WorldWideScience

Sample records for refurbishment long-term monitoring

  1. Refurbishment implications on long-term waste management strategies at Point Lepreau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses Point Lepreau Generating Station's waste management experiences during the Refurbishment outage. In short, Point Lepreau GS has been challenged during the outage due to the amount of low and intermediate level waste that has been generated compared to that which was expected, which has driven the need to develop a new waste management strategy in the middle of the outage. The paper presents an overview of pre-outage waste handling, what process changes and schedule changes occurred during the outage, and provides a discussion of the operational and financial consequences of those changes. Key issues highlighted by the paper include the need for adequate provision of waste management facilities during large outages, the importance of ensuring that contractors have a stake in waste minimization activities, and long term waste management implications that need to be considered for large outages.

  2. Pickering NGS A reactor building 1 dome refurbishment long-term monitoring of coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deans, J.J.; Chan, P.; Gomme, R.

    2006-01-01

    requirements, and on this basis, the list was reduced to five possible systems. Finally, a series of exacting laboratory tests were conducted by Kinectrics to examine the following properties: ease and method of application; adhesion and crack bridging ability (-35 to 40 o C); freeze/thaw resistance, thermal stability (-25 to 40 o C), wetting/drying resistance, ageing characteristics, ultra violet resistance; abrasion resistance; water absorption; resistance to air pressure up to 82 kPa(g) (-25 to 40 o C). Of the five products tested, elastomeric, single component polyurethane met all the necessary requirements and following further tests, it was ultimately specified for use on the dome. Kinectrics customised the application procedures for polyurethane coating. The concrete was prepared using high pressure water blasting techniques, pre-treated with an Epoxy Zinc Phosphate Primer, followed by five coats of the coating resulting in a membrane with a nominal dry film thickness of 3.5 mm. Stringent QA/QC standards, especially developed by Kinectrics for nuclear facilities, were followed. To help ensure continued reliable performance of the coating, a long-term monitoring program was also initiated. The program consists of regularly inspecting the coating on the dome and testing a set of companion specimens that have been stored 'on or near' the RB 1 Dome as well as in Kinectrics laboratory and outdoor exposure site. The long-term performance of the coating has been and will continue to be monitored and assessed by comparing the initial inspection observations and companion specimen test results to those which are obtained during all future inspections and tests. The selection process followed to identify promising coatings, the extensive laboratory testing and the modelling undertaken to simulate the field conditions will be presented. The results from the 'one through ten' -year in-service inspections and accompanying tests will be reported. The principal conclusions to date are

  3. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Haney R. VanHorn

    2007-01-01

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used to determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality

  4. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Haney

    2007-07-31

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  5. Long-term monitoring for closed special sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golchert, N.W.; Sedlet, J.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology is presented for planning and implementing a long-term environmental monitoring program for closed special radioactive waste disposal sites. The steps in the method involve collection of the available background information on the site history, site and area characteristics, waste inventory, pathway analysis, prior monitoring programs, applicable standards, and the legal/regulatory requirements. This information is coupled with factors such as experience, half-life, radionuclide migration rates, and potential hazard to develop a monitoring program. As an example, a site-specific long-term monitoring program is described for the AMAX site using the available information. Sampling techniques and practices for the monitoring program are discussed and techniques and practices expected to be available in the future are considered. 7 references, 2 tables

  6. Refurbishing tritium contaminated ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, K.E.; Carnevale, R.H.; McCormack, B.E.; Stevenson, T.; Halle, A. von

    1995-01-01

    Extended tritium experimentation on TFTR has necessitated refurbishing Neutral Beam Long Pulse Ion Sources (LPIS) which developed operational difficulties, both in the TFTR Test Cell and later, in the NB Source Refurbishment Shop. Shipping contaminated sources off-site for repair was not permissible from a transport and safety perspective. Therefore, the NB source repair facility was upgraded by relocating fixtures, tooling, test apparatus, and three-axis coordinate measuring equipment; purchasing and fabricating fume hoods; installing exhaust vents; and providing a controlled negative pressure environment in the source degreaser/decon area. Appropriate air flow monitors, pressure indicators, tritium detectors and safety alarms were also included. The effectiveness of various decontamination methods was explored while the activation was monitored. Procedures and methods were developed to permit complete disassembly and rebuild of an ion source while continuously exhausting the internal volume to the TFTR Stack to avoid concentrations of tritium from outgassing and minimize personnel exposure. This paper presents upgrades made to the LPIS repair facility, various repair tasks performed, and discusses the effectiveness of the decontamination processes utilized

  7. Non-intrusive long-term monitoring approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smathers, D.; Mangan, D.

    1998-01-01

    In order to promote internatinal confidence that the US and Russia are disarming per their commitments under Article 6 of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, an international verification regime may be applied to US and Russian excess fissile materials. Initially, it is envisioned that this verification regime would be applied at storage facilities; however, it should be anticipated that the verification regime would continue throughout any material disposition activities, should such activities be pursued. once the materials are accepted into the verification regime, it is assumed that long term monitoring will be used to maintain continuity of knowledge. The requirements for long term storage monitoring include unattended operation for extended periods of time, minimal intrusiveness on the host nation's safety and security activities, data collection incorporating data authentication, and monitoring redundancy to allow resolution of anomalies and to continue coverage in the event of equipment failures. Additional requirements include effective data review and analysis processes, operation during storage facility loading, procedure for removal of inventory items for safety-related surveillance, and low cost, reliable equipment. A monitoring system might include both continuous monitoring of storagecontainers and continuous area monitoring. These would be complemented with periodic on-site inspections. A fissile material storage facility is not a static operation. The initial studies have shown there are a number of valid reasons why a host nation may need them to remove material from the storage facility. A practical monitoring system must be able to accommodate necessary material movements

  8. Long-term monitoring of the Italian forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pompei E

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term monitoring of the Italian forests. The long-term monitoring is an essential tool for the study of the state of health of European forest ecosystems over time, especially in relation to the adaptation strategies adopted in response to changes in climate. In 2008, at the European level, there was a need to review the various existing monitoring networks in the various States in order to plan an integration and a more rational use of the information from each detected. The Project for the integration of monitoring networks was carried out using the instrument of the European LIFE+ funding. The fundamental objective of the project was the renovation and expansion of the main European Networks Monitoring of Forests, improving its representativeness, effectiveness and harmonization between them. In addition, in the period 2009/2010 was carried out the extensive and intensive monitoring of forest ecosystems in Europe. The project, approved and co-financed by the European Commission, has been coordinated at the international level by Johann Heinrich von Thunen-Institute, Germany, and saw the participation of 24 EU member states and 38 partners.

  9. Representativeness of shorter measurement sessions in long-term indoor air monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewska, M; Szczurek, A

    2015-02-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) considerably influences health, comfort and the overall performance of people who spend most of their lives in confined spaces. For this reason, there is a strong need to develop methods for IAQ assessment. The fundamental issue in the quantitative determination of IAQ is the duration of measurements. Its inadequate choice may result in providing incorrect information and this potentially leads to wrong conclusions. The most complete information may be acquired through long-term monitoring. However it is typically perceived as impractical due to time and cost load. The aim of this study was to determine whether long-term monitoring can be adequately represented by a shorter measurement session. There were considered three measurable quantities: temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide concentration. They are commonly recognized as indicatives for IAQ and may be readily monitored. Scaled Kullback-Leibler divergence, also called relative entropy, was applied as a measure of data representativeness. We considered long-term monitoring in a range from 1 to 9 months. Based on our work, the representative data on CO2 concentration may be acquired while performing measurements during 20% of time dedicated to long-term monitoring. In the case of temperature and relative humidity the respective time demand was 50% of long-term monitoring. From our results, in indoor air monitoring strategies, there could be considered shorter measurement sessions, while still collecting data which are representative for long-term monitoring.

  10. IEC 61850 based refurbishment strategies for protection and automation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tholomier, D. [Areva T and D Automation Canada Inc., Monteal, PQ (Canada); Hossenlopp, L. [Areva T and D Automation Inc., Paris (France); Apostolov, A. [Omicron Electronics, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Electric utilities are currently facing the challenge of refurbishing aging transmission networks and power system infrastructure at a time of severe economic, environmental and competitive constraints. This paper addressed the issue of an appropriate approach to retrofit the hardware and software of substation secondary systems, and how IEC standards could be used to set up a long term strategy. The first part of the paper considered an asset management strategy for refurbishing substation secondary systems, while the second part of the paper addressed the strategies for refurbishing existing power plants. The final section of the paper analyzed refurbishment strategies designed to protect power distribution systems. The impact of IEC 61850 and how legacy devices can be integrated in substation automation systems were discussed. It was concluded that new SCADA systems are needed to handle new technology. Additional features like remote control, remote settings, remote disturbance records analysis and remote maintenance are also needed to properly operate the power system. The value of preventive maintenance using remote monitoring systems to determine the status of all the digital electronic devices installed in substation was also discussed. IEC 61850 offers several opportunities to improve grid operation and control. It supports interoperability between protective relays and control devices from different manufacturers in the substation, which is required in order to achieve substation level interlocking, protection and control functions and improve the efficiency of microprocessor based relays applications. This technology has now passed the initial stage of implementation and several projects are underway worldwide. 13 figs.

  11. New Developments in Long-Term Downhole Monitoring Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochem Kück

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The long-term observation of active geological processes is a major research goal in an increasing number of scientific drilling projects. An extended monitoring phase within a potentially hostile environment (e.g., temperature, pressure, salinity requires new long-lasting and robust instrumentation currently unavailable from either industry or academia. Extended exposure of instrument packages to extreme conditions will typically cause seals to weaken and fail,electronic parts to break under permanent load, and sensors to degrade or develop strong drift. In the framework of scientific exploration, there are currently several major research projects targeting fault zone drilling and in situ measurements to monitor physical and chemical conditions before, during, and after seismic events. Planning has now begun for tool development, testing, and continuous long-term monitoring for the San Andreas Fault Zone Observatory at Depth, SAFOD (Parkfi eld, Calif., U.S.A.; See article on page 32..

  12. Reactor refurbishment in an outage environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowthorpe, P.; Hoare, R.

    2012-01-01

    Reactor life extension has typically been performed during specific refurbishment outages. These outages are long and costly due to the sheer complexity of the scope, not to mention the ever present discovery work. A scope of this size requires a huge labour force to execute, which poses significant challenges. The work is difficult to staff with qualified people able to execute the work smoothly and managing the required labour pool problematic. Cost and time overruns are inevitable in that environment. Reducing the cost and schedule is critical to the long term viability of reactor refurbishment projects. With planning, the total cost of the refurbishment can be reduced by managing the inspection and repairs during normal outages. Identifying what activities need to be done each outage for the life of the reactor and bringing the latest technology can make this viable. Tightly planned outages with a small well trained labour force will go a long way to reducing costs. The suite of services and tooling available to the utilities to manage their reactor integrity has improved significantly in recent years and continues to evolve. New feeder inspection technologies can provide improved inspection results for the complex feeder geometry. These improvements lead to more accurate wear rates and better predictions of component life. Feeders that need replacement based on improved inspection techniques can be replaced systematically during regular outages rather than specific refurbishment outages. Targeting areas rather than entire feeders reduces time, dose and cost. In cases where feeder replacement isn't feasible or where unpredicted wear is found, a feeder weld overlay process can be used. To manage the reactor work, new data systems are under development that allow for effective tracking of each activity performed and outcomes in a single package. (author)

  13. Refurbishment of hydropower generation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofler, W.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the factors taken into consideration and the methods used for the management of refurbishment work in the hydropower installations of the TUWAG - a Tyrolean hydropower company in Austria. The technical and financial advantages to be gained from refurbishment are discussed and the requirements placed on the structuring of refurbishment projects are described. Various factors such as plant operation and maintenance, increased returns through better efficiency and cost reduction through lower wear and tear and reduced risk of failure are discussed. Annexes to the article cover monitoring and measurement techniques, the simulation of mechanical and hydraulic conditions, profitability calculations and turbine management

  14. Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program for Amchitka Island, Alaska, is to obtain data that will assure the public safety, inform the public, the news media, and the scientific community relative to radiological contamination, and to document compliance with federal, state, and local antipollution requirements. Amchitka's geographical setting, climate, geology, hydrology, and ecology are described. Site history including event information for LONG SHOT in 1965, MILROW in 1969, and CANNIKIN in 1971 is described. Event related contamination has been observed only at the LONG SHOT site. At this site, tritium in concentrations below the drinking water standards has been observed in mud pits and wells in the area adjacent to surface ground zero. The Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program for Amchitka is described. No radioactive venting, significant radioactive leakage, or bioenvironmental damage resulted from any of the nuclear tests on Amchitka

  15. On the Beat Detection Performance in Long-Term ECG Monitoring Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco-Manuel Melgarejo-Meseguer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wide literature on R-wave detection algorithms for ECG Holter recordings, the long-term monitoring applications are bringing new requirements, and it is not clear that the existing methods can be straightforwardly used in those scenarios. Our aim in this work was twofold: First, we scrutinized the scope and limitations of existing methods for Holter monitoring when moving to long-term monitoring; Second, we proposed and benchmarked a beat detection method with adequate accuracy and usefulness in long-term scenarios. A longitudinal study was made with the most widely used waveform analysis algorithms, which allowed us to tune the free parameters of the required blocks, and a transversal study analyzed how these parameters change when moving to different databases. With all the above, the extension to long-term monitoring in a database of 7-day Holter monitoring was proposed and analyzed, by using an optimized simultaneous-multilead processing. We considered both own and public databases. In this new scenario, the noise-avoid mechanisms are more important due to the amount of noise that exists in these recordings, moreover, the computational efficiency is a key parameter in order to export the algorithm to the clinical practice. The method based on a Polling function outperformed the others in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency, yielding 99.48% sensitivity, 99.54% specificity, 99.69% positive predictive value, 99.46% accuracy, and 0.85% error for MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. We conclude that the method can be used in long-term Holter monitoring systems.

  16. Long Term Monitoring of Microbial Induced Soil Strengthening Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneiyan, S.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Werkema, D. D., Jr.; Colwell, F. S.; Ohan, J.

    2016-12-01

    Soil strengthening/stabilization processes are used to address some of soil quality issues. Microbial induced calcite precipitation (MICP) is a promising soil stabilization process that could offer long term solution by overcoming problems of commonly used methods (e.g. injecting cement slurry). MICP can be applied in larger spatial scales, allowing the enhanced soils to be maintained in an economic sustainable and environmental friendly way. Methods are sought for the long term monitoring of MICP enhanced soils. The spectral induced polarization (SIP) method is one promising method due to sensitivity on such processes and the ability for long term, even autonomous, operation as well as cost effectiveness. Previous laboratory tests showed the sensitivity of the SIP method on soil strengthening as a result of abiotic calcite precipitation. We extended this work to biotic calcite precipitation through MICP. Early results suggest that the MICP formed calcite is denser and could provide improved strengthening capabilities. Our results are supported by geophysical (SIP and shear-wave velocity), geo-chemical and microbiological monitoring. Destructive analysis and visualization (scanning electron imaging - SEM) is expected to provide conclusive evidence on the MICP long term effectiveness.

  17. Long-term climate monitoring by the global climate observing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karl, T.R.

    1995-12-01

    Is the climate warming? Is the hydrologic cycle changing? Is the atmospheric/oceanic circulation changing? Is the climate becoming more variable or extreme? Is radiative forcing of the climate changing? are complex questions not only from the standpoint of a multi-variate problem, but because of the various aspects of spatial and temporal sampling that must be considered on a global scale. The development of a Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) offers the opportunity for scientists to do something about existing observing deficiencies in light of the importance of documenting long-term climate changes that may already be affected by anthropogenic changes of atmospheric composition and land use as well as other naturally occurring changes. As an important step toward improving the present inadequacies, a workshop was held to help define the long-term monitoring requirements minimally needed to address the five questions posed above, with special emphasis on detecting anthropogenic climate change and its potential impact on managed and unmanaged systems The workshop focussed on three broad areas related to long-term climate monitoring: (a) the scientific rationale for the long-term climate products (including their accuracy, resolution, and homogeneity) required from our observing systems as related to climate monitoring and climate change detection and attribution; (b) the status of long-term climate products and the observing systems from which these data are derived; and (c) implementation strategies necessary to fulfill item (a) in light of existing systems. Item (c) was treated more in terms of feasibility rather than as a specific implementation plan. figs., tabs., refs

  18. Monitoring long-term oral corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Lewis; Lindemann, Roberta; Douglas, James

    2017-01-01

    Corticosteroids are synthetic analogues of human hormones normally produced by the adrenal cortex. They have both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid properties. The glucocortoid components are anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, anti-proliferative and vasoconstrictive. They influence the metabolism of carbohydrate and protein, in addition to playing a key role in the body's stress response. Mineralocorticoid's main significance is in the balance of salt and water concentrations. Due to the combination of these effects, corticosteroids can cause many adverse effects. Oral corticosteroids are absorbed systemically and are therefore more likely to cause adverse effects than topical or inhaled corticosteroids. Furthermore, it is assumed that greater duration of treatment will lead to a greater number of adverse effects, and therefore the most at risk group are those taking high dose, long-term oral corticosteroids (LTOC). High dose is defined as a prescription of >5 mg oral prednisolone and long term as duration of treatment >1 month (based on National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance for patient's 'at risk' of systemic side effects). Parameters to be monitored in primary care include weight, blood pressure, triglycerides, glucose and urea and electrolytes. From clinical experience within the general practice setting, the authors propose that these patients do not receive adequate baseline monitoring before starting corticosteroids nor are these markers monitored consistently thereafter. This project intended to evidence this claim, evaluate the adverse effect profile and improve monitoring in this patient group. The initial audit of 22 patients, within a single general practice, detected at least one documented adverse effect in 64% of patients, while 41% reported more than one adverse effect. 45% had recorded weight gain, 18% had recorded osteoporosis, 18% had at least one recorded cataract, 14% had recorded Hypertension, 14% had recorded

  19. Robotics for Long-Term Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahin, Sarkis; Duran, Celso

    2002-01-01

    While long-term monitoring and stewardship means many things to many people, DOE has defined it as The physical controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms needed to ensure protection of people and the environment at sites where DOE has completed or plans to complete cleanup (e.g., landfill closures, remedial actions, and facility stabilization). Across the United States, there are thousands of contaminated sites with multiple contaminants released from multiple sources where contaminants have transported and commingled. The U.S. government and U.S. industry are responsible for most of the contamination and are landowners of many of these contaminated properties. These sites must be surveyed periodically for various criteria including structural deterioration, water intrusion, integrity of storage containers, atmospheric conditions, and hazardous substance release. The surveys, however, are intrusive, time-consuming, and expensive and expose survey personnel to radioactive contamination. In long-term monitoring, there's a need for an automated system that will gather and report data from sensors without costly human labor. In most cases, a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) unit is used to collect and report data from a remote location. A SCADA unit consists of an embedded computer with data acquisition capabilities. The unit can be configured with various sensors placed in different areas of the site to be monitored. A system of this type is static, i.e., the sensors, once placed, cannot be moved to other locations within the site. For those applications where the number of sampling locations would require too many sensors, or where exact location of future problems is unknown, a mobile sensing platform is an ideal solution. In many facilities that undergo regular inspections, the number of video cameras and air monitors required to eliminate the need for human inspections is very large and far too costly. HCET's remote harsh

  20. Innovative Strategy For Long Term Monitoring Of Metal And Radionuclide Plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol; Millings, Margaret R.; Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.

    2014-01-01

    Many government and private industry sites that were once contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. The sites will require long term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality at these 'legacy' sites. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site, the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. There is a need to optimize the performance and manage the cost of long term surveillance and monitoring at their sites. Currently, SRNL is initiating a pilot field test using alternative protocols for long term monitoring of metals and radionuclides. A key component of the approach is that monitoring efforts are focused on measurement of low cost metrics related to hydrologic and chemical conditions that control contaminant migration. The strategy combines careful monitoring of hydrologic boundary conditions with measurement of master variables such as chemical surrogates along with a smaller number of standard well analyses. In plumes contaminated with metals, master variables control the chemistry of the groundwater system, and include redox variables (ORP, DO, chemicals), pH, specific conductivity, biological community (breakdown/decay products), and temperature. Significant changes in these variables will result in conditions whereby the plume may not be stable and therefore can be used to predict possible plume migration. Conversely, concentration measurements for all types of contaminants in groundwater are a lagging indicator plume movement - major changes contaminant concentrations indicate that contamination has migrated. An approach based on measurement of master variables and explicit monitoring of hydrologic boundary conditions combined with traditional metrics should lead

  1. Innovative Strategy For Long Term Monitoring Of Metal And Radionuclide Plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol; Millings, Margaret R.; Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.

    2014-01-08

    Many government and private industry sites that were once contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. The sites will require long term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality at these "legacy" sites. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site, the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. There is a need to optimize the performance and manage the cost of long term surveillance and monitoring at their sites. Currently, SRNL is initiating a pilot field test using alternative protocols for long term monitoring of metals and radionuclides. A key component of the approach is that monitoring efforts are focused on measurement of low cost metrics related to hydrologic and chemical conditions that control contaminant migration. The strategy combines careful monitoring of hydrologic boundary conditions with measurement of master variables such as chemical surrogates along with a smaller number of standard well analyses. In plumes contaminated with metals, master variables control the chemistry of the groundwater system, and include redox variables (ORP, DO, chemicals), pH, specific conductivity, biological community (breakdown/decay products), and temperature. Significant changes in these variables will result in conditions whereby the plume may not be stable and therefore can be used to predict possible plume migration. Conversely, concentration measurements for all types of contaminants in groundwater are a lagging indicator plume movement - major changes contaminant concentrations indicate that contamination has migrated. An approach based on measurement of master variables and explicit monitoring of hydrologic boundary conditions combined with traditional metrics should lead

  2. Long-term and short-term action-effect links and their impact on effect monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Robert; Steinhauser, Robert; Janczyk, Markus; Steinhauser, Marco; Kunde, Wilfried

    2018-04-23

    People aim to produce effects in the environment, and according to ideomotor theory, actions are selected and executed via anticipations of their effects. Further, to ensure that an action has been successful and an effect has been realized, we must be able to monitor the consequences of our actions. However, action-effect links might vary between situations, some might apply for a majority of situations, while others might only apply to special occasions. With a combination of behavioral and electrophysiological markers, we show that monitoring of self-produced action effects interferes with other tasks, and that the length of effect monitoring is determined by both, long-term action-effect links that hold for most situations, and short-term action-effect links that emerge from a current setting. Effect monitoring is fast and frugal when these action-effect links allow for valid anticipation of action effects, but otherwise effect monitoring takes longer and delays a subsequent task. Specific influences of long-term and short-term links on the P1/N1 and P3a further allow to dissect the temporal dynamics of when these links interact for the purpose of effect monitoring. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Cost considerations for long-term ecological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughlan, L.; Oakley, K.L.

    2001-01-01

    For an ecological monitoring program to be successful over the long-term, the perceived benefits of the information must justify the cost. Financial limitations will always restrict the scope of a monitoring program, hence the program’s focus must be carefully prioritized. Clearly identifying the costs and benefits of a program will assist in this prioritization process, but this is easier said than done. Frequently, the true costs of monitoring are not recognized and are, therefore, underestimated. Benefits are rarely evaluated, because they are difficult to quantify. The intent of this review is to assist the designers and managers of long-term ecological monitoring programs by providing a general framework for building and operating a cost-effective program. Previous considerations of monitoring costs have focused on sampling design optimization. We present cost considerations of monitoring in a broader context. We explore monitoring costs, including both budgetary costs, what dollars are spent on, and economic costs, which include opportunity costs. Often, the largest portion of a monitoring program budget is spent on data collection, and other, critical aspects of the program, such as scientific oversight, training, data management, quality assurance, and reporting, are neglected. Recognizing and budgeting for all program costs is therefore a key factor in a program’s longevity. The close relationship between statistical issues and cost is discussed, highlighting the importance of sampling design, replication and power, and comparing the costs of alternative designs through pilot studies and simulation modeling. A monitoring program development process that includes explicit checkpoints for considering costs is presented. The first checkpoint occurs during the setting of objectives and during sampling design optimization. The last checkpoint occurs once the basic shape of the program is known, and the costs and benefits, or alternatively the cost

  4. Refurbishment programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish, C.S.

    2004-01-01

    As nuclear plants age, equipment becomes obsolete, outdated or just simply unreliable. This puts a lot of emphasis on replacement of the subject equipment. This can be an expensive proposition for safety related equipment due to design changes, requalification charges and the cost of the new equipment, specifically when the original component is obsolete. The presentation will explain how comprehensive refurbishment programs on many different types of equipment can alleviate this situation. The refurbishment program is a systematic refurbishment of equipment to an as new condition by replacing all of the age sensitive components within the equipment. This is carried out on all of the same type of equipment in a scheduled program. For example the plant may to decide to refurbish all of their Lambda LME-24 power supplies, or all of their Bailey modules, or all of their Agastat DSC Series relays. Independent of the item the process is the same. Refurbish each piece of equipment to an as new condition by replacing all of the age sensitive equipment. The equipment is then returned to the client as safety related, existing qualification maintained and with a new service life/warranty. This is not a simple repair. It is a planned refurbishment to an as new condition of certain equipment types throughout the plant and then carried out from equipment piece to equipment piece. The refurbishment program may even include introducing new spares into the plant. This is normally performed by upgrading (dedicating for safety related use and refurbishing to an 'as new' condition) surplus equipment and using these equipment pieces in the rotation of the plant equipment to refurbish the entire population of a selected piece of equipment at the plant. This process can be performed on many equipment types including power supplies, circuit boards, modules, relays, motors, breakers, and many more. The refurbishment program greatly increases the reliability of the equipment without the

  5. Drug taper during long-term video-EEG monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guld, A. T.; Sabers, A.; Kjaer, T. W.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Anti-epileptic drugs (AED) are often tapered to reduce the time needed to record a sufficient number of seizure during long-term video-EEG monitoring (LTM). Fast AED reduction is considered less safe, but few studies have examined this. Our goal is to examine whether the rate of AED r...

  6. Evaluation methodology for generator refurbishment decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, W.G.; Ulm, S.F.

    1991-01-01

    The Electrical Power Industry is undergoing tremendous change due to deregulation, aging equipment, environmental concerns, and investment/risk considerations. Public utility commissions, along with shareholders and end consumers, are closely monitoring utilities; decisions, especially in the area of costs-both Operation and Maintenance, and Capital. Increasing emphasis, within the conventional utility environment, has been and continue to be, placed on controlling expenditures. To be responsive to these industry and competitive pressures, utilities must make equipment refurbishment decisions. These decisions should be based on input from many sources, including the severity of the failure, cost of replacement versus refurbishment, risks and safety considerations, the expected remaining life of the unit, operational mode (base or peak), fuel type, initial costs, system capacity, available budgets, and financing options. Many times, however, refurbishment decisions are base don an abstract understanding of the above, but feel, or emotional attachment to a particular option. This paper describes a general methodology for refurbishment decision making, applied specifically to generators. Also included in a case history of one utility's progression through this process

  7. Refurbishment of the NPP Dukovany I and C System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpeta, C.; Rosol, J.

    2004-01-01

    An overview of the NPP Dukovany Instrumentation and Control (I and C) refurbishment project is presented in this paper from the standpoint of both its management and technical aspects. Reasons for taking the decision to replace the original plant I and C system are outlined and the objectives set for the refurbishment project are stated. The paper is focusing on describing more in detail the first part of the refurbishment, i.e. replacement of the I and C portions of the plant systems important to nuclear safety and the process information system. This includes the reactor trip system, engineered safety features actuation system, reactor power limitation system, reactor power control system, post-accident monitoring system, reactor core monitoring system and unit data acquisition and processing system. Information is given on the main processes of the project, i.e. the bidding, design, manufacturing, installation and commissioning. Specific licensing process applied to this refurbishment project is also outlined. An account of the current status of the project implementation is given. (author)

  8. Bridge condition assessment based on long-term strain monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, LiMin; Sun, Shouwang

    2011-04-01

    In consideration of the important role that bridges play as transportation infrastructures, their safety, durability and serviceability have always been deeply concerned. Structural Health Monitoring Systems (SHMS) have been installed to many long-span bridges to provide bridge engineers with the information needed in making rational decisions for maintenance. However, SHMS also confronted bridge engineers with the challenge of efficient use of monitoring data. Thus, methodologies which are robust to random disturbance and sensitive to damage become a subject on which many researches in structural condition assessment concentrate. In this study, an innovative probabilistic approach for condition assessment of bridge structures was proposed on the basis of long-term strain monitoring on steel girder of a cable-stayed bridge. First, the methodology of damage detection in the vicinity of monitoring point using strain-based indices was investigated. Then, the composition of strain response of bridge under operational loads was analyzed. Thirdly, the influence of temperature and wind on strains was eliminated and thus strain fluctuation under vehicle loads is obtained. Finally, damage evolution assessment was carried out based on the statistical characteristics of rain-flow cycles derived from the strain fluctuation under vehicle loads. The research conducted indicates that the methodology proposed is qualified for structural condition assessment so far as the following respects are concerned: (a) capability of revealing structural deterioration; (b) immunity to the influence of environmental variation; (c) adaptability to the random characteristic exhibited by long-term monitoring data. Further examination of the applicability of the proposed methodology in aging bridge may provide a more convincing validation.

  9. Political connections, media monitoring and long-term loans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deming; Yang; Zhengfei; Lu; Danglun; Luo

    2014-01-01

    We analyze data on Chinese non-state-listed firms and find that it is easier for firms with political connections to obtain long-term loans with extended debt maturities than it is for firms without political connections. Our investigation indicates that this phenomenon is significantly less common with increased media monitoring. Houston et al.(2011) find strong evidence that the state ownership of media is associated with higher levels of bank corruption in China, but our study shows that, to a certain extent, media monitoring can curb corruption.

  10. Political connections, media monitoring and long-term loans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deming Yang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyze data on Chinese non-state-listed firms and find that it is easier for firms with political connections to obtain long-term loans with extended debt maturities than it is for firms without political connections. Our investigation indicates that this phenomenon is significantly less common with increased media monitoring. Houston et al. (2011 find strong evidence that the state ownership of media is associated with higher levels of bank corruption in China, but our study shows that, to a certain extent, media monitoring can curb corruption.

  11. Long-term real-time structural health monitoring using wireless smart sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Shinae; Mensah-Bonsu, Priscilla O.; Li, Jingcheng; Dahal, Sushil

    2013-04-01

    Improving the safety and security of civil infrastructure has become a critical issue for decades since it plays a central role in the economics and politics of a modern society. Structural health monitoring of civil infrastructure using wireless smart sensor network has emerged as a promising solution recently to increase structural reliability, enhance inspection quality, and reduce maintenance costs. Though hardware and software framework are well prepared for wireless smart sensors, the long-term real-time health monitoring strategy are still not available due to the lack of systematic interface. In this paper, the Imote2 smart sensor platform is employed, and a graphical user interface for the long-term real-time structural health monitoring has been developed based on Matlab for the Imote2 platform. This computer-aided engineering platform enables the control, visualization of measured data as well as safety alarm feature based on modal property fluctuation. A new decision making strategy to check the safety is also developed and integrated in this software. Laboratory validation of the computer aided engineering platform for the Imote2 on a truss bridge and a building structure has shown the potential of the interface for long-term real-time structural health monitoring.

  12. Long-term monitoring of marine gas leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spickenbom, Kai; Faber, Eckhard; Poggenburg, Jürgen; Seeger, Christian; Furche, Markus

    2010-05-01

    The sequestration of CO2 in sub-seabed geological formations is one of the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) strategies currently under study. Although offshore operations are significantly more expensive than comparable onshore operations, the growing public resistance against onshore CCS projects makes sub-seabed storage a promising option. Even after a thorough review of the geological setting, there is always the possibility of leakage from the reservoir. As part of the EU-financed project CO2ReMoVe (Research, Monitoring, Verification), which aims to develop innovative research and technologies for monitoring and verification of carbon dioxide geological storage, we are working on the development of submarine long-term gas flow monitoring systems. The basic design of the monitoring system builds on our experience in volcano monitoring. Early prototypes were composed of a raft floating on the surface of a mud volcano, carrying sensors for CO2 flux and concentration, data storage and transmission, and power supply by battery-buffered solar panels. The system was modified for installation in open sea by using a buoy instead of a raft and a funnel on the seafloor to collect the gas, connected by a flexible tube. This setup provides a cost-effective solution for shallow waters. However, a buoy interferes with ship traffic, and it is also difficult to adapt this design to greater water depths. These requirements can best be complied by a completely submersed system. A system for unattended long-term monitoring in a marine environment has to be extremely durable. Therefore, we focussed on developing a mechanically and electrically as simple setup as possible, which has the additional advantage of low cost. The system consists of a funnel-shaped gas collector, a sensor head and pressure housings for electronics and power supply. Since this setup is inexpensive, it can be deployed in numbers to cover larger areas. By addition of multi-channel data loggers, data

  13. Reactor refurbishment options for a changing climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeish, D. [Bruce Power, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    As the industry looks ahead to another generation of reactor refurbishment, it is acknowledged that the traditional way of Retubing a reactor is a daunting prospect for our investors and stakeholders. Innovations are required to mitigate the long downtime and large one-time investment associated with previous reactor refurbishments. These can take the shape of improvements to the Retube processes or by fundamentally changing the approach, e.g., calandria/shield tank replacement or partial Retubes. This session presents technical challenges that utilities need help resolving to arrive at a more attractive reactor refurbishment model. This includes issues related to calandria vessel fitness-for-service, the fuel channel replacement process, the feeder replacement process, life extension of fuel channels and feeders and complexities involving interfacing systems. (author)

  14. Reactor refurbishment options for a changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeish, D.

    2012-01-01

    As the industry looks ahead to another generation of reactor refurbishment, it is acknowledged that the traditional way of Retubing a reactor is a daunting prospect for our investors and stakeholders. Innovations are required to mitigate the long downtime and large one-time investment associated with previous reactor refurbishments. These can take the shape of improvements to the Retube processes or by fundamentally changing the approach, e.g., calandria/shield tank replacement or partial Retubes. This session presents technical challenges that utilities need help resolving to arrive at a more attractive reactor refurbishment model. This includes issues related to calandria vessel fitness-for-service, the fuel channel replacement process, the feeder replacement process, life extension of fuel channels and feeders and complexities involving interfacing systems. (author)

  15. Long-term monitoring FBG-based cable load sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhichun; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Chuan; Ou, Jinping

    2006-03-01

    Stay cables are the main load-bearing components of stayed-cable bridges. The cables stress status is an important factor to the stayed-cable bridge structure safety evaluation. So it's very important not only to the bridge construction, but also to the long-term safety evaluation for the bridge structure in-service. The accurate measurement for cable load depends on an effective sensor, especially to meet the long time durability and measurement demand. FBG, for its great advantage of corrosion resistance, absolute measurement, high accuracy, electro-magnetic resistance, quasi-distribution sensing, absolute measurement and so on, is the most promising sensor, which can cater for the cable force monitoring. In this paper, a load sensor has been developed, which is made up of a bushing elastic supporting body, 4 FBGs uniformly-spaced attached outside of the bushing supporting body, and a temperature compensation FBG for other four FBGs, moreover a cover for protection of FBGs. Firstly, the sensor measuring principle is analyzed, and relationship equation of FBG wavelength shifts and extrinsic load has also been gotten. And then the sensor calibration experiments of a steel cable stretching test with the FBG load sensor and a reference electric pressure sensor is finished, and the results shows excellent linearity of extrinsic load and FBG wavelength shifts, and good repeatability, which indicates that such kind of FBG-based load sensor is suitable for load measurement, especially for long-term, real time monitoring of stay-cables.

  16. LECA refurbishment project or how to get ready for the next ten years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussard, Francois; Bois, Dominique; Blanc, Jean Yves

    2005-01-01

    Around 1995, CEA decided a strategy for its hot laboratories: Closing LAMA - Grenoble and LHA - Saclay, after RM2 - Fontenay-aux-Roses. Refurbishing and gathering irradiated material studies in LECI - Saclay. Refurbishing LECA - Cadarache for irradiated fuel examinations. Reprocessing pilot experiments being located in Atalante - Marcoule. Started up in 1964, LECA has got an exploitation license up to August 2005. In 2001, safety authorities agreed to extend it up to 2015, provided an extensive refurbishment is undertaken which includes civil engineering works to achieve the building earthquake resistance, based on 3D-computations and withstanding maximum historically likely earthquake, improving confinement by decontaminating, adding steel boxes inside cells, changing ventilation system and creating a mobile upper cell on the cell roof, changing power supplies, shielded glasses and most manipulators, improving travelling crane, fire protection, radioactivity monitoring and alarms, installing a new device for characterizing and evacuating wastes, decreasing the fissile mass stored inside the facility (source term). Most of the work should be ended by the end of 2005. Afterwards five cells, which do not withstand earthquake, will be deconstructed within 3 years. By mid 2004, 60 % of tasks are completed and all contracts are awarded. The total final cost is 97 M Euro, 80% of which regarding the only LECA refurbishment. (Author)

  17. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program procedures: fish monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Eric N.; Glittinger, Eric J.; O'Hara, T. Matt; Ickes, Brian S.

    2014-01-01

    This manual constitutes the second revision of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Upper Mississippi River Restoration-Environmental Management Program (UMRR-EMP) Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) element Fish Procedures Manual. The original (1988) manual merged and expanded on ideas and recommendations related to Upper Mississippi River fish sampling presented in several early documents. The first revision to the manual was made in 1995 reflecting important protocol changes, such as the adoption of a stratified random sampling design. The 1995 procedures manual has been an important document through the years and has been cited in many reports and scientific manuscripts. The resulting data collected by the LTRMP fish component represent the largest dataset on fish within the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) with more than 44,000 collections of approximately 5.7 million fish. The goal of this revision of the procedures manual is to document changes in LTRMP fish sampling procedures since 1995. Refinements to sampling methods become necessary as monitoring programs mature. Possible refinements are identified through field experiences (e.g., sampling techniques and safety protocols), data analysis (e.g., planned and studied gear efficiencies and reallocations of effort), and technological advances (e.g., electronic data entry). Other changes may be required because of financial necessity (i.e., unplanned effort reductions). This version of the LTRMP fish monitoring manual describes the most current (2014) procedures of the LTRMP fish component.

  18. “State of the Estuary” - Developing a long term monitoring ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the lower Saint Louis River moves closer and closer to delisting as an Area of Concern, it is incumbent that we measure, assess and report on our success. Going forward, It’s equally important that we continue monitoring to protect and sustain the healthy ecosystems we’ve worked so hard to attain. We propose here the development of a long term systematic monitoring, assessment and reporting framework to help highlight and publicize the successful recovery of the lower Saint Louis River. Such a framework should outline methods for regularly measuring, monitoring and assessing the current health of the river and its ecosystems into the future followed with a periodic reporting of the “State of the Estuary”. This framework should be developed by the stakeholder community over a series of meetings, leading to a collaborative, partner-driven approach. To the extent possible, existing sampling and monitoring programs should be incorporated, along with additional metrics needed to tell the complete story on the “State of the Estuary”. These additional metrics might include economic, social science and human health indicators, contaminants of emerging concern, long term restoration effectiveness and other monitoring needs not yet recognized. Examples of other “State of the Ecosystem” efforts will be discussed as possible models to follow. This abstract is for a presentation at the St. Louis River Summit. The talk will discuss the need for a “S

  19. Long-term capital planning considering nuclear plant life-cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negin, C.A.; Simpson, J.M.; Hostetler, D.R.

    1992-09-01

    The creation of a Life Cycle Management (LCM) group at utilities to evaluate the long term capital refurbishment needs is gaining favor. Among the functions of such groups can be the responsibility for recommending long term capital planning projects based on results of evaluations of systems, structures, and components that are not only essential to achieving the full current license term of operation, but also to extend the service life of the plant. Making such recommendations, in content and timing, requires the ability to view all recommendations in the context of an overall capital budget and long range outage impacts. This report illustrates an approach for creating a Long-Term Capital Plan with methods for deciding on, compiling, integrating, and presenting projects from the perspective of an LCM program for a nuclear power plant. It also addresses a rationale for capitalization of LCM program activities that would not be allowed under current accounting treatment

  20. Monitoring the Long-Term Performance of Engineered Containment Systems: Role of Ecological Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traynham, B.; Clarke, J.H.; Burger, J.; Waugh, J.

    2009-01-01

    Engineered covers have been widely used to minimize water infiltration into landfills used by U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the disposal of radioactive and hazardous chemical waste. The degradation of engineered covers over time is a complex process that is influenced by site specific characteristics, the structure and dynamics of the indigenous plant community, and the interplay of physical and biological factors at contaminated sites. It is necessary to develop a rigorous method to evaluate long-term performance of covers and other engineered barriers with quantification of risk and uncertainty. Because many of the contaminants of concern are long-lived, this methodology must consider changes in the environmental setting (e.g., precipitation, temperature) and cover components for long time periods (>100 years). Current monitoring approaches focus solely on hydrologic properties of the cover system. Additionally, cover design guidelines, such as those from RCRA, are not performance based and do not consider long-term site-specific influences such as climate, vegetation, and soils. Fundamental ecological processes such as succession are not even factored into current models, yet they directly affect the integrity of landfill covers through biointrusion, erosion, and water balance. Therefore, it is useful to identify ecological parameters and processes most important to performance for prioritization of site characterization and long-term monitoring activities. This investigation into the role of ecological monitoring of isolation containment systems utilizes the software platform GoldSim to identify important parameters and processes for performance verification and monitoring. (authors)

  1. Integrating Modeling and Monitoring to Provide Long-Term Control of Contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogwell, Th.

    2009-01-01

    An introduction is presented of the types of problems that exist for long-term control of radionuclides at DOE sites. A breakdown of the distributions at specific sites is given, together with the associated difficulties. A paradigm for remediation showing the integration of monitoring with modeling is presented. It is based on a feedback system that allows for the monitoring to act as principal sensors in a control system. Currently the establishment of a very prescriptive monitoring program fails to have a mechanism for improving models and improving control of the contaminants. The resulting system can be optimized to improve performance. Optimizing monitoring automatically entails linking the monitoring with modeling. If monitoring designs were required to be more efficient, thus requiring optimization, then the monitoring automatically becomes linked to modeling. Records of decision could be written to accommodate revisions in monitoring as better modeling evolves. The technical pieces of the required paradigm are already available; they just need to be implemented and applied to solve the long-term control of the contaminants. An integration of the various parts of the system is presented. Each part is described, and examples are given. References are given to other projects which bring together similar elements in systems for the control of contaminants. Trends are given for the development of the technical features of a robust system. Examples of monitoring methods for specific sites are given. The examples are used to illustrate how such a system would work. Examples of technology needs are presented. Finally, other examples of integrated modeling-monitoring approaches are presented. (authors)

  2. Flood effects on an Alaskan stream restoration project: the value of long-term monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Roseann V.; Karle, Kenneth F.

    2009-01-01

    On a nationwide basis, few stream restoration projects have long-term programs in place to monitor the effects of floods on channel and floodplain configuration and floodplain vegetation, but long-term and event-based monitoring is required to measure the effects of these stochastic events and to use the knowledge for adaptive management and the design of future projects. This paper describes a long-term monitoring effort (15 years) on a stream restoration project in Glen Creek in Denali National Park and Preserve in Alaska. The stream channel and floodplain of Glen Creek had been severely degraded over a period of 80 years by placer mining for gold, which left many reaches with unstable and incised streambeds without functioning vegetated floodplains. The objectives of the original project, initiated in 1991, were to develop and test methods for the hydraulic design of channel and floodplain morphology and for floodplain stabilization and riparian habitat recovery, and to conduct research and monitoring to provide information for future projects in similar degraded watersheds. Monitoring methods included surveyed stream cross-sections, vegetation plots, and aerial, ground, and satellite photos. In this paper we address the immediate and outlying effects of a 25-year flood on the stream and floodplain geometry and riparian vegetation. The long-term monitoring revealed that significant channel widening occurred following the flood, likely caused by excessive upstream sediment loading and the fairly slow development of floodplain vegetation in this climate. Our results illustrated design flaws, particularly in regard to identification and analysis of sediment sources and the dominant processes of channel adjustment.

  3. Monitoring the introduction of a surgical intervention with long-term consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Spiegelhalter, D.J.; Bull, C.

    2007-01-01

    Surgical innovations are often introduced for their expected long-term benefits, but the decision to abandon the existing treatment must be based on the available short-term data and rational judgment. We present a framework for monitoring the introduction of a surgical intervention with long-ter...... effects and is adaptable to a wide variety of settings. The methods are illustrated on survival data from a cohort of 325 consecutive neonates treated for simple transposition of the great arteries with either the Senning or the Switch operation during the period 1978-1998....

  4. Time-series modeling of long-term weight self-monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, Elina; Pavel, Misha; Jimison, Holly; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2015-08-01

    Long-term self-monitoring of weight is beneficial for weight maintenance, especially after weight loss. Connected weight scales accumulate time series information over long term and hence enable time series analysis of the data. The analysis can reveal individual patterns, provide more sensitive detection of significant weight trends, and enable more accurate and timely prediction of weight outcomes. However, long term self-weighing data has several challenges which complicate the analysis. Especially, irregular sampling, missing data, and existence of periodic (e.g. diurnal and weekly) patterns are common. In this study, we apply time series modeling approach on daily weight time series from two individuals and describe information that can be extracted from this kind of data. We study the properties of weight time series data, missing data and its link to individuals behavior, periodic patterns and weight series segmentation. Being able to understand behavior through weight data and give relevant feedback is desired to lead to positive intervention on health behaviors.

  5. Long-term fish monitoring in large rivers: Utility of “benchmarking” across basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David L.; Casper, Andrew F.; Counihan, Timothy D.; Bayer, Jennifer M.; Waite, Ian R.; Kosovich, John J.; Chapman, Colin; Irwin, Elise R.; Sauer, Jennifer S.; Ickes, Brian; McKerrow, Alexa

    2017-01-01

    In business, benchmarking is a widely used practice of comparing your own business processes to those of other comparable companies and incorporating identified best practices to improve performance. Biologists and resource managers designing and conducting monitoring programs for fish in large river systems tend to focus on single river basins or segments of large rivers, missing opportunities to learn from those conducting fish monitoring in other rivers. We briefly examine five long-term fish monitoring programs in large rivers in the United States (Colorado, Columbia, Mississippi, Illinois, and Tallapoosa rivers) and identify opportunities for learning across programs by detailing best monitoring practices and why these practices were chosen. Although monitoring objectives, methods, and program maturity differ between each river system, examples from these five case studies illustrate the important role that long-term monitoring programs play in interpreting temporal and spatial shifts in fish populations for both established objectives and newly emerging questions. We suggest that deliberate efforts to develop a broader collaborative network through benchmarking will facilitate sharing of ideas and development of more effective monitoring programs.

  6. Structural Performance Evaluation of Tsing MA Bridge Deck Using Long-Term Monitoring Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Y. Q.; Xia, H. W.; Ko, J. M.

    The Tsing Ma Bridge in Hong Kong is suspension bridge with a main span of 1377 m carrying both highway and railway traffic. After completing its construction in 1997, the bridge was instrumented by the Hong Kong SAR Government Highways Department with a long-term structural health monitoring system comprising about 300 sensors permanently installed on the bridge. As part of this monitoring system, a total of 110 strain gauges have been installed to measure strain at the deck cross-sections and bearings. In this study, a method for real-time structural performance evaluation of the stiffening deck system making use of long-term strain measurement data is proposed and verified using the strain monitoring data from a typical deck cross-section of the Tsing Ma Bridge.

  7. Long-term monitoring of river basins: strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, N. J. K.; Burt, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    In a world where equilibrium is more and more uncommon, monitoring is an essential way to discover whether undesirable change is taking place. Monitoring requires a deliberate plan of action: the regular collection and processing of information. Long-term data reveal important patterns, allowing trends, cycles, and rare events to be identified. This is particularly important for complex systems where signals may be subtle and slow to emerge. Moreover, very long data sets are essential to test hypotheses undreamt of at the time the monitoring was started. This overview includes long time series from UK river basins showing how hydrology and water quality have changed over time - and continue to change. An important conclusion is the long time frame of system recovery, well beyond the normal lifetime of individual governments or research grants. At a time of increasing hydroclimatic variability, long time series remain crucially important; in particular, continuity of observations is vital at key benchmark sites.

  8. Data Acquisition for Low-Temperature Geothermal Well Tests and Long-Term Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P J

    1992-03-01

    Groundwater monitoring is an essential part of the development of a low-temperature geothermal field for production and injection wells. State water resource and environmental departments are requiring both geothermal well testing and long-term monitoring as a part of the permitting process for geothermal developments. This report covers water-level measurement methods, instruments used for well testing, geochemical sampling, examples of data acquisition and regulatory mandates on groundwater monitoring.

  9. Data acquisition for low-temperature geothermal well tests and long-term monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.

    1992-09-01

    Groundwater monitoring is an essential part of the development of a low-temperature geothermal field for production and injection wells. State water resource and environmental departments are requiring both geothermal well testing and long-term monitoring as a part of the permitting process for geothermal developments. This report covers water-level measurement methods, instruments used for well testing, geochemical sampling, examples of data acquisition and regulatory mandates on groundwater monitoring.

  10. Investigating Long-Term Monitoring Protocols in support of Quivira NWR Habitat Objectives

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The project purpose is to investigate long-term monitoring protocols in support of Quivira NWR habitat objectives as described in the Refuge’s recently approved CCP...

  11. Manitoba Hydro long-term high-voltage transmission line magnetic field monitoring project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, P.S.; Ng, C.K.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the licensing process to construct a new 230 kV transmission line on an existing right-of-way in Manitoba, an electrical effects study was conducted in 1998. The study was part of the environmental assessment program crucial in obtaining government approval to construct the line. Some residents living adjacent to the new transmission circuit expressed concerns about alleged adverse health effects associated with long-term exposure to magnetic fields from high voltage transmission lines. In order to verify the accuracy of the predicted magnetic field levels submitted to the regulatory body in the the electrical effects study and to instill confidence in the residents of the affected communities, a three-year magnetic monitoring project was conducted between 2003 and 2005 along the right-of-way after the new 230kV transmission line was energized by Manitoba Hydro. This paper described the monitoring program, with reference to location; equipment; data analysis; and discussion of results. It was concluded that the long-term monitoring project demonstrated that the magnetic field prediction methodology was well understood and accurate, and provided valuable long-term magnetic field characteristics at the edge of the right-of-way. In addition, when there is opposition to a transmission line, public consultation and education were found to be the best options to arrive at a solution. 3 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs

  12. Guam Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program Reef Fish Surveys since 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Government of Guam's Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program, coordinated by the Guam Coastal Management Program until October 2013 and now coordinated by the...

  13. Guam Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program Macroinvertebrate Belt Transects since 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Government of Guam's Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program, coordinated by the Guam Coastal Management Program until October 2013 and now coordinated by the...

  14. Waste drum refurbishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmill, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    Low-carbon steel, radioactive waste containers (55-gallon drums) are experiencing degradation due to moisture and temperature fluctuations. With thousands of these containers currently in use; drum refurbishment becomes a significant issue for the taxpayer and stockholders. This drum refurbishment is a non-intrusive, portable process costing between 1/2 and 1/25 the cost of repackaging, depending on the severity of degradation. At the INEL alone, there are an estimated 9,000 drums earmarked for repackaging. Refurbishing drums rather than repackaging can save up to $45,000,000 at the INEL. Based on current but ever changing WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), this drum refurbishment process will restore drums to a WIPP acceptable condition plus; drums with up to 40% thinning o the wall can be refurbished to meet performance test requirements for DOT 7A Type A packaging. A refurbished drum provides a tough, corrosion resistant, waterproof container with longer storage life and an additional containment barrier. Drums are coated with a high-pressure spray copolymer material approximately .045 inches thick. Increase in internal drum temperature can be held to less than 15 F. Application can be performed hands-on or the equipment is readily adaptable and controllable for remote operations. The material dries to touch in seconds, is fully cured in 48 hours and has a service temperature of -60 to 500 F. Drums can be coated with little or no surface preparation. This research was performed on drums however research results indicate the coating is very versatile and compatible with most any material and geometry. It could be used to provide abrasion resistance, corrosion protection and waterproofing to almost anything

  15. Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program, Gnome site, Eddy County, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Gnome site is located in Eddy County, approximately 31 miles southeast of the city of Carlsbad, New Mexico. Project Gnome, with a yield of 3.1 kilotons, was detonated December 10, 1961. It was the first nuclear detonation designed specifically for peaceful purposes and the first underground event of the Plowshare Program to take place outside the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program at the Gnome site is to obtain data that will assure the public safety; inform the public, the news media, and the scientific community relative to radiological contamination; and to document compliance with federal, state, and local antipollution requirements. The Gnome site geographical setting, climate, geology, and hydrology are described. Site history, including Gnome event information and pre- and post-Gnome monitoring by the US Public Health Service and the USGS, is described. Site cleanups of 1968 and 1979 are described. Postoperational surveys indicate that the Gnome site is well below the established decontamination criteria and that no hazard exists or will likely occur during public use of the surface of the Gnome site. The Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program for the Gnome site is described

  16. E-waste Management and Refurbishment Prediction (EMARP) Model for Refurbishment Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resmi, N G; Fasila, K A

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel algorithm for establishing a standard methodology to manage and refurbish e-waste called E-waste Management And Refurbishment Prediction (EMARP), which can be adapted by refurbishing industries in order to improve their performance. Waste management, particularly, e-waste management is a serious issue nowadays. Computerization has been into waste management in different ways. Much of the computerization has happened in planning the waste collection, recycling and disposal process and also managing documents and reports related to waste management. This paper proposes a computerized model to make predictions for e-waste refurbishment. All possibilities for reusing the common components among the collected e-waste samples are predicted, thus minimizing the wastage. Simulation of the model has been done to analyse the accuracy in the predictions made by the system. The model can be scaled to accommodate the real-world scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 2016 RFA for Great Lakes Long-Term Biology Monitoring Program: Phytoplankton Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Request for Applications solicits applications from eligible entities for a cooperative agreement to be awarded for a project to continue the long-term monitoring of phytoplankton in the open waters of the Great Lakes.

  18. Guam Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program Reef Fish Surveys FY2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Government of Guam's Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program, coordinated by the University of Guam Marine Lab, involves the collection of data for a suite of...

  19. Long-Term Monitoring of Utility-Scale Solar Energy Development and Application of Remote Sensing Technologies: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuki [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Grippo, Mark A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Smith, Karen P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division

    2014-09-30

    In anticipation of increased utility-scale solar energy development over the next 20 to 50 years, federal agencies and other organizations have identified a need to develop comprehensive long-term monitoring programs specific to solar energy development. Increasingly, stakeholders are requesting that federal agencies, such as the U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management (BLM), develop rigorous and comprehensive long-term monitoring programs. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) is assisting the BLM in developing an effective long-term monitoring plan as required by the BLM Solar Energy Program to study the environmental effects of solar energy development. The monitoring data can be used to protect land resources from harmful development practices while at the same time reducing restrictions on utility-scale solar energy development that are determined to be unnecessary. The development of a long-term monitoring plan that incorporates regional datasets, prioritizes requirements in the context of landscape-scale conditions and trends, and integrates cost-effective data collection methods (such as remote sensing technologies) will translate into lower monitoring costs and increased certainty for solar developers regarding requirements for developing projects on public lands. This outcome will support U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Sunshot Program goals. For this reason, the DOE provided funding for the work presented in this report.

  20. New maintenance strategy of Tokyo Electric Power Company and Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant for effective ageing management and safe long-term operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Takeyuki; Yamashita, Norimichi

    2009-01-01

    Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant is the oldest among three nuclear power plants owned and operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company, which consists of six boiling water reactor units. The commercial operation of Unit 1 was commenced in 1971 (37 years old) and Unit 6 in 1978 (29 years old). Currently ageing degradations of systems, structures and components are managed through maintenance programs, component replacement/refurbishment programs and long-term maintenance plans. The long-term maintenance plans are established through ageing management component replacement/refurbishment programs reviews performed before the 30th year of operation and they are for safe and reliable operation after 30 years (long-term operation). However the past maintenance actions and past component replacement/refurbishment programs were not always proactive and past operational experience and maintenance practices suggest that effective/proactive ageing management programs be introduced in earlier stage of the plant operation. In this circumstance, Tokyo Electric Power Company and Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant are setting up a new maintenance strategy that includes 1) improving the normal maintenance programs by using ageing degradation data, 2) effective use of information on internal/external operational experience and maintenance practices related to ageing, and 3) proactive component/equipment refurbishment programs during a refreshment outage for safe and reliable long-term operation. To accomplish the goal of this strategy, strengthening engineering capability of plant staff members is a crucial required for the plant. The objective of this paper is to briefly explain main results ageing management reviews, past and current significant ageing issues and management programs against them, and the new maintenance strategy established by Tokyo Electric Power Company and Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  1. Long-term environmental monitoring for assessment of change: measurement inconsistencies over time and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, Kari E; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Tveraa, Torkild; Hewitt, Judi E; Thrush, Simon F

    2017-10-30

    The importance of long-term environmental monitoring and research for detecting and understanding changes in ecosystems and human impacts on natural systems is widely acknowledged. Over the last decades, a number of critical components for successful long-term monitoring have been identified. One basic component is quality assurance/quality control protocols to ensure consistency and comparability of data. In Norway, the authorities require environmental monitoring of the impacts of the offshore petroleum industry on the Norwegian continental shelf, and in 1996, a large-scale regional environmental monitoring program was established. As a case study, we used a sub-set of data from this monitoring to explore concepts regarding best practices for long-term environmental monitoring. Specifically, we examined data from physical and chemical sediment samples and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages from 11 stations from six sampling occasions during the period 1996-2011. Despite the established quality assessment and quality control protocols for this monitoring program, we identified several data challenges, such as missing values and outliers, discrepancies in variable and station names, changes in procedures without calibration, and different taxonomic resolution. Furthermore, we show that the use of different laboratories over time makes it difficult to draw conclusions with regard to some of the observed changes. We offer recommendations to facilitate comparison of data over time. We also present a new procedure to handle different taxonomic resolution, so valuable historical data is not discarded. These topics have a broader relevance and application than for our case study.

  2. In vivo wireless biodiagnosis system for long-term bioactivity monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Kuang; Wu, Wen-Jong; Yu, Shih-An; Huang, Jhen-Gang; Lin, Yun-Han; Chen, Yih-Fan; Jin, Ming-Hui; Wen, Chih-Min; Kao, Cheng-Yan; Lin, Shi-Ming; Lu, Shey-Shi; Lin, Chii-Wann; Yen, Jia-Yush; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Chen, Chi-An; Liao, Fang-Jen; Chiu, Nan-Fu; Chien, Chia-Nan; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2004-07-01

    Attempts to develop a Wireless Health Advanced Mobile Bio-diagnostic System (abbreviated as WHAM-BioS) have arisen from the need to monitor the health status of patients under long-term care programs. The proposed WHAM-BioS as presented here was developed by integrating various technologies: nano/MEMS technology, biotechnology, network/communication technology, and information technology. The biochips proposed not only detect certain diseases but will also report any abnormal status readings on the patient to the medical personnel immediately through the network system. Since long-term home care is typically involved, the parameters monitored must be analyzed and traced continuously over a long period of time. To minimize the intrusion to the patients, a wireless sensor embedded within a wireless network is highly recommended. To facilitate the widest possible use of various biochips, a smart sensor node concept was implemented. More specifically, various technologies and components such as built-in micro power generators, energy storage devices, initialization processes, no-waste bio-detection methodologies, embedded controllers, wireless warning signal transmissions, and power/data management were merged and integrated to create this novel technology. The design methodologies and the implementation schemes are detailed. Potential expansions of this newly developed technology to other applications regimes will be presented as well.

  3. Adaptive Long-Term Monitoring at Environmental Restoration Sites (ER-0629)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Printed on recycled paper TECHNICAL REPORT TR-2317-ENV ADAPTIVE LONG-TERM MONITORING AT ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION SITES (ER-0629...nondetect values. One curiosity is that the typical recent RL for TCE has been 0.5, whereas that for PCE has been 1.4. As a consequence, and due to...Spring 2000 makes little difference, however. A curiosity is that the anomalous value from Spring 2006 is actually quite similar to the early

  4. Refurbishment of the reactor protection system at Paks NPP. The refurbishment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turi, T.; Katics, B.

