentially originating from large-scale structures named Co-rotating Interaction Regions (CIRs). In this second paper, we discuss an additional 39 stars observable from the southern hemisphere. For each star in our sample, we obtained 4-5 high-resolution spectra with a signal-to-noise ratio of ~100 and determined its variability level using the approach described in Paper I. In total, 10 new stars are found to show large-scale spectral variability of which 7 present CIR-type changes (WR 8, WR 44, WR 55, WR 58, WR 61, WR 63, WR 100). Of the remaining stars, 20 were found to show small-amplitude changes and 9 were found to show no spectral variability as far...

  13. Comparison of midlatitude ionospheric F region peak parameters and topside Ne profiles from IRI2012 model prediction with ground-based ionosonde and Alouette II observations

    Gordiyenko, G. I.; Yakovets, A. F.


    The ionospheric F2 peak parameters recorded by a ground-based ionosonde at the midlatitude station Alma-Ata [43.25N, 76.92E] were compared with those obtained using the latest version of the IRI model ( It was found that for the Alma-Ata (Kazakhstan) location, the IRI2012 model describes well the morphology of seasonal and diurnal variations of the ionospheric critical frequency (foF2) and peak density height (hmF2) monthly medians. The model errors in the median foF2 prediction (percentage deviations between the median foF2 values and their model predictions) were found to vary approximately in the range from about -20% to 34% and showed a stable overestimation in the median foF2 values for daytime in January and July and underestimation for day- and nighttime hours in the equinoctial months. The comparison between the ionosonde hmF2 and IRI results clearly showed that the IRI overestimates the nighttime hmF2 values for March and September months, and the difference is up to 30 km. The daytime Alma-Ata hmF2 data were found to be close to the IRI predictions (deviations are approximately ±10-15 km) in winter and equinoctial months, except in July when the observed hmF2 values were much more (from approximately 50-200 km). The comparison between the Alouette foF2 data and IRI predictions showed mixed results. In particular, the Alouette foF2 data showed a tendency to be overestimated for daytime in winter months similar to the ionosonde data; however, the overestimated foF2 values for nighttime in the autumn equinox were in disagreement with the ionosonde observations. There were large deviations between the observed hmF2 values and their model predictions. The largest deviations were found during winter and summer (up to -90 km). The comparison of the Alouette II electron density profiles with those predicted by the adapted IRI2012 model in the altitude range hmF2 of the satellite position showed a great

  14. Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia: Part II: neutralization of lethal and enzymatic effects of Bothrops atrox venom.

    Otero, R; Núñez, V; Jiménez, S L; Fonnegra, R; Osorio, R G; García, M E; Díaz, A


    Twelve of 74 ethanolic extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites in the northwest region of Colombia, were active against lethal effect of Bothrops atrox venom when they were i.p. injected into mice (18-20 g). After preincubation of sublethal doses of every extract (0.5-4.0 mg/mouse) with 1.5 i.p. lethal dose 50% (LD50) (99.3 microg) of venom, seven of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity within 48 h. These were the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae) and Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae); the whole plants of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae) and Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae); and the ripe fruits of Citrus limon (Rutaceae). The other five extracts showing partial neutralization (45-80%; 10-30% survival rate in the control group receiving the venom alone; P<0.05) were: leaves, branches and stem of Costus lasius (Costaceae); the whole plant of Sida acuta (Malvaceae); rhizomes of Dracontium croatii (Araceae); leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae) and Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae). When the extracts were independently administered per oral or i.p. route 60 min before an i.m. venom injection (204 microg=1.5 i.m. LD50), C. limon, T. elegans, B. orellana and T. rosea extracts had partial and significant neutralizing capacity against B. atrox venom lethal effect. C. limon extract was also partially effective when it was administered either i.v. 15 min before or i.p. 5 min after an i.m. venom injection. Three of the 12 extracts with anti-lethal effect (C. limon, D. croatii and S. acuta) were devoid of antiphospholipase A2 activity, when they were tested against one minimum indirect hemolytic dose of B. atrox venom (2 microg) in agarose-erythrocyte-egg yolk gels.

  15. Investigating the origin of cyclical wind variability in hot massive stars - II. Hydrodynamical simulations of corotating interaction regions using realistic spot parameters for the O giant ξ Persei

    David-Uraz, A.; Owocki, S. P.; Wade, G. A.; Sundqvist, J. O.; Kee, N. D.


    OB stars exhibit various types of spectral variability historically associated with wind structures, including the apparently ubiquitous discrete absorption components (DACs). These features have been proposed to be caused either by magnetic fields or non-radial pulsations. In this second paper of this series, we revisit the canonical phenomenological hydrodynamical modelling used to explain the formation of DACs by taking into account modern observations and more realistic theoretical predictions. Using constraints on putative bright spots located on the surface of the O giant ξ Persei derived from high precision space-based broad-band optical photometry obtained with the Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars (MOST) space telescope, we generate 2D hydrodynamical simulations of corotating interaction regions in its wind. We then compute synthetic ultraviolet (UV) resonance line profiles using Sobolev Exact Integration and compare them with historical timeseries obtained by the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) to evaluate if the observed behaviour of ξ Persei's DACs is reproduced. Testing three different models of spot size and strength, we find that the classical pattern of variability can be successfully reproduced for two of them: the model with the smallest spots yields absorption features that are incompatible with observations. Furthermore, we test the effect of the radial dependence of ionization levels on line driving, but cannot conclusively assess the importance of this factor. In conclusion, this study self-consistently links optical photometry and UV spectroscopy, paving the way to a better understanding of cyclical wind variability in massive stars in the context of the bright spot paradigm.

  16. Millimeter- and Submillimeter-Wave Observations of the OMC-2/3 Region. II. Observational Evidence for Outflow-Triggered Star Formation in the OMC-2 FIR 3/4 Region

    Shimajiri, Yoshito; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Saito, Masao; Kawabe, Ryohei


    We have carried out the observations of the OMC-2 FIR 3/4 region with the NMA and ASTE in the H$^{13}$CO$^{+}$ (1--0), $^{12}$CO (3--2, 1--0), SiO ($v$=0, $J$=2--1), CS (2--1), and CH$_3$OH ($J_K$=7$_K$--6$_K$) lines and in the 3.3 mm continuum emission. Our NMA observations in the H$^{13}$CO$^{+}$ emission have revealed 0.07 pc-scale dense gas associated with FIR 4. The $^{12}$CO (3--2,1--0) emission shows high-velocity blue and red shifted components at the both north-east and south-west of FIR 3, suggesting a molecular outflow nearly along the plane of the sky driven by FIR 3. The SiO and the CH$_{3}$OH emission are detected around the interface between the outflow and the dense gas. Furthermore, the $^{12}$CO (1--0) emission shows an L-shaped structure in the P-V diagram. These results imply presence of the shock due to the interaction between the molecular outflow driven by FIR 3 and the dense gas associated with FIR 4. Moreover, our high angular-resolution observations of FIR 4 in the 3.3 mm continuum e...

  17. Recent results from AMANDA II

    Hanson, K.; Ahrens, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S.W.; Becka, T.; Becker, K.-H.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Binon, F.; Biron, A.; Boeser, S.; Botner, O.; Bouhali, O.; Burgess, T.; Carius, S.; Castermans, T.; Chen, A.; Chirkin, D.; Conrad, J.; Cooley, J.; Cowen, D.F.; Davour, A.; De Clercq, C.; De Young, T.; Desiati, P.; Dewulf, J.-P.; Doksus, P.; Ekstroem, P.; Feser, T.; Gaisser, T.K.; Gaug, M.; Gerhardt, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hardtke, R.; Hauschildt, T.; Hellwig, M.; Herque, P.; Hill, G.C.; Hulth, P.O.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Karle, A.; Koci, B.; Koepke, L.; Kuehn, K.; Kowalski, M.; Lamoureux, J.I.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Lindahl, P.; Liubarsky, I.; Madsen, J.; Marciniewski, P.; Matis, H.S.; McParland, C.P.; Minaeva, Y.; Miocinovic, P.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Neunhoeffer, T.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.R.; Ogelman, H.; Olbrechts, Ph.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Pohl, A.C.; Price, P.B.; Przybylski, G.T.; Rawlins, K.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richter, S.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Ross, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schwarz, R.; Silvestri, A.; Solarz, M.; Spiczak, G.M.; Spiering, C.; Steele, D.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.G.; Sudhoff, P.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Taboada, I.; Thollander, L.; Tilav, S.; Walck, C.; Weinheimer, C.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Wiedemann, C.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Yodh, G.; Young, S


    We present new data taken with the AMANDA-II neutrino telescope array. The AMANDA-II upgrade was completed at the beginning of 2000. It significantly extends the sensitivity of the 10-string AMANDA-B10 detector to high- and ultrahigh-energy neutrino fluxes into regions of interest for probing current astrophysical models which remain unexplored by other experiments.

  18. Probing the innermost regions of AGN jets and their magnetic fields with RadioAstron. II. Observations of 3C 273 at minimum activity

    Bruni, G.; Gómez, J. L.; Casadio, C.; Lobanov, A.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Sokolovsky, K. V.; Lisakov, M. M.; Bach, U.; Marscher, A.; Jorstad, S.; Anderson, J. M.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Savolainen, T.; Vega-García, L.; Fuentes, A.; Zensus, J. A.; Alberdi, A.; Lee, S.-S.; Lu, R.-S.; Pérez-Torres, M.; Ros, E.


    Context. RadioAstron is a 10 m orbiting radio telescope mounted on the Spektr-R satellite, launched in 2011, performing Space Very Long Baseline Interferometry (SVLBI) observations supported by a global ground array of radio telescopes. With an apogee of 350 000 km, it is offering for the first time the possibility to perform μas-resolution imaging in the cm-band. Aims: The RadioAstron active galactic nuclei (AGN) polarization Key Science Project (KSP) aims at exploiting the unprecedented angular resolution provided by RadioAstron to study jet launching/collimation and magnetic-field configuration in AGN jets. The targets of our KSP are some of the most powerful blazars in the sky. Methods: We present observations at 22 GHz of 3C 273, performed in 2014, designed to reach a maximum baseline of approximately nine Earth diameters. Reaching an angular resolution of 0.3 mas, we study a particularly low-activity state of the source, and estimate the nuclear region brightness temperature, comparing with the extreme one detected one year before during the RadioAstron early science period. We also make use of the VLBA-BU-BLAZAR survey data, at 43 GHz, to study the kinematics of the jet in a 1.5-yr time window. Results: We find that the nuclear brightness temperature is two orders of magnitude lower than the exceptionally high value detected in 2013 with RadioAstron at the same frequency (1.4 × 1013 K, source-frame), and even one order of magnitude lower than the equipartition value. The kinematics analysis at 43 GHz shows that a new component was ejected 2 months after the 2013 epoch, visible also in our 22 GHz map presented here. Consequently this was located upstream of the core during the brightness temperature peak. Fermi-LAT observations for the period 2010-2014 do not show any γ-ray flare in conjunction with the passage of the new component by the core at 43 GHz. Conclusions: These observations confirm that the previously detected extreme brightness temperature in

  19. An Optical and Infrared Photometric Study of the Young Open Cluster IC 1805 in the Giant H ii Region W4 †

    Sung, Hwankyung; Bessell, Michael S.; Chun, Moo-Young; Yi, Jonghyuk; Nazé, Y.; Lim, Beomdu; Karimov, R.; Rauw, G.; Park, Byeong-Gon; Hur, Hyeonoh


    We present deep wide-field optical CCD photometry and mid-infrared Spitzer/IRAC and MIPS 24 μm data for about 100,000 stars in the young open cluster IC 1805. The members of IC 1805 were selected from their location in the various color-color and color-magnitude diagrams, and the presence of Hα emission, mid-infrared excess emission, and X-ray emission. The reddening law toward IC 1805 is nearly normal (R V = 3.05 ± 0.06). However, the distance modulus of the cluster is estimated to be 11.9 ± 0.2 mag (d=2.4+/- 0.2 kpc) from the reddening-free color-magnitude diagrams, which is larger than the distance to the nearby massive star-forming region W3(OH) measured from the radio VLBA astrometry. We also determined the age of IC 1805 ({τ }{MSTO}=3.5 Myr). In addition, we critically compared the age and mass scale from two pre-main-sequence evolution models. The initial mass function with a Salpeter-type slope of Γ = -1.3 ± 0.2 was obtained and the total mass of IC 1805 was estimated to be about 2700 ± 200 {M}⊙ . Finally, we found our distance determination to be statistically consistent with the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution Data Release 1, within the errors. The proper motion of the B-type stars shows an elongated distribution along the Galactic plane, which could be explained by some of the B-type stars being formed in small clouds dispersed by previous episodes of star formation or supernova explosions. The optical imaging data in this article were gathered with two facilities: the AZT-22 1.5 m telescope at Maidanak Astronomical Observatory in Uzbekistan and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l’Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  20. Physical and chemical properties of the regional mixed layer of Mexico's Megapolis Part II: evaluation of measured and modeled trace gases and particle size distributions

    C. Ochoa


    normally distributed with most of the mass in the accumulation mode centered at 200 ± 20 nm and little observed or predicted changes with respect to the time when the RML is above the Altzomoni research station. Only the total mass changes with time and air mass origin. The invariability of average diameter of the accumulation mode suggests that there is very little growth of the particles by condensation or coagulation after six hours of aging downwind of the major sources of anthropogenic emissions in Mexico's Megapolis. This could greatly simplify parameterization in climate models although it is not known at this time if this invariance can be extended to other megacity regions.

