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Sample records for reflectivity study close

  1. Overlap in Facebook Profiles Reflects Relationship Closeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Araceli M; Wendel, Markie L; Crockett, Erin E

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the association between self-reported Inclusion of Other in the Self (IOS) and Facebook overlap. Ninety-two participants completed online measures of IOS and investment model constructs. Researchers then recorded Facebook data from participants' profile pages. Results from multilevel models revealed that IOS predicted Facebook overlap. Furthermore, Facebook overlap was associated with commitment and investment in ways comparable to self-reported IOS. These findings suggest that overlap in Facebook profiles can be used to measure relationship closeness.

  2. Teacher Reflection: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rebecca E.

    2013-01-01

    This study is concerned with the reflective practices of middle school teachers. Based on Dewey's theory of reflective practice and Schon's types of reflection, this experience is one of student learning, relationships, curriculum planning, and lesson delivery. This is a qualitative study using the research method of phenomenology through…

  3. Closing Reflections: Public Policy, Advocacy, and Special Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jane E.; Shepherd, Katharine G.

    2016-01-01

    When the Higher Education Consortium for Special Education (HECSE) convened in January 2016 in Washington, we celebrated both IDEA's and HECSE's 40th anniversaries. As we reflected on those two anniversaries, the convictions that generated this special issue became increasingly evident: the irrevocable significance of the impact of public policy…

  4. Closing Reflections: Public Policy, Advocacy, and Special Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jane E.; Shepherd, Katharine G.

    2016-01-01

    When the Higher Education Consortium for Special Education (HECSE) convened in January 2016 in Washington, we celebrated both IDEA's and HECSE's 40th anniversaries. As we reflected on those two anniversaries, the convictions that generated this special issue became increasingly evident: the irrevocable significance of the impact of public policy…

  5. A Critically Reflective Social Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Marge

    1990-01-01

    Examines social studies in the twenty-first century from a critical theory perspective. Traces critical reflection's origins from Marxist educational theories to Jurgen Habermas's critical theory. Highlights Fred Newmann's curricular model, "Education for Citizen Action," for developing competent action in public affairs. Advocates infusing…

  6. A Critically Reflective Social Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Marge

    1990-01-01

    Examines social studies in the twenty-first century from a critical theory perspective. Traces critical reflection's origins from Marxist educational theories to Jurgen Habermas's critical theory. Highlights Fred Newmann's curricular model, "Education for Citizen Action," for developing competent action in public affairs. Advocates…

  7. Too Close for Comfort: Real-Time Science Teaching Reflections via Digital Video Editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerrick, Randy; Ross, Donna; Molebash, Philip

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the use of digital video editing as the main venue for fostering reflection. The impact of digital video editing technology on preservice teachers' beliefs included shifts in (a) reflections regarding children's thinking, (b) planning and instruction informed by reflection, and (c) notions of teaching expertise and requisite…

  8. Studies of the Reflection, Refraction and Internal Reflection of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanchester, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    An inexpensive apparatus and associated experiments are described for studying the basic laws of reflection and refraction of light at an air-glass interface, and multiple internal reflections within a glass block. In order to motivate students and encourage their active participation, a novel technique is described for determining the refractive…

  9. Present and Near-Future Reflected Light Searches for Close-In Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Charbonneau, D; Charbonneau, David; Noyes, Robert W.

    2000-01-01

    Close-in extrasolar giant planets may be directly detectable by theirreflected light, due to the proximity of the planet to the illuminating star.The spectrum of the system will contain a reflected light component that variesin amplitude and Doppler shift as the planet orbits the star. Intensivesearches for this effect have been carried out for only one extrasolar planetsystem, tau Boo. There exist several other attractive targets, including thetransiting planet system HD 209458.

  10. Influence of high-order optical parameters of tissue on spatially resolved reflectance in the region close to the source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijuan Tian; Ying Liu; Lijun Wang; Xiaojuan Zhang; Zonghui Gao

    2006-01-01

    @@ Influences of the scattering phase functions on spatially resolved diffuse reflectance from a homogenous semi-infinite medium close to source are studied with Monte Carlo simulation. It is shown that the influences of optical parameters higher than the second order on the diffuse reflectance are quite weak in the region from 0.3 to several transport mean free pathes when Henyey-Greenstein phase function or a combined phase function of two parameters are used. But this influence may be substantial if the double Henyey-Greenstein function is used to describe the scattering property of tissue.

  11. Too Close for Comfort: Real-Time Science Teaching Reflections via Digital Video Editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerrick, Randy; Ross, Donna; Molebash, Philip

    2005-12-01

    This study examined the use of digital video editing as the main venue for fostering reflection. The impact of digital video editing technology on preservice teachers' beliefs included shifts in (a) reflections regarding children's thinking, (b) planning and instruction informed by reflection, and (c) notions of teaching expertise and requisite knowledge. Results were based on an instructional approach emphasizing the exploration of preservice teachers' own planning and teaching as they edited their own video accounts. These findings contrast typical video usage in teacher preparation in which teachers reflect upon the practice of others. Implications for teacher education programs and future research are discussed.

  12. Making the Case for the Outlier: Researcher Reflections of an African-American Female Deputy Superintendent Who Decided to Close the Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Karen Stansberry

    2012-01-01

    This article presents researcher reflections of a case study of a Black female deputy superintendent who made the value-driven decision to close the achievement gap in her district. I posit that she is an outlier because she is Black and female in a predominantly white male field of practice, she effectively closed the achievement gap through her…

  13. Detecting Reflected Light from Close-In Extrasolar Giant Planets with the Kepler Photometer

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J M

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Kepler Mission promises to detect transiting Earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of solar-like stars. In addition, it will be poised to detect the reflected light component from close-in extrasolar giant planets (CEGPs) similar to 51 Peg b. Here we use the DIARAD/SOHO time series along with models for the reflected light signatures of CEGPs to evaluate Kepler's ability to detect such planets. We examine the detectability as a function of stellar brightness, stellar rotation period, planetary orbital inclination angle, and planetary orbital period, and then estimate the total number of CEGPs that Kepler will detect over its four year mission. The analysis shows that intrinsic stellar variability of solar-like stars is a major obstacle to detecting the reflected light from CEGPs. Monte Carlo trials are used to estimate the detection threshold required to limit the total number of expected false alarms to no more than one for a survey of 100,000 stellar light curves. Kepler will likely detect 100-7...

  14. Visual Thinking Strategies: Teachers' Reflections on Closely Reading Complex Visual Texts within the Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Marva; Walker, Nancy T.

    2016-01-01

    The authors offer a new perspective on close reading that uses a range of multimodal texts to capitalize on the visual nature of contemporary society and to support literacy within the academic disciplines. Specifically, a qualitative study explored teachers' perspectives on the use of Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS), a practice borrowed from…

  15. Layered magnets: polarized neutron reflection studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabel, H.; Schreyer, A. [Ruhr-Univ. Bochum, Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentalphysik/Festkoerperphysik, Bochum (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Neutron reflectivity measurements from extended surfaces, thin films and superlattices provide information on the chemical profile parallel to the film normal, including film thicknesses, average composition and interfacial roughness parameters. Reflectivity measurements with polarized neutrons are particularly powerful for analyzing the magnetic density profiles in thin films and superlattices in addition to chemical profiles. The basic theory of polarized neutron reflectivity is provided, followed by some examples and more recent applications concerning polarized neutron reflectivity studies from exchange coupled Fe/Cr superlattices. (author) 5 figs., 13 refs.

  16. Shock wave reflection induced detonation (SWRID) under high pressure and temperature condition in closed cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Qi, Y.; Liu, H.; Zhang, P.; He, X.; Wang, J.

    2016-09-01

    Super-knock is one of the major obstacles for improving power density in advanced internal combustion engines (ICE). This work studied the mechanism of super-knock initiation using a rapid compression machine that simulated conditions relevant to ICEs and provided excellent optical accessibility. Based on the high-speed images and pressure traces of the stoichiometric iso-octane/oxygen/nitrogen combustion under high-temperature and high-pressure conditions, it was observed that detonation was first initiated in the near-wall region as a result of shock wave reflection. Before detonation was initiated, the speed of the combustion wave front was less than that of the Chapman-Jouguet (C-J) detonation speed (around 1840 m/s). In the immediate vicinity of the initiation, the detonation speed was much higher than that of the C-J detonation.

  17. Theoretical study of irradiation effects in close binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of irradiation is studied in a close binary system assuming that the secondary component is a point source, moving in a circular orbit. The irradiation effects are calculated on the atmosphere of the primary component in a 3-dimensional Cartesian coordinate geometry. In treating the reflection effect theoretically, the total radiation (ST is obtained as the sum of the radiation of 1 the effect of irradiation on the primary component which is calculated by using one dimensional rod model (Sr and 2 the self radiation of the primary component which is calculated by using the solution of radiative transfer equation in spherical symmetry (Ss. The radiation field is estimated along the line of sight of the observer at infinity. It is shown how the radiation field changes depending on the position of the secondary component.

  18. Theoretical Study of Irradiation Effects in Close Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao, M.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of irradiation is studied in a close binary systemassuming that the secondary component is a point source, moving in a circularorbit. The irradiation effects are calculatedon the atmosphere of the primary component in a 3-dimensional Cartesiancoordinate geometry. In treating the reflection effect theoretically, the totalradiation $(S_mathrm{T}$ is obtained as the sum of the radiation of 1 the effect ofirradiation on the primary component which is calculated by using onedimensional rod model $(S_mathrm{r}$ and 2 the self radiation of the primarycomponent which is calculated by using the solution of radiative transferequation in spherical symmetry $(S_mathrm{s}$. The radiation field is estimated alongthe line of sight of the observer at infinity. It is shown how the radiationfield changes depending on the position of the secondary component.

  19. Neutron reflectivity studies of ionomer blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrys, B.J. [Department of Computing, Faculty of Mathematics and Computing, The Open University in the South, Foxcombe Hall, Boars Hill, Oxford OX1 5HR (United Kingdom); Bhutto, A.A. [IPES, Brunel University West London, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Bucknall, D.G.; Vesely, D. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Braiewa, R.; Weiss, R.A. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CN 06269-3136 (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Preliminary results are presented of a neutron reflectivity study of the interfacial width between lithium- and zinc-sulphonated deuterated polystyrene with polycarbonate (PC). Both systems are partially miscible and exhibit an upper critical solution temperature behaviour. The interdiffusion in these systems was measured by annealing at a temperature above the glass-transition temperature of both polymers. The interfacial profiles obtained for these systems were described by symmetric Gaussian interfaces. No significant diffusion was observed. (orig.)

  20. Neutron reflectivity studies of ionomer blends

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrys, B J; Bucknall, D G; Vesely, D; Braiewa, R; Weiss, R A

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of a neutron reflectivity study of the interfacial width between lithium- and zinc-sulphonated deuterated polystyrene with polycarbonate (PC). Both systems are partially miscible and exhibit an upper critical solution temperature behaviour. The interdiffusion in these systems was measured by annealing at a temperature above the glass-transition temperature of both polymers. The interfacial profiles obtained for these systems were described by symmetric Gaussian interfaces. No significant diffusion was observed. (orig.)

  1. Simplified Computation of Reflective Overpressure in Closed Cuboid Space Due to Internal Explosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田力; 李忠献; 周清

    2010-01-01

    A simplified method is proposed for analyzing the overpressure history of an optional point on the walls of a closed cuboid due to its internal optional point-explosion. Firstly, the overpressure histories of all nodes on the walls of a cube with a side-length of 2 m are computed under a reference-charge explosion at each node of its inner space using the LS-DYNA software, and then are collected to form a reference database. Next, with the thought of the isoparametric finite element, an interpolating algori...

  2. Lung Morphological Changes in Closed Chest Injury (an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Golubev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study lung morphological changes in a closed chest injury model in laboratory animals. Material and methods. Experiments were carried out in 30 male albino nonbred rats weighing 350—380 g. Closed chest injury was simulated, by exposing the chest of anesthetized rats to a 300-g metal cylinder falling from a height of 30 cm. The observation periods were 1, 3, 6, and 24 hours. Results. The signs of evident perivenular edema that was uncharas-teristic to acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by other causes are an important peculiarity of lung morphological changes in this experimental model of closed chest injury. Conclusion. The experimental studies clarified the pattern of lung morphological changes in the early period after closed chest injury. Key words: closed chest injury, pulmonary edema.

  3. Reflection seismic studies in the Forsmark area - stage 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhlin, Christopher; Bergman Bjoern; Palm, Hans [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2002-10-01

    Reflection seismic data were acquired in the Spring of 2002 in the Forsmark area, located about 70 km northeast of Uppsala, Sweden. The Forsmark area has been targeted by SKB as a possible storage site for high level radioactive waste. About 16 km of high resolution seismic data were acquired along five separate profiles varying in length from 2 to 5 km. Non-final source and receiver spacing was 10 m with 100 active channels when recording data from a dynamite source (15-75 g). The profiles were located within a relatively undeformed lens of bedrock that trends in the NW-SE direction. The lens is surrounded by highly deformed rock on all sides. In conjunction with the reflection component of the study, all shots were also recorded on up to eleven 3-component fixed Orion seismographs. These recordings provided long offset data from which a velocity model of the uppermost 400 m of bedrock could be derived. Results from the study show that the bedrock has been well imaged down to depths of at least 3 km. The upper 1000 m of bedrock is much more reflective in the southeastern portion of the lens compared to the northwestern part close to the Forsmark reactors. This is interpreted as the bedrock being more homogeneous in the northwest. However, a major reflective zone (the A1 reflector) is interpreted to dip to the S-SE below this homogeneous bedrock. In the southeastern portion of the lens the orientation of the reflectors is well determined where the profiles cross one another. The general strike of the major reflectors is NE-SW with dips of 20-35 degrees to the southeast.

  4. Altered functional connectivity during self- and close other-reflection in patients with bipolar disorder with past psychosis and patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liwen; Vander Meer, Lisette; Opmeer, Esther M; Marsman, Jan-Bernard C; Ruhé, Henricus G; Aleman, André

    2016-12-01

    Disturbances in implicit self-processing have been reported both in psychotic patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia. It remains unclear whether these two psychotic disorders show disturbed functional connectivity during explicit self-reflection, which is associated with social functioning and illness symptoms. Therefore, we investigated functional connectivity during explicit self-reflection in BD with past psychosis and schizophrenia. Twenty-three BD-patients, 17 schizophrenia-patients and 21 health controls (HC) performed a self-reflection task, including the conditions self-reflection, close other-reflection and semantic control. Functional connectivity was investigated with generalized psycho-physiological interaction (gPPI). During self-reflection compared to semantic, BD-patients had decreased connectivity between several cortical-midline structures (CMS) nodes (i.e., anterior cingulate cortex, ventromedial prefrontal cortex), the insula and the head of the caudate while HC showed increased connectivities. Schizophrenia-patients, during close other-reflection compared to semantic, demonstrated reduced ventral-anterior insula-precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) functional connectivity, whereas this was increased in HC. There were no differences between BD and schizophrenia during self- and close other-reflection. We propose that decreased functional connectivity between the CMS nodes/insula and head of the caudate in BD-patients may imply a reduced involvement of the motivational system during self-reflection; and the reduced functional connectivity between the ventral-anterior insula and precuneus/PCC during close other-reflection in schizophrenia-patients may subserve difficulties in information integration of autobiographical memory and emotional awareness in relation to close others. These distinctive impaired patterns of functional connectivity in BD and schizophrenia (compared to HC) deserve further investigation to determine their

  5. Signaling When (and When Not) to Be Cautious and Self-Protective: Impulsive and Reflective Trust in Close Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Sandra L.; Pinkus, Rebecca T.; Holmes, John G.; Harris, Brianna; Gomillion, Sarah; Aloni, Maya; Derrick, Jaye L.; Leder, Sadie

    2011-01-01

    A dual process model is proposed to explain how automatic evaluative associations to the partner (i.e., impulsive trust) and deliberative expectations of partner caring (i.e., reflective trust) interact to govern self-protection in romantic relationships. Experimental and correlational studies of dating and marital relationships supported the model. Subliminally conditioning more positive evaluative associations to the partner increased confidence in the partner’s caring, suggesting that trus...