    1998-01-01

    The Reactor Protection System Refurbishment Project had an extensive preparation period in Paks started in 1992. During this preparation a large volume of the basic engineering tasks has been performed and as a result a contract for implementation of a three-train digital RPS on the four Units was concluded with Siemens in September, 1996. According to that contract the first refurbished Unit will be commissioned in 1999 followed by a further Unit in each succeeding year. This paper introduces the process of the refurbishment, overview of the V and V activities, introduce the architecture, summarize the main design principles and outlines the additional tasks to be performed together with the RPS design. (author)

  5. Nonparametric Monitoring for Geotechnical Structures Subject to Long-Term Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Bum Yun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonparametric, data-driven methodology of monitoring for geotechnical structures subject to long-term environmental change is discussed. Avoiding physical assumptions or excessive simplification of the monitored structures, the nonparametric monitoring methodology presented in this paper provides reliable performance-related information particularly when the collection of sensor data is limited. For the validation of the nonparametric methodology, a field case study was performed using a full-scale retaining wall, which had been monitored for three years using three tilt gauges. Using the very limited sensor data, it is demonstrated that important performance-related information, such as drainage performance and sensor damage, could be disentangled from significant daily, seasonal and multiyear environmental variations. Extensive literature review on recent developments of parametric and nonparametric data processing techniques for geotechnical applications is also presented.

  6. Long-term monitoring of Sacramento Shade program trees: tree survival, growth and energy-saving performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekang Ko; Jun-Hak Lee; E. Gregory McPherson; Lara A. Roman

    2015-01-01

    Long-term survival and growth of urban forests are critical to achieve the targeted benefits of urban tree planting programs, such as building energy savings from tree shade. However, little is known about how trees perform in the long-term, especially in residential areas. Given this gap in the literature, we monitored 22-years of post-planting survival, growth, and...

  7. Refurbishing Fæstningens Materialgård

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2014-01-01

    upgrading and refurbishment of the individual buildings that make up the listed complex. The process focuses on the cooperation and dialogue between the parties involved. Fæstningens Materialgård is a case study where the Heritage Agency, the Danish Working Environment Authority and the owner as a team...... cooperated in identifying feasible refurbishment measures. Through the process the owner was supported by architects and engineers. Focus is put on how, to identify potential energy savings and, to decide on energy upgrading measures when refurbishing and restoring listed buildings. The refurbished...

  8. Long-term Monitoring Plan for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed Hassan

    2005-01-01

    The flow and transport model of Shoal is used to design a three-well monitoring network to be part of the long-term monitoring network for the site and achieve two objectives: (1) detect the presence of radionuclides in case they migrate to the monitoring well locations, and (2) provide field data to compare with model predictions as part of the model validation process. Using three different quantitative approaches and the numerical groundwater flow and transport model developed for Shoal, three new monitoring well locations were identified from 176 different networks. In addition to the quantitative analyses using the numerical model, the development of the monitoring network for Shoal will also be subject to qualitative hydrogeologic interpretation during implementation. information will only be available during the fieldwork, it will be incorporated in the monitoring well design at the time of well installation. Finally, it should be noted that the CADD-CAP for Shoal, including the compliance boundary, is not yet approved. Should the compliance boundary change from the 1,000-year MCL contaminant boundary, well locations may also need to change. However, the analysis reported here provides a number of alternatives with reasonable detection efficiency

  9. Long-term Monitoring Plan for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed Hassan

    2005-02-01

    The flow and transport model of Shoal is used to design a three-well monitoring network to be part of the long-term monitoring network for the site and achieve two objectives: (1) detect the presence of radionuclides in case they migrate to the monitoring well locations, and (2) provide field data to compare with model predictions as part of the model validation process. Using three different quantitative approaches and the numerical groundwater flow and transport model developed for Shoal, three new monitoring well locations were identified from 176 different networks. In addition to the quantitative analyses using the numerical model, the development of the monitoring network for Shoal will also be subject to qualitative hydrogeologic interpretation during implementation. information will only be available during the fieldwork, it will be incorporated in the monitoring well design at the time of well installation. Finally, it should be noted that the CADD-CAP for Shoal, including the compliance boundary, is not yet approved. Should the compliance boundary change from the 1,000-year MCL contaminant boundary, well locations may also need to change. However, the analysis reported here provides a number of alternatives with reasonable detection efficiency.

  10. Long-term monitoring of blazars - the DWARF network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Michael; Biland, Adrian; Boller, Andrea; Braun, Isabel; Bretz, Thomas; Commichau, Sebastian; Commichau, Volker; Dorner, Daniela; von Gunten, Hanspeter; Gendotti, Adamo; Grimm, Oliver; Hildebrand, Dorothée; Horisberger, Urs; Krähenbühl, Thomas; Kranich, Daniel; Lustermann, Werner; Mannheim, Karl; Neise, Dominik; Pauss, Felicitas; Renker, Dieter; Rhode, Wolfgang; Rissi, Michael; Rollke, Sebastian; Röser, Ulf; Stark, Luisa Sabrina; Stucki, Jean-Pierre; Viertel, Gert; Vogler, Patrick; Weitzel, Quirin

    The variability of the very high energy (VHE) emission from blazars seems to be connected with the feeding and propagation of relativistic jets and with their origin in supermassive black hole binaries. The key to understanding their properties is measuring well-sampled gamma-ray lightcurves, revealing the typical source behavior unbiased by prior knowledge from other wavebands. Using ground-based gamma-ray observatories with exposures limited by dark-time, a global network of several telescopes is needed to carry out fulltime measurements. Obviously, such observations are time-consuming and, therefore, cannot be carried out with the present state of the art instruments. The DWARF telescope on the Canary Island of La Palma is dedicated to monitoring observations. It is currently being set up, employing a costefficient and robotic design. Part of this project is the future construction of a distributed network of small telescopes. The physical motivation of VHE long-term monitoring will be outlined in detail and the perspective for a network for 24/7 observations will be presented.

  11. Benefits of a Biological Monitoring Program for Assessing Remediation Performance and Long-Term Stewardship - 12272

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Mark [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) is a long-running program that was designed to evaluate biological conditions and trends in waters downstream of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. BMAP monitoring has focused on aquatic pathways from sources to biota, which is consistent with the sites' clean water regulatory focus and the overall cleanup strategy which divided remediation areas into watershed administrative units. Specific programmatic goals include evaluating operational and legacy impacts to nearby streams and the effectiveness of implemented remediation strategies at the sites. The program is characterized by consistent, long-term sampling and analysis methods in a multidisciplinary and quantitative framework. Quantitative sampling has shown conclusively that at most Oak Ridge stream sites, fish and aquatic macro-invertebrate communities have improved considerably since the 1980s. Monitoring of mercury and PCBs in fish has shown that remedial and abatement actions have also improved stream conditions, although in some cases biological monitoring suggests further actions are needed. Follow-up investigations have been implemented by BMAP to identify sources or causes, consistent with an adaptive management approach. Biological monitoring results to date have not only been used to assess regulatory compliance, but have provided additional benefits in helping address other components of the DOE's mission, including facility operations, natural resource, and scientific goals. As a result the program has become a key measure of long-term trends in environmental conditions and of high value to the Oak Ridge environmental management community, regulators, and the public. Some of the BMAP lessons learned may be of value in the design, implementation, and application of other long-term monitoring and stewardship programs, and assist environmental managers in the assessment and prediction of the effectiveness of

  12. Multiyear Synthesis of Limnological Data from 1993 to 2001 for the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Houser, Jeffrey N; Bierman, David W; Burdis, Robert M; Fischer, James R; Rogala, James T; Soeken-Gittinger, Lori A; Hoff, Kraig L; Harms, Erik

    2005-01-01

    .... The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) provides a systemic perspective through the collection and analysis of monitoring data from six study reaches representing the upper, lower, and open river reaches of the UMRS...

  13. Model for Refurbishment of Heritage Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2014-01-01

    the Heritage Agency, the Danish Working Environment Authority and the owner as a team cooperated in identifying feasible refurbishments. In this case, the focus centered on restoring and identifying potential energy savings and deciding on energy upgrading measures for the listed complex. The refurbished...... with the requirements for the use of the building. The model focuses on the cooperation and dialogue between authorities and owners, who refurbish heritage buildings. The developed model was used for the refurbishment of the listed complex, Fæstningens Materialgård. Fæstningens Materialgård is a case study where...

  14. Adaptive Change Detection for Long-Term Machinery Monitoring Using Incremental Sliding-Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Teng; Lu, Guo-Liang; Liu, Jie; Yan, Peng

    2017-11-01

    Detection of structural changes from an operational process is a major goal in machine condition monitoring. Existing methods for this purpose are mainly based on retrospective analysis, resulting in a large detection delay that limits their usages in real applications. This paper presents a new adaptive real-time change detection algorithm, an extension of the recent research by combining with an incremental sliding-window strategy, to handle the multi-change detection in long-term monitoring of machine operations. In particular, in the framework, Hilbert space embedding of distribution is used to map the original data into the Re-producing Kernel Hilbert Space (RKHS) for change detection; then, a new adaptive threshold strategy can be developed when making change decision, in which a global factor (used to control the coarse-to-fine level of detection) is introduced to replace the fixed value of threshold. Through experiments on a range of real testing data which was collected from an experimental rotating machinery system, the excellent detection performances of the algorithm for engineering applications were demonstrated. Compared with state-of-the-art methods, the proposed algorithm can be more suitable for long-term machinery condition monitoring without any manual re-calibration, thus is promising in modern industries.

  15. 3D Holographic Observatory for Long-term Monitoring of Complex Behaviors in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. Santosh; Sun, Yaning; Zou, Sige; Hong, Jiarong

    2016-09-01

    Drosophila is an excellent model organism towards understanding the cognitive function, aging and neurodegeneration in humans. The effects of aging and other long-term dynamics on the behavior serve as important biomarkers in identifying such changes to the brain. In this regard, we are presenting a new imaging technique for lifetime monitoring of Drosophila in 3D at spatial and temporal resolutions capable of resolving the motion of limbs and wings using holographic principles. The developed system is capable of monitoring and extracting various behavioral parameters, such as ethograms and spatial distributions, from a group of flies simultaneously. This technique can image complicated leg and wing motions of flies at a resolution, which allows capturing specific landing responses from the same data set. Overall, this system provides a unique opportunity for high throughput screenings of behavioral changes in 3D over a long term in Drosophila.

  16. Methods for Minimization and Management of Variability in Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    DECEMBER 2015 Poonam Kulkarni Charles Newell Claire Krebs Thomas McHugh GSI Environmental, Inc. Britt Sanford ProHydro Distribution...based on an understanding of the short-term variability and long-term attenuation rate at a particular site ( McHugh et al., 2015a). The...time is independent of these parameters ( McHugh et al., 2015c). The relative trade-off between monitoring frequency and time required to

  17. Refurbishment and safety management of JMTR in extended showdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Hiroshi; Hori, Naohiko; Gorai, Shigeru; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi

    2011-06-01

    Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) is a testing reactor dedicated to the irradiation tests of materials and fuels. The reactor type of the JMTR is light water moderated and cooled tank type. It achieved first criticality in 1968. Operation was started in 1970. The JMTR had been being operated for 38 years from first criticality to the JMTR No.165 cycle finished. Periodic Safety Review (PSR) was carried out with confirming the integrity inspection of the JMTR reactor facilities. And the 10 years maintenance plan was made in 2004. After that, the restart of the JMTR has been strongly requested from various users as the only irradiation testing reactor in Japan. Finally, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) decided the refurbishment and restart of the JMTR in December 2006, and the refurbishment works was started from FY 2007. The equipment to remain in use and that which needs replacing before the restart of the JMTR was selected after having been evaluated on its damage and wear due to aging significance in safety functions, past safety-related maintenance date, and the enhancement of facility operation. The renewal work of power supply system, boiler, radioactive waste facility, etc. was already carried out as scheduled. The renewal work of reactor control system, nuclear instrumentation system and so on is being carried out. As for the safety management during reactor operation, the facility periodical own inspection and daily inspection is carried out for the purpose of maintaining soundness and reliability of facilities and equipments. And it is confirmed that the performance of facilities and equipments is maintained. As for the radiation control, irradiation dose limit determined by the law is obeyed. Based on the Concept of radiation protection of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), reduction of dose is endeavored. The safety management during reactor shutdown is also carried out as well as it of reactor operation term. However, the

  18. Adaptive long-term monitoring of soil health in metal phytostabilization: ecological attributes and ecosystem services based on soil microbial parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelde, Lur; Becerril, José M; Alkorta, Itziar; Garbisu, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Phytostabilization is a promising option for the remediation of metal contaminated soils which requires the implementation of long-term monitoring programs. We here propose to incorporate the paradigm of "adaptive monitoring", which enables monitoring programs to evolve iteratively as new information emerges and research questions change, to metal phytostabilization. Posing good questions that cover the chemical, toxicological and ecological concerns associated to metal contaminated soils is critical for an efficient long-term phytostabilization monitoring program. Regarding the ecological concerns, soil microbial parameters are most valuable indicators of the effectiveness of metal phytostabilization processes in terms of recovery of soil health. We suggest to group soil microbial parameters in higher-level categories such as "ecological attributes" (vigor, organization, stability) or "ecosystem services" in order to facilitate interpretation and, most importantly, to provide long-term phytostabilization monitoring programs with the required stability through time against changes in techniques, methods, interests, etc. that will inevitably occur during the monitoring program. Finally, a Phytostabilization Monitoring Card, based on both ecological attributes and ecosystem services, for soil microbial properties is provided.

  19. Long-term phenol, cresols and BTEX monitoring in urban air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturaro, Alberto; Rella, Rocco; Parvoli, Giorgio; Ferrara, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    This paper reports the results of a long-term monitoring of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX), phenol and cresols in the air of Padua during a wide period of the year 2007 using two radial passive samplers (Radiello system) equipped with BTEX- and phenol-specific cartridges. Two sites were monitored, one in the industrial area and one close to the town centre. Relevant pollution episodes have been observed during both the winter and summer periods. Benzene, together with toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes showed their maximum concentrations during the winter season, but the secondary pollutant phenol was higher than benzene for a large period of the year when the meteorological conditions blocked the pollutants in the lower layers of the atmosphere and solar radiation increased the benzene photo-oxidation process.

  20. Statistical package for improved analysis of hillslope monitoring data collected as part of the Board of Forestry's long-term monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Lewis; Jim Baldwin

    1997-01-01

    The State of California has embarked upon a Long-Term Monitoring Program whose primary goal is to assess the effectiveness of the Forest Practice Rules and Review Process in protecting the beneficial uses of waters from the impacts of timber operations on private timberlands. The Board of Forestry's Monitoring Study Group concluded that hillslope monitoring should...

  1. Refurbishment decision support tools review—Energy and life cycle as key aspects to sustainable refurbishment projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Joaquim; Pinheiro, Manuel Duarte; Brito, Jorge de

    2013-01-01

    Europe is facing one of its most challenging crises since Great Depression and the construction sector is one of the worst affected. Refurbishment is therefore often suggested as one of the most useful solutions for the current real estate crisis in consolidated areas like the EU. On the other hand, it is imperative to construct buildings according to sustainable principles regarding economic, environmental and social issues. Therefore, proper decision-support methods are needed to help designers, investors and policy makers to choose the most sustainable solution for a refurbishment project, especially for energy retrofit works. This paper reviews the works relating to sustainable refurbishment decision-support tools which have already been developed. For this purpose we have analysed and classified 40 different methods, with particular focus on their main common aims. They are also compared with other classifications proposed. This paper further highlights the role of energy as a driving factor and discusses what other research developments are needed to create related tools for the future that could respond to actual construction requirements. - Highlights: • Sustainable refurbishment as an important challenge. • Proper decision-support methods are needed to refurbishment. • The paper reviews 40 different methods, focusing their main common aims. • The paper highlights the role of the energy as key factor to search sustainability. • It also stresses the importance of life cycle approach in refurbishment projects

  2. High-Rise Refurbishment: The Energy-Efficient Upgrade of Multi-Story Residences in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Some 36 million European households are in high-rise residences, one in six of all households, and yet many of the buildings are in urgent need of refurbishment. This study, which is one in a series being conducted on behalf of the International Energy Agency addressing the energy performance of the existing IEA-wide building stock, identifies a Europe-wide cost-effective energy saving potential of 28% from energy-efficient refurbishment of the high-rise residential building stock. Attainment of this potential would imply a 1.5% reduction of Europe's total final energy demand and annual CO2 emissions savings of 35 Mt. In practice only the less efficient buildings need to be refurbished to realise these stockaverage savings and for these buildings typical savings in heating energy from refurbishment of between 70 and 80% are identified. Buildings in general suffer from a variety of barriers that tend to prevent their occupants from maintaining and refurbishing them to levels of comfort and energy performance that would be justified over the longer term, but collective housing in general is particularly susceptible to market failures. Many occupants do not own the property while their landlords usually have little motivation to finance improvements. Refurbishment requires collective agreement on a capital investment, which is difficult to establish especially when some occupants expect to live in the building over the longer-term but others only for the short-term. Furthermore, in most cases the occupants of high-rise residences are not among the wealthier members of society and they find it difficult to raise capital for longer-term investments. It is not surprising, then, to find that this section of the building stock is the most neglected and that there remain significant cost-effective opportunities for it to be refurbished in a way that improves comfort, saves energy, reduces CO2 emissions and significantly improves the urban environment.

  3. Monitoring and modeling of long-term settlements of an experimental landfill in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Gustavo Ferreira; Catapreta, Cícero Antônio Antunes

    2013-02-01

    Settlement evaluation in sanitary landfills is a complex process, due to the waste heterogeneity, time-varying properties and influencing factors and mechanisms, such as mechanical compression due to load application and creep, and physical-chemical and biological processes caused by the wastes decomposition. Many empirical models for the analysis of long-term settlement in landfills are reported in the literature. This paper presents the results of a settlement monitoring program carried out during 6 years in Belo Horizonte experimental landfill. Different sets of field data were used to calibrate three long-term settlement prediction models (rheological, hyperbolic and composite). The parameters obtained in the calibration were used to predict the settlements and to compare with actual field data. During the monitoring period of 6 years, significant vertical strains were observed (of up to 31%) in relation to the initial height of the experimental landfill. The results for the long-term settlement prediction obtained by the hyperbolic and rheological models significantly underestimate the settlements, regardless the period of data used in the calibration. The best fits were obtained with the composite model, except when 1 year field data were used in the calibration. The results of the composite model indicate settlements stabilization at larger times and with larger final settlements when compared to the hyperbolic and rheological models. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Autonomous long-term gamma-spectrometric monitoring of submarine groundwater discharge trends in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulai, Henrietta; Waters, Ch.A.; Kennedy, Joseph; Kamenik, Jan; Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Rez; Babinec, James; Jolly, James; Williamson, Mario

    2016-01-01

    We developed a fully autonomous underwater gamma-spectrometer for long-term coastal submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) monitoring. The instrument represents a significant improvement over previous submarine gamma-spectrometers in that it is very robust, has high sensitivity allowing high temporal resolution, and is completely autonomous. Here we describe the technical parameters of the new instrument as well as data collected over its 9-month deployment in Kiholo Bay, HI, USA. We also present methods to convert the measured activities to SGD rates. In Kiholo Bay, the derived SGD matched previous estimates but in addition it revealed previously undocumented short- and long-term patterns in SGD. (author)

  5. Large-area, long-term monitoring of mineral barrier materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandelik, A.; Huebner, C.

    1997-01-01

    Clay-type mineral layers are used for bottom and surface barriers in environmental containment, such as landfill designs. Their performance in terms of isolation depends on the water content and its variation with the time. Sensitive long-term areal mapping of the moisture content can detect in time drying or shearing failures that will have a negative impact on the performance of the barrier. Based on the measurement of the dielectric coefficient (not of the unpredictable electric conductivity as proposed by others), we use the combination of two sensors; the cryo-moisture sensor and the cable network sensor in the clay-type mineral layer. The cryo-moisture sensor measures the depth profile of the absolute water content and the change of density on a small area (diameter approx. 0.2 m). It is selfcalibrating and very accurate. The cable network sensor is a net of moisture sensitive radiofrequency cables. It is buried in the barrier layer and determines variations of the water content of approximately 3% (by volume) with a spatial accuracy of approx. 4 meters. We have used the cryo-sensor since 1992 and already started installing the cable network on an area of approx. 2000 m 2 within a waste disposal surface barrier at Karlsruhe. This system is non-destructive and allows long-term monitoring. It is predicted to operate for longer than 20 years. The calculated costs of acquisition, installation and operation are $ 4.-/m 2 in the first year

  6. Time-series modeling: applications to long-term finfish monitoring data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bireley, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    The growing concern and awareness that developed during the 1970's over the effects that industry had on the environment caused the electric utility industry in particular to develop monitoring programs. These programs generate long-term series of data that are not very amenable to classical normal-theory statistical analysis. The monitoring data collected from three finfish programs (impingement, trawl and seine) at the Millstone Nuclear Power Station were typical of such series and thus were used to develop methodology that used the full extent of the information in the series. The basis of the methodology was classic Box-Jenkins time-series modeling; however, the models also included deterministic components that involved flow, season and time as predictor variables. Time entered into the models as harmonic regression terms. Of the 32 models fitted to finfish catch data, 19 were found to account for more than 70% of the historical variation. The models were than used to forecast finfish catches a year in advance and comparisons were made to actual data. Usually the confidence intervals associated with the forecasts encompassed most of the observed data. The technique can provide the basis for intervention analysis in future impact assessments

  7. CNT/PDMS composite flexible dry electrodes for long-term ECG monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ha-Chul; Moon, Jin-Hee; Baek, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Hee; Choi, Yoon-Young; Hong, Joung-Sook; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2012-05-01

    We fabricated a carbon nanotube (CNT)/ polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite-based dry ECG electrode that can be readily connected to conventional ECG devices, and showed its long-term wearable monitoring capability and robustness to motion and sweat. While the dispersion of CNTs in PDMS is challenging, we optimized the process to disperse untreated CNTs within PDMS by mechanical force only. The electrical and mechanical characteristics of the CNT/PDMS electrode were tested according to the concentration of CNTs and its thickness. The performances of ECG electrodes were evaluated by using 36 types of electrodes which were fabricated with different concentrations of CNTs, and with a differing diameter and thickness. The ECG signals were obtained by using electrodes of diverse sizes to observe the effects of motion and sweat, and the proposed electrode was shown to be robust to both factors. The CNT concentration and diameter of the electrodes were critical parameters in obtaining high-quality ECG signals. The electrode was shown to be biocompatible from the cytotoxicity test. A seven-day continuous wearability test showed that the quality of the ECG signal did not degrade over time, and skin reactions such as itching or erythema were not observed. This electrode could be used for the long-term measurement of other electrical biosignals for ubiquitous health monitoring including EMG, EEG, and ERG.

  8. Unconstrained monitoring of long-term heart and breath rates during sleep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wenxi; Zhu, Xin; Wei, Daming; Nemoto, Tetsu; Sugitani, Kayo; Kitamura, Kei-ichiro

    2008-01-01

    An unconstrained method for the long-term monitoring of heart and breath rates during sleep is proposed. The system includes a sensor unit and a web-based network module. The sensor unit is set beneath a pillow to pick up the pressure variations from the head induced by inhalation/exhalation movements and heart pulsation during sleep. The measured pressure signal was digitized and transferred to a remote database server via the network module. A wavelet-based algorithm was employed to detect the heart and breath rates, as well as body movement, during sleep. The overall system was utilized for a total six-month trial operation delivered to a female subject. The profiles of the heart and breath rates on a beat-by-beat and daily basis were obtained. Movements during sleep were also estimated. The results show that the daily average percentage of undetectable periods (UPs) during 881.6 sleep hours over a 180 day period was 17.2%. A total of 89.2% of sleep hours had a UP of not more than 25%. The profile of the heart rate revealed a periodic property that corresponded to the female monthly menstrual cycle. Our system shows promise as a long-term unconstrained monitor for heart and breath rates, and for other physiological parameters related to the quality of sleep and the regularity of the menstrual cycle. (note)

  9. Non-Contact Sensor for Long-Term Continuous Vital Signs Monitoring: A Review on Intelligent Phased-Array Doppler Sensor Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Travis; Nguyen, Tam Q.; Mayeda, Jill C.; Lie, Paul E.; Lopez, Jerry; Banister, Ron E.

    2017-01-01

    It has been the dream of many scientists and engineers to realize a non-contact remote sensing system that can perform continuous, accurate and long-term monitoring of human vital signs as we have seen in many Sci-Fi movies. Having an intelligible sensor system that can measure and record key vital signs (such as heart rates and respiration rates) remotely and continuously without touching the patients, for example, can be an invaluable tool for physicians who need to make rapid life-and-death decisions. Such a sensor system can also effectively help physicians and patients making better informed decisions when patients’ long-term vital signs data is available. Therefore, there has been a lot of research activities on developing a non-contact sensor system that can monitor a patient’s vital signs and quickly transmit the information to healthcare professionals. Doppler-based radio-frequency (RF) non-contact vital signs (NCVS) monitoring system are particularly attractive for long term vital signs monitoring because there are no wires, electrodes, wearable devices, nor any contact-based sensors involved so the subjects may not be even aware of the ubiquitous monitoring. In this paper, we will provide a brief review on some latest development on NCVS sensors and compare them against a few novel and intelligent phased-array Doppler-based RF NCVS biosensors we have built in our labs. Some of our NCVS sensor tests were performed within a clutter-free anechoic chamber to mitigate the environmental clutters, while most tests were conducted within the typical Herman-Miller type office cubicle setting to mimic a more practical monitoring environment. Additionally, we will show the measurement data to demonstrate the feasibility of long-term NCVS monitoring. The measured data strongly suggests that our latest phased array NCVS system should be able to perform long-term vital signs monitoring intelligently and robustly, especially for situations where the subject is

  10. Non-Contact Sensor for Long-Term Continuous Vital Signs Monitoring: A Review on Intelligent Phased-Array Doppler Sensor Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Travis; Lie, Donald Y C; Nguyen, Tam Q; Mayeda, Jill C; Lie, Paul E; Lopez, Jerry; Banister, Ron E

    2017-11-15

    It has been the dream of many scientists and engineers to realize a non-contact remote sensing system that can perform continuous, accurate and long-term monitoring of human vital signs as we have seen in many Sci-Fi movies. Having an intelligible sensor system that can measure and record key vital signs (such as heart rates and respiration rates) remotely and continuously without touching the patients, for example, can be an invaluable tool for physicians who need to make rapid life-and-death decisions. Such a sensor system can also effectively help physicians and patients making better informed decisions when patients' long-term vital signs data is available. Therefore, there has been a lot of research activities on developing a non-contact sensor system that can monitor a patient's vital signs and quickly transmit the information to healthcare professionals. Doppler-based radio-frequency (RF) non-contact vital signs (NCVS) monitoring system are particularly attractive for long term vital signs monitoring because there are no wires, electrodes, wearable devices, nor any contact-based sensors involved so the subjects may not be even aware of the ubiquitous monitoring. In this paper, we will provide a brief review on some latest development on NCVS sensors and compare them against a few novel and intelligent phased-array Doppler-based RF NCVS biosensors we have built in our labs. Some of our NCVS sensor tests were performed within a clutter-free anechoic chamber to mitigate the environmental clutters, while most tests were conducted within the typical Herman-Miller type office cubicle setting to mimic a more practical monitoring environment. Additionally, we will show the measurement data to demonstrate the feasibility of long-term NCVS monitoring. The measured data strongly suggests that our latest phased array NCVS system should be able to perform long-term vital signs monitoring intelligently and robustly, especially for situations where the subject is sleeping

  11. Non-Contact Sensor for Long-Term Continuous Vital Signs Monitoring: A Review on Intelligent Phased-Array Doppler Sensor Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Hall

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been the dream of many scientists and engineers to realize a non-contact remote sensing system that can perform continuous, accurate and long-term monitoring of human vital signs as we have seen in many Sci-Fi movies. Having an intelligible sensor system that can measure and record key vital signs (such as heart rates and respiration rates remotely and continuously without touching the patients, for example, can be an invaluable tool for physicians who need to make rapid life-and-death decisions. Such a sensor system can also effectively help physicians and patients making better informed decisions when patients’ long-term vital signs data is available. Therefore, there has been a lot of research activities on developing a non-contact sensor system that can monitor a patient’s vital signs and quickly transmit the information to healthcare professionals. Doppler-based radio-frequency (RF non-contact vital signs (NCVS monitoring system are particularly attractive for long term vital signs monitoring because there are no wires, electrodes, wearable devices, nor any contact-based sensors involved so the subjects may not be even aware of the ubiquitous monitoring. In this paper, we will provide a brief review on some latest development on NCVS sensors and compare them against a few novel and intelligent phased-array Doppler-based RF NCVS biosensors we have built in our labs. Some of our NCVS sensor tests were performed within a clutter-free anechoic chamber to mitigate the environmental clutters, while most tests were conducted within the typical Herman-Miller type office cubicle setting to mimic a more practical monitoring environment. Additionally, we will show the measurement data to demonstrate the feasibility of long-term NCVS monitoring. The measured data strongly suggests that our latest phased array NCVS system should be able to perform long-term vital signs monitoring intelligently and robustly, especially for situations where the

  12. LMZ experience in refurbishment of hydroturbine equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotnikov, Anatoly A. [LMZ, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation). Div. of Hydraulic Machine

    2000-07-01

    AO LMZ experience in refurbishment of hydroturbine equipment is generalized. Hydraulic turbines of many power stations having been in service of more than 30 years need rehabilitation and modernization. As a rule, the following problems are solved in the process of refurbishment works: increase of turbine efficiency and output, ensuring of reliable operation of the equipment during the next length of life, ensuring the environmental safety of the equipment, furnishing of the power station with up to date automatic control systems. The process of refurbishment used by LMZ is described. The examples of refurbishment are given. (author)

  13. Passive Badge Assessment for Long-Term, Low-level Air Monitoring on Submarines: Acrolein Badge Validation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Kimberly P; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L; Kidwell, David A

    2006-01-01

    .... Passive badge monitors for acrolein detection were tested. Long-term sampling efficiency was evaluated for a 28-day period by comparing the response of the passive badge to an active tube sampling method...

  14. Long-term vegetation monitoring for different habitats in floodplains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LANG Petra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A floodplain-restoration project along the Danube between Neuburg and Ingolstadt (Germany aims to bring back water and sediment dynamic to the floodplain. The accompanied long-term monitoring has to document the changes in biodiversity related to this new dynamics. Considerations on and results of the vegetation monitoring concept are documented in this paper. In a habitat rich ecosystem like a floodplain different habitats (alluvial forest, semi-aquatic/aquatic sites have different demands on the sampling methods. Therefore, different monitoring designs (preferential, random, systematic, stratified random and transect sampling are discussed and tested for their use in different habitat types of the floodplain. A stratified random sampling is chosen for the alluvial forest stands, as it guarantees an equal distribution of the monitoring plots along the main driving factors, i.e. influence of water. The parameters distance to barrage, ecological flooding, height above thalweg and distance to the new floodplain river are used for stratifying and the plots are placed randomly into these strata, resulting in 117 permanent plots. Due to small changes at the semi-aquatic/aquatic sites a transect sampling was chosen. Further, a rough stratification (channel bed, river bank adjacent floodplain was implemented, which was only possible after the start of the restoration project. To capture the small-scale changes due to the restoration measures on the vegetation, 99 additional plots completed the transect sampling. We conclude that hetereogenous study areas need different monitoring approaches, but, later on, a joint analysis must be possible.

  15. Long term liquidity analysis of the firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Gonos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Liquidity control is a very difficult and important function. If the business is not liquid in the long term, it is under threatof bankruptcy, and on the other hand surplus of the cash in hand threaten its future efficiency, because the cash in hand is a sourceof only limited profitability. Long term liquidity is related to the ability of the short term and long term liabilities payment. Articleis trying to point out to the monitoring and analyzing of the long term liquidity in the concrete business, in this case the printing industrycompany. Hereby at the end of the article mentioned monitored and analyzed liquidity is evaluated in the five years time period.

  16. Guam Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program Coral Colony Size and Condition Surveys since 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Government of Guam's Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program, coordinated by the Guam Coastal Management Program until October 2013 and now coordinated by the...

  17. Real-time long term measurement using integrated framework for ubiquitous smart monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Gwanghee; Lee, Giu; Lee, Woosang; Jeon, Joonryong; Kim, Pil-Joong

    2007-04-01

    Ubiquitous monitoring combining internet technologies and wireless communication is one of the most promising technologies of infrastructure health monitoring against the natural of man-made hazards. In this paper, an integrated framework of the ubiquitous monitoring is developed for real-time long term measurement in internet environment. This framework develops a wireless sensor system based on Bluetooth technology and sends measured acceleration data to the host computer through TCP/IP protocol. And it is also designed to respond to the request of web user on real time basis. In order to verify this system, real time monitoring tests are carried out on a prototype self-anchored suspension bridge. Also, wireless measurement system is analyzed to estimate its sensing capacity and evaluate its performance for monitoring purpose. Based on the evaluation, this paper proposes the effective strategies for integrated framework in order to detect structural deficiencies and to design an early warning system.

  18. Long-term monitored catchments in Norway - a hydrologic and chemical evaluation -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydersen, E

    1994-10-20

    About 20 years ago, long-term monitoring of small Norwegian catchments were initiated, because of increasing concern regarding acidification of surface water and damage to fish populations. Long range transported air pollutants were considered to be the major acidification factor and so both precipitation and runoff chemistry were included in the monitoring programme. This report contains a thorough hydrologic and chemical evaluation of precipitation and runoff water separately as well as relationships between precipitation chemistry and runoff chemistry. The data comes from four catchments: Birkenes, Storgama, Langtjern and Kaarvatn. The chapters are (1) Sampling and analysis, (2) Description of the catchments, (3) Hydrology, (4) Chemistry, with subsections on wet deposition, dry deposition, concentration of marine compounds with distance from the sea, acid precipitation, runoff chemistry, sulphuric acid and other acidifying compounds, acid neutralizing capacity, and aluminium, (5) Time trends in precipitation and runoff chemistry. The time trends are evaluated in relation to the declining emissions of sulphur compounds in Europe since the late seventies. 134 refs., 213 figs., 54 tabs.

  19. Autonomous long-term gamma-spectrometric monitoring of submarine groundwater discharge trends in Hawaii

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dulai, H.; Kameník, Jan; Waters, C. A.; Kennedy, J.; Babinec, J.; Jolly, J.; Williamson, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 307, č. 3 (2016), s. 1865-1870 ISSN 0236-5731. [10th International Conference on Methods and Applications of Radioanalytical Chemistry (MARC). Kailua Kona, 12.04.2015-17.04.2015] Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : submarine groundwater discharge * long-term SGD monitoring * underwater gammaspectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  20. Initial Analyses of Change Detection Capabilities and Data Redundancies in the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lubinski, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    Evaluations of Long Term Resource Monitoring Program sampling designs for water quality, fish, aquatic vegetation, and macroinvertebrates were initiated in 1999 by analyzing data collected since 1992...

  1. Reflectance-based detection for long term environmental monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandy J. Johnson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Here, the potential of colorimetric sensors utilizing porphyrin indicators for long term environmental monitoring is demonstrated. Prototype devices based on commercial color sensing chips (six per device were combined with in-house developed algorithms for data analysis. The devices are intended to provide real-time sensing of threats. An initial outdoor data set was collected using prototype devices with occasional spiked exposure to targets. This data was supported by similar data collected in a controlled indoor environment. Weaknesses in the noted performance of the devices during these experiments were addressed through altering device parameters, algorithm parameters, and array element composition. Additional outdoor data sets totaling 1,616 h and indoor data sets totaling 728 h were collected in support of assessing these changes to the system configuration. The optimized system provided receiver operating characteristics (ROC of specificity 0.97 and sensitivity 1.0. Keyword: Environmental science

  2. Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program. Project Shoal site, Sand Springs Range, Churchill County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    The Shoal site is located in Churchill County in the northern part of the Sand Springs Range, approximately 30 miles (48.3 kilometers) southeast of Fallon, Nevada. Project Shoal, with a yield of 12 kilotons, was detonated October 26, 1963. It was conducted as part of the Vela program to obtain event measurements relating to the detection of underground nuclear detonations. The purpose of the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program at the Shoal site is to obtain data that will assure public safety; inform the public, the news media, and the scientific community relative to radiological contamination; and to document compliance with federal, state, and local antipollution requirements. The Shoal site geographical setting, climate, geology, and hydrology are described. Site history, including Shoal event information and Shoal monitoring is described. The final radiological surveys following the Shoal site cleanup described in this report indicate that there are no radiation levels above natural background on or near the land surface and that no hazard exists or is likely to occur during public use of the surface of the Shoal site. The Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program for the Shoal site is described. 17 references, 4 figures

  3. Shifting the Paradigm for Long Term Monitoring at Legacy Sites to Improve Performance while Reducing Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.; Looney, Brian B.; Seaman, John; Kmetz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A major issue facing many government and private industry sites that were previously contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes is that often the sites cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. These sites will require long-term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality in a cost effective manner. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. Currently, most monitoring strategies are focused on laboratory measurements of contaminants measured in groundwater samples collected from wells. This approach is expensive, and provides limited and lagging information about the effectiveness of cleanup activities and the behavior of the residual contamination. Over the last twenty years, DOE and other federal agencies have made significant investments in the development of various types of sensors and strategies that would allow for remote analysis of contaminants in groundwater, but these approaches do not promise significant reductions in risk or cost. Scientists at SRS have developed a new paradigm to simultaneously improve the performance of long term monitoring systems while lowering the overall cost of monitoring. This alternative approach incorporates traditional point measurements of contaminant concentration with measurements of controlling variables including boundary conditions, master variables, and traditional plume/contaminant variables. Boundary conditions are the overall driving forces that control plume movement and therefore provide leading indication to changes in plume stability. These variables include metrics associated with meteorology, hydrology, hydrogeology, and land use. Master variables are the key variables that control the chemistry of the

  4. Post-assessment of pre-stressed containment structures by evaluation of monitored long term deformation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienand, B.

    2015-01-01

    The comparison of monitored long term deformations of containment structures with calculated values achieved by using design material parameters shows occasionally considerable deviations, partly caused by conservative assumptions in the containments design phase. Systematic post-assessment and adaption of the decisive parameters attains better coincidence. In the present investigation measured long-term deformations are first of all compared to pre-calculated values based on the material parameters defined in the design phase. Afterwards, the deformations deviations are minimized by repeating the calculation with assessed material parameters. This method appears to be a suitable method to predict the future containment structure long-term behavior and to achieve a possible life-time extension. The presented investigation was performed as part of NUGENIA ACCEPPT project which researches the ageing of concrete containment structures in nuclear power plants

  5. Continuous fatigue crack monitoring of bridges: Long-Term Electrochemical Fatigue Sensor (LTEFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshier, Monty A.; Nelson, Levi; Brinkerhoff, Ryan; Miceli, Marybeth

    2016-04-01

    Fatigue cracks in steel bridges degrade the load-carrying capacity of these structures. Fatigue damage accumulation caused by the repetitive loading of everyday truck traffic can cause small fatigue cracks initiate. Understanding the growth of these fatigue cracks is critical to the safety and reliability of our transportation infrastructure. However, modeling fatigue in bridges is difficult due to the nature of the loading and variations in connection integrity. When fatigue cracks reach critical lengths failures occur causing partial or full closures, emergency repairs, and even full structural failure. Given the aging US highway and the trend towards asset management and life extension, the need for reliable, cost effective sensors and monitoring technologies to alert bridge owners when fatigue cracks are growing is higher than ever. In this study, an innovative Long-Term Electrochemical Fatigue Sensor (LTEFS) has been developed and introduced to meet the growing NDT marketplace demand for sensors that have the ability to continuously monitor fatigue cracks. The performance of the LTEFS has been studied in the laboratory and in the field. Data was collected using machined specimens with different lengths of naturally initiated fatigue cracks, applied stress levels, applied stress ratios, and for both sinusoidal and real-life bridge spectrum type loading. The laboratory data was evaluated and used to develop an empirically based algorithm used for crack detection. Additionally, beta-tests on a real bridge structure has been completed. These studies have conclusively demonstrated that LTEFS holds great potential for long-term monitoring of fatigue cracks in steel structures

  6. Point Lepreau refurbishment: plant condition assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, P.J.; Soulard, M.R.; David, F.; Clefton, G.; Weeks, R.

    2001-01-01

    New Brunswick Power (NB Power) has initiated a study into the refurbishment of the Point Lepreau Generating Station, with the objective to extend plant operation another 25 to 30 years. The end product of this study will be a business case that compares the costs of refurbishing Point Lepreau with costs of alternate means of generation. The Project Execution Plan and business case are being developed by an integrated team of AECL, NB Power and subcontractor staff under the project management of AECL. The refurbishment scope will include replacement of the pressure tubes, calandria tubes and part of the feeder piping. Planning of these replacements is part of the refurbishment study work. Planning is also underway for the environmental, safety and licensing issues that would need to be addressed to ensure future operation of the unit. In addition to these studies, a systematic review of the plant has been carried out to determine what other equipment refurbishment or replacement will be required due to ageing or obsolescence of plant equipment. This Plant Condition Assessment (PCA) follows a highly structured approach to ensure consistency. This paper presents an overview of the engineering process and the main findings from the work. (author)

  7. Long term monitoring system integrated in an elevational gradient in NW Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carilla, J.; Malizia, A.; Osinaga, O.; Blundo, C.; Grau, R.; Malizia, L.; Aráoz, E.

    2013-05-01

    Ecological trends and ranges of variability are poorly known in the tropical and subtropical Andes. Long term studies are powerful tools to detect the response of vegetation dynamics, biodiversity and hydrological cycle to these trends. We present a long term monitoring system in NW Argentinean mountains, including forest permanent plots at different elevations and high elevation grasslands, encompassing more than 3.000 m elevation range. Long term studies include: 1) 66 ha of mountain forest permanent plots along the Yungas elevational gradient from c. 400 to 2500 masl , and latitudinal gradient (22-28S) with 45 plots in mature forests and 28 in secondary forests originated in grazing, agriculture and selective logging. Some of these permanent plots have achieved 20 years of monitoring and all of them are included in the "Red de Bosques Andinos" a network created recently, together with c. 10 institutions and more than 130 (c. 120 ha) forest permanent plots from Argentina to Colombia Andes. 2) Two GLORIA (Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments) sites, above 4000 masl with more than 170 species recorded, including one re-measurement. This system is included in GLORIA network (www.gloria.ac.at) and in GLORIA Andes (http://www.condesan.org/gloria), and 3) more than 15 satellite monitored high Andean lakes and a wide extension of vegas (75800 ha in Argentinean puna). A digital database is being implemented to organize and provide access to the information generated by these three systems coordinated by the Instituto de Ecología Regional (http://www.iecologia.com.ar). These monitoring data are analyzed together with instrumental and dendrochronological data to describe the dynamics of these ecosystems over an area of 20 million hectares distributed between 22 and 28°S. Some of the most significant results to date include: 1) secondary mountain forests are expanding over grasslands and agriculture lands, and tend to converge toward mature forest

  8. Long-term monitoring of western aspen--lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, E K; Bunting, S C; Starcevich, L A; Nahorniak, M T; Dicus, G; Garrett, L K

    2015-08-01

    Aspen woodland is an important ecosystem in the western United States. Aspen is currently declining in western mountains; stressors include conifer expansion due to fire suppression, drought, disease, heavy wildlife and livestock use, and human development. Forecasting of tree species distributions under future climate scenarios predicts severe losses of western aspen within the next 50 years. As a result, aspen has been selected as one of 14 vital signs for long-term monitoring by the National Park Service Upper Columbia Basin Network. This article describes the development of a monitoring protocol for aspen including inventory mapping, selection of sampling locations, statistical considerations, a method for accounting for spatial dependence, field sampling strategies, and data management. We emphasize the importance of collecting pilot data for use in statistical power analysis and semi-variogram analysis prior to protocol implementation. Given the spatial and temporal variability within aspen stem size classes, we recommend implementing permanent plots that are distributed spatially within and among stands. Because of our careful statistical design, we were able to detect change between sampling periods with desired confidence and power. Engaging a protocol development and implementation team with necessary and complementary knowledge and skills is critical for success. Besides the project leader, we engaged field sampling personnel, GIS specialists, statisticians, and a data management specialist. We underline the importance of frequent communication with park personnel and network coordinators.

  9. Guam Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program Benthic Percent Cover Derived from Image Analysis since 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Government of Guam's Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program, coordinated through the Guam Coastal Management Program until October 2013 and now coordinated...

  10. Sustainability Potentials of Housing Refurbishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Sodagar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of choosing refurbishment over new build have recently been brought into focus for reducing environmental impacts of buildings. This is due to the fact that the existing buildings will comprise the majority of the total building stocks for years to come and hence will remain responsible for the majority of greenhouse gas emissions from the sector. This paper investigates the total potentials of sustainable refurbishment and conversion of the existing buildings by adopting a holistic approach to sustainability. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and questionnaires have been used to analyse the environmental impact savings (Co2e, improved health and well-being, and satisfaction of people living in refurbished homes. The results reported in the paper are based on a two year externally funded research project completed in January 2013.

  11. Long-term ecosystem monitoring and assessment of the Detroit River and Western Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartig, J H; Zarull, M A; Ciborowski, J J H; Gannon, J E; Wilke, E; Norwood, G; Vincent, A N

    2009-11-01

    Over 35 years of US and Canadian pollution prevention and control efforts have led to substantial improvements in environmental quality of the Detroit River and western Lake Erie. However, the available information also shows that much remains to be done. Improvements in environmental quality have resulted in significant ecological recovery, including increasing populations of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), peregrine falcons (Falco columbarius), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), walleye (Sander vitreus), and burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia spp.). Although this recovery is remarkable, many challenges remain, including population growth, transportation expansion, and land use changes; nonpoint source pollution; toxic substances contamination; habitat loss and degradation; introduction of exotic species; and greenhouse gases and global warming. Research/monitoring must be sustained for effective management. Priority research and monitoring needs include: demonstrating and quantifying cause-effect relationships; establishing quantitative endpoints and desired future states; determining cumulative impacts and how indicators relate; improving modeling and prediction; prioritizing geographic areas for protection and restoration; and fostering long-term monitoring for adaptive management. Key management agencies, universities, and environmental and conservation organizations should pool resources and undertake comprehensive and integrative assessments of the health of the Detroit River and western Lake Erie at least every 5 years to practice adaptive management for long-term sustainability.

  12. Basic policy of JMTR refurbishment and regulatory procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobita, Kenji

    2012-04-01

    The JMTR refurbishment started from FY2007 had been completed on the end of the FY2010. The refurbishment works carried out on about 60 items nuclear reactor systems, (about 40 of facilities and about 20 constructions) with no trouble. This report review the basic policy of JMTR refurbishment, such as a selection of facilities/equipments for the refurbishment and the determination method of specifications for repairs. The deliberation and discussion by the safety review committee of Oarai Research and Development Center in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency and nuclear regulatory procedure are included in this report. (author)

  13. Mechanical Properties Experimental Study of Engineering Vehicle Refurbished Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Wang; Xiaojie, Qi; Zhao, Yang; Yunlong, Wang; Guotian, Wang; Degang, Lv

    2018-05-01

    The vehicle refurbished tire test system was constructed, got load-deformation, load-stiffness, and load-compression ratio property laws of engineering vehicle refurbished tire under the working condition of static state and ground contact, and built radial direction loading deformation mathematics model of 26.5R25 engineering vehicle refurbished tire. The test results show that radial-direction and side-direction deformation value is a little less than that of the new tire. The radial-direction stiffness and compression ratio of engineering vehicle refurbished tire were greatly influenced by radial-direction load and air inflation pressure. When load was certain, radial-direction stiffness would increase with air inflation pressure increasing. When air inflation pressure was certain, compression ratio of engineering vehicle refurbished tire would enlarge with radial-direction load increasing, which was a little less than that of the new and the same type tire. Aging degree of old car-case would exert a great influence on deformation property of engineering vehicle refurbished tire, thus engineering vehicle refurbished tires are suitable to the working condition of low tire pressure and less load.

  14. Bridge monitoring by interferometric deformation sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaudi, Daniele; Vurpillot, Samuel; Casanova, Nicoletta

    1996-09-01

    In many concrete bridges, the deformations are the most relevant parameter to be monitored in both short and long- terms. Strain monitoring gives only local information about the material behavior and too many such sensors would therefore be necessary to gain a complete understanding of the bridge behavior. We have found that fiber optic deformation sensors, with measurement bases of the order of one to a few meters, can give useful information both during the first days after concrete pouring and in the long term. In a first phase it is possible to monitor the thermal expansion due to the exothermic setting reaction and successively the thermal and drying shrinkages. Thanks to the long sensor basis, the detection of a crack traverse to the measurement region becomes probable and the evolution of cracks can therefore be followed with a reduced number of sensors. In the long-term it is possible to measure the geometric deformations and therefore the creeping of the bridge under static loads, especially under its own weight. In the past two years, our laboratory has installed hundreds of fiber optic deformation sensors in more than five concrete, composite steel-concrete, refurbished and enlarged bridges (road, highway and railway bridges). The measuring technique relies on low-coherence interferometry and offers a resolution down to a few microns even for long-term measurements. This contribution briefly discusses the measurement technique and then focuses on the development of a reliable sensor for direct concrete embedding and on the experimental results obtained on these bridges.

  15. Refurbishment of the LECI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, J. Y.; Cheron, C.

    2001-01-01

    The LECI is a hot laboratory built in Saclay in the early sixties for examinations on fuel rods, with 25 hot cells. Around 1995, a refurbishment programme up to 2004 was decided and started. It includes the renovation of about half of the cells of the existing building and the construction of a new building with about twenty lead-shielded hot cells for mechanical testing. At mid 2001, this paper presents the status of the project and the perspectives for the next years. These modifications aims: -To increase sample preparation and examination capacities on nuclear metals: mainly zirconium, steel and aluminium alloys. -To keep existing P. I. facilities on short P. W. R. fuel rod as support for ramp testing programmes in the nearby Osiris reactor and as support for new cladding development programmes. -To gather in LECI mechanical testing facilities which are up to now located in another facility to be shut down at the end of 2003. Concerning the existing building, most of the planned refurbishment has been performed and 10 cells have been cleaned and 8 of them will be reequipped at the end of 2001: a metallography line with new microscope, hardness testing, periscopes, TEM thin foil and EPMA preparation, two cells for tooling mechanical samples (milling machine, lathe, spark erosion), one cell for clad creep testing on long term storage conditions and a cell with a 250 kN tensile machine. The new building is built, the lead cells will be installed in 2002 and most of the scientific equipment have been ordered. They include: wire erosion machining 3 tensile machines with extensometry, 2 Charpy, different creep and internal pressure machines, autoclaves EPMA and Raman analysis. The schedule is to open this building to irradiated materials ( no fuel except on EPMA) at the end of 2003. Some difficulties such as the public enquires have been successfully overcome, some financial constraints have delayed the project of about one year, and technical difficulties have

  16. Long-term monitoring of thinning for silvopastoral purposes in Nothofagus antarctica forests of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Martínez Pastur

    2018-05-01

    Research highlights: Monitoring of thinning for silvopastoral management must include easy and cheap measuring variables, e.g. diameter growth as a proxy for timber production objectives and hemispherical photos (crown cover and radiation as a proxy for pasture production. Long-term monitoring allowed to identify reliable indicators that assist new sustainable management alternatives.

  17. Long-term surface EMG monitoring using K-means clustering and compressive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balouchestani, Mohammadreza; Krishnan, Sridhar

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we present an advanced K-means clustering algorithm based on Compressed Sensing theory (CS) in combination with the K-Singular Value Decomposition (K-SVD) method for Clustering of long-term recording of surface Electromyography (sEMG) signals. The long-term monitoring of sEMG signals aims at recording of the electrical activity produced by muscles which are very useful procedure for treatment and diagnostic purposes as well as for detection of various pathologies. The proposed algorithm is examined for three scenarios of sEMG signals including healthy person (sEMG-Healthy), a patient with myopathy (sEMG-Myopathy), and a patient with neuropathy (sEMG-Neuropathr), respectively. The proposed algorithm can easily scan large sEMG datasets of long-term sEMG recording. We test the proposed algorithm with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Correlation Coefficient (LCC) dimensionality reduction methods. Then, the output of the proposed algorithm is fed to K-Nearest Neighbours (K-NN) and Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) classifiers in order to calclute the clustering performance. The proposed algorithm achieves a classification accuracy of 99.22%. This ability allows reducing 17% of Average Classification Error (ACE), 9% of Training Error (TE), and 18% of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The proposed algorithm also reduces 14% clustering energy consumption compared to the existing K-Means clustering algorithm.

  18. Report on participation of the operational dosimetry division in refurbishment of the RA reactor, Task 3.08/04-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.

    1963-01-01

    During the refurbishment of the RA reactor, from January to June 1963 the division of operational division had a very important role and comprehensive tasks. To enable safety of the staff it was necessary to provide protection clothes, personnel dosemeters; permanent monitoring of radiation doses; strict control of the procedures for completing the planned maintenance and repair operations to avoid contamination of the personnel and working space. The refurbishment activities described in this report are: removal of fuel from the core; refurbishment of the heavy water system; decontamination of the distillation equipment; repair of the gas system

  19. Possible refurbishment of Point Lepreau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.M.; Groom, S.H.; Thompson, P.D.; Barclay, J.M.; Allen, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    In February 2000, the NB Power Board of Directors approved Phase one of a project to produce a business case including a detailed scope and estimate associated with the possible refurbishment of the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS). The Preliminary plan for refurbishment projects an 18-month outage starting as early as the spring of 2006. If the station were to be refurbished, then it would be run for another 25 to 30 years. The decision on whether or not to refurbish PLGS has not been made and is not expected until the summer of 2002. The results of the first phase of the project will be used to prepare a detailed business case that will be presented to the NB Power board of directors in January of 2002. At that time a decision will be made as to whether to refurbish the unit, or obtain other means of replacing the energy produced by PLGS. The station currently produces about a third of the power generated within the province. If the business case is approved, all-380 Pressure Tubes and Calandria Tubes, along with their related End Fittings and Feeders would be replaced. This material would be stored in new storage vaults to be constructed at the existing on-site Waste Management Facility. Replacement of other station components will be performed as required, as determined from the results of a comprehensive Plant Condition Assessment. The condition assessments build on work done under the Plant Life Management Program. Point Lepreau Generating Station has operated well since start of commercial operation in early 1983. With a lifetime capacity factor of about 84% (up to the end of 2000), it has proven to be an economic and environmentally sound electricity provider. The station has also had a significant positive economic impact in Southern New Brunswick, employing over 600 people. However the Pressure Tubes and Feeders are nearing the point in time in which they will exceed their fitness for service criteria. Although tubes can be replaced on an

  20. Possible refurbishment of Point Lepreau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.M.; Groom, S.H.; Thompson, P.D.; Barclay, J.M.; Allen, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    In February 2000, the NB Power Board of Directors approved Phase one of a project to produce a business case including a detailed scope and estimate associated with the possible refurbishment of the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS). The Preliminary plan for refurbishment projects an 18-month outage starting as early as the spring of 2006. If the station were to be refurbished, then it would be run for another 25 to 30 years. The decision on whether or not to refurbish PLGS has not been made and is not expected until the summer of 2002. The results of the first phase of the project will be used to prepare a detailed business case that will be presented to the NB Power board of directors in January of 2002. At that time a decision will be made as to whether to refurbish the unit, or obtain other means of replacing the energy produced by PLGS. The station currently produces about a third of the power generated within the province. If the business case is approved, all-380 Pressure Tubes and Calandria Tubes, along with their related End Fittings and Feeders would be replaced. This material would be stored in new storage vaults to be constructed at the existing on-site Waste Management Facility. Replacement of other station components will be performed as required, as determined from the results of a comprehensive Plant Condition Assessment. The condition assessments build on work done under the Plant Life Management Program. Point Lepreau Generating Station has operated well since start of commercial operation in early 1983. With a lifetime capacity factor of about 84% (up to the end of 2000), it has proven to be an economic and environmentally sound electricity provider. The station has also had a significant positive economic impact in Southern New Brunswick, employing over 600 people. However the Pressure Tubes and Feeders are nearing the point in time in which they will exceed their fitness for service criteria. Although tubes can be replaced on an

  1. Shifting the Paradigm for Long Term Monitoring at Legacy Sites to Improve Performance while Reducing Costs - 13422

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol A; Looney, Brian B.; Gaughan, Thomas; Kmetz, Thomas; Seaman, John

    2013-01-01

    A major issue facing many government and private industry sites that were previously contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes is that often the sites cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. These sites will require long-term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality in a cost effective manner. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. Currently, most monitoring strategies are focused on laboratory measurements of contaminants measured in groundwater samples collected from wells. This approach is expensive, and provides limited and lagging information about the effectiveness of cleanup activities and the behavior of the residual contamination. Over the last twenty years, DOE and other federal agencies have made significant investments in the development of various types of sensors and strategies that would allow for remote analysis of contaminants in groundwater, but these approaches do not promise significant reductions in risk or cost. Scientists at SRS have developed a new paradigm to simultaneously improve the performance of long term monitoring systems while lowering the overall cost of monitoring. This alternative approach incorporates traditional point measurements of contaminant concentration with measurements of controlling variables including boundary conditions, master variables, and traditional plume/contaminant variables. Boundary conditions are the overall driving forces that control plume movement and therefore provide leading indication to changes in plume stability. These variables include metrics associated with meteorology, hydrology, hydrogeology, and land use. Master variables are the key variables that control the chemistry of the

  2. Shifting the Paradigm for Long Term Monitoring at Legacy Sites to Improve Performance while Reducing Costs - 13422

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol A; Looney, Brian B. [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States); Gaughan, Thomas; Kmetz, Thomas [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC (United States); Seaman, John [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A major issue facing many government and private industry sites that were previously contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes is that often the sites cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. These sites will require long-term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality in a cost effective manner. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. Currently, most monitoring strategies are focused on laboratory measurements of contaminants measured in groundwater samples collected from wells. This approach is expensive, and provides limited and lagging information about the effectiveness of cleanup activities and the behavior of the residual contamination. Over the last twenty years, DOE and other federal agencies have made significant investments in the development of various types of sensors and strategies that would allow for remote analysis of contaminants in groundwater, but these approaches do not promise significant reductions in risk or cost. Scientists at SRS have developed a new paradigm to simultaneously improve the performance of long term monitoring systems while lowering the overall cost of monitoring. This alternative approach incorporates traditional point measurements of contaminant concentration with measurements of controlling variables including boundary conditions, master variables, and traditional plume/contaminant variables. Boundary conditions are the overall driving forces that control plume movement and therefore provide leading indication to changes in plume stability. These variables include metrics associated with meteorology, hydrology, hydrogeology, and land use. Master variables are the key variables that control the chemistry of the

  3. Long-term monitoring of temperature in the subsoil using Fiber Optic Distributed Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, Kusnahadi; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Gance, Julien; Marc, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    Monitoring changes in soil water content in the vadose zone of soils is a great importance for various hydrological, agronomical, ecological and environmental studies. By using soil temperature measurements with Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (FO-DTS), we can indirectly document soil water changes at high spatial and temporal frequency. In this research, we installed an observatory of soil temperature on a representative black marl slope of the long-term Draix-Bléone hydrological observatory (South French Alps, Réseau de Basins-Versants / RBV). A 350 m long reinforced fiber optic cable was buried at 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 m of depths and installed at the soil surface. The total length of the monitored profile is 60 m, and it three different soil units consisting of argillaceous weathered black marls, silty colluvium under grass and silty colluvium under forest. Soil temperature is measured every 6 minutes at a spatial resolution of 0.50 m using a double-ended configuration. Both passive and active (heating of the FO) is used to document soil water changes. We present the analysis of a period of 6 months of temperature measurements (January-July 2016). Changes in soil temperature at various temporal scales (rainfall event, season) and for the three units are discussed. These changes indicate different processes of water infiltration at different velocities in relation to the presence of roots and the soil permeability. We further test several inversion strategies to estimate soil water content from the thermal diffusivity of the soils using simple and more complex thermal models. Some limitations of using this indirect technique for long-term monitoring are also presented. The work is supported by the research project HYDROSLIDE and the large infrastructure project CRITEX funded by the French Research Agency (ANR).