  1. Millimeter- and Submillimeter-Wave Observations of the OMC-2/3 Region. II. Observational Evidence for Outflow-triggered Star Formation in the OMC-2 FIR 3/4 Region

    Shimajiri, Yoshito; Takahashi, Satoko; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Saito, Masao; Kawabe, Ryohei


    We have observed the Orion Molecular Cloud-2 FIR 3/4 region in the H13CO+ (J = 1-0),12CO (J = 1-0), SiO (v = 0, J = 2-1), and CS (J = 2-1) lines and the 3.3 mm continuum emission with the Nobeyama Millimeter Array (NMA) and in the CO (J = 3-2) and CH3OH (JK = 7K-6K) lines with Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). Our NMA observations in the H13CO+ emission have revealed 0.07 pc scale dense gas associated with FIR 4 (FIR 4 clump). The 12CO (J = 3-2,1-0) emission shows high-velocity blue- and redshifted components to both the northeast and southwest of FIR 3, suggesting an outflow from FIR 3 along the plane of the sky. The SiO and CH3OH emission, known as shock tracers, are detected around the interface between the outflow and FIR 4 clump. Furthermore, the 12CO (J = 1-0) emission shows an L-shaped structure in the PV diagram. These results suggest the presence of an interaction between the outflow and FIR 4 clump. Moreover, our interferometric 3.3 mm continuum observations have first found that FIR 4 consists of 11 dusty cores at a scale of ~2000 AU. The separation among these cores (~5 × 103 AU) is on the same order of the Jeans length (~13 × 103 AU), and the estimated time scale of the fragmentation (~3.8 × 104 yr) is similar to the time scale of the outflow interaction (~1.4 × 104 yr). We suggest that the interaction triggered the fragmentation into these dusty cores, and hence the next generation of the cluster formation in FIR 4.

  2. Identification by sequencing based typing and complete coding region analysis of three new HLA class II alleles: DRB3*0210, DRB3*0211 and DQB1*0310.

    Balas, A; Santos, S; Aviles, M J; Garcia-Sanchez, F; Lillo, R; Vicario, J L


    The study of HLA class II polymorphism by direct exon 2 DNA sequencing analysis has been established to be a reliable and accurate high-resolution typing procedure. This approach shows some advantages in relation to previous methods, polymerase chain reaction using sequence-specific oligonucleotides (PCR-SSO) and sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP), basically due to the capability of analysis for the complete sequenced genomic region, including non-polymorphic motifs. DRB3 and DQB1 sequencing based typing (SBT) in unrelated bone marrow donor searching allowed us to detect three new alleles. The complete coding region sequences were characterised from cDNA. Two new DRB3 alleles, DRB3*0210 and DRB3*0211, were described in two Caucasian bone marrow donors. Both sequences showed single point mutations regarding DRB3*0202, producing amino acid replacements at positions 51 (Asp to Thr) and 67 (Leu to Ile), respectively. These two point mutations can be found in other DRB alleles, and suggest that gene conversion would be involved in the origin of both alleles. A new DQB1 sequence was found in a Spanish patient that showed two nucleotide differences, positions 134 and 141, with regard to its close similar DQB1*03011 allele. Only substitution at position 134 provoked amino acid replacement at residue 45, Glu to Gly. This single amino acid change would be involved in the lack of serologic recognition of this new molecule by DQ7-specific reagents.

  3. Tunability of optical gain (SWIR region) in type-II In0.70Ga0.30As/GaAs0.40Sb0.60 nano-heterostructure under high pressure

    Nirmal, H. K.; Yadav, Nisha; Dalela, S.; Rathi, Amit; Siddiqui, M. J.; Alvi, P. A.


    The interest in applying an external pressure on a nano-heterostructure is to attempt to extract more information about the electronic structure through distortion of the electronic structure. This paper reports the tunability of the optical gain under the high pressure effect in M-shaped type-II In0.70Ga0.30As/GaAs0.40Sb0.60 symmetric lasing nano-heterostructure designed for SWIR generation. In order to simulate the optical gain, the heterostructure has been modeled with the help of six band k.p method. The 6×6 diagonalized k.p Hamiltonian has been solved to evaluate the valence sub-bands (i.e. light and heavy hole energies); and then optical matrix elements and optical gain within TE (Transverse Electric) mode has been calculated. For the injected carrier density of 5×1012/cm2, the optimized optical gain within TE mode is as high as ~9000/cm at the wavelength of ~1.95 μm, thus providing a very important alternative material system for the generation of SWIR wavelength region. The application of very high pressure (2, 5 and 8 GPa) on the structure along [110] direction shows that the gain as well as lasing wavelength both approach to higher values. Thus, the structure can be tuned externally by the application of high pressure within the SWIR region.

  4. A novel carbonic anhydrase II mRNA isolated from mature chicken testis displays a TATA box and other promoter sequences in a leader 5' untranslated region not present in somatic tissues.

    Mezquita, J; Pau, M; Mezquita, C


    The primary structure of a novel carbonic anhydrase II-encoding cDNA clone (CAII) isolated from a chicken testis cDNA library is presented. The size of the CAII mRNA obtained from meiotic and haploid chicken testis cells is larger than the corresponding mRNA from immature testis and somatic tissues. The nucleotide sequence of the chicken testis CAII clone revealed a protein-coding region identical to the published sequence of CAII mRNA from erythroid cells. However, the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the testis CAII mRNA is larger than the corresponding somatic sequence. The 5' UTR contains a leader sequence not present in the CAII mRNA isolated from erythroid cells or chick retina. The additional 5' UTR of the mRNA displays a TATA box, located 23-30 bp upstream from the cap site of the CAII mRNA transcribed in erythroid cells, and several G+C-rich boxes. Our results suggest that the use of a testis-specific promoter would result in the incorporation of somatic promoter sequences into the 5' UTR of the testis message.

  5. Características de identidade, qualidade e estabilidade da manteiga de garrafa. Parte II - estabilidade The stability of a Brazilian regional butter "Manteiga de Garrafa"

    Carmem Lygia Burgos Ambrósio


    Full Text Available Com vistas a estabelecer o tempo de vida útil da manteiga de garrafa, duas marcas deste produto (A e B de ampla comercialização na cidade do Recife foram avaliadas quanto a estabilidade durante o armazenamento a 25ºC a intervalos de 0, 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias através da determinação do índice de peróxido, acidez, análise cromatográfica de ácidos graxos e análise sensorial. Segundo os resultados, a acidez apresentou uma elevação acentuada nos primeiros 30 dias de armazenamento estabilizando-se a seguir até 120 dias. O índice de peróxido aumentou ao longo do tempo sendo acompanhado pela intensificação do "flavour" de ranço para ambas amostras que a partir dos 90 dias de armazenamento foi referido como extremamente forte por 50% dos provadores. Quanto aos ácidos graxos, foi constatada diminuição do percentual do linoléico (18:2 na manteiga A embora nenhuma mudança tenha ocorrido no conteúdo de ácidos graxos trans para as duas manteigas. Os resultados demonstram que o tempo de armazenamento não exerce influência significativa e que a manteiga de garrafa apresenta uma curta vida-de-prateleira face a oxidação lipídica que a torna inadequada para consumo após 60 dias a partir da data de fabricação.Trying to establish the time of shelf-life of "manteiga de garrafa" (a kind of regional Brazilian butter, two brands of this product (A and B of wide commercialization in the city of Recife were analyzed as the stability during the storage at 25ºC to intervals of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days through the determination of the peroxide value,% free fattty acid, fatty acid composition and sensorial evaluation. According to the results, acidity increased in the first 30 days of storage being stabilized up to 120 days, the peroxide value increased along the time being accompanied by the intensification of the "flavour" of rancidity for both samples that it was referred as extremely strong for 50% of the panelists starting from the

  6. Pb II

    Windows User

    ISSN 1684–5315 ©2012 Academic Journals ... Exposure to Pb above permissible limit (50 ppb in water) .... taken and analyzed for residual metal concentration determination. ..... loss in Pb(II) sorption capacity up to five cycles of reuse of.

  7. Amebas testáceas ocorrentes na região de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul: II. Novos registros para a região Testate amoebae found in the region of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul: II. New record to the region

    Vladimir Stolzenberg Torres


    Full Text Available A second study of the testate amoebae of the region of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul revealed the presence of Arcella Ehrenberg, 1830.Difflugia Leclerc, 1815, Lesquereusia Schulumberger, 1845, Centropyxis Stein, 1857, Bulinularia Penard, 1911 and Euglypha Dujardin, 1841 genera. Our finds demand emendations of the diagnostic characteristics of several species.

  8. Container II

    Baraklianou, Stella


    Container II, self-published artists book.\\ud The book was made on the occasion of the artists residency at the Banff Arts Centre, in Alberta Canada. \\ud \\ud Container II is a performative piece, it worked in conjunction with the photographic installation "Stage Set: Cool Tone" . (photographic floor installation, Reclaimed wood, frames, 130x145cm, 2016) \\ud The photographic installation was also part of the artists residency titled "New Materiality" at the Banff Arts Centre. \\ud \\ud Limited E...

  9. Escape of ionizing radiation from star-forming regions in Young galaxies

    Razoumov, A; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper


    Galaxies: Formation, Galaxies: Intergalactic Medium, ISM: H II Regions, Radiative Transfer Udgivelsesdato: Nov. 10......Galaxies: Formation, Galaxies: Intergalactic Medium, ISM: H II Regions, Radiative Transfer Udgivelsesdato: Nov. 10...

  10. Scattered light in galactic H II regions

    Víctor Robledo Rella


    Full Text Available Encontramos que la luz dispersada por polvo en los espectros de Carina, M8, y M20 contribuye con 50 a 70% del cont nuo puramente nebular. Por otro lado, el cont nuo estelar contribuye con 50% del cont nuo total.

  11. TBscore II

    Rudolf, Frauke; Lemvik, Grethe; Abate, Ebba;


    Abstract Background: The TBscore, based on simple signs and symptoms, was introduced to predict unsuccessful outcome in tuberculosis patients on treatment. A recent inter-observer variation study showed profound variation in some variables. Further, some variables depend on a physician assessing...... them, making the score less applicable. The aim of the present study was to simplify the TBscore. Methods: Inter-observer variation assessment and exploratory factor analysis were combined to develop a simplified score, the TBscore II. To validate TBscore II we assessed the association between start...

  12. Procedimiento para diseñar el muestreo eólico en una región promisoria. Parte II.Implementación y aplicación; Procedure to design sampling of the wind speed in a promissory region. Part II. Implementation and application

    Eduardo Terrero Matos


    Full Text Available En la Parte I de este artículo fue establecido el algoritmo general de un procedimiento para el diseño del muestreo de la velocidad del viento cuyos resultados tengan la capacidad de minimizar el error probable medio durante una estimación del comportamiento espacio-temporal de la velocidad del viento. En la Parte II se describe el algoritmo de selección de puntos de muestreo y el algoritmo para el cálculo del error probable de estimación. El procedimiento para diseñarlas redes de muestreo eólico es implementado en una aplicación informática que facilita la aplicación del procedimiento a la selección de los puntos donde se ubicarán las torres anemométricas en una región promisoria del municipio Moa en la Provincia Holguín, Cuba. Los resultados obtenidos son comparados con el diseño obtenido en el año 2007 por la Empresa de Ingeniería y Proyectos de Electricidad del Ministerio de Energía y Minas de la República de Cuba.In Part I of this article was established the general algorithmof a procedure for the sampling design of the wind speed and the results have the ability to minimize the average probable error for an estimate of the conduct spatiotemporal wind speed. In Part II the selection algorithm of sampling points and the algorithm for calculating the probable error estimation is described. The procedure for the samplingdesign is implemented in an computer software that facilitates the application from the procedure to the selection of the points where theanemometer towers will be located in a promissory region of the municipality Moa in the province Holguín, Cuba. The results are compared with the design obtained in 2007 by the Empresa de Ingeniería y Proyectos de Electricidad of the Ministry of Energy and Mines of the Republic of Cuba.

  13. Felipe II

    Carlos Restrepo Canal


    Full Text Available Como parte de la monumental Historia de España que bajo la prestante y acertadísima dirección de don Ramón Menéndez Pidal se comenzó a dar a la prensa desde 1954 por la Editorial Espasa Calpe S. A., aparecieron en 1958 dos tomos dedicados al reinado de Felipe II; aquella época en que el imperio español alcanzó su unidad peninsular juntamente con el dilatado poderío que le constituyó en la primera potencia de Europa.

  14. Application of an Online-Coupled Regional Climate Model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for Examination of Ice Nucleation Schemes: Part II. Sensitivity to Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation Parameterizations and Dust Emissions

    Zhang, Yang; Chen, Ying; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai-Yung


    Aerosol particles can affect cloud microphysical properties by serving as ice nuclei (IN). Large uncertainties exist in the ice nucleation parameterizations (INPs) used in current climate models. In this Part II paper, to examine the sensitivity of the model predictions to different heterogeneous INPs, WRF-CAM5 simulation using the INP of Niemand et al. (N12) [1] is conducted over East Asia for two full years, 2006 and 2011, and compared with simulation using the INP of Meyers et al. (M92) [2], which is the original INP used in CAM5. M92 calculates the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of ice supersaturation, while N12 represents the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of temperature and the number concentrations and surface areas of dust particles. Compared to M92, the WRF-CAM5 simulation with N12 produces significantly higher nucleated ice crystal number concentrations (ICNCs) in the northern domain where dust sources are located, leading to significantly higher cloud ice number and mass concentrations and ice water path, but the opposite is true in the southern domain where temperatures and moistures play a more important role in ice formation. Overall, the simulation with N12 gives lower downward shortwave radiation but higher downward longwave radiation, cloud liquid water path, cloud droplet number concentrations, and cloud optical depth. The increase in cloud optical depth and the decrease in downward solar flux result in a stronger shortwave and longwave cloud forcing, and decreases temperature at 2-m and precipitation. Changes in temperature and radiation lower surface concentrations of OH, O3, SO42-, and PM2.5, but increase surface concentrations of CO, NO2, and SO2 over most of the domain. By acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and IN, dust particles have different impacts on cloud water and ice number concentrations, radiation, and temperature at 2-m and

  15. Particle Identification at Belle II

    Sandilya, S


    We report on the charged particle identification (PID) systems for the upcoming Belle II experiment. The time of propagation counter in the central region and the proximity focusing ring imaging Cherenkov counters with aerogel radiator in the forward region will be used as the PID devices. They are expected to provide a kaon identification efficiency of more than 94% at a low pion misidentification probability of 4%. The motivation for the upgrade, method, and status of both systems are discussed.