  6. Signaling when (and when not) to be cautious and self-protective: impulsive and reflective trust in close relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Sandra L; Pinkus, Rebecca T; Holmes, John G; Harris, Brianna; Gomillion, Sarah; Aloni, Maya; Derrick, Jaye L; Leder, Sadie

    2011-09-01

    A dual process model is proposed to explain how automatic evaluative associations to the partner (i.e., impulsive trust) and deliberative expectations of partner caring (i.e., reflective trust) interact to govern self-protection in romantic relationships. Experimental and correlational studies of dating and marital relationships supported the model. Subliminally conditioning more positive evaluative associations to the partner increased confidence in the partner's caring, suggesting that trust has an impulsive basis. Being high on impulsive trust (i.e., more positive evaluative associations to the partner on the Implicit Association Test; Zayas & Shoda, 2005) also reduced the automatic inclination to distance in response to doubts about the partner's trustworthiness. It similarly reduced self-protective behavioral reactions to these reflective trust concerns. The studies further revealed that the effects of impulsive trust depend on working memory capacity: Being high on impulsive trust inoculated against reflective trust concerns for people low on working memory capacity. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. The bacterial community in the gut of the Cockroach Shelfordella lateralis reflects the close evolutionary relatedness of cockroaches and termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Christine; Thompson, Claire L; Brune, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    Termites and cockroaches are closely related, with molecular phylogenetic analyses even placing termites within the radiation of cockroaches. The intestinal tract of wood-feeding termites harbors a remarkably diverse microbial community that is essential for the digestion of lignocellulose. However, surprisingly little is known about the gut microbiota of their closest relatives, the omnivorous cockroaches. Here, we present a combined characterization of physiological parameters, metabolic activities, and bacterial microbiota in the gut of Shelfordella lateralis, a representative of the cockroach family Blattidae, the sister group of termites. We compared the bacterial communities within each gut compartment using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and made a 16S rRNA gene clone library of the microbiota in the colon-the dilated part of the hindgut with the highest density and diversity of bacteria. The colonic community was dominated by members of the Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes (mainly Clostridia), and some Deltaproteobacteria. Spirochaetes and Fibrobacteres, which are abundant members of termite gut communities, were conspicuously absent. Nevertheless, detailed phylogenetic analysis revealed that many of the clones from the cockroach colon clustered with sequences previously obtained from the termite gut, which indicated that the composition of the bacterial community reflects at least in part the phylogeny of the host.

  8. [Sensitivity study of a revised leaf photochemical reflectance index (PRI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao-yang; Niu, Zheng; Tang, Quan

    2008-09-01

    Photochemical reflectance index (PRI) defined as a normalized difference index using two narrow reflectance bands at 531 and 570 nm that are closely related to xanthophyll cycle pigment content has been successfully used to estimate leaf photosynthetic light use efficiency (LUE) across species which vary in water content and nitrogen concentration. Previous research demonstrated that a consistent relationship could be established between PRI and LUE calculated from gas exchange measurements at the leaf, small canopy, and full forest or crop canopy scales. However, a number of problems, such as the saturation of PRI when LUE exceeds 0.03 mol CO2 mol(-1) PPED (photosynthetic photon flux density) and disjunctive relationships of PRI and LUE in seasonal changes, still existed and need to be handled in order to evaluate LUE more accurately. A sensitivity study of a revised PRI with four leaf parameters was performed based on PROSPECT model in the present article to study the effects of different biochemical concentrations on leaf SR-PRI (simple ratio PRI). Sensitivity study proved that leaf SR-PRI is more sensitive to leaf mesophyll structure parameter (N) and chlorophyll a + b content (c(ab)) than parameters of dry matter content (c(m)) and equivalent water thickness (c(w)), indicating that leaf mesophyll structure parameter (N) and chlorophyll a + b content (c(ab)) should be especially considered when acquiring leaf SR-PRI. And changes in the two parameters would cause large variation in SR-PRI which would reduce the precision for estimating light use efficiency. Validation study of SR-PRI was carried out in the analysis and the results proved that SR-PRI can also be a feasible index of estimating LUE for four species of plants with correlation coefficients better than that of PRI and LUE. The advantage of SR-PRI compared to PRI is its much clearer physical meaning and its sensitivity to the changes in reflectance at 531 nm which serves as a core parameter to evaluate

  9. Study of the Open Loop and Closed Loop Oscillator Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imel, George R. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Baker, Benjamin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Riley, Tony [Knolls Atomic Power Lab. (KAPL), Schenectady, NY (United States); Langbehn, Adam [Puget Sound Naval Base, Bremerton, WA (United States); Aryal, Harishchandra [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Benzerga, M. Lamine [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

    2015-04-11

    This report presents the progress and completion of a five-year study undertaken at Idaho State University of the measurement of very small worth reactivity samples comparing open and closed loop oscillator techniques.The study conclusively demonstrated the equivalency of the two techniques with regard to uncertainties in reactivity values, i.e., limited by reactor noise. As those results are thoroughly documented in recent publications, in this report we will concentrate on the support work that was necessary. For example, we describe in some detail the construction and calibration of a pilot rod for the closed loop system. We discuss the campaign to measure the required reactor parameters necessary for inverse-kinetics. Finally, we briefly discuss the transfer of the open loop technique to other reactor systems.

  10. Research and Teaching: A Case Study on Reflective Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiang; Kalman, Calvin S.

    2012-01-01

    Reflective writing is a student-centered approach widely used in science and engineering courses that helps students develop a holistic scientific mindset. We present a multiple case study in two science courses in which students engaged in reflective writing. The goal of this study was to explore relationships between students' performance found…

  11. Theoretical and experimental study on strip reflection coefficient of different crystal symmetry class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Fangqian; HE Shitang

    2005-01-01

    The closed-form expressions on strip reflection coefficients of tetragonal 4/mmm,hexagonal 6/mm and trigonal 3m crystal, etc, were derived, which are different from that of cubic m3m crystal published. The reflection coefficients of short-circuited Al grating and groove grating on 112° rotated X-cut Y-propagation LiTaO3 are then given. The reflection property of a short-circuited Al -recessed groove grating on 112°LiTaO3 has been experimentally studied and the condition without internal reflection was achieved. It concludes that the structure of single finger without internal reflection can be realized by the short-circuited Al -recessed groove grating on 112°LiTaO3 and thereafter a pass-band filter with central frequency at 255 MHz,bandwidth about 10 MHz, pass-band ripples less than 0.4 dB was yielded.

  12. Communication and nursing: a study-abroad student's reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Anna Karina Martins; Tuohy, Dympna

    Globalisation in the academic context provides the opportunity for sharing knowledge and innovations between institutions in different countries, through the creation of study abroad and academic mobility programmes. For nursing students, studying abroad facilitates the development of cultural sensitivity so that they may care appropriately for an increasingly multicultural patient population in their own countries. This article describes a Brazilian 'study abroad' student nurse's experience of studying a 'communication and therapeutic relationships' module in an Irish university. Johns' model of structured reflection was used to frame, describe and reflect on the experience. This reflection informs 'study abroad' students and their universities about the student experience through a personal account of one such student.

  13. [Social inequality and epidemiological studies: a reflection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria Angela Fernandes; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Social indicators are now indispensable in the list of variables of epidemiological studies, based on the fact that the determination of health complaints is complex and multidimensional. From this perspective, social inequality has gained prominence as an explanatory factor for the health conditions of populations. The scope of this article is to discuss the different concepts that underpin the selection of the indicators used in epidemiological studies and examine the psychosocial effects on human beings caused by social inequality. A literature review of epidemiological studies that used social inequality and social capital indicators was conducted for a better understanding of health problems, as well as an investigation in the fields of sociology and social psychology. The research revealed that there is some controversy surrounding the effect of social inequality on health, possibly because these indicators are predominantly based on income and individual consumption capacity. Likewise, social capital indicators at cognitive and structural levels are too limited to understand the dynamism of social relations. Accordingly, further studies are needed for the construction of social indicators capable of examining the complexity of modern societies.

  14. Reflective Practice in Action: A Case Study of a Writing Teacher's Reflection on Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2006-01-01

    Reflective practice, a popular item in current second-language teacher education and development programs, can help bridge the gap between a teacher's beliefs and classroom practices. This article outlines a case study, highlighting how one teacher of academic writing initiated the exploration of her teaching and how she used classroom…

  15. Neuroimaging studies of self-reflection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ying

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews some basic findings and methodological issues in neuroimaging studies of self-referential processing.As a general rule,making judgments about one's self,inclusive of personality trait adjectives or current mental states(person's prefer ences,norms,aesthetic values and feeling)uniformly generates medial prefrontal activations,regardless of stimulus materials(words or pictures)and modality(visual or auditory).Cingulate activations are also observed in association with most self-referential processing.Methodological issues include treating self-referential processing as either representing one's own personality traits or representing one's own current mental states.Finally,self-referential processing could Be considered as implement of "I think therefore I am" approach to neuroimaging the self.

  16. Parametric study of closed wet cooling tower thermal performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasim, S. M.; Hayder, M. J.

    2017-08-01

    The present study involves experimental and theoretical analysis to evaluate the thermal performance of modified Closed Wet Cooling Tower (CWCT). The experimental study includes: design, manufacture and testing prototype of a modified counter flow forced draft CWCT. The modification based on addition packing to the conventional CWCT. A series of experiments was carried out at different operational parameters. In view of energy analysis, the thermal performance parameters of the tower are: cooling range, tower approach, cooling capacity, thermal efficiency, heat and mass transfer coefficients. The theoretical study included develops Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models to predicting various thermal performance parameters of the tower. Utilizing experimental data for training and testing, the models simulated by multi-layer back propagation algorithm for varying all operational parameters stated in experimental test.

  17. On the propagation and multiple reflections of a blast wave travelling through a dusty gas in a closed box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappa, Marcello; Drikakis, Dimitris; Kokkinakis, Ioannis

    2017-03-01

    This paper concerns the propagation of shock waves in an enclosure filled with dusty gas. The main motivation for this problem is to probe the effect on such dynamics of solid particles dispersed in the fluid medium. This subject, which has attracted so much attention over recent years given its important implications in the study of the structural stability of systems exposed to high-energy internal detonations, is approached here in the framework of a hybrid numerical two-way coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian methodology. In particular, insights are sought by considering a relatively simple archetypal setting corresponding to a shock wave originating from a small spherical region initialized on the basis of available analytic solutions. The response of the system is explored numerically with respect to several parameters, including the blast intensity (via the related value of the initial shock Mach number), the solid mass fraction (mass load), and the particle size (Stokes number). Results are presented in terms of pressure-load diagrams. Beyond practical applications, it is shown that a kaleidoscope of fascinating patterns is produced by the "triadic" relationships among multiple shock reflection events and particle-fluid and particle-wall interaction dynamics. These would be of great interest to researchers and scientists interested in fundamental problems relating to the general theory of pattern formation in complex nonlinear multiphase systems.

  18. Environmental Rehabilitation of Closed Mines. A Chase Study on Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca COBÂRZAN

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article attempts to analyze methods that can be used to restore a former coal mining site to a condition that is well integrated into its surroundings and that recovers the abandoned and contaminated land and renders its value to the community. The key concept that guides the present paper is that the coal mining is just a temporary land use and that the cost of cleaning the mining site should be an operating expense that has to be included in the budget of a coal mine company starting with the first year of operation. The coal mining industry in Romania is presented as a case study to emphasize the effects that closed coal mines have on communities where they are located and, based on the methods that are successfully used to solve similar problems, recommendations are formulated to improve the environmental rehabilitation of the mining sites.

  19. High-resolution x-ray scatter and reflectivity study of sputtered IR surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Abdali, S.; Hornstrup, Allan

    1993-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increased interest in the possible use of Ir as the reflecting surface in X-ray telescope programs. An X-ray study of such surfaces produced by sputtering of Ir on highly polished Zerodur flats is presented here. The study was performed using Fe K(alpha) 1 (6.......404 Kev) and Cu K(alpha) 1 (8.048 keV) and includes measurement of total external reflection and scattering. The scattering measurement was made with three different instruments arrangements; one employed a 1D position sensitive detector for low resolution studies giving approximately 30 arcsec resolution...... (FWHM), and the other two arrangements employed channel cut crystals providing resolutions (FWHM) of 5 arcsec and 1 arcsec, respectively at Cu K(alpha) 1. The reflectivity study revealed a very close correspondence with a theoretical model based on recently published optical constants. This important...

  20. High-resolution x-ray scatter and reflectivity study of sputtered IR surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Abdali, S.; Hornstrup, Allan

    1993-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increased interest in the possible use of Ir as the reflecting surface in X-ray telescope programs. An X-ray study of such surfaces produced by sputtering of Ir on highly polished Zerodur flats is presented here. The study was performed using Fe K(alpha) 1 (6.......404 Kev) and Cu K(alpha) 1 (8.048 keV) and includes measurement of total external reflection and scattering. The scattering measurement was made with three different instruments arrangements; one employed a 1D position sensitive detector for low resolution studies giving approximately 30 arcsec resolution...... (FWHM), and the other two arrangements employed channel cut crystals providing resolutions (FWHM) of 5 arcsec and 1 arcsec, respectively at Cu K(alpha) 1. The reflectivity study revealed a very close correspondence with a theoretical model based on recently published optical constants. This important...

  1. Students' Stories of Studying Abroad: Reflections upon Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Study abroad brings an enriching experience to students' academic and personal lives. This narrative essay relays two students' experiences with study abroad sojourns and touches upon their technology use during their study abroad as recounted in semi-structured interviews. Details of their cultural experiences and reflections thereof as well as…

  2. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON NITROGEN BUDGETS OF CLOSED SHRIMP POLYCULTURE SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    April to October, 1997 comparative studies on the nitrogen budgets of closed shrimp polyculture systems showed that, in all the studied polyculture systems, nitrogen from feeds and fertilizers were the main input items, which comprised 70.7%-83.9% of the total input nitrogen, 3.2%-7.4% of which was provided by nitrogen fixation. It was in monoculture enclosures (Y-4, Y-11 and Y-12) that the percentage reached the maximum value. The output nitrogen in harvested products comprised 10.8%-24.6% of total input nitrogen, and the highest percentage, 24.6%, was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems. In shrimp monoculture and shrimp-fish polyculture systems, they were 19.1% and 21.9%, respectively. The nitrogen utilization efficiency was different and varied from 12.2% to 20.1%. The highest, 20.1%, was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems, and the average of 20.0% was found in shrimp-tagelus polyculture systems. The lowest, 12.2%, was found in shrimp monoculture systems. All the nitrogen utilization efficiencies in shrimp-fish systems or shrimp-scallop systems seemed to be higher than that of the monoculture system, but they showed little statistical difference. The main outputs of nitrogen were found in sediment mud, and comprised 48.2%-60.8% of the total input, the lowest percentage was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems, and the highest percentage in shrimp-scallop systems. During the experiment, nitrogen lost through denitrification and ammonia volatilization comprised 1.9%-6.2%, averaged 2.8%, of the total input, and the loss through seepage comprised 5.9%-8.9% of the total. The estimated nitrogen attached to the enclosure wall comprised 3.7%-13.3% of the total, and was highest in shrimp monoculture systems. Compared with the classic shrimp farming industry, the closed shrimp polyculture systems may improve the nitrogen utilization efficiency, and hence reduce the environmental impacts on coastal waters. The nitrogen discharging

  3. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON NITROGEN BUDGETS OF CLOSED SHRIMP POLYCULTURE SYSTEMS"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐振雄; 李德尚; 张曼平; 董双林

    2001-01-01

    April to October, 1997 comparative studios on the nitrogen budgets of closed shrimp polyculture systems showed that, in all the studied polyculture systems, nitrogen from feeds and fertilizers were the main input items, which comprised 70.7% - 83.9% of the total input nitrogen, 3.2% - 7.4% of which was provided by nitrogen fixation. It was in monoculture enclosures (Y-4, Y-11 and Y-12) that the percentage reached the maximum value. The output nitrogen in harvested products comprised 10.8% - 24.6% of total input nitrogen, and the highest percentage, 24.6%, was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems. In shrimp monoculture and shrimp-fish polyculture systems, they were 19.1% and 21.9%, respectively. The nitrogen utilization efficiency was different and varied from 12.2% to 20.1%. The highest, 20.1%, was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polycultttre systems, and the average of 20.0% was found in shrimp-tagelus polyculture systems. The lowest, 12.2%, was found in shrimp monoculture systems.All the nitrogen utilization efficiencies in shrimp-fish systems or shrimp-scallop systems seemed to be higher than that of the monoculture system, but they showed little statistical difference. The main outputs of nitrngen were found in sediment mud, and comprised 48.2% -60.8% of the total input, the lowest percentage was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems, and the highost percentage in shrimp-scallop systems.During the experiment, nitrogen lost through denitrification and ammonia volatilization comprised 1.9% - 6.2%, averaged 2.8%, of the total input, and the loss through seepage comprised 5.9% - 8.9% of the total.The estimated nitrogen attached to the enclosure wall comprised 3.7% - 13.3% of the total, and was highest in shrimp monoculture systems. Compared with the classic shrimp farming industry, the closed shrimp polycul-ture systems may improve the nitrogen utilization efficiency, and hence reduce the environmental impacts on coastal waters. The nitrogen

  4. Reflection seismology systems for planetary geology: A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg, P.A.W.; Gill, E.K.A.; Drijkoningen, G.G.; Foing, B.H.; Toxopeus, G.