  4. Integration of remote refurbishment performed on ITER components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammann, A., E-mail: alexis.dammann@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Antola, L. [AMEC, 31 Parc du Golf, CS 90519, 13596 Aix en Provence (France); Beaudoin, V. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Dremel, C. [Westinghouse, Electrique France/Astare, 122 Avenue de Hambourg, 13008 Marseille (France); Evrard, D. [SOGETI High Tech, 180 Rue René Descartes, 13851 Aix en Provence (France); Friconneau, J.P. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Lemée, A. [SOGETI High Tech, 180 Rue René Descartes, 13851 Aix en Provence (France); Levesy, B.; Pitcher, C.S. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • System engineering approach to consolidate requirements to modify the layout of the Hot Cell. • Illustration of the loop between requirement and design. • Verification process. - Abstract: Internal components of the ITER Tokamak are replaced and transferred to the Hot Cell by remote handling equipment. These components include port plugs, cryopumps, divertor cassettes, blanket modules, etc. They are brought to the refurbishment area of the ITER Hot Cell Building for cleaning and maintenance, using remote handling techniques. The ITER refurbishment area will be unique in the world, when considering combination of size, quantity of complex component to refurbish in presence of radiation, activated dust and tritium. The refurbishment process to integrate covers a number of workstations to perform specific remote operations fully covered by a mast on crane system. This paper describes the integration of the Refurbishment Area, explaining the functions, the methodology followed, some illustrations of trade-off and safety improvements.

  5. Multivariant design and multiple criteria analysis of building refurbishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaklauskas, A.; Zavadskas, E. K.; Raslanas, S. [Faculty of Civil Engineering, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2005-07-01

    In order to design and realize an efficient building refurbishment, it is necessary to carry out an exhaustive investigation of all solutions that form it. The efficiency level of the considered building's refurbishment depends on a great many of factors, including: cost of refurbishment, annual fuel economy after refurbishment, tentative pay-back time, harmfulness to health of the materials used, aesthetics, maintenance properties, functionality, comfort, sound insulation and longevity, etc. Solutions of an alternative character allow for a more rational and realistic assessment of economic, ecological, legislative, climatic, social and political conditions, traditions and for better the satisfaction of customer requirements. They also enable one to cut down on refurbishment costs. In carrying out the multivariant design and multiple criteria analysis of a building refurbishment much data was processed and evaluated. Feasible alternatives could be as many as 100,000. How to perform a multivariant design and multiple criteria analysis of alternate alternatives based on the enormous amount of information became the problem. Method of multivariant design and multiple criteria of a building refurbishment's analysis were developed by the authors to solve the above problems. In order to demonstrate the developed method, a practical example is presented in this paper. (author)

  6. Noise Maps for Quantitative and Clinical Severity Towards Long-Term ECG Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everss-Villalba, Estrella; Melgarejo-Meseguer, Francisco Manuel; Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Gimeno-Blanes, Francisco Javier; Sala-Pla, Salvador; Rojo-Álvarez, José Luis; García-Alberola, Arcadi

    2017-10-25

    Noise and artifacts are inherent contaminating components and are particularly present in Holter electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring. The presence of noise is even more significant in long-term monitoring (LTM) recordings, as these are collected for several days in patients following their daily activities; hence, strong artifact components can temporarily impair the clinical measurements from the LTM recordings. Traditionally, the noise presence has been dealt with as a problem of non-desirable component removal by means of several quantitative signal metrics such as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), but current systems do not provide any information about the true impact of noise on the ECG clinical evaluation. As a first step towards an alternative to classical approaches, this work assesses the ECG quality under the assumption that an ECG has good quality when it is clinically interpretable. Therefore, our hypotheses are that it is possible (a) to create a clinical severity score for the effect of the noise on the ECG, (b) to characterize its consistency in terms of its temporal and statistical distribution, and (c) to use it for signal quality evaluation in LTM scenarios. For this purpose, a database of external event recorder (EER) signals is assembled and labeled from a clinical point of view for its use as the gold standard of noise severity categorization. These devices are assumed to capture those signal segments more prone to be corrupted with noise during long-term periods. Then, the ECG noise is characterized through the comparison of these clinical severity criteria with conventional quantitative metrics taken from traditional noise-removal approaches, and noise maps are proposed as a novel representation tool to achieve this comparison. Our results showed that neither of the benchmarked quantitative noise measurement criteria represent an accurate enough estimation of the clinical severity of the noise. A case study of long-term ECG is reported

  7. Design and long-term monitoring of DSC/CIGS tandem solar module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vildanova, M F; Nikolskaia, A B; Kozlov, S S; Shevaleevskiy, O I

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of tandem dye-sensitized/Cu(In, Ga)Se (DSC/CIGS) PV modules. The tandem PV module comprised of the top DSC module and a bottom commercial 0,8 m 2 CIGS module. The top DSC module was made of 10 DSC mini-modules with the field size of 20 × 20 cm 2 each. Tandem DSC/CIGS PV modules were used for providing the long-term monitoring of energy yield and electrical parameters in comparison with standalone CIGS modules under outdoor conditions. The outdoor test facility, containing solar modules of both types and a measurement unit, was located on the roof of the Institute of Biochemical Physics in Moscow. The data obtained during monitoring within the 2014 year period has shown the advantages of the designed tandem DSC/CIGS PV-modules over the conventional CIGS modules, especially for cloudy weather and low-intensity irradiation conditions. (paper)

  8. Groundwater Level Monitoring using Levelogger and the Importance of Long-Term Groundwater Level Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazran Harun; Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che Kamaruddin

    2016-01-01

    This review paper is focused on groundwater level monitoring using levelogger and the importance of long-term groundwater level data. The levelogger provides an inexpensive and convenient method to measure level, temperature and conductivity all in one probe. It can provide real time view as data is being recorded by the connected data logger. Water-level measurements from observation wells are the principal source of information about the hydrologic stresses acting on aquifers and how these stresses affect ground-water recharge, storage, and discharge. Long-term and systematic measurements of water levels provide essential data needed to evaluate changes in the resource over time to develop ground-water models, forecast trends and monitor the effectiveness of groundwater management. A significant advantage of this method of data collection and reporting are the groundwater level data can be updated real time. The accessibility of water level data is greatly enhanced by the Geographic Information System (GIS) to visually illustrate the locations of observation wells relative to relevant topographic, geologic, or hydrologic features. GIS and internet greatly enhance the capability for retrieval and transmittal of water-level data to potential users. (author)

  9. Simulated thermal energy demand and actual energy consumption in refurbished and non-refurbished buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, C. A.; Visa, I.; Duta, A.

    2016-08-01

    The EU legal frame imposes the Nearly Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB) status to any new public building starting with January 1st, 2019 and for any other new building starting with 2021. Basically, nZEB represents a Low Energy Building (LEB) that covers more than half of the energy demand by using renewable energy systems installed on or close to it. Thus, two steps have to be followed in developing nZEB: (1) reaching the LEB status through state- of-the art architectural and construction solutions (for the new buildings) or through refurbishing for the already existent buildings, followed by (2) implementing renewables; in Romania, over 65% of the energy demand in a building is directly linked to heating, domestic hot water (DHW), and - in certain areas - for cooling. Thus, effort should be directed to reduce the thermal energy demand to be further covered by using clean and affordable systems: solar- thermal systems, heat pumps, biomass, etc. or their hybrid combinations. Obviously this demand is influenced by the onsite climatic profile and by the building performance. An almost worst case scenario is approached in the paper, considering a community implemented in a mountain area, with cold and long winters and mild summers (Odorheiul Secuiesc city, Harghita county, Romania). Three representative types of buildings are analysed: multi-family households (in blocks of flats), single-family houses and administrative buildings. For the first two types, old and refurbished buildings were comparatively discussed.

  10. Last PS magnet refurbished

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    PS Magnet Refurbishment Programme Completed. The 51st and final refurbished magnet was transported to the PS on Tuesday 3 February. The repair and consolidation work on the PS started back in 2003 when two magnets and a busbar connection were found to be faulty during routine high-voltage tests. The cause of the fault was a combination of age and radiation on electrical insulation. After further investigation the decision was taken to overhaul half of the PS’s 100 magnets to reduce the risk of a similar fault. As from 20 February the PS ring will start a five-week test programme to be ready for operation at the end of March.

  11. Point Lepreau refurbishment - update 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.M.; Eagles, E.R.; Hickman, C.N.; Baker, R.; Thompson, P.D.; Howieson, J.Q.; Ichiyen, N.

    2005-01-01

    NB Power Nuclear is planning to conduct a 18-month maintenance outage of the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS) beginning in April 2008. The major activity would be the replacement of all 380 Fuel Channel and Calandria Tube assemblies and connecting feeder pipes. This activity is referred to as Retube. NB Power Nuclear would also take advantage of this outage to conduct a number of repairs, replacements, inspection and upgrades (such as rewinding or replacing the generator, replacement of shutdown system trip computers, replacement of certain valves and expansion joints, inspection of systems not normally accessible, etc.). These collective activities are referred to as Refurbishment. This would allow the station to operate for an additional 25 to 30 years. The scope or the project was determined [mm the outcome of a two year study involving a detailed condition assessment of the station which examined Issues relating to ageing and obsolescence, along with a detailed review or Safety and Licensing issues associated with extended operation. The Refurbishment outage would be preceded by a detailed Engineering Project Phase that would: Finalize details of the Retube process including modeling, tooling development, site facilities and training of personnel. Perform necessary engineering activities related to design modifications. Construct the new waste storage structures to house Retube Waste and other additional waste storage structures for the extended life of the station. Setup necessary temporary construction facilities (offices, storage areas, change moms, decontamination an maintenance areas) to support Retube. Procure equipment and components. Perform detailed outage planning. Initiate development of detailed commissioning as well as lay-up, monitoring and return to service procedures. At the present time, the NB Power Nuclear Board of Directors and the New Brunswick Provincial government are reviewing a proposal for a lease arrangement from Bruce Power

  12. Refurbishment of BR2 (Phases 4 and 5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P.; Dekeyser, J.; Van Der Auwera, J

    1998-07-01

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. In phase 4 of the refurbishment programme, various activities were performed to allow reactor start-up. In phase 5, remaining refurbishment works were carried out as well as the extra studies and upgradings required by the licensing authorities. Major achievements in 1997 are described and discussed.

  13. Refurbishment of BR2 (Phases 4 and 5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubel, P.; Dekeyser, J.; Van Der Auwera, J.

    1998-01-01

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. In phase 4 of the refurbishment programme, various activities were performed to allow reactor start-up. In phase 5, remaining refurbishment works were carried out as well as the extra studies and upgradings required by the licensing authorities. Major achievements in 1997 are described and discussed

  14. Refurbishment of BR2 (Phases 4 and 5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P; Dekeyser, J; Van Der Auwera, J

    1998-07-01

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. In phase 4 of the refurbishment programme, various activities were performed to allow reactor start-up. In phase 5, remaining refurbishment works were carried out as well as the extra studies and upgradings required by the licensing authorities. Major achievements in 1997 are described and discussed.

  15. Automatic mental heath assistant : monitoring and measuring nonverbal behavior of the crew during long-term missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voynarovskaya, N.; Gorbunov, R.D.; Barakova, E.I.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Barakova, E.I.; Ruyter, B.; Spink, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for monitoring the mental state of small isolated crews during long-term missions (such as space mission, polar expeditions, submarine crews, meteorological stations, and etc.) The research is done as a part of Automatic Mental Health Assistant (AMHA) project which aims

  16. Long-term monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs at the Norwegian Troll station in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kallenborn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A first long-term monitoring of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs in Antarctic air has been conducted at the Norwegian research station Troll (Dronning Maud Land. As target contaminants 32 PCB congeners, α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, trans- and cis-chlordane, trans- and cis-nonachlor, p,p'- and o,p-DDT, DDD, DDE as well as hexachlorobenzene (HCB were selected. The monitoring program with weekly samples taken during the period 2007–2010 was coordinated with the parallel program at the Norwegian Arctic monitoring site (Zeppelin mountain, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard in terms of priority compounds, sampling schedule as well as analytical methods. The POP concentration levels found in Antarctica were considerably lower than Arctic atmospheric background concentrations. Similar to observations for Arctic samples, HCB is the predominant POP compound, with levels of around 22 pg m−3 throughout the entire monitoring period. In general, the following concentration distribution was found for the Troll samples analyzed: HCB > Sum HCH > Sum PCB > Sum DDT > Sum chlordanes. Atmospheric long-range transport was identified as a major contamination source for POPs in Antarctic environments. Several long-range transport events with elevated levels of pesticides and/or compounds with industrial sources were identified based on retroplume calculations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART.

  17. Long-term monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at the Norwegian Troll station in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenborn, R.; Breivik, K.; Eckhardt, S.; Lunder, C. R.; Manø, S.; Schlabach, M.; Stohl, A.

    2013-07-01

    A first long-term monitoring of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic air has been conducted at the Norwegian research station Troll (Dronning Maud Land). As target contaminants 32 PCB congeners, α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), trans- and cis-chlordane, trans- and cis-nonachlor, p,p'- and o,p-DDT, DDD, DDE as well as hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were selected. The monitoring program with weekly samples taken during the period 2007-2010 was coordinated with the parallel program at the Norwegian Arctic monitoring site (Zeppelin mountain, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard) in terms of priority compounds, sampling schedule as well as analytical methods. The POP concentration levels found in Antarctica were considerably lower than Arctic atmospheric background concentrations. Similar to observations for Arctic samples, HCB is the predominant POP compound, with levels of around 22 pg m-3 throughout the entire monitoring period. In general, the following concentration distribution was found for the Troll samples analyzed: HCB > Sum HCH > Sum PCB > Sum DDT > Sum chlordanes. Atmospheric long-range transport was identified as a major contamination source for POPs in Antarctic environments. Several long-range transport events with elevated levels of pesticides and/or compounds with industrial sources were identified based on retroplume calculations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART).

  18. Refurbishment programme for the BR2-reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koonen, E [Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie, BR2 Department, Boeretang, Mol (Belgium)

    1992-07-01

    BR2 is a high flux engineering test reactor, which differs from comparable material testing reactors by its specific core array (fig. 1). It is a heterogeneous, thermal, tank-in-pool type reactor, moderated by beryllium and light water, which serves also as coolant. The fuel elements consist of cylindrical assemblies loaded in channels materialized by hexagonal beryllium prisms. The central 200 mm channel is vertical, while all others are inclined and form a hyperbolical arrangement around the central one. This feature combines a very compact core with the requirement of sufficient space for individual access to all channels through penetrations in the top cover of the aluminium pressure vessel. Each channel may hold a fuel element, a control rod, an experiment, an irradiation device or a beryllium plug. The refurbishment Program According to the present programme of C.E.N./S.C.K., BR2 will be in operation until 1996. At that time, the beryllium matrix will reach its foreseen end-of-life. In order to continue operation beyond this point, a thorough refurbishment of the reactor is foreseen, in addition to the unavoidable replacement of the matrix, to ensure quality of the installation and compliance with modern standards. Some fundamental options have been taken as a starting point: BR2 will continue to be used as a classical MTR, i.e. fuel and material irradiations and safety experiments with some additional service-activities. The present configuration is optimized for that use and there is no specific experimental requirement to change the basic concepts and performance characteristics. From the customers viewpoint, it is desirable to go ahead with the well-known features of BR2, to maintain a high degree of availability and reliability and to minimize the duration of the long shutdown. It is also important to limit the amount of nuclear liabilities. So the objective of the refurbishment programme is the life extension of BR2 for about 15 years, corresponding to

  19. Refurbishment programme for the BR2-reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koonen, E.

    1992-01-01

    BR2 is a high flux engineering test reactor, which differs from comparable material testing reactors by its specific core array (fig. 1). It is a heterogeneous, thermal, tank-in-pool type reactor, moderated by beryllium and light water, which serves also as coolant. The fuel elements consist of cylindrical assemblies loaded in channels materialized by hexagonal beryllium prisms. The central 200 mm channel is vertical, while all others are inclined and form a hyperbolical arrangement around the central one. This feature combines a very compact core with the requirement of sufficient space for individual access to all channels through penetrations in the top cover of the aluminium pressure vessel. Each channel may hold a fuel element, a control rod, an experiment, an irradiation device or a beryllium plug. The refurbishment Program According to the present programme of C.E.N./S.C.K., BR2 will be in operation until 1996. At that time, the beryllium matrix will reach its foreseen end-of-life. In order to continue operation beyond this point, a thorough refurbishment of the reactor is foreseen, in addition to the unavoidable replacement of the matrix, to ensure quality of the installation and compliance with modern standards. Some fundamental options have been taken as a starting point: BR2 will continue to be used as a classical MTR, i.e. fuel and material irradiations and safety experiments with some additional service-activities. The present configuration is optimized for that use and there is no specific experimental requirement to change the basic concepts and performance characteristics. From the customers viewpoint, it is desirable to go ahead with the well-known features of BR2, to maintain a high degree of availability and reliability and to minimize the duration of the long shutdown. It is also important to limit the amount of nuclear liabilities. So the objective of the refurbishment programme is the life extension of BR2 for about 15 years, corresponding to

  20. Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosz, J.

    2001-12-01

    The network dedicated to Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in the United States has grown to 24 sites since it was formed in 1980. Long-term research and monitoring are performed on parameters thatare basic to all ecosystems and are required to understand patterns, processes, and relationship to change. Collectively, the sites in the LTER Network provide opportunities to contrast marine, coastal, and continental regions, the full range of climatic gradients existing in North America, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats in a range of ecosystem types. The combination of common core areas and long-term research and monitoring in many habitats have allowed unprecedented abilities to understand and compare complex temporal and spatial dynamics associated with issues like climate change, effects of pollution, biodiversity and landuse. For example, McMurdo Dry Valley in the Antarctic has demonstrated an increase in glacier mass since 1993 which coincides with a period of cooler than normal summers and more than average snowfall. In contrast, the Bonanza Creek and Toolik Lake sites in Alaska have recorded a warming period unprecedented in the past 200 years. Nitrogen deposition effects have been identified through long-term watershed studies on biogeochemical cycles, especially at Coweeta Hydrological Lab, Harvard Forest, and the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. In aquatic systems, such as the Northern Temperate Lakes site, long-term data revealed time lags in effects of invaders and disturbance on lake communities. Biological recovery from an effect such as lake acidification was shown to lag behind chemical recovery. The long-term changes documented over 2 decades have been instrumental in influencing management practices in many of the LTER areas. In Puerto Rico, the Luquillo LTER demonstrated that dams obstruct migrations of fish and freshwater shrimp and water abstraction at low flows can completely obliterate downstream migration of juveniles and damage

  1. I and C systems refurbishment projects for plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrashov, A.A.; Sklyar, V.V.; Siora, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the approach to implementation of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems refurbishment projects using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based platform. The analysis identifying advantages of refurbishment projects for NPPs is performed. The main goals of the utilities with respect to refurbishment of NPPs I and C systems are outlined. The advantages of FPGA technology application for NPP I and C systems are described. Regulatory framework of FPGA technology for NPPs I and C systems is presented. General principles which may be used for implementation of NPPs I and C system refurbishment projects are presented. The experience of Research and Production Corporation (RPC) Radiy in implementation of NPPs I and C system refurbishment projects is considered. (author)

  2. Long-term temperature monitoring at the biological community site on the Nankai accretionary prism off Kii Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, S.; Hamamoto, H.; Yamano, M.; Kinoshita, M.; Ashi, J.

    2008-12-01

    Nankai subduction zone off Kii Peninsula is one of the most intensively surveyed areas for studies on the seismogenic zone. Multichannel seismic reflection surveys carried out in this area revealed the existence of splay faults that branched from the subduction zone plate boundary [Park et al., 2002]. Along the splay faults, reversal of reflection polarity was observed, indicating elevated pore fluid pressure along the faults. Cold seepages with biological communities were discovered along a seafloor outcrop of one of the splay faults through submersible observations. Long-term temperature monitoring at a biological community site along the outcrop revealed high heat flow carried by upward fluid flow (>180 mW/m2) [Goto et al., 2003]. Toki et al. [2004] estimated upward fluid flow rates of 40-200 cm/yr from chloride distribution of interstitial water extracted from sediments in and around biological community sites along the outcrop. These observation results suggest upward fluid flow along the splay fault. In order to investigate hydrological nature of the splay fault, we conducted long-term temperature monitoring again in the same cold seepage site where Goto et al. [2003] carried out long-term temperature monitoring. In this presentation, we present results of the temperature monitoring and estimate heat flow carried by upward fluid flow from the temperature records. In this long-term temperature monitoring, we used stand-alone heat flow meter (SAHF), a probe-type sediment temperature recorder. Two SAHFs (SAHF-3 and SAHF-4) were used in this study. SAHF-4 was inserted into a bacterial mat, within several meters of which the previous long-term temperature monitoring was conducted. SAHF-3 was penetrated into ordinary sediment near the bacterial mat. The sub-bottom temperature records were obtained for 8 months. The subsurface temperatures oscillated reflecting bottom- water temperature variation (BTV). For sub-bottom temperatures measured with SAHF-3 (outside of

  3. Are we missing the boat? Current uses of long-term biological monitoring data in the evaluation and management of marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, P F E; Flander, L B; Cook, C N

    2015-02-01

    Protected area management agencies are increasingly using management effectiveness evaluation (MEE) to better understand, learn from and improve conservation efforts around the globe. Outcome assessment is the final stage of MEE, where conservation outcomes are measured to determine whether management objectives are being achieved. When quantitative monitoring data are available, best-practice examples of outcome assessments demonstrate that data should be assessed against quantitative condition categories. Such assessments enable more transparent and repeatable integration of monitoring data into MEE, which can promote evidence-based management and improve public accountability and reporting. We interviewed key informants from marine protected area (MPA) management agencies to investigate how scientific data sources, especially long-term biological monitoring data, are currently informing conservation management. Our study revealed that even when long-term monitoring results are available, management agencies are not using them for quantitative condition assessment in MEE. Instead, many agencies conduct qualitative condition assessments, where monitoring results are interpreted using expert judgment only. Whilst we found substantial evidence for the use of long-term monitoring data in the evidence-based management of MPAs, MEE is rarely the sole mechanism that facilitates the knowledge transfer of scientific evidence to management action. This suggests that the first goal of MEE (to enable environmental accountability and reporting) is being achieved, but the second and arguably more important goal of facilitating evidence-based management is not. Given that many MEE approaches are in their infancy, recommendations are made to assist management agencies realize the full potential of long-term quantitative monitoring data for protected area evaluation and evidence-based management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sustainable refurbishment of exterior walls and building facades. Final report, Part B - General refurbishment concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vares, S.; Pulakka, S.; Toratti, T. [and others

    2012-11-01

    This report is the second part of the final report of Sustainable refurbishment of building facades and exterior walls (SUSREF). SUSREF project was a collaborative (small/medium size) research project within the 7th Framework Programme of the Commission and it was financed under the theme Environment (including climate change) (Grant agreement no. 226858). The project started in October 1st 2009 and ended in April 30th 2012. The project included 11 partners from five countries. SUSREF developed sustainable concepts and technologies for the refurbishment of building facades and external walls. This report together with SUSREF Final report Part B and SUSREF Final Report Part C introduce the main results of the project. Part A focuses on methodological issues. The descriptions of the concepts and the assessment results of the developed concepts are presented in SUSREF Final report part B (generic concepts) and SUSREF Final report Part C (SME concepts). The following list shows the sustainability assessment criteria defined by the SUSREF project. These are Durability; Impact on energy demand for heating; Impact on energy demand for cooling; Impact on renewable energy use potential; Impact on daylight; Environmental impact of manufacture and maintenance; Indoor air quality and acoustics; Structural stability; Fire safety; Aesthetic quality; Effect on cultural heritage; Life cycle costs; Need for care and maintenance; Disturbance to the tenants and to the site; Buildability. This report presents sustainability assessment results of general refurbishment concepts and gives recommendations on the basis of the results. The report covers the following refurbishment cases - External insulation - Internal insulation - Cavity wall insulation - Replacement Insulation during renovation.

  5. A method for the automated long-term monitoring of three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus shoal dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhappel, T K; Al-Zoubi, A; Al-Diri, B; Burman, O; Dickinson, P; John, L; Wilkinson, A; Pike, T W

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes and evaluates a flexible, non-invasive tagging system for the automated identification and long-term monitoring of individual three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus. The system is based on barcoded tags, which can be reliably and robustly detected and decoded to provide information on an individual's identity and location. Because large numbers of fish can be individually tagged, it can be used to monitor individual- and group-level dynamics within fish shoals. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Refurbishment of JMTR pure water facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Norikazu; Hanakawa, Hiroki; Kusunoki, Hidehiko; Satou, Shinichi

    2012-05-01

    In the refurbishment of JMTR, facilities were classified into which (1) were all updated, (2) were partly updated, and (3) were continuance used by the considerations of the maintenance history, the change parts availability and the latest technology. The JMTR pure water facility was classified into all updated facility based on the consideration. The Update construction was conducted in between FY2007 and FY2008. The refurbishment of JMTR pure water facility is summarized in this report. (author)

  7. Rio Blanco, Colorado, Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results for 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site, for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 13 and 14, 2009. Samples were analyzed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation&Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectroscopy and tritium using the conventional and enriched methods.

  8. Long term landslide monitoring with Ground Based SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monserrat, Oriol; Crosetto, Michele; Luzi, Guido; Gili, Josep; Moya, Jose; Corominas, Jordi

    2014-05-01

    In the last decade, Ground-Based (GBSAR) has proven to be a reliable microwave Remote Sensing technique in several application fields, especially for unstable slopes monitoring. GBSAR can provide displacement measurements over few squared kilometres areas and with a very high spatial and temporal resolution. This work is focused on the use of GBSAR technique for long term landslide monitoring based on a particular data acquisition configuration, which is called discontinuous GBSAR (D-GBSAR). In the most commonly used GBSAR configuration, the radar is left installed in situ, acquiring data periodically, e.g. every few minutes. Deformations are estimated by processing sets of GBSAR images acquired during several weeks or months, without moving the system. By contrast, in the D-GBSAR the radar is installed and dismounted at each measurement campaign, revisiting a given site periodically. This configuration is useful to monitor slow deformation phenomena. In this work, two alternative ways for exploiting the D-GBSAR technique will be presented: the DInSAR technique and the Amplitude based Technique. The former is based on the exploitation of the phase component of the acquired SAR images and it allows providing millimetric precision on the deformation estimates. However, this technique presents several limitations like the reduction of measurable points with an increase in the period of observation, the ambiguous nature of the phase measurements, and the influence of the atmospheric phase component that can make it non applicable in some cases, specially when working in natural environments. The second approach, that is based on the use of the amplitude component of GB-SAR images combined with a image matching technique, will allow the estimation of the displacements over specific targets avoiding two of the limitations commented above: the phase unwrapping and atmosphere contribution but reducing the deformation measurement precision. Two successful examples of D

  9. Modernization and refurbishment of the Central Interim Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mele, I.; Zeleznik, N.

    2002-01-01

    The Central Interim Storage for radioactive waste in Brinje, being put into operation in 1986, needs refurbishment and modernization in order to meet the up-to-date operational and safety requirements and to ensure the normal and undisturbed acceptance of radioactive waste from small producers in the future. Because of the waste, being already stored in the storage, the lack of reprocessing capacities and the lack of auxiliary room, the refurbishment and modernization is a complex problem, which needs to be addressed with care. The plan of refurbishment and modernization requires an integral approach, covering all different aspects of renewal and reconstruction. The implementation plan, however, must be based on the actual state of the storage and real conditions for the implementations: from technical to financial. In this paper the project for refurbishment and modernization of the storage, and some activities that have already been implemented, are presented.(author)

  10. Development of a cost-effective and flexible vibration DAQ system for long-term continuous structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Theanh; Chan, Tommy H. T.; Thambiratnam, David P.; King, Les

    2015-12-01

    In the structural health monitoring (SHM) field, long-term continuous vibration-based monitoring is becoming increasingly popular as this could keep track of the health status of structures during their service lives. However, implementing such a system is not always feasible due to on-going conflicts between budget constraints and the need of sophisticated systems to monitor real-world structures under their demanding in-service conditions. To address this problem, this paper presents a comprehensive development of a cost-effective and flexible vibration DAQ system for long-term continuous SHM of a newly constructed institutional complex with a special focus on the main building. First, selections of sensor type and sensor positions are scrutinized to overcome adversities such as low-frequency and low-level vibration measurements. In order to economically tackle the sparse measurement problem, a cost-optimized Ethernet-based peripheral DAQ model is first adopted to form the system skeleton. A combination of a high-resolution timing coordination method based on the TCP/IP command communication medium and a periodic system resynchronization strategy is then proposed to synchronize data from multiple distributed DAQ units. The results of both experimental evaluations and experimental-numerical verifications show that the proposed DAQ system in general and the data synchronization solution in particular work well and they can provide a promising cost-effective and flexible alternative for use in real-world SHM projects. Finally, the paper demonstrates simple but effective ways to make use of the developed monitoring system for long-term continuous structural health evaluation as well as to use the instrumented building herein as a multi-purpose benchmark structure for studying not only practical SHM problems but also synchronization related issues.

  11. Long-term monitoring as aging management component in the NPP Grohnde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, Sven H.; Seichter, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    In the frame of aging management of safety relevant mechanical systems, structures and components (SSC) a classification is performed with respect to the safety relevance. For SSC of group M1 integrity has to be assured, i.e. components must not fail. The other safety relevant components are classified as group M2, i.e. failure is admissible as isolated case. SSC of group M1 in the NPP Grohnde are included into the long-term monitoring system, the annual status report ''fatigue'' has to identify the actual usage value and predict the end-of-life usage. The authors describe the used methodology concerning loading evaluation based on temperature cycling data, the thermal hydraulic modeling using finite element methods for fatigue relevant components.

  12. Long Term Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition at NOAA - Driving Science with 60 Year-old Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA's Global Monitoring Division and its precursor organizations have provided some of the longest real-time records of the trends and distributions of climatically relevant substances in the atmosphere, some going back for 60 years (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd). The focus of these measurements has been on obtaining reliable records of global trends and distributions of these substances, but the experimental design and use of measurements have advanced over time with evolving scientific questions. Today, and into this century, scientific questions continue to progress and the observing systems that address them will need to progress accordingly. Long-term, ground based observing systems in NOAA's Global Monitoring Division focus largely on three sets of questions, two of which align with WCRP grand challenges. These are Carbon Cycle System Feedbacks, Trends in Surface Radiation and Cloud Distributions, and Recovery of Stratospheric Ozone. The data collected and analyzed help us understand radiative forcing, climate sensitivity, air quality, climate modification, renewable energy options, and arctic processes, and they are useful for verifying model output and satellite retrievals. Regional information will become increasingly important for mitigating and adapting to climate change, and this information must be accurate, precise, and without bias. NOAA, with its long-standing networks and its role in providing calibrations for partnering organizations, is well positioned to provide the linkages necessary to assure that regional measurements are comparable. This presentation will identify major, climate-relevant findings that have come from NOAA's networks in the past and will address the long-term monitoring needs to support decision-making over coming decades as society begins to seriously address climate change.

  13. Intra-Night Variability of OJ 287 with Long-Term Multiband Optical Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zeng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present long-term optical multi-band photometric monitoring of the blazar OJ 287 from 6 March 2010 to 3 April 2016, with high temporal resolution in the V R I -bands. The flux variations and colour-magnitude variations on long and short timescales were investigated to understand the emission mechanisms. In our observation, the major outbursts occurred in January 2016, as predicted by the binary pair of black holes model for OJ 287, with F v a r of 1.3∼2.1%, and variability amplitude (Amp of 5.8∼9.0%. The intra-night variability (IDV durations were from 18.5 to 51.3 min, and the minimal variability timescale was about 4.7 min. The colour-magnitude variation showed a weak positive correlation on the long timescale with Pearson’s r = 0 . 450 , while a negative correlation was found on intra-night timescales. We briefly discuss the possible physical mechanisms that are most likely to be responsible for the observed flux and colour-magnitude correlation variability.

  14. Long-term EEG in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montavont, A; Kaminska, A; Soufflet, C; Taussig, D

    2015-03-01

    Long-term video-EEG corresponds to a recording ranging from 1 to 24 h or even longer. It is indicated in the following situations: diagnosis of epileptic syndromes or unclassified epilepsy, pre-surgical evaluation for drug-resistant epilepsy, follow-up of epilepsy or in cases of paroxysmal symptoms whose etiology remains uncertain. There are some specificities related to paediatric care: a dedicated pediatric unit; continuous monitoring covering at least a full 24-hour period, especially in the context of pre-surgical evaluation; the requirement of presence by the parents, technician or nurse; and stronger attachment of electrodes (cup electrodes), the number of which is adapted to the age of the child. The chosen duration of the monitoring also depends on the frequency of seizures or paroxysmal events. The polygraphy must be adapted to the type and topography of movements. It is essential to have at least an electrocardiography (ECG) channel, respiratory sensor and electromyography (EMG) on both deltoids. There is no age limit for performing long-term video-EEG even in newborns and infants; nevertheless because of scalp fragility, strict surveillance of the baby's skin condition is required. In the specific context of pre-surgical evaluation, long-term video-EEG must record all types of seizures observed in the child. This monitoring is essential in order to develop hypotheses regarding the seizure onset zone, based on electroclinical correlations, which should be adapted to the child's age and the psychomotor development. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  15. New challenges and opportunities in the eddy-covariance methodology for long-term monitoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papale, Dario; Fratini, Gerardo

    2013-04-01

    Eddy-covariance is the most direct and most commonly applied methodology for measuring exchange fluxes of mass and energy between ecosystems and the atmosphere. In recent years, the number of environmental monitoring stations deploying eddy-covariance systems increased dramatically at the global level, exceeding 500 sites worldwide and covering most climatic and ecological regions. Several long-term environmental research infrastructures such as ICOS, NEON and AmeriFlux selected the eddy-covariance as a method to monitor GHG fluxes and are currently collaboratively working towards defining common measurements standards, data processing approaches, QA/QC procedures and uncertainty estimation strategies, to the aim of increasing defensibility of resulting fluxes and intra and inter-comparability of flux databases. In the meanwhile, the eddy-covariance research community keeps identifying technical and methodological flaws that, in some cases, can introduce - and can have introduced to date - significant biases in measured fluxes or increase their uncertainty. Among those, we identify three issues of presumably greater concern, namely: (1) strong underestimation of water vapour fluxes in closed-path systems, and its dependency on relative humidity; (2) flux biases induced by erroneous measurement of absolute gas concentrations; (3) and systematic errors due to underestimation of vertical wind variance in non-orthogonal anemometers. If not properly addressed, these issues can reduce the quality and reliability of the method, especially as a standard methodology in long-term monitoring networks. In this work, we review the status of the art regarding such problems, and propose new evidences based on field experiments as well as numerical simulations. Our analyses confirm the potential relevance of these issues but also hint at possible coping approaches, to minimize problems during setup design, data collection and post-field flux correction. Corrections are under

  16. Long-term aircrew exposure monitoring by means of a Si-diode spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.; Dacev, C.

    2003-01-01

    In this contribution we present the results of onboard measurement by means of a Si-diode energy deposition spectrometer, Md-Liulin]. They were accumulated during 2001-2003 years onboard of an A310-300 aircraft of Czech Air lines, during 6 long-term monitoring and about 30 return single flights. Some of results obtained are presented, discussed and analyzed. The semiconductor spectrometer proved the possibility to monitor dosimetric characteristics of radiation fields on aircraft board during about 2 months. It permitted to register onboard a ground level solar event. The results obtained can significantly help to estimate the contribution of solar eruptions to aircrew exposure. Spectrometric properties of it permit to enlarge the interpretation of directly registered data. An additional effort is needed to improve this performance. Further calibration in the CERF fields is needed, important would be to acquire further onboard data in cases when the contribution of the ionizing/neutron part of the field changes. (authors)

  17. Gasbuggy, New Mexico Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-01

    This report summarizes an evaluation of the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) that has been conducted since 1972 at the Gasbuggy, New Mexico underground nuclear detonation site. The nuclear testing was conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission under the Plowshare program, which is discussed in greater detail in Appendix A. The detonation at Gasbuggy took place in 1967, 4,240 feet below ground surface, and was designed to fracture the host rock of a low-permeability natural gas-bearing formation in an effort to improve gas production. The site has historically been managed under the Nevada Offsites Project. These underground nuclear detonation sites are within the United States but outside of the Nevada Test Site where most of the experimental nuclear detonations conducted by the U.S. Government took place. Gasbuggy is managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM ).

  18. Evaluation of three refurbished Guralp CMG-3TB seismometers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Darren M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Merchant, Bion J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The overall objective of testing the Guralp CMG-3TB refurbished seismometers is to determine whether or not the refurbished sensors exhibit better data quality and require less maintenance when deployed than the original Guralp CMG-3TBs. SNL will test these 3 refurbished Guralps to verify performance specifications. The specifications that will be evaluated are sensitivity, bandwidth, self-noise, output impedance, clip-level, dynamic range over application passband, verify mathematical response and calibration response parameters for amplitude and phase.

  19. Development of Hybrid pH sensor for long-term seawater pH monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Y.; Egashira, T.; Miwa, T.; Kimoto, H.

    2016-02-01

    We have been developing the in situ pH sensor (Hybrid pH sensor: HpHS) for the long-term seawater pH monitoring. We are planning to provide the HpHS for researchers and environmental consultants for observation of the CCS (Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage) monitoring system, the coastal environment monitoring system (e.g. Blue Carbon) and ocean acidification. The HpHS has two types of pH sensors (i.e. potentiometric pH sensor and spectrophotometric pH sensor). The spectrophotometric pH sensor can measure pH correctly and stably, however it needs large power consumption and a lot of reagents in a long period of observation. The pH sensor used m-cresol purple (mCP) as an indicator of pH (Clayton and Byrne, 1993 and Liu et al., 2011). We can choose both coefficients before deployment. On the other hand, although the potentiometric pH sensor is low power consumption and high-speed response (within 10 seconds), drifts in the pH of the potentiometric measurements may possibly occur for a long-term observation. The HpHS can measure in situ pH correctly and stably combining advantage of both pH sensors. The HpHS consists of an aluminum pressure housing with optical cell (main unit) and an aluminum silicon-oil filled, pressure-compensated vessel containing pumps and valves (diaphragm pump and valve unit) and pressure-compensated reagents bags (pH indicator, pure water and Tris buffer or certified reference material: CRM) with an ability to resist water pressure to 3000m depth. The main unit holds system control boards, pump drivers, data storage (micro SD card), LED right source, photodiode, optical cell and pressure proof windows. The HpHS also has an aluminum pressure housing that holds a rechargeable lithium-ion battery or a lithium battery for the power supply (DC 24 V). The HpHS is correcting the value of the potentiometric pH sensor (measuring frequently) by the value of the spectrophotometric pH sensor (measuring less frequently). It is possible to calibrate in

  20. HYDROBS: a long-term autonomous mooring for passive acoustic monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hello, Y.; Royer, J. Y.; Yegikyan, M.

    2017-12-01

    Passive acoustics proves an effective way for monitoring the low-level seismic activity of the ocean floor and low-frequency sounds from the ocean (baleen whales, sea-state, icebergs). Networks of synchronized autonomous hydrophones have thus been commonly deployed in the world ocean to monitor large sections of mid-oceanic ridges. HYDROBS is an improved system that meet two requirements: an easy access to the data collected by the instruments together with long-term deployments - up to 4 consecutive years - reducing the need of large vessels capable of yearly mooring operations in open seas. The system has two components: a data logger, up-to-date but similar to previous systems, and three messengers, releasable on demand to collect the data. The mooring line itself is classical, with an expandable weight at the sea-bottom to maintain the mooring, an acoustic release to free the mooring line for recovery, a line adjustable to the seafloor depth, and an immerged buoy, holding the acquisition system, to maintain the sensors at a constant depth and to bring the mooring line to the surface for its recovery. The data logger is based on a low-power microprocessor, an A/D-32bit convertor sampling at 250Hz, a 10-8 real time clock and SD card storage. Lithium batteries provide 3-4 years of autonomy. Acoustic communications with the surface-ship provide control over all functionalities at deployment and a health bulletin on demand. The 3 shuttles, encapsulated in 13" glass spheres, use the same CPU board and clock as the main station. Data transfer from the data logger to the shuttles is wireless (1Mbit/s digital inductive through water). Data are duplicated once per day on shuttles N and N+1 for redundancy. Prior to their release by acoustic command, the shuttles are synchronized with the master clock. At sea-surface, shuttles (as the main unit) look for GPS time and calculate their clock drift. So, the master clock drift can be monitored over time at every shuttle release

  1. Statistical analysis of modal properties of a cable-stayed bridge through long-term structural health monitoring with wireless smart sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadollahi, Parisa; Li, Jian

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the dynamic behavior of complex structures such as long-span bridges requires dense deployment of sensors. Traditional wired sensor systems are generally expensive and time-consuming to install due to cabling. With wireless communication and on-board computation capabilities, wireless smart sensor networks have the advantages of being low cost, easy to deploy and maintain and therefore facilitate dense instrumentation for structural health monitoring. A long-term monitoring project was recently carried out for a cable-stayed bridge in South Korea with a dense array of 113 smart sensors, which feature the world's largest wireless smart sensor network for civil structural monitoring. This paper presents a comprehensive statistical analysis of the modal properties including natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes of the monitored cable-stayed bridge. Data analyzed in this paper is composed of structural vibration signals monitored during a 12-month period under ambient excitations. The correlation between environmental temperature and the modal frequencies is also investigated. The results showed the long-term statistical structural behavior of the bridge, which serves as the basis for Bayesian statistical updating for the numerical model.

  2. Engineering study radioactive liquid waste treatment plant refurbishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suazo, I.L.

    1994-01-01

    This feasibility study will investigate the opportunities, restrictions and cost impact to refurbish the existing Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Plant (RLWTP) while utilizing the same basic criteria that was used in the development of the new Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). The objective of this study is to perform a more in-depth analysis of refurbishing the existing than has been done in the past so as to provide a basis for comparison between refurbishing the existing or constructing a new. The existing plant is located at Technical Area 50 (TA-50) within the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The initial structure was built in 1963. Over the ensuing years, the building has been modified and several additions have been constructed. In 1966, laboratories, ion exchange and pretreatment functions were added. The decontamination and decommissioning activities and ventilation equipment were added in 1984. The following assumptions are the basic parameters considered in the development of a design concept to refurbish the RLWTP: (1) Allow continued operation of the during retrofit construction. (2) Design the necessary expansion within the site constraints. (3) Satisfy National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) permit conditions and other environmental regulations. (4) Comply with present DOE Orders and building code requirements. The refurbishment concept is a phased demolition and construction process

  3. Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Optimization, Clare Water Supply Superfund Site, Permeable Reactive Barrier and Soil Remedy Areas, Clare, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report contains a review of the long-term groundwater monitoring network for the Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) and Soil Remedy Areas at the Clare Water Supply Superfund Site in Clare, Michigan.

  4. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006, (NODC Accession 0012632)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  5. Long-term monitoring of stream bank stability under different vegetation cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzeminska, Dominika; Skaalsveen, Kamilla; Kerkhof, Tjibbe

    2017-04-01

    Vegetated buffer zones are common environmental measures in many countries, including Norway. The presence of riparian vegetation on stream banks not only provides ecological benefits but also influence bank slope stability, through several complex interactions between riparian vegetation and hydro - mechanical processes. The hydrological processes associated with slope stability are complex and yet difficult to quantify, especially because their transient effects (e.g. changes throughout the vegetation life cycle). Additionally, there is very limited amount of field scale research focusing on investigation of coupled hydrological and mechanical influence of vegetation on stream bank behavior, accounting for both seasonal time scale and different vegetation type, and none dedicated to marine clay soils (typically soil for Norway). In order to fill this gap we established continues, long term hydrogeological monitoring o selected cross - section within stream bank, covered with different types of vegetation, typical for Norwegian agriculture areas (grass, shrubs, and trees). The monitoring involves methods such as spatial and temporal monitoring of soil moisture conditions, ground water level and fluctuation of water level in the stream. Herein we will present first 10 months of monitoring data: observed hydrological trends and differences between three cross - sections. Moreover, we will present first modelling exercises that aims to estimate stream banks stability with accounting on presence of different vegetation types using BSTEM and HYDRUS models. With this presentation, we would like to stimulate the discussion and get feedback that could help us to improve both, our experimental set up and analysis approach.

  6. Development of a long-term post-closure radiation monitor: Phase 2, Topical report, March 1994--July 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, S.E.

    1995-07-01

    The long-term monitoring of a hazardous waste site for migration of radionuclides requires installation of radiation sensors at a large number of subsurface locations. The concept under development employs a passive in-ground measurement probe which contains a scintillator coupled to an optical lightguide. The overall goal of the Long-Term Post-Closure Radiation Monitor System (LPRMS) development program is to configure a long-term radiation monitor using commercially available, demonstrated components to the largest extent possible. The development program is planned as a three phase program spanning a total time of 53 months. The problems to be solved during Phase 1 were primarily those associated with selection of the most appropriate components (scintillator, coupling optics, optical fiber, and opto-electronics) to maximize the signal reaching the detectors and thereby minimizing the integration time required to obtain a reliable measure of radiation. Phase 2 (the current Phase) encompassed the fabrication and testing of the prototype LPRMS probe at a contaminated DOE site, the Fernald Environmental Management Project, in southwestern Ohio. Uranium isotopes are the primary contaminants of concern at this site. The single probe and opto-electronic device were used to made measurements in-situ at relatively shallow subsurface depths. The end objective of Phase 2 was the design of a full-scale prototype system which incorporates all the features expected to be necessary on a commercial system, including 50 meter depth of measurement, multiplexing of multiple probes, and remote transmission of data. This full-scale prototype will be fabricated and field tested for 12 months during Phase 3, and a commercial design will be developed based upon the data gathered and experience gained during the entire program

  7. Loading Deformation Characteristic Simulation Study of Engineering Vehicle Refurbished Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Wang; Xiaojie, Qi; Zhao, Yang; Yunlong, Wang; Guotian, Wang; Degang, Lv

    2018-05-01

    The paper constructed engineering vehicle refurbished tire computer geometry model, mechanics model, contact model, finite element analysis model, did simulation study on load-deformation property of engineering vehicle refurbished tire by comparing with that of the new and the same type tire, got load-deformation of engineering vehicle refurbished tire under the working condition of static state and ground contact. The analysis result shows that change rules of radial-direction deformation and side-direction deformation of engineering vehicle refurbished tire are close to that of the new tire, radial-direction and side-direction deformation value is a little less than that of the new tire. When air inflation pressure was certain, radial-direction deformation linear rule of engineer vehicle refurbished tire would increase with load adding, however, side-direction deformation showed linear change rule, when air inflation pressure was low; and it would show increase of non-linear change rule, when air inflation pressure was very high.

  8. The Cottonwood Lake study area, a long-term wetland ecosystem monitoring site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Euliss, Ned H.

    2012-01-01

    The Cottonwood Lake study area is one of only three long-term wetland ecosystem monitoring sites in the prairie pothole region of North America; the other two are Orchid Meadows in South Dakota and St. Denis in Saskatchewan. Of the three, Cottonwood Lake has, by far, the longest continuous data-collection record. Research was initiated at the study area in 1966, and intensive investigations of the hydrology, chemistry, and biology of prairie pothole wetlands continue at the site today. This fact sheet describes the study area, provides an overview of wetland ecology research that has been conducted at the site in the past, and provides an introduction to current work being conducted at the study area by USGS scientists.

  9. Advanced instrumentation and control systems for CANDU refurbishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklyar, V.; Bakhmach, I.; Kharchenko, V.; Andrashov, A.; Baranova, O.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the work is to discuss opportunities to modernize I and C systems of CANDU reactors on the base of Radiy's digital safety platform. This paper discusses the following topics: a business model for CANDU, I and C systems refurbishment, FPGA technology issues, comparison of different approaches to refurbish obsolete I and C systems. (author)

  10. Long-term monitoring of air crew exposure onboard of Czech Airlines aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploc, O.; Spurny, F.; Ploc, O.

    2007-01-01

    This contribution presents new results related to the aircraft crew exposure onboard aircraft of Czech air companies. First, the results of long term monitoring onboard of an aircraft of Czech Airlines are presented. In the period May-December 2005, 494 individual flights have been followed using MDU-Liulin Si-diode based spectrometer, together with thermoluminescent and track detectors. The results of measurements are analyzed and compared with those of calculation performed with CARI6 and EPCARD3.2 codes. Monitoring period represented about 4.6 times more than usual annual engagement of an aircrew (600 hours). Total effective dose during these 2 755 hours was between Il and 12 mSv, following the considered method of evaluation. Both the measuring and calculation methods correlate well. This fact leads to confirmation of the routine method evaluating the level of aircraft crew exposure using CARI6 code as correct for this purpose. Second, the results of individual monitoring of aircrew members obtained during few last years by this routine method are presented; general tendencies of aircraft crew onboard exposure of Czech air companies are outlined. The contribution of aircrew exposure to total occupational exposure in the Czech Republic represents about 20%. (authors)

  11. Long term SAR interferometry monitoring for assessing changing levels of slope instability hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasowski, J.; Ferretti, A.

    The population growth with increasing impact of man on the environment and urbanisation of areas susceptible to slope failures coupled with the ongoing change in climate patterns will require a shift in the approaches to landslide hazard reduction Indeed there is evidence that landslide activity and related socio-economic loss are increasing in both rich and less developed countries throughout the world Because of this and because the urbanisation of hillside and mountain slopes prone to failure will likely continue in the future the protection of new and pre-existing developed areas via traditional engineering stabilisation works and in situ monitoring is not considered economically feasible Furthermore in most cases the ground control systems are installed post-factum and for short term monitoring and hence their role in preventing disasters is limited Considering the global dimension of the slope instability problem a sustainable road to landslide hazard reduction seems to be via exploitation of EO systems with focus on early detection long term monitoring and early warning Thanks to the wide-area coverage regular schedule and improving resolution of space-borne sensors the EO can foster the auspicious shift from a culture of repair to a culture of awarness and prevention Under this scenario the space-borne synthetic aperture radar differential interferometry DInSAR is attractive because of its capability to provide both wide-area and spatially dense information on surface displacements Since the presence of movements represents a direct evidence of

  12. Long-term selenium status in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskett, C.K.; Spate, V.L.; Mason, M.M.; Nichols, T.A.; Williams, A.; Dubman, I.M.; Gudino, A.; Denison, J.; Morris, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The association of sub-optimal selenium status with increased risk factors for some cancers has been reported in two recent epidemiological studies. In both studies the same threshold in selenium status was observed, below which, cancer incidence increased. To assess the use of nails as a biologic monitor to measure the long-term selenium status, an eight-year longitudinal study was undertaken with a group of 11 adult subjects, 5 women and 6 men. Selenium has been measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Differences between fingernails and toenails with be discussed. In addition, the results will be discussed in the context of the long-term stability of the nail monitor to measure selenium status during those periods when selenium determinants are static; and the changes that occur as a result of selenium supplementation. (author)

  13. The probability safety assessment impact on the BR2 refurbishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouleur, Yvan

    1995-01-01

    The probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) study has proven its worth by establishing a sensitive safety screening of the reactor. It has focused engineering forces to technically improve safety systems and to measure the influence of functional modifications. In the future, the project will be developed in a living way, to reinforce the present structure along with continuous safety monitoring of the reactor and to develop engineers and operators safety skills. This paper presents the PSA impact on the BR2 (Belgian Reactor Two) refurbishment. (author)

  14. Long-term environmental change in Haeme. Twenty years of environmental research and monitoring at Valkea-Kotinen supersite; Haemeen ympaeristoe muutoksessa. Kaksikymmentae vuotta ympaeristoen huippututkimusta Valkea-Kotisen alueella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorenmaa, J.; Arvola, L.; Rask, M. (eds.)

    2011-12-15

    Intensive and multidisciplinary ecosystem monitoring has been carried out in the Valkea-Kotinen Integrated Monitoring catchment since 1987, which is located in the Kotinen nature reserve area, Haemeenlinna. Valkea-Kotinen is part of the monitoring programme under UNECE Convention on Long- Range Air Pollution, with the focus on monitoring the long-term effects of air pollution and climate change to ecosystems. Valkea-Kotinen Integrated Monitoring site is also part of Finnish Long-Term Socio- Ecological Research network (FinLTSER), and is also representing the study site along with EU Life+ programme Vulnerability Assessment of ecosystem services fro Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation (VACCIA) during 2009-2011. In over 20 years of intensive research and monitoring in collaboration with universities and research institutes, the Valkea-Kotinen Integrated Monitoring site has gained invaluable scientific information on different ecosystems components. In this report we present the long-term effects of air pollutants and climate variation on forest condition, water chemistry and aquatic biota, and soil and ground water at Valkea-Kotinen Integrated Monitoring site. Furthermore, future scenarios for climate change and air pollutants, and their ecosystem effects in the Valkea-Kotinen area, are also assessed. (orig.)

  15. Semi-automatic long-term acoustic surveying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Tórur; Surlykke, Annemarie; Hallam, John

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concern about decline in biodiversity has created a demand for population surveys. Acoustic monitoring is an efficient non-invasive method, which may be deployed for surveys of animals as diverse as insects, birds, and bats. Long-term unmanned automatic monitoring may provide unique...... to determine bat behavior and correct for the bias toward loud bats inherent in acoustic surveying....

  16. Summary of preliminary step-trend analysis from the Interagency Whitebark Pine Long-termMonitoring Program—2004-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Kristin; Shanahan, Erin; Daley, Rob; Irvine, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    In mixed and dominant stands, whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) occurs in over two million acres within the six national forests and two national parks that comprise the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Currently, whitebark pine, an ecologically important species, is impacted by multiple ecological disturbances; white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola), mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), wildfire, and climate change all pose significant threats to the persistence of whitebark pine populations. Substantial declines in whitebark pine populations have been documented throughout its range.Under the auspices of the Greater Yellowstone Coordinating Committee (GYCC), several agencies began a collaborative, long-term monitoring program to track and document the status of whitebark pine across the GYE. This alliance resulted in the formation of the Greater Yellowstone Whitebark Pine Monitoring Working Group (GYWPMWG), which consists of representatives from the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), National Park Service (NPS), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Montana State University (MSU). This groundbased monitoring program was initiated in 2004 and follows a peer-reviewed protocol (GYWPMWG 2011). The program is led by the Greater Yellowstone Inventory and Monitoring Network (GRYN) of the National Park Service in coordination with multiple agencies. More information about this monitoring effort is available at: http://science. nature.nps.gov/im/units/gryn/monitor/whitebark_pine.cfm. The purpose of this report is to provide a draft summary of the first step-trend analysis for the interagency, long-term monitoring of whitebark pine health to the Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team (IGBST) as part of a synthesis of the state of whitebark pine in the GYE. Due to the various stages of the analyses and reporting, this is the most efficient way to provide these results to the IGBST.

  17. Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program: Project Gasbuggy Rio Arriba County, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The Gasbuggy site is located in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, approximately 55 air miles (88.6 kilometers) east of Farmington, New Mexico. The Gasbuggy device with a yield of 29 kilotons, was detonated December 10, 1967. It was the first US underground nuclear experiment for the stimulation of low-productive natural gas reservoirs. The purpose of the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program at the Gasbuggy site is to obtain data that will assure the public safety; inform the public, the news media, and the scientific community relative to radiological contamination; and to document compliance with federal, state, and local antipollution requirements. The Gasbuggy site geographical setting, climate, geology, and hydrology are described. Site history, including Gasbuggy event information and Gasbuggy monitoring by the US Public Health is described. Site cleanup activities conducted in 1978 are described. Postoperational surveys indicate that the Gasbuggy site is well below the established decontamination criteria and that no hazard exists or will likely occur during public use of the land surface of the Gasbuggy site

  18. Long Term Geoelectrical Monitoring of Deep-water Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenan, J. W.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L. D.; Atekwana, E. A.; Ross, C.; Nolan, J. T.; Atekwana, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    In the aftermath of the catastrophic Deep-water Horizon (DWH) spill in the Gulf Coast, opportunities exist to study the evolution of fresh crude oil contamination in beach sediments and marshes. Grand Terre 1 Island, off the coast of Grand Isle in southern Louisiana, is an uninhabited barrier island, heavily impacted by the DWH spill, and ideal for undisturbed long term monitoring of crude oil degradation processes. A 10 channel Syscal-Pro resistivity / IP instrument (IRIS Instruments, France) is the heart of the fully autonomous geoelectrical monitoring system; the system, which is housed in a weatherproof container, relies solely on solar power, is controlled by an energy efficient PC and can be accessed remotely via web tools. The monitoring scheme involves collecting bi-daily resistivity measurements from surface and shallow boreholes, ranging from January 2011 to the present; environmental parameters, such as T, are continuously recorded at several depths. During regular field trips we perform larger scale geophysical surveys, and geochemical measurements (pH, DO, T, fluid C) to support the continuous geophysical monitoring. The contaminated layer on site is a visually distinctive layer of crude oil, isolated by cleaner sands above and below which is identified by a clear and obvious resistive anomaly in preliminary surveys. Early results show a decrease in average of the resistance values of each dataset over time. Further processing of the data yields a linearly shaped resistive anomaly, which coincides with the location of the oil layer. The changes in subsurface resistivity appear to be focused within this anomaly. Time filtering of the data by the time that they were collected, morning or evening, reveals a diurnal variation. While both time frames follow the same overall trend, the measurements in the morning are slightly more resistive than those in the evening. This indicates that there are environmental factors, such as temperature, that need to be

  19. Installation of the multi-packer system for the long-term monitoring of deep groundwater system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Chun Soo; Park, Byung Yoon; Koh, Yong Kweon; Kim, Geon Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    The groundwater system in the deep geological environment is very important to evaluate the behavior of the radionuclide migration and near-field barrier system. The multi-packer system was installed to derive the long-term change of the groundwater pressure and its quality in the several isolated monitoring zones with depth in the study sites. The monitoring zones were basically determined by the spatial distribution characteristics of the conductive fracture and their hydraulic properties. To recover the natural groundwater condition, the borehole water was purged after completing the installation. From this equipment, the in-situ data will be provided to the radionuclide migration and system development study. 2 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  20. Empirical evaluation of the conceptual model underpinning a regional aquatic long-term monitoring program using causal modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Kathryn M.; Miller, Scott; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Archer, Erik; Roper, Brett B.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Conceptual models are an integral facet of long-term monitoring programs. Proposed linkages between drivers, stressors, and ecological indicators are identified within the conceptual model of most mandated programs. We empirically evaluate a conceptual model developed for a regional aquatic and riparian monitoring program using causal models (i.e., Bayesian path analysis). We assess whether data gathered for regional status and trend estimation can also provide insights on why a stream may deviate from reference conditions. We target the hypothesized causal pathways for how anthropogenic drivers of road density, percent grazing, and percent forest within a catchment affect instream biological condition. We found instream temperature and fine sediments in arid sites and only fine sediments in mesic sites accounted for a significant portion of the maximum possible variation explainable in biological condition among managed sites. However, the biological significance of the direct effects of anthropogenic drivers on instream temperature and fine sediments were minimal or not detected. Consequently, there was weak to no biological support for causal pathways related to anthropogenic drivers’ impact on biological condition. With weak biological and statistical effect sizes, ignoring environmental contextual variables and covariates that explain natural heterogeneity would have resulted in no evidence of human impacts on biological integrity in some instances. For programs targeting the effects of anthropogenic activities, it is imperative to identify both land use practices and mechanisms that have led to degraded conditions (i.e., moving beyond simple status and trend estimation). Our empirical evaluation of the conceptual model underpinning the long-term monitoring program provided an opportunity for learning and, consequently, we discuss survey design elements that require modification to achieve question driven monitoring, a necessary step in the practice of

  1. Monitoring long-term ecological changes through the Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network: science-based and policy relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, H; Brydges, T; Fenech, A; Lumb, A

    2001-01-01

    Ecological monitoring and its associated research programs have often provided answers to various environmental management issues. In the face of changing environmental conditions, ecological monitoring provides decision-makers with reliable information as they grapple with maintaining a sustainable economy and healthy environment. The Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network (EMAN) is a national ecological monitoring network consisting of (1) about 100 case study sites across the country characterized by long-term multi-disciplinary environmental work conducted by a multitude of agencies (142 partners and counting); (2) a variety of less comprehensive yet more extensive monitoring sites; (3) a network where core monitoring variables of ecosystem change are measured; and (4) geo-referenced environmental observations. Environment Canada is the co-ordinating partner for the network through the EMAN Co-ordinating Office. EMAN's mission is to focus a scientifically-sound, policy-relevant ecosystem monitoring and research network based on (a) stabilizing a network of case-study sites operated by a variety of partners, and (b) developing a number of cooperative dispersed monitoring initiatives in order to deliver unique and needed goods and services. These goods and services include: (1) an efficient and cost-effective early warning system which detects, describes and reports on changes in Canadian ecosystems at a national or ecozone scale; and (2) cross-disciplinary and cross-jurisdictional assessments of ecosystem status, trends and processes. The early warning system and assessments of ecosystem status, trends and processes provide Environment Canada and partner organizations with timely information that facilitates increasingly adaptive policies and priority setting. Canadians are also informed of changes and trends occurring in Canadian ecosystems and, as a result, are better able to make decisions related to conservation and sustainability.