  16. Estudos sorológicos para pesquisa de anticorpos de arbovírus em população humana da região do Vale do Ribeira: II - inquérito em pacientes do Hospital Regional de Pariquera-Açú, 1980 A serological study for research of arbovirus antibodies in human population of the Ribeira Valley Region: II - a survey of patients in the Pariquera-Açú Regional Hospital, 1980

    Lygia Busch Iversson


    Full Text Available Foi realizado inquérito sorológico para pesquisa de anticorpos inibidores de hemaglutinaçãc de arbovírus em 516 moradores das zonas urbana e rural da região do Vale do Ribeira, Brasil, área extensamente coberta de florestas onde ocorreu recentemente uma epidemia de encefalite atribuída ao Flavivirus Rocio. Verificou-se que 24,2% destas pessoas tinham anticorpos IH para um ou mais arbovírus (11,2% para Alphavirus; 13,2% para Flavivirus; 4,6% para o Bunyavirus Caraparu e 0,8% para outros arbovírus. Alguns dos investigados, sem antecedente de vacinação contra febre amarela, apresentaram anticorpos neutralizantes para o vírus da encefalite equina do Leste, St. Louis e da febre amarela, os dois últimos ainda não isolados na região. A análise das características dos indivíduos com sorologia positiva sugeria que a transmissão de arboviroses não era fato recente e estava se fazendo em pelo menos 9 municípios da área, não só no ambiente silvestre como fora do mesmo. Os indivíduos de sexo masculino e entre estes os que trabalham em pesca, em geral no período vespertino e noturno, apresentaram maior risco à infecções arbovíricas.A serological survey for hemagglutination - inhibition antibodies to arbovirus was carried out on 516 residents of the rural and urban zones of the Ribeira Valley, Brazil, a largely forested area where there recently occurred an encephalitis epidemic attributed to Flavivirus Rocio. It was discovered that 24.2% of the sample population presented HI antibodies (11.2% against Alphavirus, 13.2% against Flavivirus, 4.6% against the Caraparu virus and 0.8% against other arboviruses. Neutralizing antibodies for Eastern equine encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis and yellow fever virus were detected in some of the people, not vaccinated against yellow fever, who have always lived in the region. These last two viruses have never before been isolated in the area. The characteristics of people who presented

  17. Elizabeth II uus kunstigalerii


    Tähistamaks oma troonile asumise 50. aastapäeva, avab Elizabeth II 6. II 2002 Buckinghami palees uue kunstigalerii, mis ehitatakse palee tiibhoonena. Arhitekt John Simpson. Elizabeth II kunstikogust

  18. Elizabeth II uus kunstigalerii


    Tähistamaks oma troonile asumise 50. aastapäeva, avab Elizabeth II 6. II 2002 Buckinghami palees uue kunstigalerii, mis ehitatakse palee tiibhoonena. Arhitekt John Simpson. Elizabeth II kunstikogust

  19. Revisited abundance diagnostics in quasars: Fe II/Mg II ratios

    Verner, E M; Verner, D A; Johansson, S; Gull, T R


    Both the Fe II UV emission in the 2000- 3000 A region [Fe II (UV)] and resonance emission line complex of Mg II at 2800 A are prominent features in quasar spectra. The observed Fe II UV/ Mg II emission ratios have been proposed as means to measure the buildup of the Fe abundance relative to that of the alpha-elements C, N, O, Ne and Mg as a function of redshift. The current observed ratios show large scatter and no obvious dependence on redshift. Thus, it remains unresolved whether a dependence on redshift exists and whether the observed Fe II UV/ Mg II ratios represent a real nucleosynthesis diagnostic. We have used our new 830-level model atom for Fe+ in photoionization calculations, reproducing the physical conditions in the broad line regions of quasars. This modeling reveals that interpretations of high values of Fe II UV/ Mg II are sensitive not only to Fe and Mg abundance, but also to other factors such as microturbulence, density, and properties of the radiation field. We find that the Fe II UV/ Mg II...

  20. Utility of Procalcitonin (PCT and Mid regional pro-Adrenomedullin (MR-proADM in risk stratification of critically ill febrile patients in Emergency Department (ED. A comparison with APACHE II score

    Travaglino Francesco


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic value of MR-proADM and PCT levels in febrile patients in the ED in comparison with a disease severity index score, the APACHE II score. We also evaluated the ability of MR-proADM and PCT to predict hospitalization. Methods This was an observational, multicentric study. We enrolled 128 patients referred to the ED with high fever and a suspicion of severe infection such as sepsis, lower respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal infections, soft tissue infections, central nervous system infections, or osteomyelitis. The APACHE II score was calculated for each patient. Results MR-proADM median values in controls were 0.5 nmol/l as compared with 0.85 nmol/l in patients (P P . MR-proADM and PCT levels were significantly increased in accordance with the Apache II quartiles (P  respectively. In the respiratory infections, urinary infections, and sepsis-septic shock groups we found a correlation between the Apache II and MR-proADM respectively and MR-proADM and PCT respectively. We evaluated the ability of MR-proADM and PCT to predict hospitalization in patients admitted to our emergency departments complaining of fever. MR-proADM alone had an AUC of 0.694, while PCT alone had an AUC of 0.763. The combined use of PCT and MR-proADM instead showed an AUC of 0.79. Conclusions The present study highlights the way in which MR-proADM and PCT may be helpful to the febrile patient’s care in the ED. Our data support the prognostic role of MR-proADM and PCT in that setting, as demonstrated by the correlation with the APACHE II score. The combined use of the two biomarkers can predict a subsequent hospitalization of febrile patients. The rational use of these two molecules could lead to several advantages, such as faster diagnosis, more accurate risk stratification, and optimization of the treatment, with consequent benefit to the patient and

  1. U-Pb ages, geochemistry, C-O-Nd-Sr-Hf isotopes and petrogenesis of the Catalão II carbonatitic complex (Alto Paranaíba Igneous Province, Brazil): implications for regional-scale heterogeneities in the Brazilian carbonatite associations

    Guarino, Vincenza; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Melluso, Leone; de Barros Gomes, Celso; Tassinari, Colombo Celso Gaeta; Ruberti, Excelso; Brilli, Mauro


    The Catalão II carbonatitic complex is part of the Alto Paranaíba Igneous Province (APIP), central Brazil, close to the Catalão I complex. Drill-hole sampling and detailed mineralogical and geochemical study point out the existence of ultramafic lamprophyres (phlogopite-picrites), calciocarbonatites, ferrocarbonatites, magnetitites, apatitites, phlogopitites and fenites, most of them of cumulitic origin. U-Pb data have constrained the age of Catalão I carbonatitic complex between 78 ± 1 and 81 ± 4 Ma. The initial strontium, neodymium and hafnium isotopic data of Catalão II (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70503-0.70599; ɛNdi = -6.8 to -4.7; 176Hf/177Hf = 0.28248-0.28249; ɛHfi = -10.33 to -10.8) are similar to the isotopic composition of the Catalão I complex and fall within the field of APIP kimberlites, kamafugites and phlogopite-picrites, indicating the provenance from an old lithospheric mantle source. Carbon isotopic data for Catalão II carbonatites (δ13C = -6.35 to -5.68 ‰) confirm the mantle origin of the carbon for these rocks. The origin of Catalão II cumulitic rocks is thought to be caused by differential settling of the heavy phases (magnetite, apatite, pyrochlore and sulphides) in a magma chamber repeatedly filled by carbonatitic/ferrocarbonatitic liquids ( s.l.). The Sr-Nd isotopic composition of the Catalão II rocks matches those of APIP rocks and is markedly different from the isotopic features of alkaline-carbonatitic complexes in the southernmost Brazil. The differences are also observed in the lithologies and the magmatic affinity of the igneous rocks found in the two areas, thus demonstrating the existence of regional-scale heterogeneity in the mantle sources underneath the Brazilian platform.

  2. The Cu II Spectrum

    Alexander Kramida


    Full Text Available New wavelength measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, ultraviolet and visible spectral regions have been combined with available literature data to refine and extend the description of the spectrum of singly ionized copper (Cu II. In the VUV region, we measured 401 lines using a concave grating spectrograph and photographic plates. In the UV and visible regions, we measured 276 lines using a Fourier-transform spectrometer. These new measurements were combined with previously unpublished data from the thesis of Ross, with accurate VUV grating measurements of Kaufman and Ward, and with less accurate older measurements of Shenstone to construct a comprehensive list of ≈2440 observed lines, from which we derived a revised set of 379 optimized energy levels, complemented with 89 additional levels obtained using series formulas. Among the 379 experimental levels, 29 are new. Intensities of all lines observed in different experiments have been reduced to the same uniform scale by using newly calculated transition probabilities (A-values. We combined our calculations with published measured and calculated A-values to provide a set of 555 critically evaluated transition probabilities with estimated uncertainties, 162 of which are less than 20%.

  3. Status of Goos Regional Alliances


    Creation of regional GOOS bodies has substantially increased the number of Member States engaged in GOOS. This is happening through three complementary mechanisms: (i) creation of subsidiary bodies within the intergovernmental structure of the IOC (NEAR-GOOS, IOCARIBE-GOOS, Black Sea GOOS, WIOMAP); (ii) creation of regional groups within alternative intergovernmental structures operating on behalf of IOC (PacificGOOS in SOPAC); and (iii) creation of regional associations (EuroG...

  4. Fe II emission in AGN

    M. Joly


    Full Text Available El espectro óptico de las galaxias Seyfert 1 muestra una gran variedad de líneas de emisión producidas por FeII. Damos tres ejemplos e investigamos la formación de estas líneas con el fin de determinar las condiciones físicas de las regiones en donde se emiten.

  5. Biodiversidad del complejo de artrópodos asociados al follaje de la vegetación del norte de Chile, II región Biodiversity of the canopy arthropods associated to vegetation of the north of Chile, II region



    establece el siguiente gradiente decreciente: DL, TM, TA y DI, concordante con la riqueza de especies vegetales. Como grupo, Homoptera es el que se distribuye sobre una mayor diversidad de especies vegetales en las zonas analizadas. Secundariamente puede considerarse a Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, Psocoptera y Thysanoptera. Dentro del contexto total de especies vegetales muestreadas, destacan por la riqueza específica de artrópodos: Nolana divaricata, Baccharis petiolata, Heliotropium taltalense, Nicotiana solanifolia, Atriplex atacamensis, Fabiana densa, Baccharis incarum, Nolana crassulifolia, Haplopappus rigidus, Cortaderia atacamensis, Eremocharis fruticosa, Atriplex leuca. En cuanto a daño por fitofagia se encontró un total de 25 especies afectadas por defoliación, minado o formación de cecidias, siendo la más relevante esta última. La fitofagia por succión, la más importante del conjunto se infirió por la alta presencia y abundancia de insectos que funcionalmente corresponden a esta categoría (Homoptera, Hemiptera, Thysanoptera, los que están presentes en todas las zonas ecológicas y en especial en DL y TMThe complex formed by phytophagous insects, their host plants and their predators is one of the most important component of ecosystems biodiversity. In this work the role of this complex on the biodiversity of the arid region of Chile was studied. It is postulated that a higher biodiversiyty of phytophagous insects would be associated to more favorable climatic conditions, higher host plant diversity, and higher nitrogen, ash and water content of the vegetation. Also, a higher biodiversity of predators and parasitoids will be sustained by a higher phytophagous insect biodiversity. The study was conducted in the II Region of Chile through an altitudinal transect crossing the following bioclimatic zones from the coast (0 m of altitude to the Andes (4,000 m of altitude: Coastal Desert (or Desierto Litoral, DL, Continental Desert (or Desierto Interior, DI, Pre

  6. Measurement of regional rates of cerebral protein synthesis with L-[1-11C]leucine and PET with correction for recycling of tissue amino acids: II. Validation in rhesus monkeys.

    Smith, C.B.; Schmidt, K.C.; Qin, M.; Burlin, T.V.; Cook, M.P.; Kang, J.; Saunders, R.C.; Bacher, J.D.; Carson, R.E.; Channing, M.A.; Eckelman, W.C.; Herscovitch, P.; Laverman, P.; Vuong, B.K.


    The confounding effect of recycling of amino acids derived from tissue protein breakdown into the precursor pool for protein synthesis has been an obstacle to adapting in vivo methods for determination of regional rates of cerebral protein synthesis (rCPS) to positron emission tomography (PET). We

  7. Report of the Second Meeting of the Governing Board, SEAMEO Regional Centre for Education in Science and Mathematics (Penang, Malaysia, October 16-20, 1971). Volume II - Report on Courses. Final Report.

    Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (Singapore). Regional Center for Education in Science and Mathematics.

    This document reports on a series of intensive courses on modern methods of teaching and evaluating elementary and secondary science and mathematics held at the SEAMEO Regional Centre for Education in Science and Mathematics (RECSAM), Penang, Malaysia, during 1971. The courses were aimed at providing participants with a broad range of experiences…

  8. Structural studies on sulfated oligosaccharides derived from the carbohydrate-protein linkage region of chondroitin 6-sulfate proteoglycans of shark cartilage. (II.) Seven compounds containing 2 or 3 sulfate residues.

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Waard, P. de; Harada, T.; Sugahara, K.


    Shark cartilage proteoglycans bear predominantly chondroitin 6-sulfate. After exhaustive protease digestion, reductive beta-elimination and subsequent chondroitinase ABC digestion, 13 hexasaccharide alditols were obtained from the carbohydrate-protein linkage region and six of them contain 0 or 1 su

  9. Analysis of the structural parameters that influence gas production from the Devonian shale. Annual progress report, 1979-1980. Volume II. Data repository and reports published during fiscal year 1979-1980: regional structure, surface structure, surface fractures, hydrology

    Negus-De Wys, J.; Dixon, J. M.; Evans, M. A.; Lee, K. D.; Ruotsala, J. E.; Wilson, T. H.; Williams, R. T.


    This volume comprises appendices giving regional structure data, surface structure data, surface fracture data, and hydrology data. The fracture data covers oriented Devonian shale cores from West Virginia, Ohio, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Kentucky. The subsurface structure of the Eastern Kentucky gas field is also covered. (DLC)

  10. Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II)


    been further delays to the F-35 System Development and Demonstration ( SDD ) program. As a result, the SDB II integration will be accomplished as a...follow-on integration to the F-35 SDD . SDB II OT&E on the F-35 will not be completed by the FRP threshold of October 2019, thus delaying the FRP decision

  11. Hubble Space Telescope Hx Imaging of Star-forming Galaxies at z approximately equal to 1-1.5: Evolution in the Size and Luminosity of Giant H II Regions

    Livermore, R. C.; Jones, T.; Richard, J.; Bower, R. G.; Ellis, R. S.; Swinbank, A. M.; Rigby, J. R.; Smail, Ian; Arribas, S.; Rodriguez-Zaurin, J.; hide


    We present Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 narrow-band imaging of the Ha emission in a sample of eight gravitationally lensed galaxies at z = 1-1.5. The magnification caused by the foreground clusters enables us to obtain a median source plane spatial resolution of 360 pc, as well as providing magnifications in flux ranging from approximately 10× to approximately 50×. This enables us to identify resolved star-forming HII regions at this epoch and therefore study their Ha luminosity distributions for comparisons with equivalent samples at z approximately 2 and in the local Universe. We find evolution in the both luminosity and surface brightness of HII regions with redshift. The distribution of clump properties can be quantified with an HII region luminosity function, which can be fit by a power law with an exponential break at some cut-off, and we find that the cut-off evolves with redshift. We therefore conclude that 'clumpy' galaxies are seen at high redshift because of the evolution of the cut-off mass; the galaxies themselves follow similar scaling relations to those at z = 0, but their HII regions are larger and brighter and thus appear as clumps which dominate the morphology of the galaxy. A simple theoretical argument based on gas collapsing on scales of the Jeans mass in a marginally unstable disc shows that the clumpy morphologies of high-z galaxies are driven by the competing effects of higher gas fractions causing perturbations on larger scales, partially compensated by higher epicyclic frequencies which stabilize the disc.