    2009-01-01

    A feasibility study is conducted to determine whether reflection seismology systems can be used for planetary geology research. The focus is on systems with up to 20,000 seismic detectors, such as used today in Earth geological research and energy companies. The study follows a top-down systems engi

  5. A dispersion study of CO2 in a closed area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinek, Tomas; Frana, Karel

    2016-06-01

    Predictions of air pollution dispersion in an indoor environment are important outputs to control a fresh air ventilation or energy building efficiency. This study deals with numerical simulations of a formation and dispersion of carbon dioxide (CO2) in a closed area. Numerical simulations were carried out by the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach. A simple domain with one pollution source was used for a validation of the mathematical model, in which values of the CO2 concentration were calculated using CFD and measured. The CO2 was created as a combustion product of the ethanol. There were used two different methods for the calculation of the CO2 formation. The first method adopted the species transport model with reactions and the second method was the non-premix combustion model based on the mixture fraction theory. The third method used in numerical simulations was a constant mass flow inlet of CO2. All computational methods provided a sufficient agreement of the CO2 concentration with the experimental data.

  6. Value Engineering Study for Closing Waste Packages Containing TAD Canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colleen Shelton-Davis

    2005-11-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management announced their intention to have the commercial utilities package spent nuclear fuel in shielded, transportable, ageable, and disposable containers prior to shipment to the Yucca Mountain repository. This will change the conditions used as a basis for the design of the waste package closure system. The environment is now expected to be a low radiation, low contamination area. A value engineering study was completed to evaluate possible modifications to the existing closure system using the revised requirements. Four alternatives were identified and evaluated against a set of weighted criteria. The alternatives are (1) a radiation-hardened, remote automated system (the current baseline design); (2) a nonradiation-hardened, remote automated system (with personnel intervention if necessary); (3) a nonradiation-hardened, semi-automated system with personnel access for routine manual operations; and (4) a nonradiation-hardened, fully manual system with full-time personnel access. Based on the study, the recommended design is Alternative 2, a nonradiation-hardened, remote automated system. It is less expensive and less complex than the current baseline system, because nonradiation-hardened equipment can be used and some contamination control equipment is no longer needed. In addition, the inclusion of remote automation ensures throughput requirements are met, provides a more reliable process, and provides greater protection for employees from industrial accidents and radiation exposure than the semi-automated or manual systems. Other items addressed during the value engineering study as requested by OCRWM include a comparison to industry canister closure systems and corresponding lessons learned; consideration of closing a transportable, ageable, and disposable canister; and an estimate of the time required to perform a demonstration of the recommended closure system.

  7. Ethics reflection groups in community health services: an evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillemoen, Lillian; Pedersen, Reidar

    2015-04-17

    Systematic ethics support in community health services in Norway is in the initial phase. There are few evaluation studies about the significance of ethics reflection on care. The aim of this study was to evaluate systematic ethics reflection in groups in community health (including nursing homes and residency), - from the perspectives of employees participating in the groups, the group facilitators and the service managers. The reflection groups were implemented as part of a research and development project. A mixed-methods design with qualitative focus group interviews, observations and written reports were used to evaluate. The study was conducted at two nursing homes, two home care districts and a residence for people with learning disabilities. Participants were employees, facilitators and service managers. The study was guided by ethical standard principles and was approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. We found support for ethics reflection as a valuable measure to strengthen clinical practice. New and improved solutions, more cooperation between employees, and improved collaboration with patients and their families are some of the results. No negative experiences were found. Instead, the ethics reflection based on experiences and challenges in the workplace, was described as a win-win situation. The evaluation also revealed what is needed to succeed and useful tips for further development of ethics support in community health services. Ethics reflection groups focusing on ethical challenges from the participants' daily work were found to be significant for improved practice, collegial support and cooperation, personal and professional development among staff, facilitators and managers. Resources needed to succeed were managerial support, and anchoring ethics sessions in the routine of daily work.

  8. Guide to DCP Study Close-Out: Milestones and Tasks | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide assists Consortium Lead Organization (CLO) planning for DCP study close-out. Study close-out tasks are organized under milestones, which help mark progress toward completion of the close-out process. Once tasks associated with a milestone are underway, planning for the next milestone may begin. Click on a milestone to view the associated close-out tasks. |

  9. Close or not so close? Provenance studies of megalithic monuments from Alentejo (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, R.; Moita, P.

    2012-04-01

    There has been a significant amount of studies about megalithic tombs conducted in the Alentejo region. However the geological provenance of monoliths used in the construction of those tombs usually was not a priority among researchers with rare exceptions (Dehn, Kalb and Vortisch, 1991; Boaventura, 2000). Recent studies of dolmens (Oliveira, 1997 and 2006; Gonçalves, 2003) refer only to a brief characterization of rocks, such as "granite or schist slabs", highlighting certain types if the geological stratum is identical or not to the stone blocks. On the other hand, when the type of raw material appears to be similar with the bedrock, it is common and empirically assumed its local provenance. With the aim of testing and expand the knowledge about the provenance of the slabs used in the construction of megalithic tombs, several lithic samples from dolmen slabs and outcrops in their surroundings were collected for analysis and comparison. The samples were characterized by petrographic studies in thin section as well with a geochemical analyses performed by XRF that gives major elements as well some trace elements. The dolmens tested for this project are located roughly between the northeast to west of the town of Monforte (Upper region of Alentejo, Portugal) and are named, from south to north, as Serrinha, Rabuje group (1 to 5), Geodésico de Besteiros 3 and Velho. The field work and petrographic studies revealed that the slabs are constituted mainly by several types of granitoids (gnaissic, red, white, tonalitic), amphibolites and mottled schist shale. The comparison of chemical analyses between slabs and selected outcrops revealed that the provenances are in most of the cases from the nearby geological stratum. In fact, major elements (e.g. MgO, SiO2, CaO) as well trace elements (e.g. Sr, Y, Zr, Nb) compositions are similar on slab samples and in rocks from the outcrops. If in terms of major elements a similarity was already expectable, or easier to obtain, the

  10. Closed supermarket refrigerator and freezer cabinets. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligthart, F.A.T.M. [ECN Energy in the Built Environment, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    The City of Amsterdam's Environmental and Building Department commissioned the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) to calculate the time needed to recoup the cost of closing the existing refrigerator and freezer display cabinets used in supermarkets. We were asked to give particular consideration to the following aspects: (1) The cabinet's energy consumption; (2) The energy price; and (3) The cost of closing the cabinet. The payback period has been calculated by dividing the investment required to close the cabinet by the amount saved on energy each year, less any additional costs incurred as a result of the scheme. For existing upright refrigerator cabinets, that period works out at 2.9 years with a margin error of {+-}0.9 years. In the case of chest freezers, it is approximately 2.4 years, with a maximum of 2.5 and a minimum of 1.3 years. For chest refrigerators, the payback period is 9.4 years. If units are closed overnight only, the time needed to payback the cost of that measure ranges between 1.8 and 4.1 years. Moreover, research shows that closing refrigerator and freezer display units will not reduce turnover. In addition, it will significantly improve the ambient climate in supermarkets.

  11. Studying of refractive index measurements in reflected light

    CERN Document Server

    Tikhonov, E A

    2010-01-01

    Two methods of refractometry in reflected light from optical surface of samples are considered and studied experimentally. Methods are grounded on results of Fresnel theory of concerning light reflectivity at near normal incidence and Brewster angle. Sources of errors for both methods were considered and possibility of measuring of the refractive index with application of laser radiation with accuracy to within 4th sign was shown. Advantages of described methods concerning requirements to preparation of samples to refractive index measurement of solid, thin-film and absorbing materials are scored.

  12. Total internal reflection spectroscopy for studying soft matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, David A; Bain, Colin D

    2014-02-28

    Total internal reflection (TIR) spectroscopy is a widely used technique to study soft matter at interfaces. This tutorial review aims to provide researchers with an overview of the principles, experimental design and applications of TIR spectroscopy to enable them to understand how this class of techniques might be used in their research. It also highlights limitations and pitfalls of TIR techniques, which will assist readers in critically analysing the literature. Techniques covered include attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), TIR fluorescence, TIR Raman scattering and cavity-enhanced techniques. Other related techniques are briefly described.

  13. Measuring Effects of Reflection on Learning – A Physiological Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qi, Wen; Verpoorten, Dominique; Westera, Wim

    2014-01-01

    As an economical and feasible intervention, reflection demands learners using critical thinking to examine presented information, questioning its validity, and drawing conclusions based on the resulting ideas during a learning process. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the effects of pra

  14. Design Study Methodology: Reflections from the Trenches and the Stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlmair, M; Meyer, M; Munzner, T

    2012-12-01

    Design studies are an increasingly popular form of problem-driven visualization research, yet there is little guidance available about how to do them effectively. In this paper we reflect on our combined experience of conducting twenty-one design studies, as well as reading and reviewing many more, and on an extensive literature review of other field work methods and methodologies. Based on this foundation we provide definitions, propose a methodological framework, and provide practical guidance for conducting design studies. We define a design study as a project in which visualization researchers analyze a specific real-world problem faced by domain experts, design a visualization system that supports solving this problem, validate the design, and reflect about lessons learned in order to refine visualization design guidelines. We characterize two axes - a task clarity axis from fuzzy to crisp and an information location axis from the domain expert's head to the computer - and use these axes to reason about design study contributions, their suitability, and uniqueness from other approaches. The proposed methodological framework consists of 9 stages: learn, winnow, cast, discover, design, implement, deploy, reflect, and write. For each stage we provide practical guidance and outline potential pitfalls. We also conducted an extensive literature survey of related methodological approaches that involve a significant amount of qualitative field work, and compare design study methodology to that of ethnography, grounded theory, and action research.

  15. Radial Velocity Studies of Close Binary Stars. XI

    CERN Document Server

    Pribulla, T; Lu, W; Mochnacki, S W; Conidis, G; Blake, R M; De Bond, H; Thomson, J R; Pych, W; Ogloza, W; Siwak, M; Pribulla, Theodor; Rucinski, Slavek M.; Lu, Wenxian; Mochnacki, Stefan W.; Conidis, George; Bond, Heide De; Pych, Wojtek; Ogloza, Waldemar; Siwak, Michal

    2006-01-01

    Radial-velocity measurements and sine-curve fits to the orbital radial velocity variations are presented for ten close binary systems: DU Boo, ET Boo, TX Cnc, V1073 Cyg, HL Dra, AK Her, VW LMi, V566 Oph, TV UMi and AG Vir. By this contribution, the DDO program has reached the point of 100 published radial velocity orbits. The radial velocities have been determined using an improved fitting technique which uses rotational profiles to approximate individual peaks in broadening functions. Three systems, ET Boo, VW LMi and TV UMi, were found to be quadruple while AG Vir appears to be a spectroscopic triple. ET Boo, a member of a close visual binary with $P_{vis} = 113$ years, was previously known to be a multiple system, but we show that the second component is actually a close, non-eclipsing binary. The new observations enabled us to determine the spectroscopic orbits of the companion, non-eclipsing pairs in ET Boo and VW LMi. The particularly interesting case is VW LMi, where the period of the mutual revolution...

  16. Reflections around Artefacts: Using a Deliberative Approach to Teaching Reflective Practices in Fashion Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michael; Brough, Dean

    2012-01-01

    While requiring students to think reflectively is a desirable teaching goal, it is often fraught with complexity and is sometimes poorly implemented in higher education. In this paper, we describe an approach to academic reflective practices that fitted a design subject in fashion education and was perceived as effective in enhancing student…

  17. Reflecting on Reflection: Learner Perceptions of Diaries and Blogs in Tertiary Language Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absalom, Matthew; De Saint Leger, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The use of reflective tasks, such as journals, as a means to enhance learning is not uncommon in higher education. However, the formative value of reflective tasks is not easily reconciled in tertiary settings where assessment requirements traditionally favour product over process. While learner perception and resolution of this tension have…

  18. A Study on Reflective Reciprocal Peer Coaching for Pre-Service Teachers: Change in Reflectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, S. Ipek Kuru

    2016-01-01

    Reflective practice is considered as an effective way for professional development in order to gain awareness of one's own teaching as well as to compete with the changing needs of the students. Especially in pre-service period, when pre-service teachers work cooperatively with their peers in a reciprocal fashion towards reflectivity, it has a…

  19. Mesoscale studies of ionic closed membranes with polyhedral geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Large crystalline molecular shells buckle spontaneously into icosahedra while multicomponent shells buckle into various polyhedra. Continuum elastic theory explains the buckling of closed shells with one elastic component into icosahedra. A generalized elastic model, on the other hand, describes the spontaneous buckling of inhomogeneous shells into regular and irregular polyhedra. By co-assembling water-insoluble anionic (-1) amphiphiles with cationic (3+) amphiphiles, we realized ionic vesicles. Results revealed that surface crystalline domains and the unusual shell shapes observed arise from the competition of ionic correlations with charge-regulation. We explain here the mechanism by which these ionic membranes generate a mechanically heterogeneous vesicle.

  20. Study of Transients in an Enrichment Closed Loop

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandino, M

    2002-01-01

    In the present thesis a mathematic model is presented in order to describe the dynamic behavior inside a closed enrichment loop, the latter representing a single stage of an uranium gaseous diffusion enrichment cascade.The analytical model is turned into a numerical model, and implemented through a computational code.For the verification of the model, measurements were taken in an experimental circuit using air as the process fluid.This circuit was instrumented so as to register its characteristic thermohydraulic variables.The measured transients were simulated, comparing the numerical results with the experimental measurements.A good agreement between the characteristic setting times and the thermohydraulic parameters evolution was observed.Besides, other transients of two species separation were numerically analyzed, including setting times of each magnitude, behavior of each one of them during different transients, and redistribution of concentrations.