  2. Analysis of Factors Influencing Building Refurbishment Project Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Nurfadzillah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently, the refurbishment approach becomes favourable as it creates opportunities to incorporate sustainable value with other building improvement. In this regard, this approach needs to be implemented due to the issues on overwhelming ratio of existing building to new construction, which also can contribute to the environmental problem. Refurbishment principles imply to minimize the environmental impact and upgrading the performance of an existing building to meet new requirements. In theoretically, building project’s performance has a direct bearing on related to its potential for project success. However, in refurbishment building projects, the criteria for measure are become wider because the projects are a complex and multi-dimensional which encompassing many factors which reflect to the nature of works. Therefore, this impetus could be achieve by examine the direct empirical relationship between critical success factors (CSFs and complexity factors (CFs during managing the project in relation to delivering success on project performance. The research findings will be expected as the basis of future research in establish appropriate framework that provides information on managing refurbishment building projects and enhancing the project management competency for a better-built environment.

  3. Analysis of Factors Influencing Building Refurbishment Project Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Nurfadzillah; Aswad Ibrahim, Fazdliel; Azizi Azizan, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    Presently, the refurbishment approach becomes favourable as it creates opportunities to incorporate sustainable value with other building improvement. In this regard, this approach needs to be implemented due to the issues on overwhelming ratio of existing building to new construction, which also can contribute to the environmental problem. Refurbishment principles imply to minimize the environmental impact and upgrading the performance of an existing building to meet new requirements. In theoretically, building project's performance has a direct bearing on related to its potential for project success. However, in refurbishment building projects, the criteria for measure are become wider because the projects are a complex and multi-dimensional which encompassing many factors which reflect to the nature of works. Therefore, this impetus could be achieve by examine the direct empirical relationship between critical success factors (CSFs) and complexity factors (CFs) during managing the project in relation to delivering success on project performance. The research findings will be expected as the basis of future research in establish appropriate framework that provides information on managing refurbishment building projects and enhancing the project management competency for a better-built environment.

  4. Long-Term Dynamic Monitoring of the Historical Masonry FAÇADE: the Case of Palazzo Ducale in Venice, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, J.; Russo, S.

    2017-08-01

    Long-term dynamic monitoring of the masonry façade of Palazzo Ducale known as Doge's palace in Venice, Italy was performed from September 2010 to October 2012. This article demonstrates the results of preliminary analysis on the data set of the first 12-month long monitoring campaign for out-of-plumb dynamic responses of the medieval façade of the monument. The aim of the analysis of the dynamic signals is to validate the data set and investigate dynamic characteristics of the vibration signature of the historical masonry wall in the long-term. Palazzo Ducale is a heavily visited heritage due to its high cultural importance and architectural value. Nevertheless, little is known about the dynamic behaviour of the double-leaf masonry façade. In this study, the dynamic properties of the structure are presented by dynamic identification carried out with the effect of the ambient vibration measured at four different locations on the façade and portico level. The trend and intensity of the vibration at each measurement locations are identified over the year. In addition, the issue on eliminating the noise blended in the signals for reliable analysis are also discussed.

  5. Ion beam analysis of gas turbine blades: evaluation of refurbishment ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Scanning proton microscopy was employed to evaluate the quality of refurbishment process of gas turbine ... environment of hot combustion gases occur due to various processes, such as .... performance of refurbished blades.7. Due to the ...

  6. Refurbishment and safety upgradation of research reactor Cirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marik, S.K.; Rao, D.V.H.; Bhatnagar, A.; Pant, R.C.; Tikku, A.C.; Sankar, S.

    2006-01-01

    Cirus, a 40 MW t, vertical tank type research reactor, having wide range of research facilities, was commissioned in the year 1960. This research reactor, situated at Mumbai, India has been operated and utilized extensively for isotope production, material testing and neutron beam research for nearly four decades. With a view to assess the residual life of the reactor, detailed ageing studies were carried out during the early 1990s. Based on these studies, refurbishment of Cirus for its life extension was taken up. During refurbishment, additional safety features were incorporated in various systems to qualify them for the current safety standards. This paper gives the details of the operating experiences, utilization of the reactor along with methodologies followed for carrying out detailed ageing studies, refurbishment and safety upgradation for its life extension

  7. Reactor protection system refurbishment at Paks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetzmann, A.; Turi, T.

    1997-01-01

    The history and the milestones of the reactor protection system refurbishment are outlined. During the preparation phase of the refurbishment project, detailed requirements have been set up and specific technical solutions developed. The structure of the project documents prepared during these activities is shown in a figure. The life cycle of the project was divided into four phases: the preparatory phase; the design and manufacturing phase; the installation and commissioning phase; and the operation phase. For all four Paks units a time schedule for implementation was set up. The licensing process is dealt with; the principal license was issued in June 1996. (A.K.)

  8. Coordination Devices in the Refurbishment Design Process: A Partial-Correlation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlan Shah Ali

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Building refurbishment is an important sector in the Malaysian construction industry. The increase the number of building renovations, alterations, extensions and extensive repair works contributed to the high demand for refurbishment projects. However, refurbishment projects are more difficult to manage compared to new-built, due to uncertainty factors inherent in the projects. Therefore, this paper identifies factors that contributed to uncertainty and shows how it affects design performance of refurbishment projects. This paper was also extended to the used of coordination devices to improve design performance from the effect of uncertainty in the projects. Partial-correlation technique was used in data analysis to check any significant moderate effects of coordination devices to control the negative effect of uncertainty on design performance of refurbishment projects. Four (4 coordination devices involved in the partial-correlation tests. The results concluded that the use of lateral relations and architect’s characteristics are most likely reducing the uncertainty of client attributes towards design completeness before work started on site.

  9. Long-term monitoring of the Sedlec Ossuary - Analysis of hygrothermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlík, Zbyšek; Balík, Lukáš; Maděra, Jiří; Černý, Robert

    2016-07-01

    The Sedlec Ossuary is one of the twelve UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the Czech Republic. Although the ossuary is listed among the most visited Czech tourist attractions, its technical state is almost critical and a radical renovation is necessary. On this account, hygrothermal performance of the ossuary is experimentally researched in the presented paper in order to get information on moisture sources and to get necessary data for optimized design of renovation treatments and reconstruction solutions that will allow preserve the historical significance of this attractive heritage site. Within the performed experimental analysis, the interior and exterior climatic conditions are monitored over an almost three year period together with relative humidity and temperature profiles measured in the most damage parts of the ossuary chapel. On the basis of measured data, the long-term hygrothermal state of the ossuary building is accessed and the periods of possible surface condensation are identified.

  10. Automatic modal identification of cable-supported bridges instrumented with a long-term monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Y. Q.; Fan, K. Q.; Zheng, G.; Chan, T. H. T.; Ko, J. M.

    2003-08-01

    An automatic modal identification program is developed for continuous extraction of modal parameters of three cable-supported bridges in Hong Kong which are instrumented with a long-term monitoring system. The program employs the Complex Modal Indication Function (CMIF) algorithm to identify modal properties from continuous ambient vibration measurements in an on-line manner. By using the LabVIEW graphical programming language, the software realizes the algorithm in Virtual Instrument (VI) style. The applicability and implementation issues of the developed software are demonstrated by using one-year measurement data acquired from 67 channels of accelerometers deployed on the cable-stayed Ting Kau Bridge. With the continuously identified results, normal variability of modal vectors caused by varying environmental and operational conditions is observed. Such observation is very helpful for selection of appropriate measured modal vectors for structural health monitoring applications.

  11. The economics of long-term operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhov, Alexey; Huerta, Alejandro; Dufresne, Luc; Giraud, Anne; Osouf, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Refurbishment and long-term operation (LTO) of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) today are crucial to the competitiveness of the nuclear industry in OECD countries as existing nuclear power plants produce base-load power at a reliable cost. A number of nuclear power plants, most notably 73 units in the United States (up to 2012), have been granted lifetime extensions of up to 60 years, a development that is being keenly watched in other OECD countries. In many of these (e.g. France, Switzerland), there is no legal end to the operating licence, but continued operation is based on the outcomes of periodic safety reviews. This study analyses technical and economic data on the upgrade and lifetime extension experience in OECD countries. A multi-criteria assessment methodology is used considering various factors and parameters reflecting current and future financial conditions of operation, political and regulatory risks, the state of the plants' equipment and the general role of nuclear power in the country's energy policy. The report shows that long-term operation of nuclear power plants has significant economic advantages for most utilities envisaging LTO programmes. In most cases, the continued operation of NPPs for at least ten more years is profitable even taking into account the additional costs of post-Fukushima modifications, and remains cost-effective compared to alternative replacement sources

  12. Long-term monitoring on environmental disasters using multi-source remote sensing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Y. C.; Chen, C. F.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental disasters are extreme events within the earth's system that cause deaths and injuries to humans, as well as causing damages and losses of valuable assets, such as buildings, communication systems, farmlands, forest and etc. In disaster management, a large amount of multi-temporal spatial data is required. Multi-source remote sensing data with different spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions is widely applied on environmental disaster monitoring. With multi-source and multi-temporal high resolution images, we conduct rapid, systematic and seriate observations regarding to economic damages and environmental disasters on earth. It is based on three monitoring platforms: remote sensing, UAS (Unmanned Aircraft Systems) and ground investigation. The advantages of using UAS technology include great mobility and availability in real-time rapid and more flexible weather conditions. The system can produce long-term spatial distribution information from environmental disasters, obtaining high-resolution remote sensing data and field verification data in key monitoring areas. It also supports the prevention and control on ocean pollutions, illegally disposed wastes and pine pests in different scales. Meanwhile, digital photogrammetry can be applied on the camera inside and outside the position parameters to produce Digital Surface Model (DSM) data. The latest terrain environment information is simulated by using DSM data, and can be used as references in disaster recovery in the future.

  13. Hyperspectral remote sensing and long term monitoring reveal watershed-estuary ecosystem interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestir, E. L.; Schoellhamer, D. H.; Santos, M. J.; Greenberg, J. A.; Morgan-King, T.; Khanna, S.; Ustin, S.

    2016-02-01

    Estuarine ecosystems and their biogeochemical processes are extremely vulnerable to climate and environmental changes, and are threatened by sea level rise and upstream activities such as land use/land cover and hydrological changes. Despite the recognized threat to estuaries, most aspects of how change will affect estuaries are not well understood due to the poorly resolved understanding of the complex physical, chemical and biological processes and their interactions in estuarine systems. Remote sensing technologies such as high spectral resolution optical systems enable measurements of key environmental parameters needed to establish baseline conditions and improve modeling efforts. The San Francisco Bay-Delta is a highly modified estuary system in a state of ecological crisis due to the numerous threats to its sustainability. In this study, we used a combination of hyperspectral remote sensing and long-term in situ monitoring records to investigate how water clarity has been responding to extreme climatic events, anthropogenic watershed disturbances, and submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) invasions. From the long-term turbidity monitoring record, we found that water clarity underwent significant increasing step changes associated with sediment depletion and El Nino-extreme run-off events. Hyperspectral remote sensing data revealed that invasive submerged aquatic pant species have facultative C3 and C4-like photosynthetic pathways that give them a competitive advantage under the changing water clarity conditions of the Bay-Delta system. We postulate that this adaptation facilitated the rapid expansion of SAV following the significant step changes in increasing water clarity caused by watershed disturbances and the 1982-1983 El Nino events. Using SAV maps from hyperspectral remote sensing, we estimate that SAV-water clarity feedbacks were responsible for 20-70% of the increasing water clarity trend in the Bay-Delta. Ongoing and future developments in airborne and

  14. Energetic Refurbishment of Historic Brick Buildings: Problems and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorskas, Jurgis; Paliulis, Gražvydas Mykolas; Burinskienė, Marija; Venckauskaitė, Jūratė

    2013-12-01

    Building standards for energy effectiveness are increasing constantly and the market follows these changes by constructing new buildings in accordance with standards and refurbishment of the existing housing stock. Comprehensive trends in European construction market show tremendous increase in building retrofit works. It can be predicted that after the end of this decade, more than half of the construction works in European cities will be taking place in existing buildings, pushing the construction of new buildings to a less important role. Such a growth in building refurbishment works is creating a demand for suitable materials, retrofitting techniques and research. The differences between refurbishment of new-build projects and historical or valuable buildings are insufficiently recognized - mostly the buildings without further cultural preservation requirements are studied. This article covers the theme of refurbishment measures in historical buildings - the specific measures like inside insulation which are allowed due to the valuable façade or other heritage preservation requirements. An overview of other innovative methods for energy saving in existing buildings and their potential is given.

  15. Long-Term Monitoring of Mini-Split Ductless Heat Pumps in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K.; Loomis, H.

    2015-06-01

    Transformations, Inc. has extensive experience building their high performance housing at a variety of Massachusetts locations, in both a production and custom home setting. The majority of their construction uses mini-split heat pumps (MSHPs) for space conditioning. This research covered the long-term performance of MSHPs in Zone 5A; it is the culmination of up to 3 years' worth of monitoring in a set of eight houses. This research examined electricity use of MSHPs, distributions of interior temperatures and humidity when using simplified (two-point) heating systems in high-performance housing, and the impact of open-door/closed-door status on temperature distributions. The use of simplified space conditioning distribution (through use of MSHPs) provides significant first cost savings, which are used to offset the increased investment in the building enclosure.

  16. Current status of JMTR refurbishment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminaga, Masanori; Niimi, Motoji; Hori, Naohiko; Takahashi, Kunihiro; Kanno, Masaru; Nakagawa, Tetsuya; Nagao, Yoshiharu; Ishihara, Masahiro; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    The JMTR is a light water moderated and cooled, beryllium reflected tank- type reactor using LUE silicide plate-type fuels. Its thermal power is 50 MW, maximum thermal and fast neutron flux is 4x10 18 m -2 s -1 . First criticality was achieved in March 1968, and its operation was stopped from August, 2006 for the refurbishment. The refurbishment is scheduled from the beginning of FY2007 to the end of FY2010. The renewed and upgraded JMTR will be re-started from FY2011. An investigation on aged components (aged-investigation) was carried out for concrete structures of the JMTR reactor building, exhaust stack, etc., and for tanks in the primary cooling system, heat exchangers, pipes in the secondary cooling system, cooling tower, emergency generators and so on, in order to identify their integrity. The aged-investigation was carried out at the beginning of FY2007. As a result, some components were decided to replace from viewpoints of future maintenance and improvement of reliability, and some components or structures were decided to repair. A visual inspection of inner side of the pressure vessel was carried out using an underwater camera in FY2008, and no serious damage was observed. Up to now, refurbishment works are in progress according to the planned schedule. In FY2009, motors of primary cooling pumps, secondary cooling pumps, motors of drain pumps, pump in the primary water transfer line to the water purification system, beryllium reflector frame, low-voltage motor control centers are to be replaced. A nuclear instrumentation system, process control system, safety protection system and so on are to be replaced in FY2010. In this paper, current status of JMTR refurbishment project is presented. (author)

  17. Refurbishment of BR2 (Phase 4 and 5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubel, P.; Dekeyser, J.; Van der Auwera, J.

    1998-01-01

    The extensive refurbishment of the BR-2 materials testing reactor should allow another 10 to 15 years of continued operation. The refurbishment programme is required in order to comply with modern safety standards, to enhance the reliability of operation, and to compensate for the ageing of the installations of a facility that has reached about 35 years of intensive service. The main objectives and achievements of phase 4 and 5 are described

  18. Long-term calibration monitoring of Spectralon diffusers BRDF in the air-ultraviolet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi T; Butler, James J

    2007-11-10

    Long-term calibration monitoring of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of Spectralon diffusers in the air-ultraviolet is presented. Four Spectralon diffusers were monitored in this study. Three of the diffusers, designated as H1, H2, and H3, were used in the prelaunch radiance calibration of the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/2 (SBUV/2) satellite instruments on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) 14 and 16. A fourth diffuser, designated as the 400 diffuser, was used in the prelaunch calibration of the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) instrument scheduled for initial flight in 2009 on the National Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project. The BRDF data of this study were obtained between 1994 and 2005 using the scatterometer located in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Diffuser Calibration Laboratory. The diffusers were measured at 13 wavelengths between 230 and 425 nm at the incident and scatter angles used in the prelaunch calibrations of SBUV/2 and OMPS. Spectral features in the BRDF of Spectralon are also discussed. The comparison shows how the air-ultraviolet BRDF of these Spectralon samples changed over time under clean room deployment conditions.

  19. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Annual Status Report, 1999: Macroinvertebrate Sampling in Six Reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sauer, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    In 1992, macroinvertebrate sampling was initiated in Pools 4, 8, 13, 26, and the Open River reach of the Mississippi River, and La Orange Pool of the Illinois River as part of the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program...

  20. 2015 Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results Report for Project Rulison, Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kautsky, Mark [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 20–22 and 27, 2015. Several of the land owners were not available to allow access to their respective properties, which created the need for several sample collection trips. This report documents the analytical results of the Rulison monitoring event and includes the trip report and the data validation package (Appendix A). The groundwater and surface water monitoring were shipped to the GEL Group Inc. laboratories for analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high- resolution gamma spectrometry. Tritium was analyzed using two methods, the conventional tritium method, which has a detection limit on the order of 400 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), and the enriched method (for selected samples), which has a detection limit on the order of 3 pCi/L.

  1. Long-Term Forest Hydrologic Monitoring in Coastal Carolinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; Ge Sun; Carl C. Trettin; R. Wayne Skaggs

    2003-01-01

    Long-term hydrologic data are essential for understanding the hydrologic processes, as base line data for assessment of impacts and conservation of regional ecosystems, and for developing and testing eco-hydrological models. This study presents 6-year (1996-2001) of rainfall, water table and outflow data from a USDA Forest Service coastal experimental watershed on a...

  2. Solid Waste Management Units And Areas Of Concern Annual Long-Term Monitoring & Maintenance Report For Calendar Year 2016.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotson, Patrick Wells [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Little, Bonnie Colleen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Long-term controls were maintained at 21 Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) in accordance with the requirements of the “Long-Term Monitoring and Maintenance Plan for SWMUs and AOCs Granted Corrective Action Complete with Controls” in Attachment M of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Operating Permit, which took effect February 26, 2015. Maintenance and controls at these SWMUs and AOCs are described and documented in this report. Conditions requiring maintenance or repair activities were not identified for any of the inspected SWMUs or AOCs. Based upon the inspections performed and site conditions observed, the administrative and physical institutional controls in place at the SWMUs and AOCs are effectively providing continued protection of human health and the environment. This report does not present monitoring and maintenance activities for SWMU 76, the Mixed Waste Landfill; those activities adhere to the approved MWL LTMM Plan, Section 4.8.1 requiring a separate annual report which will be submitted to the NMED by June 30, 2017.

  3. The Salcher landslide observatory: a new long-term monitoring site in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canli, Ekrem; Engels, Alexander; Glade, Thomas; Schweigl, Joachim; Bertagnoli, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Landslides pose a significant hazard in the federal district of Lower Austria. The Geological Survey of Lower Austria is responsible for detailed site investigations as well as the planning and installation of protective measures. The most landslide prone area in Lower Austria is within the Rhenodanubian Flyschzone whose materials consist of alterations of fine grained layers (clayey shales, silty shales, marls) and sandstones. It exhibits over 6200 landslides within an area of approx. 1300 km². For areas susceptible to landsliding, protection works are not feasible or simply too costly. Therefore, monitoring systems have been installed in the past, most of them, however, are not operated automatically and require field visits for data readouts. Thus, it is difficult to establish any relation between initiating and controlling factors to gain a comprehensive understanding of the underlying process mechanism that is essential for any early warning applications. In this presentation, we present the design and first results of an automated landslide monitoring system in Gresten (Lower Austria). The deep-seated, slow moving Salcher landslide extends over approx. 8000 m² and is situated adjacent to residential buildings and infrastructure. This monitoring setup is designed to run for at least a decade to account for investigations of long term sliding dynamics and pattern. Historically the Salcher landslide has shown shorter phases with accelerated movements followed by longer phases with barely any movements. Those periods of inactivity commonly exceed regular project durations, thus it is important to cover longer periods. Such slope dynamics can be investigated throughout many parts in the world, thus this monitoring might allow to understand better also landslides with infrequent movement patterns. The monitoring setup consists of surface as well as subsurface installations. All installations are connected to permanent power supply, are taking the respective

  4. LONG-TERM DYNAMIC MONITORING OF THE HISTORICAL MASONRY FAÇADE: THE CASE OF PALAZZO DUCALE IN VENICE, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Noh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-term dynamic monitoring of the masonry façade of Palazzo Ducale known as Doge’s palace in Venice, Italy was performed from September 2010 to October 2012. This article demonstrates the results of preliminary analysis on the data set of the first 12-month long monitoring campaign for out-of-plumb dynamic responses of the medieval façade of the monument. The aim of the analysis of the dynamic signals is to validate the data set and investigate dynamic characteristics of the vibration signature of the historical masonry wall in the long-term. Palazzo Ducale is a heavily visited heritage due to its high cultural importance and architectural value. Nevertheless, little is known about the dynamic behaviour of the double-leaf masonry façade. In this study, the dynamic properties of the structure are presented by dynamic identification carried out with the effect of the ambient vibration measured at four different locations on the façade and portico level. The trend and intensity of the vibration at each measurement locations are identified over the year. In addition, the issue on eliminating the noise blended in the signals for reliable analysis are also discussed.

  5. M rate at TE. Monitoring at TeV energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorner, Daniela [Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Bretz, Thomas [RWTH Aachen (Germany); Gonzalez, Magdalena; Alfaro, Ruben [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Tovmassian, Gagik [Instituto de Astronomia Sede Ensenada (Mexico)

    2016-07-01

    A dedicated long-term monitoring programm at TeV energies has been started by the FACT project about four years ago. Being limited to one site, gaps due to the rotation of the Earth remain in the measured light curves. This makes it difficult to study typical variability time scales of few hours to one day. To allow for systematic studies of continuous observations over up to 12 hours, a second telescope is being installed at a site in about six hours distance in longitude. For the M rate at TE (Monitoring at TeV energies) telescope, a mount from a previous experiment is being refurbished and will be equipped with a new camera. Using silicon based photo sensors like in FACT, an excellent and stable performance will be achieved. M rate at TE is a joint project of German and Mexican universities which aims at extending the blazar monitoring to so far unexplored time ranges. In the presentation, the status of this emerging project is reported.

  6. Long-term monitoring and field testing of an innovative multistory timber building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omenzetter, Piotr; Morris, Hugh; Worth, Margaret; Kohli, Varun; Uma, S. R.

    2011-04-01

    An innovative three-story timber building, using self-centering, post-tensioned timber shear walls as the main horizontal load resisting system and lightweight composite timber-concrete floors, has recently been completed in Nelson, New Zealand. It is expected to be the trailblazer for similar but taller structures to be more widely adopted. Performance based standards require an advanced understanding of building responses and in order to meet the need for in-situ performance data the building has been subjected to forced vibration testing and instrumented for continuous monitoring using a total of about 90 data channels to capture its dynamic and long-term responses. The first part of the paper presents a brief discussion of the existing research on the seismic performance of timber frame buildings and footfall induced floor vibrations. An outline of the building structural system, focusing on the novel design solutions, is then discussed. This is followed by the description of the monitoring system. The paper emphasizes the need for optimal placement of a limited number of sensors and demonstrates how this was achieved for monitoring floor vibrations with the help of the effective independence-driving point residue (EfI-DPR) technique. A novel approach to the EfI-DPR method proposed here uses a combinatorial search algorithm that increases the chances of obtaining the globally optimal solution. Finally, the results from the forced vibration tests conducted on the whole building at different construction stages are reviewed.

  7. Refurbishment and upgrading of Iron Gates I Hydroelectric and Navigation System on the Danube River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scvortov, F.; Vasiliu, A.; Rosca, N.

    1996-01-01

    This work shows the problems of the refurbishing the hydroelectric units of the Iron Gates 1 Hydroelectric and Navigation System, operating since 1970. Their long and intensive utilization leads to the necessity of their refurbishment. One is demonstrated by detailed studies that it is sensible and efficient to perform both rehabilitation of the existent hydroelectric units and their power increasing from 175 MW to 190 MW, and prior to all these, as a first step, to install an additional hydroelectric unit (G7) for each system with a capacity of 190 MW. Complex technical and energetic-economical problems appear in realizing this objective due to the necessity of analysing a great volume of data in view of taking a correct decision. (author). 7 figs

  8. Sensitive and long-term monitoring of intracellular microRNAs using a non-integrating cytoplasmic RNA vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Masayuki; Ohtaka, Manami; Iijima, Minoru; Nakasu, Asako; Kato, Yoshio; Nakanishi, Mahito

    2017-10-04

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that modulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Different types of cells express unique sets of miRNAs that can be exploited as potential molecular markers to identify specific cell types. Among the variety of miRNA detection methods, a fluorescence-based imaging system that utilises a fluorescent-reporter gene regulated by a target miRNA offers a major advantage for long-term tracking of the miRNA in living cells. In this study, we developed a novel fluorescence-based miRNA-monitoring system using a non-integrating cytoplasmic RNA vector based on a replication-defective and persistent Sendai virus (SeVdp). Because SeVdp vectors robustly and stably express transgenes, this system enabled sensitive monitoring of miRNAs by fluorescence microscopy. By applying this system for cellular reprogramming, we found that miR-124, but not miR-9, was significantly upregulated during direct neuronal conversion. Additionally, we were able to isolate integration-free human induced pluripotent stem cells by long-term tracking of let-7 expression. Notably, this system was easily expandable to allow detection of multiple miRNAs separately and simultaneously. Our findings provide insight into a powerful tool for evaluating miRNA expression during the cellular reprogramming process and for isolating reprogrammed cells potentially useful for medical applications.

  9. Surprises and insights from long-term aquatic datasets and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter K. Dodds; Christopher T. Robinson; Evelyn E. Gaiser; Gretchen J.A. Hansen; Heather Powell; Joseph M. Smith; Nathaniel B. Morse; Sherri L. Johnson; Stanley V. Gregory; Tisza Bell; Timothy K. Kratz; William H. McDowell

    2012-01-01

    Long-term research on freshwater ecosystems provides insights that can be difficult to obtain from other approaches. Widespread monitoring of ecologically relevant water-quality parameters spanning decades can facilitate important tests of ecological principles. Unique long-term data sets and analytical tools are increasingly available, allowing for powerful and...

  10. Results of a Long-Term Spectral and Photometric Monitoring of the Herbig Ae Star HD 179218

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, O. V.; Alekseev, I. Yu.

    2017-06-01

    We present the results of the long-term spectroscopic and photometric monitoring of the Herbig Ae star HD 179218. The high-resolution spectra (R = 20000) were made on the 2.6-m telescope at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO) in the regions of Hα emission line. The photometric observations were obtained on 1.25-m telescope AZT-11 (CrAO) equipped with the UBVRI electrophotometer-polarimeter. Our results showed that Hα emission parameters demonstrate the long- term variability on the time scale about 4000 days. The same variability is observed in the change of the stellar brightness in V-band. The unusual behavior the V-I color index depending on the stellar brightness in the V-band can be concluded that around the star there is an additional source of IR-radiation. We believe that the obtained results can be explained by the presence in the vicinity of HD 179218 a low-mass component.

  11. The BR2 refurbishment programme: achievements and two years operation feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubel, P.; Dekeyser, J.; Koonen, E.; Van der Auwera, J.

    1999-01-01

    The BR2 reactor was shutdown end of June 1995 for an extensive refurbishment after more than 30 years utilization. The beryllium matrix needed to be replaced and the aluminium vessel inspected for an envisaged 15 year life extension. Other aspects of the refurbishment programme aimed at the reliability and availability of the installations, safety of operation and compliance with modern safety standards. The reactor was started again in' April '97 and operated only for three cycles in 1997. These first irradiation cycles were intended as a demonstration of the safety and reliability of all components and systems after refurbishment. Also during the extended shutdowns non-critical refurbishment tasks were allowed to be continued and finalized. At the request of the Safety Authorities, some modifications and studies are still in progress without perturbation of the reactor operation. (author)

  12. Review of measurement techniques for stack monitoring of long-lived alpha emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordas, J.F.; Phelps, P.L.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of the promulgation of new guidelines by the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 190) for releases of long-lived, alpha-emitting substances, the stack-monitoring requirements for measuring long-lived alpha particles may change in terms of both monitored isotopes and the detection levels. This paper briefly reviews stack-monitoring requirements for long-lived alpha-emitting particles. It also examines the currently deployed alpha-particulate, stack-monitoring systems and discusses prototype systems that may be applicable to stack monitoring

  13. Complex measurement system for long-term monitoring of prestressed railway bridges of the new Lehrter Bahnhof in Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Wolfgang R.; Hofmann, Detlef; Kohlhoff, H.; Knapp, J.; Brandes, K.; Haenichen, H.; Inaudi, Daniele

    2002-07-01

    A new central railway station - Lehrter Bahnhof - is being built in Berlin. Because of construction activities in immediate vicinity and because of difficult soil conditions, different vertical displacements have to be expected. In order to avoid damage to the bridges and to a widely spanned glass roof which will be supported by two concrete bridges these two bridges have to be monitored with regard to their deformation performance right from the beginning of construction until commissioning as well as later on for several years. For this purpose, a monitoring concept has been developed and sensors with excellent long-term stability have been chosen. This paper describes the system for monitoring settlements and heaves by means of laser-based optics and hydrostatic leveling. Additionally, strain and inclination of the prestressed concrete bridges are redundantly monitored by embedded long-gage length fiber-optic strain sensors as well as resistive strain gages, and inclinometers. Measurements on-site are referenced by measurements on two test beams well-defined loaded under laboratory and field conditions. The paper also describes the measuring concept and the sensor techniques as well as installation of the sensor system and first results.

  14. Status of the BR2 refurbishment programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koonen, E.

    1995-01-01

    The operation of the BR2 reactor with its second beryllium matrix is foreseen up to mid-1995. A refurbishment programme has been established in order to allow for future operation during at least ten years. Recently a positive decision to effectively carry out this programme has been taken. The refurbishment action plan follows from a general assessment of the different systems of BR2, with respect to their actual status, the operational experience and the evolution of safety standards and criteria. Ageing considerations were of uppermost importance in those assessments, not only to assure safety of future operation, but also to guarantee future availability and reliability. (orig.)

  15. Extended layup of steam generators during a refurbishment outage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, C.R.; Little, M.D.; Slade, J.; Gendron, T.

    2009-01-01

    In May 2008, Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS), owned and operated by New Brunswick Power Nuclear (NBPN), entered an extended refurbishment outage initially expected to last approximately 18 months. NBPN had the two inter-related goals with respect to layup of the steam generators during this period: equipment preservation and inspection interval modification. The steam generators were to be preserved such that there was no loss of operating life due to corrosion of either the tubing (Alloy 800NG) or other internal components (with carbon steel being the limiting material with respect to corrosion). Additionally, NBPN desired that the time in layup not count as operating time in setting the schedule for future inspections. That is, a key goal of the steam generator layup is that the future inspection interval be based on operating time, not calendar time. The NBPN approach consists of the following four steps: A review of industry operating experience with long outages (including both PWRs and PHWRs); The development of technically based layup strategies and procedures; A mid-outage review of the implementation of the layup strategies and procedures; and A post-outage review to determine if the actual conditions in the steam generators will support modification of the inspection interval. This paper discusses the results of the first three of these steps. At this time, the plant is still in the refurbishment outage. Throughout the outage evaluation process, the following issues have been the main focus of the reviews: The potential for degradation (pitting and cracking) of steam generator tubes; The potential for general corrosion of carbon and low alloy steel internals; Oxidation of deposits (which could subsequently lead to oxidizing conditions during operation, possibly leading to tube degradation). This paper discusses the industry operating experience reviewed, the pre-outage assessments, and the mid-outage assessments. Current outage planning places the

  16. Long-term monitoring programme of the hydrological variability in the Mediterranean Sea: a first overview of the HYDROCHANGES network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schroeder

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The long-term monitoring of basic hydrological parameters (temperature and salinity, collected as time series with adequate temporal resolution (i.e. with a sampling interval allowing the resolution of all important timescales in key places of the Mediterranean Sea (straits and channels, zones of dense water formation, deep parts of the basins, constitute a priority in the context of global changes. This led CIESM (The Mediterranean Science Commission to support, since 2002, the HYDROCHANGES programme (http//www.ciesm.org/marine/programs/hydrochanges.htm, a network of autonomous conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD sensors, deployed on mainly short and easily manageable subsurface moorings, within the core of a certain water mass. The HYDROCHANGES strategy is twofold and develops on different scales. To get information about long-term changes of hydrological characteristics, long time series are needed. But before these series are long enough they allow the detection of links between them at shorter timescales that may provide extremely valuable information about the functioning of the Mediterranean Sea. The aim of this paper is to present the history of the programme and the current set-up of the network (monitored sites, involved groups as well as to provide for the first time an overview of all the time series collected under the HYDROCHANGES umbrella, discussing the results obtained thanks to the programme.

  17. The BR2 refurbishment: from concept to achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubel, P.

    2002-01-01

    The BR2 reactor is one of the major research reactors in the world. It's operation started in the early 1960's. Two major refurbishments operation have been carried out since then. The report gives an overview of the methodology and inspections, which resulted in a refurbishment action plan. The main realizations and complementary actions required by the Licensing Authorities are summarized. Finally the operation experience feedback, four years now after start-up, is briefly discussed as well as the main aspects of the present safety reassessment [ru

  18. Refurbishment and safety up-gradation of Cirus Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.V.H.

    2004-01-01

    Cirus, a 40 MWth, vertical tank type research reactor, having a wide range of research facilities, was commissioned in 1960. This research facility has been operated and utilized extensively for nearly four decades. With a view to assess the residual life of the reactor, detailed ageing studies were carried out. Based on this, refurbishment work for life extension was undertaken. During this work, additional safety features were incorporated to improve the overall safety of the reactor. This lecture details the methodologies used for ageing studies and refurbishment activities for life extension with enhanced safety. (author)

  19. Long-Term Environmental Research Programs - Evolving Capacity for Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, F. J.

    2008-12-01

    Long-term forestry, watershed, and ecological research sites have become critical, productive nodes for environmental science research and in some cases for work in the social sciences and humanities. The Forest Service's century-old Experimental Forests and Ranges and the National Science Foundation's 28- year-old Long-Term Ecological Research program have been remarkably productive in both basic and applied sciences, including characterization of acid rain and old-growth ecosystems and development of forest, watershed, and range management systems for commercial and other land use objectives. A review of recent developments suggests steps to enhance the function of collections of long-term research sites as interactive science networks. The programs at these sites have evolved greatly, especially over the past few decades, as the questions addressed, disciplines engaged, and degree of science integration have grown. This is well displayed by small, experimental watershed studies, which first were used for applied hydrology studies then more fundamental biogeochemical studies and now examination of complex ecosystem processes; all capitalizing on the legacy of intensive studies and environmental monitoring spanning decades. In very modest ways these collections of initially independent sites have functioned increasingly as integrated research networks addressing inter-site questions by using common experimental designs, being part of a single experiment, and examining long-term data in a common analytical framework. The network aspects include data sharing via publicly-accessible data-harvester systems for climate and streamflow data. The layering of one research or environmental monitoring network upon another facilitates synergies. Changing climate and atmospheric chemistry highlight a need to use these networks as continental-scale observatory systems for assessing the impacts of environmental change on ecological services. To better capitalize on long-term

  20. System impact of energy efficient building refurbishment within a district heated region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidberg, T.; Olofsson, T.; Trygg, L.

    2016-01-01

    The energy efficiency of the European building stock needs to be increased in order to fulfill the climate goals of the European Union. To be able to evaluate the impact of energy efficient refurbishment in matters of greenhouse gas emissions, it is necessary to apply a system perspective where not only the building but also the surrounding energy system is taken into consideration. This study examines the impact that energy efficient refurbishment of multi-family buildings has on the district heating and the electricity production. It also investigates the impact on electricity utilization and emissions of greenhouse gases. The results from the simulation of four energy efficiency building refurbishment packages were used to evaluate the impact on the district heating system. The packages were chosen to show the difference between refurbishment actions that increase the use of electricity when lowering the heat demand, and actions that lower the heat demand without increasing the electricity use. The energy system cost optimization modeling tool MODEST (Model for Optimization of Dynamic Energy Systems with Time-Dependent Components and Boundary Conditions) was used. When comparing two refurbishment packages with the same annual district heating use, this study shows that a package including changes in the building envelope decreases the greenhouse gas emissions more than a package including ventilation measures. - Highlights: • Choice of building refurbishment measures leads to differences in system impact. • Building refurbishment in district heating systems reduces co-produced electricity. • Valuing biomass as a limited resource is crucial when assessing global GHG impact. • Building envelope measures decrease GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions more than ventilation measures.

  1. Towards a Long-Term Strategy for Voluntary-Based Internal Radiation Contamination Monitoring: Representativeness of the Monitoring Results in Fukushima, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhei Nomura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Following Japan’s 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident, voluntary participation, rather than mandatory, was adopted as the default scenario for individual radiation monitoring. We evaluated the representativeness of the internal monitoring results from voluntary participants in Minamisoma City, which is located 10–40 km from the Fukushima nuclear plant. Of approximately 70,000 individuals who were residing in Minamisoma City before the incident, a total of 19,263 residents (aged ≥21 years participated in the monitoring from 1 October 2011 to 31 March 2015. Based on regression projection techniques with the available data obtained from the voluntary participants, the modeled probabilities of radiocesium (Cs detection in October 2011 for Cs-137 and Cs-134 were 66.9% and 52.9%, respectively, which declined dramatically within a year following the incident. The rate of decline had stagnated since mid-2012, and the probability was close to zero after mid-2014. Sufficient agreement between the modeled probabilities of Cs detection (for the whole population versus the measured Cs levels (for voluntary participants was observed, except for Cs-134 in October 2011, indicating that the voluntary monitoring participant group was a good representative sample. Our findings affirmed the clinical importance of voluntary-based monitoring as a screening and dose-assessment tool in a post-nuclear incident. Our study informs societal decision-making regarding the long-term maintenance of the monitoring program under the current low exposure levels.

  2. Monitoring and inspection techniques for long term storage of higher activity waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, Gary

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, following recent changes in United Kingdom (UK) Government Policy, the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) identified a knowledge gap in the area of long term interim storage of waste packages. A cross-industry Integrated Project Team (IPT) for Interim Storage was created with responsibility for delivering Industry Guidance on the storage of packaged Higher Activity Waste (HAW) for the current UK civil decommissioning and clean-up programmes. This included a remit to direct research and development projects via the NDA's Direct Research Portfolio (DRP) to fill the knowledge gap. The IPT for Interim Storage published Industry Guidance in 2012 which established a method to define generic package performance criteria and made recommendations on monitoring and inspection. The package performance method consists of the following steps; identification of the package safety function, identification of evolutionary processes that may affect safety function performance, determination of measurable indicators of these evolutionary processes and calibration of the indicators into package performance zones. This article provides an overview of three projects funded by the NDA's DRP that the UK National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) have completed to address monitoring and inspection needs of waste packages in interim storage. (orig.)

  3. Revisiting hydraulic hysteresis based on long-term monitoring of hydraulic states in lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannes, M.; Wollschläger, U.; Wöhling, T.; Vogel, H.-J.

    2016-05-01

    Hysteretic processes have been recognized for decades as an important characteristic of soil hydraulic behavior. Several studies confirmed that wetting and drying periods cannot be described by a simple functional relationship, and that some nonequilibrium of the water retention characteristics has to be taken into account. A large number of models describing the hysteresis of the soil water retention characteristic were successfully tested on soil cores under controlled laboratory conditions. However, its relevance under field conditions under natural forcings has rarely been investigated. In practice, the modeling of field soils usually neglects the hysteretic nature of soil hydraulic properties. In this study, long-term observations of water content and matric potential in lysimeters of the lysimeter network TERENO-SoilCan are presented, clearly demonstrating the hysteretic behavior of field soils. We propose a classification into three categories related to different time scales. Based on synthetic and long-term monitoring data, three different models of hysteresis were applied to data sets showing different degrees of hysteresis. We found no single model to be superior to the others. The model ranking depended on the degree of hysteresis. All models were able to reflect the general structure of hysteresis in most cases but failed to reproduce the detailed trajectories of state variables especially under highly transient conditions. As an important result we found that the temporal dynamics of wetting and drying significantly affects these trajectories which should be accounted for in future model concepts.

  4. Impact of flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) on feeder refurbishment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jyrkama, M.; Pandey, M.

    2010-01-01

    Feeder wall thinning due to flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) may result in a large number of feeder replacements in the future. In this study, the process of FAC is modelled using a probabilistic approach and used to predict the expected number of degraded feeders and their replacements in the future. Because of the high cost associated with feeder replacements, it may be optimal to replace the entire feeder population during a single refurbishment outage when the unit cost of replacement is likely to be less. The results of this study demonstrate, however, that the unit cost of feeder replacement must be sufficiently lower than the standard replacement cost and the refurbishment performed at an optimal time to realize the economic benefits associated with the refurbishment. (author)

  5. Energetic Refurbishment of Historic Brick Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zagorskas, Jurgis; Mykolas Paliulis, Grazvydas; Burinskiene, Marija

    2013-01-01

    Building standards for energy effectiveness are increasing constantly and the market follows these changes by constructing new buildings in accordance with standards and refurbishment of the existing housing stock. Comprehensive trends in European construction market show tremendous increase...

  6. Assessment of dynamic and long-term performance of an innovative multi-story timber building via structural monitoring and dynamic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omenzetter, Piotr; Morris, Hugh; Worth, Margaret; Gaul, Andrew; Jager, Simon; Desgeorges, Yohann

    2012-04-01

    An innovative three-story timber building, using self-centering, post-tensioned timber shear walls as the main horizontal load resisting system and lightweight non-composite timber-concrete floors, has recently been completed in Nelson, New Zealand. It is expected to be the trailblazer for similar but taller structures to be more widely adopted. Performance based standards require an advanced understanding of building responses and in order to meet the need for in-situ performance data the building has been subjected to forced vibration testing and instrumented for continuous monitoring using a total of approximately 90 data channels to capture its dynamic and long-term responses. The first part of the paper presents a brief discussion of the existing research on the seismic performance of timber frame buildings and footfall induced floor vibrations. An outline of the building structural system, focusing on the novel design solutions, is then discussed. This is followed by the description of the monitoring system. The analysis of monitoring results starts with a discussion of the monitoring of long-term deformations. Next, the assessment of the floor vibration serviceability performance is outlined. Then, the forced vibration tests conducted on the whole building at different construction stages are reviewed. The system identification results from seismic shaking records are also discussed. Finally, updating of a finite element model of the building is conducted.

  7. Embalse refurbishment - aging, safety assessment, and the path forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainz, R.; Fornero, D.; Diaz, G.; Gold, R.; Dam, R.; McCrea, L.

    2009-01-01

    The Embalse Nuclear Power Station has been engaged in Pre-refurbishment activities for two years. The primary focus has been on the first phase Pre-Project Condition Assessment Program (PCAP). This phase of the Refurbishment and Life Extension (RLE) project consists of all preparatory activities that are required to define the refurbishment scope and costs, and for input into the utility business case for the RLE project. As part of an overall Plant Life Management (PLiM) program, the following activities have been performed: 1. Systematic and rigorous condition assessments / life assessments (including Health Prognosis and Recommendations); 2. Assessment of design and safety analysis features at Embalse, relative to current technology and licensing practices; 3. Pre-Project activities related to: Retube, Steam Generator replacement, and Digital Control Computer (DCC) replacement. The program has been a joint effort of Embalse NPS-NASA, AECL, ANSALDO and several other support organizations. Details of the planned program were addressed previously in a paper presented at the 28th CNS Conference (2007), entitled 'Embalse Refurbishment - Pre-Project Condition Assessment Phase 1'. Since that time, significant progress has been made towards completing the assessment program and planning for the next steps. This paper presents the progress of Refurbishment and Life Extension (RLE) Program at Embalse Nuclear Power Station with specific emphasis on the PCAP efforts. This includes a discussion of the benefits and lessons learned from RLE project's perspective, and an overview of some key conclusions of the aging assessments. Finally, this paper outlines the path forward. It should be noted that results of assessments presented in this paper are very conservative. This is driven largely by the fact that there are currently uncertainties in equipment condition that can be addressed through the activities recommended as an outcome of these assessments. (author)

  8. Automated Long-Term Monitoring of Parallel Microfluidic Operations Applying a Machine Vision-Assisted Positioning Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Hon Ming; Li, John C. S.; Cui, Xin; Gao, Qiannan; Leung, Chi Chiu

    2014-01-01

    As microfluidics has been applied extensively in many cell and biochemical applications, monitoring the related processes is an important requirement. In this work, we design and fabricate a high-throughput microfluidic device which contains 32 microchambers to perform automated parallel microfluidic operations and monitoring on an automated stage of a microscope. Images are captured at multiple spots on the device during the operations for monitoring samples in microchambers in parallel; yet the device positions may vary at different time points throughout operations as the device moves back and forth on a motorized microscopic stage. Here, we report an image-based positioning strategy to realign the chamber position before every recording of microscopic image. We fabricate alignment marks at defined locations next to the chambers in the microfluidic device as reference positions. We also develop image processing algorithms to recognize the chamber positions in real-time, followed by realigning the chambers to their preset positions in the captured images. We perform experiments to validate and characterize the device functionality and the automated realignment operation. Together, this microfluidic realignment strategy can be a platform technology to achieve precise positioning of multiple chambers for general microfluidic applications requiring long-term parallel monitoring of cell and biochemical activities. PMID:25133248

  9. Automated long-term monitoring of parallel microfluidic operations applying a machine vision-assisted positioning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Hon Ming; Li, John C S; Xie, Kai; Cui, Xin; Prasad, Agrim; Gao, Qiannan; Leung, Chi Chiu; Lam, Raymond H W

    2014-01-01

    As microfluidics has been applied extensively in many cell and biochemical applications, monitoring the related processes is an important requirement. In this work, we design and fabricate a high-throughput microfluidic device which contains 32 microchambers to perform automated parallel microfluidic operations and monitoring on an automated stage of a microscope. Images are captured at multiple spots on the device during the operations for monitoring samples in microchambers in parallel; yet the device positions may vary at different time points throughout operations as the device moves back and forth on a motorized microscopic stage. Here, we report an image-based positioning strategy to realign the chamber position before every recording of microscopic image. We fabricate alignment marks at defined locations next to the chambers in the microfluidic device as reference positions. We also develop image processing algorithms to recognize the chamber positions in real-time, followed by realigning the chambers to their preset positions in the captured images. We perform experiments to validate and characterize the device functionality and the automated realignment operation. Together, this microfluidic realignment strategy can be a platform technology to achieve precise positioning of multiple chambers for general microfluidic applications requiring long-term parallel monitoring of cell and biochemical activities.

  10. Automated Long-Term Monitoring of Parallel Microfluidic Operations Applying a Machine Vision-Assisted Positioning Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hon Ming Yip

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As microfluidics has been applied extensively in many cell and biochemical applications, monitoring the related processes is an important requirement. In this work, we design and fabricate a high-throughput microfluidic device which contains 32 microchambers to perform automated parallel microfluidic operations and monitoring on an automated stage of a microscope. Images are captured at multiple spots on the device during the operations for monitoring samples in microchambers in parallel; yet the device positions may vary at different time points throughout operations as the device moves back and forth on a motorized microscopic stage. Here, we report an image-based positioning strategy to realign the chamber position before every recording of microscopic image. We fabricate alignment marks at defined locations next to the chambers in the microfluidic device as reference positions. We also develop image processing algorithms to recognize the chamber positions in real-time, followed by realigning the chambers to their preset positions in the captured images. We perform experiments to validate and characterize the device functionality and the automated realignment operation. Together, this microfluidic realignment strategy can be a platform technology to achieve precise positioning of multiple chambers for general microfluidic applications requiring long-term parallel monitoring of cell and biochemical activities.

  11. Strategy for Long-Term Stewardship and Monitoring of Amchitka Island - 12190

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautsky, Mark; Nguyen, Jason [U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (United States); Darr, Paul S. [S.M. Stoller Corporation (United States); Picel, Mary [Argonne National Laboratory (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (LTSMP) for Amchitka details how the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) intends to fulfill its mission to maintain protection of human health and the environment at and around the sites on Amchitka Island. The LTSMP calls for monitoring to be performed every 5 years, at least in the initial phase of the project. The purpose of the monitoring is to develop a baseline of activity concentrations for selected radionuclides in biota, water, and soil, both on Amchitka and at the reference location on Adak Island, approximately 322 km (200 miles) northeast of Amchitka. Data compiled by the Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP, 2006) are being included as part of the baseline data set. The specific biological, water, and sediment samples collected during the 2011 sampling event were developed through close coordination with the primary stakeholders, including the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, the Aleutian Pribilof Island Association, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Amchitka is managed by the USFWS as part of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge. Two plans were developed to address specific needs of the biological- and the terrestrial-monitoring programs. Results from these monitoring programs will help determine whether the environment is being impacted by radionuclide migration and uptake, and if subsistence and commercial-catch seafood is safe for human consumption. The RESRAD-BIOTA code is being used to evaluate ecological health relative to the radionuclide levels determined from this sampling event. The samples were sent to three laboratories for analysis. With the exception of the seawater samples, most of the samples were sent to the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A smaller subset of rock-weed samples, Star reindeer lichen samples, and soil samples collected from beneath the lichen were sent

  12. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, 2002 (NCEI Accession 0127071)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  13. Exposure management in a hot-cell decontamination and refurbishment campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtney, J.C.; Ferguson, K.R.; Chesnovar, D.L.; Huebner, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    We developed a minicomputer-based system to provide rapid access to personnel dosimetry data during a campaign to decontaminate and refurbish a hot-cell at the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) Complex. This system allows project management to estimate doses for future tasks, assess the effectiveness of decontamination and personnel protection techniques, and balance exposures among members of various skill groups. As the campaign progresses, projected total exposures can be minimized by tradeoffs between estimated doses during decontamination and estimated dose savings during the refurbishment phase. The effectiveness of various dose-reduction procedures can be compared on the basis of data from a few cell entries before more extensive routine operations are scheduled. Because the radiation fields vary significantly with location in the cell, we find that measurements of whole-body, skin, and extremity doses are more valuable than dose-rate information. Penetrating and skin radiation doses to personnel can be compared to administrative guidelines. This helps us to select the most effective combination of protective clothing. For example, leaded gauntlets reduce the dose rate to the workers' hands, but their use can increase the time required for some in-cell tasks. Hence, use of gauntlets can lead to higher whole-body and skin doses. The program is written for the HFEF Complex Harris/6 minimainframe computer with a disk-monitor operating system

  14. LONG-TERM MONITORING OF MODE SWITCHING FOR PSR B0329+54

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J. L.; Wang, N.; Liu, Z. Y.; Yuan, J. P.; Wang, H. G.; Lyne, A.; Jessner, A.; Kramer, M.

    2011-01-01

    The mode-switching phenomenon of PSR B0329+54 is investigated based on the long-term monitoring from 2003 September to 2009 April made with the Urumqi 25 m radio telescope at 1540 MHz. At that frequency, the change of relative intensity between the leading and trailing components is the predominant feature of mode switching. The intensity ratios between the leading and trailing components are measured for the individual profiles averaged over a few minutes. It is found that the ratios follow normal distributions, where the abnormal mode has a greater typical width than the normal mode, indicating that the abnormal mode is less stable than the normal mode. Our data show that 84.9% of the time for PSR B0329+54 was in the normal mode and 15.1% was in the abnormal mode. From the two passages of eight-day quasi-continuous observations in 2004, supplemented by the daily data observed with the 15 m telescope at 610 MHz at Jodrell Bank Observatory, the intrinsic distributions of mode timescales are constrained with the Bayesian inference method. It is found that the gamma distribution with the shape parameter slightly smaller than 1 is favored over the normal, log-normal, and Pareto distributions. The optimal scale parameters of the gamma distribution are 31.5 minutes for the abnormal mode and 154 minutes for the normal mode. The shape parameters have very similar values, i.e., 0.75 +0.22 – 0 .17 for the normal mode and 0.84 +0.28 – 0 .22 for the abnormal mode, indicating that the physical mechanisms in both modes may be the same. No long-term modulation of the relative intensity ratios was found for either mode, suggesting that the mode switching was stable. The intrinsic timescale distributions, constrained for this pulsar for the first time, provide valuable information to understand the physics of mode switching.

  15. Long-term evaluation of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring-assisted tethered cord surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulfer, S E; Drost, G; Lange, F; Journee, H L; Wapstra, F H; Hoving, E W

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patients with tethered spinal cord have been investigated for short-term effects after tethered spinal cord surgery in the past. However, little is known about the long-term effects in this patient group. In this retrospective, longitudinal, observational study, a patient sample of a

  16. Radiation protection aspects of AECL's retube/refurbishment projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, Y.; Boss, C.R.; Pontikakis, N.

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to the construction of a new nuclear reactor, Retube/Refurbishment of nuclear reactors that have been in operation for many years will involve fabrication of a new core in a radiation environment. Careful planning of the radiation protection (RP) program is crucial to ensure the protection of workers and the environment, and the success of the projects. This paper describes the key RP activities currently underway in AECL's Retube/Refurbishment projects, covering RP during retubing tooling and system designs, retubing work planning, retubing operation, and waste transfer and management. The discussion will focus on RP initiatives from engineering design aspects of the projects. (author)

  17. Adapting Advances in Remediation Science to Long-Term Surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Several facets of groundwater remediation stand to gain from the advances made during recent years in disciplines that contribute to remediation science. Engineered remedies designed to aggressively remove subsurface contamination should benefit from this progress, and more passive cleanup methods and the long-term monitoring of such passive approaches may benefit equally well if not more. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) has adopted a strategic plan that is designed to take advantage of technological improvements in the monitoring and assessment of both active and passive groundwater remedies. Flexible adaptation of new technologies, as they become available, to long-term surveillance at LM sites is expected to reduce site stewardship costs while ensuring the future protection of human health and the environment. Some of the technologies are expected to come from government initiatives that focus on the needs of subsurface monitoring. Additional progress in monitoring science will likely result from continual improvements in our understanding of contaminant fate-and-transport processes in groundwater and the vadose zone. (authors)

  18. Adapting Advances in Remediation Science to Long-Term Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Dave [S.M. Stoller Corporation

    2006-03-01

    Several facets of groundwater remediation stand to gain from the advances made during recent years in disciplines that contribute to remediation science. Engineered remedies designed to aggressively remove subsurface contamination should benefit from this progress, and more passive cleanup methods and the long-term monitoring of such passive approaches may benefit equally well if not more. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) has adopted a strategic plan that is designed to take advantage of technological improvements in the monitoring and assessment of both active and passive groundwater remedies. Flexible adaptation of new technologies, as they become available, to long-term surveillance at LM sites is expected to reduce site stewardship costs while ensuring the future protection of human health and the environment. Some of the technologies are expected to come from government initiatives that focus on the needs of subsurface monitoring. Additional progress in monitoring science will likely result from continual improvements in our understanding of contaminant fate-and-transport processes in the groundwater and the vadose zone.

  19. Measuring brain activity cycling (BAC) in long term EEG monitoring of preterm babies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, Nathan J; Palmu, Kirsi; Wikström, Sverre; Hellström-Westas, Lena; Vanhatalo, Sampsa

    2014-01-01

    Measuring fluctuation of vigilance states in early preterm infants undergoing long term intensive care holds promise for monitoring their neurological well-being. There is currently, however, neither objective nor quantitative methods available for this purpose in a research or clinical environment. The aim of this proof-of-concept study was, therefore, to develop quantitative measures of the fluctuation in vigilance states or brain activity cycling (BAC) in early preterm infants. The proposed measures of BAC were summary statistics computed on a frequency domain representation of the proportional duration of spontaneous activity transients (SAT%) calculated from electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings. Eighteen combinations of three statistics and six frequency domain representations were compared to a visual interpretation of cycling in the SAT% signal. Three high performing measures (band energy/periodogram: R = 0.809, relative band energy/nonstationary frequency marginal: R = 0.711, g-statistic/nonstationary frequency marginal: R = 0.638) were then compared to a grading of sleep wake cycling based on the visual interpretation of the amplitude-integrated EEG trend. These measures of BAC are conceptually straightforward, correlate well with the visual scores of BAC and sleep wake cycling, are robust enough to cope with the technically compromised monitoring data available in intensive care units, and are recommended for further validation in prospective studies. (paper)

  20. Development of an improved low profile hub seal refurbishment tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagg, L.

    1997-01-01

    The hub seal area of a fuel channel feeder coupling can be exposed to oxygen in the atmosphere if protective measures are not taken during maintenance outages. Exposure to oxygen can lead to pitting of the hub seal area. Although this is a rare occurrence, the resulting possibility of the feeder coupling leakage led to the development of a feeder hub refurbishment tool. To reduce time and man-rem exposure during feeder hub seal refurbishment, an improved low profile hub seat refurbishing tool has been developed. The improved tool design will allow for quick and controlled removal of material, and the restoration of a roll-burnished finish equivalent to the original requirements. The new tool can be used in maintenance operations, with the end fitting present, as well as under retube-type circumstances, with the end fitting removed. (author)

  1. Long-Term Monitoring of Dolphin Biosonar Activity in Deep Pelagic Waters of the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Francesco; Alonge, Giuseppe; Bellia, Giorgio; De Domenico, Emilio; Grammauta, Rosario; Larosa, Giuseppina; Mazzola, Salvatore; Riccobene, Giorgio; Pavan, Gianni; Papale, Elena; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Sciacca, Virginia; Simeone, Francesco; Speziale, Fabrizio; Viola, Salvatore; Buscaino, Giuseppa

    2017-06-28

    Dolphins emit short ultrasonic pulses (clicks) to acquire information about the surrounding environment, prey and habitat features. We investigated Delphinidae activity over multiple temporal scales through the detection of their echolocation clicks, using long-term Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM). The Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare operates multidisciplinary seafloor observatories in a deep area of the Central Mediterranean Sea. The Ocean noise Detection Experiment collected data offshore the Gulf of Catania from January 2005 to November 2006, allowing the study of temporal patterns of dolphin activity in this deep pelagic zone for the first time. Nearly 5,500 five-minute recordings acquired over two years were examined using spectrogram analysis and through development and testing of an automatic detection algorithm. Echolocation activity of dolphins was mostly confined to nighttime and crepuscular hours, in contrast with communicative signals (whistles). Seasonal variation, with a peak number of clicks in August, was also evident, but no effect of lunar cycle was observed. Temporal trends in echolocation corresponded to environmental and trophic variability known in the deep pelagic waters of the Ionian Sea. Long-term PAM and the continued development of automatic analysis techniques are essential to advancing the study of pelagic marine mammal distribution and behaviour patterns.

  2. Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) long-term coral reef monitoring from 2011-10-01 to 2014-09-30 (NCEI Accession 0129268)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Currently, the LTMMP has ~50 long-term monitoring sites across Saipan, Tinian, and Rota that are surveyed on a rotating biennial basis. Three main habitat types are...

  3. Combining Modeling and Monitoring to Produce a New Paradigm of an Integrated Approach to Providing Long-Term Control of Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogwell, T. W.

    2009-12-01

    Sir David King, Chief Science Advisor to the British government and Cambridge University Professor, stated in October 2005, "The scientific community is considerably more capable than it has been in the past to assist governments to avoid and reduce risk to their own populations. Prime ministers and presidents ignore the advice from the science community at the peril of their own populations." Some of these greater capabilities can be found in better monitoring techniques applied to better modeling methods. These modeling methods can be combined with the information derived from monitoring data in order to decrease the risk of population exposure to dangerous substances and to promote efficient control or cleanup of the contaminants. An introduction is presented of the types of problems that exist for long-term control of radionuclides at DOE sites. A breakdown of the distributions at specific sites is given, together with the associated difficulties. A paradigm for remediation showing the integration of monitoring with modeling is presented. It is based on a feedback system that allows for the monitoring to act as principal sensors in a control system. The resulting system can be optimized to improve performance. Optimizing monitoring automatically entails linking the monitoring with modeling. If monitoring designs were required to be more efficient, thus requiring optimization, then the monitoring automatically becomes linked to modeling. Records of decision could be written to accommodate revisions in monitoring as better modeling evolves. Currently the establishment of a very prescriptive monitoring program fails to have a mechanism for improving models and improving control of the contaminants. The technical pieces of the required paradigm are already available; they just need to be implemented and applied to solve the long-term control of the contaminants. An integration of the various parts of the system is presented. Each part is described, and examples are

  4. Refurbishing the reactor protection systems of VVER-440/230 and VVER-1000/320 nuclear power plants with exclusively digital IandC systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.