  12. Nuclear Energy Center: upper St. Lawrence region. Part I. Siting. Part II. Fort Drum surrogate site, description and impact assessment. Part III. Dispersed sites impact assessment and comparison with the NEC

    Merry, P.A.; Luner, C.; Hong, S.W.; Canham, H.O.; Boggs, J.F.; McCool, T.P.


    This report is one of many supporting documents used by the Nuclear Regulatory commission in the preparation of the Nuclear Energy Center Site Survey (NECSS) mandated by Congress. While the overall study focuses on the feasibility and practicability of nuclear energy centers (NECs), this report is directed towards choosing a suitable surrogate site in the upper St. Lawrence region of New York State, assessing the probable impacts associated with construction and operation of the NEC, and comparing these impacts with those associated with small dispersed nuclear power stations. The upper St. Lawrence region is surveyed to identify a specific site that might be suitable for a surrogate NEC. Several assumptions about the basic design of an NEC are delineated, and a general overview of the characteristics of the region is given. The Fort Drum Military Reservation is chosen as a suitable surrogate site. Fort Drum and the surrounding area are described in terms of land use and population patterns, terrestrial and aquatic ecology, water use and quality, meteorology, institutional framework, and socioeconomic structure. The impacts associated with NEC development are assessed. Then the impacts associated with smaller dispersed nuclear power stations located throughout New York State are assessed and compared with the impacts associated with the NEC. Finally, the impacts due to development of the transmission line networks associated with the NEC and with the dispersed power stations are assessed and compared.

  13. Different enzyme kinetics during the glutathione conjugation of the four stereoisomers of the fjord-region diolepoxides of benzo[c]phenanthrene by the mu-class rat liver glutathione S-transferase HTP II.

    Funk, M; Gath, I; Seidel, A; Platt, K L; Oesch, F; Zeller, H D


    The enzyme-catalysed conjugation of each of the four stereoisomers of trans-3,4-dihydroxy-1,2-epoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[c]phenanthrene (B[c]PhDE) with glutathione (GSH) by HTP II, a novel isolated mu-class GSH transferase from the liver of untreated rat, was studied. All four stereoisomers were substrates for GSH transferase HTP II. The enzymatic reaction shows three different types of enzyme kinetics: substrate inhibition for (-)-anti-B[c]PhDE with (R,S,S,R)-absolute configuration, allosteric behavior using (+)-anti-B[c]PhDE with (S,R,R,S)-absolute configuration and Henri-Michaelis-Menten kinetics with both the (-)-syn- and (+)-syn-enantiomers, with (S,R,S,R)- and (R,S,R,S)-absolute configuration, respectively. When the concentration of these diolepoxides was varied (using 2 mM GSH), the apparent Vmax values were 1975 nmol/min x mg for (-)-anti-B[c]PhDE and about 60 nmol/min x mg for both (-)-syn- and (+)-syn-B[c]PhDE, with the corresponding Km values of 1.05 and 0.20 mM. The reaction of (+)-anti-B[c]PhDE determined by applying the Hill equation had an estimated Vmax value of 930 nmol/min x mg. On varying the concentration of GSH, linear Lineweaver-Burk plots were obtained. No competitive effect could be observed using a mixture of (-)-anti- and (+)-anti-enantiomers, indicating that their binding sites are different and independent. It was also shown, that the binding sites of (+)-anti- and both syn-enantiomers were different and independent of each other, while there was a small effect on the binding of the syn-enantiomers caused by (-)-anti-B[c]PhDE. All products of the reaction between GSH and the dihydrodiol epoxides of benzo[c]phenanthrene could be resolved by HPLC and were identified and quantitated using the corresponding synthetic GSH conjugates.

  14. Differential Effect of Solution Conditions on the Conformation of the Actinoporins Sticholysin II and Equinatoxin II



    Full Text Available Actinoporins are a family of pore-forming proteins with hemolytic activity. The structural basis for such activity appears to depend on their correct folding. Such folding encompasses a phosphocholine binding site, a tryptophan-rich region and the activity-related N-terminus segment. Additionally, different solution conditions are known to be able to influence the pore formation by actinoporins, as for Sticholysin II (StnII and Equinatoxin II (EqtxII. In this context, the current work intends to characterize the influence of distinct solution conditions in the conformational behavior of these proteins through molecular dynamics (MD simulations. The obtained data offer structural insights into actinoporins dynamics in solution, characterizing its conformational behavior at the atomic level, in accordance with previous experimental data on StnII and EqtxII hemolytic activities.

  15. 西藏昌都藏族mtDNA高变Ⅰ和高变Ⅱ区序列多态性分析%Polymorphisms of mitochondrial DNA hypervariable regions HVR I and HVR II in Changdu Tibetan in China

    赵健民; 康龙丽; 卞利强; 拉宗


    目的 探讨藏族人群线粒体DNA(mitochondrial DNA,mtDNA)控制区的两个高变区(hypervariable region,HVR)Ⅰ、Ⅱ的多态性.方法 采用PCR扩增和末端标记荧光循环测序的方法,对97名西藏昌都地区藏族无关个体进行了序列分析.结果 共观察到111个变异位点,序列变异包括了碱基的转换、颠换、插入、缺失等各种类型.其中,在HVR Ⅰ区(nt16024-nt16365)内观察到68个变异位点,92种单倍型,基因多样性h值为0.9985;在HVRⅡ区(nt73-nt340)内观察到43变异位点,91种单倍型,基因多样性h值为0.9882;随机匹配概率在HVRⅠ和HVRⅡ区P值分别为0.0120和0.0118;联合两个高变区序列,可观察到97种不同的单倍型,随机匹配概率P值为0.0103.结论 昌都藏族与其他群体比较有其独特的mtDNA序列遗传特点,与亚洲其他人种及白人有明显差异.mtDNA序列多态性在群体遗传学调查及法医学个体识别方面有广泛的应用前景.%Objective To analyze the sequence polymorphisms of mitochondrial DNA HVR Ⅰ and HVR Ⅱ in Tibetan population in Changdu area of Tibet. Methods mtDNAs obtained from 97 unrelated individuals were amplified and directly sequenced. Results One hundred and eleven variable sites were identified, including nucleotide transitions, transversions, insertions and deletions. In HVR Ⅰ region (nt16024-nt16365), sixty-eight polymorphic sites and 92 haplotypes were observed, and the genetic diversity was 0.9985. In HVR Ⅱ region (nt73-nt340), forty-three polymorphic sites and 91 haplotypes were detected, and the genetic diversity was 0.9882. The random match probability of HVR Ⅰ and HVR Ⅱregions were 0.0120 and 0.0118, respectively. When the sequence analysis of HVR Ⅰ and HVR Ⅱ regions were combined, ninety-seven different haplotypos were found. The combined match probability of two unrelated persons having the same sequence was 0.0103. Conclusion There are some unique polymorphic loci in the Changdu

  16. Factor II deficiency

    ... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor II is one such coagulation factor. Factor II deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...

  17. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part II. Emission sector and source region contributions.

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Kota, Sri Harsha; Li, Jingyi; Wu, Li; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi


    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. Contributions from power plants, industry, transportation, domestic, biogenic, windblown dust, open burning, fertilizer, and manure management sources to deposition fluxes in JNNR watershed and four EANET sites are determined. In JNNR, 96%, 82%, and 87% of the SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+) deposition fluxes are in the form of wet deposition of the corresponding aerosol species. Industry and power plants are the two major sources of SO4(2-) deposition flux, accounting for 86% of the total wet deposition of SO4(2-), and industry has a higher contribution (56%) than that of power plants (30%). Power plants and industry are also the top sources that are responsible for NO3(-) wet deposition, and contributions from power plants (30%) are generally higher than those from industries (21%). The major sources of NH4(+) wet deposition flux in JNNR are fertilizer (48%) and manure management (39%). Source-region apportionment confirms that SO2 and NOx emissions from local and two nearest counties do not have a significant impact on predicted wet deposition fluxes in JNNR, with contributions less than 10%. While local NH3 emissions account for a higher fraction of the NH4(+) deposition, approximately 70% of NH4(+) wet deposition in JNNR originated from other source regions. This study demonstrates that S and N deposition in JNNR is mostly from long-range transport rather than from local emissions, and to protect JNNR, regional emission reduction controls are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  18. Sport Tourism: Regional Promotion Strategies

    Pereira, Nuno; Ribeiro, J. Cadima; Viseu, José


    The main purposes of this paper are (i) to analyze the regional promotion strategies of the UEFA Euro 2004 and (ii) to contribute for the improvement of planning and implementation strategies of tourism marketing at regional level. Data regarding these strategies were collected and synthesided. We verified if these match some of the theoretical issues of promotion and tourism marketing. Despite the fact that already many studies have been made, internationally, on the impact of ...

  19. Atmospheric discharge and dispersion of radionuclides during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Part II: verification of the source term and analysis of regional-scale atmospheric dispersion.

    Terada, Hiroaki; Katata, Genki; Chino, Masamichi; Nagai, Haruyasu


    Regional-scale atmospheric dispersion simulations were carried out to verify the source term of (131)I and (137)Cs estimated in our previous studies, and to analyze the atmospheric dispersion and surface deposition during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The accuracy of the source term was evaluated by comparing the simulation results with measurements of daily and monthly surface depositions (fallout) over land in eastern Japan from March 12 to April 30, 2011. The source term was refined using observed air concentrations of radionuclides for periods when there were significant discrepancies between the calculated and measured daily surface deposition, and when environmental monitoring data, which had not been used in our previous studies, were now available. The daily surface deposition using the refined source term was predicted mostly to within a factor of 10, and without any apparent bias. Considering the errors in the model prediction, the estimated source term is reasonably accurate during the period when the plume flowed over land in Japan. The analysis of regional-scale atmospheric dispersion and deposition suggests that the present distribution of a large amount of (137)Cs deposition in eastern Japan was produced primarily by four events that occurred on March 12, 15-16, 20, and 21-23. The ratio of wet deposition to the total varied widely depending on the influence by the particular event. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the knowledge, attitudes and social representations of cholera in the extreme northern region of Cameroon: the case of Maroua I, Maroua Ii And Mokolo.

    Amaah, Penn


    An effective fight against cholera requires an in-depth consideration of the knowledge, attitudes and social representations of cholera within a population. Cholera outbreaks persist in the Extreme North of Cameroon because of the inadequate integration of representations of cholera, water and hygiene in the fight against this disease. Through a constructivist intercultural approach not conflicting with the western ethnocentric model, socio-cultural/religious and historical ideologies can be reconciled to provide optimal and sustainable healthcare solutions to the repeated and long lasting cholera epidemics using participative research, intercultural mediation and dialogue in Cameroon. Through a cross-sectional, ethnographic and participative study, data was generated using semi-directed in-depth interviews of key informants, collection of videos, pictures and the completion of 2 pre-tested questionnaire types in 3 communities (Maroua I, Maroua II and Mokolo). Quantitative data was entered using Ms Excel and Epi Info 7, and analysed using Epi Info 7. Qualitative data was analysed inductively using the concept of social representations. Results show evidence of the inadequate integration of cultural and socio-cultural factors favouring cholera spread and a respondent population majority unable to identify this (92.82%). Equally identifying environmental and cultural factors, the results bring out the impact of the on-going cholera combating strategy. Representations of cholera, cultural and socio-cultural values are not adequately considered in the fight against cholera. We recommend policy-makers and health actors to improve on the integration of these through advocacy, in designing, communicating and implementing effective prevention strategies via participative research, intercultural mediation and dialogue.

  1. Human insulin-like growth factor II leader 2 mediates internal initiation of translation

    Pedersen, Susanne K; Christiansen, Jan; Hansen, Thomas v O


    Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is a fetal growth factor, which belongs to the family of insulin-like peptides. During fetal life, the IGF-II gene generates three mRNAs with different 5' untranslated regions (UTRs), but identical coding regions and 3' UTRs. We have shown previously that IG...

  2. [Study of the mRNA-binding region of ribosomes at different steps of translation. II. Affinity modification of Escherichia coli ribosomes by benzylidene derivative of AUGU6 in the 70S initiation complex].

    Babkina, G T; Karpova, G G; Matasova, N B; Berzin', V M; Gren, E Ia


    2',3'-O-(4-[N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-methylamino]) benzylidene derivative of AUGU6 was used for identification of the proteins in the region of the mRNA-binding centre of E. coli ribosomes. This derivative alkylated ribosomes (preferentially 30S ribosomal) with high efficiency within the 70S initiation complex. In both 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits proteins and rRNA were modified. Specificity of the alkylation of ribosomal proteins and rRNA with the reagent was proved by the inhibitory action of AUGU6. Using the method of two-dimensional electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel the proteins S4, S12, S13, S14, S15, S18, S19 and S20/L26 which are labelled by the analog of mRNA were identified.

  3. Regional Competition in Maghreb Region



    Great powers focus on cooperation instead of competition in their regions in order to maintain stability and develop the economy of their regions and the world in general. The United States for example created the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFT

  4. Africa Region

    Impact of HIV/AIDS on» Gross Domestic Product (GGP) in the WHO. Africa Region ... methods) and for economic evaluations of treatment, prevention and promotion. , programmes. ..... develop new products), for which we could not find data ...