  1. A photometric study of the close binary Delta Orionis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, R. H.; Hrivnak, B. J.

    1981-08-01

    Green and blue photoelectric light curves show the historical intrinsic variability of the Delta Ori A close binary superposed on the interaction and eclipse effects. There is a considerable measure of agreement between spectrographic and photometric determinations of the rate of apsidal advance. The determinacy of orbital eccentricity, however, is confused because few minima of indifferent precision exist to check the spectrographic value. No physical mechanism can be found to account for a possible diminution of orbital eccentricity, and this is probably best attributed to unrecognized complications of at least one of the existing light curves. After numerous trials, a less-than-perfect theoretical representation of the light curve was achieved and shows the system to be detached. The absolute stellar parameters make clear that both components have evolved substantially. A mean stellar structure constant k2 is derived but cannot be compared usefully to existing theoretical values. The importance of the recently discovered visual companion, hz 42, is emphasized.

  2. Reflections on an Innovative Approach to Studying Abroad in Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Nancy; Duhamel, Karen V

    2017-02-01

    Nursing students are largely excluded from travel-abroad studies because of demanding curricula, lack of time, and cost. A poll was conducted and distributed to bachelor of science in nursing (BSN) and master of science in nursing (MSN) students who participated in 8-day observational trips. Questions were framed around the themes of cultural awareness, global health care perspective, translating theory into practice, and personal and professional growth. The results were compared with traditional long-term study-abroad outcomes. Participants reported increased cultural awareness through personal interactions and personal growth through continued reflection. Perceived impact on nursing practice was rated as neutral, but narrative comments implied actual influence on practice.

  3. Physiotherapy students find guided journals useful to develop reflective thinking and practice during their first clinical placement: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Maria; Kuys, Suzanne S

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated physiotherapy students' perception of a reflective journal in developing reflective thinking and practice and identified the main concepts recorded by students in the journal. A mixed methods study with qualitative content analysis of student journals and quantitative analysis of questionnaire responses. 131 (74 female, 57 male) physiotherapy students undergoing their first clinical placement. On completion of their placement, students submitted a reflective journal electronically and completed a questionnaire of closed and open ended questions. Questionnaires were analysed using frequencies for the responses of the closed questions and thematic analysis of the open ended questions. Journals were de-indentified and underwent a content analysis using Leximancer software to obtain a concept map and frequencies of the main concepts identified in the journals, with specific examples. The majority (88%, 79/90) of respondents found the journal useful in assisting them to learn from their experiences, and to develop reflective thinking and practice. 54% (49/90) indicated they would continue to use the journals. The most frequently identified concepts were residents, time and exercises; representing more than 5000 of the total concepts identified in the journals. Analysis of the reflective journals indicated that students demonstrated improvements in the three stages of reflective practice: awareness of thoughts and feelings, critical analysis of situation, and development of new perspectives. Guided journal writing may be a useful tool in facilitating reflective thinking and practice during clinical placements of physiotherapy students. Copyright © 2012 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Plutonium in monazite and brabantite: Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yingjie [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)], E-mail: yzx@ansto.gov.au; Vance, Eric R. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2008-04-30

    The valence states of plutonium (Pu) in monazite and brabantite have been studied by using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. In the absence of charge compensators, Pu exists mainly as trivalent ions in air-fired monazites and only trivalent ions in argon-fired monazites. However, with added Ca{sup 2+}/Pb{sup 2+} as charge compensators Pu can exist as tetravalent ions. Published data on absorption spectra of both trivalent and tetravalent Pu ions in the monazite structure have been extended to the mid near infrared region (4000 cm{sup -1})

  5. The development of differential reflectance spectroscopy, and its application to the study of semiconductor surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, D

    2000-01-01

    good agreement with grazing incidence x-ray reflectivity measurements, where the two overlap. DRS is superior for measurements of layers between 0.5 mu m to 2 mu m. Overall, DRS is shown to be an economically viable alternative to more established techniques, and applicable in a wide range of circumstances where measurements of the surface and near surface regions are required. Differential Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS) is a technique that can be used to study changes in electronic structure in the surface layer of solids by measuring spatial variation in specular reflectivity for wavelengths of light near the visible spectrum. Based on this concept, an instrument has been built that can resolve differences in reflectivity as small as one part in a thousand between a test sample and a reference standard. The instrument covers the spectrum from close to the vacuum ultra-violet up to the near infra-red, and measurements are made at near normal incidence. The concepts, detailed design and evaluation of the inst...

  6. Medical students' mindset for reflective learning: a revalidation study of the reflection-in-learning scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, Dejano T

    2005-11-01

    The aims of this paper are to examine the measurement properties of the Reflection-in-Learning Scale (RLS) and to identify whether there are relationships between RLS scores early in the medical program and outcomes of the students' academic activity later on. The 14-item RLS was administered to second-year students (N = 275) at start and at end of the third semester, after the students had reviewed their previous learning experience with the Course Valuing Inventory. The internal consistency, temporal stability and dimensionality of the RLS scores were investigated in relation to the start-end perspectives. Furthermore, a 2-year follow-up allowed the assessment of the relationships of third-term RLS scores with sixth-term measures of both academic achievement and diagnostic reasoning as appraised by the Diagnostic Thinking Inventory (DTI). Findings indicate that RLS data have acceptable unidimensionality and consistency of measurement, notwithstanding a significant individual-context interaction. Repeated measures revealed distinct patterns of RLS scores relating to perceived self-efficacy on the ability to reflect. Third-term RLS scores were significant, albeit weak, predictors of sixth-term cognitive achievement and DTI-related diagnostic reasoning ability. In conclusion, the results do not support a major explanatory role for RLS on knowledge representation. Nevertheless, the findings appear to substantiate the construct validity of this tool as an index of the students' frame of mind as regards reflective learning. They suggest that the RLS captures a self-regulation or cognitive housekeeping dimension of the students' reflective learning. The individual pattern of such (reflective) activity is likely to vary with specific learning conditions.

  7. [Study on spectral reflectance characteristics of hemp canopies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yi-Chen; Jia, Kun; Wu, Bing-Fang; Li, Qiang-Zi

    2010-12-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a special economic crop and widely used in many field. It is significative for the government to master the information about planting acreage and spatial distribution of hemp for hemp industrial policy decision in China. Remote sensing offers a potential way of monitoring large area for the cultivation of hemp. However, very little study on the spectral properties of hemp is available in the scientific literature. In the present study, the spectral reflectance characteristics of hemp canopy were systematically analyzed based on the spectral data acquired with ASD FieldSpec portable spectrometer. The wavebands and its spectral resolution for discriminating hemp from other plants were identified using difference analysis. The major differences in canopy reflectance of hemp and other plants were observed near 530, 552, 734, 992, 1 213, 1 580 and 2 199 nm, and the maximal difference is near 734 nm. The spectral resolution should be 30 nm or less in visible and near infrared regions, and 50 nm or less in middle infrared regions.

  8. A 220 GHz reflection-type phased array concept study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Abigail S.; Dietlein, Charles R.; Wikner, David A.

    2011-05-01

    The goal of this project is to enable light-weight, durable, and portable systems capable of performing standoff detection of person-borne improvised explosive devices (PB-IEDs) through the development of millimeter-wave reflection-type phased arrays. Electronic beam steering eliminates the need for complex mechanical scanners that are commonly implemented with millimeter-wave imaging systems and would reduce overall system size and weight. We present a concept study of a 220 GHz reflection-type phased array for the purpose of performing beam scanning of a confocal reflector system. Requirements for effective imaging of the desired target region are established, including spatial resolution, total scan angle, and number of image pixels achievable. We examine the effects of array architecture on beam characteristics as it is scanned off broadside, including Gaussicity and encircled energy. Benchmark requirements are determined and compared with the capabilities of several potential phase shifter technologies, including MEMS-based variable capacitor phase shifters, switches, and varactor diode-based phase shifters.

  9. Evidence-based practice: reflections from five European case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Juan I; Fraser, Alec; Boaz, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence-based practice (EBP) is now the accepted orthodoxy in clinical practice and developed from evidence-based medicine. EBP is based on a specific type of evidence that is derived from studies based on randomised controlled trials (RCT). This type of evidence is suited to acute medical care and is more problematic for other clinicians such as nurses and therapists, particularly when they are situated within community or primary care settings. Setting Five stroke care services in England (2), Sweden (2) and Poland (1). Aims To reflect on the evidence gained from these case studies to shed light on various aspects of EBP. This paper focuses on three key issues: (1) the importance of context for evidence, (2) the nature of knowledge, and (3) professional hierarchies. Methods Five qualitative case studies into stroke care were carried out in England, Sweden and Poland. One hundred and twenty semi-structured interviews were carried out with a range of healthcare staff who provided specialised and non-specialised stroke care in acute, community and primary care between October 2010 and September 2011. Medical doctors, nurses and different therapists were included in the samples in all five case studies. For this paper, we reflect on some aspects of this work to illuminate the different interprofessional perspectives relating to EBP in stroke care. Results The lack of RCT-based evidence in the community and primary care sectors can lead to the clinicians working in these sectors being perceived as having a lower status. Clinicians use both tacit and encoded knowledge to guide their practice and there existed both intraand interprofessional tensions in these two types of knowledge. The professional hierarchy of stroke teams varies with national context and the role of the non-specialists is less valued in stroke care.

  10. Radioecology studies in the vicinity of a closed uranium mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Černe M.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the influential area of the former uranium mine at Zirovski vrh, Slovenia has been under continuous radiological monitoring, more detailed radioecology studies, focused on assessing mobility and bioavailability of deposited radionuclides, were initiated about five years ago. The mobility of 238U, 234U, 230Th and 226Ra was studied applying two sequential extraction protocols. The results revealed that both sequential extraction protocols are not comparable as the data obtained are protocol- and radionuclide-dependent. It was found that the most mobile ones were uranium isotopes, followed by 226Ra and 230Th. In addition, uptake of particular radionuclides by the wetland plants (Molinia arundinacea, Juncus effusus and Caltha palustris grown in soils contaminated with seepage waters from the tailings was studied. The plants contained higher levels of 238U, 226Ra and 230Th compared to the plants from the control site. Activity concentration of 226Ra was the highest for all three plant species. Activity concentration of natural radionuclides in milk collected from the area of Zirovski vrh was comparable to the reference location, except for uranium where the content was higher. The combined annual effective dose for adults consuming milk from the Zirovski vrh area is 13 ± 2 μSv yr−1.

  11. Close relationships: A study of mobile communication records

    CERN Document Server

    Palchykov, Vasyl; Dunbar, Robin I M; Kaski, Kimmo

    2012-01-01

    Mobile phone communication as a digital service generates ever-increasing datasets of human communication actions, which in turn allow us to investigate the structure and evolution of social interactions and their networks. These datasets can be used to study the structuring of such ego-centric networks with respect to the strength of the relationships by assuming monotonic dependence of the communication intensity on the strength of the social tie. Recently we have discovered that there are significant differences between the first and further 'best friends" from the point of view of age and gender preferences. Here we introduce a control parameter, namely the minimum ratio $r_{min}$ between the intensities of communication of the first and second "best friend" and use it to filter the data. We find that when $r_{min}$ is increased the identification of the "best friend" becomes less ambiguous and the earlier observed effects get stronger, thus corroborating them.

  12. Close Relationships: A Study of Mobile Communication Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchykov, Vasyl; Kertész, János; Dunbar, Robin; Kaski, Kimmo

    2013-05-01

    Mobile phone communication as digital service generates ever-increasing datasets of human communication actions, which in turn allow us to investigate the structure and evolution of social interactions and their networks. These datasets can be used to study the structuring of such egocentric networks with respect to the strength of the relationships by assuming direct dependence of the communication intensity on the strength of the social tie. Recently we have discovered that there are significant differences between the first and further "best friends" from the point of view of age and gender preferences. Here we introduce a control parameter p max based on the statistics of communication with the first and second "best friend" and use it to filter the data. We find that when p max is decreased the identification of the "best friend" becomes less ambiguous and the earlier observed effects get stronger, thus corroborating them.

  13. Study on the Electromagnetic Interference of CFRC Composites by Reflectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kezhi LI; Chuang WANG; Hejun LI; Gengsheng JIAO; Jian WEI

    2008-01-01

    The influence of dispersion of carbon fibers in carbon-fiber-reinforced cement-based composites (CFRC) on the mechanical properties of the composites was discussed. The microstructure of the fracture surface of the CFRC samples was observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The electromagnetic interference (EMI) was evaluated indirectly by reflectivity in the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) testing system. The reflectivity of the electromagnetic radiation by the composites was measured in the frequency range of 8.0-18.2 GHz for different carbon fiber contents of 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%, and 1.0% (in wt pct), respectively. The results showed that the reflectivity decreased with the growing fiber content till the percentage of 0.6%.The minimum reflectivity was -23 dB, far less than -10 dB, and the composites were strong wave absorbers.After this percentage, the curve increased abruptly as the fiber content proceeded. The electromagnetic waves were gradually reflected. When the fiber content reached 1.0% finally, the maximum reflectivity -7.5 dB appeared and there was stronger reflection. The shielding mechanism includes mainly reflection, absorption,and multiple reflections.

  14. Gravity wave reflection: Case study based on rocket data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüst, Sabine; Bittner, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Since gravity waves significantly influence the atmosphere by transporting energy and momentum, it is important to study their wave spectrum and their energy dissipation rates. Besides that, knowledge about gravity wave sources and the propagation of the generated waves is essential. Originating in the lower atmosphere, gravity waves can move upwards; when the background wind field is equal to their phase speed a so-called critical layer is reached. Their breakdown and deposition of energy and momentum is possible. Another mechanism which can take place at critical layers is gravity wave reflection. In this paper, gravity waves which were observed by foil chaff measurements during the DYANA (DYnamics Adapted Network for the Atmosphere) campaign in 1990 in Biscarrosse (44°N, 1°W)--as reported by Wüst and Bittner [2006. Non-linear wave-wave interaction: case studies based on rocket data and first application to satellite data. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 68, 959-976]--are investigated to look for gravity wave reflection processes. Following nonlinear theory, energy dissipation rates according to Weinstock [1980. Energy dissipation rates of turbulence in the stable free atmosphere. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 38, 880-883] are calculated from foil chaff cloud and falling sphere data and compared with the critical layer heights. Enhanced energy dissipation rates are found at those altitudes where the waves' phase speed matches the zonal background wind speeds. Indication of gravity wave trapping is found between two altitudes of around 95 and 86 km.

  15. Reflective Leadership and Team Learning: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Although the relationship between leadership behaviors and team reflexivity has been investigated in prior research, little is known about the dimensions of reflective leadership or leadership behaviors that facilitate reflection in a group or organization. This paper aims to examine the interrelated characteristics of reflective…

  16. Study Behavior in the Closed-Book and the Open-Book Examination: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theophilides, Christos; Koutselini, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the study behavior used by students facing an open-book or closed-book examination. Results for 201 college students in Cyprus indicate that students preparing for a closed-book examination tended to postpone study at the end of the semester, focus on assigned texts, and memorize information. Students preparing for open-book tests…

  17. In situ spectral reflectance studies of tidal wetland grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, D. S.; Klemas, V.

    1981-01-01

    Field measurements of wetland spectral canopy reflectance in the Landsat-MSS wavebands were correlated with biotic factors. The highest single band correlations were observed between visible (MSS Band 4: 0.5 to 0.6 micron and Band 5: 0.6 to 0.7 micron) canopy reflectance and the percentage, by weight, of live (green) vegetation in the canopies of Spartina alterniflora (salt marsh cordgrass), Spartina patens (salt meadow grass), and Distichlis spicata (spike grass). Infrared canopy reflectance displayed significant but weaker dependence on canopy parameters such as live and total biomass and canopy height. The Band 7 (0.8 to 1.1 microns)/Band 5 (0.6 to 0.7 micron) reflectance ratio was found to be highly correlated with green biomass for S. alterniflora. Highest spectral separability between the 'low marsh' S. alterniflora and the 'high marsh' Salt Hay (S. patens and D. spicata) communities in Delaware occurs during December.