    1997-01-01

    The refurbishment of reactor protection systems of nuclear power plants is based on two sets of requirements: engineering aspects such as performance, qualification and licensing, as well as interfaces to other systems; and cost-benefit relationships, ease of service and maintenance as well as installation during scheduled outages. A number of WWER-440 and WWER-1000 nuclear plants have announced their intention to refurbish their protection systems. Since 1994, these plants have been placing orders with Siemens for new protection systems, including the neutron flux monitoring system utilizing the advanced system TELEPERM XS. This exclusively digital IandC system provides an excellent foundation for the remaining plant service life

  5. Long Term Remote Monitoring of TCE Contaminated Groundwater at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, C.; Gudavalli, R.; Lagos, L.; Tansel, B.; Varona, J.; Allen, M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a mobile self powered remote monitoring system enhanced for field deployment at Savannah River Site (SRS). The system used a localized power source with solar recharging and has wireless data collection, analysis, transmission, and data management capabilities. The prototype was equipped with a Hydrolab's DataSonde 4a multi-sensor array package managed by a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system, with an adequate pumping capacity of water samples for sampling and analysis of Trichloroethylene (TCE) in contaminated groundwater wells at SRS. This paper focuses on a study and technology development efforts conducted at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU) to automate the sampling of contaminated wells with a multi-sensor array package developed using COTS (Commercial Off The shelf) parts. Bladder pumps will pump water from different wells to the sensors array, water quality TCE indicator parameters are measured (i.e. pH, redox, ORP, DO, NO3 -, Cl-). In order to increase user access and data management, the system was designed to be accessible over the Internet. Remote users can take sample readings and collect data remotely over a web. Results obtained at Florida International University in-house testing and at a field deployment at the Savannah River Site indicate that this long term monitoring technique can be a feasible solution for the sampling of TCE indicator parameters at remote contaminated sites

  6. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, 2002-2006 (NODC Accession 0012632)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  7. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, November 2004 (NCEI Accession 0127073)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  8. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, August 2003 (NCEI Accession 0127072)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  9. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, June 2006 (NCEI Accession 0127075)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  10. The status of the LANSCE refurbishment project (LANSCE-R)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, John Leonard; Jones, Kevin; Streve, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator is an 800-MeV proton linac that drives user facilities for isotope production, proton radiography, ultra-cold neutrons, weapons neutron research and various sciences using neutron scattering. The LANSCE Refurbishment Project (LANSCE-R) is an ambitious project to refurbish key elements of the LANSCE accelerator that are becoming obsolete or nearing end-of-life. The conceptual design phase for the project is funded and underway. The 5 year, $170M (US) project will enable future decades of reliable, high-performance operation. It will replace a substantial fraction of the radio-frequency power systems (gridded tubes and klystrons) with modern systems, completely refurbish the original accelerator control and timing systems, replace obsolete diagnostic devices, and modernize other ancillary systems. An overview of the LANSCE-R project will be presented. The functional and operating requirements will be discussed, the proposed technical solutions presented, and the plan for successful project execution while meeting annual customer expectations for beam delivery will be reviewed.

  11. Long-Term Marine Traffic Monitoring for Environmental Safety in the Aegean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, T.; Gyftakis, S.; Charou, E.; Perantonis, S.; Nivolianitou, Z.; Koromila, I.; Makrygiorgos, A.

    2015-04-01

    The Aegean Sea is characterized by an extremely high marine safety risk, mainly due to the significant increase of the traffic of tankers from and to the Black Sea that pass through narrow straits formed by the 1600 Greek islands. Reducing the risk of a ship accident is therefore vital to all socio-economic and environmental sectors. This paper presents an online long-term marine traffic monitoring work-flow that focuses on extracting aggregated vessel risks using spatiotemporal analysis of multilayer information: vessel trajectories, vessel data, meteorological data, bathymetric / hydrographic data as well as information regarding environmentally important areas (e.g. protected high-risk areas, etc.). A web interface that enables user-friendly spatiotemporal queries is implemented at the frontend, while a series of data mining functionalities extracts aggregated statistics regarding: (a) marine risks and accident probabilities for particular areas (b) trajectories clustering information (c) general marine statistics (cargo types, etc.) and (d) correlation between spatial environmental importance and marine traffic risk. Towards this end, a set of data clustering and probabilistic graphical modelling techniques has been adopted.

  12. Effect of a Recently Completed Habitat Rehabilitation and Enhancement Project on Fish Abundance in La Grange Pool of the Illinois River Using Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Hara, Timothy M; McClelland, Michael A; Irons, Kevin S; Cook, Thad R; Sass, Greg G

    2008-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) fish component monitors fish communities to test for changes in abundances and species composition in six regional trend areas of the Upper Mississippi River System...

  13. Monitoring of Sesamia nonagrioides resistance to MON 810 maize in the European Union: lessons from a long-term harmonized plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinós, Gema P; Hernández-Crespo, Pedro; Ortego, Félix; Castañera, Pedro

    2018-03-01

    Use of MON 810 maize (Zea mays), which expresses the insecticidal protein Cry1Ab from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt maize), is a highly effective method to control Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefèbvre), a key maize pest in Mediterranean countries. Monitoring programs to assess the potential development of resistance of target pests to Bt maize are mandatory in the European Union (EU). Here we report the results of the S. nonagrioides resistance monitoring plan implemented for MON 810 maize in the EU between 2004 and 2015 and reassess the different components of this long-term harmonized plan. No major shifts in the susceptibility of S. nonagrioides to the Cry1Ab protein have occurred over time. The reassessment of this long-term program has identified some practical and technical constraints, allowing us to provide specific recommendations for improvement: use reference strains instead of susceptibility baselines as comparators for field-collected populations; shift from dose-response bioassays to diagnostic concentrations; and focus monitoring on areas with high adoption rates, such as the Ebro basin in Spain. There are no signs of field resistance of S. nonagrioides to the Cry1Ab protein of MON 810 maize. Specific recommendations for improvement are provided, based on the knowledge and experience accumulated through the implementation of this unique EU-wide harmonized plan. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Serial Holter ST-segment monitoring after first acute myocardial infarction. Prevalence, variability, and long-term prognostic importance of transient myocardial ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Nielsen, J R; Berning, J

    1998-01-01

    Based on serial Holter monitoring performed 7 times within 3 years after a first acute myocardial infarction, we assessed the prevalence, variability and long-term clinical importance of transient myocardial ischemia (TMI) defined as episodes of ambulatory ST-segment depression. In all, 121...... consecutive male patients variability was found within and between patients...

  15. Refurbishment of an Analytical Laboratory Hot Cell Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, K.; Henslee, S.P.; Michelbacher, J.A.; Coleman, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    An Analytical Laboratory Hot Cell (ALHC) Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) was in service for nearly thirty years. In order to comply with DOE regulations governing such facilities and meet ANL-W programmatic requirements, a major refurbishment effort was undertaken. All penetrations within the facility were sealed; the ventilation system was redesigned, upgraded and replaced; the manipulators were replaced; the hot cell windows were removed, refurbished, and reinstalled; all hot cell utilities were replaced; a lead-shielded glovebox housing an Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES) System was interfaced with the hot cells, and a new CO2 fire suppression system and other ALHC support equipment were installed

  16. Long-Term Stewardship Program Science and Technology Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan McDonald

    2002-09-01

    Many of the United States’ hazardous and radioactively contaminated waste sites will not be sufficiently remediated to allow unrestricted land use because funding and technology limitations preclude cleanup to pristine conditions. This means that after cleanup is completed, the Department of Energy will have long-term stewardship responsibilities to monitor and safeguard more than 100 sites that still contain residual contamination. Long-term stewardship encompasses all physical and institutional controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms required to protect human health and the environment from the hazards remaining. The Department of Energy Long-Term Stewardship National Program is in the early stages of development, so considerable planning is still required to identify all the specific roles and responsibilities, policies, and activities needed over the next few years to support the program’s mission. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was tasked with leading the development of Science and Technology within the Long-Term Stewardship National Program. As part of that role, a task was undertaken to identify the existing science and technology related requirements, identify gaps and conflicts that exist, and make recommendations to the Department of Energy for future requirements related to science and technology requirements for long-term stewardship. This work is summarized in this document.

  17. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, 2007-2008 (NODC Accession 0070125)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks 2007-2008 dataset includes biological and oceanographic measurements collected to satisfy the...

  18. IN-SITU, LONG-TERM MONITORING SYSTEM FOR RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, James S.; McKeever, Stephen W.S.; Akselrod, Mark S.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of the project entitled ''In-situ, Long-term Monitoring System for Radioactive Contaminants.'' Phase one of this effort included four objectives, each with specific success criteria. The first objective was to produce dosimetry grade fibers and rods of aluminum oxide. The success criterion for this milestone was the production of aluminum oxide rods and fibers that have a minimum measurable dose (MMD) of 100 mrem or less. This milestone was completed and the MMD for the rods was measured to be 1.53 mrem. Based on the MMD, the ability of the sensor to measure 137 Cs, 90 Sr/ 90 Y, and 99 Tc was evaluated. It was determined that the sensor can measure the release limit of these radionuclides (50 pCi/cm 3 ) in 150 h, 200 h, and 54,000 h, respectively. The monitor is adequate for measuring 137 Cs and 90 Sr/ 90 Y but is unsuitable for measuring 99 Tc in soil. The second objective was to construct a prototype sensor (dosimeter and fiber optic channel). There were three success criteria for this milestone: (1) Perform measurements with the sensor for both gamma and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 10% or less; (2) Demonstrate the ability of the sensor to discriminate between gamma and beta radiation; and (3) Obtain similar or relatable results for differing lengths of fiber optic cable. These milestones were met. The sensor was able to measure gamma radiation repeatedly with a standard deviation of 3.15% and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 2.85%. Data is presented that demonstrates that an end cap can be used to discriminate between beta plus gamma radiation using beta radiation from a 90 Sr/ 90 Y source, and gamma radiation alone. It is shown that some amount of attenuation occurs in longer fiber optic cables, but it is unclear if the attenuation is due to poor alignment of the dosimeter and the cable. This issue will be investigated further when more dosimeters are available so that the dosimeters

  19. IN-SITU, LONG-TERM MONITORING SYSTEM FOR RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, James S.; McKeever, Stephen W.S.; Akselrod, Mark S.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of the project entitled ''In-situ, Long-term Monitoring System for Radioactive Contaminants.'' Phase one of this effort included four objectives, each with specific success criteria. The first objective was to produce dosimetry grade fibers and rods of aluminum oxide. The success criterion for this milestone was the production of aluminum oxide rods and fibers that have a minimum measureable dose (MMD) of 100 mrem or less. This milestone was completed and the MMD for the rods was measured to be 1.53 mrem. Based on the MMD, the ability of the sensor to measure 137 Cs, 90 Sr/ 90 Y, and 99 Tc was evaluated. It was determined that the sensor can measure the release limit of these radionuclides (50 pCi/cm 3 ) in 150 h, 200 h, and 54,000 h, respectively. The monitor is adequate for measuring 137 Cs and 90 Sr/ 90 Y but is unsuitable for measuring 99 Tc in soil. The second objective was to construct a prototype sensor (dosimeter and fiber optic channel). There were three success criteria for this milestone: (1) Perform measurements with the sensor for both gamma and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 10% or less; (2) Demonstrate the ability of the sensor to discriminate between gamma and beta radiation; and (3) Obtain similar or relatable results for differing lengths of fiber optic cable. These milestones were met. The sensor was able to measure gamma radiation repeatedly with a standard deviation of 3.15% and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 2.85%. Data is presented that demonstrates that an end cap can be used to discriminate between beta plus gamma and gamma radiation. It is shown that some amount of attenuation occurs in longer fiber optic cables, but it is unclear if the attenuation is due to poor alignment of the dosimeter and the cable. This issue will be investigated further when more dosimeters are available so that the dosimeters can be permanently attached to the longer cables. The third

  20. BIM-Based Timber Structures Refurbishment of the Immovable Heritage Listed Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henek, Vladan; Venkrbec, Václav

    2017-12-01

    The use of Building information model (BIM) design tools is no longer an exception, but a common issue. When designing new buildings or complex renovations using BIM, the benefits have already been repeatedly published. The essence of BIM is to create a multidimensional geometric model of a planned building electronically on a computer, supplemented with the necessary information in advance of the construction process. Refurbishment is a specific process that combines both - new structures and demolished structures, or structures that need to be dismantled, repaired, and then returned to the original position. Often it can be historically valuable part of the building. BIM-based repairs and refurbishments of the constructions, especially complicated repairs of the structures of roof trusses of immovable heritage listed buildings, have not yet been credibly presented. However, the use of BIM tools may be advantageous in this area, because user can quickly response to the necessary changes that may be needed during refurbishments, but also in connection with the quick assessment and cost estimation of any unexpected additional works. The paper deals with the use of BIM in the field of repairs and refurbishment of the buildings in general. The emphasis on monumentally protected elements was priority. Advantage of the proposal research is demonstrated on case study of the refurbishment of the immovable heritage listed truss roof. According to this study, this construction was realized in the Czech Republic. Case study consists of 3D modelled truss parts and the connected technological workflow base. The project work was carried out in one common model environment.

  1. EPIQR - a decision making tool for apartment building refurbishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caccavelli, D. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, Cedex (France); Balaras, C. [National Observatory of Athens, Athens (Greece); Bluyssen, P. [TNO Building and Construction Research, Delft (Netherlands); Flourentzou, F. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (France); Jaggs, M. [Building Research Establishment, Watford (United Kingdom); Wetzel, C. [Fraunhofer-Institut fur Bauphysik, Holzkirchen (Germany); Wittchen, K. [Danish Building Reasearch Institute, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    1999-11-01

    In a large majority of European countries, the amount of the maintenance and refurbishment works represents nearly 50% of the total amount spent in the building sector. New requirements are being added to the necessity of maintaining or re-establishing the building stock`s usage value. They are linked to the determination to reduce energy consumption, pollutant emissions, work site wastes, to improve the Indoor Environment Quality and all the modern conveniences inside apartment. Aware of this matter, the European Community has launched a two-year European research project, entitled EPIQR (Energy Performance, Indoor Environmental Quality, Retrofit) involving seven research institutions in the frame of the JOULE III programme. The purpose is to give architects and contracting authorities a multimedia tool to enable them to simultaneously grasp the whole process of apartment building refurbishment or retrofit. It has a number of functions: Assess the building`s degradation state based on a technical diagnosis after a standardised and complete inspection of the building; Prepare work proposals. These take into account not only the renovation of the building but also the improvement of the energy performance and IEQ; Estimate the costs corresponding to these works. A data base, containing the costs of 800 refurbishment works, provides a fast estimate of the total amount of the works being considered; Estimate the evolution of the degradation of the components if none of the works were to be carried out, as well as the refurbishment costs which would result. This paper provides an overview of the EPIQR methodology and the final deliverables of the project. (au)

  2. 2002 Status of coral reefs on the main volcanic islands of American Samoa: a resurvey of long term monitoring sites including benthic communities, fish communities, and key macroinvertebrates (NODC Accession 0001976)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study demonstrates the important role that long term monitoring programs can play in understanding the natural variability and long term trends in the coral...

  3. Long-Term Monitoring of Water Dynamics in the Sahel Region Using the Multi-Sar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, A.; Wendleder, A.; Schmitt, A.; Huber, M.

    2016-06-01

    Fresh water is a scarce resource in the West-African Sahel region, seasonally influenced by droughts and floods. Particularly in terms of climate change, the importance of wetlands increases for flora, fauna, human population, agriculture, livestock and fishery. Hence, access to open water is a key factor. Long-term monitoring of water dynamics is of great importance, especially with regard to the spatio-temporal extend of wetlands and drylands. It can predict future trends and facilitate the development of adequate management strategies. Lake Tabalak, a Ramsar wetland of international importance, is one of the most significant ponds in Niger and a refuge for waterbirds. Nevertheless, human population growth increased the pressure on this ecosystem, which is now degrading for all uses. The main objective of the study is a long-term monitoring of the Lake Tabalak's water dynamics to delineate permanent and seasonal water bodies, using weather- and daytime-independent multi-sensor and multi-temporal Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data available for the study area. Data of the following sensors from 1993 until 2016 are used: Sentinel-1A, TerraSARX, ALOS PALSAR-1/2, Envisat ASAR, RADARSAT-1/2, and ERS-1/2. All SAR data are processed with the Multi-SAR-System, unifying the different characteristics of all above mentioned sensors in terms of geometric, radiometric and polarimetric resolution to a consistent format. The polarimetric representation in Kennaugh elements allows fusing single-polarized data acquired by older sensors with multi-polarized data acquired by current sensors. The TANH-normalization guarantees a consistent and therefore comparable description in a closed data range in terms of radiometry. The geometric aspect is solved by projecting all images to an earth-fixed coordinate system correcting the brightness by the help of the incidence angle. The elevation model used in the geocoding step is the novel global model produced by the TanDEM-X satellite

  4. Long-Term Monitoring of the Broad-Line Region Properties in a Selected Sample of AGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilić, Dragana [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Shapovalova, Alla I. [Special Astrophysical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Arkhyz (Russian Federation); Popović, Luka Č. [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Astronomical Observatory, Belgrade (Serbia); Chavushyan, Vahram [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Puebla (Mexico); Burenkov, Alexander N. [Special Astrophysical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Arkhyz (Russian Federation); Kollatschny, Wolfram [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Universitaet Goettingen, Göttingen (Germany); Kovačević, Andjelka [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Marčeta-Mandić, Sladjana [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Astronomical Observatory, Belgrade (Serbia); Rakić, Nemanja [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Faculty of Science, University of Banjaluka, Banjaluka, Republic of Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegovina); La Mura, Giovanni; Rafanelli, Piero, E-mail: dilic@math.rs [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2017-09-14

    We present the results of the long-term optical monitoring campaign of active galactic nuclei (AGN) coordinated by the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Science. This campaign has produced a remarkable set of optical spectra, since we have monitored for several decades different types of broad-line (type 1) AGN, from a Seyfert 1, double-peaked line, radio loud and radio quiet AGN, to a supermassive binary black hole candidate. Our analysis of the properties of the broad line region (BLR) of these objects is based on the variability of the broad emission lines. We hereby give a comparative review of the variability properties of the broad emission lines and the BLR of seven different type 1 AGNs, emphasizing some important results, such as the variability rate, the BLR geometry, and the presence of the intrinsic Baldwin effect. We are discussing the difference and similarity in the continuum and emission line variability, focusing on what is the impact of our results to the supermassive black hole mass determination from the BLR properties.

  5. Long-Term Monitoring of the Broad-Line Region Properties in a Selected Sample of AGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Ilić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the long-term optical monitoring campaign of active galactic nuclei (AGN coordinated by the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Science. This campaign has produced a remarkable set of optical spectra, since we have monitored for several decades different types of broad-line (type 1 AGN, from a Seyfert 1, double-peaked line, radio loud and radio quiet AGN, to a supermassive binary black hole candidate. Our analysis of the properties of the broad line region (BLR of these objects is based on the variability of the broad emission lines. We hereby give a comparative review of the variability properties of the broad emission lines and the BLR of seven different type 1 AGNs, emphasizing some important results, such as the variability rate, the BLR geometry, and the presence of the intrinsic Baldwin effect. We are discussing the difference and similarity in the continuum and emission line variability, focusing on what is the impact of our results to the supermassive black hole mass determination from the BLR properties.

  6. Ten-year monitoring of high-rise building columns using long-gauge fiber optic sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glisic, B; Inaudi, D; Lau, J M; Fong, C C

    2013-01-01

    A large-scale lifetime building monitoring program was implemented in Singapore in 2001. The monitoring aims of this unique program were to increase safety, verify performance, control quality, increase knowledge, optimize maintenance costs, and evaluate the condition of the structures after a hazardous event. The first instrumented building, which has now been monitored for more than ten years, is presented in this paper. The long-gauge fiber optic strain sensors were embedded in fresh concrete of ground-level columns, thus the monitoring started at the birth of both the construction material and the structure. Measurement sessions were performed during construction, upon completion of each new story and the roof, and after the construction, i.e., in-service. Based on results it was possible to follow and evaluate long-term behavior of the building through every stage of its life. The results of monitoring were analyzed at a local (column) and global (building) level. Over-dimensioning of one column was identified. Differential settlement of foundations was detected, localized, and its magnitude estimated. Post-tremor analysis was performed. Real long-term behavior of concrete columns was assessed. Finally, the long-term performance of the monitoring system was evaluated. The researched monitoring method, monitoring system, rich results gathered over approximately ten years, data analysis algorithms, and the conclusions on the structural behavior and health condition of the building based on monitoring are presented in this paper. (paper)

  7. Ten-year monitoring of high-rise building columns using long-gauge fiber optic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisic, B.; Inaudi, D.; Lau, J. M.; Fong, C. C.

    2013-05-01

    A large-scale lifetime building monitoring program was implemented in Singapore in 2001. The monitoring aims of this unique program were to increase safety, verify performance, control quality, increase knowledge, optimize maintenance costs, and evaluate the condition of the structures after a hazardous event. The first instrumented building, which has now been monitored for more than ten years, is presented in this paper. The long-gauge fiber optic strain sensors were embedded in fresh concrete of ground-level columns, thus the monitoring started at the birth of both the construction material and the structure. Measurement sessions were performed during construction, upon completion of each new story and the roof, and after the construction, i.e., in-service. Based on results it was possible to follow and evaluate long-term behavior of the building through every stage of its life. The results of monitoring were analyzed at a local (column) and global (building) level. Over-dimensioning of one column was identified. Differential settlement of foundations was detected, localized, and its magnitude estimated. Post-tremor analysis was performed. Real long-term behavior of concrete columns was assessed. Finally, the long-term performance of the monitoring system was evaluated. The researched monitoring method, monitoring system, rich results gathered over approximately ten years, data analysis algorithms, and the conclusions on the structural behavior and health condition of the building based on monitoring are presented in this paper.

  8. Laser based refurbishment of steel mill components

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kazadi, P

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser refurbishment capabilities were demonstrated and promising results were obtained for repair of distance sleeves, foot rolls, descaler cassette, idler rolls. Based on the cost projections and the results of the in-situ testing, components which...

  9. The effects of acoustical refurbishment of classrooms on teachers’ perceived noise exposure and noise-related health symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Jesper; Lund, Søren Peter; Persson, Roger

    2015-01-01

    lessons with circa 2 dB(A) in both schools. Conclusion: The acoustical refurbishment was associated with a reduction in classroom reverberation time and activity sound levels in both schools. The acoustical refurbishment was associated with a reduction in the teachers’ perceived noise exposure...... of RT and activity sound levels were measured before and after refurbishment. Data on perceived noise exposure, disturbance attributed to different noise sources, voice symptoms, and fatigue after work were collected over a year in a total of six consecutive questionnaires. Results: Refurbished......, the mean classroom reverberation time was 0.68 (school A) and 0.57 (school B) and 0.55 s in sham refurbished classrooms. After refurbishment, the RT was approximately 0.4 s in both schools. Activity sound level measurements confirmed that the intervention had reduced the equivalent sound levels during...

  10. The influences of attributes, skills and knowledge of managers on refurbishment project performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Nurfadzillah

    2018-02-01

    Recently, the momentum on the growth of national building industry shows the increasing of the demand in refurbishment works becomes a trend spreading over the Malaysia. However, the potential of these activities normally related with the complexity in technical aspect compared to new build schemes. It will be reflecting on the unsatisfactory project performance. A competent manager is required to have the appropriate attributes, skills and knowledge in able to perform all the duties associated with managing the refurbishment building projects. Therefore, this paper is to identify the most appropriate attributes, skills and knowledge that required for managers to indicate the relationship between the influences on the refurbishment projects performance. This finding is indicate the importance of development the personal attributes, skills, and knowledge of managers and adds as benefit of raising the profile and image of managers in refurbishment building industry through a dissemination of the findings.

  11. Long-term monitoring of change in Tropical grasslands- GLORIA network in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, F. X.; Muriel, P.; Halloy, S.; Beck, S.; Meneses, R. I.; Irazabal, J.; Aguirre, N.; Viñas, P.; Suarez, D.; Becerra, M. T.; Gloria-Andes Network

    2013-05-01

    It has been shown that predicted warming and increased frequency of extreme weather events increase with altitude in the Andean mountains. Combined with enormous topographic (and hence precipitation) heterogeneity, poverty and intensive land use, creates in the region a situation of high vulnerability to global change. Since 2005 the network Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environment (GLORIA) sites have been progressively installed in Andean countries to monitor changes, document the type and magnitude of impacts and provide guidance to develop adaptation strategies for biodiversity, humans, and productive systems. We report the preliminary results from 10 of those sites, in addition to new sites planned in South America. These sites provide baseline data and identify processes and patterns in plant biodiversity across different geographic contexts. These preliminary results show the tremendous singularity of the vegetation and flora patterns in the study sites, suggesting high sensitivity of these ecosystems to climate anomalies. It is expected that the consolidation of this network will support and strengthen long-term observation and monitoring research programs to enable the documentation and understanding of climate change impacts on the Andean biota. Our research considers complementary modules of investigation (e.g. carbon stocks and fluxes, plant responses to experimental manipulation) that contextualize the challenges and opportunities of adaptation for biodiversity and socio-economic components, providing measures of trends as well as effectiveness of adaptive management strategies.

  12. Long-term monitoring of rock mass properties in the underground excavation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhelm, Jan; Jirků, Jaroslav; Slavík, Lubomír; Bárta, Jaroslav

    2015-04-01

    It is generally agreed today that hazardous waste should be placed in repositories hundreds of meters below the Earth's surface. In our research we deal with the long-term monitoring of the underground excavation by seismic and electrical resistivity measurements. Permanent measuring system was developed and installed at the Bedřichov gallery test site (northern Bohemia). The gallery was excavated using TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) in granitic rocks. Realized repeated measurements include ultrasonic time of flight measurement and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The seismic measurements are performed by pulse-transmission technique directly on the rock wall using one seismic source and three receivers in the distances of 1, 2 and 3 m. The main emphasis is devoted to P-waves; however, recording of full waveform enables analyzing of S- waves and other types of waves as well. The comparison of repeated measurements is used for an assessment of changes in seismic velocities with very high-accuracy. The repetition rate of measurements can be selected from seconds; however such fast changes in the rock mass are unexpected. The ERT measurement is performed on the same rock wall using 48 electrodes. The spacing between electrodes is 20 centimeters. The conductivity of undisturbed granitic rocks is extremely low. Therefore the observed local increase of conductivity can be associated with joints and fractures saturated with water, resulting in their ionic conductivity. Repeated ERT measurement can reveal some changes in the rock mass. Due to time requirements of ERT measurement the repetition rate can be about three hours. The data collected by measuring system is transferred by means of computer network and can be accessed via internet. This contribution deals with preliminary results gained so far during the testing of developed monitoring system. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic, project No. TA

  13. 2015 Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results at Rio Blanco, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [Nararro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kautsky, Mark [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 20–21, 2015. This report documents the analytical results of the Rio Blanco annual monitoring event, the trip report, and the data validation package. The groundwater and surface water monitoring samples were shipped to the GEL Group Inc. laboratories for conventional analysis of tritium and analysis of gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry. A subset of water samples collected from wells near the Rio Blanco site was also sent to GEL Group Inc. for enriched tritium analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed. Samples were collected from a total of four onsite wells, including two that are privately owned. Samples were also collected from two additional private wells at nearby locations and from nine surface water locations. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry, and they were analyzed for tritium using the conventional method with a detection limit on the order of 400 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Four locations (one well and three surface locations) were analyzed using the enriched tritium method, which has a detection limit on the order of 3 pCi/L. The enriched locations included the well at the Brennan Windmill and surface locations at CER-1, CER-4, and Fawn Creek 500 feet upstream.

  14. Long-term monitoring of nitrate-N transport to drainage from three agricultural clayey till fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstsen, V.; Olsen, P.; Rosenbom, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    The application of nitrogen (N) fertilisers to crops grown on tile-drained fields is necessary to sustain most modern crop production, but poses a risk to the aquatic environment since tile drains facilitate rapid transport pathways with no significant reduction in nitrate. To maintain the water quality of the aquatic environment and the provision of food from highly efficient agriculture in line with the EU's Water Framework Directive and Nitrates Directive, field-scale knowledge is imperative if there is to be differentiated N-regulation in future. This study describes nitrate-N leaching to drainage based on coherent monitoring of nitrate-N concentrations, the climate, the groundwater table and crop-specific parameters obtained over eleven years (2001-2011) at three subsurface-drained clayey till fields (1.3-2.3 ha). The monitoring results showed significant field differences in nitrate-N transport to drainage. Not only were these caused by periods of bare soil after short-season crops and N-fixing crops (pea), which have been shown to generate high nitrate-N concentrations in drainage, but by the hydrogeological field conditions that were shown to be the controlling factor of nitrate-N transport to drainage. The fields had the following characteristics: (A) the lowest mass transport (13 kg N ha-1) and fertiliser input had short-term and low-intensity drainage with the highest nitrate-N concentrations detected, representing 40% of net precipitation (226 mm) combined with low air temperatures, (B) the medium mass transport (14 kg N ha-1) had medium-term and medium-intensity drainage, representing 42% of net precipitation (471 mm) combined with periods of both low and higher air temperatures, (C) the highest mass transport (19 kg N ha-1) had long-term drainage, representing 68% of net precipitation (617 mm), but had the highest potential for in-situ soil denitrification and post-treatment (e.g. constructed wetlands) due to long periods with both high water

  15. Use long short-term memory to enhance Internet of Things for combined sewer overflow monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Duo; Lindholm, Geir; Ratnaweera, Harsha

    2018-01-01

    Combined sewer overflow causes severe water pollution, urban flooding and reduced treatment plant efficiency. Understanding the behavior of CSO structures is vital for urban flooding prevention and overflow control. Neural networks have been extensively applied in water resource related fields. In this study, we collect data from an Internet of Things monitoring CSO structure and build different neural network models for simulating and predicting the water level of the CSO structure. Through a comparison of four different neural networks, namely multilayer perceptron (MLP), wavelet neural network (WNN), long short-term memory (LSTM) and gated recurrent unit (GRU), the LSTM and GRU present superior capabilities for multi-step-ahead time series prediction. Furthermore, GRU achieves prediction performances similar to LSTM with a quicker learning curve.

  16. Long-term monitoring of diversity and structure of two stands of an Atlantic Tropical Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Écio Souza; Carvalho, Warley Augusto Caldas; Santos, Rubens Manoel; Gastauer, Markus; Garcia, Paulo Oswaldo; Fontes, Marco Aurélio Leite; Coelho, Polyanne Aparecida; Moreira, Aline Martins; Menino, Gisele Cristina Oliveira; Oliveira-Filho, Ary Teixeira

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to report the long-term monitoring of diversity and structure of the tree community in a protected semideciduous Atlantic Forest in the South of Minas Gerais State, Southeast Brazil. The study was conducted in two stands (B and C), each with 26 and 38 10 m x 30 m plots. Censuses of stand B were conducted in 2000, 2005 and 2011, and stand C in 2001, 2006 and 2011. In both stands, the most abundant and important species for biomass accumulation over the inventories were trees larger than 20 cm of diameter, which characterize advanced successional stage within the forest. The two surveyed stands within the studied forest presented differences in structure, diversity and species richness over the time.

  17. Simulating future uncertainty to guide the selection of survey designs for long-term monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Steven L.; Schweiger, E. William; Manier, Daniel J.; Gitzen, Robert A.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Cooper, Andrew B.; Licht, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    A goal of environmental monitoring is to provide sound information on the status and trends of natural resources (Messer et al. 1991, Theobald et al. 2007, Fancy et al. 2009). When monitoring observations are acquired by measuring a subset of the population of interest, probability sampling as part of a well-constructed survey design provides the most reliable and legally defensible approach to achieve this goal (Cochran 1977, Olsen et al. 1999, Schreuder et al. 2004; see Chapters 2, 5, 6, 7). Previous works have described the fundamentals of sample surveys (e.g. Hansen et al. 1953, Kish 1965). Interest in survey designs and monitoring over the past 15 years has led to extensive evaluations and new developments of sample selection methods (Stevens and Olsen 2004), of strategies for allocating sample units in space and time (Urquhart et al. 1993, Overton and Stehman 1996, Urquhart and Kincaid 1999), and of estimation (Lesser and Overton 1994, Overton and Stehman 1995) and variance properties (Larsen et al. 1995, Stevens and Olsen 2003) of survey designs. Carefully planned, “scientific” (Chapter 5) survey designs have become a standard in contemporary monitoring of natural resources. Based on our experience with the long-term monitoring program of the US National Park Service (NPS; Fancy et al. 2009; Chapters 16, 22), operational survey designs tend to be selected using the following procedures. For a monitoring indicator (i.e. variable or response), a minimum detectable trend requirement is specified, based on the minimum level of change that would result in meaningful change (e.g. degradation). A probability of detecting this trend (statistical power) and an acceptable level of uncertainty (Type I error; see Chapter 2) within a specified time frame (e.g. 10 years) are specified to ensure timely detection. Explicit statements of the minimum detectable trend, the time frame for detecting the minimum trend, power, and acceptable probability of Type I error (

  18. Fuel management during Cirus refurbishing and re-commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, K.K.; Srivastava, Alok; Ramesh, N.; Sharma, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    Cirus is a Heavy water moderated and Demineralised water cooled 40 MW(th) research reactor. Graphite is used as reflector. Natural uranium in metallic form and clad in aluminium is used as fuel. After over three decades of operation, signs of ageing started surfacing up. Refurbishment plan was drawn up based upon ageing studies and performance review. Core unloading was the foremost requirement for jobs like assessment of integrity of primary coolant underground pipelines. Refuelling is carried out during reactor shut down with primary coolant pumps in operation. During the fuel unloading with the gradual removal of assemblies, reduction in the gross flow of primary coolant was also envisaged. The scheme for core unloading was formulated with emphasis on optimization of fuel utilization, cooling to the fuel assemblies during transit and overall safety of equipment and personnel. After completion of refurbishing jobs, it was decided to install dummy assemblies in pile to facilitate commissioning of primary coolant system. A lot of difficulty was faced due to release of iron oxide flakes from the surface of primary coolant pipelines. The inlet feeders, valves and dummy assemblies had to be periodically flushed to get rid of iron oxide flakes deposited during the period. Various efforts made to get rid of iron oxide flakes included increasing the velocity by bypassing the core, installation of hollow dummy assemblies and installation of strainer at core inlet. The decision of fuel loading was made based upon the experience feedback with dummy assemblies and assessment of the pattern of release of iron oxide flakes. The dummy assemblies were replaced with uranium fuel assemblies. Fuelling work was carried out with Reactor hall crane with additional precautions. This paper describes the experience with handling of irradiated fuel assemblies to facilitate core unloading, experience with dummy assemblies and loading of fuel into the core and subsequent performance

  19. Refurbishing the BR2 materials testing reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baugnet, J.M.; Dekeyser, J.; Gubel, P.

    1995-01-01

    SCK/CEN is refurbishing its BR2 reactor to allow its further operation during the next 15 years; in doing so, it chooses to keep BR2 available for future scientific and technological irradiation programs within an international context. (author) 2 figs

  20. Foundation helps refurbish buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camenzind, B.

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at the activities of the Swiss 'Climate-Cent' foundation, which is helping support the energetic refurbishment of building envelopes. The conditions which have to be fulfilled to receive grants are explained. Work supported includes the replacement of windows and the insulation of roofs and attics as well as outside walls. Details on the financial support provided and examples of projects supported are given. The source of the finance needed to provide such support - a voluntary levy on petrol - and further support provided in certain Swiss cantons is commented on

  1. Guidance for implementing the long-term surveillance program for UMTRA Project Title I Disposal Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This guidance document has two purposes: it provides guidance for writing site-specific long-term surveillance plans (LTSP) and it describes site surveillance, monitoring, and long-term care techniques for Title I disposal sites of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.). Long-term care includes monitoring, maintenance, and emergency measures needed to protect public health and safety and the environment after remedial action is completed. This document applies to the UMTRCA-designated Title I disposal sites. The requirements for long-term care of the Title I sites and the contents of the LTSPs are provided in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations (10 CFR Section 40.27) provided in Attachment 1

  2. Rotor pole refurbishment for hydrogenerators: insulation problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, R.R.; Rux, L.

    2005-01-01

    Rotor poles for Unit 1 at Lower Granite Powerhouse were removed from the rotor and shipped to a repair facility for refurbishment. Upon inspection, it was found that all of the pole bodies exhibited a distinct bow, center to end, on the pole mounting surface. In some cases, the deflection was as much as 0.106 inch. Concerns were raised about how this condition might affect the ability to properly insulate and/or re-seat the poles. This paper presents details of the rotor pole and field winding evaluation, the problems encountered, and the solutions implemented to successfully refurbish the rotor poles and field winding. (author)

  3. Long term testing of PSI-membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huslage, J; Brack, H P; Geiger, F; Buechi, F N; Tsukada, A; Scherer, G G [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Long term tests of PSI membranes based on radiation-grafted FEP and ETFE films were carried out and FEP-based membranes were evaluated by monitoring the in-situ membrane area resistance measured by a current pulse method. By modifying our irradiation procedure and using the double crosslinking concept we obtain reproducible membrane cell lifetimes (in term of in-situ membrane resistance) of greater than 5000 hours at 60-65{sup o}C. Preliminary tests at 80-85{sup o}C with lifetimes of greater than 2500 demonstrate the potential long term stability of PSI proton exchange membranes based on FEP over the whole operating temperature range of low-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Radiation grafted PSI membranes based on ETFE have better mechanical properties than those of the FEP membranes. Mechanical properties are particularly important in large area cells and fuel cell stacks. ETFE membranes have been tested successfully for approximately 1000 h in a 2-cell stack (100 cm{sup 2} active area each cell). (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  4. North American long-term soil productivity research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan E. Tiarks; Robert F. Powers; Jerry F. Ragus; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Felix Ponder; Douglas M. Stone

    1997-01-01

    The National Long-term Soil Productivity research program was chartered to address National Forest Management Act concerns over possible losses n soil productivity on national forest lands. The program supports validation of soil quality monitoring standards and process-level productivity research. Summarized results are supplied to forests as collected. National...

  5. The impact of building orientation and discount rates on a Portuguese reference building refurbishment decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandão de Vasconcelos, Ana; Cabaço, António; Pinheiro, Manuel Duarte; Manso, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Refurbishment, as part of the construction industry, has a strong global impact, not only from the viewpoint of economies but also from social and energy-efficiency perspectives. A thermal refurbishment process, in particular, involves numerous decisions and choices; the decision-makers being ultimately confronted with two major questions: which criterion should be adopted in the choice of the refurbishment construction solutions and which refurbishment construction solutions should be chosen? In this paper, a criterion based on technical and economic points of view is proposed, aiming to identify the cost-optimal package of energy efficient solutions from among a set of possible refurbishment measures, within the life cycle of buildings. Sensitivity analyses are also performed so that the results may help the decision-maker choose the appropriate refurbishment solutions to be adopted when different discount rates and building orientations are taken into consideration. A total of seven scenarios, for a macroeconomic perspective, and nine, for a financial perspective, are performed. The costoptimal methodology adopted, following the Directive 2010/31/EU (2010) recommendations, is applied to a Portuguese reference building. The analysis carried out allows obtaining low global life cycle costs solutions and points towards nearly Zero Energy Building (nZEB) concept. The results are important for drawing national political instruments on buildings energy efficiency. - Highlights: •Building refurbishment decision based on technical and economic points of view. •35.000 Packages of thermal rehabilitation solutions considered. •Building orientation and discount rate impact on the cost-optimal package of solutions. •Portuguese reference building case base.

  6. Long-term monitoring of air pollution effects on selected forest ecosystems in the Bucegi-Piatra Craiului and Retezat Mountains, southern Carpathians (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O. Badea; S. Neagu; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; D. Silaghi; I. Barbu; C. Iacoban; F. Popescu; M. Andrei; E. Preda; C. Iacob; I. Dumitru; H. Iuncu; C. Vezeanu; V. Huber

    2011-01-01

    The monitoring studies carried out in the southern Romanian Carpathians (Retezat and Bucegi - Piatra Craiului Mts) provide a scientific support for long term ecosystem research (LTER). Their general objective is to characterize the air pollution and its potential effects upon forest ecosystems' status and biodiversity in close connection with climatic changes. Two...

  7. Long-term monitoring for conservation management: Lessons from a case study integrating remote sensing and field approaches in floodplain forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, Patricia María; Albuquerque, António; Martínez-Almarza, Miguel; Díaz-Delgado, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    Implementing long-term monitoring programs that effectively inform conservation plans is a top priority in environmental management. In floodplain forests, historical pressures interplay with the complex multiscale dynamics of fluvial systems and require integrative approaches to pinpoint drivers for their deterioration and ecosystem services loss. Combining a conceptual framework such as the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) with the development of valid biological indicators can contribute to the analysis of the driving forces and their effects on the ecosystem in order to formulate coordinated conservation measures. In the present study, we evaluate the initial results of a decade (2004-2014) of floodplain forest monitoring. We adopted the DPSIR framework to summarize the main drivers in land use and environmental change, analyzed the effects on biological indicators of foundation trees and compared the consistency of the main drivers and their effects at two spatial scales. The monitoring program was conducted in one of the largest and best preserved floodplain forests in SW Europe located within Doñana National Park (Spain) which is dominated by Salix atrocinerea and Fraxinus angustifolia. The program combined field (in situ) surveys on a network of permanent plots with several remote sensing sources. The accuracy obtained in spectral classifications allowed shifts in species cover across the whole forest to be detected and assessed. However, remote sensing did not reflect the ecological status of forest populations. The field survey revealed a general decline in Salix populations, especially in the first five years of sampling -a factor probably associated with a lag effect from past human impact on the hydrology of the catchment and recent extreme climatic episodes (drought). In spite of much reduced seed regeneration, a resprouting strategy allows long-lived Salix individuals to persist in complex spatial dynamics. This suggests the beginning

  8. UNEP-IOC-WMO-IUCN meeting of experts on a long-term global monitoring system of coastal and near-shore phenomena related to climate change, pilot projects and mangroves and coral reefs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This meeting was held to develop strategies for long-term global monitoring of coastal and near-shore phenomena related to climate change, specifically mangroves and coral reefs. The agenda included an overview of the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) initiative, modules and pilot phase activities. Action plans for the implementation of long-term monitoring of mangrove and coral reef ecosystems were developed including; potential impacts of climate change and sea level rise on mangroves and coral reefs, consideration of parameters, consideration of methodologies, relationships of proposed activities to relevant national, regional and international developments, consideration of monitoring sites, and future implementation.

  9. Analysis of the cost for the refurbishment of small hydropower plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogayar, B.; Vidal, P.G.; Hernandez, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    In view of all the concerns associated with fossil fuels and energy demand it is appropriate to investigate the large number of abandoned small hydropower plants. In order to solve the difficulty implied, by a viability study on the refurbishment of a small hydropower plant, a series of simple equations has been developed based on the economic optimization of the different elements. These equations can also be used for completely new hydropower plants. The result of this study will allow us to obtain quite approximate costs for the refurbishment of old hydropower plants, or the construction of new ones. These data on costs will act as a reference to examine real possibilities of refurbishment through different tools of financial and economic analysis. Although the equations developed have used unitary prices referring to Spain, they will be applicable to other countries just changing those prices for those of the country, required. (author)

  10. Refurbishment of the Oregon State University rotating rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higginbotham, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    TRIGA reactors have experienced operational difficulties with the rotating racks used for sample irradiation. The most common problem occurs when the rack seizes, and the corrective action taken is replacement of the rack assembly. This paper describes the symptoms leading to rack failure and a refurbishment procedure to correct the problem without replacing the rack at the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor (OSTR) Facility. This procedure was accomplished with extraordinary results from an operational and a radiation protection standpoint. The refurbishment has extended the useful life of this reactor facility with minimal financial impact. Given the declining number of university-based research reactors, it is in the nation's best interest to maintain the currently operating research reactor facilities, and the described procedure can aid in achieving that goal

  11. Study on identification method of auto refurbishment test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenfei; Feng, Qingfu; Wang, Zhengyu; Jiang, Suqin; Chen, Xing; Zheng, Shaoyuan; Li, Bokui

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, a large number of refurbished cars inflow into the market as new cars. The traditional methods to identify refurbished cars are mostly based on experience, the subjectivity is too high and the credibility is low. In the production of automobile, the state and the automobile industry set clear standards for the thickness of the automobile paint. There is a big difference between the thickness of machine spraying and manual spraying. By studying this difference and combining with the standard, it can be identified accurately whether the car has been renovated; during the second assembly process, the surface of some parts (such as bolts) will have obvious signs of wear and tear due to the regular assembly and disassembly, it can also be identified accurately through the study of these assembly traces.

  12. Long-Term Spectroscopic Monitoring and Surveys of Early-Type Stars with and without Circumstellar Envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroshnichenko Anatoly S.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing studies of different groups of stars result in improving our knowledge of their fundamental parameters and evolutionary status. Also, they result in finding new phases of stellar evolution, which require theoretical explanation. At the same time, availability of large telescopes and sensitivity improvement of detectors shift the focus of many observational programs toward fainter and more distant objects. However, there are still many problems in our understanding of details of stellar evolution which can now be solved with small telescopes and observations of bright stars. Approaching these problems implies conducting surveys of large groups of stars and long-term monitoring of individual objects. In this talk, we present the results of recent international programs of photometric and spectral monitoring of several groups of early-type stars. In particular, we discuss the role of binarity in creation of the Be phenomenon and show examples of recently discovered binary systems as well as the problem of refining fundamental parameters of B and A type supergiants. Special attention will be paid to collaboration with the amateur community and use of échelle spectrographs mounted on small telescopes.

  13. An Overview of Ageing Management and Refurbishment of Research Reactors at Trombay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, R. C.; Raina, V. K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-08-15

    Three nuclear research reactors have been in operation at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India. India has a rich experience of about 120 research reactor operating years including ageing management. A well structured programme is in force for plant life management, refurbishment and upgrading reactors in operation. Apsara, commissioned in August 1956, was the first research reactor. Apsara is a 1 MW{sub th} swimming pool type of reactor with a movable core loaded with enriched uranium fuel and immersed in demineralized light water pool, which serves as coolant, moderator and reflector besides providing radiation shielding. Apsara was shut down during May 2009 for partial decommissioning and upgrading to a 2 MW reactor with several safety upgrades, e.g. a LEU based reactor core with higher neutron flux, a new reactor building meeting seismic qualification criteria and two independent shutdown devices. Cirus, a 40 MW{sub th} tank type reactor utilizing heavy water as moderator, graphite as reflector, demineralized light water as primary coolant and natural uranium metal as fuel; has been in operation since 1960. After about three decade of operation, the availability factor started declining mainly due to outage of equipment exhibiting signs of ageing. After ageing studies and performance review, refurbishment requirements were identified. A programme for refurbishment was drawn that included safety upgrades like civil repairs to the emergency storage reservoir to meet seismic qualification criteria and a new iodine removal system for better efficiency. The reactor was shut down during 1997 for execution of this refurbishment programme. After completion of refurbishment, the reactor was brought back into operation during 2003. It has completed about seven years of safe operation after refurbishment with a significant increase in availability factor from 70% to about 90%. The reactor was permanently shut down during December 2010. The reactor core was unloaded

  14. Sleep Quality, Short-Term and Long-Term CPAP Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somiah, Manya; Taxin, Zachary; Keating, Joseph; Mooney, Anne M.; Norman, Robert G.; Rapoport, David M.; Ayappa, Indu

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Adherence to CPAP therapy is low in patients with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the utility of measures of sleep architecture and sleep continuity on the CPAP titration study as predictors of both short- and long-term CPAP adherence. Methods: 93 patients with OSAHS (RDI 42.8 ± 34.3/h) underwent in-laboratory diagnostic polysomnography, CPAP titration, and follow-up polysomnography (NPSG) on CPAP. Adherence to CPAP was objectively monitored. Short-term (ST) CPAP adherence was averaged over 14 days immediately following the titration study. Long-term (LT) CPAP adherence was obtained in 56/93 patients after approximately 2 months of CPAP use. Patients were grouped into CPAP adherence groups for ST ( 4 h) and LT adherence ( 4 h). Sleep architecture, sleep disordered breathing (SDB) indices, and daytime outcome variables from the diagnostic and titration NPSGs were compared between CPAP adherence groups. Results: There was a significant relationship between ST and LT CPAP adherence (r = 0.81, p CPAP adherence groups had significantly lower %N2 and greater %REM on the titration NPSG. A model combining change in sleep efficiency and change in sleep continuity between the diagnostic and titration NPSGs predicted 17% of the variance in LT adherence (p = 0.006). Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that characteristics of sleep architecture, even on the titration NPSG, may predict some of the variance in CPAP adherence. Better sleep quality on the titration night was related to better CPAP adherence, suggesting that interventions to improve sleep on/prior to the CPAP titration study might be used as a therapeutic intervention to improve CPAP adherence. Citation: Somiah M; Taxin Z; Keating J; Mooney AM; Norman RG; Rapoport DM; Ayappa I. Sleep quality, short-term and long-term CPAP adherence. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(5):489-500. PMID:23066359

  15. Audit of long-term and short-term liabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korinko M.D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article determines the importance of long-term and short-term liabilities for the management of financial and material resources of an enterprise. It reviews the aim, objects and information generators for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations. The organizing and methodical providing of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities of an enterprise are generalized. The authors distinguish the stages of realization of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities, the aim of audit on each of the presented stages, and recommend methodical techniques. It is fixed that it is necessary to conduct the estimation of the systems of internal control and record-keeping of an enterprise by implementation of public accountant procedures for determination of volume and maintenance of selection realization. After estimating the indicated systems, a public accountant determines the methodology for realization of public accountant verification of long-term and short-term liabilities. The analytical procedures that public accountants are expedient to use for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations are determined. The authors suggest the classification of the educed defects on the results of the conducted public accountant verification of short-term and long-term obligations.

  16. Guidance for implementing the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued a general license for the custody and long-term care of US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project permanent disposal sites. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA disposal sites will be cared for in such a manner as to protect the public health and safety and the environment upon completion of remedial actions. The general license will be in effect for a disposal site when NRC accepts the disposal site long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) that meets the requirements of 10 CFR 40.27. The site LTSP describes in detail the long-term surveillance program, including any monitoring, maintenance, and emergency measures necessary to fulfill the conditions of the general license. This guidance document provides (1) instructions for preparing the disposal site LTSPs and (2) instructions for carrying out the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program, including any monitoring that may be required. The information provided in this document also is in accordance with the regulatory requirements set forth in 40 CFR 192. On January 5, 1985, the US Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals remanded the groundwater standards, 40 CFR 192.02. Proposed groundwater standards were issued for comment on September 24, 1987 (52 FR 3600). When the groundwater standards become final, this document will be revised, as appropriate. This document also will be updated in response to any changes to 10 CFR 40, or in response to changes in the manner in which the long-term care of the licensed disposal sites is carried out

  17. Year 2000 status of coral reefs on the main volcanic islands of American Samoa: a resurvey of long term monitoring sites including benthic communities, fish communities, and key micro invertebrates (NODC Accession 0001976)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study demonstrates the important role that long term monitoring programs can play in understanding the natural variability and long term trends in the coral...

  18. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, June and November 2005 (NCEI Accession 0127074)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  19. LONG-TERM MONITORING OF WATER DYNAMICS IN THE SAHEL REGION USING THE MULTI-SAR-SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bertram

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water is a scarce resource in the West-African Sahel region, seasonally influenced by droughts and floods. Particularly in terms of climate change, the importance of wetlands increases for flora, fauna, human population, agriculture, livestock and fishery. Hence, access to open water is a key factor. Long-term monitoring of water dynamics is of great importance, especially with regard to the spatio-temporal extend of wetlands and drylands. It can predict future trends and facilitate the development of adequate management strategies. Lake Tabalak, a Ramsar wetland of international importance, is one of the most significant ponds in Niger and a refuge for waterbirds. Nevertheless, human population growth increased the pressure on this ecosystem, which is now degrading for all uses. The main objective of the study is a long-term monitoring of the Lake Tabalak’s water dynamics to delineate permanent and seasonal water bodies, using weather- and daytime-independent multi-sensor and multi-temporal Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data available for the study area. Data of the following sensors from 1993 until 2016 are used: Sentinel-1A, TerraSARX, ALOS PALSAR-1/2, Envisat ASAR, RADARSAT-1/2, and ERS-1/2. All SAR data are processed with the Multi-SAR-System, unifying the different characteristics of all above mentioned sensors in terms of geometric, radiometric and polarimetric resolution to a consistent format. The polarimetric representation in Kennaugh elements allows fusing single-polarized data acquired by older sensors with multi-polarized data acquired by current sensors. The TANH-normalization guarantees a consistent and therefore comparable description in a closed data range in terms of radiometry. The geometric aspect is solved by projecting all images to an earth-fixed coordinate system correcting the brightness by the help of the incidence angle. The elevation model used in the geocoding step is the novel global model produced by the

  20. Report on participation of the operational dosimetry division in refurbishment of the RA reactor, Task 3.08/04-13; Podzadatak 3.08/04-13 Izvestaj o ucescu Odseka operativne dozimetrije RZ u remontnim radovima na Reaktoru RA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninkovic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Reaktor RA, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-12-15

    During the refurbishment of the RA reactor, from January to June 1963 the division of operational division had a very important role and comprehensive tasks. To enable safety of the staff it was necessary to provide protection clothes, personnel dosemeters; permanent monitoring of radiation doses; strict control of the procedures for completing the planned maintenance and repair operations to avoid contamination of the personnel and working space. The refurbishment activities described in this report are: removal of fuel from the core; refurbishment of the heavy water system; decontamination of the distillation equipment; repair of the gas system.

  1. Long-term variations of fumarole temperatures on Vulcano Island (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iole Serena Diliberto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fumarole temperatures are the ultimate results of many processes that are encountered by deep fluids during their passage to the surface. Here, the time variations of high-temperature fumaroles acquired by continuous monitoring are presented, to show the effects of the forces that act on the system. Data acquired by continuous monitoring of fumaroles and the time relationships with the different parameters related to the activity of the volcanic system are discussed. From 1998 to 2010, the temperature and compositional changes of fumarolic gases were monitored at the same time as variations in the number of volcano-seismic events, which indicate frequent variations of energy release (heat and mass flow, and seismic strain release. Geochemical modeling applied to the volcanic system of Vulcano Island suggests that the overall expansion of magmatic gas through the fractured system is an almost iso-enthalpic process at depth, which shifts to an adiabatic process at shallow depth, where the rock permeability increases. Thus, the time variations of the fumarole temperatures reflect various physical variations of the system that can either occur at depth or close to the surface. The temperature monitoring performed in the fumarolic area of La Fossa Cone showed short-term effects related to rain events, and negligible effects related to other external agents (ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure variations. At the same time, the long-term monitoring highlighted some mean-term and long-term variations. These last are the main characters observed in the time-series, and they both appear to be related to endogenous forces that perturb the equilibrium of this complex geochemical system.

  2. Ongoing refurbishment activities and strategy for the future operation of the BR2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koonen, E.; Gubel, P.

    1994-01-01

    The operation of the BR2 reactor with its second Be-matrix is foreseen up to mid-1995 or mid-1996. A life extension for another 15 years is envisaged considering programmatic, financial and technical aspects. At present, the second phase of the refurbishment programme is being executed. The major activities of this programme can be grouped under two headings: safety reassessment and ageing issues. The expected outcome end '93 is an assessment report defining extent, choosen options, prioritized activities, budget and a tentative planning for the preparation and execution of the refurbishment. These aspects together with the prospects of possible cooperation with other parties for the refurbishment programme and the future operation of BR2 will be evaluated by the CEN/SCK Board who has to take a decision early in 1994. Various scenarios are now being considered and evaluated for the refurbishment and the future BR2 operation regime. (author)

  3. Ongoing refurbishment activities and strategy for the future operation of the BR2 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koonen, E; Gubel, P [BR2 Department, Belgian Nuclear Research Center, CEN/SCK, Mol (Belgium)

    1993-07-01

    The operation of the BR2 reactor with its second Be-matrix is foreseen up to mid-1995 or mid-1996. A life extension for another 15 years is envisaged considering programmatic, financial and technical aspects. At present, the second phase of the refurbishment programme is being executed. The major activities of this programme can be grouped under two headings: safety reassessment and ageing issues. The expected outcome end '93 is an assessment report defining extent, choosen options, prioritized activities, budget and a tentative planning for the preparation and execution of the refurbishment. These aspects together with the prospects of possible cooperation with other parties for the refurbishment programme and the future operation of BR2 will be evaluated by the CEN/SCK Board who has to take a decision early in 1994. Various scenarios are now being considered and evaluated for the refurbishment and the future BR2 operation regime. (author)

  4. Ongoing refurbishment activities and strategy for the future operation of the BR2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koonen, E.; Gubel, P.

    1993-01-01

    The operation of the BR2 reactor with its second Be-matrix is foreseen up to mid-1995 or mid-1996. A life extension for another 15 years is envisaged considering programmatic, financial and technical aspects. At present, the second phase of the refurbishment programme is being executed. The major activities of this programme can be grouped under two headings: safety reassessment and ageing issues. The expected outcome end '93 is an assessment report defining extent, choosen options, prioritized activities, budget and a tentative planning for the preparation and execution of the refurbishment. These aspects together with the prospects of possible cooperation with other parties for the refurbishment programme and the future operation of BR2 will be evaluated by the CEN/SCK Board who has to take a decision early in 1994. Various scenarios are now being considered and evaluated for the refurbishment and the future BR2 operation regime. (author)

  5. Long-term survival and causes of death after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Davidsen, M; Thorvaldsen, P

    2001-01-01

    As part of the Danish contribution to the World Health Organization (WHO) MONICA (Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) Project, a register of patients with stroke was established in 1982. The purpose of the present study was to analyze long-term survival and causes of death...

  6. Long-term follow-up study and long-term care of childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Jin Park

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of long-term survivors is increasing in the western countries due to remarkable improvements in the treatment of childhood cancer. The long-term complications of childhood cancer survivors in these countries were brought to light by the childhood cancer survivor studies. In Korea, the 5-year survival rate of childhood cancer patients is approaching 70%; therefore, it is extremely important to undertake similar long-term follow-up studies and comprehensive long-term care for our population. On the basis of the experiences of childhood cancer survivorship care of the western countries and the current Korean status of childhood cancer survivors, long-term follow-up study and long-term care systems need to be established in Korea in the near future. This system might contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of childhood cancer survivors through effective intervention strategies.

  7. Making the home consume less - putting energy efficiency on the refurbishment agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiess, Immanuel; Deffner, Jutta (Inst. for Social-Ecological Research ISOE GmbH (Germany)). e-mail: stiess@isoe.de; Zundel, Stefan (Lausitz Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany))

    2009-07-01

    Private home owners can reduce their energy use significantly and move towards a low carbon lifestyle by retrofitting their homes in an energy efficient standard. Despite high awareness for energy efficiency and rising energy prices, home owners only slowly take this opportunity to cut down their personal energy use and carbon emission significantly. In many cases, maintenance and repair activities only result in incremental improvements of energy efficiency. Thus, the dynamics of refurbishment seems to have a conservative bias. Against this background, we will present results from an empirical survey, focussing on home owners' maintenance and refurbishment decisions. Drawing on approaches from social-psychology, lifestyle analysis and evolutionary economics, we will explore the impact of attitudes, lifestyle orientations, cognitive frameworks and social resources on refurbishment decision especially on energy efficient ones and present a model integrating the most important driving factors.

  8. Long term socio-ecological research across temporal and spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. J.; Haberl, H.