  5. Regional odontodysplasia.

    Mehta, D N; Bailoor, D; Patel, B


    Regional odontodysplasia is an unusual developmental anomaly in which ectodermal and mesodermal tooth components are affected. We present a rare case of a developmental anomaly called regional odontodysplasia or 'ghost teeth' in a 12-year-old Indian girl. The anomaly affected right maxillary permanent teeth. The mandibular teeth were unaffected. The clinical, radiographic and histological features are reviewed. The management of affected patients is discussed.

  6. Regional odontodysplasia

    D N Mehta


    Full Text Available Regional odontodysplasia is an unusual developmental anomaly in which ectodermal and mesodermal tooth components are affected. We present a rare case of a developmental anomaly called regional odontodysplasia or ′ghost teeth′ in a 12-year-old Indian girl. The anomaly affected right maxillary permanent teeth. The mandibular teeth were unaffected. The clinical, radiographic and histological features are reviewed. The management of affected patients is discussed.

  7. A Spatially Resolved Study of Cold Dust, Molecular Gas, H ii Regions, and Stars in the z = 2.12 Submillimeter Galaxy ALESS67.1

    Chen, Chian-Chou; Hodge, J. A.; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Walter, Fabian; Simpson, J. M.; Calistro Rivera, Gabriela; Bertoldi, F.; Brandt, W. N.; Chapman, S. C.; da Cunha, Elisabete; Dannerbauer, H.; De Breuck, C.; Harrison, C. M.; Ivison, R. J.; Karim, A.; Knudsen, K. K.; Wardlow, J. L.; Weiß, A.; van der Werf, P. P.


    We present detailed studies of a z = 2.12 submillimeter galaxy, ALESS67.1, using sub-arcsecond resolution ALMA, adaptive optics-aided VLT/SINFONI, and Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/CANDELS data to investigate the kinematics and spatial distributions of dust emission (870 μm continuum), 12CO(J = 3–2), strong optical emission lines, and visible stars. Dynamical modeling of the optical emission lines suggests that ALESS67.1 is not a pure rotating disk but a merger, consistent with the apparent tidal features revealed in the HST imaging. Our sub-arcsecond resolution data set allows us to measure half-light radii for all the tracers, and we find a factor of 4–6 smaller sizes in dust continuum compared to all the other tracers, including 12CO; also, ultraviolet (UV) and Hα emission are significantly offset from the dust continuum. The spatial mismatch between the UV continuum and the cold dust and gas reservoir supports the explanation that geometrical effects are responsible for the offset of the dusty galaxy on the IRX–β diagram. Using a dynamical method we derive an {α }{CO}=1.8+/- 1.0, consistent with other submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) that also have resolved CO and dust measurements. Assuming a single {α }{CO} value we also derive resolved gas and star formation rate surface densities, and find that the core region of the galaxy (≲ 5 kpc) follows the trend of mergers on the Schmidt–Kennicutt relationship, whereas the outskirts (≳ 5 kpc) lie on the locus of normal star-forming galaxies, suggesting different star formation efficiencies within one galaxy. Our results caution against using single size or morphology for different tracers of the star formation activity and gas content of galaxies, and therefore argue the need to use spatially resolved, multi-wavelength observations to interpret the properties of SMGs, and perhaps even for z> 1 galaxies in general.

  8. Guess-Work and Reasonings on Centennial Evolution of Surface Air Temperature in Russia. Part II: Is it Possible to Research Both Local Peculiarities and Regional Tendencies from the Bifurcation Analysis Viewpoint?

    Kolokolov, Yury; Monovskaya, Anna

    This paper is devoted to the development of the experimental bifurcation analysis in the research of local climate dynamics. In particular, we consider the dynamics of the land surface air temperature in the centennial timescale. The experimental bifurcation analysis supposes the choice of a conceptual model to demonstrate how the observable kinds of dynamical processes can be realized on the whole. We worked on the conceptual model with a variable structure (HDS-model), where the dynamics is determined by the competition between the amplitude quantization and the time quantization. The model originates from the hysteresis regulator with double synchronization (HDS-regulator) proposed in 1970’s to achieve the extreme combination of both efficiency and reliability of energy conversion processes. The HDS-model allows to consider the interplay between several periodical processes instead of chaos and quasi-periodicity in order to excuse the variety of the behaviors observed in the local climate dynamics. In particular, the intermittency seems to be the typical behavior of a local climate system from such viewpoint. Here we continue to verify the HDS-model and continue to develop the idea of the modified bifurcation diagrams to reveal the regularities within the intermittency. In particular, we first build the spatial diagram to summarize the results of the bifurcation analysis of the local climate dynamics in the centennial timescale. We assume that each effect of the regional temperature oscillations (RTO-effect) appears as a certain combination of several effects of the local temperature oscillations (LTO-effects), where each LTO-effect can be revealed by the bifurcation analysis. The possibility to build the modified bifurcation diagrams is provided by the SUC-logic aimed for the synthesis of experimental bifurcation analysis, symbolical analysis, and multidimensional data visualization under the assumption that an annual warming-cooling cycle is the unit to

  9. Quininium tetrachloridozinc(II

    Li-Zhuang Chen


    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound {systematic name: 2-[hydroxy(6-methoxyquinolin-1-ium-4-ylmethyl]-8-vinylquinuclidin-1-ium tetrachloridozinc(II}, (C20H26N2O2[ZnCl4], consists of a double protonated quininium cation and a tetrachloridozinc(II anion. The ZnII ion is in a slightly distorted tetrahedral coordination environment. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular N—H...Cl and O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  10. Hydrosol II Project; El Proyecto Hydrosol II

    Lopez Martinez, A.


    At present energy production is based on the combustion of fossil fuels and is the main cause of greenhouse gas emissions, which is to say it is the main cause of the climate change that is affecting the planet. On a worldwide scale, the use of solar concentration systems with systems capable of dissociating water is considered, from both an energy and an economic standpoint, as the most important long-term goal in the production of solar fuels to reduce the costs of hydrogen and to ensure practically zero carbon dioxide emissions. The Hydrosol II project has the largest pilot plant of its kind, and the Hydrosol II reactors will be capable of breaking up the water molecule on the basis of thermochemical cycles at moderate temperatures. The Hydrosol II project pilot plant is now a reality, located in the SSPS heliostats field of the Almeria Solar Platform. (Author)

  11. Sister chromatid segregation in meiosis II

    Wassmann, Katja


    Meiotic divisions (meiosis I and II) are specialized cell divisions to generate haploid gametes. The first meiotic division with the separation of chromosomes is named reductional division. The second division, which takes place immediately after meiosis I without intervening S-phase, is equational, with the separation of sister chromatids, similar to mitosis. This meiotic segregation pattern requires the two-step removal of the cohesin complex holding sister chromatids together: cohesin is removed from chromosome arms that have been subjected to homologous recombination in meiosis I and from the centromere region in meiosis II. Cohesin in the centromere region is protected from removal in meiosis I, but this protection has to be removed—deprotected”—for sister chromatid segregation in meiosis II. Whereas the mechanisms of cohesin protection are quite well understood, the mechanisms of deprotection have been largely unknown until recently. In this review I summarize our current knowledge on cohesin deprotection. PMID:23574717

  12. SVX II a silicon vertex detector for run II of the tevatron

    Bortoletto, D.


    A microstrip silicon detector SVX II has been proposed for the upgrade of the vertex detector of the CDF experiment to be installed for run II of the Tevatron in 1998. Three barrels of four layers of double sided detectors will cover the interaction region. The requirement of the silicon tracker and the specification of the sensors are discussed together with the proposed R&D to verify the performance of the prototypes detectors produced by Sintef, Micron and Hamamatsu.

  13. Burkina Faso - BRIGHT II

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Millennium Challenge Corporation hired Mathematica Policy Research to conduct an independent evaluation of the BRIGHT II program. The three main research questions...

  14. A radio continuum and infrared study of Galactic HII regions

    Martin-Hernandez, NL; van der Hulst, JM; Tielens, AGGM


    We present observations of the 4.8 and 8.6 GHz continuum emission towards 11 southern H II regions made with the Australian Telescope Compact Array. The observed objects were selected from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) spectral catalogue of compact H II regions (Peeters et al. 2002b). The mor

  15. Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II)


    Equipment and the Joint Mission Planning System. The SDB II Program will develop and field a single-weapon USAF storage container and a dual DoN weapon...weapon directly impacted the target but did not detonate. Due to a lack of telemetry data, because live fire test assets are not equipped with telemetry

  16. 40 CFR Appendix II to Subpart V of... - Arbitration Rules


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arbitration Rules II Appendix II to... Subpart V of Part 85—Arbitration Rules Part A—Pre-Hearing Section 1: Initiation of Arbitration Either party may commence an arbitration under these rules by filing at any regional office of the...

  17. Rom II-forordningen

    Pii, Tine; Nielsen, Peter Arnt


    Artiklen redegør for de vigtigste regler i Europaparlamentets og Rådets forordning om lovvalgsregler for forpligtelser uden for kontraktforhold (Rom II) og sammenligner dem med dansk ret.......Artiklen redegør for de vigtigste regler i Europaparlamentets og Rådets forordning om lovvalgsregler for forpligtelser uden for kontraktforhold (Rom II) og sammenligner dem med dansk ret....

  18. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage II Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  19. Regional brain hypometabolism is unrelated to regional amyloid plaque burden

    Altmann, Andre; Ng, Bernard; Landau, Susan M.; Jagust, William J.


    See Sorg and Grothe (doi:10.1093/brain/awv302) for a scientific commentary on this article. In its original form, the amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease holds that fibrillar deposits of amyloid are an early, driving force in pathological events leading ultimately to neuronal death. Early clinicopathological investigations highlighted a number of inconsistencies leading to an updated hypothesis in which amyloid plaques give way to amyloid oligomers as the driving force in pathogenesis. Rather than focusing on the inconsistencies, amyloid imaging studies have tended to highlight the overlap between regions that show early amyloid plaque signal on positron emission tomography and that also happen to be affected early in Alzheimer’s disease. Recent imaging studies investigating the regional dependency between metabolism and amyloid plaque deposition have arrived at conflicting results, with some showing regional associations and other not. We extracted multimodal neuroimaging data from the Alzheimer’s disease neuroimaging database for 227 healthy controls and 434 subjects with mild cognitive impairment. We analysed regional patterns of amyloid deposition, regional glucose metabolism and regional atrophy using florbetapir (18F) positron emission tomography, 18F-fluordeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Specifically, we derived grey matter density and standardized uptake value ratios for both positron emission tomography tracers in 404 functionally defined regions of interest. We examined the relation between regional glucose metabolism and amyloid plaques using linear models. For each region of interest, correcting for regional grey matter density, age, education and disease status, we tested the association of regional glucose metabolism with (i) cortex-wide florbetapir uptake; (ii) regional (i.e. in the same region of interest) florbetapir uptake; and (iii) regional florbetapir uptake

  20. Estimation of the water volume to be managed in the infrastructure of phase II of the artificial recharge plant in the El Carracillo region, Segovia (western area); Determinacion de los volumenes de agua a gestionar en las infraestructuras de la fase II del proyecto de recarga artificial del acuifero cuaternario de la comarca de El Carracillo, Segovia (sector occidental)

    Macias Antequera, C.; Martinez Gamo, R.; Martinez Rubio, J.


    The first hydrogeological investigation for the definition of the Carracillo aquifer (Segovia) was carried out in order to plan the best possible artificial recharge works provided for within the framework of the Royal Decree- Law 9/1998 El Carracillo Aquifer Recharge. Intake and Pipeline Work, Infiltration and Irrigation Adequacy (Segovia) These studies revealed the existence of two regions hydro geologically favourable for water storage from flows derived from the river Cega: the first known as the paleo-landform site located within the irrigation area, and the second area called the storage area located in the eastern sector of the district. In order to exactly estimate the minimum and maximum volume of water that has to be managed in the paleo-landform site over a period of five years, the Tragsa Group has carried out, at the request of the Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food, some of the hydrogeological work, which included the exhaustive follow up of the piezometric behaviour of the aquifer and the detailed analysis of each of the external actions that have a direct influence upon it, such as the useful rain, the artificial recharge, the extraction by pumping, and the overland flow, amongst others. (Author)

  1. Constraints to the magnetospheric properties of T Tauri stars - II. The Mg II ultraviolet feature

    López-Martínez, Fatima; Gómez de Castro, Ana Inés


    The atmospheric structure of T Tauri stars (TTSs) and its connection with the large-scale outflow is poorly known. Neither the effect of the magnetically mediated interaction between the star and the disc is well understood. The Mg II multiplet is a fundamental tracer of TTSs atmospheres and outflows, and is the strongest feature in the near-ultraviolet spectrum of TTSs. The International Ultraviolet Explorer and Hubble Space Telescope data archives provide a unique set to study the main physical compounds contributing to the line profile and to derive the properties of the line formation region. The Mg II profiles of 44 TTSs with resolution 13 000-30 000 are available in these archives. In this work, we use this data set to measure the main observables: flux, broadening, asymmetry, terminal velocity of the outflow, and the velocity of the discrete absorption components. For some few sources repeated observations are available and variability has been studied. There is a warm wind that at sub-au scales absorbs the blue wing of the Mg II profiles. The main result found in this work is the correlation between the line broadening, Mg II flux, terminal velocity of the flow and accretion rate. Both outflow and magnetospheric plasma contribute to the Mg II flux. The flux-flux correlation between Mg II and C IV or He II is confirmed; however, no correlation is found between the Mg II flux and the UV continuum or the H2 emission.

  2. Pecan nutshell as biosorbent to remove Cu(II), Mn(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions.

    Vaghetti, Julio C P; Lima, Eder C; Royer, Betina; da Cunha, Bruna M; Cardoso, Natali F; Brasil, Jorge L; Dias, Silvio L P


    In the present study we reported for the first time the feasibility of pecan nutshell (PNS, Carya illinoensis) as an alternative biosorbent to remove Cu(II), Mn(II) and Pb(II) metallic ions from aqueous solutions. The ability of PNS to remove the metallic ions was investigated by using batch biosorption procedure. The effects such as, pH, biosorbent dosage on the adsorption capacities of PNS were studied. Four kinetic models were tested, being the adsorption kinetics better fitted to fractionary-order kinetic model. Besides that, the kinetic data were also fitted to intra-particle diffusion model, presenting three linear regions, indicating that the kinetics of adsorption should follow multiple sorption rates. The equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips and Redlich-Peterson isotherm models. Taking into account a statistical error function, the data were best fitted to Sips isotherm model. The maximum biosorption capacities of PNS were 1.35, 1.78 and 0.946mmolg(-1) for Cu(II), Mn(II) and Pb(II), respectively.