  18. Focusing on the Participation and Engagement Gap: A Case Study on Closing the Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy; Lapp, Diane

    2011-01-01

    In this case study, we focus on 2 variables often neglected in conversations about closing the achievement gap. Most recommendations for closing the achievement gap center on extending learning time, including afterschool programs, extended year programs, and supplemental instruction. Our school focused on attendance and student engagement in our…

  19. Student Reflective Writing: Cognition and Affect before, during, and after Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savicki, Victor; Price, Michele V.

    2015-01-01

    Reflective thinking is an important feature of study-abroad learning, yet research on reflection in this context is sparse. The current study examined student reflection on 3 content areas (Academic Expectations, Cultural Expectations, and Psychological Issues) at 3 times (before, during, and after study abroad). A content analysis approach with…

  20. A Basic Study of Controlled Closing for Transformers with Residual Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutada, Hiroyuki; Hirai, Takashi; Kohyama, Haruhiko; Ito, Hiroki

    Energizing of transformers generates high amplitude inrush currents that reduce power quality and can potentially damage the transformers. Controlled closing for transformers taking account of the residual flux is studied to eliminate the inrush current. Since the residual flux must be precisely acquired before controlled closing to determine the optimum instant for energizing, a new method of estimating the residual flux by using the measured transformer voltage is proposed. The optimum closing target taking account of the dielectric and mechanical characteristics of a gas circuit breaker is also studied. The verification using a single phase transformer showed that the maximum error of the estimated residual flux was less than 10%, and the controlled closing using the proposed method eliminated the inrush current to less than 15% of random closing.

  1. Academic reflective writing: a study to examine its usefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Marion; Addyman, Berni

    Reflection is widely regarded as important for learning from practice in Nursing. Academic reflective writing (ARW) is increasingly being used to assess reflective practice. However, there is currently scant literature on ARW, which is extremely complex, requiring students to link their own experiences to published literature. There are also concerns in the literature about the validity of ARW as a medium of assessment. In this paper, an exploratory discussion on ARW is illustrated with reference to the views of 8 self-selected students on a course for post-registered nurses. These students found ARW extremely challenging, and highlighted a range of difficulties associated with it. In conclusion, it is argued that the student experience of ARW warrants further investigation. In addition, it is suggested that either scaffolding should be put in place to facilitate the production of successful ARW, or alternatives should be explored.

  2. Teacher Reflections and Praxis: A Case Study of Indian Teachers of English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarani, Sakilahmed A. R.

    2012-01-01

    This case study engaged Gujarati English as Foreign Language (EFL) teachers in video-based reflection with the goal of increasing their reflective abilities and uncovering their understandings about reflective teaching practices in the Indian pedagogical and cultural context. The study aimed to explore, and gain a deeper understanding of how…

  3. If These Walls Could Talk: Reflective Practice in Addiction Studies among Undergraduates in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Robin

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study examined reflective practice among a class of students studying a "communities and addictions" course as part of the undergraduate health science degree. Most reflective practice publications are focused on medical or teachers' training rather than undergraduates in general. This is surprising given that reflective practice…

  4. Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction Studies of Interface Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukite, Paul

    1988-12-01

    The epitaxial growth of semiconductors, such as GaAs, by the technique of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has led to many improvements in device performance and capabilities. One important system is the epitaxial growth of GaAs on Si. This holds great promise for integrating optical and electronic devices on the same chip. The key to achieving this is to grow high quality GaAs layers on Si substrates. In this investigation, single-crystal GaAs was grown on Si and Ge substrates by MBE. The growth of the epitaxial layers was investigated in situ with reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). Important in this heteroepitaxial system is that two possible GaAs crystal orientations can be obtained. By using a theory of kinematic electron diffraction developed in the course of this work, the mechanisms and growth conditions which choose between the two GaAs orientations have been determined for the first time. A further result is that the epitaxial growth processes are anisotropic on the two orientations. This leads to different crystalline qualities dependent on the orientation. To understand this in more detail, the crystal growth process was formulated mathematically. By incorporating the concepts of anisotropic diffusion and adsorption into a nonlinear differential equation, the time-dependent growth and RHEED behavior has been calculated and compared to experiment. The experimental observations of RHEED intensity oscillations and two-dimensional clustering are in excellent agreement with the diffraction and growth theories. It is concluded that surface steps play a vital role in the crystal growth and interface formation processes reported in this study.

  5. Analytical Study for Stress Wave Interaction with Rock Joints Having Unequally Close-Open Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J. C.; Zhao, X. B.; Li, H. B.; Chai, S. B.; Zhao, Q. H.

    2016-08-01

    Stress wave interaction with rock joints during wave propagation is usually dependent on the dynamic response of the joints. During wave propagation, joints may be closed and open under the effects of the stress wave and the in situ stress. A joint in nature can only resist load during close process. In this paper, the close and open behaviors of rock joints are considered to be different. The joints are assumed to be linearly elastic in close status but turn into free surfaces in open status. Wave propagation equation across joints with unequally close-open behavior is first derived and expressed as a time-differential form based on the displacement discontinuity method. SHPB test recording is then adopted to verify the present approach, which is also compared with the results from existing methods for joints with equally close-open behavior. Next, analysis is conduced for wave propagation across a single joint and a set of parallel joints with unequally close-open behavior, respectively. From the analysis, effects of unequally close-open behavior of a joint on wave propagation and the dynamic response of the joint are studied finally.

  6. Study of Multi Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A total reflection X-ray spectrometer was set up, in which Mo tube was used as excitation source, Zr with the thickness of 100 μm was as filter, and λ/20 glabrous silicon was as reflector, λ/100 glabrous silicon was as sample carrier.

  7. The StarClose Vascular Closure System: interventional results from the CLIP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermiller, J B; Simonton, C; Hinohara, T; Lee, D; Cannon, L; Mooney, M; O'Shaughnessy, C; Carlson, H; Fortuna, R; Zapien, M; Fletcher, D R; DiDonato, K; Chou, T M

    2006-11-01

    The StarClose Vascular Closure System is a femoral access site closure technology that uses a flexible nitinol clip to complete a circumferential, extravascular arteriotomy close. The Clip CLosure In Percutaneous Procedures study was initiated to study the safety and efficacy of the StarClose device in subjects undergoing diagnostic and interventional catheterization procedures. A total of 17 U.S. sites enrolled 596 subjects, with 483 subjects randomized at a 2:1 ratio to receive StarClose or standard compression of the arteriotomy after the percutaneous procedure. The study included roll-in (n = 113), diagnostic (n = 208), and interventional (n = 275) arms with a primary safety endpoint of major vascular complications through 30 days and a primary efficacy endpoint of postprocedure time to hemostasis. The results of the diagnostic StarClose cohort have been reported separately. Results for the interventional arm revealed major vascular complications occurring in 1.1% of StarClose subjects (2/184) and 1.1% in manual compression subjects (1/91; P = 1.00). No infections were seen in either cohort. Minor complications in the StarClose interventional group occurred at a rate of 4.3% (8/184) and with compression at 9.9% (9/91; P = 0.107). Pseudoaneurysm or arteriovenous fistula was not seen with StarClose. With StarClose, procedural success was 100% (136/136) for the diagnostic group and 98.9% (181/183) in the interventional group. Device success for the treatment group was 86.8%. In the interventional cohort, 87.3% (158/181) of StarClose subjects reported a pain scale of 0-3 compared with 93.3% (84/90) in the compression group, which was not statistically different. The clinical results of this study demonstrate that the StarClose Vascular Closure System is noninferior to manual compression with respect to the primary safety endpoint of major vascular events in subjects who undergo percutaneous interventional procedures. StarClose significantly reduced time to

  8. Fisheries Closed Areas Strengthen Scallop Larval Settlement and Connectivity Among Closed Areas and Across International Open Fishing Grounds: A Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kimberley T. A.; Gentleman, W. C.; DiBacco, C.; Johnson, C. L.

    2015-09-01

    This study examined whether a measured increase in average body size of adult sea scallops inside three fishery closed areas on Georges Bank (GB), United States (US), was sufficient to increase larval supply to closed areas and open fishing areas in both US and Canadian areas of the Bank. The effects of adult scallop density-at-size and fecundity-at-size on egg production were compared among open and closed fishery areas, countries, and time periods before and after the closed areas were established. Estimated egg production was then used to define spawning conditions in a coupled biological-physical larval tracking model that simulated larval development, mortality, and dispersal. Results showed that order of magnitude increases in larval settlement after closure were facilitated by increases in size-dependant egg production inside and dispersal from Closed Areas I and II, but not Nantucket Lightship Closed Area. The distributions of both egg production and larval settlement became more uniform across the Bank, causing the relative contribution of Canadian larvae to US scallop aggregations to decrease after establishment of Closed Areas I and II. Decreases in small and medium-sized scallop density in Canada and decreases in large scallops over the US-Southern Flank after closure caused local declines in egg production but were not sufficient to negatively affect larval settlement at the regional scale. Our model suggests that the establishment of fishery closed areas on GB considerably strengthened larval supply and settlement within and among several adult scallop aggregations.

  9. Volume reflection angle study as a function of crystal curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biryukov, V. M.

    2016-10-01

    We compare the volume reflection angles measured for protons and electrons over a wide energy range from 1 to 400 GeV in Si and Ge bent crystals at PNPI, IHEP, SLAC, and CERN with the predictions of FLUX and CATCH simulation codes based on binary collisions (FLUX) and continuum model (CATCH). We show good consistency of the data taken by many experimental groups, in good agreement with earlier published predictions.

  10. Reflections on Learning from a Study Leave: One Year Later

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Surviving, thriving, and evolving followed by further noticing, reflecting, and acting aresome of the stages a teacher-researcher goes through before, during, and after the studyleave experience. Having the opportunity to literally remove oneself from the dailyconcerns, routines, and habits entrenched in one’s local institutional context for anextended period of time( e.g., six months) is an experience like no other. Blood donationcampaigns call giving blood ‘a gift that keeps on giving’. Whi...

  11. Large Blast and Thermal Simulator Reflected Wave Eliminator Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    been used, its area variation with time would not be preprogrammed, but instead flow sensors and feedback would be used to automatically update the area...the ability to quickly analyze sensor data and make good, real time judgments as to the correct area seting to minimize the reflection. For larger shock...the LB/TS. Engineering of a conceptoal design for side venting has not yet been undertaken but is recommended as a priority item now that side venting

  12. Origin of the direct and reflected head of the rectus femoris: an anatomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John M; Harris, Joshua D; Graham, William C; Virk, Sohrab S; Ellis, Thomas J

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to define the footprint of the direct and reflected heads of the rectus femoris and the relation of the anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) to adjacent neurovascular (lateral circumflex femoral artery and femoral nerve), bony (anterior superior iliac spine [ASIS]), and tendinous structures (iliopsoas). Twelve fresh-frozen cadaveric hip joints from 6 cadavers, average age of 44.5 (±9.9) years, were carefully dissected of skin and fascia to expose the muscular, capsular, and bony structures of the anterior hip and pelvis. Using digital calipers, measurements were taken of the footprint of the rectus femoris on the AIIS, superior-lateral acetabulum and hip capsule, and adjacent anatomic structures. The average dimensions of the footprint of the direct head of the rectus femoris were 13.4 mm (±1.7) × 26.0 mm (±4.1), whereas the dimensions of the reflected head footprint were 47.7 mm (±4.4) × 16.8 mm (±2.2). Important anatomic structures, including the femoral nerve, psoas tendon, and lateral circumflex femoral artery, were noted in proximity to the AIIS. The neurovascular structure closest to the AIIS was the femoral nerve (20.8 ± 3.4 mm). The rectus femoris direct and reflected heads originate over a broad area of the anterolateral pelvis and are in close proximity to critical neurovascular structures, and care must be taken to avoid them during hip arthroscopy. A thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the proximal rectus femoris is valuable for any surgical exposure of the anterior hip joint, particularly arthroscopic subspine decompression and open femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) surgery. Copyright © 2014 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental study of a multiplicative model of multiple ionospheric reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkotan, S. F.; Zhuravlev, S. V.; Kosovtsov, Iu. N.

    1983-04-01

    An important parameter of a partially scattered ionospheric signal is the signal-noise energy parameter beta. A new method for determining beta sub n (where n is the multiplicity of reflection) has been proposed on the basis of the statistical multiplicative model of Mirkotan et al. (1981, 1982). This paper describes an experimental verification of the proposed method; data on beta sub n obtained by the traditional method and by the new method are compared. In addition, the validity of the multiplicative model is evaluated, and features of the mechanism responsible for the multiple scattering of an ionospheric signal are examined.

  14. Effects of Reflection Category and Reflection Quality on Learning Outcomes during Web-Based Portfolio Assessment Process: A Case Study of High School Students in Computer Application Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Pao-Nan; Chang, Chi-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of reflection category and reflection quality on learning outcomes during Web-based portfolio assessment process. Experimental subjects consist of forty-five eight-grade students in a "Computer Application" course. Through the Web-based portfolio assessment system, these students write reflection, and join…

  15. Which characteristics of written feedback are perceived as stimulating students’ reflective competence: an exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Teacher feedback on student reflective writing is recommended to improve learners’ reflective competence. To be able to improve teacher feedback on reflective writing, it is essential to gain insight into which characteristics of written feedback stimulate students’ reflection processes. Therefore, we investigated (1) which characteristics can be distinguished in written feedback comments on reflective writing and (2) which of these characteristics are perceived to stimulate students’ reflection processes. Methods We investigated written feedback comments from forty-three teachers on their students’ reflective essays. In Study 1, twenty-three medical educators grouped the comments into distinct categories. We used Multiple Correspondence Analysis to determine dimensions in the set of comments. In Study 2, another group of twenty-one medical educators individually judged whether the comments stimulated reflection by rating them on a five-point scale. We used t-tests to investigate whether comments classified as stimulating and not stimulating reflection differed in their scores on the dimensions. Results Our results showed that characteristics of written feedback comments can be described in three dimensions: format of the feedback (phrased as statement versus question), focus of the feedback (related to the levels of students’ reflections) and tone of the feedback (positive versus negative). Furthermore, comments phrased as a question and in a positive tone were judged as stimulating reflection more than comments at the opposite side of those dimensions (t = (14.5) = 6.48; p = reflective essays should be formulated as a question, positive in tone and tailored to the individual student’s reflective level in order to stimulate students to reflect on a slightly higher level. Further research is needed to examine whether incorporating these characteristics into teacher training helps to improve the quality of written feedback comments

  16. Which characteristics of written feedback are perceived as stimulating students' reflective competence: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Hanke; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; Snoek, Jos W; van der Molen, Thys; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-07-08

    Teacher feedback on student reflective writing is recommended to improve learners' reflective competence. To be able to improve teacher feedback on reflective writing, it is essential to gain insight into which characteristics of written feedback stimulate students' reflection processes. Therefore, we investigated (1) which characteristics can be distinguished in written feedback comments on reflective writing and (2) which of these characteristics are perceived to stimulate students' reflection processes. We investigated written feedback comments from forty-three teachers on their students' reflective essays. In Study 1, twenty-three medical educators grouped the comments into distinct categories. We used Multiple Correspondence Analysis to determine dimensions in the set of comments. In Study 2, another group of twenty-one medical educators individually judged whether the comments stimulated reflection by rating them on a five-point scale. We used t-tests to investigate whether comments classified as stimulating and not stimulating reflection differed in their scores on the dimensions. Our results showed that characteristics of written feedback comments can be described in three dimensions: format of the feedback (phrased as statement versus question), focus of the feedback (related to the levels of students' reflections) and tone of the feedback (positive versus negative). Furthermore, comments phrased as a question and in a positive tone were judged as stimulating reflection more than comments at the opposite side of those dimensions (t = (14.5) = 6.48; p = reflective essays should be formulated as a question, positive in tone and tailored to the individual student's reflective level in order to stimulate students to reflect on a slightly higher level. Further research is needed to examine whether incorporating these characteristics into teacher training helps to improve the quality of written feedback comments on reflective writing.