    2012-04-01

    Long term socio-ecological research across temporal and spatial scales Simron Jit Singh and Helmut Haberl Institute of Social Ecology, Vienna, Austria Understanding trajectories of change in coupled socio-ecological (or human-environment) systems requires monitoring and analysis at several spatial and temporal scales. Long-term ecosystem research (LTER) is a strand of research coupled with observation systems and infrastructures (LTER sites) aimed at understanding how global change affects ecosystems around the world. In recent years it has been increasingly recognized that sustainability concerns require extending this approach to long-term socio-ecological research, i.e. a more integrated perspective that focuses on interaction processes between society and ecosystems over longer time periods. Thus, Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research, abbreviated LTSER, aims at observing, analyzing, understanding and modelling of changes in coupled socio-ecological systems over long periods of time. Indeed, the magnitude of the problems we now face is an outcome of a much longer process, accelerated by industrialisation since the nineteenth century. The paper will provide an overview of a book (in press) on LTSER with particular emphasis on 'socio-ecological transitions' in terms of material, energy and land use dynamics across temporal and spatial scales.

  9. Long Term Asset Management Strategy for Refurbishment and Replacement of Nuclear Power Plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boo, M.H.; Lee, J.G.; Park, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    LTAM strategy was developed for the component level to efficiently manage aging and obsolescence. Systematic monitoring and proactive measures against aging mechanism will reduce unplanned loss due to failure of large components. Also, financial risk for lost power production will be minimized on the basis of fleet-wide LTAM strategies. (author)

  10. The effects of short- and long-term air pollutants on plant phenology and leaf characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochner, Susanne; Markevych, Iana; Beck, Isabelle; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Pollution adversely affects vegetation; however, its impact on phenology and leaf morphology is not satisfactorily understood yet. We analyzed associations between pollutants and phenological data of birch, hazel and horse chestnut in Munich (2010) along with the suitability of leaf morphological parameters of birch for monitoring air pollution using two datasets: cumulated atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and ozone derived from passive sampling (short-term exposure) and pollutant information derived from Land Use Regression models (long-term exposure). Partial correlations and stepwise regressions revealed that increased ozone (birch, horse chestnut), NO_2, NO_x and PM levels (hazel) were significantly related to delays in phenology. Correlations were especially high when rural sites were excluded suggesting a better estimation of long-term within-city pollution. In situ measurements of foliar characteristics of birch were not suitable for bio-monitoring pollution. Inconsistencies between long- and short-term exposure effects suggest some caution when interpreting short-term data collected within field studies. - Highlights: • We present results of a field survey examining pollution effects on vegetation. • Particularly ozone was significantly associated with delays in spring phenology. • Leaf morphology of birch was found to be inadequate for bio-monitoring pollution. • Inconsistencies between long-/short-term exposure effects suggest caution. - Pollutants were significantly associated with delays in spring phenology. However, inconsistencies between long- and short-term exposure effects suggest some caution when interpreting results.

  11. A gasoline vapor monitoring program for a major underground long-term leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehler, W.F.; Huttie, R.L.; Hill, K.M.; Ames, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    In January of 1988, a large petroleum distributor located in Long Island, New York, reported that a gasoline leak had occurred, and unfortunately, had gone undetected for a number of years. Since the initial discovery of the greater than 1 million gallon gasoline spill, approximately 110 Vapor Monitoring Wells and more than 120 Water Monitoring Wells have been installed in and around an impacted residential community. This paper will focus on the air monitoring aspects of the gasoline spill project including: (1) air sampling methodology - discussion of strategies, techniques, problems and solutions; (2) analytical methodology - development of a Non-Cryogenic Automated Thermal Desorption GC/MS System for the analysis of Air Toxics; (3) work load requirements for the governmental laboratory; (4) establishment of quality assurance program for participating commercial laboratories; (5) establishment of a computerized quality assured project data base; (6) and interactions with the petroleum distributor, consultants and the residential community

  12. Keep fatigue usage low for LTO. Benefits of load monitoring and related fatigue evaluations for long term operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothenhoefer, H.; Koenig, G.

    2012-01-01

    Design fatigue calculations normally cover a service life of 40 years. Based on design transients with a specified number of cycles the evaluations have to prove that the fatigue usage after 40 years will stay below 1. In 40+ years of operation real loads can differ much from design loads so that premature ageing can occur. For long term operation, monitoring of real loads and detailed fatigue analysis for selected locations can be used to optimize operational modes in order to reduce the loads causing fatigue. As a result fatigue usage can be kept below 1 even for 60+ years. (author)

  13. Long-term genetic monitoring of a riverine dragonfly, Orthetrum coerulescens (Odonata: Libellulidae]: Direct anthropogenic impact versus climate change effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Rebecca; Hadrys, Heike

    2017-01-01

    Modern conservationists call for long term genetic monitoring datasets to evaluate and understand the impact of human activities on natural ecosystems and species on a global but also local scale. However, long-term monitoring datasets are still rare but in high demand to correctly identify, evaluate and respond to environmental changes. In the presented study, a population of the riverine dragonfly, Orthetrum coerulescens (Odonata: Libellulidae), was monitored over a time period from 1989 to 2013. Study site was an artificial irrigation ditch in one of the last European stone steppes and "nature heritage", the Crau in Southern France. This artificial riverine habitat has an unusual high diversity of odonate species, prominent indicators for evaluating freshwater habitats. A clearing of the canal and destruction of the bank vegetation in 1996 was assumed to have great negative impact on the odonate larval and adult populations. Two mitochondrial markers (CO1 & ND1) and a panel of nuclear microsatellite loci were used to assess the genetic diversity. Over time they revealed a dramatic decline in diversity parameters between the years 2004 and 2007, however not between 1996 and 1997. From 2007 onwards the population shows a stabilizing trend but has not reached the amount of genetic variation found at the beginning of this survey. This decline cannot be referred to the clearing of the canal or any other direct anthropogenic impact. Instead, it is most likely that the populations' decay was due to by extreme weather conditions during the specific years. A severe drought was recorded for the summer months of these years, leading to reduced water levels in the canal causing also other water parameters to change, and therefore impacting temperature sensitive riverine habitat specialists like the O. coerulescens in a significant way. The data provide important insights into population genetic dynamics and metrics not always congruent with traditional monitoring data (e

  14. Listening to old beech and young cherry trees - long-term research in the Alleghenies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan L. Stout; Coeli M. Hoover; Todd E. Ristau

    2006-01-01

    Long-term research results have been a foundation of forestry practice on the Allegheny Plateau since the 1970s. This includes results from monitoring reference conditions in areas set aside for this purpose and from long-running manipulative studies, some dating back to the 1920s. The success of long-term research in this region reflects the commitment of a handful of...

  15. Long-term monitoring of Dzanga Bai forest elephants: forest clearing use patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkalo, Andrea K; Wrege, Peter H; Wittemyer, George

    2013-01-01

    Individual identification of the relatively cryptic forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) at forest clearings currently provides the highest quality monitoring data on this ecologically important but increasingly threatened species. Here we present baseline data from the first 20 years of an individually based study of this species, conducted at the Dzanga Clearing, Central African Republic. A total of 3,128 elephants were identified over the 20-year study (1,244 adults; 675 females, 569 males). It took approximately four years for the majority of elephants visiting the clearing to be identified, but new elephants entered the clearing every year of the study. The study population was relatively stable, varying from 1,668 to 1,864 individuals (including juveniles and infants), with increasingly fewer males than females over time. The age-class distribution for females remained qualitatively unchanged between 1995 and 2010, while the proportion of adult males decreased from 20% to 10%, likely reflecting increased mortality. Visitation patterns by individuals were highly variable, with some elephants visiting monthly while others were ephemeral users with visits separated by multiple years. The number of individuals in the clearing at any time varied between 40 and 100 individuals, and there was little evidence of a seasonal pattern in this variation. The number of elephants entering the clearing together (defined here as a social group) averaged 1.49 (range 1-12) for males and 2.67 (range 1-14) for females. This collation of 20 years of intensive forest elephant monitoring provides the first detailed, long term look at the ecology of bai visitation for this species, offering insight to the ecological significance and motivation for bai use, social behavior, and threats to forest elephants. We discuss likely drivers (rainfall, compression, illegal killing, etc.) influencing bai visitation rates. This study provides the baseline for future demographic and behavioral

  16. Transplantation assessment of degraded Posidonia oceanica habitats: site selection and long-term monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. PIRROTTA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A model developed for Zostera marina was adapted and used to select suitable areas for Posidonia oceanica transplantation in the Gulf of Palermo, where recent rehabilitation programmes have reduced human pressure. This model consists of three steps: (1 habitat selection, by calculation of the Preliminary Transplant Suitability Index (PTSI; (2 field assessments and test-transplanting, to evaluate the site suitability and to estimate the effects of tearing on transplant units (about 50%; (3 identification of suitable restoration sites, by calculation of the Transplant Suitability Index (TSI. A new parameter was added to the literature model: the number of grids detached, which is linked to factors (hydrodynamic regime, anchoring, fishing that have a potentially great effect on the final outcome of the transplant. Only one site (TSI = 16 in the Gulf of Palermo was indicated as potentially suitable for restoration with P. oceanica. In this site, a transplant of 40 m2 was implemented. From 2008 to 2014, transplant effectiveness was evaluated in terms of establishment, detachment and mortality of cuttings and shoot density. The long-term monitoring (6 years allowed us to detect changes in the structural conditions of the transplanted meadow and to identify the possible turning point in P. oceanica recovery (2 years after transplanting. Moreover, 6 years after transplantation the P. oceanica meadow has exceeded the transplant shoot density of about 16%, with a mean and a maximum value of 11.6 and 17 shoots per cutting, respectively.

  17. Qualification of FFA treatment for the water-steam cycle as an innovative lay-up strategy for the long term outage of a CANDU-6 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramminger, Ute; Fandrich, Jörg; Sainz, Ricardo; Ovando, Luis; Herrera, Cecilia; Mendizabal, Maribel; Dumon, Adriana; Chocron, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    The majority of worldwide operating Nuclear Power Plants is older than 25 years, which is accompanied with extended outage duration due to large refurbishment and upgrade programs, e.g. Steam Generator Replacement and other large component replacement. For these long term outages adequate and cost effective preservation methods are required. Normally during outages, systems and components are drained and opened to atmosphere whereas wet surfaces and moisture condensation can result in uniform corrosion of carbon steel and eventually other materials; superimposed localized corrosion is possible in presence of impurities. For those systems there are in general two different lay-up methods possible. Dry lay-up by removing all water and humidity from the components or wet lay-up with demineralized and oxygen free water and additional corrosion inhibitors. Disadvantages of these lay-up methods are: High man power and hardware efforts for performing dry lay-up. Usage of hazardous chemicals like Hydrazine. Insufficient results of both lay-up methods in case of switching between dry and wet lay-up. To improve the lay-up concept for long term outages, AREVA GmbH developed an innovative concept using FFA (Film-Forming Amines) for secondary side system lay-up. The entire water-steam cycle including the Steam Generators is treated in one step without any negative impact on the treated structural materials. This technology has been applied for the first time at NPP Embalse. Embalse Nuclear Power Station consists of a CANDU-6 reactor of 648 MWe electrical output. It is in commercial operation since 1984. The shutdown for refurbishment and preparation for the second cycle of operation that includes among other tasks the replacement of the existing steam generators and power uprating has been scheduled for 2014, which causes the necessity of a lay-up optimization in the plant. This paper deals in detail with the qualification process of the FFA treatment considering the specifics

  18. Long-term monitoring of soil gas fluxes with closed chambers using automated and manual systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, A.; Crichton, I.; Ball, B.C.

    1999-10-01

    The authors describe two gas sample collection techniques, each of which is used in conjunction with custom made automated or manually operated closed chambers. The automated system allows automatic collection of gas samples for simultaneous analysis of multiple trace gas efflux from soils, permitting long-term monitoring. Since the manual system is cheaper to produce, it can be replicated more than the automated and used to estimate spatial variability of soil fluxes. The automated chamber covers a soil area of 0.5 m{sup 2} and has a motor driven lid that remains operational throughout a range of weather conditions. Both systems use gas-tight containers of robust metal construction, which give good sample retention, thereby allowing long-term storage and convenience of transport from remote locations. The containers in the automated system are filled by pumping gas from the closed chamber via a multiway rotary valve. Stored samples from both systems are analyzed simultaneously for N{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} using automated injection into laboratory-based gas chromatographs. The use of both collection systems is illustrated by results from a field experiment on sewage sludge disposal to land where N{sub 2}O fluxes were high. The automated gas sampling system permitted quantification of the marked temporal variability of concurrent N{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} fluxes and allowed improved estimation of cumulative fluxes. The automated measurement approach yielded higher estimates of cumulative flux because integration of manual point-in-time observations missed a number of transient high-flux events.

  19. Does the "sleeping Dragon" Really Sleep?: the Case for Continuous Long-Term Monitoring at a Gulf of Mexico Cold Seep Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. M.; Lapham, L.; Farr, N.; Lutken, C.; MacDonald, I. R.; Macelloni, L.; Riedel, M.; Sleeper, K.; Chanton, J.

    2011-12-01

    Continuous porewater monitoring indicates that the methane flux away from exposed hydrate mounds can vary considerably over time. Recently, we retrieved a Pore Fluid Array instrument pack from a hydrate outcrop adjacent to a NEPTUNE Canada observatory node. The sampler was designed to continuously collect and store sediment pore fluids over the course of 9 months. On analysis, we observed a 35mM variation in methane concentrations corresponding with an abrupt shift in current direction at the site. Video and resistivity data have led to previous speculation that hydrate growth and dissolution/dissociation may be seasonally variable. Cumulatively, these findings suggest that the persistence of hydrate outcrops may be extremely dynamic, driven by fluctuations in physical conditions on short time scales. Short-term monitoring in the Gulf of Mexico within Mississippi Canyon lease block 118 (MC118), a known hydrate-bearing site, indicates that physical conditions even at these depths (~540-890m) may be highly variable. Pressure can vary within hours, and recorded temperature changes of ~1.5°C have been associated with passing storms. Moreover, increased particle abundance was observed at the site in 2007 suggesting that organic matter flux to the sediments may vary on the scale of months to years. These inputs have the potential to alter the chemical environment surrounding the hydrate, thereby affecting dissolution rates. Continuous, long-term observations of physical conditions at MC118 could provide information about the potential for natural perturbations to impact hydrate dynamics on the scale of weeks or even days necessary for assessing the long-term persistence of hydrate outcrops. Sleeping Dragon is a massive hydrate outcrop at MC118 that has been monitored since 2006. Three years ago, researchers returning to the site found it visibly diminished relative to previous observations. This apparent shift toward net dissolution of the mound may have been

  20. Integration of ambient seismic noise monitoring, displacement and meteorological measurements to infer the temperature-controlled long-term evolution of a complex prone-to-fall cliff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombero, C.; Baillet, L.; Comina, C.; Jongmans, D.; Larose, E.; Valentin, J.; Vinciguerra, S.

    2018-06-01

    Monitoring the temporal evolution of resonance frequencies and velocity changes detected from ambient seismic noise recordings can help in recognizing reversible and irreversible modifications within unstable rock volumes. With this aim, the long-term ambient seismic noise data set acquired at the potentially unstable cliff of Madonna delSasso (NW Italian Alps) was analysed in this study, using both spectral analysis and cross-correlation techniques. Noise results were integrated and compared with direct displacement measurements and meteorological data, to understand the long-term evolution of the cliff. No irreversible modifications in the stability of the site were detected over the monitored period. Conversely, daily and seasonal air temperature fluctuations were found to control resonance frequency values, amplitudes and directivities and to induce reversible velocity changes within the fractured rock mass. The immediate modification in the noise parameters due to temperature fluctuations was interpreted as the result of rock mass thermal expansion and contraction, inducing variations in the contact stiffness along the fractures isolating two unstable compartments. Differences with previous case studies were highlighted in the long-term evolution of noise spectral amplitudes and directivities, due to the complex 3-D fracture setting of the site and to the combined effects of the two unstable compartments.

  1. Water electrolysis system refurbishment and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenough, B. M.

    1972-01-01

    The electrolytic oxygen generator for the back-up water electrolysis system in a 90-day manned test was refurbished, improved and subjected to a 182-day bench test. The performance of the system during the test demonstrated the soundness of the basic electrolysis concept, the high development status of the automatic controls which allowed completely hands-off operation, and the capability for orbital operation. Some design improvements are indicated.

  2. The review of ISTC/STCU 'On the environmental assessment for long term monitoring and remediation in and around Fukushima'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruoka, S.

    2017-01-01

    An international project ISTC/STCU 'On the Environmental Assessment for Long Term Monitoring and Remediation in and Around Fukushima' was conducted for 4 years. The project was involved by ISTC/STCU, DOE in the United State, IAEA/JAEA, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and technology Japan, and the other institutions. The objectives were to remedy for radioactive contamination in soil after the Fukushima One nuclear power plant accident in 2011, where the scientific experiences to recover farming and forest area in Chernobyl were applied. This review summarizes the exploration results. (author)

  3. BIM applied in historical building documentation and refurbishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H.-M.; Yang, W.-B.; Yen, Y.-N.

    2015-08-01

    Historical building conservation raises two important issues which are documentation and refurbishing. For the recording and documentation, we already have developed 3d laser scanner and such photogrammetry technology those represent a freeze object of virtual reality by digital documentation. On the other hand, the refurbished engineering of historic building is a challenge for conservation heritage which are not only reconstructing the damage part but also restoring tangible cultural heritage. 3D digital cultural heritage models has become a topic of great interest in recent years. One reason for this is the more widespread use of laser scanning and photogrammetry for recording cultural heritage sites. These technologies have made it possible to efficiently and accurately record complex structures remotely that would not have been possible with previous survey methods. In addition to these developments, digital information systems are evolving for the presentation, analysis and archival of heritage documentation.

  4. Recommendations for long-term home oxygen therapy in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola V. Adde

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Long-term home oxygen therapy is increasingly common in pediatrics and has many indications. There are relevant particularities when compared to its use in adults, regarding indications, directions for use, and monitoring.

  5. Solar thermal coldness in Rottweil. First results from a long-term monitoring; Solarthermische Kaelte in Rottweil. Erste Ergebnisse eines Langzeitmonitorings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Klaus; Bollin, Elmar [Hochschule Offenburg (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    In cooperation with the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE (Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany) the University of Offenburg (Offenburg, Federal Republic of Germany) accompanied the solarly assisted air-conditioning of Deutsche Telekom in Rottweil (Federal Republic of Germany). The plant was sponsored by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) in line with the research project 'Solarthermie2000plus'. In the meanwhile first results from a long-term monitoring are available.

  6. A Real-Time Measurement System for Long-Life Flood Monitoring and Warning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Skarmeta Gómez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A flood warning system incorporates telemetered rainfall and flow/water level data measured at various locations in the catchment area. Real-time accurate data collection is required for this use, and sensor networks improve the system capabilities. However, existing sensor nodes struggle to satisfy the hydrological requirements in terms of autonomy, sensor hardware compatibility, reliability and long-range communication. We describe the design and development of a real-time measurement system for flood monitoring, and its deployment in a flash-flood prone 650 km2 semiarid watershed in Southern Spain. A developed low-power and long-range communication device, so-called DatalogV1, provides automatic data gathering and reliable transmission. DatalogV1 incorporates self-monitoring for adapting measurement schedules for consumption management and to capture events of interest. Two tests are used to assess the success of the development. The results show an autonomous and robust monitoring system for long-term collection of water level data inmany sparse locations during flood events.

  7. Long term governance for radioactive waste management. Final report of Cowan2 - work package 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Th.; Schieber, C.; Lavele, S.

    2006-12-01

    This report aims at identifying key features for the long term governance of radioactive waste. It is proposed by the COWAN2 Work Package 4 the purpose of which was to identify, discuss and analyse the institutional, ethical, economic and legal considerations raised by long term radioactive waste storage or disposal on the three interrelated issues of: responsibility and ownership of radioactive waste on the long term, continuity of local dialogue between stakeholders and monitoring of radioactive waste management facilities, and compensation and sustainable development. The aim is also to propose guidelines in order to better address long term issues in decision-making processes and start long term governance

  8. Long term governance for radioactive waste management. Final report of Cowan2 - work package 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Th.; Schieber, C.; Lavele, S.

    2006-12-15

    This report aims at identifying key features for the long term governance of radioactive waste. It is proposed by the COWAN2 Work Package 4 the purpose of which was to identify, discuss and analyse the institutional, ethical, economic and legal considerations raised by long term radioactive waste storage or disposal on the three interrelated issues of: responsibility and ownership of radioactive waste on the long term, continuity of local dialogue between stakeholders and monitoring of radioactive waste management facilities, and compensation and sustainable development. The aim is also to propose guidelines in order to better address long term issues in decision-making processes and start long term governance

  9. a Method for the Extraction of Long-Term Deformation Characteristics of Long-Span High-Speed Railway Bridges Using High-Resolution SAR Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, H. G.; Liu, L. Y.

    2016-06-01

    Natural causes and high-speed train load will result in the structural deformation of long-span bridges, which greatly influence the safety operation of high-speed railway. Hence it is necessary to conduct the deformation monitoring and regular status assessment for long-span bridges. However for some traditional surveying technique, e.g. control-point-based surveying techniques, a lot of human and material resources are needed to perform the long-term monitoring for the whole bridge. In this study we detected the long-term bridge deformation time-series by persistent scatterer interferometric synthetic aperture radar (PSInSAR) technique using the high-resolution SAR images and external digital elevation model. A test area in Nanjing city in China is chosen and TerraSAR-X images and Tandem-X for this area have been used. There is the Dashengguan bridge in high speed railway in this area as study object to evaluate this method. Experiment results indicate that the proposed method can effectively extract the long-term deformation of long-span high-speed railway bridge with higher accuracy.

  10. A METHOD FOR THE EXTRACTION OF LONG-TERM DEFORMATION CHARACTERISTICS OF LONG-SPAN HIGH-SPEED RAILWAY BRIDGES USING HIGH-RESOLUTION SAR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Jia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural causes and high-speed train load will result in the structural deformation of long-span bridges, which greatly influence the safety operation of high-speed railway. Hence it is necessary to conduct the deformation monitoring and regular status assessment for long-span bridges. However for some traditional surveying technique, e.g. control-point-based surveying techniques, a lot of human and material resources are needed to perform the long-term monitoring for the whole bridge. In this study we detected the long-term bridge deformation time-series by persistent scatterer interferometric synthetic aperture radar (PSInSAR technique using the high-resolution SAR images and external digital elevation model. A test area in Nanjing city in China is chosen and TerraSAR-X images and Tandem-X for this area have been used. There is the Dashengguan bridge in high speed railway in this area as study object to evaluate this method. Experiment results indicate that the proposed method can effectively extract the long-term deformation of long-span high-speed railway bridge with higher accuracy.

  11. Assessment of long-term gas sampling design at two commercial manure-belt layer barns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Li-Long; Ni, Ji-Qin; Chen, Yan; Diehl, Claude A; Heber, Albert J; Lim, Teng T

    2010-06-01

    Understanding temporal and spatial variations of aerial pollutant concentrations is important for designing air quality monitoring systems. In long-term and continuous air quality monitoring in large livestock and poultry barns, these systems usually use location-shared analyzers and sensors and can only sample air at limited number of locations. To assess the validity of the gas sampling design at a commercial layer farm, a new methodology was developed to map pollutant gas concentrations using portable sensors under steady-state or quasi-steady-state barn conditions. Three assessment tests were conducted from December 2008 to February 2009 in two manure-belt layer barns. Each barn was 140.2 m long and 19.5 m wide and had 250,000 birds. Each test included four measurements of ammonia and carbon dioxide concentrations at 20 locations that covered all operating fans, including six of the fans used in the long-term sampling that represented three zones along the lengths of the barns, to generate data for complete-barn monitoring. To simulate the long-term monitoring, gas concentrations from the six long-term sampling locations were extracted from the 20 assessment locations. Statistical analyses were performed to test the variances (F-test) and sample means (t test) between the 6- and 20-sample data. The study clearly demonstrated ammonia and carbon dioxide concentration gradients that were characterized by increasing concentrations from the west to east ends of the barns following the under-cage manure-belt travel direction. Mean concentrations increased from 7.1 to 47.7 parts per million (ppm) for ammonia and from 2303 to 3454 ppm for carbon dioxide from the west to east of the barns. Variations of mean gas concentrations were much less apparent between the south and north sides of the barns, because they were 21.2 and 20.9 ppm for ammonia and 2979 and 2951 ppm for carbon dioxide, respectively. The null hypotheses that the variances and means between the 6- and 20

  12. Energy refurbishment of the Italian residential building stock: energy and cost analysis through the application of the building typology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballarini, Ilaria; Corrado, Vincenzo; Madonna, Francesco; Paduos, Simona; Ravasio, Franco

    2017-01-01

    The European residential building stock is largely composed of buildings with poor energy performance, therefore basic retrofit actions could lead to significant energy savings. However, energy refurbishment measures should be identified in accurate way, taking into account the technical viability and aiming both to increase the building energy performance and to restrain the costs. The present article investigates the effects of different measures applied to the Italian residential building stock by using the building typology, which consists of 120 building types, representative of six construction ages, four building sizes and five climatic zones. A quasi-steady state model has been used to calculate the energy performance; the economic evaluation has been carried out as specified in the EU cost-optimal comparative methodology (Directive 2010/31/EU). The most effective measures and packages of measures, in terms of energy saving and global cost reduction, are identified and discussed. The results are addressed to important purposes for energy policy, as for instance: (a) to provide political authorities with the most effective energy efficiency measures as to encourage retrofit processes through the allocation of financial incentives, (b) to offer a knowledge-base for developing energy refurbishment scenarios of residential building stocks and forecasting future energy resource demand. - Highlights: • Investigation of energy savings and cost effectiveness of the Italian housing stock refurbishments. • Application of the building typology approach of the IEE-TABULA project. • Knowledge-base for bottom-up models of the building stock energy performance. • Supporting the political authorities to promote effective refurbishment measures.

  13. Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreie, Ken [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, CO (United States); Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States)

    2016-06-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) prepared this Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (LTSMP) for the Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site (the Gnome site). The Gnome site is approximately 25 miles east of Carlsbad in Eddy County, New Mexico (Figure 1). The site was the location of a 3-kiloton-yield underground nuclear test and radioisotope groundwater tracer test. The tests resulted in residual contamination and post-detonation features that require long-term oversight. Long-term responsibility for the site was transferred from the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office to LM on October 1, 2006. Responsibilities include surveillance, monitoring, and maintenance of institutional controls (ICs) as part of the long-term stewardship of the site. Long-term stewardship is designed to ensure protection of human health and the environment.

  14. Telemetric implantable pressure sensor for short- and long-term monitoring of intracranial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischholz, M; Sarmento, L; Wenzel, M; Aquilina, K; Edwards, R; Coakham, H B

    2007-01-01

    Patients with hydrocephalus, idiopathic intracranial hypertension and head injury frequently require monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) and may need repeated episodes of monitoring months or years apart. The gold standard for measurement of ICP remains the external ventricular catheter. This is a fluid-filled catheter transducer system that allows regular recalibration and correction of zero drift by its position relative to a fixed anatomical reference. It also allows drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), providing a means of lowering the ICP. Several catheter tip transducer systems are currently in clinical use, including using strain gauges or fiber-optical pressure sensing techniques. In these devices, zero drift and calibration cannot be checked in vivo. All the ICP monitoring devices in current clinical use require a physical connection between the brain and the external environment. This is a source of infection and limits the duration of monitoring. A number of telemetric monitoring devices, in which data is in some way transmitted transcutaneously, have been developed over the last twenty years, but significant technical problems have precluded their use in routine clinical practice. All current ICP monitors are temporary percutaneous implanted devices. Placement of these devices carries significant morbidity, particularly infection. Patients undergoing repeated monitoring require multiple surgical procedures. Apart from decreasing the risk of infection in patients with severe head injury, the clinical value of an accurate telemetric ICP monitoring system which maintains its reliability over a long period of implantation is high.

  15. [Long-term psychiatric hospitalizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancke, L; Amariei, A

    2017-02-01

    Long-term hospitalizations in psychiatry raise the question of desocialisation of the patients and the inherent costs. Individual indicators were extracted from a medical administrative database containing full-time psychiatric hospitalizations for the period 2011-2013 of people over 16 years old living in the French region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais. We calculated the proportion of people who had experienced a hospitalization with a duration of 292 days or more during the study period. A bivariate analysis was conducted, then ecological data (level of health-care offer, the deprivation index and the size of the municipalities of residence) were included into a multilevel regression model in order to identify the factors significantly related to variability of long-term hospitalization rates. Among hospitalized individuals in psychiatry, 2.6% had had at least one hospitalization of 292 days or more during the observation period; the number of days in long-term hospitalization represented 22.5% of the total of days of full-time hospitalization in psychiatry. The bivariate analysis revealed that seniority in the psychiatric system was strongly correlated with long hospitalization rates. In the multivariate analysis, the individual indicators the most related to an increased risk of long-term hospitalization were: total lack of autonomy (OR=9.0; 95% CI: 6.7-12.2; P<001); diagnoses of psychological development disorders (OR=9.7; CI95%: 4.5-20.6; P<.001); mental retardation (OR=4.5; CI95%: 2.5-8.2; P<.001): schizophrenia (OR=3.0; CI95%: 1.7-5.2; P<.001); compulsory hospitalization (OR=1.7; CI95%: 1.4-2.1; P<.001); having experienced therapeutic isolation (OR=1.8; CI95%: 1.5-2.1; P<.001). Variations of long-term hospitalization rates depending on the type of establishment were very high, but the density of hospital beds or intensity of ambulatory activity services were not significantly linked to long-term hospitalization. The inhabitants of small urban units had

  16. Guided wave technology for in-service inspection and online monitoring for long term operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoncini, Francesco; Raugi, Marco; Cappelli, Mauro; Cordella, Francesco; Mazzini, Davide

    2015-01-01

    In-Service Inspection (ISI) and monitoring of all equipment (Systems, Structures and Components, SSCs) of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), are actions aimed at preventing failures both for economical and safety purposes. SSCs ageing due to stresses such as corrosion, load variations, flow conditions, temperature and neutron irradiation can be a potential limit for NPP life extension or operation beyond their license term (Long Term Operation. LTO). ISI has a main role on the actual possibility of LTO assuring the required safety. Guided Waves are structure-borne ultrasonic waves that propagate along the structure confined and guided by its geometric boundaries. Guided Wave Testing can find defect locations through long-range screening using low-frequency waves (from 5 to 250 kHz). The technology is regularly used for pipe testing in the oil and gas industry. In the nuclear industry, regulators are working to standardize monitoring and inspection procedures. To use the technology inside an active plant, operators must solve issues like high temperatures (up to more than 300degC inside a light-water reactor's primary piping), high wall thickness of components in the primary circuit and characteristic defect typologies. Magnetostrictive sensors are expected to overcome such issues due to their physical properties, namely robust constitution and simplicity. Recent experimental results have demonstrated magnetostrictive transducers can withstand temperatures close to 300degC. In this paper, new experimental tests conducted using such a methodology will be described and open issues related to high temperature guided wave applications (e.g. wave velocity or amplitude fluctuations during propagation in variable temperature components) will be discussed. (author)

  17. Improvement in long-term ECMO by detailed monitoring of anticoagulation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Alicia; Uber, Walter; Laws, Stacey; Cochran, Joel

    2011-01-01

    The use of unfractionated heparin (UFH) as an anticoagulant during long-term extracorporeal support presents a unique challenge for the clinician in balancing the amount of anticoagulant to maintain adequate anticoagulation without causing excessive bleeding. Activated clotting times (ACT) and activated partial thromboplastin times (aPTT) are the most common modality to monitor UFH on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Limitations to these tests include consumptive coagulopathies, clotting factor deficiencies, platelet dysfunction, and fibrinolysis. The following case report describes the use of alternative monitoring strategies to assess more accurately anticoagulation during ECMO. A 20-month-old female presented to the emergency department with a 5-6 day history of cough, fever, tachypnea, and respiratory distress. She was diagnosed with influenza A and B with pneumonia. The patient was placed on veno-venous ECMO (V-V ECMO) after mechanical ventilation failed. On ECMO day eight, the patient developed a thrombus in her inferior vena cava and pleural effusions, obstructing cannula flow. Laboratory tests revealed the ACT was within range, yet the aPTT was dropping, despite increased heparin. Heparin levels were low and antithrombin-III (AT) concentrations were 40%. Recombinant AT was given and subsequent aPTTs were within the therapeutic range. Later, the aPTT decreased to 475 mg/ dL, and Factor VIII >150 IU/dL, suggesting an acute phase reaction or ongoing systemic inflammation, increasing the risk for thrombosis. We maintained heparin assays between 0.5-0.7 IU/mL and AT >60% to assure heparin's effect. The patient showed no signs of excess bleeding, blood product administration, or clots in the circuit, suggesting proper anticoagulation. The patient was successfully weaned on day 33 and is currently alive and at home. Monitoring of anti-Xa UFH and AT proved effective for measuring anticoagulation and detecting inconsistencies in other anticoagulation

  18. Austro-Hungarian Public Building Refurbishment and Energy Efficiency Measures - A Case Study on a Public Building in Sarajevo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihbegović, Amira; Čaušević, Amir; Rustempašić, Nerman; Avdić, Dženis; Smajlović, Esad

    2017-10-01

    Among other pieces of architectural historical heritage in Sarajevo, and Bosnia-Herzegovina in general, the Austro-Hungarian architecture has preserved its original architectural, artistic and engineering characteristics. Both residential and public representative urban blocks, streets and squares are of distinguishable ambience in the architectural and urban image of the city and are testifying about our architectural past. A number of buildings is valorised and protected by law in terms of their architectural, artistic and historical value. In addition, these buildings have a distinct functional, ambiental, historical, and even aesthetical value. To make them last longer, refurbishment of these buildings is challenging and presents potential and multiple benefits for the city, and beyond. Refurbishing built environment through functional reorganizing, redesign and energy efficiency measures applications could result in prolonged longevity, architectural identity preservation and interior comfort improvement. Besides, implemented measures for energy efficiency, through the refurbishment process, should optimize the needs for energy consumption in treated buildings. This paper defines options in comfort improvements and redesign, without implying risks to the building longevity, analyses interventions and energy efficiency measures which would enable potential energy saving assessment in the refurbishment process of masonry buildings. This paper also discusses the different techniques that can be adopted for conservation and preservation of historical masonry buildings from the Austro-Hungarian period dealing with energy efficiency. The works were preceded by historical research and on-site investigations. This paper describes a methodology to quantify their vulnerability. A scheme of structural retrofitting is suggested following the research conducted. Revitalization of the building consisted in the reconstruction of the old building structure, creating the inner

  19. Measuring Success in Obesity Prevention: A Synthesis of Health Promotion Switzerland's Long-Term Monitoring and Evaluation Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Ackermann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Since 2007, Health Promotion Switzerland has implemented a national priority program for a healthy body weight. This article provides insight into the methodological challenges and results of the program evaluation. Methods: Evaluation of the long-term program required targeted monitoring and evaluation projects addressing different outcome levels. The evaluation was carried out according to the Swiss Model for Outcome Classification (SMOC, a model designed to classify the effects of health promotion and prevention efforts. Results: The results presented in this article emphasize both content and methods. The national program successfully achieved outcomes on many different levels within complex societal structures. The evaluation system built around the SMOC enabled assessment of program progress and the development of key indicators. However, it is not possible to determine definitively to what extent the national program helped stabilize the prevalence of obesity in Switzerland. Conclusion: The model has shown its utility in providing a basis for evaluation and monitoring of the national program. Continuous analysis of data from evaluation and monitoring has made it possible to check the plausibility of suspected causal relationships as well as to establish an overall perspective and assessment of effectiveness supported by a growing body of evidence.

  20. An Integrated Refurbishment Design Process to Energy Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantinou, T.; Knaack, U.

    2013-01-01

    Given the very low renewal rate of the building stock, the efforts to reduce energy demand must focus on the existing residential buildings. Even though awareness has been raised, the effect on energy efficiency is often neglected during the design phase of refurbishment projects. This paper

  1. Parental monitoring of children's media consumption: the long-term influences on body mass index in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiberio, Stacey S; Kerr, David C R; Capaldi, Deborah M; Pears, Katherine C; Kim, Hyoun K; Nowicka, Paulina

    2014-05-01

    findings suggest that parental behaviors related to children's media consumption may have long-term effects on children's BMI in middle childhood. They underscore the importance of targeting parental media monitoring in efforts to prevent childhood obesity.

  2. SHORT-TERM AND LONG-TERM WATER LEVEL PREDICTION AT ONE RIVER MEASUREMENT LOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Scitovski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Global hydrological cycles mainly depend on climate changes whose occurrence is predominantly triggered by solar and terrestrial influence, and the knowledge of the high water regime is widely applied in hydrology. Regular monitoring and studying of river water level behavior is important from several perspectives. On the basis of the given data, by using modifications of general approaches known from literature, especially from investigation in hydrology, the problem of long- and short-term water level forecast at one river measurement location is considered in the paper. Long-term forecasting is considered as the problem of investigating the periodicity of water level behavior by using linear-trigonometric regression and short-term forecasting is based on the modification of the nearest neighbor method. The proposed methods are tested on data referring to the Drava River level by Donji Miholjac, Croatia, in the period between the beginning of 1900 and the end of 2012.

  3. Long-term monitoring studies of pollutants on public lands: Bald Eagles in the Midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowerman, W.W. [Eagle Environmental Inc., Haslett, MI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The role of public agencies to monitor the populations of wildlife species with protected status is paramount to the recovery of these species. Since the early 1960s, the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) populations within the Midwest have been monitored to determine number of breeding pairs, nest occupancy, and success rates. In addition to the reproductive outcome studies, abandoned eggs, blood samples, and feather samples have been collected to determine concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and heavy metals. These surveys give an actual measure of population dynamics of a top-predator species in aquatic systems that integrates the effects of many different environmental pollutants. As concentrations of the organochlorine compounds have declined, bald eagle populations have increased in numbers and their reproductive success has improved. The recovery of this species has not been uniform however. In regions where DDT and PCB concentrations are still above thresholds associated with reproductive impairment, eagles still have impaired reproduction. These areas include the shorelines of the Great Lakes and Voyageurs National Park. Some areas such as the Chippewa National Forest have begun to show declines in reproduction due to density dependent factors. Recent proposals for ecosystem management and reclassification of the bald eagle have led to reduced emphasis for maintaining these long-term data sets. The utility and importance of maintaining surveys of top-predators that can give a measure of population-level effects of pollutants rather than an index will be discussed using examples from the Midwest.

  4. Imaging groundwater infiltration dynamics in the karst vadose zone with long-term ERT monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watlet, Arnaud; Kaufmann, Olivier; Triantafyllou, Antoine; Poulain, Amaël; Chambers, Jonathan E.; Meldrum, Philip I.; Wilkinson, Paul B.; Hallet, Vincent; Quinif, Yves; Van Ruymbeke, Michel; Van Camp, Michel

    2018-03-01

    Water infiltration and recharge processes in karst systems are complex and difficult to measure with conventional hydrological methods. In particular, temporarily saturated groundwater reservoirs hosted in the vadose zone can play a buffering role in water infiltration. This results from the pronounced porosity and permeability contrasts created by local karstification processes of carbonate rocks. Analyses of time-lapse 2-D geoelectrical imaging over a period of 3 years at the Rochefort Cave Laboratory (RCL) site in south Belgium highlight variable hydrodynamics in a karst vadose zone. This represents the first long-term and permanently installed electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) monitoring in a karst landscape. The collected data were compared to conventional hydrological measurements (drip discharge monitoring, soil moisture and water conductivity data sets) and a detailed structural analysis of the local geological structures providing a thorough understanding of the groundwater infiltration. Seasonal changes affect all the imaged areas leading to increases in resistivity in spring and summer attributed to enhanced evapotranspiration, whereas winter is characterised by a general decrease in resistivity associated with a groundwater recharge of the vadose zone. Three types of hydrological dynamics, corresponding to areas with distinct lithological and structural features, could be identified via changes in resistivity: (D1) upper conductive layers, associated with clay-rich soil and epikarst, showing the highest variability related to weather conditions; (D2) deeper and more resistive limestone areas, characterised by variable degrees of porosity and clay contents, hence showing more diffuse seasonal variations; and (D3) a conductive fractured zone associated with damped seasonal dynamics, while showing a great variability similar to that of the upper layers in response to rainfall events. This study provides detailed images of the sources of drip

  5. The results of long term coral reef monitoring at three locations in Jamaica: Monkey Island, “Gorgo City” and Southeast Cay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Creary Ford

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The global and regional impacts of climate change are having devastating consequences on the coral reef ecosystems of the Caribbean. Long term monitoring are important tool for assessing reef health. Monitoring was established in 2000 in the Bahamas, Belize and Jamaica. Following the pilot project, the program was institutionalized in Jamaica and monitoring was conducted on eight occasions from 2000 to 2010. Monkey Island and “Gorgo City” near Discovery Bay (both on the north coast and Southeast Cay at Port Royal on the south coast were selected. Macroalgae dominated the benthic substrate. Monkey Island and “Gorgo City” had the highest coral cover. Porites astreoides, Montastraea spp., Porites porities, Siderastrea siderea, and Agaricia agaricites were the most common species. Data from this programme have been used in local and regional coral reef assessment and management initiatives.

  6. A METHOD FOR THE EXTRACTION OF LONG-TERM DEFORMATION CHARACTERISTICS OF LONG-SPAN HIGH-SPEED RAILWAY BRIDGES USING HIGH-RESOLUTION SAR IMAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, H. G.; Liu, L. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Natural causes and high-speed train load will result in the structural deformation of long-span bridges, which greatly influence the safety operation of high-speed railway. Hence it is necessary to conduct the deformation monitoring and regular status assessment for long-span bridges. However for some traditional surveying technique, e.g. control-point-based surveying techniques, a lot of human and material resources are needed to perform the long-term monitoring for the whole bridge. In this...

  7. Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy V.P. Bliss

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke.

  8. Assessment Tools as Drivers for SPI: Short-term Benefits and Long-term Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mûller, Sune Dueholm; Nørbjerg, Jacob; Cho, Hiu Ngan

    2007-01-01

    Full scale software process maturity assessments are costly, can have large organizational impact, and are carried out at long (12-24 months) intervals. Consequently, there is a need for techniques and tools to monitor and help manage an SPI project through inexpensive, ongoing progress assessments....... In this paper we present findings from two cases of using such a tool. We have found that the tool does provide useful snapshots of the status of SPI projects, but that long-term use of the tool introduces costs and challenges related to modifying and tailoring the tool to both the organizational context...

  9. Long-term surveillance plan for the Burro Canyon disposal cell, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plant (LTSP) describes the US Department of energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Action (UMTRA) Project's burro Canyon disposal cell in San Miguel County, Colorado. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Burro Canyon disposal cell performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. No ground water monitoring will be required at the Burro Canyon disposal cell because the ground water protection strategy is supplemental standards based on low-yield from the upper-most aquifer

  10. Refurbishment of Railroad Crossties : A Technical and Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-01

    An analysis of the principal modes of failure for wooden railroad crossties was conducted and an evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of refurbishing these ties was conducted. Among the principal modes of structural deterioration, onl...

  11. Darlington refurbishment - performance improvement programs goals and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, N. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    This paper discusses the refurbishment program at the Darlington site. The program focuses on safety, integrity, excellence and personnel. Worker safety and public safety are of the highest priority. Success resulted from collaborative engineering interface, collaborative front end planning, highly competent people and respectful relationship with partners and regulators.

  12. The long-term use of cyproterone acetate in pedophilia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A J; Cernovsky, Z; Magnus, R V

    1992-01-01

    This investigation reports the long-term use of the antiandrogen cyproterone acetate (CPA) in a pedophile, who was studied continuously over 38 months. Measures of sexual arousal, serum testosterone, and gonadotropin levels were significantly reduced by the drug as compared with placebo and no treatment; prolactin levels were significantly elevated. Some workers have observed that long-term administration of CPA (more than one year, which was then discontinued) produced enduring (in some cases apparently permanent) anti-libidinal effects; however, in the case described, within three weeks of stopping the drug, all measures had returned to pretrial levels. The importance of continuous long-term monitoring in sex offenders receiving an antiandrogen is discussed.

  13. Life-long diseases need life-long treatment: long-term safety of ciclosporin in canine atopic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Tim; Reece, Douglas; Roberts, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Ciclosporin (Atopica; Novartis Animal Health) has been licensed for canine atopic dermatitis (AD) since 2002. Adverse events (AEs) have been reported in 55 per cent of 759 dogs in 15 clinical trials, but are rare in pharmacovigilance data (71.81 AEs/million capsules sold). Gastrointestinal reactions were most common, but were mild and rarely required intervention. Other AEs were rare (≤1 per cent in clinical trials; metabolism is not clinically significant for normal dogs. Concomitant treatment with most drugs is safe. Effects on cytochrome P450 and MDR1 P-glycoprotein activity may elevate plasma ciclosporin concentrations, but short-term changes are not clinically significant. Monitoring of complete blood counts, urinalysis or ciclosporin levels is not justified except with higher than recommended doses and/or long-term concurrent immunosuppressive drugs. Ciclosporin is not a contraindication for killed (including rabies) vaccines, but the licensed recommendation is that live vaccination is avoided during treatment. In conclusion, ciclosporin has a positive risk-benefit profile for the long-term management of canine AD. PMID:24682696

  14. Long-Term Symbolic Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, William G; Trafton, J. G

    2007-01-01

    What are the characteristics of long-term learning? We investigated the characteristics of long-term, symbolic learning using the Soar and ACT-R cognitive architectures running cognitive models of two simple tasks...

  15. Pediatric polytrauma : Short-term and long-term outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderSluis, CK; Kingma, J; Eisma, WH; tenDuis, HJ

    Objective: To assess the short-term and long-term outcomes of pediatric polytrauma patients and to analyze the extent to which short-term outcomes can predict long-term outcomes. Materials and Methods: Ail pediatric polytrauma patients (Injury Severity Score of greater than or equal to 16, less than

  16. Loch Vale Watershed Long-Term Ecological Research and Monitoring Program: Quality Assurance Report, 2003-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, Eric E.; Baron, Jill S.

    2011-01-01

    The Loch Vale watershed project is a long-term research and monitoring program located in Rocky Mountain National Park that addresses watershed-scale ecosystem processes, particularly as they respond to atmospheric deposition and climate variability. Measurements of precipitation depth, precipitation chemistry, discharge, and surface-water quality are made within the watershed and elsewhere in Rocky Mountain National Park. As data collected for the program are used by resource managers, scientists, policy makers, and students, it is important that all data collected in Loch Vale watershed meet high standards of quality. In this report, data quality was evaluated for precipitation, discharge, and surface-water chemistry measurements collected during 2003-09. Equipment upgrades were made at the Loch Vale National Atmospheric Deposition Program monitoring site to improve precipitation measurements and evaluate variability in precipitation depth and chemistry. Additional solar panels and batteries have been installed to improve the power supply, and data completeness, at the NADP site. As a result of equipment malfunction, discharge data for the Loch Outlet were estimated from October 18, 2005, to August 17, 2006. Quality-assurance results indicate that more than 98 percent of all surface-water chemistry measurements were accurate and precise. Records that did not meet quality criteria were removed from the database. Measurements of precipitation depth, precipitation chemistry, discharge, and surface-water quality were all sufficiently complete and consistent to support project data needs.

  17. Memory effect in expressed emotions during long term group interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorbunov, R.; Barakova, E.I.; Rauterberg, M.; Ferrández Vicente, J.M.; Álvarez-Sánchez, J.R.; de la Paz López, F.; Toledo Moreo, J.; Adeli, H.

    2017-01-01

    Long-term interactions in groups can be monitored through games in which the participants need to show their social preferences by making choice to help or to use egoistic game strategy. In this paper we analyse the facial expressions of a group of isolated individuals (astronauts) during repeated

  18. A State of the Art Report on the Case Study of Hot Cell Decontamination and Refurbishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, H. J.; Jung, C. H.; Moon, J. K.; Park, G. I.; Song, K. C

    2008-08-15

    As the increase of the operation age of the domestic high radiation facilities such as IMEF, PIEF and DFDF, the necessity of decontamination and refurbishment of hot cells in these facilities is also increased. In the near future, the possibilities of refurbishment of hot cells in compliance with the new regulations, the reuse of hot cells for the other purposes and the decommissioning of the facilities also exist. To prepare against the decontamination and refurbishment of hot cells, the reports on the refurbishment, decommissioning and decontamination experiences of hot cells in USA, Japan, France, Belgium and Great Britain were investigated. ANL of USA performed the project on the decontamination of hot cells. The purpose of the project was to practically eliminate the radioactive emissions of Rn-220 to the environment and to restore the hot cells to an empty restricted use condition. The five hot cells were emptied and decontaminated for restricted use. Chemical processing facility in JAEA of Japan was used for the reprocessing study of spent fuels, hot cells in CPF were refurbished from 1995 for the tests of the newly developed reprocessing process. In a first stage, decommissioning and decontamination were fully performed by the remote operation Then, decommissioning and decontamination were performed manually. By the newly developed process, they reported that the radiation exposure of workers were satisfactorily reduced. In the other countries, they also make an effort for the refurbishment and decontamination of hot cells and it is inferred that they accumulate experiences in these fields.

  19. A study to assess the long-term stability of the ionization chamber reference system in the LNMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade Filho, O. L.; Conceição, D. A.; da Silva, C. J.; Delgado, J. U.; de Oliveira, A. E.; Iwahara, A.; Tauhata, L.

    2018-03-01

    Ionization chambers are used as secondary standard in order to maintain the calibration factors of radionuclides in the activity measurements in metrology laboratories. Used as radionuclide calibrator in nuclear medicine clinics to control dose in patients, its long-term performance is not evaluated systematically. A methodology for long-term evaluation for its stability is monitored and checked. Historical data produced monthly of 2012 until 2017, by an ionization chamber, electrometer and 226Ra, were analyzed via control chart, aiming to follow the long-term performance. Monitoring systematic errors were consistent within the limits of control, demonstrating the quality of measurements in compliance with ISO17025.

  20. A study to assess the long-term stability of the ionization chamber reference system in the LNMRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, Octavio L.T.; Conceição, Dayana A. da; Silva, Carlos J. da; Delgado, José U.; Oliveira, Antônio E. de; Iwahara, Akira; Tauhata, Luiz, E-mail: octavio@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Ionization chambers are used as secondary standard in order to maintain the calibration factors of radionuclides in the activity measurements in metrology laboratories. Used as radionuclide calibrator in nuclear medicine clinics to control dose in patients, its long-term performance is not evaluated systematically. A methodology for long-term evaluation for its stability is monitored and checked. Historical data were analyzed via control chart, produced between 2012-2017 by an ionization chamber, electrometer and {sup 226}Ra, aiming to follow the long-term performance. The results for monitoring systematic errors were consistent within the limits of control, demonstrating the quality of measurements in compliance with ISO17025. (author)

  1. Grassland habitat restoration: lessons learnt from long term monitoring of Swanworth Quarry, UK, 1997–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Maria Smith

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Habitat restoration projects are often conducted when prior use or extraction of natural resources results in land degradation. The success of restoration programmes, however, is variable, and studies that provide evidence of long term outcomes are valuable for evaluation purposes. This study focused on the restoration of vegetation within a limestone quarry in Dorset, UK between 1997 and 2014. Using a randomised block design, the effect of seed mix and seed rate on the development of community assemblage was investigated in comparison to a nearby target calcareous grassland site. We hypothesised that seed mix composition and sowing rate would influence both the trajectory of the grassland assemblage and final community composition. We found that species composition (in relation to both richness and community assemblage was strongly influenced by time and to some extent by seed rate and seed mix. However, no treatments achieved strong resemblance to the calcareous grassland target vegetation; rather they resembled mesotrophic communities. We conclude that (as with previous studies there is no “quick fix” for the establishment of a grassland community; long-term monitoring provides useful information on the trajectory of community development; sowing gets you something (in our case mesotrophic grassland, but, it may not be the target vegetation (e.g., calcicolous grassland you want that is difficult to establish and regenerate; it is important to sow a diverse mix as subsequent recruitment opportunities are probably limited; post-establishment management should be explored further and carefully considered as part of a restoration project.

  2. A risk-based monitoring framework for the long term management of used fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garisto, N.C.

    2006-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization has a mandate from the Government of Canada to consult with the public and to recommend an approach for managing Canada's used nuclear fuel. Three main fuel management methods are being explored and evaluated by the Nuclear Waste Management Organization: disposal in a Deep Geological Repository (DGR); reactor-site extended storage (RES); and centralized extended storage (CES), either above ground or below ground. The used nuclear fuel management system, whether a DGR or an extended storage system will require monitoring. In this study, a risk-based monitoring framework was developed for the used fuel management program. The proposed approach addresses the unique challenges of used fuel management being implemented in a multi-stakeholder process, including: (i) the complexity of the facilities; (ii) the need to consider both science-based risk and perceived risk in the monitoring plans; and (iii) the difficulty in conducting 'invasive' measurements of sealed systems, particularly over a very long time frame. (author)

  3. Monitoring long-term evolution of engineered barrier systems using magnets: Magnetic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigonat, N; Isnard, O; Harley, S L; Butler, I B

    2018-01-05

    Remote and non-destructive monitoring of the stability and performance of Engineered Barrier Systems for Geological Disposal Facility of is gaining considerable importance in establishing the safety cases for Higher Activity Wastes disposal. This study offers an innovative use of mineral magnetism for monitoring groundwater saturation of the barrier. Four mixtures of permanent magnets (Nd-Fe-B, coated and uncoated; SmCo and AlNiCo) and bentonite were reacted for 4, 8 and 12 months with mildly-saline, high-pH leachates, representing the fluids saturating a time-evolved engineered barrier. Coupled hysteresis and thermomagnetic analyses demonstrate how Nd-Fe-B feature a time-dependent transition from square-like ferromagnetic to superparamagnetic loop via pot-bellied and wasp-waist loops, whereas SmCo and AlNiCo do not show so extensive corrosion-related variations of the intrinsic and extrinsic magnetic properties. This study allowed to identify magnetic materials suitable for shorter- (Nd-Fe-B) and longer-term (SmCo and AlNiCo) monitoring purposes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-term monitoring of UK river basins: the disconnections between the timescales of hydrological processes and watershed management planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, N. J. K.; Burt, T.; Worrall, F.

    2016-12-01

    The UK has a wealth of hydrological monitoring data that has both good coverage in space since the early 1970s, and also a few locations where records have been kept continuously for almost 150 years. Such datasets offer unique opportunities for the hydrologist to consider how the concepts of stationarity, change, and definitions of "baseline" resources should be used to shape how we build models of these systems, and how we devise appropriate and sustainable watershed management strategies. In this paper we consider some of the UK's longest hydrological and biogeochemical records, to explore how long records can be used to shape such understanding and, in some cases, how they can be used to identify new modes of behaviour that need to be incorporated into management planning, from the scale of individual watersheds right up to the national scale. We also consider how key timescales of hydrological responses that are evident within the data may pose major problems for watershed management unless appropriate attention is paid to the potential impacts of processes that work over decadal timescales - much longer than sub-decadal water industry investment cycles or short-term projects for watershed management planning. We use our long-term records to show how key processes can be identified, and to illustrate how careful interpretation of shorter term records will improve decision-making for water resource management.

  5. Applicability of short-term accelerated biofouling studies to predict long-term biofouling accumulation in reverse osmosis membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sanawar, Huma

    2018-02-02

    Biofouling studies addressing biofouling control are mostly executed in short-term studies. It is unclear whether data collected from these experiments are representative for long-term biofouling as occurring in full-scale membrane systems. This study investigated whether short-term biofouling studies accelerated by biodegradable nutrient dosage to feed water were predictive for long-term biofouling development without nutrient dosage. Since the presence of a feed spacer has an strong effect on the degree of biofouling, this study employed six geometrically different feed spacers. Membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) were operated with the same (i) membrane, (ii) feed flow and (iii) feed water, but with feed spacers varying in geometry. For the short-term experiment, biofilm formation was enhanced by nutrient dosage to the MFS feed water, whereas no nutrient dosage was applied in the long-term experiment. Pressure drop development was monitored to characterize the extent of biofouling, while the accumulated viable biomass content at the end of the experimental run was quantified by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements. Impact of feed spacer geometry on biofouling was compared for the short-term and long-term biofouling study. The results of the study revealed that the feed spacers exhibited the same biofouling behavior for (i) the short-term (9-d) study with nutrient dosage and (ii) the long-term (96-d) study without nutrient dosage. For the six different feed spacers, the accumulated viable biomass content (pg ATP.cm) was roughly the same, but the biofouling impact in terms of pressure drop increase in time was significantly different. The biofouling impact ranking of the six feed spacers was the same for the short-term and long-term biofouling studies. Therefore, it can be concluded that short-term accelerated biofouling studies in MFSs are a representative and suitable approach for the prediction of biofouling in membrane filtration systems after long-term

  6. Long term pipeline monitoring in geomechanically sensitive environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir-Jones, I.; Sun, M. [Weir-Jones Engineering Consultants Ltd. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the oil industry, monitoring pipeline structural integrity is necessary for both regulatory and environmental purposes. Weir-Jones Engineering Consultants developed an automated structural integrity monitoring (SIM) system, data on strain, displacement and temperature are continuously acquired and automatically transmitted to the monitoring personnel. The aim of this paper is to present this technology and its implementation on one of Inter Pipeline Fund's lines as well. The automated SIM equipment was installed on a new 42'' line at the crossing of the Clearwater River close to Fort McMurray. Results showed that this technology is a good way to monitor pipelines in remote locations, environmentally sensitive areas, river and embankment crossings and in locations where external forces can put the pipeline at risk; but it should not be used otherwise as that would not be cost effective. This paper described the developed automated SIM and showed that it should only be used in specific locations to be cost effective.

  7. Looking Ahead: The Inclusion of Long-Term Futures in Cumulative Environmental Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munn, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    Proceeding of a workshop on the Inclusion of Long-Term Futures in Cumulative Environmental Assessments (CEA's) were presented.. Also included were three working group reports and papers presented at the conference. The issue of the concept of Cumulative Environmental Assessments was summarized, along with the current transformation to a more global outlook. The concepts and methodological questions associated with ecology and economics were tackled. CEA methods were discussed and a contrast was made with land-use planning. The importance of long-term monitoring programs was introduced and examples of early warning systems were given. Social science issues behind CEAs were also discussed. Recommendation e for preparing CEA's, the design of early warning monitoring systems, and public involvement, were made.. Contributed papers covered topics related to environmental assessment, pollution, and climate change

  8. Refurbishments of RF systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baelde, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes the activities of the R.F. System group during the years 1995-1996 in the frame of the refurbishment of the control system at GANIL accelerator. Modifications concerning the following sub-assemblies are mentioned: 1. voltage standards; 2. link card between the step by step motor control and the local control systems; 3. polarization system; 4. computer software for different operations. Also reported is the installation of ECR 4 source for the CO2. In this period the R2 Regrouping system has been installed, tested and put into operation. Several problems concerning the mechanical installation of the coupling loop and other problems related to the electronics operation were solved. The results obtained with the THI machine are presented

  9. Complex containment design for long-term encapsulation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sungaila, M.A.; San, E.K.W.; Palmeter, T.

    2011-01-01

    The Port Granby Project is part of the larger Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI), a community-based program for the development and implementation of a safe, local, long-term management solution for historic low-level radioactive waste in the Municipalities of Port Hope and Clarington. The Port Granby Project includes the construction of a long-term low-level radioactive waste management facility, the transfer of the contaminated material to the new facility from existing storage, construction and operation of a new waste water treatment facility, and monitoring and maintenance of the facility for a period of several hundred years. A key component of the new long-term facility is a highly-engineered containment mound incorporating a composite base liner, a leachate collection system, and a multi-layer final cover system. Issues of interest include the details of the design, the evolution of the design, as well as the field quality assurance measures that will be specified to ensure that the design is correctly implemented. (author)

  10. Water Quality and Sedimentation Data of the Coastal Intensive Site Network (CISNet) Long Term Monitoring Sites in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii from 1998 to 2001 (NODC Accession 0001473)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A long term project to monitor water quality and sediment processes in Kaneohe Bay was initiated in November 1998 and continued through July 2001. Four primary sites...