  3. Biologically active new Fe(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes of N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine

    C. SPÎNU


    Full Text Available Iron(II, cobalt(II, nickel (II, copper (II, zinc(II and cadmium(II complexes of the type ML2Cl2, where M is a metal and L is the Schiff base N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine (TNAM formed by the condensation of 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and methylamine, were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis as well as magnetic and spectroscopic measurements. The elemental analyses suggest the stoichiometry to be 1:2 (metal:ligand. Magnetic susceptibility data coupled with electronic, ESR and Mössbauer spectra suggest a distorted octahedral structure for the Fe(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes, a square-planar geometry for the Cu(II compound and a tetrahedral geometry for the Zn(II and Cd(II complexes. The infrared and NMR spectra of the complexes agree with co-ordination to the central metal atom through nitrogen and sulphur atoms. Conductance measurements suggest the non-electrolytic nature of the complexes, except for the Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes, which are 1:2 electrolytes. The Schiff base and its metal chelates were screened for their biological activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the metal chelates were found to possess better antibacterial activity than that of the uncomplexed Schiff base.

  4. The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS)

    De Pontieu, B; Lemen, J; Kushner, G D; Akin, D J; Allard, B; Berger, T; Boerner, P; Cheung, M; Chou, C; Drake, J F; Duncan, D W; Freeland, S; Heyman, G F; Hoffman, C; Hurlburt, N E; Lindgren, R W; Mathur, D; Rehse, R; Sabolish, D; Seguin, R; Schrijver, C J; Tarbell, T D; Wuelser, J -P; Wolfson, C J; Yanari, C; Mudge, J; Nguyen-Phuc, N; Timmons, R; van Bezooijen, R; Weingrod, I; Brookner, R; Butcher, G; Dougherty, B; Eder, J; Knagenhjelm, V; Larsen, S; Mansir, D; Phan, L; Boyle, P; Cheimets, P N; DeLuca, E E; Golub, L; Gates, R; Hertz, E; McKillop, S; Park, S; Perry, T; Podgorski, W A; Reeves, K; Saar, S; Testa, P; Tian, H; Weber, M; Dunn, C; Eccles, S; Jaeggli, S A; Kankelborg, C C; Mashburn, K; Pust, N; Springer, L; Carvalho, R; Kleint, L; Marmie, J; Mazmanian, E; Pereira, T M D; Sawyer, S; Strong, J; Worden, S P; Carlsson, M; Hansteen, V H; Leenaarts, J; Wiesmann, M; Aloise, J; Chu, K -C; Bush, R I; Scherrer, P H; Brekke, P; Martinez-Sykora, J; Lites, B W; McIntosh, S W; Uitenbroek, H; Okamoto, T J; Gummin, M A; Auker, G; Jerram, P; Pool, P; Waltham, N


    The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) small explorer spacecraft provides simultaneous spectra and images of the photosphere, chromosphere, transition region, and corona with 0.33-0.4 arcsec spatial resolution, 2 s temporal resolution and 1 km/s velocity resolution over a field-of-view of up to 175 arcsec x 175 arcsec. IRIS was launched into a Sun-synchronous orbit on 27 June 2013 using a Pegasus-XL rocket and consists of a 19-cm UV telescope that feeds a slit-based dual-bandpass imaging spectrograph. IRIS obtains spectra in passbands from 1332-1358, 1389-1407 and 2783-2834 Angstrom including bright spectral lines formed in the chromosphere (Mg II h 2803 Angstrom and Mg II k 2796 Angstrom) and transition region (C II 1334/1335 Angstrom and Si IV 1394/1403 Angstrom). Slit-jaw images in four different passbands (C II 1330, Si IV 1400, Mg II k 2796 and Mg II wing 2830 Angstrom) can be taken simultaneously with spectral rasters that sample regions up to 130 arcsec x 175 arcsec at a variety of spatial sa...

  5. (II) and Pb (II) ions from aqueous media using Sta

    Joshua Konne

    Removal of Ni (II), Co (II) and Pb (II) ions from aqueous media using Starch. Stabilized Magnetic ... initial metal concentration and contact time on the removal processes was investigated. The results .... India) supplied NaOH and the Fe salts.

  6. Data Communications and Networking. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    Easter, Diane

    This course curriculum is intended for use by community college instructors and administrators in implementing a data communications networking course. A student course syllabus provides this information: credit hours, catalog description, prerequisites, required text, instructional process, objectives, student evaluation, and class schedule. A…

  7. The ionization equilibrium of iron in H II regions

    Rodríguez, M


    We study the ionization equilibrium of Fe using photoionization models that incorporate improved values for the ionization and recombination cross-sections and the charge-exchange rates for the Fe ions. The previously available photoionization models predict concentrations of Fe3+ which are a factor of 3-8 higher than the values inferred from emission lines of [Fe III] and [Fe IV]. Our new models reduce these discrepancies to factors of 2-5. We discuss the possible reasons behind the remaining discrepancies and present an updated ionization correction factor for obtaining the Fe abundance from the Fe++ abundance.

  8. Leo II PC

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — LEO II is a second-generation software system developed for use on the PC, which is designed to convert location references accurately between legal descriptions and...

  9. NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and...

  10. Strongly luminescing ruthenium(II)/ruthenium(II) and ruthenium(II)/platinum(II) binuclear complexes

    Sahai, R.; Baucom, D.A.; Rillema, D.P.


    Two strongly luminescing complexes, ruthenium(II)/ruthenium(II) homobinuclear complex and ruthenium(II)/platinum(II) heterobinuclear complex, have been prepared and characterized. The organic part of the complex is 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2' bipyridine dimer. The luminescence behavior of the homobinuclear and heterobinculear complexes was found to be comparable to that of Ru(bpy)/sub 3//sup 2 +/, although the luminescence maxima were shifted from 615 to 620 nm. These complexes exhibit good stability due to the bidentate chelating capability of the bridging ligand. These new complexes can provide the opportunity for detailed photophysical studies related to donor-acceptor interactions and to the possibility of two simultaneous single-electron transfer events. 17 references, 2 figures.

  11. Gamble II Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Gamble II produces a high-voltage (2 MV), high-current (1 MA), short (100 ns) pulse of energy of either positive or negative polarity. This terawatt power...

  12. Mod II engine development

    Karl, David W.


    The Mod II engine, a four-cylinder, automotive Stirling engine utilizing the Siemens-Rinia double-acting concept, was assembled and became operational in January 1986. This paper describes the Mod II engine, its first assembly, and the subsequent development work done on engine components up to the point that engine performance characterization testing took place. Performance data for the engine are included.

  13. DUMAND II status report

    Aoki, T. (ICRR, University of Tokyo, Japan (JP)); Becker-Szendy, R.; Bosetti, P.; Boynton, P.E.; Bradner, H.; Camerini, U.; Clem, J.; Commichau, V.; Dau, D.; Dye, S.; Grieder, P.K.F.; Hayashino, T.; Hazen, E.; Jaworski, M.; Kitamura, T.; Kobayakawa, K.; Koske, P.; Learned, J.G.; Ley, C.; Lord, J.J.; March, R.; Matsuno, S.; Minkowski, P.; Mitsui, K.; O' Connor, D.; Ohashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Peterson, V.Z.; Rathlev, J.; Roberts, A.; Roos, C.E.; Sakuda, M.; Samm, D.; Stenger, V.J.; Tanaka, S.; Uehara, S.; Webster, M.; Wilkins, G.; Wilkes, R.J.; Yamaguchi, A.; Yamamoto, I.; Young, K.K. (University of Bern, Switzerland (CH) Boston University, (USA) University of Hawaii, (USA) University of Kiel, Germany (DE) Kobe University, Japan (JP) Kinki University, Japan (JP) Okayama Science University, Japan (JP) Scripps Institute of Oceanography, (USA) Tohoku University, Japan (JP) ICRR, University of tokyo, Japan (JP) NLHEP Tsukuba, Japan (JP) Vanderbilt University, (USA) University of Washington, (US


    The scientific goals, design, capabilities, and status of the DUMAND II detector system are described. In June, 1989, the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel recommended support for construction of DUMAND II to the U.S. Department of Energy. Funding began in 1990, and prototype development for various detector subsystems is under way. Current plans include deployment of the shore cable, junction box and three strings of optical detector modules in 1992, and expansion to the full 9-string configuration in 1993.

  14. DUMAND II status report

    Aoki, T.; Becker-Szendy, R.; Bosetti, P.; Boynton, P. E.; Bradner, H.; Camerini, U.; Clem, J.; Commichau, V.; Dau, D.; Dye, S.; Grieder, P. K. F.; Hayashino, T.; Hazen, E.; Jaworski, M.; Kitamura, T.; Kobayakawa, K.; Koske, P.; Learned, J. G.; Ley, C.; Lord, J. J.; March, R.; Matsuno, S.; Minkowski, P.; Mitsui, K.; O'Connor, D.; Ohashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Peterson, V. Z.; Rathlev, J.; Roberts, A.; Roos, C. E.; Sakuda, M.; Samm, D.; Stenger, V. J.; Tanaka, S.; Uehara, S.; Webster, M.; Wilkins, G.; Wilkes, R. J.; Yamaguchi, A.; Yamamoto, I.; Young, K. K.


    The scientific goals, design, capabilities, and status of the DUMAND II detector system are described. In June, 1989, the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel recommended support for construction of DUMAND II to the U.S. Department of Energy. Funding began in 1990, and prototype development for various detector subsystems is under way. Current plans include deployment of the shore cable, junction box and three strings of optical detector modules in 1992, and expansion to the full 9-string configuration in 1993.

  15. Ecuaciones Diferenciales II

    Mañas Baena, Manuel; Martínez Alonso, Luis


    En este manual se revisan diferentes aspectos sobre las ecuaciones diferenciales en derivadas parciales de utilidad para los físicos. Se elaboraron como notas de clase de la asignatura Ecuaciones II, del plan 1993 de la Licenciatura de Física de la UCM. Actualmente cubre un 75% de la asignatura Métodos Matemáticos II del Grado de Física de la UCM.

  16. ASTRID II satellit projekt

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Primdahl, Fritz


    The report describes the instruments developed for the Swedish micro satellite "ASTRID II". Specifications of the two instruments realized under this contract, a Stellar Compass and a CSC magnetometer are given follwed by a description of the project status and plan.......The report describes the instruments developed for the Swedish micro satellite "ASTRID II". Specifications of the two instruments realized under this contract, a Stellar Compass and a CSC magnetometer are given follwed by a description of the project status and plan....

  17. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.


    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  18. Regional odontodysplasia

    Thimma Reddy B


    Full Text Available Regional odontodysplasia (ROD is a rare developmental anomaly involving both mesodermal and ectodermal components in a group of contiguous teeth. It affects the primary and permanent dentitions in the maxilla and the mandible or both, however, the maxilla is frequently involved. Although the etiology of the ROD is uncertain, it has been suggested that numerous other factors play a role. The treatment plan should be based on the degree of involvement as well as the functional and esthetic needs in each case. This article reports the case of a 5-year-old boy presenting a rare anomaly on the right side of the maxillary arch. The treatment performed was rehabilitation with temporary partial acrylic denture and periodic checkups. The extraction was followed by rehabilitation with dental implants. The main aim of this article is to provide valuable information to pediatric dentists about the review and treatment alternatives for ROD.

  19. High-Frequency (1)H NMR Chemical Shifts of Sn(II) and Pb(II) Hydrides Induced by Relativistic Effects: Quest for Pb(II) Hydrides.

    Vícha, Jan; Marek, Radek; Straka, Michal


    The role of relativistic effects on (1)H NMR chemical shifts of Sn(II) and Pb(II) hydrides is investigated by using fully relativistic DFT calculations. The stability of possible Pb(II) hydride isomers is studied together with their (1)H NMR chemical shifts, which are predicted in the high-frequency region, up to 90 ppm. These (1)H signals are dictated by sizable relativistic contributions due to spin-orbit coupling at the heavy atom and can be as large as 80 ppm for a hydrogen atom bound to Pb(II). Such high-frequency (1)H NMR chemical shifts of Pb(II) hydride resonances cannot be detected in the (1)H NMR spectra with standard experimental setup. Extended (1)H NMR spectral ranges are thus suggested for studies of Pb(II) compounds. Modulation of spin-orbit relativistic contribution to (1)H NMR chemical shift is found to be important also in the experimentally known Sn(II) hydrides. Because the (1)H NMR chemical shifts were found to be rather sensitive to the changes in the coordination sphere of the central metal in both Sn(II) and Pb(II) hydrides, their application for structural investigation is suggested.

  20. Preparation and Spectral Properties of Mixed-Ligand Complexes of VO(IV, Ni(II, Zn(II, Pd(II, Cd(II and Pb(II with Dimethylglyoxime and N-acetylglycine

    Shayma A. Shaker


    Full Text Available A number of mixed-ligand complexes of the general formula [M(D(G] where D=dimethylglyoximato monoanion, G=N-acetylglycinato and M=VO(IV, Ni(II, Zn(II, Pd(II, Cd(II and Pb(II were prepared. Each complex was characterized by elemental analysis, determination of metal, infrared spectra, electronic spectra, (1H and 13C NMR spectra, conductivity and magnetic moments. All these complexes were not soluble in some of the organic solvent but highly soluble in dimethylformamide. The conductivity data showed the non-electrolytic nature of the complexes. The electronic spectra exhibited absorption bands in the visible region caused by the d-d electronic transition such as VO(IV, Ni(II and Pd(II. The IR and (1H, 13C NMR spectra which have indicate that the dimethylglyoxime was coordinated with the metal ions through the N and O atoms of the oxime group and N-acetylglycine was coordinated with metal ions through the N atom and terminal carboxyl oxygen atom.

  1. II-VI semiconductor compounds


    For condensed matter physicists and electronic engineers, this volume deals with aspects of II-VI semiconductor compounds. Areas covered include devices and applications of II-VI compounds; Co-based II-IV semi-magnetic semiconductors; and electronic structure of strained II-VI superlattices.

  2. Ultraviolet Emission Lines of Si ii in Quasars: Investigating the "Si ii Disaster"

    Laha, Sibasish; Keenan, Francis P.; Ferland, Gary J.; Ramsbottom, Catherine A.; Aggarwal, Kanti M.