  17. Critical incident analysis through narrative reflective practice: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. C. Farrell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Teachers can reflect on their practices by articulating and exploring incidents they consider critical to themselves or others. By talking about these critical incidents, teachers can make better sense of seemingly random experiences that occur in their teaching because they hold the real inside knowledge, especially personal intuitive knowledge, expertise and experience that is based on their accumulated years as language educators teaching in schools and classrooms. This paper is about one such critical incident analysis that an ESL teacher in Canada revealed to her critical friend and how both used McCabe’s (2002 narrative framework for analyzing an important critical incident that occurred in the teacher’s class.

  18. Spectral reflectance studies of the Grimaldi Region of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C. A.; Hawke, B. R.; Lucey, P. G.; Coombs, C. R.; Spudis, P. D.

    Near-infrared reflectance spectra were used to investigate the composition and origin of the various geologic units in the Grimaldi region as well as the stratigraphy of the Grimaldi pre-impact target site. The results of our spectral analysis indicate that the portions of the Hevelius Formation that occur in the Grimaldi region are composed of noritic anorthosite and anorthositic norite. Gabbroic material was excavated from beneath Orientale-related units by small impact craters in three areas in the Grimaldi region. The primary ejecta deposits of the Grimaldi basin as well as the pre-Orientale floor unit are dominated by noritic anorthosite and anorthositic norite. The peak ring of Grimaldi is composed, at least in part, of pure anorthosite. The anorthosites on the inner ring and elsewhere within Grimaldi were derived from a layer of pure anorthosite that exists at depth beneath a more pyroxene-rich unit.

  19. Toward a Theory of Media Reconciliation: A Closed Captioning Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Nicole Elaine

    2012-01-01

    This project is an interdisciplinary empirical study that explores the emotional experiences resulting from the use of the assistive technology closed captioning. More specifically, this study focuses on documenting the user experiences of both the D/deaf and Hearing multimedia user in an effort to better identify and understand those variables…

  20. Reflective and Agentive Functions of Narrative Writing: a Qualitative Study on the Narratives of University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Giovanna; Freda, Maria Francesca

    2016-06-01

    There is a lively debate in the literature on reflective processes and on the necessity to view them as consisting with differing levels of complexity. Within a semiotic and psychodynamic perspective, we present a conceptualization on reflective processes which distinguishes between reflection and reflectivity and articulates their relationship with narrative devices.The study analyzes 224 narratives of critical events written by 77 underachieving university students that took part in group training courses during the INSTALL European project.The corpus was subjected to a qualitative analysis of narrative function, with the aim of detecting narrative functions of reflection, reflectivity and agency, the latter being considered as an interconnected construct to the reflective process.The functions were discussed both on the basis of how the narrators reacted to the discontinuity in their self-image caused by the critical event, and based upon different types of narrative coherence (chronological, causal, thematic, autobiographical).The results highlighted that narratives with a reflection function, attribute the discontinuity generated by the event to the self, and show a causal coherence; those whose function is reflectivity interpret the discontinuity attributing it to the self in relation to others and present a thematic coherence; those of agency ascribe the discontinuity to a potential selves in action, and are characterized by an autobiographical coherence.The implications of the study will be discussed with reference to the value of narrative writing in promoting reflective-agentive processes.

  1. A study of cognitive reflection prerequisites in pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Knyazeva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive reflection is a necessary condition for productivity of children education programs. Meanwhile, preconditions for the development of cognitive reflection, formed during the preschool years, are still poorly understood. The article discusses theoretical and practical significance of its study. We present tools development to identify the preconditions of cognitive reflection in preschoolers. We describe a pilot study using this tool, in which age-related features and the dynamics of reflexive abilities were identified. We define a strategy for further research on the issue of children reflective abilities.

  2. The Close Relationships of People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Faye; Bowden, Keith; McKenzie, Karen; Quayle, Ethel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Positive interpersonal relationships have been found to enhance an individual's quality of life. However, people with intellectual disabilities (PWID) often have restricted social networks, and little is known about their views on close social relationships. The study aimed to explore how this group perceives and experiences close…

  3. Proliferation concerns in the Russian closed nuclear weapons complex cities : a study of regional migration behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Kristen Lee

    2004-07-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the legacy of the USSR weapons complex with an estimated 50 nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons cities containing facilities responsible for research, production, maintenance, and destruction of the weapons stockpile. The Russian Federation acquired ten such previously secret, closed nuclear weapons complex cities. Unfortunately, a lack of government funding to support these facilities resulted in non-payment of salaries to employees and even plant closures, which led to an international fear of weapons material and knowledge proliferation. This dissertation analyzes migration in 33 regions of the Russian Federation, six of which contain the ten closed nuclear weapons complex cities. This study finds that the presence of a closed nuclear city does not significantly influence migration. However, the factors that do influence migration are statistically different in regions containing closed nuclear cities compared to regions without closed nuclear cities. Further, these results show that the net rate of migration has changed across the years since the break up of the Soviet Union, and that the push and pull factors for migration have changed across time. Specifically, personal and residential factors had a significant impact on migration immediately following the collapse of the Soviet Union, but economic infrastructure and societal factors became significant in later years. Two significant policy conclusions are derived from this research. First, higher levels of income are found to increase outmigration from regions, implying that programs designed to prevent migration by increasing incomes for closed city residents may be counter-productive. Second, this study finds that programs designed to increase capital and build infrastructure in the new Russian Federation will be more effective for employing scientists and engineers from the weapons complex, and consequently reduce the potential for emigration of

  4. Altered functional connectivity during self- and close other-reflection in patients with bipolar disorder with past psychosis and patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Liwen; Meer, van der Lisette; Opmeer, Esther M.; Marsman, Jan-Bernard C.; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Aleman, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Disturbances in implicit self-processing have been reported both in psychotic patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia. It remains unclear whether these two psychotic disorders show disturbed functional connectivity during explicit self-reflection, which is associated with social

  5. Altered functional connectivity during self- and close other-reflection in patients with bipolar disorder with past psychosis and patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Liwen; Meer, van der Lisette; Opmeer, Esther M.; Marsman, Jan-Bernard C.; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Aleman, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Disturbances in implicit self-processing have been reported both in psychotic patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia. It remains unclear whether these two psychotic disorders show disturbed functional connectivity during explicit self-reflection, which is associated with social functi

  6. Journaling: A quasi-experimental study of student nurses’ reflective learning ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LP Fakude

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of journaling or journal writing in clinical education is one of the strategies used to develop critical thinking. Reflective journal writing, as it is commonly known, can nurture many qualities of a critical thinker and promote thoughtful nursing practice. Using a quasi-experimental design in this study, reflective journaling was introduced to a sample of first year Bridging Course student nurses at a Private Nursing Education Institution, to assess its effectiveness in reflective learning.

  7. Shared Relationship Efficacy of Dyad Can Increase Life Satisfaction in Close Relationships: Multilevel Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Asano

    Full Text Available Characteristics of relationship itself play an important role in determining well-being of individuals who participate in the relationship. We used efficacy expectations mutually shared between close friends or romantic partners as a characteristic of relationship and investigated its impact on their life satisfaction. In Study 1, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 137 pairs of close same-sex friends to test whether the efficacy expectations shared between friends are associated with levels of life satisfaction. In Study 2, we conducted a longitudinal study among 114 heterosexual romantic couples to test predictive validity of the efficacy expectations shared between couples predict levels of life satisfaction 2 month later. In both studies we found a consistent result that as degrees of the efficacy expectations shared between individuals in a relationship increased, the degree of their life satisfaction also increased. Underlying mechanisms that explain how characteristics of relationship itself increase life satisfaction are discussed.

  8. Someone Else's Story? Reflections on Australian Studies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Eva Rask; Leer, Martin Hugo; Ward, Stuart James

    2004-01-01

    History of Australian Studies in Europe, European/Danish Perspectives, teaching and research approach......History of Australian Studies in Europe, European/Danish Perspectives, teaching and research approach...

  9. A Reflective Study into Children's Cognition When Making Computer Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, children's mental activities when making digital games are explored. Where previous studies have mainly focused on children's learning, this study aimed to unfold the children's thinking process for learning when making computer games. As part of an ongoing larger scale study, which adopts an ethnographic approach, this research…

  10. Relationship between reflection ability and clinical performance: a cross-sectional and retrospective-longitudinal correlational cohort study in midwifery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Embo, M.; Driessen, E.; Valcke, M.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: increasingly, reflection is highlighted as integral to core practice competencies but empirical research into the relationship between reflection and performance in the clinical workplace is scarce. AIM: this study investigated the relationship between reflection ability and clinical per

  11. Experimental reflectance study of methane and ethane ice at Titan's surface conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G.; Singh, S.; Wagner, A.; Chevrier, V. F.; Combe, J.-P.; Gainor, M.

    2017-10-01

    Cassini's Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) has provided evidence of several different hydrocarbons on the surface of Titan using seven atmospheric windows. Methane (CH4) and ethane (C2H6) are suggested to exist in both the liquid and solid states on Titan. Even if the average surface temperature (90-94 K) of Titan is clearly in the liquid stability field of both CH4 and C2H6, the particles can condense in the atmosphere (˜65 km for C2H6 and lower stratosphere for CH4 Anderson et al. in Icarus, 243:129-138, 2014) and precipitate allowing them to melt and/or sublimate. It is also suggested that these liquids can freeze on the surface due to evaporative cooling. We conducted a laboratory study at Titan surface conditions to determine the phase change of CH4 and C2H6 and to test if they would freeze on the surface of Titan. Using NIR reflectance spectroscopy, we calculated the reflectivity ratio (R_{solid}/R_{liquid}) of CH4 and C2H6 of 1.08 and 1.36, respectively, suggesting an 8% increase in reflectivity for CH4 and a 36% increase for C2H6 during phase change. The low albedo in liquid phase for both CH4 and C2H6 is consistent with observations made by VIMS in both Titan's northern and southern latitudes. We also find the evaporation rate of amorphous CH4 close to Titan conditions, which is 9.0 ± 0.3 × 10^{-5} kg s^{-1} m^{-2} at 87 K and we estimated a sublimation rate of 0.22 × 10^{-5} kg s^{-1} m^{-2} at 83 K for a 1.5 bar N2 atmosphere. The freezing rate of ˜46 m/year for C2H6 was observed whereas, for CH4, we observed that CH4 does not freeze at 87 K due to a high N2 dissolution rate. However, the viscosity of CH4 increases with a decreasing temperature that results in amorphous CH4. The results show a remarkable difference between the formation of ice for two liquids with different N2 dissolution rates. Consequently, using the results obtained from the laboratory study we predict that the observed change is albedo during and after rainfall

  12. The impact of prompted narrative writing during internship on reflective practice: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Rachel B; Kern, David E; Wright, Scott M

    2008-12-01

    Narrative writing has been used to promote reflection and increased self-awareness among physicians. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of prompted narrative writing on reflection. Thirty-two interns at 9 internal medicine residency programs participated in a year-long qualitative study about personal growth beginning in July of 2002. Interns wrote narratives every 8 weeks. At study completion, interns wrote a final narrative describing the affect that being in the study had on them. Responses were reviewed and organized into domains. Writing throughout the year resulted in reflection and encouraged interns to reconsider their core values and priorities. Some found that the exercise promoted greater self-awareness and provided an emotional outlet. Writing about difficult experiences coupled with reflection motivated some interns to want to improve. Prompted narrative writing led to reflection among interns and promoted self-awareness. Educators may consider incorporating narrative writing into residency education.

  13. The analysis and reflection of Bacon’s Of Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟洁

    2015-01-01

    It is an universaly acknowledged truth that of studies is one of the most wel-known prose of Bacon,which is thought-provoking in terms of its directness, terseness, forcefulness. The article attach importance to studying knowledge in the perspective of its practical application towards the individual.

  14. Some Reflections on and Criticisms of China's Educational Management Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tian-ping

    2007-01-01

    In spite of having undergone one century's vicissitude, China's educational management studies are still lagging behind those abroad. Two research lines, one being induction and generalization, another being deduction and transplantation, have been roughly evolved over these studies. Both of them have reached the level of empirical science. Since…

  15. Using Digital Archives in Quantitative Discourse Studies: Methodological Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobie Van Krieken

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This methodological essay discusses the possibilities of using digital archives in quantitative discourse studies. I illustrate these possibilities by discussing a study in which the digital archive Delpher was used to build a relatively large corpus of newspaper narratives (N=300 in order to test hypotheses about the historical development of linguistic features associated with objective and subjective reporting. The large amount of data collected in digital archives like Delpher facilitates the construction of corpora for such hypothesis-driven studies. However, the collection of newspaper articles on Delpher in fact constitutes only a small, non-random and continuously changing selection of all available data. Due to these characteristics, the use of Delpher jeopardizes two core values of quantitative empirical research: the generalizability and the replicability of findings. Although these issues cannot be easily overcome, I argue that digital archives have the potential to broaden the methodological scope of discourse studies and increase the overall significance of the field.

  16. Electron tunneling and point contact Andreev reflection studies of superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wenqing

    The energy gap is the most fundamental property of a superconductor. Electron tunneling spectroscopy and point contact spectroscopy (PCS) are powerful techniques for studying the density of states and energy gap features of superconductors. Two different superconducting systems, multiband superconductor MgB2 and proximity induced topological superconductor NbSe2/Bi 2Se3 heterostructures were studied using either quasiparticle tunneling in planar tunnel junctions or PCS in this work. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  17. [Study on the reflected and hyperspectral mixed-pixel character of aquatic plants and water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tian-lin; Zhao, Yun-sheng; Liang, Ren-feng; Zhang, Xia

    2012-02-01

    A study on the reflected and hyperspectral mixed-pixel of aquatic plants and water was given by using a orthogonal experimental design with three factors and two levels. The results of F test suggest that for the single factors, the band and the area ratio of mixed-pixel on the reflected and hyperspectral mixed-pixel of the reflection effects are particularly significant, however, the detector angle had no significant effect under these experimental conditions; For the interaction, the band and the area ratio of mixed-pixel, the detector and the area ratio of mixed-pixel, the effects of these two interactions on the reflected and hyperspectral mixed-pixel are also particularly significant, This study did quantitative analysis of the factors affecting the reflected and hyperspectral mixed-pixel character and their interaction, and provided a new method for the indepth study of mixed-pixel.

  18. Developing Reflective Dispositions through Collaborative Knowledge-Building during Small Group Bible Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Tze Keong; Koh, Joyce Hwee Ling; Chai, Ching Sing

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the use of a constructivist pedagogical approach to cultivate reflective dispositions during small group Bible study. Conducted in a local church Bible class setting (n = 12), the instructional design emulated the reflective thinking process, while adopting collaborative knowledge-building as its pedagogical framework.…

  19. Why Kids Need to Be Bored: A Case Study of Self-Reflection and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James D.