  11. Nonverbal behavior observation : collaborative gaming method for prediction of conflicts during long-term missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voynarovskaya, N.; Gorbunov, R.D.; Barakova, E.I.; Ahn, R.M.C.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Yang, H.S.; et al., xx

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for monitoring mental state of small isolated crews during long-term missions (such as space mission, polar expeditions, submarine crews, meteorological stations, and etc). It combines the records of negotiation game with monitoring of the nonverbal behavior of the

  12. Understanding valve program complexity in a refurbishment environment - learning from the past

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of Valve Program development, planning, execution and management in a refurbishment environment is an enormous undertaking requiring the proper coordination and integration of many moving parts. As such, lack of attention and understanding of this complexity has led to significant cost and schedule overruns in past refurbishment projects in the province. OPEX indicates the challenges in completing valve scope during refurbishments are related but not limited to; lack of detailed condition assessments, improper scope development, insignificant strategic approach to work task planning, scheduling and procurement, absence of contingency planning for common ‘as found’ conditions during execution, lack of proper training requirements, etc. In addition, past contracting strategies to employ numerous companies in collaboration to complete such a complex and specialized program, has resulted in further complications surrounding the management and integration of multiple quality programs and internal company processes. Finally, the aftermath of such fragmented projects results in an absolute closeout nightmare, often times taking years to locate, sift through and re-integrate pertinent information back into customer systems. Valve Program complexity cannot be understood by just anyone, only those that have lived through a refurbishment project and experienced the challenges mentioned above have the knowledge, skill, and ability to appreciate how to tactically apply past learning to realize future improvements. Furthermore, effective contractor-customer collaboration is crucial; true and in-depth knowledge and understanding of the customer quality programs, engineering and work management processes, configuration management requirements, and most importantly the imperative significance of nuclear safety, are all essential components to ensure overall alignment and program success. (author)

  13. Understanding valve program complexity in a refurbishment environment - learning from the past

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, H.E. [Babcock & Wilcox Canada Ltd., Cambridge, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    The complexity of Valve Program development, planning, execution and management in a refurbishment environment is an enormous undertaking requiring the proper coordination and integration of many moving parts. As such, lack of attention and understanding of this complexity has led to significant cost and schedule overruns in past refurbishment projects in the province. OPEX indicates the challenges in completing valve scope during refurbishments are related but not limited to; lack of detailed condition assessments, improper scope development, insignificant strategic approach to work task planning, scheduling and procurement, absence of contingency planning for common ‘as found’ conditions during execution, lack of proper training requirements, etc. In addition, past contracting strategies to employ numerous companies in collaboration to complete such a complex and specialized program, has resulted in further complications surrounding the management and integration of multiple quality programs and internal company processes. Finally, the aftermath of such fragmented projects results in an absolute closeout nightmare, often times taking years to locate, sift through and re-integrate pertinent information back into customer systems. Valve Program complexity cannot be understood by just anyone, only those that have lived through a refurbishment project and experienced the challenges mentioned above have the knowledge, skill, and ability to appreciate how to tactically apply past learning to realize future improvements. Furthermore, effective contractor-customer collaboration is crucial; true and in-depth knowledge and understanding of the customer quality programs, engineering and work management processes, configuration management requirements, and most importantly the imperative significance of nuclear safety, are all essential components to ensure overall alignment and program success. (author)

  14. Long-term wireless pH monitoring of the distal esophagus: prolonging the test beyond 48 hours is unnecessary and may be misleading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capovilla, G; Salvador, R; Spadotto, L; Voltarel, G; Pesenti, E; Perazzolo, A; Nicoletti, L; Merigliano, S; Costantini, M

    2017-10-01

    Wireless pH monitoring of the esophagus has been widely used to detect GERD for more than a decade. It is generally well tolerated and accepted by patients, but it is still unclear whether prolonging a recording beyond the usual 48 hours can improve the test's diagnostic value. The aim of this study is to examine the diagnostic yield of 96-hour pH monitoring vis-à-vis 24- and 48-hour tests, and to ascertain whether any gain in diagnostic terms was of genuine clinical utility. Patients with suspected GERD underwent 4-day PPI-off wireless pH monitoring of the distal esophagus. The capsule was inserted under endoscopic control, 6 cm above the squamocolumnar junction. Average acid exposure time was calculated after 24, 48, and 96 hours of recording. Ninety-nine patients completed the 96 hour test, and formed the study sample. The wireless test method was used in 42 patients (42.4%) unable to tolerate the traditional pH-monitoring catheter, and in 57 (57.6%) with a previous negative pH study despite symptoms suggestive of GERD. On complete analysis, 47 patients (47.5%) had a pathological test result: 19 patients within the first 24 hours (19.2%, 24 hour group); another 16 after 48 hours (+16.2%, 48 hour group), and a further 12 (+12.1%, 96 hour group) only after 96 hours of monitoring. All 47 patients with an abnormal acid exposure were offered and accepted surgery (10 patients) or medical therapy (37 patients). Clinical follow-up was obtained in all patients with a positive Bravo test result after a median 67 months (IQR: 38-98) using a validated symptom questionnaire. A good outcome after fundoplication or medical therapy was achieved in 73.7% of patients in the 24 hour group, in 62.5% of those in the 48 hour group, and in only 25% of those in the 96 hour group, P = 0.02. Long-term wireless pH monitoring enables an increase in the diagnostic yield over traditional 24- and 48-hour pH studies, but prolonging the test may constitute an unwanted bias and prompt the

  15. Near-Term Actions to Address Long-Term Climate Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Addressing climate change requires effective long-term policy making, which occurs when reflecting on potential events decades or more in the future causes policy makers to choose near-term actions different than those they would otherwise pursue. Contrary to some expectations, policy makers do sometimes make such long-term decisions, but not as commonly and successfully as climate change may require. In recent years however, the new capabilities of analytic decision support tools, combined with improved understanding of cognitive and organizational behaviors, has significantly improved the methods available for organizations to manage longer-term climate risks. In particular, these tools allow decision makers to understand what near-term actions consistently contribute to achieving both short- and long-term societal goals, even in the face of deep uncertainty regarding the long-term future. This talk will describe applications of these approaches for infrastructure, water, and flood risk management planning, as well as studies of how near-term choices about policy architectures can affect long-term greenhouse gas emission reduction pathways.

  16. Structural radioactive waste from 'retubing/refurbishment' of Embalse nuclear power plant. Regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Daniela E.; Lee Gonzales, Horacio M.; Medici, Marcela A.; Piumetti, Elsa H.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike the building of a new nuclear reactor, the 'retubing / refurbishment' of nuclear reactors that have been in operation for many years, involves the replacement of components in a radioactive environment. This requires a carefully planned radiation protection program to ensure protection of workers, the public and the environment as well as a radioactive waste management program for those radioactive waste generated during the process, which go beyond those generated during the normal operation and maintenance of the plant. Nucleoelectrica Argentina Sociedad Anonima (NA-SA) is scheduled to conduct the Life Extension Process of Embalse Nuclear Power Plant (CNE) which essentially consist of 'retubing / refurbishment' of the installation. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) will then have an important activity related to the above process. In particular, this paper will describe some points of interest related to the generation and management of radioactive waste during the 'retubing / refurbishment' of the CNE, from the regulatory point of view. (author)

  17. Large-scale, long-term silvicultural experiments in the United States: historical overview and contemporary examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S. Seymour; J. Guldin; D. Marshall; B. Palik

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a synopsis of large-scale, long-term silviculture experiments in the United States. Large-scale in a silvicultural context means that experimental treatment units encompass entire stands (5 to 30 ha); long-term means that results are intended to be monitored over many cutting cycles or an entire rotation, typically for many decades. Such studies...

  18. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado disposal site. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance

  19. Refurbishment of Point Lepreau Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.D.; Jaitly, R.; Ichiyen, N.; Petrilli, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    NB Power is planning to conduct an 18-month maintenance outage of the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS) beginning in April 2008. The major activity would be the replacement of all 380 Fuel Channel and Calandria Tube Assemblies and the connecting feeder pipes. This activity is referred to as Retube. NB Power would also take advantage of this outage to conduct a number of repairs, replacements, inspections and upgrades (such as rewinding or replacing the generator, replacement of shutdown system trip computers, replacement of certain valves and expansion joints, inspection of systems not normally accessible, etc). These collective activities are referred to as Refurbishment. This would allow the station to operate for an additional 25 to 30 years. The scope of the project was determined from the outcome of a two-year study involving a detailed condition assessment of the station that examined issues relating to ageing and obsolescence. The majority of the plant components were found to be capable of supporting extended operation without needing replacement or changes. In addition to the condition assessment, a detailed review of Safety and Licensing issues associated with extended operation was performed. This included a review of known regulatory and safety issues, comparison of the station against current codes and standards, and comparison of the station against safety related modifications made to more recent CANDU 6 units. Benefit cost analyses (BCA) were performed to assist the utility in determining which changes were appropriate to include in the project scope. As a Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for PLGS did not exist at the time, a risk baseline for the station had to be determined for use in the BCA. Extensive dialogue with the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission staff was also undertaken during this phase. A comprehensive Licensing Framework was produced upon which the CNSC provided feedback to NB Power. This feedback was important in terms of

  20. Long Term Financing of Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Sidharth

    2014-01-01

    Infrastructure projects, given their long life, require long term financing. The main sources of long term financings are insurance and pension funds who seek long term investments with low credit risk. However, in India household financial savings are mainly invested in bank deposits. Insurance and pension funds account for only a small percentage of household financial savings. In addition most infrastructure projects do not qualify for investment by insurance and pension funds because of t...

  1. Trastuzumab use during pregnancy: long-term survival after locally advanced breast cancer and long-term infant follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Jurandyr M de; Brito, Luiz G O; Moises, Elaine C D; Amorim, Andréa C; Rapatoni, Liane; Carrara, Hélio H A; Tiezzi, Daniel G

    2016-04-01

    Here, we describe the case of a patient diagnosed with locally advanced breast cancer 8 years ago. Her treatment course was neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by mastectomy and then adjuvant radiotherapy and trastuzumab (TTZ). During the use of adjuvant targeted therapy, an incidental pregnancy was diagnosed. Four years later, she developed bone and cerebral metastases, and since then, she has received courses of TTZ, capecitabine, lapatinib, and radiotherapy with intermittent control of the disease. Her 7-year-old son presents a normal physical and long-term neurological developmental curve according to specialized evaluation. This case is unique for several reasons: the patient received the highest dose of TTZ yet described during pregnancy (4400 mg); there has been a long period of disease-free survival after treatment for locally advanced breast cancer and long overall survival despite successive disease progressions during the metastatic phase of the disease (97 months), and there was a monitored pediatric follow-up period (7 years).

  2. Compact approach to long-term monitored retrievable storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    We examine a new approach to monitored retrievable storage (MRS) that is extremely compact in terms of total land use and may offer increased security and reduced environmental impact, relative to current designs. This approach involves embedding the spent fuel assemblies in monolithic blocks of metallic aluminum. While this would clearly require increased effort in the spent-fuel packaging phase, it would offer in return the above-mentioned environmental advantages, plus the option of easily extending the surface-storage time scale from several years to several decades if a need for longer storage times should arise in the future

  3. Climate change and population dynamics at the tree line: the importance of long-term studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anfodillo T

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature-limited ecosystems are believed to be extremely sensitive to global warming and the upward treeline migration is one of the most relevant phenomenon. Long term monitoring of demographic trends appears essential in order to understand possible effects of higher temperatures on cold ecosystems. Long-term monitoring of natality and mortality of a Pinus sylvestris population in the Swedish Scandes from 1973 to 2005 (Kullman 2007 showed that number of trees increased in the study plots due to higher natality rate, especially in the last decade. This reverses a natural trend of treeline decline and recession occurred in the past.

  4. Project Experiences in Research Reactor Ageing Management, Modernization and Refurbishment. Report of a Technical Meeting on Research Reactor Ageing Management, Modernization and Refurbishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-08-01

    performance, or provide new products and services to existing or potential users and customers, as well as share information on the technical details of the work involved, will allow other organizations contemplating similar work to consider and better understand their own challenges. Such understanding can help to optimize future planning in terms of budget, schedule and resource expectations, and to enable informed decision making. The IAEA is working to systematically collect existing knowledge on research reactor ageing management, modernization and refurbishment to share within the community of reactor owners, operators and oversight authorities. To this end, experts from the research reactor community gathered at IAEA headquarters from 10–14 October 2011 for the Technical Meeting on Research Reactor Ageing, Modernization and Refurbishment. The outcomes of the meeting and the submissions of the participants are documented in this publication

  5. Project Experiences in Research Reactor Ageing Management, Modernization and Refurbishment. Report of a Technical Meeting on Research Reactor Ageing Management, Modernization and Refurbishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-08-15

    performance, or provide new products and services to existing or potential users and customers, as well as share information on the technical details of the work involved, will allow other organizations contemplating similar work to consider and better understand their own challenges. Such understanding can help to optimize future planning in terms of budget, schedule and resource expectations, and to enable informed decision making. The IAEA is working to systematically collect existing knowledge on research reactor ageing management, modernization and refurbishment to share within the community of reactor owners, operators and oversight authorities. To this end, experts from the research reactor community gathered at IAEA headquarters from 10–14 October 2011 for the Technical Meeting on Research Reactor Ageing, Modernization and Refurbishment. The outcomes of the meeting and the submissions of the participants are documented in this publication.

  6. The Role of Laser Additive Manufacturing Methods of Metals in Repair, Refurbishment and Remanufacturing - Enabling Circular Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leino, Maija; Pekkarinen, Joonas; Soukka, Risto

    Circular economy is an economy model where products, components, and materials are aimed to be kept at their highest utility and value at all times. Repair, refurbishment and remanufacturing processes are procedures aiming at returning the value of the product during its life cycle. Additive manufacturing (AM) is expected to be an enabling technology in circular economy based business models. One of AM process that enables repair, refurbishment and remanufacturing is Directed Energy Deposition. Respectively Powder Bed Fusion enables manufacturing of replacement components on demand. The aim of this study is to identify the current research findings and state of art of utilizing AM in repair, refurbishment and remanufacturing processes of metallic products. The focus is in identifying possibilities of AM in promotion of circular economy and expected environmental benefits based on the found literature. Results of the study indicate significant potential in utilizing AM in repair, refurbishment and remanufacturing activities.

  7. Long term stability of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P; Gao, B [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Power system long term stability is still a developing subject. In this paper we provide our perspectives and experiences related to long term stability. The paper begins with the description of the nature of the long term stability problem, followed by the discussion of issues related to the modeling and solution techniques of tools for long term stability analysis. Cases studies are presented to illustrate the voltage stability aspect and plant dynamics aspect of long term stability. (author) 20 refs., 11 figs.

  8. Long-term changes in the surface conditions of PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.A.; Dylla, H.F.; Rossnagel, S.M.; Picraux, S.T.; Borders, J.A.; Magee, C.W.

    1977-01-01

    Long-term changes in the surface conditions of the PLT vacuum vessel wall have been monitored by the periodic analysis of a variety of sample substrates (stainless steel, alumina, silicon), exposed to PLT discharges for periods of up to several months and subsequently removed for analysis by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), photoelectron spectroscopy, ion backscattering, nuclear reaction analysis, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy

  9. Imaging groundwater infiltration dynamics in the karst vadose zone with long-term ERT monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Watlet

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Water infiltration and recharge processes in karst systems are complex and difficult to measure with conventional hydrological methods. In particular, temporarily saturated groundwater reservoirs hosted in the vadose zone can play a buffering role in water infiltration. This results from the pronounced porosity and permeability contrasts created by local karstification processes of carbonate rocks. Analyses of time-lapse 2-D geoelectrical imaging over a period of 3 years at the Rochefort Cave Laboratory (RCL site in south Belgium highlight variable hydrodynamics in a karst vadose zone. This represents the first long-term and permanently installed electrical resistivity tomography (ERT monitoring in a karst landscape. The collected data were compared to conventional hydrological measurements (drip discharge monitoring, soil moisture and water conductivity data sets and a detailed structural analysis of the local geological structures providing a thorough understanding of the groundwater infiltration. Seasonal changes affect all the imaged areas leading to increases in resistivity in spring and summer attributed to enhanced evapotranspiration, whereas winter is characterised by a general decrease in resistivity associated with a groundwater recharge of the vadose zone. Three types of hydrological dynamics, corresponding to areas with distinct lithological and structural features, could be identified via changes in resistivity: (D1 upper conductive layers, associated with clay-rich soil and epikarst, showing the highest variability related to weather conditions; (D2 deeper and more resistive limestone areas, characterised by variable degrees of porosity and clay contents, hence showing more diffuse seasonal variations; and (D3 a conductive fractured zone associated with damped seasonal dynamics, while showing a great variability similar to that of the upper layers in response to rainfall events. This study provides detailed images of

  10. Long term subsidence movements and behavior of subsidence-damaged structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahar, J.W.; Marino, G.G.

    1999-01-01

    Surface ground movement related to sag mine subsidence has been monitored above Illinois abandoned room and pillar coal workings for periods of more than 15 years. The long term movement related to a specific mine subsidence is typically small relative to the initial displacements but have caused crack and tilt damage in both repaired and unrepaired structures. Seasonal variations in ground surface elevations are superimposed on the downward movement related to mine subsidence. Thus it is necessary to measure long term subsidence movement at about the same time each year in order to minimize environmental factors. This paper presents long term monitoring data from five subsidence sags in central and southern Illinois. The abandoned coal mine workings are located at depths of 160 to 460 ft below the ground surface. measured residual mine subsidence ranges between 1.4 and 3.6 in. 4.4 to 15 years after mine failure. The magnitude of downward displacement is greater than settlement design values (1 in.) and are at rates (0.0004 to 0.0056 ft/month) that cause damage to structures. Most of the damage in unrepaired structures occurs along existing cracks and separations. In all five cases, the ground movements are continuing at residual rates. Sag subsidence movement in Illinois takes place for a minimum of five years after the damage is manifested at the ground surface. A classification of say development is provided based on the displacement-time data

  11. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR section 40.27(b) and 40 CFR section 192.03

  12. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR section 40.27(b) and 40 CFR section 192.03

  13. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  14. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  15. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  16. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR section 40.27(b) and 40 CFR section 192.03

  17. Long-term stable, long-term safe storage of residues and radioactive waste. Contribution to discussion to the storage (final storage); Langzeitstabile, langzeitsichere Verwahrung von Rueckstaenden und radioaktiven Abfaellen. Beitrag zur Diskussion um Lagerung (Endlagerung)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lersow, Michael [DGGT e.V., Breitenbrunn/Erzgeb. (Germany). Ak 5.5 Tailings; Gellermann, Rainer [Nuclear Control and Consulting GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    In this paper it is presented, where radioactive waste and residues occur, how these materials can be classified, which rules and regulations have to be complied with regarding the disposal and which geotechnical environmental constructions (final repositories) are suitable to guarantee a safe long-term disposal of these materials. Primary protection objective is ''to permanently prevent the transfer of toxic, radioactive contaminations into the biosphere by air, water or rock path or to keep the amount of contamination within a commonly accepted range''. Radionuclide inventories and the given time period considered for long-term safety are compared with. It is shown, that the site-specific disposal solutions cannot be justified by the radioactive inventory deposited there. The given period of 10{sup 6} years is critically evaluated. Based on this it is suggested to subdivide this period into two time periods with different prognosis reliabilities. Results of a specially designed long-term monitoring as part of the site-specific waste disposal solution should be considered for the long-term safety proof. A modular concept for the final storage of High Active Waste (HAW) is derived based on the critical evaluation of the long-term safety, including transmutation, provisional storage and monitoring module. A foundation model is proposed to guarantee the financial resources required for the disposal of HAW.

  18. Ion beam analysis of gas turbine blades: evaluation of refurbishment ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Refurbishment of hot components of gas turbines damaged in the harsh working environments is neces- ... 3000 r.p.m. and fluid forces that can cause fracture, yield- ... 800, 1200 and 2000 grit by employing mechanical grinding.

  19. Implementing CUAHSI and SWE observation data models in the long-term monitoring infrastructure TERENO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J. F.; Stender, V.; Schroeder, M.

    2013-12-01

    Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) is an interdisciplinary and long-term research project spanning an Earth observation network across Germany. It includes four test sites within Germany from the North German lowlands to the Bavarian Alps and is operated by six research centers of the Helmholtz Association. The contribution by the participating research centers is organized as regional observatories. The challenge for TERENO and its observatories is to integrate all aspects of data management, data workflows, data modeling and visualizations into the design of a monitoring infrastructure. TERENO Northeast is one of the sub-observatories of TERENO and is operated by the German Research Centre for Geosciences GFZ in Potsdam. This observatory investigates geoecological processes in the northeastern lowland of Germany by collecting large amounts of environmentally relevant data. The success of long-term projects like TERENO depends on well-organized data management, data exchange between the partners involved and on the availability of the captured data. Data discovery and dissemination are facilitated not only through data portals of the regional TERENO observatories but also through a common spatial data infrastructure TEODOOR. TEODOOR bundles the data, provided by the different web services of the single observatories, and provides tools for data discovery, visualization and data access. The TERENO Northeast data infrastructure integrates data from more than 200 instruments and makes the data available through standard web services. Data are stored following the CUAHSI observation data model in combination with the 52° North Sensor Observation Service data model. The data model was implemented using the PostgreSQL/PostGIS DBMS. Especially in a long-term project, such as TERENO, care has to be taken in the data model. We chose to adopt the CUAHSI observational data model because it is designed to store observations and descriptive information (metadata

  20. Long-term trends in airborne SO2 in an air quality monitoring station in Seoul, Korea, from 1987 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Azmatullah; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Szulejko, Jan E; Brown, Richard J C; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Oh, Jong-Min; Shin, Yong Soon; Adelodun, Adedeji A

    2017-08-01

    Atmospheric concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) was intermittently measured at an air quality monitoring (AQM) station in the Yong-san district of Seoul, Korea, between 1987 and 2013. The SO 2 level was compared with other important pollutants concurrently measured, including methane (CH 4 ), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), ozone (O 3 ), and particulate matter (PM 10 ). If split into three different periods (period 1, 1987-1988, period 2, 1999-2000, and period 3, 2004-2013), the respective mean [SO 2 ] values (6.57 ± 4.29, 6.30 ± 2.44, and 5.29 ± 0.63 ppb) showed a slight reduction across the entire study period. The concentrations of SO 2 are found to be strongly correlated with other pollutants such as CO (r = 0.614, p = 0.02), which tracked reductions in reported emissions due to tighter emissions standards enacted by the South Korean government. There was also a clear seasonal trend in the SO 2 level, especially in periods 2 and 3, reflecting the combined effects of domestic heating by coal briquettes and meteorological conditions. Although only a 16% concentration reduction was achieved during the 27-year study duration, this is significant if one considers rapid urbanization, an 83.2% increase in population, and rapid industrialization that took place during that period. Since 1970, a network of air quality monitoring (AQM) stations has been operated by the Korean Ministry of Environment (KMOE) for routine nationwide monitoring of air pollutant concentrations in urban/suburban areas. To date, the information obtained from these stations has provided a platform for analyzing long-term trends of major pollutant species. In this study, we examined the long-term trends of SO 2 levels and relevant environmental parameters monitored continuously in the Yong-san district of Seoul between 1987 and 2013. The data were analyzed over various time scales (i.e., monthly, seasonal, and annual intervals). The results obtained from

  1. A wearable wireless ECG monitoring system with dynamic transmission power control for long-term homecare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yishan; Doleschel, Sammy; Wunderlich, Ralf; Heinen, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a wearable wireless ECG monitoring system based on novel 3-Lead electrode placements for long-term homecare. The experiment for novel 3-Lead electrode placements is carried out, and the results show that the distance between limb electrodes can be significantly reduced. Based on the new electrode position, a small size sensor node, which is powered by a rechargeable battery, is designed to detect, amplify, filter and transmit the ECG signals. The coordinator receives the data and sends it to PC. Finally the signals are displayed on the GUI. In order to control the power consumption of sensor node, a dynamic power adjustment method is applied to automatically adjust the transmission power of the sensor node according to the received signal strength indicator (RSSI), which is related to the distance and obstacle between sensor node and coordinator. The system is evaluated when the user, who wears the sensor, is walking and running. A promising performance is achieved even under body motion. The power consumption can be significantly reduced with this dynamic power adjustment method.

  2. Experience feedback on the refurbishment of the LECA hot laboratory at Cadarache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandjean, Jean-Paul; Autran, Bernard; Blanc, Jean-Yves

    2007-01-01

    Full text: After ten years of renovation work, the LECA hot laboratory refurbishment project has finally been completed which means it is now time to draw a few conclusions. Refurbishment of LECA was needed to enable PIE in this laboratory up to 2015. Improvements were made according to the laboratory safety assessment in March 2001. More than 400,000 working hours were clocked up without any serious accidents. The overall radiological record remained below 0.4 man.Sv for this period despite a high contamination level in the venting system and hot cells. The total fissile mass was decreased by a factor of three, and contamination was also considerably reduced. The project was finalised two years later than expected, mainly due to difficulties with two contracts on civil engineering work to improve seismic resistance and on inserting stainless steel casing into some hot cells. Renovation work on existing structures was underestimated, as was the time required to re-commission the cells. The fact that the total number of external staff working inside the facility at the same time was limited also slowed work down. This delay affected the research programmes mainly over the last two years. On the whole, 85 % of all experimentation activities were nevertheless continued during refurbishment. New steps for refurbishment have already been planned so as to extend the LECA service life once again. A line of lead-shielded cells - not designed to withstand current earthquake standards - will be demolished before the end of 2008, and civil engineering operations have been programmed for 2013-2014 so the facility will be able to withstand a maximum design earthquake. (authors)

  3. Program of long term immunological monitoring of population groups exposed to risk factors due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, R.V.; Oradovskaya, I.V.; Pinegin, B.V.

    1991-01-01

    Program for long-term monitoring of health and immune status of people exposed to ionizing radiation during efforts to to eliminate effects of Chernobyl accident and those subjected to radiation factor effect linked with their living within the contanimated territories is considered. Program purpose consists in investigation into non-stochastic and stochastic immunological effects resulting from radiation factor effect under extreme conditions and under prolonged effect of low doses; in acquisition of new data on immune system state during early after the accident and delayed periods in people which took part in recovery efforts during the accident effect elimination and those who live within the controlled territories. Program is directed to early diagnostics of immune-depented pathologic states and other disfunctions of immunity during prenosologic period, and to development and conduction of combined preventive and treatment-and-sanitary measures using immunomodulation

  4. Measurement of long term surface inflation signals at GLISP with two independent tiltmeter systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, F.W.; Rogers, J.S.; Ertman, M.E.; Thibault, J.

    1989-01-06

    Long-term monitoring at an Alberta oil recovery project was conducted to trace the Earth surface tilt response to the steam injection and related water movement through the formations at the site. Attempts were also made to relate the tilt to the various enhancement process activities in order to improve understanding of the long-term recovery process. Field comparisons were made between biaxial mercury-level borehole tiltmeters and biaxial bubble sensor tiltmeters, and some results are presented. It was generally found that the two types of tiltmeters reported similar tilt responses. Examples are shown of tilt response correlated with process activity and of a long-term tilt migration effect. 6 figs.

  5. Short term and long term effects of pulmonary rehabilitation on physical activity in COPD.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Egan, Claire

    2012-12-01

    The central purpose of pulmonary rehabilitation is to reduce morbidity by improving functional capacity through exercise. It is still unknown if improvements in functional capacity are maintained in the long-term and if this leads to increased physical activity levels as measured by a free-living activity monitor. The hypothesis of this study was that pulmonary rehabilitation would lead to a sustained increase in standard outcome measures and in daily physical activity.

  6. Home-made refurbishment of the instrumentation and control system of the TRIGA reactor of the University of Pavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borio di Tigliole, A.; Cagnazzo, M.; Magrotti, G.; Manera, S.; Salvini, A.; Musitelli, G.; Nardo, R.

    2008-01-01

    The Instrumentation and Control (I and C) System of the TRIGA reactor of the University of Pavia was dated and, in order to grant a safe and continuous reactor operation for the future, it became necessary to substitute or to upgrade the system. Since the substitution of the I and C system with a new-made one was very difficult to be performed due to long authorization procedures, an home-made refurbishment was planned. Using commercial components of high quality, almost a complete substitution, channel-by-channel, of the I and C system was realized without changing the operating and safety logics. The system includes: - the Reactor Linear Power Channel and Chart Recorder; - the Reactor Percent Power Safety Channel; - the High Voltage and Low Voltage Power Supply; - the Automatic Reactor Power Control; - the Fuel Elements and Cooling-Water Temperatures Measuring Channels; - the Water Conductivity Measuring Channel. The refurbished I and C system shows a very good operational behavior and reliability and will assure a continuous operation of the reactor for the future

  7. Design Principles and Concepts for Enhancing Long-Term Cap Performance and Confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven J. Piet; Robert P. Breckenridge; Gregory J. White; Jacob J. Jacobson; Hilary I. Inyang

    2005-01-01

    The siting of new landfills is becoming increasing difficult as the public and stakeholders want more confidence of performance for longer times and landfill owners want to store more waste in the least area while knowing and limiting their long-term liabilities. These changes motivate re-examination of long-term performance mechanisms and their implications for cap and barrier designs. Accordingly, in this paper we first consider design principles from the standpoint of long-term performance and management, including the ability to monitor and repair barriers. We then consider some design concepts that may implement these principles, especially evapo-transpiration (ET) caps. We suggest five design principles based on experience in the cap and barrier field as well as other engineering disciplines. These principles are as follows: (1) Establish a clear and defendable design basis. (2) Design for ease of monitoring and repair. (3) Analyze the barrier as a dynamic system, not static. (4) Work with nature, not against. (5) Recognize that increased complexity can reduce, not enhance, net performance. ET caps are an excellent embodiment of these design principles. We apply the design principles to ET caps, as well as variants such as erosion armor, capillary breaks, bio-intrusion layers, and low permeability material layers

  8. Long-term urethral catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bruce; Dickens, Nicola

    This article discusses long-term urethral catheterisation, focusing on the relevant anatomy and physiology, indications for the procedure, catheter selection and catheter care. It is important that nurses have a good working knowledge of long-term catheterisation as the need for this intervention will increase with the rise in chronic health conditions and the ageing population.

  9. Scout house in Koeniz - Refurbishment of the heating system; Pfadiheim Weiermatt, Sanierung Waermeversorgung - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerli, A. [Neuenschwander - Neutair AG, Berne (Switzerland); Jenni, H. [Heimverein Falkenstein, Koeniz (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project carried out in Koeniz, Switzerland. The report examines how the energy situation at the local scout house was improved. The work included the refurbishment of the heating system using solar collectors, intelligently controlled heat pumps, a photovoltaics installation and even solar-powered street lighting. The project, which received a substantial echo from the general public, is described. The scouts were directly involved in the project and, in part, in the construction work. This, according to the authors, enhanced the educational aspect of the project. The report presents details on the various installations and is illustrated with schematics and photos. Also, the results of monitoring and measurements made are presented.

  10. Long-term dust climatology in the western United States reconstructed from routine aerosol ground monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Q. Tong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces an observation-based dust identification approach and applies it to reconstruct long-term dust climatology in the western United States. Long-term dust climatology is important for quantifying the effects of atmospheric aerosols on regional and global climate. Although many routine aerosol monitoring networks exist, it is often difficult to obtain dust records from these networks, because these monitors are either deployed far away from dust active regions (most likely collocated with dense population or contaminated by anthropogenic sources and other natural sources, such as wildfires and vegetation detritus. Here we propose an approach to identify local dust events relying solely on aerosol mass and composition from general-purpose aerosol measurements. Through analyzing the chemical and physical characteristics of aerosol observations during satellite-detected dust episodes, we select five indicators to be used to identify local dust records: (1 high PM10 concentrations; (2 low PM2.5/PM10 ratio; (3 higher concentrations and percentage of crustal elements; (4 lower percentage of anthropogenic pollutants; and (5 low enrichment factors of anthropogenic elements. After establishing these identification criteria, we conduct hierarchical cluster analysis for all validated aerosol measurement data over 68 IMPROVE sites in the western United States. A total of 182 local dust events were identified over 30 of the 68 locations from 2000 to 2007. These locations are either close to the four US Deserts, namely the Great Basin Desert, the Mojave Desert, the Sonoran Desert, and the Chihuahuan Desert, or in the high wind power region (Colorado. During the eight-year study period, the total number of dust events displays an interesting four-year activity cycle (one in 2000–2003 and the other in 2004–2007. The years of 2003, 2002 and 2007 are the three most active dust periods, with 46, 31 and 24

  11. Long Term Monitoring of the Io Plasma Torus During the Galileo Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael E.

    2002-01-01

    In the fall of 1999, the Galileo spacecraft made four passes into the Io plasma torus, obtaining the best in situ measurements ever of the particle and field environment in this densest region of the Jovian magnetosphere. Supporting observations from the ground are vital for understanding the global and temporal context of the in situ observations. We conducted a three-month-long Io plasma torus monitoring campaign centered on the time of the Galileo plasma torus passes to support this aspect of the Galileo mission. The almost-daily plasma density and temperature measurements obtained from our campaign allow the much more sparse but also much more detailed Galileo data to be used to address the issues of the structure of the Io plasma torus, the stability mechanism of the Jovian magnetosphere, the transport of material from the source region near Io, and the nature and source of persistent longitudinal variations. Combining the ground-based monitoring data with the detailed in situ data offers the only possibility for answering some of the most fundamental questions about the nature of the Io plasma torus.

  12. Records, record linkage, and the identification of long term environmental hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acheson, E. D.

    1978-11-15

    Long-term effects of toxic substances in man which have been recognized so far have been noticed because they have involved gross relative risks, or bizarre effects, or have been stumbled upon by chance or because of special circumstances. These facts and some recent epidemiological evidence together suggest that a systematic approach with more precise methods and data would almost certainly reveal the effects of many more toxic substances, particularly in workers exposed in manufacturing industry. Additional ways are suggested in which record linkage techniques might be used to identify substances with long-term toxic effects. Obstacles to further progress in the field of monitoring for long-term hazards in man are: lack of a public policy dealing with confidentiality and informed consent in the use of identifiable personal records, which balances the needs of bona fide research workers with proper safeguards for the privacy of the individual, and lack of resources to improve the quality, accessibility and organization of the appropriate data. (PCS)

  13. Long-term exposure to indoor air pollution and wheezing symptoms in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Hermansen, M.N.; Loland, L.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term exposure to air pollution is suspected to cause recurrent wheeze in infants. The few previous studies have had ambiguous results. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of measured long-term exposure to indoor air pollution on wheezing symptoms in infants. We monitored......-point 'any symptom-day' (yes/no) and by standard linear regression with the end-point 'number of symptom-days'. The results showed no systematic association between risk for wheezing symptoms and the levels of these air pollutants with various indoor and outdoor sources. In conclusion, we found no evidence...... of an association between long-term exposure to indoor air pollution and wheezing symptoms in infants, suggesting that indoor air pollution is not causally related to the underlying disease. Practical Implications Nitrogen oxides, formaldehyde and fine particles were measured in the air in infants' bedrooms...

  14. Successful long-term weight loss maintenance in a rural population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsom, Vanessa A; Middleton, Kathryn M Ross; Perri, Michael G

    2011-01-01

    Few investigations of successful long-term weight loss beyond two years have been conducted, and none has examined weight changes in medically underserved rural populations of older adults. The purpose of this study was to assess long-term weight loss maintenance 3.5 years after the completion of an initial six-month lifestyle intervention for obesity among women aged 50-75 years residing in rural communities. One hundred and ten obese women with a mean (± standard deviation) age of 60.08 ± 6.17 years and mean body mass index of 36.76 ± 5.10 kg/m(2) completed an in-person assessment during which their weight and adherence to behavioral weight management strategies were evaluated. Participants showed a mean weight reduction of 10.17% ± 5.0% during the initial six- month intervention and regained 6.95% ± 9.44% from the completion of treatment to follow-up assessment 3.5 years later. A substantial proportion of participants (41.80%) were able to maintain weight reductions of 5% or greater from baseline to follow-up. "Successful" participants (those who maintained losses of 5% or greater at follow-up) reported weighing themselves, self-monitoring their intake and calories, planning meals in advance, and choosing lower calorie foods with greater frequency than "unsuccessful" participants (those who lost less than 5%). Collectively, these findings indicate that a large proportion of participants were able to maintain clinically significant weight losses for multiple years after treatment, and that self-monitoring was a key component of successful long-term weight management.

  15. Development of an autonomous device for long-term monitoring of radon in water as a tracer for submarine groundwater discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenik, Jan; Dulaiova, Henrieta; Babinec, James; Jolly, James; Williamson, Mario

    2015-01-01

    An autonomous SGD Sniffer was developed for long-term submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) monitoring. The device is equipped with a scintillation detector NaI(Tl) with a multichannel analyzer. The measurement is controlled by an embedded PC. The device is powered by batteries charged from photovoltaic panels and can be used in a remote area without any additional power source. The device detects gamma-lines from 214 Bi, a grand-grand daughter of 222 Rn. The gamma spectra are saved as text files and contain also basic diagnostic parameters for the analyzer and batteries. A script for batch processing of the spectra was developed for peak area determination. (author)

  16. Identification of long-term containment/stabilization technology performance issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthern, G.E.; Nickelson, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) faces a somewhat unique challenge when addressing in situ remedial alternatives that leave long-lived radionuclides and hazardous contaminants onsite. These contaminants will remain a potential hazard for thousands of years. However, the risks, costs, and uncertainties associated with removal and offsite disposal are leading many sites to select in situ disposal alternatives. Improvements in containment, stabilization, and monitoring technologies will enhance the viability of such alternatives for implementation. DOE's Office of Science and Technology sponsored a two day workshop designed to investigate issues associated with the long-term in situ stabilization and containment of buried, long-lived hazardous and radioactive contaminants. The workshop facilitated communication among end users representing most sites within the DOE, regulators, and technologists to define long-term performance issues for in situ stabilization and containment alternatives. Participants were divided into groups to identify issues and a strategy to address priority issues. This paper presents the results of the working groups and summarizes the conclusions. A common issue identified by the work groups is communication. Effective communication between technologists, risk assessors, end users, regulators, and other stakeholders would contribute greatly to resolution of both technical and programmatic issues

  17. Long-term monitoring of streambed sedimentation and scour in a dynamic stream based on streambed temperature time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebok, Eva; Engesgaard, Peter; Duque, Carlos

    2017-08-24

    This study presented the monitoring and quantification of streambed sedimentation and scour in a stream with dynamically changing streambed based on measured phase and amplitude of the diurnal signal of sediment temperature time series. With the applied method, changes in streambed elevation were estimated on a sub-daily scale with 2-h intervals without continuous maintenance of the measurement system, thus making both high temporal resolution and long-term monitoring of streambed elevations possible. Estimates of streambed elevation showed that during base flow conditions streambed elevation fluctuates by 2-3 cm. Following high stream stages, scouring of 2-5 cm can be observed even at areas with low stream flow and weak currents. Our results demonstrate that weather variability can induce significant changes in the stream water and consequently sediment temperatures influencing the diurnal temperature signal in such an extent that the sediment thickness between paired temperature sensors were overestimated by up to 8 cm. These observations have significant consequences on the design of vertical sensor spacing in high-flux environments and in climates with reduced diurnal variations in air temperature.

  18. Long-term associative learning predicts verbal short-term memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gary; Macken, Bill

    2018-02-01

    Studies using tests such as digit span and nonword repetition have implicated short-term memory across a range of developmental domains. Such tests ostensibly assess specialized processes for the short-term manipulation and maintenance of information that are often argued to enable long-term learning. However, there is considerable evidence for an influence of long-term linguistic learning on performance in short-term memory tasks that brings into question the role of a specialized short-term memory system separate from long-term knowledge. Using natural language corpora, we show experimentally and computationally that performance on three widely used measures of short-term memory (digit span, nonword repetition, and sentence recall) can be predicted from simple associative learning operating on the linguistic environment to which a typical child may have been exposed. The findings support the broad view that short-term verbal memory performance reflects the application of long-term language knowledge to the experimental setting.

  19. Long-term visual outcomes of craniopharyngioma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Michael J; Zapotocky, Michal; Bouffet, Eric; Bartels, Ute; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Drake, James M

    2018-05-01

    Visual function is a critical factor in the diagnosis, monitoring, and prognosis of craniopharyngiomas in children. The aim of this study was to report the long-term visual outcomes in a cohort of pediatric patients with craniopharyngioma. The study design is a retrospective chart review of craniopharyngioma patients from a single tertiary-care pediatric hospital. 59 patients were included in the study. Mean age at presentation was 9.4 years old (range 0.7-18.0 years old). The most common presenting features were headache (76%), nausea/vomiting (32%), and vision loss (31%). Median follow-up was 5.2 years (range 1.0-17.2 years). During follow-up, visual decline occurred in 17 patients (29%). On Kaplan Meier survival analysis, 47% of the cases of visual decline occurred within 4 months of diagnosis, with the remaining cases occurring sporadically during follow-up (up to 8 years after diagnosis). In terms of risk factors, younger age at diagnosis, optic nerve edema at presentation, and tumor recurrence were found to have statistically significant associations with visual decline. At final follow-up, 58% of the patients had visual impairment in at least one eye but only 10% were legally blind in both eyes (visual acuity 20/200 or worse or < 20° of visual field). Vision loss is a common presenting symptom of craniopharyngiomas in children. After diagnosis, monitoring vision is important as about 30% of patients will experience significant visual decline. Long-term vision loss occurs in the majority of patients, but severe binocular visual impairment is uncommon.

  20. OSIRIS. Refurbishment and management of ageing effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joly, C.; Guidez, J.; Contenson, G. de; Marin, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    OSIRIS, one of the French CEA research reactors (Saclay, France), achieved criticality for the first time on July 1966. During the 29 running years OSIRIS was mainly devoted to production and technological irradiations. To satisfy these objectives, OSIRIS is equipped by different test facilities allowing: the long time irradiation of different material including fuel rods, reactor vessel materials, fusion reactor components; the power ramps of fuel rods; the activation analysis; the neutron-radiography of materials and test sections... All the foreseen irradiation programmes will only be possible if safety and high performances of the reactor are guaranteed. That is why a continuous maintenance and improvement programme has taken place during the whole life of the reactor. This paper gives an overview of this programme, mainly about the part conducted during the last years. Details about characteristics of the reactor, history of experiments, maintenance programme, instrumentation and control system, electrotechnical low voltage supply network, decay tanks and water purification system are summarized. The paper focuses on the refurbishment or the replacement of the main components connected to the continuous maintenance programme to guarantee the reliability, the safety and the high performances of the reactor. (J.S.). 2 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  1. EBR Strengthening Technique for Concrete, Long-Term Behaviour and Historical Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Czaderski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Epoxy bonded steel plates (externally bonded reinforcemen: EBR for the strengthening of concrete structures were introduced to the construction industry in the late 1960s, and the use of fibre reinforced polymers (FRPs was introduced in the 1990s, which means that these techniques have already been used in construction for 50 and 25 years, respectively. In the first part of the paper, a historical survey of the development and introduction of these strengthening techniques into the construction industry are presented. The monitoring of such applications in construction is very important and gives more confidence to this strengthening technique. Therefore, in the second part of the paper, two long-term monitoring campaigns over an extraordinarily long duration will be presented. Firstly, a 47-year monitoring campaign on a concrete beam with an epoxy bonded steel plate and, secondly, a 20-year monitoring campaign on a road bridge with epoxy bonded CFRP (carbon fibre reinforced polymers strips are described. The paper is an expanded version of the paper presented at the SMAR2017 Conference.

  2. Minimal hardware Bluetooth tracking for long-term at-home elder supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Damian; McLoone, Sean; Farrell, Ronan

    2010-01-01

    The ability to automatically detect the location of an elder within their own home is a significant enabler of remote elder supervision and interaction applications. This location information is typically generated via a myriad of sensors throughout the home environment. Even with high sensor redundancy, there are still situations where traditional elder monitoring systems are unable to resolve the location of the elder. This work develops a minimal infrastructure radio-frequency localisation system for long-term elder location tracking. An RFID room-labelling technique is employed and with it, the localisation system developed in this work is shown to exhibit superior performance to more traditional localisation systems in realistic long-term deployments.

  3. Long term variability of Cygnus X-1. V. State definitions with all sky monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, V.; Hell, N.; Pottschmidt, K.; Böck, M.; Nowak, M. A.; Rodriguez, J.; Bodaghee, A.; Cadolle Bel, M.; Case, G. L.; Hanke, M.; Kühnel, M.; Markoff, S. B.; Pooley, G. G.; Rothschild, R. E.; Tomsick, J. A.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Wilms, J.

    2013-06-01

    We present a scheme for determining the spectral state of the canonical black hole Cyg X-1 using data from previous and current X-ray all sky monitors (RXTE-ASM, Swift-BAT, MAXI, and Fermi-GBM). Determinations of the hard/intermediate and soft state agree to better than 10% between different monitors, facilitating the determination of the state and its context for any observation of the source, potentially over the lifetimes of different individual monitors. A separation of the hard and the intermediate states, which strongly differ in their spectral shape and short-term timing behavior, is only possible when data in the soft X-rays (probability of Cyg X-1 remaining in a given state for at least one week to be larger than 85% in the hard state and larger than 75% in the soft state. Intermediate states are short lived, with a 50% probability that the source leaves the intermediate state within three days. Reliable detection of these potentially short-lived events is only possible with monitor data that have a time resolution better than 1 d.

  4. Early Posttransplant Tryptophan Metabolism Predicts Long-term Outcome of Human Kidney Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vavrincova-Yaghi, Diana; Seelen, Marc A.; Kema, Ido P.; Deelman, Leo E.; Heuvel, van den Marius; Breukelman, Henk; Van den Eynde, Benoit J.; Henning, Rob H.; van Goor, Harry; Sandovici, Maria

    Background. Chronic transplant dysfunction (CTD) is the leading cause of long-term loss of the renal allograft. So far, no single test is available to reliably predict the risk for CTD. Monitoring of tryptophan (trp) metabolism through indoleamine 2.3-dioxygenase (IDO) has been previously proposed

  5. Short- versus long-term radon detectors: a comparative study in Galicia, NW Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruano-Ravina, A.; Castro-Bernardez, M.; Sande-Meijide, M.; Vargas, A.; Barros-Dios, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    As reported in previous studies, Galicia (NW Spain) is an area of high radon concentrations. This study was sought to analyze the correlation between short-term (activated carbon) and long-term (alpha particle track) detectors in this geographic area, and ascertain whether there were differences in their readings that might be influenced by other variables. A comparison study, as part of a case-control study was designed in which two detectors, one of each type, were placed in the selected homes. A total of 391 homes yielded readings with both detectors. The results indicated that there was a relatively good correlation between both types of monitors (correlation coefficient 0.608; p < 0.001). The highest correlations between both detectors were observed for unventilated homes, coastal sites, and the oldest buildings. Short-term and long-term detectors do not show a similar performance in all settings or situations. It is advisable to use long-term detectors whenever possible

  6. Short- versus long-term radon detectors: a comparative study in Galicia, NW Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruano-Ravina, A. [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, C/San Francisco s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Galician Agency for Health Technology Assessment, Galician Health Service, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica, CIBERESP (Spain)], E-mail: mralbert@usc.es; Castro-Bernardez, M. [Epidemiology Department, Directorate-General for Public Health, Galician Regional Authority (Spain); Sande-Meijide, M. [Preventive Medicine Unit, Ourense Hospital Complex, Galician Health Service (Spain); Vargas, A. [Energy Techniques Institute, Polytechnic University of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain); Barros-Dios, J.M. [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, C/San Francisco s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica, CIBERESP (Spain); Preventive Medicine Unit, Santiago de Compostela University Hospital, Galician Health Service (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    As reported in previous studies, Galicia (NW Spain) is an area of high radon concentrations. This study was sought to analyze the correlation between short-term (activated carbon) and long-term (alpha particle track) detectors in this geographic area, and ascertain whether there were differences in their readings that might be influenced by other variables. A comparison study, as part of a case-control study was designed in which two detectors, one of each type, were placed in the selected homes. A total of 391 homes yielded readings with both detectors. The results indicated that there was a relatively good correlation between both types of monitors (correlation coefficient 0.608; p < 0.001). The highest correlations between both detectors were observed for unventilated homes, coastal sites, and the oldest buildings. Short-term and long-term detectors do not show a similar performance in all settings or situations. It is advisable to use long-term detectors whenever possible.

  7. Chemistry indices for long term plant health management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galt, K.J.; Cerisier, S.D.M.; Caris, N.B.

    1998-01-01

    Eskom's Koeberg Nuclear Power Station has maintained and reported on the WANO Chemistry Performance Index for a number of years. Because of the masking effects of multiple averaging, the value of the Index was questionable. The modified WANO Chemistry Performance Indicator, introduced recently, was considered an improvement. However, it was felt that it is too general to adequately address the long-term plant health management needs of a specific plant; a more tailored, plant-specific indicator is needed. A system of indices for measuring and managing long-term plant health at Eskom's 10 large fossil-fired power stations had been developed in 1996. The major success of these indices in improving plant performance management lay in their inclusion in station performance contracts. The Fossil Chemistry Index was based on the original WANO Chemistry Performance Index and suffered from the same shortcomings. Consequently, a major revision of this index was initiated to address these deficiencies. The objectives set for the revised common indicator were that target and limit values from Eskom Chemistry Standards should be incorporated, that the masking effect of multiple averaging be minimised or eliminated, that weighting factors be introduced to reflect the relative importance of selected parameters, that conditioning chemical effectiveness be monitored, and that ranges of values be accommodated. In tandem with this revision, there was requirement to include Koeberg in the reporting of long term plant health indicators. Instead of developing completely separate chemistry indicators for fossil and nuclear plant. A commonality of approach to Long Term Plant Health indicators was sought. This has resulted in a single indicator determination, with parameter selection, limit values, and target values providing the required plant specificity. (J.P.N.)

  8. Evaluation of the Long-Term Stability and Temperature Coefficient of Dew-Point Hygrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyon, R.; Vicente, T.; Hernández, P.; De Rivas, L.; Conde, F.

    2012-09-01

    The continuous quest for improved specifications of optical dew-point hygrometers has raised customer expectations on the performance of these devices. In the absence of a long calibration history, users with a limited prior experience in the measurement of humidity, place reliance on manufacturer specifications to estimate long-term stability. While this might be reasonable in the case of measurement of electrical quantities, in humidity it can lead to optimistic estimations of uncertainty. This article reports a study of the long-term stability of some hygrometers and the analysis of their performance as monitored through regular calibration. The results of the investigations provide some typical, realistic uncertainties associated with the long-term stability of instruments used in calibration and testing laboratories. Together, these uncertainties can help in establishing initial contributions in uncertainty budgets, as well as in setting the minimum calibration requirements, based on the evaluation of dominant influence quantities.

  9. Proposal for the risk management implementation phase in oil field development project by adding value on the refurbishment of critical equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Refurbishment process is a conceptual stage in product life cycle. It is utilized in existing equipment in the field by adding value to recondition and repaired equipment. The main interest of this paper is to implement and design risk management implementation phase in oil field development project on the refurbishment of critical equipment in oil and gas industry. This paper is provided base on research and experiences in risk management and learned from practical team in industry which matched by an application in oil field development project in refurbishment of critical equipment. A framework of implementation phase for risk management in oil field development project in refurbishment critical equipment were reviewed and added value on communication skills of the project team to the stakeholder and organization, which support to external body and vice-versa. Risk management framework can be used for reference of refurbishment process with simply process and developed with same concept for the next wide development project in industry.

  10. Refurbishment of damaged tools using the combination of GTAW and laser beam welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tušek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of two welding processes for the refurbishment of damaged industrial tools. In the first part the problem is presented followed by the comparison of GTAW and laser welding in terms of repair welding of damaged tools. The macrosections of the welds show the difference between both welding processes in repairing of damaged tools. At the conclusion the main findings are presented. In many cases it is useful to use both welding processes in order to achieve better weld quality and to make welding more economical. The order of the technology used depends on the tool material, the use of the tool and the tool damage.

  11. Applicability of long-term electroencephalography in pre-mortem diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaripour Isfahani, Sanaz; Dougherty, Michelle; Gliebus, Gediminas Peter

    2017-01-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease accounts for more than 90% of all sporadic prion disease cases. The molecular MM2 genotype has been divided into cortical and thalamic subtypes based on structures involved and is characterized clinically by progressive dementia without ataxia or typical electroencephalography changes. Proposed diagnostic criteria for MM2 cortical type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease include progressive dementia, cortical hyper-intensity on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, increased cerebrospinal fluid 14-3-3 protein level, and the exclusion of other types of dementia. The presence of periodic discharges on electroencephalography in MM2 cortical type were reported in 42% of the cases. We are reporting a case of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease cortical MM2-type presenting with rapid cognitive decline, who survived 8 months since symptom onset. Brain imaging, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and long-term electroencephalography monitoring were obtained and diagnosis was confirmed by autopsy. Short-term electroencephalography recording, performed 5 months after symptom onset, demonstrated diffuse background slowing without epileptiform activity. Long-term video electroencephalography monitoring demonstrated generalized slowing, maximum in bilateral frontal areas, which intermittently would become rhythmic (1-2 Hz) without hemispheric predominance. If the findings do not clearly meet the proposed clinical criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the use of long-term electroencephalography could increase the sensitivity. We question whether the lack of the characteristic findings on electroencephalography in some cases could be due to insufficient time of recording. Application of long-term electroencephalography monitoring increases the sensitivity of electroencephalography and the certainty of pre-mortem diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

  12. Evaluating satellite-derived long-term historical precipitation datasets for drought monitoring in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Francisco; Wardlow, Brian; Tadesse, Tsegaye; Lillo-Saavedra, Mario; Lagos, Octavio

    2017-04-01

    Precipitation is a key parameter for the study of climate change and variability and the detection and monitoring of natural disaster such as drought. Precipitation datasets that accurately capture the amount and spatial variability of rainfall is critical for drought monitoring and a wide range of other climate applications. This is challenging in many parts of the world, which often have a limited number of weather stations and/or historical data records. Satellite-derived precipitation products offer a viable alternative with several remotely sensed precipitation datasets now available with long historical data records (+30years), which include the Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) and Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR) datasets. This study presents a comparative analysis of three historical satellite-based precipitation datasets that include Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) 3B43 version 7 (1998-2015), PERSIANN-CDR (1983-2015) and CHIRPS 2.0 (1981-2015) over Chile to assess their performance across the country and for the case of the two long-term products the applicability for agricultural drought were evaluated when used in the calculation of commonly used drought indicator as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). In this analysis, 278 weather stations of in situ rainfall measurements across Chile were initially compared to the satellite data. The study area (Chile) was divided into five latitudinal zones: North, North-Central, Central, South-Central and South to determine if there were a regional difference among these satellite products, and nine statistics were used to evaluate their performance to estimate the amount and spatial distribution of historical rainfall across Chile. Hierarchical cluster analysis, k-means and singular value decomposition were used to analyze

  13. Innovative Methods for Integrating Knowledge for Long-Term Monitoring of Contaminated Groundwater Sites: Understanding Microorganism Communities and their Associated Hydrochemical Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouser, P. J.; Rizzo, D. M.; Druschel, G.; O'Grady, P.; Stevens, L.

    2005-12-01

    This interdisciplinary study integrates hydrochemical and genome-based data to estimate the redox processes occurring at long-term monitoring sites. Groundwater samples have been collected from a well-characterized landfill-leachate contaminated aquifer in northeastern New York. Primers from the 16S rDNA gene were used to amplify Bacteria and Archaea in groundwater taken from monitoring wells located in clean, fringe, and contaminated locations within the aquifer. PCR-amplified rDNA were digested with restriction enzymes to evaluate terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) community profiles. The rDNA was cloned, sequenced, and partial sequences were matched against known organisms using the NCBI Blast database. Phylogenetic trees and bootstrapping were used to identify classifications of organisms and compare the communities from clean, fringe, and contaminated locations. We used Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models to incorporate microbial data with hydrochemical information for improving our understanding of subsurface processes.

  14. Long-term Water Table Monitoring of Rio Grande Riparian Ecosystems for Restoration Potential Amid Hydroclimatic Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, James R.; Cleverly, James R.; Dahm, Clifford N.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrological processes drive the ecological functioning and sustainability of cottonwood-dominated riparian ecosystems in the arid southwestern USA. Snowmelt runoff elevates groundwater levels and inundates floodplains, which promotes cottonwood germination. Once established, these phreatophytes rely on accessible water tables (WTs). In New Mexico's Middle Rio Grande corridor diminished flooding and deepening WTs threaten native riparian communities. We monitored surface flows and riparian WTs for up to 14 years, which revealed that WTs and surface flows, including peak snowmelt discharge, respond to basin climate conditions and resource management. WT hydrographs influence the composition of riparian communities and can be used to assess if potential restoration sites meet native vegetation tolerances for WT depths, rates of recession, and variability throughout their life stages. WTs were highly variable in some sites, which can preclude native vegetation less adapted to deep drawdowns during extended droughts. Rates of WT recession varied between sites and should be assessed in regard to recruitment potential. Locations with relatively shallow WTs and limited variability are likely to be more viable for successful restoration. Suitable sites have diminished greatly as the once meandering Rio Grande has been constrained and depleted. Increasing demands on water and the presence of invasive vegetation better adapted to the altered hydrologic regime further impact native riparian communities. Long-term monitoring over a range of sites and hydroclimatic extremes reveals attributes that can be evaluated for restoration potential.

  15. Refurbishing of a Freeze Drying Machine, used in Nuclear Medicine for Radiopharmaceuticals Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaytan-Gallardo, E.; Desales-Galeana, G.

    2006-01-01

    The refurbishing of a freeze drying machine used in the radiopharmaceuticals production, applied in nuclear medicine in the Radioactive Materials Department of the Nuclear Research National Institute in Mexico (ININ in Spanish), is presented. The freeze drying machine was acquired in the 80's decade and some components started having problems. Then it was necessary to refurbish this equipment by changing old cam-type temperature controllers and outdated recording devices, developing a sophisticated software system that substitutes those devices. The system is composed by a freeze drying machine by Hull, AC output modules for improved temperature control, a commercial data acquisition card, and the software system

  16. Long-term deflection and flexural behavior of reinforced concrete beams with recycled aggregate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Won-Chang; Yun, Hyun-Do

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Long-term deformation of recycled aggregate concrete beams was examined. • Three beams were monitored for over 380 days. • Influence of recycled aggregate on the long-term performance. • Comparison of that between normal and recycled aggregate concrete beams. - Abstract: This paper presents experimental results on the long-term deformations of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) beams for over 1 year (380 days) and flexural behavior of RAC beams after exposure to sustained loading. Three reinforced concrete (RC) beam specimens were fabricated with replacement percentage of aggregate (100% natural aggregate, 100% recycled coarse aggregate, and 50% recycled fine aggregate) and subjected to sustained loading that is 50% of the nominal flexural capacity. During the sustained loading period (380 days), the long-term deflection due to creep and shrinkage was recorded and compared with predicted behavior that was determined based on current specifications (ACI 318 Code). After measuring the long-term deflection for 380 days, four-point bending tests were conducted to investigate the flexural behavior of RC beams after exposure to sustained loading and determine any reduction in flexural capacity. A modified equation to predict the long-term deflection values for RC beams with recycled aggregate is proposed, and the experimental results are compared with the predictions calculated using the ACI 318 Code provisions

  17. Monitoring of malolactic fermentation in wine using an electrochemical bienzymatic biosensor for L-lactate with long term stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Gómez, Pablo; Gutiérrez-Capitán, Manuel; Capdevila, Fina; Puig-Pujol, Anna; Fernández-Sánchez, César; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia

    2016-01-28

    L-lactic acid is monitored during malolactic fermentation process of wine and its evolution is strongly related with the quality of the final product. The analysis of L-lactic acid is carried out off-line in a laboratory. Therefore, there is a clear demand for analytical tools that enabled real-time monitoring of this process in field and biosensors have positioned as a feasible alternative in this regard. The development of an amperometric biosensor for L-lactate determination showing long-term stability is reported in this work. The biosensor architecture includes a thin-film gold electrochemical transducer selectively modified with an enzymatic membrane, based on a three-dimensional matrix of polypyrrole (PPy) entrapping lactate oxidase (LOX) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzymes. The experimental conditions of the biosensor fabrication regarding the pyrrole polymerization and the enzymes entrapment are optimized. The biosensor response to L-lactate is linear in a concentration range of 1 × 10(-6)-1 × 10(-4) M, with a detection limit of 5.2 × 10(-7) M and a sensitivity of - (13500 ± 600) μA M(-1) cm(-2). The biosensor shows an excellent working stability, retaining more than 90% of its original sensitivity after 40 days. This is the determining factor that allowed for the application of this biosensor to monitor the malolactic fermentation of three red wines, showing a good agreement with the standard colorimetric method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. To what extend the dam dredging can influence the background level of metals in the Rhine River: using chemical and biological long-term monitoring to answer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebrun Jérémie D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dredging generates remobilisation of sediments contaminated by non-degradable compounds such as metals, to which aquatic organisms can be exposed. This study aims at assessing the environmental impact of sediments remobilised in the Rhine River (France during the dredging of Marckolsheim dam by pumping/dilution in 2013 on metal speciation and organisms' exposure. The monitoring coupling chemical and biological tools was performed 2 years before dredging operation on 2 sampling sites, upstream and downstream from the discharge of pumping/dilution, to acquire data on the natural variability of labile (DGT as passive samplers, dissolved and particulate concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn in Rhine during full hydrological cycles. In parallel, size-calibrated zebra mussels were transplanted at both sites to monitor continuously metal bioavailability from particulate and dissolved fractions. This long-term monitoring allowed the establishment of reference baselines of Rhine water and mussels' contamination levels and subsequently, the detection of averred environmental changes due to the dredging. Indeed, Co and Mn accumulations in mussels exposed to the discharge were consistent with increasing labile species in Rhine whereas ones of Cr and Pb were likely due to an enhanced particulate bioavailability. Whatever the exposure route, the mussels recovered their basal metal contents 2 weeks after the end of dredging, suggesting a transient impact of sediment remobilisation on bioaccumulation. This long-term monitoring highlights the interest of coupling chemical and biological time-integrated tools for a better assessment of environmental risks because metallic exchanges between organisms and their media are complex and metal-specific.