    The observed line intensity ratios of the Si ii λ1263 and λ1307 multiplets to that of Si ii λ1814 in the broad-line region (BLR) of quasars are both an order of magnitude larger than the theoretical values. This was first pointed out by Baldwin et al., who termed it the “Si ii disaster,” and it has remained unresolved. We investigate the problem in the light of newly published atomic data for Si ii. Specifically, we perform BLR calculations using several different atomic data sets within the CLOUDY modeling code under optically thick quasar cloud conditions. In addition, we test for selective pumping by the source photons or intrinsic galactic reddening as possible causes for the discrepancy, and we also consider blending with other species. However, we find that none of the options investigated resolve the Si ii disaster, with the potential exception of microturbulent velocity broadening and line blending. We find that a larger microturbulent velocity (˜ 500 {km} {{{s}}}-1) may solve the Si ii disaster through continuum pumping and other effects. The CLOUDY models indicate strong blending of the Si ii λ1307 multiplet with emission lines of O i, although the predicted degree of blending is incompatible with the observed λ1263/λ1307 intensity ratios. Clearly, more work is required on the quasar modeling of not just the Si ii lines but also nearby transitions (in particular those of O i) to fully investigate whether blending may be responsible for the Si ii disaster.

  3. Relativistic Hotspots in FR II Radio Sources

    Chartrand, Alex M.; Miller, B. P.; Brandt, W. N.; Gawronski, M. P.; Cederbloom, S. E.


    We present a list of six FR II radio sources that are candidates to possess hotspots with modestly relativistic (v/c > 0.2) bulk velocities, in contrast to the vast majority of FR II radio sources that possess non-relativistic hotspot bulk velocities (e.g., v/c = 0.03+/- 0.02 from Scheuer 1995). These objects display arm- length and flux-ratio asymmetries between lobes that self-consistently indicate relativistic motion. The candidates are selected from the FIRST 1.4 GHz survey (including but not limited to the catalog of FR II quasars of de Vries et al. 2006) with the requirement that the radio core have a spectroscopic SDSS counterpart. We find no significant difference in the number of neighboring sources within 300 projected kpc of the candidate sources and randomly selected nearby regions. The deprojected and light travel-time corrected lobe distances are not abnormal for FR II sources, and neither are the core-to-lobe flux ratios after correcting for lobe beaming. We briefly consider four possibilities for these type of objects: (i) environmental interactions randomly mimicking relativistic effects, (ii) a restarted jet causing the near hotspot to brighten while the far hotspot still appears faint, (iii) observation during a short interval common to FR II lifetimes during which the hotspot decelerates from relativistic to non-relativistic velocities, and (iv) innately unusual characteristics (e.g., a mass-loaded jet) driving relativistic bulk velocities in the hotspots of a small fraction (< 1%) of FR II objects. We favor the last interpretation but cannot rule out the alternatives. We also comment on the useful external constraints such objects provide to the evaluation of hotspot X-ray emission mechanisms.

  4. Increased astrocytic expression of metallothioneins I + II in brainstem of adult rats treated with 6-aminonicotinamide

    Penkowa, Milena; Hidalgo, Juan; Moos, Torben


    The cerebral distribution of metallothioneins I and II (MT-I + II) was studied in adult rats subjected to i.p. injection with the gliotoxin 6-aminonicotinamide (6-AN). Grey matter regions of the brainstem heralded numerous OX-42-positive macrophages and microglia, indicating that 6-AN primarily...... caused damage to this part of the brain. In the grey matter regions infiltrated with OX-42-positive cells, astrocytes identified by anti-GFAP and MT-I + II antibodies were almost absent. By contrast, in the peripheral zone of the lesioned regions numerous reactive GFAP- and MT-I + II-positive astrocytes...

  5. Mod II engine performance

    Richey, Albert E.; Huang, Shyan-Cherng


    The testing of a prototype of an automotive Stirling engine, the Mod II, is discussed. The Mod II is a one-piece cast block with a V-4 single-crankshaft configuration and an annular regenerator/cooler design. The initial testing of Mod II concentrated on the basic engine, with auxiliaries driven by power sources external to the engine. The performance of the engine was tested at 720 C set temperature and 820 C tube temperature. At 720 C, it is observed that the power deficiency is speed dependent and linear, with a weak pressure dependency, and at 820 C, the power deficiency is speed and pressure dependent. The effects of buoyancy and nozzle spray pattern on the heater temperature spread are investigated. The characterization of the oil pump and the operating cycle and temperature spread tests are proposed for further evaluation of the engine.

  6. About APPLE II Operation

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.


    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180° requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.


    Jamila wazir


    The salicylaldazine (ligand) and its metal (II) complexes like copper (II), nickel (II), zinc (II), cobalt (II) and manganese (II) complexes has been synthesized and characterized by different techniques using FTIR, UV-VIS spectroscopy. The ligand (salicylaldazine) is synthesized by the condensation reaction of salicylaldehyde and hydrazine sulfate. The salicylaldazine metal (II) complexes like Cu (II) , Ni(II), Zn (II), Co(II), Mn(II) were prepared by using metal (II) chloride in dioxane. Th...

  8. Calculus II For Dummies

    Zegarelli, Mark


    An easy-to-understand primer on advanced calculus topics Calculus II is a prerequisite for many popular college majors, including pre-med, engineering, and physics. Calculus II For Dummies offers expert instruction, advice, and tips to help second semester calculus students get a handle on the subject and ace their exams. It covers intermediate calculus topics in plain English, featuring in-depth coverage of integration, including substitution, integration techniques and when to use them, approximate integration, and improper integrals. This hands-on guide also covers sequences and series, wit

  9. Galaxy S II

    Gralla, Preston


    Unlock the potential of Samsung's outstanding smartphone with this jargon-free guide from technology guru Preston Gralla. You'll quickly learn how to shoot high-res photos and HD video, keep your schedule, stay in touch, and enjoy your favorite media. Every page is packed with illustrations and valuable advice to help you get the most from the smartest phone in town. The important stuff you need to know: Get dialed in. Learn your way around the Galaxy S II's calling and texting features.Go online. Browse the Web, manage email, and download apps with Galaxy S II's 3G/4G network (or create you

  10. Type-II Leptogenesis

    Kim, Jihn E


    I will talk on our new theory on baryogenesis through type-II leptogenesis which is different from the well-known type-I leptogenesis. I will comment on the Jarlskog phases, $\\delta_{\\rm CKM}$ and $\\delta_{\\rm PMNS}$, in the CKM and PMNS matrices. In the type-II leptogenesis, the PMNS phase is used for Sakharov's condition on the global quantum number generation in the Universe. For this to be effective, the SU(2)$\\times$U(1) gauge symmetry must be broken during the leptogenesis epoch.

  11. Line emission from H II blister models

    Rubin, R. H.


    Numerical techniques to calculate the thermal and geometric properties of line emission from H II 'blister' regions are presented. It is assumed that the density distributions of the H II regions are a function of two dimensions, with rotational symmetry specifying the shape in three-dimensions. The thermal and ionization equilibrium equations of the problem are solved by spherical modeling, and a spherical sector approximation is used to simplify the three-dimensional treatment of diffuse ionizing radiation. The global properties of H II 'blister' regions near the edges of a molecular cloud are simulated by means of the geometry/density distribution, and the results are compared with observational data. It is shown that there is a monotonic increase of peak surface brightness from the i = 0 deg (pole-on) observational position to the i = 90 deg (edge-on) position. The enhancement of the line peak intensity from the edge-on to the pole-on positions is found to depend on the density, stratification, ionization, and electron temperature weighting. It is found that as i increases, the position of peak line brightness of the lower excitation species is displaced to the high-density side of the high excitation species.

  12. Ultraviolet emission lines of Si II in quasars --- investigating the "Si II disaster"

    Laha, Sibasish; Ferland, Gary J; Ramsbottom, Catherine A; Aggarwal, Kanti M


    The observed line intensity ratios of the Si II 1263 and 1307 \\AA\\ multiplets to that of Si II 1814\\,\\AA\\ in the broad line region of quasars are both an order of magnitude larger than the theoretical values. This was first pointed out by Baldwin et al. (1996), who termed it the "Si II disaster", and it has remained unresolved. We investigate the problem in the light of newly-published atomic data for Si II. Specifically, we perform broad line region calculations using several different atomic datasets within the CLOUDY modeling code under optically thick quasar cloud conditions. In addition, we test for selective pumping by the source photons or intrinsic galactic reddening as possible causes for the discrepancy, and also consider blending with other species. However, we find that none of the options investigated resolves the Si II disaster, with the potential exception of microturbulent velocity broadening and line blending. We find that a larger microturbulent velocity ($\\sim 500 \\rm \\, kms^{-1}$) may solv...

  13. Instability in the magnetic field penetration in type II superconductors

    Oliveira, Isaías G. de, E-mail:


    Under the view of the time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau theory we have investigated the penetration of the magnetic field in the type II superconductors. We show that the single vortices, situated along the borderline, between the normal region channel and the superconducting region, can escape to regions still empty of vortices. We show that the origin of this process is the repulsive nature of vortex–vortex interaction, in addition to the non-homogeneous distribution of the vortices along the normal region channel. Using London theory we explain the extra gain of kinetic energy by the vortices situated along this borderline. - Highlights: • TDGL is used to study the magnetic field penetration in type II superconductors. • Instability process is found during the magnetic field penetration. • Vortices along the front of the normal region escape to superconducting region. • We explain the extra-gain of kinetic energy by vortices along the borderline.


    Kovacević-Dojcinović, Jelena; Popović, Luka Č., E-mail:, E-mail: [Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11060 Belgrade (Serbia)


    We investigate the spectral properties of the UV (λλ2650–3050 Å) and optical (λλ4000–5500 Å) Fe ii emission features in a sample of 293 Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database. We explore different correlations between their emission line properties, as well as the correlations with other emission lines from the spectral range. We find several interesting correlations and outline the most interesting results as follows. (i) There is a kinematical connection between the UV and optical Fe ii lines, indicating that the UV and optical Fe ii lines originate from the outer part of the broad line region, the so-called intermediate line region. (ii) The unexplained anticorrelations of the optical Fe ii equivalent width (EW Fe ii{sub opt}) versus EW [O iii] 5007 Å and EW Fe ii{sub opt} versus FWHM Hβ have not been detected for the UV Fe ii lines. (iii) The significant averaged redshift in the UV Fe ii lines, which is not present in optical Fe ii, indicates an inflow in the UV Fe ii emitting clouds, and probably their asymmetric distribution. (iv) Also, we confirm the anticorrelation between the intensity ratio of the optical and UV Fe ii lines and the FWHM of Hβ, and we find the anticorrelations of this ratio with the widths of Mg ii 2800 Å, optical Fe ii, and UV Fe ii. This indicates a very important role for the column density and microturbulence in the emitting gas. We discuss the starburst activity in high-density regions of young AGNs as a possible explanation of the detected optical Fe ii correlations and intensity line ratios of the UV and optical Fe ii lines.

  15. Dark Blue II


    Dark Blue II, high fired porcelain, decorated with cobalt chloride, woodfired with salt. 10,5 x 10,5 x 19 cm. Ferdigstilt: 2012. Innkjøpt til Collection of The American Museum of Ceramic Art, Pomona, California, USA.

  16. Class II Microcins

    Vassiliadis, Gaëlle; Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Peduzzi, Jean

    Class II microcins are 4.9- to 8.9-kDa polypeptides produced by and active against enterobacteria. They are classified into two subfamilies according to their structure and their gene cluster arrangement. While class IIa microcins undergo no posttranslational modification, class IIb microcins show a conserved C-terminal sequence that carries a salmochelin-like siderophore motif as a posttranslational modification. Aside from this C-terminal end, which is the signature of class IIb microcins, some sequence similarities can be observed within and between class II subclasses, suggesting the existence of common ancestors. Their mechanisms of action are still under investigation, but several class II microcins use inner membrane proteins as cellular targets, and some of them are membrane-active. Like group B colicins, many, if not all, class II microcins are TonB- and energy-dependent and use catecholate siderophore receptors for recognition/­translocation across the outer membrane. In that context, class IIb microcins are considered to have developed molecular mimicry to increase their affinity for their outer membrane receptors through their salmochelin-like posttranslational modification.

  17. AND Zn(II)

    recovered by suction filtration, washed with distilled water and recrystallized .... dried in vacuum to afford the Ni(II)-L complex (0.23 g, 68%) as a deep brown solid. ..... were observed indicating that the polymer film is electrochemically active.

  18. MARC II and COBOL

    Henriette D. Avram


    Full Text Available A description of the machine processing of MARC II records using COBOL for an application on the Library of Congress System 360/30. Emphasis is on the manipulation by COBOL of highly complex variable length MARC records containing variable length fields.

  19. Photosystem II and photoinhibition

    Feikema, Willem Onno


    Plants harvest light energy and convert it into chemical energy. Light absorption by photosystems I and II (PSI and PSII) results in charge separations in their reaction centers (RCs), initiating a chain of redox reactions with PSI generating the reducing power for CO2 assimilation into sugars, and

  20. Periodontics II: Course Proposal.

    Dordick, Bruce

    A proposal is presented for Periodontics II, a course offered at the Community College of Philadelphia to give the dental hygiene/assisting student an understanding of the disease states of the periodontium and their treatment. A standardized course proposal cover form is given, followed by a statement of purpose for the course, a list of major…

  1. Dianilinedichloridozinc(II

    Islam Ullah Khan


    Full Text Available In the title compound, [ZnCl2(C6H7N2], the ZnII ion (site symmetry 2 adopts a near-regular tetrahedral ZnN2Cl2 coordination geometry. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, generating (100 sheets containing R22(8 loops.