    2006-01-01

    This case study involved 3 middle school students in an assessment of the influence of self-reflection on general academic performance. It was hypothesized that increased self-reflection would have a positive influence on academic performance as measured by grades on tests, writing assignments, and homework. The participants were ages 13.4, 13.5,…

  20. Reflective Practice and Motion Sickness: Thoughts on the First North American Action Research Study Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Lonnie; Inoue, Noriyuki; Getz, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the experience of an action research "Study Day" to investigate development of a culture of reflective practice among educators. Shared recognition of the importance of reflective practice in education is now a well-established part of both pre-service preparation and in-service work experience for educators. Osterman…

  1. Using photographs to study animal social cognition and behaviour: Do capuchins' responses to photos reflect reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, F Blake; Brosnan, Sarah F; Prétôt, Laurent; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; O'Sullivan, Eoin; Stocker, Martina; D'Mello, Daniel; Wilson, Vanessa A D

    2016-03-01

    Behavioural responses to photos are often used to infer what animals understand about their social environment, but are rarely validated against the same stimuli in real life. If subjects' responses to photos do not reflect responses to the same live stimuli, it is difficult to conclude what happens in reality based on photo responses alone. We compared capuchins' responses to photos versus live stimuli in an identical scenario within research cubicles. Subjects had the opportunity to approach food placed in front of an alpha group member and, in a separate condition, photos depicting the same individual. Subjects' latencies to approach food when placed in front of the real alpha negatively correlated with time subjects spent in close proximity to the alpha in their main enclosure. We therefore predicted subjects' latencies to approach food in the presence of photos would positively correlate with their latencies to approach food in the presence of the real alpha inside the cubicles, but negatively correlate with time they spent in proximity to the alpha in their enclosure. Neither prediction was supported. While not necessarily surprising, we explain why these results should be an important reminder that care is needed when interpreting results from photo studies.

  2. How team-based reflection affects quality improvement implementation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Eric K; Howard, Jenna; Etz, Rebecca S; Hudson, Shawna V; Crabtree, Benjamin F

    2012-01-01

    Quality improvement (QI) interventions in health care organizations have produced mixed results with significant questions remaining about how QI interventions are implemented. Team-based reflection may be an important element for understanding QI implementation. Extensive research has focused on individual benefits of reflection including links between reflection, learning, and change. There are currently no published studies that explore how team-based reflection impact QI interventions. We selected 4 primary care practices participating in a QI trial that used a facilitated, team-based approach to improve colorectal cancer screening rates. Trained facilitators met with a team of practice members for up to eleven 1-hour meetings. Data include audio-recorded team meetings and associated fieldnotes. We used a template approach to code transcribed data and an immersion/crystallization technique to identify patterns and themes. Three types of team-based reflection and how each mattered for QI implementation were identified: organizational reflection promoted buy-in, motivation, and feelings of inspiration; process reflection enhanced team problem solving and change management; and relational reflection enhanced discussions of relational dynamics necessary to implement desired QI changes. If QI interventions seek to make changes where collaboration and coordination of care is required, then deliberately integrating team-based reflection into interventions can provide opportunities to facilitate change processes.

  3. Disability Studies as an academic field: reflections on its development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blume, S.; Hiddinga, A.

    2010-01-01

    Serious attempts are now being made to develop disability studies as an academic field in the Netherlands. On the one hand, the field will have to establish its place in the division of academic labor. On the other hand it will need to safeguard its relevance for, and connections with, the

  4. Do organizations reflect national cultures? A 10-nation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oudenhoven, JP

    2001-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to cross-validate Hofstede's classification of national cultures. An additional aim was to investigate the relationship between culture as perceived and culture as desired. Over 800 advanced students of economics, business administration and management from 10 coun

  5. Three Reflections on Assessing Safety Training Needs: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleezer, Catherine M.; Kelsey, Kathleen D.; Wood, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Needs assessment plays an important role in training and human performance improvement efforts, but the literature contains little research on this topic. This study extended previous research on the Performance Analysis for Training (PAT) model of needs assessment by examining its implementation to determine environmental and occupational health…

  6. Vertical seismic profiling and integration with reflection seismic studies at Laxemar, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhlin, C.; Bergman, B. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden); Cosma, C.; Keskinen, J.; Enescu, N. [Vibrometric Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2002-02-01

    Vertical seismic profile (VSP) data were acquired in October 2000 in the 1700 m deep KLX02 borehole, near Laxemar in southeastern Sweden. The objectives of the VSP were to image reflectors in the borehole for correlation with surface seismic and borehole data, study the signal penetration of explosive versus mechanical sources and determine the seismic velocity as a function of depth. Five principal source points were used, one located close to the KLX02 wellhead and 4 others that were offset by about 200 m to 400 m. An explosive source was only used at the wellhead and consisted of 15 grams of dynamite in 90 cm deep shot holes in bedrock. A swept impact seismic source (SIST) was also used at the wellhead, as well as at the other four offset source points. The primary SIST source consisted of a computer controlled mechanical hammer mounted on a tractor. By activating the hammer over a 15 second sweep length, the total energy transferred to the ground is on the same order as that produced by the dynamite. The recorded data are then processed to generate seismic records that are equivalent to a single impact source. A smaller hand held SIST source was also tested at the wellhead. Tests of both the tractor mounted source and dynamite were made at a location offset somewhat from the wellhead at a site containing loose sediments at the surface. Full waveform sonic, resistivity and gamma logs were also acquired in conjunction the VSP survey. A comparison between the explosive and large SIST source shows that comparable energy levels are produced by the two methods. The SIST source appears to be more stable in terms of the energy level, although the frequency content of data are somewhat lower. However, its most significant advantage is the low cost of preparation of the source points and the speed of the acquisition. Numerous reflections are observed on the VSP, as is the case on the surface seismic, implying a complex structure in the vicinity of the KLX02 borehole

  7. Effects of prompting in reflective learning tools: Findings from experimental field, lab, and online studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina eRenner

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reflective learning is an important type of learning both in formal and informal situations—in school, higher education, at the workplace, and in everyday life. People may benefit from technical support for reflective learning, in particular when supporting each other by reflecting not only upon their own but also upon other people’s problems. We refer to this collective approach where people come together to think about experiences and find solutions to problems as collaborative reflection. We present three empirical studies about the effects of prompting in reflective learning tools in such situations where people reflect on others’ issues. In Study 1 we applied a three-stage within-group design in a field experiment, where 39 participants from two organizations received different types of prompts while they used a reflection app. We found that prompts that invited employees to write down possible solutions led to more comprehensive comments on their colleagues’ experiences. In Study 2 we used a three-stage between-group design in a laboratory experiment, where 78 university students were invited to take part in an experiment about the discussion of problems at work or academic studies in online forums. Here we found that short, abstract prompts showed no superiority to a situation without any prompts with respect to quantity or quality of contributions. Finally, Study 3 featured a two-stage between-group design in an online experiment, where 60 participants received either general reflection instructions or detailed instructions about how to reflect on other people’s problems. We could show that detailed reflection instructions supported people in producing more comprehensive comments that included more general advice. The results demonstrate that to increase activity and to improve quality of comments with prompting tools require detailed instructions and specific wording of the prompts.

  8. Closed-loop controller for chest compressions based on coronary perfusion pressure: a computer simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunfei; Zhang, Guang; Wu, Taihu; Zhan, Ningbo; Wang, Yaling

    2016-03-01

    High-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation contributes to cardiac arrest survival. The traditional chest compression (CC) standard, which neglects individual differences, uses unified standards for compression depth and compression rate in practice. In this study, an effective and personalized CC method for automatic mechanical compression devices is provided. We rebuild Charles F. Babbs' human circulation model with a coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) simulation module and propose a closed-loop controller based on a fuzzy control algorithm for CCs, which adjusts the CC depth according to the CPP. Compared with a traditional proportion-integration-differentiation (PID) controller, the performance of the fuzzy controller is evaluated in computer simulation studies. The simulation results demonstrate that the fuzzy closed-loop controller results in shorter regulation time, fewer oscillations and smaller overshoot than traditional PID controllers and outperforms the traditional PID controller for CPP regulation and maintenance.

  9. Reflective processes and competencies involved in teaching practice at university: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caetano da Costa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Founded on practical rationality, this qualitative case study aimed to explore the teaching practice at university, focusing on teacher's reflections and competencies. To this end, teaching practices were described, analyzed, and interpreted. These interactions with students on a course in the pharmacy program, brought about situations involving dilemmas and learning opportunities for problem-solving and decision-making skills. Throughout the study, students were encouraged to use knowledge-in-action, reflection-in-action, and reflection-on-action, and these processes were also experienced by the teacher. Analysis of the records from classroom observation and the interviews with students and the teacher showed the fundamental role of such reflective processes, which led to attainment of the intended objectives. In this sense, the teacher's reflective practice was essential for supporting the application of each curricular component of the course.

  10. Merging reflective inquiry and self-study as a framework for enhancing the scholarship of teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevdahl, Denise J; Stackman, Richard W; Purdy, Jill M; Louie, Belinda Y

    2002-09-01

    This article provides a model for improving teaching practice and developing new knowledge about teaching. The reflective self-study approach to pedagogical inquiry is rooted in reflective inquiry and self-study as found in nursing and education literature, respectively. The model offers nurse educators a mechanism by which they can better understand themselves as teachers and how their teaching affects students. Essential features of the model include interdisciplinarity and collaboration. Using the framework outlined in this article will help establish reflective self-study research as an accepted model of inquiry and further the dialogue on teaching in higher education.

  11. Studying “Mixed Race”: Reflections on Methodological Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian Paragg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I reflexively consider how three experiences from conducting an interview project with Canadian young adults of mixed race can lead to questions about methodological practice in “mixed race” research. These three experiences also have implications for theorizing mixed race identity. First, in the study, respondents complicated their hailing (Althusser, 2000 as mixed race through responding to a recruitment ad that used that term, but revealed in the interview that they did not actually self-identify as mixed race. Second, the space of the interview enabled me to ask respondents probing questions to “think through” the operation of race in their everyday lives. Third, the complex dynamic of “insider/outsider” between the respondents and myself (through my own identity as mixed race was foregrounded throughout the research process, signaling complex commonalities between the researcher and research participants.

  12. All-reflection interferometer for extreme-ultraviolet airglow studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Daniel M.; Chakrabarti, Supriya

    1993-12-01

    We describe a possible sounding rocket payload consisting of an interferometer that would observe O I 1304 equals angstroms solar and airglow emissions simultaneously and a low-resolution (15-angstroms) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer with a band pass between 250 and 1050 angstroms to measure the solar EUV flux, a primary source for the O I 1304-angstroms dayglow emission. The solar measurements, the first of their kind, could provide detailed information on the column of O along the line of sight of the instrument as well as information on the full disk solar line profile, which is important to planetary as well as cometary physics. The information gained through line profile studies of the dayglow includes the relative contribution of the two main excitation mechanisms, photoelectron impact and solar resonance scattering, and a means to verify cross sections and branching ratios. All such information will substantiate sophisticated models, electron and radiative transport, that can be utilized in the remote sensing of the thermosphere.

  13. A review on analytical techniques for natural convection investigation in a heated closed enclosure: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minea Alina Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical analysis of a few convection problems. The investigations were started from the geometry of a classic muffle manufactured furnace. During this analytical study, different methodologies have been carefully chosen in order to compare and evaluate the effects of applying different analytical methods of the convection heat transfer processes. In conclusion, even if there are available a lot of analytical methods, natural convection in enclosed enclosures can be studied correctly only with numerical analysis. Also, in this article is presented a case study on natural convection application in a closed heated enclosure.

  14. Investigation of the accuracy of close-range photogrammetry – a 3D printing case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjan Lužanin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available 3D scanning of physical objects is one of the frequently used methods for generating input data for 3D printing process. Close-range photogrammetry represents a cost-efficient alternative to conventional 3D scanning. However, one of the basic problems in application of this method is accuracy, especially in the case of small objects with complex geometry. In this case study, a 3D-printed object of small dimensions was used to test the accuracy and precision of close-range photogrammetry. CAD Inspection was used to obtain measurements of the scanned model and compare it with the original CAD model, while the results were statistically analyzed. The results of statistical analysis showed that the scanning accuracy in this experiment did not depend on the particular cross-section of the model, while the precision of 3D scanning depended on the selection of cross-sectional profile curve.

  15. Examining the Effectiveness of Primary Sources during Close Reading in Social Studies: A Case Study of Middle School Resource Rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Stephen T.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of using primary sources to support close reading in social studies among students with disabilities in grade 7 middle school resource rooms. The setting is a middle school in a suburban school district located in Western New York. Two resource rooms of 10 students with reading or writing difficulties were…

  16. A Contrast Study on Chinese and American Feminism Reflected in Martial Security War and Desperate Housewives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凌志

    2015-01-01

    Both Marital Security War and Desperate Housewives reflect modern Chinese and American women’s double pressure and challenges in marriage, career, life etc. This paper made a contrast study on Chinese and American feminism.

  17. A Contrast Study on Chinese and American Feminism Reflected in Martial Security War and Desperate Housewives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凌志

    2015-01-01

    Both Marital Security War and Desperate Housewives reflect modern Chinese and American women's double pressure and challenges in marriage, career, life etc. This paper made a contrast study on Chinese and American feminism.

  18. The legacy of Biosphere 2 for the study of biospherics and closed ecological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J P; Nelson, M; Alling, A

    2003-01-01

    The unprecedented challenges of creating Biosphere 2, the world's first laboratory for biospherics, the study of global ecology and long-term closed ecological system dynamics, led to breakthrough developments in many fields, and a deeper understanding of the opportunities and difficulties of material closure. This paper will review accomplishments and challenges, citing some of the key research findings and publications that have resulted from the experiments in Biosphere 2. Engineering accomplishments included development of a technique for variable volume to deal with pressure differences between the facility and outside environment, developing methods of atmospheric leak detection and sealing, while achieving new standards of closure, with an annual atmospheric leakrate of less than 10%, or less than 300 ppm per day. This degree of closure permitted detailed tracking of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and trace gases such as nitrous oxide and ethylene over the seasonal variability of two years. Full closure also necessitated developing new approaches and technologies for complete air, water, and wastewater recycle and reuse within the facility. The development of a soil-based highly productive agricultural system was a first in closed ecological systems, and much was learned about managing a wide variety of crops using non-chemical means of pest and disease control. Closed ecological systems have different temporal biogeochemical cycling and ranges of atmospheric components because of their smaller reservoirs of air, water and soil, and higher concentration of biomass, and Biosphere 2 provided detailed examination and modeling of these accelerated cycles over a period of closure which measured in years. Medical research inside Biosphere 2 included the effects on humans of lowered oxygen: the discovery that human productivity can be maintained with good health with lowered atmospheric oxygen levels could lead to major economies on the design of space stations and

  19. The legacy of biosphere 2 for the study of biospherics and closed ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. P.; Nelson, M.; Alling, A.

    The unprecedented challenges of creating Biosphere 2, the world's first laboratory for biospherics, the study of global ecology and long-term closed ecological system dynamics, led to breakthrough developments in many fields, and a deeper understanding of the opportunities and difficulties of material closure. This paper will review accomplishments and challenges, citing some of the key research findings and publications that have resulted from the experiments in Biosphere 2. Engineering accomplishments included development of a technique for variable volume to deal with pressure differences between the facility and outside environment, developing methods of atmospheric leak detection and sealing, while achieving new standards of closure, with an annual atmospheric leakrate of less than 10%, or less than 300 ppm per day. This degree of closure permitted detailed tracking of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and trice gases such as nitrous oxide and ethylene over the seasonal variability of two years. Full closure also necessitated developing new approaches and technologies for complete air, water, and wastewater recycle and reuse within the facility. The development of a soil-based highly productive agricultural system was a first in closed ecological systems, and much was learned about managing a wide variety of crops using non-chemical means of pest and disease control. Closed ecological systems have different temporal biogeochemical cycling and ranges of atmospheric components because of their smaller reservoirs of air, water and soil, and higher concentration of biomass, and Biosphere 2 provided detailed examination and modeling of these accelerated cycles over a period of closure which measured in years. Medical research inside Biosphere 2 included the effects on humans of lowered oxygen: the discovery that human productivity can be maintained with good health with lowered atmospheric oxygen levels could lead to major economies on the design of space stations and

  20. Jet-boundary and Plan-form Corrections for Partial-Span Models with Reflection-Plane, End-Plate, or No End-Plate in a Closed Circular Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivells, James C; Deters, Owen J

    1946-01-01

    A method is presented for determining the jet-boundary and plan-form corrections necessary for application to test data for a partial-span model with a reflection plane, an end plate, or no end plate in a closed circular wind tunnel. Examples are worked out for a partial-span model with each of the three end conditions in the Langley 19-foot pressure tunnel and the corrections are applied to measured values of lift, drag, pitching-moment, rolling-moment, and yawing-moment coefficients.