  19. Long-term preservation of anammox bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, Michael J; Vanotti, Matias B; Szögi, Ariel A; Gonzalez, Maria Cruz Garcia; Fujii, Takao

    2011-10-01

    Deposit of useful microorganisms in culture collections requires long-term preservation and successful reactivation techniques. The goal of this study was to develop a simple preservation protocol for the long-term storage and reactivation of the anammox biomass. To achieve this, anammox biomass was frozen or lyophilized at two different freezing temperatures (-60°C and in liquid nitrogen (-200°C)) in skim milk media (with and without glycerol), and the reactivation of anammox activity was monitored after a 4-month storage period. Of the different preservation treatments tested, only anammox biomass preserved via freezing in liquid nitrogen followed by lyophilization in skim milk media without glycerol achieved stoichiometric ratios for the anammox reaction similar to the biomass in both the parent bioreactor and in the freshly harvested control treatment. A freezing temperature of -60°C alone, or in conjunction with lyophilization, resulted in the partial recovery of the anammox bacteria, with an equal mixture of anammox and nitrifying bacteria in the reactivated biomass. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful reactivation of anammox biomass preserved via sub-zero freezing and/or lyophilization. The simple preservation protocol developed from this study could be beneficial to accelerate the integration of anammox-based processes into current treatment systems through a highly efficient starting anammox biomass.

  20. Limnological Monitoring on the Upper Mississippi River System, 1993-1996: Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Pool 26 Field Station

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soballe, David

    2002-01-01

    .... The 1993-1996 water quality data for the Pool 26 area show long-term declines in the concentrations of total nitrogen, nitrate-nitrite nitrogen, and soluble reactive phosphorus after the large flood in 1993...

  1. Airline fuel saving through JT9D engine refurbishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, J.W.; Weisel, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Areas are identified in the JT9D engine where the potential exists for either further performance recovery following repair, or for improved performance retention. A number of new procedures and tools which will improve performance recovery are described. Improvements in inspection techniques are discussed. Operational techniques which will improve performance retention and impact degree of refurbishment required are also presented.

  2. Long-term bioventing performance in low-permeability soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, M.B.; Stanin, F.T.; Downey, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Short-term and long-term bioventing treatability testing has shown that in situ air injection and extraction is a practical method for sustaining increased oxygen levels and enhancing aerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in low-permeability soils. At several test sites, initial physical parameter analysis of soils and air permeability tests indicated that impacted soils (fine sandy silts and clays) had low air permeabilities. Measurements of depleted soil-gas oxygen levels and increased soil-gas carbon dioxide levels indicated that the natural process of aerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons was oxygen-limited. Initial treatability testing consisted of air permeability tests to measure the permeability of the soils to air and in situ respiration tests to measure the rates at which native microorganisms could biodegrade the contaminants when provided with sufficient oxygen. During the long-term treatment period, active air injection or extraction systems were operated for 1 year or longer. Soil gas was periodically monitored within the treatment zone to evaluate the success of the bioventing systems in increasing soil-gas oxygen levels in the low-permeability soils. Follow-up respiration tests and soil and soil-gas sampling were conducted to evaluate changes in respiration rates and contaminant concentrations with time

  3. Reforming Long-Term Care Funding in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, R Trafford; Repin, Nadya; Sutherland, Jason M

    2015-01-01

    Like many provinces across Canada, Alberta is facing growing demand for long-term care. Issues with the mixed funding model used to pay long-term care providers had Alberta Health Services concerned that it was not efficiently meeting the demand for long-term care. Consequently, in 2010, Alberta Health Services introduced the patient/care-based funding (PCBF) model. PCBF is similar to activity-based funding in that it directly ties the complexity and care needs of long-term care residents to the payment received by long-term care providers. This review describes PCBF and discusses some of its strengths and weaknesses. In doing so, this review is intended to inform other provinces faced with similar long-term care challenges and contemplating their own funding reforms.

  4. Building a database for long-term monitoring of benthic macrofauna in the Pertuis-Charentais (2004-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Anne S; Plumejeaud-Perreau, Christine; Jourde, Jérôme; Pineau, Philippe; Lachaussée, Nicolas; Joyeux, Emmanuel; Corre, Frédéric; Delaporte, Philippe; Bocher, Pierrick

    2017-01-01

    Long-term benthic monitoring is rewarding in terms of science, but labour-intensive, whether in the field, the laboratory, or behind the computer. Building and managing databases require multiple skills, including consistency over time as well as organisation via a systematic approach. Here, we introduce and share our spatially explicit benthic database, comprising 11 years of benthic data. It is the result of intensive benthic sampling that has been conducted on a regular grid (259 stations) covering the intertidal mudflats of the Pertuis-Charentais (Marennes-Oléron Bay and Aiguillon Bay). Samples were taken by foot or by boats during winter depending on tidal height, from December 2003 to February 2014. The present dataset includes abundances and biomass densities of all mollusc species of the study regions and principal polychaetes as well as their length, accessibility to shorebirds, energy content and shell mass when appropriate and available. This database has supported many studies dealing with the spatial distribution of benthic invertebrates and temporal variations in food resources for shorebird species as well as latitudinal comparisons with other databases. In this paper, we introduce our benthos monitoring, share our data, and present a "guide of good practices" for building, cleaning and using it efficiently, providing examples of results with associated R code. The dataset has been formatted into a geo-referenced relational database, using PostgreSQL open-source DBMS. We provide density information, measurements, energy content and accessibility of thirteen bivalve, nine gastropod and two polychaete taxa (a total of 66,620 individuals)​ for 11 consecutive winters. Figures and maps are provided to describe how the dataset was built, cleaned, and how it can be used. This dataset can again support studies concerning spatial and temporal variations in species abundance, interspecific interactions as well as evaluations of the availability of food

  5. Pilot study of long-term anaesthesia in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, Peter M; Connerton, Ian F; White, Kate L

    2016-01-01

    To provide stable anaesthesia of long duration in broiler chickens in order to perform a terminal caecal ligated loop procedure. Prospective experimental study. Seven clinically healthy broiler chickens (Gallus domesticus) aged 27-36 days, weighing 884-2000 g. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. All birds underwent intermittent positive pressure ventilation for the duration. End-tidal carbon dioxide, peripheral haemoglobin oxygen saturation, heart rate and oesophageal temperature were monitored continuously. All birds received intraosseous fluids. Butorphanol (2 mg kg(-1)) was administered intramuscularly at two hourly intervals. Euthanasia by parenteral pentobarbitone was performed at the end of procedure. Stable anaesthesia was maintained in four chickens for durations ranging from 435 to 510 minutes. One bird died and one was euthanized after 130 and 330 minutes, respectively, owing to surgical complications and another died from anaesthetic complication after 285 minutes. Long-term, stable anaesthesia is possible in clinically healthy chickens, provided complications such as hypothermia and hypoventilation are addressed and vital signs are carefully monitored. There are no known previous reports describing monitored, controlled anaesthesia of this duration in chickens. © 2015 The Authors Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  6. LONG-TERM X-RAY MONITORING OF THE YOUNG PULSAR PSR B1509–58

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingstone, Margaret A.; Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2011-01-01

    It has long been thought that the pulsed X-ray properties of rotation-powered pulsars are stable on long timescales. However, long-term, systematic studies of individual sources have been lacking. Furthermore, dramatic X-ray variability has now been observed from two pulsars having inferred sub-critical dipole magnetic fields. Here we present an analysis of the long-term pulsed X-ray properties of the young, energetic pulsar PSR B1509–58 using data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. We measured the 2-50 keV pulsed flux for 14.7 yr of X-ray observations and found that it is consistent with being constant on all relevant timescales, and place a 3σ upper limit on day-to-week variability of <28%. In addition, we searched for magnetar-like X-ray bursts in all observations and found none, which we use to constrain the measurable burst rate to less than one per 750 ks of observations. We also searched for variability in the pulse profile and found that it is consistent with being stable on timescales of days to decades. This supports the hypothesis that X-ray properties of rotation-powered X-ray pulsars can be stable on decade-long timescales. In addition, we extend the existing timing solution by 7.1 yr to a total of 28.4 yr and report updated values of the braking index, n = 2.832 ± 0.003, and the second braking index, m = 17.6 ± 1.9.

  7. GEMS: Underwater spectrometer for long-term radioactivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartini, Ludovica, E-mail: ludovica.sartini@ingv.i [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sect.Roma 2, Roma (Italy); Genoa University, Genoa (Italy); Simeone, Francesco; Pani, Priscilla [' Sapienza' University and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sect.Roma, Roma (Italy); Lo Bue, Nadia; Marinaro, Giuditta [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sect.Roma 2, Roma (Italy); Grubich, Andry; Lobko, Alexander [Institute for Nuclear Problems (INP), Belarus State University, Minsk (Belarus); Etiope, Giuseppe [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sect.Roma 2, Roma (Italy); Capone, Antonio [' Sapienza' University and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sect.Roma, Roma (Italy); Favali, Paolo [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sect.Roma 2, Roma (Italy); Gasparoni, Francesco; Bruni, Federico [Tecnomare S.p.A., Venice (Italy)

    2011-01-21

    GEMS (Gamma Energy Marine Spectrometer) is a prototype of an autonomous radioactivity sensor for underwater measurements, developed in the framework for a development of a submarine telescope for neutrino detection (KM3NeT Design Study Project). The spectrometer is highly sensitive to gamma rays produced by {sup 40}K decays but it can detect other natural (e.g., {sup 238}U,{sup 232}Th) and anthropogenic radio-nuclides (e.g., {sup 137}Cs). GEMS was firstly tested and calibrated in the laboratory using known sources and it was successfully deployed for a long-term (6 months) monitoring at a depth of 3200 m in the Ionian Sea (Capo Passero, offshore Eastern Sicily). The instrument recorded data for the whole deployment period within the expected specifications. This monitoring provided, for the first time, a continuous time-series of radioactivity in deep-sea.

  8. Thermal protection and refurbishment of an old building. Lectures; Waermeschutz und Altbausanierung. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the 22nd Hanseatic Reconstruction Symposium at the Baltic Seaside Heringsdorf/Usedom (Federal Republic of Germany) from 3rd to 5th November 2011, the following lectures were held: (1) Energetic refurbishment possibilities for building within existing properties by means of representative examples (F. Deitschum); (2) Constructional thermal insulation and indoor climate - for the good of the environment? (S. Groer); (3) Innovative insulating materials for the structural refurbishment? (O. Fechner); (4) Energetic half-timbering refurbishment (K. Lissner); (5) Wooden solar facades for existing buildings (U. Schwarz); (6) Timber beam bowls in a historic brickwork (U. Mueller); (7) Timber beam bowls and interior insulation (U. Ruisinger); (8) Innovative solutions for cavity filling insulations (A. Stefenelli); (9) Thermal insulating plaster - also for historical buildings (T. Stahl); (10) Experimental tension analysis of the structural behaviour of historical cross vaults (A.-J. Petereit); (10) Investigation of the increase of the flexural strength of stonework constructions with self-compacting steel fibre reinforced concrete (D. Haessler); (11) Dry and dense - the modified WTA leaflet 4-6, 'Subsequent sealing of components in contact with soil' - Content and innovations (R. Spirgatis); (12) What does the new standard DIN 68800 hold? (H. Willeitner); (13) News from the standard DIN 18195 waterproofing of buildings (H.-P. Sommer); (14) Liability of planning of the offering entrepreneur (H. Immoor); (15) Climate change and preservation of structures (W. Zillig); (16) Typical problems and deficiencies of the energetic refurbishment of old store buildings (H. Boehmer); (17) When do ex post horizontal sealings with injection agents make sense - Fundamentals for evaluation, planning and execution (F.-J. Hoelzen); (18) Drying up behaviour of stonework of different quality and at different variants of insulation (F. Antretter).

  9. Nitrous Oxide Production at a Fully Covered Wastewater Treatment Plant: Results of a Long-Term Online Monitoring Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosonen, Heta; Heinonen, Mari; Mikola, Anna; Haimi, Henri; Mulas, Michela; Corona, Francesco; Vahala, Riku

    2016-06-07

    The nitrous oxide emissions of the Viikinmäki wastewater treatment plant were measured in a 12 month online monitoring campaign. The measurements, which were conducted with a continuous gas analyzer, covered all of the unit operations of the advanced wastewater-treatment process. The relation between the nitrous oxide emissions and certain process parameters, such as the wastewater temperature, influent biological oxygen demand, and ammonium nitrogen load, was investigated by applying online data obtained from the process-control system at 1 min intervals. Although seasonal variations in the measured nitrous oxide emissions were remarkable, the measurement data indicated no clear relationship between these emissions and seasonal changes in the wastewater temperature. The diurnal variations of the nitrous oxide emissions did, however, strongly correlate with the alternation of the influent biological oxygen demand and ammonium nitrogen load to the aerated zones of the activated sludge process. Overall, the annual nitrous oxide emissions of 168 g/PE/year and the emission factor of 1.9% of the influent nitrogen load are in the high range of values reported in the literature but in very good agreement with the results of other long-term online monitoring campaigns implemented at full-scale wastewater-treatment plants.

  10. Long-term ecosystem monitoring and change detection: the Sonoran initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Lozar; Charles Ehlschlaeger

    2005-01-01

    Ecoregional Systems Heritage and Encroachment Monitoring (ESHEM) examines issues of land management at an ecosystem level using remote sensing. Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), in partnership with Western Illinois University, has developed an ecoregional database and monitoring capability covering the Sonoran region. The monitoring time horizon will...

  11. Space Telescope maintenance and refurbishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks, H. F.

    1983-01-01

    The Space Telescope (ST) represents a new concept regarding spaceborne astronomical observatories. Maintenance crews will be brought to the orbital worksite to make repairs and replace scientific instruments. For major overhauls the telescope can be temporarily returned to earth with the aid of the Shuttle. It will, thus, be possible to conduct astronomical studies with the ST for two decades or more. The five first-generation scientific instruments used with the ST include a wide field/planetary camera, a faint object camera, a faint object spectrograph, a high resolution spectrograph, and a high speed photometer. Attention is given to the optical telescope assembly, the support systems module, aspects of mission and science operations, unscheduled maintenance, contingency orbital maintenance, planned on-orbit maintenance, ground maintenance, ground refurbishment, and ground logistics.

  12. RA Reactor operation and maintenance (I-IX), part VII, Task 3.08/04, Refurbishment of the RA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zecevic, V.

    1963-12-01

    This volume covers the following reports concerned with the maintenance and repair work of the RA reactor: repair of the technical water system; maintenance of the transportation equipment; vacuuming and drying during refurbishment; repair and decontamination of the distillation device; and the report on participation of the operational dosimetry division in the RA reactor refurbishment activities

  13. Long-term evolution of highly alkaline steel slag drainage waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Alex L; Mayes, William M

    2015-07-01

    The disposal of slag generated by the steel industry can have negative consequences upon the surrounding aquatic environment by the generation of high pH waters, leaching of potentially problematic trace metals, and rapid rates of calcite precipitation which smother benthic habitats. A 36-year dataset was collated from the long-term ambient monitoring of physicochemical parameters and elemental concentrations of samples from two steel slag leachate-affected watercourses in northern England. Waters were typified by elevated pH (>10), high alkalinity, and were rich in dissolved metals (e.g. calcium (Ca), aluminium (Al), and zinc (Zn)). Long-term trend analysis was performed upon pH, alkalinity, and Ca concentration which, in addition to Ca flux calculations, were used to highlight the longevity of pollution arising as a result of the dumping and subsequent leaching of steel slags. Declines in calcium and alkalinity have been modest over the monitoring period and not accompanied by significant declines in water pH. If the monotonic trends of decline in alkalinity and calcium continue in the largest of the receiving streams, it will be in the region of 50-80 years before calcite precipitation would be expected to be close to baseline levels, where ecological impacts would be negligible.

  14. Industrial Foundations as Long-Term Owners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen; Poulsen, Thomas; Børsting, Christa Winther

    Short-termism has become a serious concern for corporate governance, and this has inspired a search for institutional arrangements to promote long-term decision-making. In this paper, we call attention to long-term ownership by industrial foundations, which is common in Northern Europe but little...... known in the rest of the world. We use a unique Danish data set to document that industrial foundations are long-term owners that practice long-term governance. We show that foundation ownership is highly stable compared to other ownership structures. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less...... frequently. They have conservative capital structures with low financial leverage. They score higher on an index of long-termism in finance, investment, and employment. They survive longer. Overall, our paper supports the hypothesis that corporate time horizons are influenced by ownership structures...

  15. Physicochemical characteristics and occupational exposure to coarse, fine and ultrafine particles during building refurbishment activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azarmi, Farhad; Kumar, Prashant, E-mail: p.kumar@surrey.ac.uk, E-mail: prashant.kumar@cantab.net; Mulheron, Mike [University of Surrey, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences (United Kingdom); Colaux, Julien L.; Jeynes, Chris [University of Surrey, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Ion Beam Centre (United Kingdom); Adhami, Siavash; Watts, John F. [University of Surrey, The Surface Analysis Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Understanding of the emissions of coarse (PM{sub 10} ≤10 μm), fine (PM{sub 2.5} ≤2.5 μm) and ultrafine particles (UFP <100 nm) from refurbishment activities and their dispersion into the nearby environment is of primary importance for developing efficient risk assessment and management strategies in the construction and demolition industry. This study investigates the release, occupational exposure and physicochemical properties of particulate matter, including UFPs, from over 20 different refurbishment activities occurring at an operational building site. Particles were measured in the 5–10,000-nm-size range using a fast response differential mobility spectrometer and a GRIMM particle spectrometer for 55 h over 8 days. The UFPs were found to account for >90 % of the total particle number concentrations and <10 % of the total mass concentrations released during the recorded activities. The highest UFP concentrations were 4860, 740, 650 and 500 times above the background value during wall-chasing, drilling, cementing and general demolition activities, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ion beam analysis were used to identify physicochemical characteristics of particles and attribute them to probable sources considering the size and the nature of the particles. The results confirm that refurbishment activities produce significant levels (both number and mass) of airborne particles, indicating a need to develop appropriate regulations for the control of occupational exposure of operatives undertaking building refurbishment.

  16. Long-term associative learning predicts verbal short-term memory performance

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Gary; Macken, Bill

    2017-01-01

    Studies using tests such as digit span and nonword repetition have implicated short-term memory across a range of developmental domains. Such tests ostensibly assess specialized processes for the short-term manipulation and maintenance of information that are often argued to enable long-term learning. However, there is considerable evidence for an influence of long-term linguistic learning on performance in short-term memory tasks that brings into question the role of a specialized short-term...

  17. Esophageal replacement in children: Challenges and long-term outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampiero Soccorso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of a nonexistent or damaged esophagus continues to pose a significant challenge to pediatric surgeons. Various esophageal replacement grafts and techniques have not produced consistently good outcomes to emulate normal esophagus. Therefore, many techniques are still being practiced and recommended with no clear consensus. We present a concise literature review of the currently used techniques and with discussions on the advantages and anticipated morbidity. There are no randomized controlled pediatric studies to compare different types of esophageal replacements. Management and graft choice are based on geographical and personal predilections rather than on any discernible objective data. The biggest series with long-term outcome are reported for gastric transposition and colonic replacement. Comparison of different studies shows no significant difference in early (graft necrosis and anastomotic leaks or late complications (strictures, poor feeding, gastro-esophageal reflux, tortuosity of the graft, and Barrett′s esophagus. The biggest series seem to have lower complications than small series reflecting the decennials experience in their respective centers. Long-term follow-up is recommended following esophageal replacement for the development of late strictures, excessive tortuosity, and Barrett′s changes within the graft. Once child overcomes initial morbidity and establishes oral feeding, long-term consequences and complications of pediatric esophageal replacement should be monitored and managed in adult life.

  18. Long-term ERT monitoring of biogeochemical changes of an aged hydrocarbon contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterina, David; Flores Orozco, Adrian; Nguyen, Frédéric

    2017-06-01

    Adequate management of contaminated sites requires information with improved spatio-temporal resolution, in particular to assess bio-geochemical processes, such as the transformation and degradation of contaminants, precipitation of minerals or changes in groundwater geochemistry occurring during and after remediation procedures. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), a geophysical method sensitive to pore-fluid and pore-geometry properties, permits to gain quasi-continuous information about subsurface properties in real-time and has been consequently widely used for the characterization of hydrocarbon-impacted sediments. However, its application for the long-term monitoring of processes accompanying natural or engineered bioremediation is still difficult due to the poor understanding of the role that biogeochemical processes play in the electrical signatures. For in-situ studies, the task is further complicated by the variable signal-to-noise ratio and the variations of environmental parameters leading to resolution changes in the electrical images. In this work, we present ERT imaging results for data collected over a period of two years on a site affected by a diesel fuel contamination and undergoing bioremediation. We report low electrical resistivity anomalies in areas associated to the highest contaminant concentrations likely due transformations of the contaminant due to microbial activity and accompanying release of metabolic products. We also report large seasonal variations of the bulk electrical resistivity in the contaminated areas in correlation with temperature and groundwater level fluctuations. However, the amplitude of bulk electrical resistivity variations largely exceeds the amplitude expected given existing petrophysical models. Our results suggest that the variations in electrical properties are mainly controlled by microbial activity which in turn depends on soil temperature and hydrogeological conditions. Therefore, ERT can be suggested as

  19. Energy Efficiency Performance in Refurbishment Projects with Design Team Attributes As A Mediator: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekak, Siti Nor Azniza Ahmad; Rahmat Dr, Ismail, Prof.; Yunus, Julitta; Saád, Sri Rahayu Mohd; Hanafi Azman Ong, Mohd

    2017-12-01

    The Energy Efficiency (EE) plays an important role over the building life cycle and the implementation of EE in refurbishment projects has a significant potential towards the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, the involvement of the design team at the early stage of the refurbishment projects will determine the success of EE implementations. Thus, a pilot study was conducted at the initial stage of the data collection process of this research to validate and verify the questionnaires.

  20. Refurbish research and test reactors corresponding to global age of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Kaichiro; Oyama, Yukio; Okamoto, Koji; Yamana, Hajime; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2011-01-01

    This special article featured arguments for refurbishment of research and test reactors corresponding to global age of nuclear energy, based on the report: 'Investigation of research facilities necessary for future joint usage' issued by the special committee of Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) in September 2010. It consisted of six papers titled as 'Introduction-establishment of AESJ special committee for investigation', 'State of research and test reactors in Japan', 'State of overseas research and test reactors', 'Needs analysis for research and test reactors', 'Proposal of AESJ special committee' and 'Summary and future issues'. In order to develop human resources and promote research and development needed in global age of nuclear energy, research and test reactors would be refurbished as an Asian regional center of excellence. (T. Tanaka)

  1. Decision-making process to shut down, refurbish/modify, or decommission research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, R.L.; Murphie, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    Most US research reactors were built more than 20 years ago and some more than 40 years ago. Many have undergone refurbishments and modifications to update their safety systems and experimental capabilities. But changing safety bases, social concerns, and budget constraints have required research reactor operators to continually make decisions to shut down or refurbish/modify their facilities. These decisions involve potential replacement of reactor equipment that has reached its lifetime limits. Changes in philosophy and operation of the reactors are also factors to be considered. In this paper, each of the four factors involved in the decision-making process are discussed in detail. Then, several examples from DOE research reactors in the United States are discussed. Finally, some general conclusions are given to aid in the decision-making process

  2. Cloud2IR: Infrared thermography and environmental sensors integrated in an autonomoussystem for long term monitoring of structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinière, Antoine; Dumoulin, Jean; Mevel, Laurent; Andrade-Barroso, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    Since late 2014, the project Cloud2SM aims to develop a robust information system able to assess the long term monitoring of civil engineering structures as well as interfacing various sensors and data. Cloud2SM address three main goals, the management of distributed data and sensors network, the asynchronous processing of the data through network and the local management of the sensors themselves [1]. Integrated to this project Cloud2IR is an autonomous sensor system dedicated to the long term monitoring of infrastructures. Past experimentations have shown the need as well as usefulness of such system [2]. Before Cloud2IR an initially laboratory oriented system was used, which implied heavy operating system to be used [3]. Based on such system Cloud2IR has benefited of the experimental knowledge acquired to redefine a lighter architecture based on generics standards, more appropriated to autonomous operations on field and which can be later included in a wide distributed architecture such as Cloud2SM. The sensor system can be divided in two parts. The sensor side, this part is mainly composed by the various sensors drivers themselves as the infrared camera, the weather station or the pyranometers and their different fixed configurations. In our case, as infrared camera are slightly different than other kind of sensors, the system implement in addition an RTSP server which can be used to set up the FOV as well as other measurement parameter considerations. The second part can be seen as the data side, which is common to all sensors. It instantiate through a generic interface all the sensors and control the data access loop (not the requesting). This side of the system is weakly coupled (see data coupling) with the sensor side. It can be seen as a general framework able to aggregate any sensor data, type or size and automatically encapsulate them in various generic data format as HDF5 or cloud data as OGC SWE standard. This whole part is also responsible of the

  3. A New Framework for Adaptive Sampling and Analysis During Long-Term Monitoring and Remedial Action Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minsker, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The Argonne team has gathered available data on monitoring wells and measured hydraulic heads from the Argonne 317/319 site and sent it to UIUC. Xiaodong Li, a research assistant supported by the project, has reviewed the data and has fit initial spatiotemporal statistical models to it. Another research assistant, Yonas Demissie, has completed generation of the artificial data that will be used for model development and testing. In order to generate the artificial data a detailed groundwater flow and contaminant transport model was developed based upon characteristics of the 317/319 site. The model covers a multi-year time horizon that includes both before and after planting of the trees. As described in the proposal, the artificial data is created by adding ''measurement'' error to the ''true'' value from the numerical model. To date, only simple white noise error models have been considered. He is now reviewing the literature and beginning to develop a hierarchical modeling approach for the artificial data. Abhishek Singh, a third research assistant supported by the project, is implementing learning models for learning users preferences in an interactive genetic algorithm for solving the inverse problem. Meghna Babbar, the fourth research assistant supported by the project, has been improving the user interface for the interactive genetic algorithm and preparing a long-term monitoring design problem for testing the approach. Gayathri Gopalakrishnan, the last research assistant who is partially supported by the project, has collected substantial data from the 317/319 phytoremediation site at Argonne and has begun learning approaches for modeling these data

  4. Establishing long-term cultures with self-renewing acute myeloid leukemia stem/progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gosliga, Djoke; Schepers, Hein; Rizo, Aleksandra; van der Kolk, Dorina; Vellenga, Edo; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2007-01-01

    Objective. With the emergence of the concept of the leukemia stem cell, assays to study them remain pivotal in understanding (leukemic) stem cell biology. Methods. We have cultured acute myeloid leukemia CD34(+) cells on bone marrow stroma. Long-term expansion was monitored and self-renewal was

  5. Meaningful public participation in scientific research: How to build an effective site-based long-term education program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, L.

    2013-12-01

    Many site-based educators (Wildlife Refuges, nature centers, Cooperative Extension Programs, schools, arboretums) struggle with developing and implementing cohesive long-term scientific monitoring projects into their existing outreach programming. Moreover, projects that are not meaningful to participants often have little or no sustainable long-term impact. Programs proven most effective are those which 1.) engage the participants in the study design and implementation process, 2.) answer a scientific question posed by site leaders; the data collected supports USA-NPN efforts as well as related site management and monitoring questions, 3.) are built into existing outreach and education programs, using phenology as a lens for understanding both natural and cultural history, and 4.) consistently share outcomes and results with the participants. The USA National Phenology Network's (USA-NPN) Education Program provides phenology curriculum and outreach to educators in formal, non-formal, and informal settings. Materials are designed to serve participants in grades 5-12, higher education, and adult learners. Phenology, used as a lens for place-based education, can inform science, environmental, and climate literacy, as well as other subject areas including cultural studies, art, and language arts. The USA-NPN offers consultation with site leaders on how to successfully engage site-based volunteers and students in long-term phenological studies using Nature's Notebook (NN), the professional and citizen science phenology monitoring program. USA-NPN education and educator instruction materials are designed and field-tested to demonstrate how to implement a long-term NN phenology-monitoring program at such sites. These curricula incorporate monitoring for public visitors, long-term volunteers, and school groups, while meeting the goals of USA-NPN and the site, and can be used as a model for other public participation in science programs interested in achieving similar

  6. Wireless Sensor Networks for Long Distance Pipeline Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Augustine C. Azubogu; Victor E. Idigo; Schola U. Nnebe; Obinna S. Oguejiofor; Simon E.

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this seminal paper is to introduce the application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) in long distance infrastructure monitoring (in particular in pipeline infrastructure monitoring) – one of the on-going research projects by the Wireless Communication Research Group at the department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. The current sensor network architectures for monitoring long distance pipeline infrastructures are pr...

  7. Long term imaging of living brain cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Patricia M. A.; Galembeck, André; Milani, Raquel; Andrade, Arnaldo C. D. S.; Stingl, Andreas

    2018-02-01

    QDs synthesized in aqueous medium and functionalized with polyethylene glycol were used as fluorescent probes. They label and monitor living healthy and cancer brain glial cells in culture. Physical-chemical characterization was performed. Toxicological studies were performed by in vivo short and long-term inhalation in animal models. Healthy and cancer glial living cells were incubated in culture media with highly controlled QDs. Specific features of glial cancer cells were enhanced by QD labelling. Cytoplasmic labelling pattern was clearly distinct for healthy and cancer cells. Labelled cells kept their normal activity for same period as non-labelled control samples.

  8. Long-term decline of a winter-resident bird community in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Faaborg; W. J. Arendt; J. D. Toms; K. M. Dugger; W. A. Cox; M. Canals Mora

    2013-01-01

    Despite concern expressed two decades ago, there has been little recent discussion about continuing declines of migrant bird populations. Monitoring efforts have been focused almost exclusively on the breeding grounds. We describe the long-term decline of a winter-resident bird population in Guanica Commonwealth Forest, Puerto Rico, one of the last remaining tracts of...

  9. Biochemical Mechanisms and Energy Strategies of Geobacter sulfurreducens for Long- Term Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmus, R. A.; Liermann, L. J.; Brantley, S. L.; Tien, M.

    2008-12-01

    Numerous species of bacteria have been observed to exhibit a growth advantage in stationary phase (GASP) phenotype, indicating that microorganisms starved of an energy source may adapt to allow for long-term survival. Understanding how Geobacter sulfurreducens persists using various metal forms as energy sources and whether a GASP phenotype develops during long-term growth are important for efficient application of this bacterium to sites requiring engineered bioremediation of soluble metals. Thus, we investigated the growth kinetics and survival of G. sulfurreducens. The growth rate of G. sulfurreducens was highest when cultured with soluble iron and generally higher on iron oxide than manganese oxide, suggesting that soluble metal forms are more readily utilized as energy sources by G. sulfurreducens. By monitoring the abundance of G. sulfurreducens in batch cultures for >6 months, distinct growth, stationary, and prolonged starvation phases were observed and a cell density of 105- 106 cells/mL persisted under long-term starvation conditions. The outgrowth of an aged G. sulfurreducens strain co-cultured with a young strain was monitored as a measure of the existence of the GASP phenotype. As the strains aged, the rpoS gene was cloned and sequenced at different stages of growth to identify mutations corresponding to a growth advantage. The results of these studies provide insight into the use of various metal forms for growth by G. sulfurreducens and its ability to persist when starved of energy sources.

  10. Refurbishment and Automation of Thermal Vacuum Facilities at NASA/GSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jamie; Gomez, Carlos; Donohue, John; Johnson, Chris; Palmer, John; Sushon, Janet

    1999-01-01

    The thermal vacuum facilities located at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) have supported both manned and unmanned space flight since the 1960s. Of the eleven facilities, currently ten of the systems are scheduled for refurbishment or replacement as part of a five-year implementation. Expected return on investment includes the reduction in test schedules, improvements in safety of facility operations, and reduction in the personnel support required for a test. Additionally, GSFC will become a global resource renowned for expertise in thermal engineering, mechanical engineering, and for the automation of thermal vacuum facilities and tests. Automation of the thermal vacuum facilities includes the utilization of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), the use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, and the development of a centralized Test Data Management System. These components allow the computer control and automation of mechanical components such as valves and pumps. The project of refurbishment and automation began in 1996 and has resulted in complete computer control of one facility (Facility 281), and the integration of electronically controlled devices and PLCs in multiple others.

  11. The mid-to-long term therapeutic efficacy of Graves' disease after interventional embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Weiduo; Yang Jianyong; Zhuang Wenquan; Chen Wei; Li Heping

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the mid-to-long term therapeutic efficacy of Graves' disease after interventional embolization. Methods: Twenty-five patients of Graves' disease treated with interventional embolization were followed up for 24-57 months. T 3 and T 4 were monitored at pre-operation, six months, 12 months, 2, 3 and 4 years after operation, respectively. Other references included pulse, thyroid size, and vessel's murmur. Results: Twenty-two patients completely relieved from the hyperthyroidism during the follow-up. Only one patient suffered from recurrence. Other two patients were still on maintaining dosage of antithyroid drug therapy. No hypothyroidism or hypoparathyroidism was found during this term. Conclusion: Mid-to-long term follow-up showed satisfactory efficacy of interventional therapy, offering another alternative for treatment of refractory Graves' disease

  12. Remifentanil for the insertion and removal of long-term central venous access during monitored anesthesia care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burlacu, Crina L

    2012-02-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the analgesic efficacy of three different rates of remifentanil infusion in patients undergoing insertion or removal of long-term central venous access devices during monitored anesthesia care and local anesthetic field infiltration. DESIGN: Double-blinded, randomized, controlled study. SETTING: Operating theatre of an University hospital. PATIENTS: 44 unpremedicated, ASA physical status 1 and 2 patients, aged 18-65 years, undergoing insertion or removal of a Port-a-Cath or Hickman catheter. INTERVENTIONS: Patients sedated with a propofol target-controlled infusion were randomly allocated to three groups: Group R25 (n = 14), Group R50 (n = 15), and Group R75 (n = 15), to receive remifentanil 0.025, 0.05, and 0.075 mug\\/kg\\/min, respectively. Rescue remifentanil 0.5 mug\\/kg was administered for pain scores > 3. The remifentanil infusion rate was maintained constant unless respiratory and\\/or cardiovascular unwanted events occurred, whereupon the rate was adjusted in 0.01 mug\\/kg\\/min decrements as necessary. MEASUREMENTS: Pain scores (primary outcome), sedation, and movement scores (secondary outcomes) were assessed during local anesthetic infiltration of the anterior chest wall and 5 other procedural steps. MAIN RESULTS: All infusion rates had equal analgesic efficacy, as shown by comparable pain scores, number of rescue boluses, and number of patients requiring rescue analgesia. Excessive sedation was associated with the highest remifentanil rate such that Group R75 patients were significantly more sedated than Groups R25 or R50 at selective procedural steps (P < 0.05). More Group R75 patients (6\\/15) required remifentanil rate reduction than did patients from Group R50 (1\\/15) or Group R25 (0\\/14), P < 0.01, most commonly because of respiratory depression. CONCLUSIONS: For the insertion or removal of long-term central venous access devices, all three remifentanil infusion rates proved to be equally analgesic

  13. Long-term collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2007-01-01

    The Committee of the Long Term Collections (CLT) asks for your attention for the following message from a young Peruvian scientist, following the earthquake which devastated part of her country a month ago.

  14. Computer Refurbishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiyen, Norman; Chan, Dominic; Thompson, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The major activity for the 18-month refurbishment outage at the Point Lepreau Generating Station is the replacement of all 380 fuel channel and calandria tube assemblies and the lower portion of connecting feeder pipes. New Brunswick Power would also take advantage of this outage to conduct a number of repairs, replacements, inspections and upgrades (such as rewinding or replacing the generator, replacement of shutdown system trip computers, replacement of certain valves and expansion joints, inspection of systems not normally accessible, etc.). This would allow for an additional 25 to 30 years. Among the systems to be replaced are the PDC's for both shutdown systems. Assessments have been completed for both the SDS1 and SDS2 PDC's, and it has been decided to replace the SDS2 PDCs with the same hardware and software approach that has been used successfully for the Wolsong 2, 3, and 4 and the Qinshan 1 and 2 SDS2 PDCs. For SDS1, it has been decided to use the same software development methodology that was used successfully for the Wolsong and Qinshan called the I A and to use a new hardware platform in order to ensure successful operation for the 25-30 year station operating life. The selected supplier is Triconex, which uses a triple modular redundant architecture that will enhance the robustness/fault tolerance of the design with respect to equipment failures

  15. Small might be beautiful, but bigger performs better: Scale economies in “green” refurbishments of apartment housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelsen, Claus; Rosenschon, Sebastian; Schulz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The energy efficiency of the residential housing stock plays a key role in strategies to mitigate climate change and global warming. In this context, it is frequently argued that private investment and the quality of thermal upgrades are too low in the light of the challenges faced and the potential energy cost savings. While many authors address the potential barriers for investors to increase energy efficiency, studies on the capabilities of different investors to reduce energy requirements of their property are scarce. This study investigates potential advantages of housing company's size, i.e. economies of scale, economies of scope and institutional learning in thermal upgrades of residential housing. Based on unique data on energy consumption in 102,307 apartment buildings in Germany, we present new evidence for the advantages and disadvantages of a housing company's size in “green” retrofitting projects. Our estimations show, that large housing companies outperform private landlords by far in high effort refurbishment projects. In contrast, private landlords appear to have advantages in low effort, incremental refurbishment activities. We demonstrate that a substantial share of the advantages of larger firms can be associated with specialization (i.e. repeated projects). The results offer new options for policy makers to refine the support schemes toward a low carbon housing stock. - Highlights: • First study to analyze the effects of housing companies size on “green” refurbishment • Economies of scale, scope and learning all affect energy efficiency refurbishments. • Specialization on distinct refurbishments influences outcome of thermal upgrades. • Analysis based on a large and unique sample of apartment buildings in Germany

  16. Bruce A refurbishment - preparatory work completed, major tasks to begin soon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, F.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past year Bruce Power has been planning and organizing for an extensive refurbishment of the Units 1 and 2 of the Bruce A station. Now the company and its several major contractors are ready to proceed with the most challenging aspects of the actual work. The largest tasks are the replacement of the 8 steam generators and of the 480 complete fuel channels in each unit Bruce Power has created a separate website connected to their basic one to provide ongoing information about the progress of the work. The following brief note is intended to provide an outline of this challenging refurbishment program and to invite readers to visit this website to follow its progress. To provide background the writer was accorded an informative and interesting tour of the units by Rob Liddle, of Bruce Power, on September 28, 2006 the day after the ceremony commemorating the Douglas Point station held at the Bruce site. (author)

  17. Compensation for PKMζ in long-term potentiation and spatial long-term memory in mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokas, Panayiotis; Hsieh, Changchi; Yao, Yudong; Lesburguères, Edith; Wallace, Emma Jane Claire; Tcherepanov, Andrew; Jothianandan, Desingarao; Hartley, Benjamin Rush; Pan, Ling; Rivard, Bruno; Farese, Robert V; Sajan, Mini P; Bergold, Peter John; Hernández, Alejandro Iván; Cottrell, James E; Shouval, Harel Z; Fenton, André Antonio; Sacktor, Todd Charlton

    2016-05-17

    PKMζ is a persistently active PKC isoform proposed to maintain late-LTP and long-term memory. But late-LTP and memory are maintained without PKMζ in PKMζ-null mice. Two hypotheses can account for these findings. First, PKMζ is unimportant for LTP or memory. Second, PKMζ is essential for late-LTP and long-term memory in wild-type mice, and PKMζ-null mice recruit compensatory mechanisms. We find that whereas PKMζ persistently increases in LTP maintenance in wild-type mice, PKCι/λ, a gene-product closely related to PKMζ, persistently increases in LTP maintenance in PKMζ-null mice. Using a pharmacogenetic approach, we find PKMζ-antisense in hippocampus blocks late-LTP and spatial long-term memory in wild-type mice, but not in PKMζ-null mice without the target mRNA. Conversely, a PKCι/λ-antagonist disrupts late-LTP and spatial memory in PKMζ-null mice but not in wild-type mice. Thus, whereas PKMζ is essential for wild-type LTP and long-term memory, persistent PKCι/λ activation compensates for PKMζ loss in PKMζ-null mice.

  18. Long term monitoring of the optical background in the Capo Passero deep-sea site with the NEMO tower prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Llorens Alvarez, C.D.; Saldana, M.; Aiello, S.; Giordano, V.; Leonora, E.; Longhitano, F.; Randazzo, N.; Sipala, V.; Ventura, C.; Ameli, F.; Biagioni, A.; De Bonis, G.; Fermani, P.; Lonardo, A.; Nicolau, C.A.; Simeone, F.; Vicini, P.; Anghinolfi, M.; Hugon, C.; Musico, P.; Orzelli, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Barbarino, G.; Barbato, F.C.T.; De Rosa, G.; Di Capua, F.; Garufi, F.; Vivolo, D.; Barbarito, E.; Beverini, N.; Calamai, M.; Maccioni, E.; Marinelli, A.; Terreni, G.; Biagi, S.; Cacopardo, G.; Cali, C.; Caruso, F.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amato, C.; De Luca, V.; Distefano, C.; Gmerk, A.; Grasso, R.; Imbesi, M.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Leismueller, K.P.; Litrico, P.; Migneco, E.; Miraglia, A.; Musumeci, M.; Orlando, A.; Papaleo, R.; Pulvirenti, S.; Riccobene, G.; Rovelli, A.; Sapienza, P.; Sciacca, V.; Speziale, F.; Spitaleri, A.; Trovato, A.; Viola, S.; Bouhadef, B.; Flaminio, V.; Raffaelli, F.; Bozza, C.; Grella, G.; Stellacci, S.M.; Calvo, D.; Real, D.; Capone, A.; Masullo, R.; Perrina, C.; Ceres, A.; Circella, M.; Mongelli, M.; Sgura, I.; Chiarusi, T.; D'Amico, A.; Deniskina, N.; Migliozzi, P.; Mollo, C.M.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Lahmann, R.; Ferrara, G.; Fusco, L.A.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.; Spurio, M.; Lo Presti, D.; Pugliatti, C.; Martini, A.; Trasatti, L.; Morganti, M.; Pellegriti, M.G.; Piattelli, P.; Taiuti, M.

    2016-01-01

    The NEMO Phase-2 tower is the first detector which was operated underwater for more than 1 year at the ''record'' depth of 3500 m. It was designed and built within the framework of the NEMO (NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory) project. The 380 m high tower was successfully installed in March 2013 80 km offshore Capo Passero (Italy). This is the first prototype operated on the site where the Italian node of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be built. The installation and operation of the NEMO Phase-2 tower has proven the functionality of the infrastructure and the operability at 3500 m depth. A more than 1 year long monitoring of the deep water characteristics of the site has been also provided. In this paper the infrastructure and the tower structure and instrumentation are described. The results of long term optical background measurements are presented. The rates show stable and low baseline values, compatible with the contribution of 40 K light emission, with a small percentage of light bursts due to bioluminescence. All these features confirm the stability and good optical properties of the site. (orig.)

  19. Long term monitoring of the optical background in the Capo Passero deep-sea site with the NEMO tower prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Llorens Alvarez, C.D.; Saldana, M. [Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Instituto de Investigacion para la Gestion Integrada de las Zonas Costeras, Gandia (Spain); Aiello, S.; Giordano, V.; Leonora, E.; Longhitano, F.; Randazzo, N.; Sipala, V.; Ventura, C. [INFN Sezione Catania, Catania (Italy); Ameli, F.; Biagioni, A.; De Bonis, G.; Fermani, P.; Lonardo, A.; Nicolau, C.A.; Simeone, F.; Vicini, P. [INFN Sezione Roma, Rome (Italy); Anghinolfi, M.; Hugon, C.; Musico, P.; Orzelli, A.; Sanguineti, M. [INFN Sezione Genova, Genoa (Italy); Barbarino, G.; Barbato, F.C.T.; De Rosa, G.; Di Capua, F.; Garufi, F.; Vivolo, D. [INFN Sezione Napoli, Naples (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche Universita di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Barbarito, E. [INFN Sezione Bari, Bari (Italy); Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica Universita di Bari, Bari (Italy); Beverini, N.; Calamai, M.; Maccioni, E.; Marinelli, A.; Terreni, G. [INFN Sezione Pisa, Polo Fibonacci, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Pisa, Polo Fibonacci, Pisa (Italy); Biagi, S.; Cacopardo, G.; Cali, C.; Caruso, F.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; D' Amato, C.; De Luca, V.; Distefano, C.; Gmerk, A.; Grasso, R.; Imbesi, M.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Leismueller, K.P.; Litrico, P.; Migneco, E.; Miraglia, A.; Musumeci, M.; Orlando, A.; Papaleo, R.; Pulvirenti, S.; Riccobene, G.; Rovelli, A.; Sapienza, P.; Sciacca, V.; Speziale, F.; Spitaleri, A.; Trovato, A.; Viola, S. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Bouhadef, B.; Flaminio, V.; Raffaelli, F. [INFN Sezione Pisa, Polo Fibonacci, Pisa (Italy); Bozza, C.; Grella, G.; Stellacci, S.M. [INFN Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy); Calvo, D.; Real, D. [CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, IFIC-Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Capone, A.; Masullo, R.; Perrina, C. [INFN Sezione Roma, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Universita ' ' Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy); Ceres, A.; Circella, M.; Mongelli, M.; Sgura, I. [INFN Sezione Bari, Bari (Italy); Chiarusi, T. [INFN Sezione Bologna, Bologna (Italy); D' Amico, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Nikhef, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Deniskina, N.; Migliozzi, P.; Mollo, C.M. [INFN Sezione Napoli, Naples (Italy); Enzenhoefer, A.; Lahmann, R. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Ferrara, G. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); Fusco, L.A.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.; Spurio, M. [INFN Sezione Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia Universita di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Lo Presti, D.; Pugliatti, C. [INFN Sezione Catania, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); Martini, A.; Trasatti, L. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Morganti, M. [INFN Sezione Pisa, Polo Fibonacci, Pisa (Italy); Accademia Navale di Livorno, Livorno (Italy); Pellegriti, M.G. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (IT); Piattelli, P. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (IT); Taiuti, M. [INFN Sezione Genova, Genoa (IT); Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Genova, Genoa (IT)

    2016-02-15

    The NEMO Phase-2 tower is the first detector which was operated underwater for more than 1 year at the ''record'' depth of 3500 m. It was designed and built within the framework of the NEMO (NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory) project. The 380 m high tower was successfully installed in March 2013 80 km offshore Capo Passero (Italy). This is the first prototype operated on the site where the Italian node of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be built. The installation and operation of the NEMO Phase-2 tower has proven the functionality of the infrastructure and the operability at 3500 m depth. A more than 1 year long monitoring of the deep water characteristics of the site has been also provided. In this paper the infrastructure and the tower structure and instrumentation are described. The results of long term optical background measurements are presented. The rates show stable and low baseline values, compatible with the contribution of {sup 40}K light emission, with a small percentage of light bursts due to bioluminescence. All these features confirm the stability and good optical properties of the site. (orig.)

  20. Solute-specific patterns and drivers of urban stream chemistry revealed by long-term monitoring in Baltimore, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, A. J.; Woytowitz, E.; Majcher, E.; Rosi, E. J.; Groffman, P.

    2017-12-01

    Urban streams receive a myriad of chemical inputs from the surrounding landscape due to altered lithology (asphalt, concrete), leaky sewage infrastructure, and other human activities (road salt, fertilizer, industrial wastes, wastewater effluent), potentially leading to multiple chemical stressors occurring simultaneously. To evaluate potential drivers of water chemistry change, we used approximately 20 years of weekly water chemistry monitoring data from streams in the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES) to quantify trends of annual loads and flow-weighted concentrations for multiple solutes of interest, including nitrate (NO3-), phosphate (PO43-), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), chloride (Cl-), and sulfate (SO42-) and subsequently examined various gray and green infrastructure characteristics at the watershed scale. For example, we quantified annual volume and duration of reported sanitary sewer overflows (SSO) and cumulative storage volume and area of various best management practices (BMPs). Site- and solute-specific trends differed, but across our monitoring network we found evidence for decreasing annual export for multiple solutes. Additionally, we found that changes in gray- and green-infrastructure characteristics were related to changes in water quality at our most downstream (most urban) monitoring site. For example, annual NO3- loads increased with longer cumulative SSO duration, whereas annual PO43- and TP loads decreased with a cumulative BMP area in the watershed. Further, we used same long-term water chemistry data and multivariate analyses to investigate whether urban streams have unique water chemistry fingerprints representing the multiple chemical stressors at a given site, which could provide insight into sources and impacts of water-quality impairment. These analyses and results illustrate the major role gray and green infrastructure play in influencing water quality in urban environments, and illustrate that focusing on a variety of

  1. Refurbishment of BR2 (Phase 4 and 5)[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P.; Dekeyser, J.; Van der Auwera, J.

    1998-07-01

    The extensive refurbishment of the BR-2 materials testing reactor should allow another 10 to 15years of continued operation. The refurbishment programme is required in order to comply with modern safety standards, to enhance the reliability of operation, and to compensate for the ageing of the installations of a facility that has reached about 35 years of intensive service. The main objectives and achievements of phase 4 and 5 are described.

  2. Project Plan Remote Target Fabrication Refurbishment Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Gary L.; Taylor, Robin D.

    2009-01-01

    In early FY2009, the DOE Office of Science - Nuclear Physics Program reinstated a program for continued production of 252 Cf and other transcurium isotopes at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The FY2009 major elements of the workscope are as follows: (1) Recovery and processing of seven transuranium element targets undergoing irradiation at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at ORNL; (2) Development of a plan to manufacture new targets for irradiation beginning in early- to mid-FY10 to supply irradiated targets for processing Campaign 75 (TRU75); and (3) Refurbishment of the target manufacturing equipment to allow new target manufacture in early FY10 The 252 Cf product from processing Campaign 74 (recently processed and currently shipping to customers) is expected to supply the domestic demands for a period of approximately two years. Therefore it is essential that new targets be introduced for irradiation by the second quarter of FY10 (HFIR cycle 427) to maintain supply of 252 Cf; the average irradiation period is ∼10 HFIR cycles, requiring about 1.5 calendar years. The strategy for continued production of 252 Cf depends upon repairing and refurbishing the existing pellet and target fabrication equipment for one additional target production campaign. This equipment dates from the mid-1960s to the late 1980s, and during the last target fabrication campaign in 2005- 2006, a number of component failures and operations difficulties were encountered. It is expected that following the target fabrication and acceptance testing of the targets that will supply material for processing Campaign 75 a comprehensive upgrade and replacement of the remote hot-cell equipment will be required prior to subsequent campaigns. Such a major refit could start in early FY 2011 and would take about 2 years to complete. Scope and cost estimates for the repairs described herein were developed, and authorization for the work

  3. The Efficacy of Waste Management Plans in Australian Commercial Construction Refurbishment Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hardie

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Renovation and refurbishment of the existingcommercial building stock is a growing area oftotal construction activity and a significantgenerator of waste sent to landfill in Australia. Awritten waste management plan (WMP is awidespread regulatory requirement forcommercial office redevelopment projects. Thereis little evidence, however, that WMPs actuallyincrease the quantity of waste that is ultimatelydiverted from landfill. Some reports indicate anabsence of any formal verification or monitoringprocess by regulators to assess the efficacy ofthe plans. In order to gauge the extent of theproblem a survey was conducted of twenty fourconsultants and practitioners involved incommercial office building refurbishment projectsto determine the state of current practice withregard to WMPs and to elicit suggestions withregard to ways of making the process moreeffective. Considerable variation in commitmentto recycling policies was encountered indicatinga need to revisit waste minimisation practices ifthe environmental performance of refurbishmentprojects is to be improved.

  4. Long-term GPS tracking of ocean sunfish Mola mola offers a new direction in fish monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, David W; Queiroz, Nuno; Humphries, Nicolas E; Lima, Fernando P; Hays, Graeme C

    2009-10-09

    Satellite tracking of large pelagic fish provides insights on free-ranging behaviour, distributions and population structuring. Up to now, such fish have been tracked remotely using two principal methods: direct positioning of transmitters by Argos polar-orbiting satellites, and satellite relay of tag-derived light-level data for post hoc track reconstruction. Error fields associated with positions determined by these methods range from hundreds of metres to hundreds of kilometres. However, low spatial accuracy of tracks masks important details, such as foraging patterns. Here we use a fast-acquisition global positioning system (Fastloc GPS) tag with remote data retrieval to track long-term movements, in near real time and position accuracy of GPS tagging to provide tracks of unparalleled accuracy for monitoring movements of large pelagic fish, and with nearly four times as many locations obtained by the GPS tag than by a conventional Argos transmitter. The results signal the potential of GPS-tagged pelagic fish that surface regularly to be detectors of resource 'hotspots' in the blue ocean and provides a new capability for understanding large pelagic fish behaviour and habitat use that is relevant to ocean management and species conservation.

  5. Long-term conditioning of deep-seated rockslides in deglaciated valleys: the Spriana case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliardi, Federico; Crosta, Giovanni B.

    2015-04-01

    Deep-seated rockslides in alpine valleys evolve over long time under the action of multiple triggers. Early Warning based on monitoring is often the only effective approach to cope with these landslides, but it requires an improved understanding of mechanisms interplaying over long time. Deep-seated rockslides are often characterized by long-term 'creep' and seasonal displacement components, contributing to measured displacement patterns which are often modelled as rockslide responses to hydrologic perturbations. Although this hydro-mechanical modelling approach fits the behaviour of disrupted rockslide masses with well-developed shear zones, it is often insufficient to explain the initial onset and the long-term components of creep movements of deep-seated rockslides. This outlines the need to link long-term evolution of rock slopes and their sensitivity to triggers. We discuss the Spriana rockslide, affecting the steep left-hand flank of Val Malenco (italian Central Alps). Documented instabilities date back to 1912, whereas the rockslide underwent major acceleration stages in 1960 and 1977-78 and later minor reactivations. We reviewed a large amount of data collected since 1978 by extensive geotechnical site investigation (borehole drilling, exploratory adits, and seismic refraction) and monitoring activities (ground surface and deep displacements, pore pressures) motivated by potential catastrophic collapse threatening the city of Sondrio area. We performed rock mass characterization based on laboratory studies on intact rock samples, field surveys and drillcore logging. These data allowed re-evaluating the geological model of the Spriana rockslide, which is a compound slide of up to 50 Mm3 of slope debris and fractured gneiss, with multiple shear failure zones up to 90 m deep. Two main scarps developed in different stages, suggesting progressive failure processes. The rockslide creeps at slow rates of 0.4-3 cm/a, and undergoes acceleration stages (weeks to

  6. Long-term GPS tracking of ocean sunfish Mola mola offers a new direction in fish monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Sims

    Full Text Available Satellite tracking of large pelagic fish provides insights on free-ranging behaviour, distributions and population structuring. Up to now, such fish have been tracked remotely using two principal methods: direct positioning of transmitters by Argos polar-orbiting satellites, and satellite relay of tag-derived light-level data for post hoc track reconstruction. Error fields associated with positions determined by these methods range from hundreds of metres to hundreds of kilometres. However, low spatial accuracy of tracks masks important details, such as foraging patterns. Here we use a fast-acquisition global positioning system (Fastloc GPS tag with remote data retrieval to track long-term movements, in near real time and position accuracy of <70 m, of the world's largest bony fish, the ocean sunfish Mola mola. Search-like movements occurred over at least three distinct spatial scales. At fine scales, sunfish spent longer in highly localised areas with faster, straighter excursions between them. These 'stopovers' during long-distance movement appear consistent with finding and exploiting food patches. This demonstrates the feasibility of GPS tagging to provide tracks of unparalleled accuracy for monitoring movements of large pelagic fish, and with nearly four times as many locations obtained by the GPS tag than by a conventional Argos transmitter. The results signal the potential of GPS-tagged pelagic fish that surface regularly to be detectors of resource 'hotspots' in the blue ocean and provides a new capability for understanding large pelagic fish behaviour and habitat use that is relevant to ocean management and species conservation.

  7. Virological response and resistance among HIV-infected children receiving long-term antiretroviral therapy without virological monitoring in Uganda and Zimbabwe: Observational analyses within the randomised ARROW trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Szubert

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although WHO recommends viral load (VL monitoring for those on antiretroviral therapy (ART, availability in low-income countries remains limited. We investigated long-term VL and resistance in HIV-infected children managed without real-time VL monitoring.In the ARROW factorial trial, 1,206 children initiating ART in Uganda and Zimbabwe between 15 March 2007 and 18 November 2008, aged a median 6 years old, with median CD4% of 12%, were randomised to monitoring with or without 12-weekly CD4 counts and to receive 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (2NRTI, mainly abacavir+lamivudine with a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI or 3 NRTIs as long-term ART. All children had VL assayed retrospectively after a median of 4 years on ART; those with >1,000 copies/ml were genotyped. Three hundred and sixteen children had VL and genotypes assayed longitudinally (at least every 24 weeks. Overall, 67 (6% switched to second-line ART and 54 (4% died. In children randomised to WHO-recommended 2NRTI+NNRTI long-term ART, 308/378 (81% monitored with CD4 counts versus 297/375 (79% without had VL <1,000 copies/ml at 4 years (difference = +2.3% [95% CI -3.4% to +8.0%]; P = 0.43, with no evidence of differences in intermediate/high-level resistance to 11 drugs. Among children with longitudinal VLs, only 5% of child-time post-week 24 was spent with persistent low-level viraemia (80-5,000 copies/ml and 10% with VL rebound ≥5,000 copies/ml. No child resuppressed <80 copies/ml after confirmed VL rebound ≥5,000 copies/ml. A median of 1.0 (IQR 0.0,1.5 additional NRTI mutation accumulated over 2 years' rebound. Nineteen out of 48 (40% VLs 1,000-5,000 copies/ml were immediately followed by resuppression <1,000 copies/ml, but only 17/155 (11% VLs ≥5,000 copies/ml resuppressed (P < 0.0001. Main study limitations are that analyses were exploratory and treatment initiation used 2006 criteria, without pre-ART genotypes.In this study, children

  8. A novel high pressure, high temperature vessel used to conduct long-term stability measurements of silicon MEMS pressure transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewiski, David

    2014-03-01

    The need to quantify and to improve long-term stability of pressure transducers is a persistent requirement from the aerospace sector. Specifically, the incorporation of real-time pressure monitoring in aircraft landing gear, as exemplified in Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS), has placed greater demand on the pressure transducer for improved performance and increased reliability which is manifested in low lifecycle cost and minimal maintenance downtime through fuel savings and increased life of the tire. Piezoresistive (PR) silicon MEMS pressure transducers are the primary choice as a transduction method for this measurement owing to their ability to be designed for the harsh environment seen in aircraft landing gear. However, these pressure transducers are only as valuable as the long-term stability they possess to ensure reliable, real-time monitoring over tens of years. The "heart" of the pressure transducer is the silicon MEMS element, and it is at this basic level where the long-term stability is established and needs to be quantified. A novel High Pressure, High Temperature (HPHT) vessel has been designed and constructed to facilitate this critical measurement of the silicon MEMS element directly through a process of mechanically "floating" the silicon MEMS element while being subjected to the extreme environments of pressure and temperature, simultaneously. Furthermore, the HPHT vessel is scalable to permit up to fifty specimens to be tested at one time to provide a statistical