  2. Searching for Compact Radio Sources Associated with UCHII Regions

    Masqué, Josep M.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Trinidad, Miguel A.; Kurtz, Stan; Dzib, Sergio A.; Rodríguez-Rico, Carlos A.; Loinard, Laurent


    Ultra-compact (UC)H ii regions represent a very early stage of massive star formation. The structure and evolution of these regions are not yet fully understood. Interferometric observations showed in recent years that compact sources of uncertain nature are associated with some UCH ii regions. To examine this, we carried out VLA 1.3 cm observations in the A configuration of selected UCH ii regions in order to report additional cases of compact sources embedded in UCH ii regions. With these observations, we find 13 compact sources that are associated with 9 UCH ii regions. Although we cannot establish an unambiguous nature for the newly detected sources, we assess some of their observational properties. According to the results, we can distinguish between two types of compact sources. One type corresponds to sources that are probably deeply embedded in the dense ionized gas of the UCH ii region. These sources are photoevaporated by the exciting star of the region and will last for 104–105 years. They may play a crucial role in the evolution of the UCH ii region as the photoevaporated material could replenish the expanding plasma and might provide a solution to the so-called lifetime problem of these regions. The second type of compact sources is not associated with the densest ionized gas of the region. A few of these sources appear resolved and may be photoevaporating objects such as those of the first type, but with significantly lower mass depletion rates. The remaining sources of this second type appear unresolved, and their properties are varied. We speculate on the similarity between the sources of the second type and those of the Orion population of radio sources.


    Goicoechea, Javier R.; Teyssier, D.; Etxaluze, M.; Goldsmith, P.F.; Ossenkopf, V.; Gerin, M.; Bergin, E.A.; Black, J.H.; Cernicharo, J.; Cuadrado, S.; Encrenaz, P.; Falgarone, E.; Fuente, A.; Hacar, A.; Lis, D.C.; Marcelino, N.; Melnick, G.J.; Müller, H.S.P.; Persson, C.; Pety, J.; Röllig, M.; Schilke, P.; Simon, R.; Snell, R.L.; Stutzki, J.


    We present the first ~7.5′×11.5′ velocity-resolved (~0.2 km s−1) map of the [C ii] 158 μm line toward the Orion molecular cloud 1 (OMC 1) taken with the Herschel/HIFI instrument. In combination with far-infrared (FIR) photometric images and velocity-resolved maps of the H41α hydrogen recombination and CO J=2-1 lines, this data set provides an unprecedented view of the intricate small-scale kinematics of the ionized/PDR/molecular gas interfaces and of the radiative feedback from massive stars. The main contribution to the [C ii] luminosity (~85 %) is from the extended, FUV-illuminated face of the cloud (G0>500, nH>5×103 cm−3) and from dense PDRs (G≳104, nH≳105 cm−3) at the interface between OMC 1 and the H ii region surrounding the Trapezium cluster. Around ~15 % of the [C ii] emission arises from a different gas component without CO counterpart. The [C ii] excitation, PDR gas turbulence, line opacity (from [13C ii]) and role of the geometry of the illuminating stars with respect to the cloud are investigated. We construct maps of the L[C ii]/LFIR and LFIR/MGas ratios and show that L[C ii]/LFIR decreases from the extended cloud component (~10−2–10−3) to the more opaque star-forming cores (~10−3–10−4). The lowest values are reminiscent of the “[C ii] deficit” seen in local ultra-luminous IR galaxies hosting vigorous star formation. Spatial correlation analysis shows that the decreasing L[C ii]/LFIR ratio correlates better with the column density of dust through the molecular cloud than with LFIR/MGas. We conclude that the [C ii] emitting column relative to the total dust column along each line of sight is responsible for the observed L[C ii]/LFIR variations through the cloud. PMID:26568638

  4. FeII/MgII, [Fe/Mg] Ratios and High-z Quasars

    Korista, K; Corbin, M R; Freudling, W; Korista, Kirk; Kodituwakku, Nalaka; Corbin, Michael; Freudling, Wolfram


    It has been suggested in the literature that the (Fe/alpha) abundance ratio may be used as a chronometer, due to a delay in this ratio reaching its solar value as predicted by galactic chemical evolution models. Using grids of photoionization models along a sequence of the (Fe/Mg) abundance ratio vs.\\ metallicity with time in a giant elliptical starburst scenario, we investigate the relationship between the (Fe/Mg) abundance ratio and the FeII/MgII emission line flux ratio under the assumption that these lines originate in photoionized clouds within the broad emission line regions of quasars.

  5. Inhibitory role of peroxiredoxin II (Prx II) on cellular senescence.

    Han, Ying-Hao; Kim, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Sang-Keun; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Moon, Eun-Yi


    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated in all oxygen-utilizing organisms. Peroxiredoxin II (Prx II) as one of antioxidant enzymes may play a protective role against the oxidative damage caused by ROS. In order to define the role of Prx II in organismal aging, we evaluated cellular senescence in Prx II(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF). As compared to wild type MEF, cellular senescence was accelerated in Prx II(-/-) MEF. Senescence-associated (SA)-beta-galactosidase (Gal)-positive cell formation was about 30% higher in Prx II(-/-) MEF. N-Acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) treatment attenuated SA-beta-Gal-positive cell formation. Prx II(-/-) MEF exhibited the higher G2/M (41%) and lower S (1.6%) phase cells as compared to 24% and 7.3% [corrected] in wild type MEF, respectively. A high increase in the p16 and a slight increase in the p21 and p53 levels were detected in PrxII(-/-) MEF cells. The cellular senescence of Prx II(-/-) MEF was correlated with the organismal aging of Prx II(-/-) mouse skin. While extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 activation was detected in Prx II(-/-) MEF, ERK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation was detected in Prx II(-/-) skin. These results suggest that Prx II may function as an enzymatic antioxidant to prevent cellular senescence and skin aging.

  6. Angiotensin II, sympathetic nerve activity and chronic heart failure.

    Wang, Yutang; Seto, Sai-Wang; Golledge, Jonathan


    Sympathetic nerve activity has been reported to be increased in both humans and animals with chronic heart failure. One of the mechanisms believed to be responsible for this phenomenon is increased systemic and cerebral angiotensin II signaling. Plasma angiotensin II is increased in humans and animals with chronic heart failure. The increase in angiotensin II signaling enhances sympathetic nerve activity through actions on both central and peripheral sites during chronic heart failure. Angiotensin II signaling is enhanced in different brain sites such as the paraventricular nucleus, the rostral ventrolateral medulla and the area postrema. Blocking angiotensin II type 1 receptors decreases sympathetic nerve activity and cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex when therapy is administered to the paraventricular nucleus. Injection of an angiotensin receptor blocker into the area postrema activates the sympathoinhibitory baroreflex. In peripheral regions, angiotensin II elevates both norepinephrine release and synthesis and inhibits norepinephrine uptake at nerve endings, which may contribute to the increase in sympathetic nerve activity seen in chronic heart failure. Increased circulating angiotensin II during chronic heart failure may enhance the sympathoexcitatory chemoreflex and inhibit the sympathoinhibitory baroreflex. In addition, increased circulating angiotensin II can directly act on the central nervous system via the subfornical organ and the area postrema to increase sympathetic outflow. Inhibition of angiotensin II formation and its type 1 receptor has been shown to have beneficial effects in chronic heart failure patients.

  7. pyridine Zn(II) and Cu(II) Complexes



    Sep 3, 2014 ... The kinetics, mechanism and polymer microstructure studies of ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of lactides (LA) by Zn(II) and Cu(II) ... transparency, ease of processing and ease of microbial decompo- sition or degradation.

  8. ASDIR-II. Volume II. Program Description


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  9. Global phase diagram of disordered type-II Weyl semimetals

    Wu, Yijia; Liu, Haiwen; Jiang, Hua; Xie, X. C.


    With electron and hole pockets touching at the Weyl node, type-II Weyl semimetal is a newly proposed topological state distinct from its type-I cousin. We numerically study the localization effect for tilted type-I as well as type-II Weyl semimetals and give the global phase diagram. For disordered type-I Weyl semimetal, an intermediate three-dimensional quantum anomalous Hall phase is confirmed between Weyl semimetal phase and diffusive metal phase. However, this intermediate phase is absent for disordered type-II Weyl semimetal. Besides, along the direction of tilt, comparing to its type-I cousin, type-II Weyl semimetal typically possesses longer normalized localization length and therefore it is more robust against disorder. Near the phase boundary between the type-I and the type-II Weyl semimetals, infinitesimal disorder will induce an insulating phase so that, in this region, the concept of Weyl semimetal is meaningless for real materials.

  10. Middle East in World War II

    V I Yurtaev


    Full Text Available The author considers the role and importance of the region of the Middle East and North African theater of operations during World War II, not only the battles occured in the region are analyzed, but also the diplomatic efforts of the allies, related to the region. Author shows the role of the North African theater of operations in the context of other battles, parses the Allied landing operation called «Torch». Particular attention is given to the Conference of the three Allied leaders during World War II - Stalin (USSR, Roosevelt (USA and Churchill (UK, which was held in Tehran on November 28 - December 1, 1943. The author focuses on the psychological aspects of the conference, emphasizing that it was in the nature of the meeting of equal members of one family. The article also dismantled symbolic importance of presenting to the people of Stalingrad, on behalf of King George VI and the English people specially made sword on November 29, 1943 in the conference hall of the Soviet embassy in Tehran. According to the analysis, the author emphasizes the special importance of the region of the Middle East as a place to search for compromises on the way to the future world order.

  11. RADTRAN II user guide

    Madsen, M M; Wilmot, E L; Taylor, J M


    RADTRAN II is a flexible analytical tool for calculating both the incident-free and accident impacts of transporting radioactive materials. The consequences from incident-free shipments are apportioned among eight population subgroups and can be calculated for several transport modes. The radiological accident risk (probability times consequence summed over all postulated accidents) is calculated in terms of early fatalities, early morbidities, latent cancer fatalities, genetic effects, and economic impacts. Groundshine, inhalation, direct exposure, resuspension, and cloudshine dose pathways are modeled to calculate the radiological health risks from accidents. Economic impacts are evaluated based on costs for emergency response, cleanup, evacuation, income loss, and land use. RADTRAN II can be applied to specific scenario evaluations (individual transport modes or specified combinations), to compare alternative modes or to evaluate generic radioactive material shipments. Unit-risk factors can easily be evaluated to aid in performing generic analyses when several options must be compared with the amount of travel as the only variable.

  12. The sloan digital sky survey-II supernova survey

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Bassett, Bruce; Becker, Andrew


    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) has embarked on a multi-year project to identify and measure light curves for intermediate-redshift (0.05 Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) using repeated five-band (ugriz) imaging over an area of 300 sq. deg. The survey region is a stripe 2.5° wide...... spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia, 30 probable SNe Ia, 14 confirmed SNe Ib/c, 32 confirmed SNe II, plus a large number of photometrically identified SNe Ia, 94 of which have host-galaxy spectra taken so far. This paper provides an overview of the project and briefly describes the observations completed during...

  13. The (C II) 158 micron line mapping of spiral galaxies

    Stacey, Gordon J.; Geis, N.; Genzel, Reinhard; Jackson, J. M.; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Townes, Charles H.


    Large scale maps of the face of spiral galaxies M51, M83, and NGC 6946 in the 158 micron (C II) fine structure line. The maps are obtained from the Far-infrared Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FIFI) during its first series of flights on board the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. The (C II) line emission is ubiquitous and easily traced over the mapped regions of each of the galaxies. The (C II) maps are compared with those obtained with similar sized beams in the CO line. The data available from these maps is interpreted.

  14. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II

    Sipple syndrome; MEN II; Pheochromocytoma - MEN II; Thyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma; Parathyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma ... is most often with a tumor called a pheochromocytoma . Involvement of the thyroid gland is most often ...

  15. Expression of dynamin II in odontoblast during mouse tooth development.

    Oh, Jong-Hwa; Choi, Baik-Dong; Park, Jin-Ju; Jeong, Soon-Jeong; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, Jae-Duk; Lim, Do-Seon; Kim, Byung-Hoon; Cho, Yong-Ick; Jeong, Moon-Jin


    Odontoblasts secrete a collagen-based matrix and release numerous membrane-bound matrix vesicles, which are involved in dentin formation during tooth development. Dynamin II is a GTPase protein that contributes a variety of vesicular budding events, such as endocytotic membrane fission, caveolae internalization and protein trafficking in the Golgi apparatus. However, the expression and function of dynamin II in odontoblasts has not been reported. Therefore, this study examined the expression and possible role of dynamin II in odontoblasts during tooth development and mineralization. The levels of mRNA and protein expression in MDPC23 cells were significantly high at the early stages of differentiation and then decreased gradually thereafter. Immunohistochemistry showed that dynamin II was not expressed near the region of the odontoblasts at embryonic day 17 (E17) and E21. However, dynamin II was expressed strongly in the odontoblast layer at postnatal day 1 (PN1) and decreased gradually at PN3 and PN5. In addition, at PN15 in the functional stage, the dynamin II protein was also expressed in the odontoblast process as well as adjacent to the nuclear region. In conclusion, dynamin II may be involved in the transport of vesicles containing collageneous and non-collageneous proteins for dentin formation in odontoblast, suggesting that it is a good nanomolecule as a candidate to regulate the secretion of collagen on the bone and other nano material.

  16. Heat transfer II essentials

    REA, The Editors of


    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Heat Transfer II reviews correlations for forced convection, free convection, heat exchangers, radiation heat transfer, and boiling and condensation.

  17. Numerical analysis II essentials

    REA, The Editors of; Staff of Research Education Association


    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Numerical Analysis II covers simultaneous linear systems and matrix methods, differential equations, Fourier transformations, partial differential equations, and Monte Carlo methods.

  18. Transport phenomena II essentials

    REA, The Editors of


    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena II covers forced convention, temperature distribution, free convection, diffusitivity and the mechanism of mass transfer, convective mass transfer, concentration

  19. Algebra & trigonometry II essentials

    REA, Editors of


    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Algebra & Trigonometry II includes logarithms, sequences and series, permutations, combinations and probability, vectors, matrices, determinants and systems of equations, mathematica

  20. Getting up to speed with transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II

    Jonkers, Iris; Lis, John T.


    Recent advances in sequencing techniques that measure nascent transcripts and that reveal the positioning of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) have shown that the pausing of Pol II in promoter-proximal regions and its release to initiate a phase of productive elongation are key steps in transcription regulation. Moreover, after the release of Pol II from the promoter-proximal region, elongation rates are highly dynamic throughout the transcription of a gene, and vary on a gene-by-gene basis. Interestingly, Pol II elongation rates affect co-transcriptional processes such as splicing, termination and genome stability. Increasing numbers of factors and regulatory mechanisms have been associated with the steps of transcription elongation by Pol II, revealing that elongation is a highly complex process. Elongation is thus now recognized as a key phase in the regulation of transcription by Pol II. PMID:25693130