  1. Sensitive periods differentiate processing of open- and closed-class words: an ERP study of bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Fox, C; Neville, H J

    2001-12-01

    The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that neural processes for language are heterogeneous in their adaptations to maturation and experience. This study examined whether the neural processes for open- and closed-class words are differentially affected by delays in second-language immersion. In English, open-class words primarily convey referential meaning, whereas closed-class words are primarily related to grammatical information in sentence processing. Previous studies indicate that event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by these word classes display nonidentical distributions and latencies, show different developmental time courses, and are differentially affected by early language experience in Deaf individuals. In this study, ERPs were recorded from 10 monolingual English speakers and 53 Chinese-English bilingual speakers who were grouped according to their age of immersion in English: 1-3, 4-6, 7-10, 11-13, and >15 years of age. Closed-class words elicited an N280 that was largest over left anterior electrode sites for all groups. However, the peak latency was later (>35 ms) in bilingual speakers immersed in English after 7 years of age. In contrast, the latencies and distributions of the N350 elicited by open-class words were similar in all groups. In addition, the N400, elicited by semantic anomalies (open-class words that violated semantic expectation), displayed increased peak latencies for only the later-learning bilingual speakers (>11 years). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that language subprocesses are differentially sensitive to the timing of second-language experience.

  2. Mathematics teachers’ reflective practice within the context of adapted lesson study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Posthuma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available There seems to be paucity of research in South Africa on mathematics teachers’ reflective practice. In order to study this phenomenon, the context of lesson study (in an adapted form was introduced to five mathematics teachers in a rural school in the Free State. The purpose was to investigate their reflective practice whilst they collaboratively planned mathematics lessons and reflected on the teaching of the lessons. Data were obtained through interviews, video-recorded lesson observations, field notes taken during the lesson study group meetings and document analyses (lesson plans and reflective writings. The adapted lesson study context provided a safe space for teachers to reflect on their teaching and they reported an increase in self-knowledge and finding new ways of teaching mathematics to learners. This finding has some potential value for planning professional learning programmes in which teachers are encouraged to talk about their classroom experiences, share their joys and challenges with one another and strive to build a community of reflective practitioners to enhance their learners’ understanding of mathematics.

  3. Study of the Doubly-closed Shell Nucleus $^{132}$Sn and its Valence Nuclei

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the experiment is to study the level structure of nuclei close to the shell closures (Z,N)~=~(50,50) and (50,82). \\\\ \\\\ The decay of the isotopes |9|8Cd, |1|3|2In, |1|3|3In and|1|3|1Cd are invesigated by means of $\\gamma$; electron- and neutron spectroscopy. Gamma-gamma and electron-gamma coincidences are also recorded.\\\\ \\\\ The experimental equipment (Ge(Li) detectors, Si(Li) detectors and |3He neutron spectrometers) are connected on-line to the ISOLDE on-line isotope separator.

  4. Fuzzy control for closed-loop, patient-specific hypnosis in intraoperative patients: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brett L; Pyeatt, Larry D; Doufas, Anthony G

    2009-01-01

    Research has demonstrated the efficacy of closed-loop control of anesthesia using bispectral index (BIS) as the controlled variable, and the recent development of model-based, patient-adaptive systems has considerably improved anesthetic control. To further explore the use of model-based control in anesthesia, we investigated the application of fuzzy control in the delivery of patient-specific propofol-induced hypnosis. In simulated intraoperative patients, the fuzzy controller demonstrated clinically acceptable performance, suggesting that further study is warranted.

  5. Reflective optics

    CERN Document Server

    Korsch, Dietrich

    1991-01-01

    This is the first book dedicated exclusively to all-reflective imaging systems. It is a teaching tool as well as a practical design tool for anyone who specializes in optics, particularly for those interested in telescopes, infrared, and grazing-incidence systems. The first part of the book describes a unified geometric optical theory of all-reflective imaging systems (from near-normal to grazing incidence) developed from basic principles. The second part discusses correction methods and a multitude of closed-form solutions of well-corrected systems, supplemented with many conventional and unc

  6. Canadian ethnographic study of sources and definitions of theological reflection in pastoral care and counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas St James; Meakes, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    What are the sources and definitions of theological reflection developed by Canadian practitioners of pastoral care and counseling? This study is part of a larger qualitative research project on theological reflection. This research reviews the literature, describes the ethnographic method, and presents the findings with a sample of 75. Main sources are sacred texts, personal experience, experiences of clients, and traditions of faith group. Definitions are meaning making, discovering the divine and discipleship with recommendations for future research listed.

  7. The influence of neighbouring clouds on the clear sky reflectance studied with the 3-D transport code RADUGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaeva, O.V. [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miusskaya Sq. 4, 125047 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bass, L.P. [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miusskaya Sq. 4, 125047 Moscow (Russian Federation); Germogenova, T.A. [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miusskaya Sq. 4, 125047 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kokhanovsky, A.A. [Institute of Remote Sensing, Bremen University, Otto Hahn Allee 1, 28334 Bremen (Germany) and Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, F. Skarina Avenue 70, 220072 Minsk (Belarus)]. E-mail: alexk@iup.physik.uni-bremen.de; Kuznetsov, V.S. [Research Scientific Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , Kurchatov Sq. 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Mayer, B. [Institute of Atmospheric Physics, DLR, 82234 Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany)

    2005-09-01

    Operational remote sensing of terrestrial atmosphere is heavily based on the 1-D radiative transfer equation. However, cloudy scenes are influenced by 3-D effects (e.g., illumination from cloud sides, etc.). This leads to biases in aerosol/cloud/land/ocean retrieval schemes for scenes with clouds. These biases can be understood and quantified only with the use of the 3-D radiative transfer theory, which allows to account for arbitrary spatial variation of atmospheric parameters. The task of this paper is twofold. First of all we introduce a novel technique for the solution of the 3-D radiative transfer equation based on the grid approximations and the straightforward iteration procedure realised on supercomputers with parallel architecture. We study the performance of our technique comparing with the solutions obtained by the Monte-Carlo code. A close correspondence is found. Secondly, we quantify the influence of neighbouring clouds on the clear sky reflection function at the nadir observation depending on the solar illumination conditions. We find that the influence of cloud on the clear sky reflectance function is not negligible (even outside the cloud geometrical shadow). Thus, the peculiar inner boundary layer arises in the sky reflectance function with shadowing and brightening effects.

  8. Studying the Sun's Nuclear Furnace with a Neutrino Detector Spacecraft in Close Solar Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomey, Nickolas

    2016-05-01

    A neutrino based detector in close solar orbit would have a neutrino flux 10,000x or more larger flux than on Earth and a smaller detector able to handle high rates with exception energy resolution could be used. We have studied the idea of operating such an experiment in close solar orbits that takes it off the ecliptic plane and in a solar orbit where the distance from the Sun will change distance. This neutrino detector on a space craft could do Solar Astrophysics studying the Solar nuclear furnace, basic nuclear physics and elementary particle physics; some of these ideas are new unique science that can only be preformed from a spacecraft. The harsh environment provides many challenges but if such a detector could be made to work it can be the next major step in this science study. How a small segmented detector can operate and preform in this environment to detect solar neutrinos will be elaborated upon using a combination of signal strength, fast signal timing, shielding and segmentation.

  9. Closing the Gap: some unsettling assumptions - A remote region case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Ingamells

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Australian governments are committed to closing the gap between Indigenous and other Australians, yet progress is slow. This paper draws links between these policy efforts and a study of a remote shire in Western Queensland where indicators suggest better than usual socioeconomic outcomes for Aboriginal people. The study conducted over a three year period, and with significant input from Aboriginal people, examines the pathway through which these outcomes have been achieved. Local accounts suggest relations between long term families of both cultures have been a significant factor and are the outcome of an iterative dynamic between people, place and resources, that has a long history, and path dependence. Despite almost full engagement of Aboriginal people in employment over the past 100 years however, indicators do not yet converge, suggesting policy targets are ambitious. The persistent ‘gap’ may be the effect of insistence on making equality conditional on acceptance of settler norms, at significant cost to the lived expression of Aboriginal culture. Whilst this community has managed these tensions, nevertheless their experiences imply that access to community services in remote areas, rather than being a right, is precariously dependent on the vicissitudes of relationship, and these may often depend on the choices Aboriginal people make in response to assimilatory pressures. Keywords: 'Closing the Gap', remote settlements, Aboriginal, Indigenous, intervention, governmentality

  10. Study on a Closed-Loop Air-Fuel Control System of Gasoline Engines by Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张付军; 赵长禄; 黄英; 郝利军

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the factors that influence the air-fuel ratio(A/F), the amplitude and frequency of A/F fluctuation, to reform the control strategy, and to improve the efficiency of three-way catalyst(TWC), a model of closed-loop control system including the engine, air-fuel mixing and transportation, oxygen sensor and controller, etc., is developed. Various factors that influence the A/F control are studied by simulation. The simulation results show that the reference voltage of oxygen sensor will influence the mean value of A/F ratio, the controller parameters will influence the amplitude of A/F fluctuation, and the operating conditions of the engine determine the frequency of A/F fluctuations, the amplitude of A/F fluctuation can be reduced to within demanded values by logical selection of the signal acquisition method and controller parameters. Higher A/F fluctuation frequency under high speed and load can be reduced through software delay in the controller. The A/F closed-loop control system based on the simulation results, accompanied with a rare-earth element TWC, gives a better efficiency of conversion against harmful emissions.

  11. Numerical Study for Hysteresis Phenomena of Shock Wave Reflection in Overexpanded Axisymmetric Supersonic Jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsuyoshi Yasunobu; Ken Matsuoka; Hideo Kashimura; Shigeru Matsuo; Toshiaki Setoguchi

    2006-01-01

    When the high-pressure gas is exhausted to the vacuum chamber from the supersonic nozzle, the overexpanded supersonic jet is formed at specific condition. In two-dimensional supersonic jet, furthermore, it is known that the hysteresis phenomena for the reflection type of shock wave in the flow field is occurred under the quasi-steady flow and for instance, the transitional pressure ratio between the regular reflection (RR) and Mach reflection (MR) is affected by this phenomenon. Many papers have described the hysteresis phenomena for underexpanded supersonic jet, but this phenomenon under the overexpanded axisymmetric jet has not been detailed in the past papers. The purpose of this study is to clear the hysteresis phenomena for the reflection type of shock wave at the overexpanded axisymmetric jet using the TVD method and to discuss the characteristic of hysteresis phenomena.

  12. The Last Thing We Have Left: A Single-Case Study of a Small, Rural, Mill-Town School Closing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallenbeck, Amy Talitha

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative, single-case study explored the closing of a small, rural, historic, mill-town school in the southeastern United States and why people were upset with the closing of the school. Through the responses of 12 purposefully selected participants, the study focused on attitudes, perceptions, and values of students and parents, school…

  13. Gen-2 hand-held optical imager towards cancer imaging: reflectance and transillumination phantom studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jean; Roman, Manuela; Hall, Michael; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2012-01-01

    Hand-held near-infrared (NIR) optical imagers are developed by various researchers towards non-invasive clinical breast imaging. Unlike these existing imagers that can perform only reflectance imaging, a generation-2 (Gen-2) hand-held optical imager has been recently developed to perform both reflectance and transillumination imaging. The unique forked design of the hand-held probe head(s) allows for reflectance imaging (as in ultrasound) and transillumination or compressed imaging (as in X-ray mammography). Phantom studies were performed to demonstrate two-dimensional (2D) target detection via reflectance and transillumination imaging at various target depths (1-5 cm deep) and using simultaneous multiple point illumination approach. It was observed that 0.45 cc targets were detected up to 5 cm deep during transillumination, but limited to 2.5 cm deep during reflectance imaging. Additionally, implementing appropriate data post-processing techniques along with a polynomial fitting approach, to plot 2D surface contours of the detected signal, yields distinct target detectability and localization. The ability of the gen-2 imager to perform both reflectance and transillumination imaging allows its direct comparison to ultrasound and X-ray mammography results, respectively, in future clinical breast imaging studies.

  14. Closed-Cycle Engine Program Used to Study Brayton Power Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul K.

    2005-01-01

    One form of power conversion under consideration in NASA Glenn Research Center's Thermal Energy Conversion Branch is the closed-Brayton-cycle engine. In the tens-of-kilowatts to multimegawatt class, the Brayton engine lends itself to potential space nuclear power applications such as electric propulsion or surface power. The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch has most recently concentrated its Brayton studies on electric propulsion for Prometheus. One piece of software used for evaluating such designs over a limited tradeoff space has been the Closed Cycle Engine Program (CCEP). The CCEP originated in the mid-1980s from a Fortran aircraft engine code known as the Navy/NASA Engine Program (NNEP). Components such as a solar collector, heat exchangers, ducting, a pumped-loop radiator, a nuclear heat source, and radial turbomachinery were added to NNEP, transforming it into a high-fidelity design and performance tool for closed-Brayton-cycle power conversion and heat rejection. CCEP was used in the 1990s in conjunction with the Solar Dynamic Ground Test Demonstration conducted at Glenn. Over the past year, updates were made to CCEP to adapt it for an electric propulsion application. The pumped-loop radiator coolant can now be n-heptane, water, or sodium-potassium (NaK); liquid-metal pump design tables were added to accommodate the NaK fluid. For the reactor and shield, a user can now elect to calculate a higher fidelity mass estimate. In addition, helium-xenon working-fluid properties were recalculated and updated.

  15. Studying Abroad Inclusively: Reflections by College Students with and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohn, Seb M.; Kelley, Kelly R.; Westling, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Postsecondary education programs have increased opportunities for students with and without intellectual disabilities to study abroad as inclusive classes. Using open-coding qualitative techniques, the authors examined an inclusive study abroad group's daily reflective journals during a study abroad trip to London and Dublin. Three shared…

  16. Building on Successes: Reflections from Two Approaches to Study Abroad for Undergraduate and Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Sandra; McGaha, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This essay offers suggestions for faculty who are designing study abroad (SA) experiences by outlining a three-week Maymester study abroad to Reggio Emilia, Italy, and a semester-long study abroad to Brussels, Belgium. The authors reflect on commonalities in planning, recruiting, preparing students, and conducting each trip, as well as some of the…

  17. Increased risk of temporomandibular joint closed lock: a case-control study of ANKH polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyen Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to carry out a histological examination of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ in ank mutant mice and to identify polymorphisms of the human ANKH gene in order to establish the relationship between the type of temporomandibular disorders (TMD and ANKH polymorphisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Specimens from the TMJ of ank mutant and wild-type mice were inspected with a haematoxylin and eosin staining method. A sample of 55 TMD patients were selected. Each was examined with standard clinical procedures and genotyping techniques. RESULTS: The major histological finding in ank mutant mice was joint space narrowing. Within TMD patients, closed lock was more prevalent among ANKH-OR homozygotes (p = 0.011, OR = 7.7, 95% CI 1.6-36.5 and the elder (p = 0.005, OR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.3. CONCLUSIONS: Fibrous ankylosis was identified in the TMJ of ank mutant mice. In the human sample, ANKH-OR polymorphism was found to be a genetic marker associated with TMJ closed lock. Future investigations correlating genetic polymorphism to TMD are indicated.

  18. Raising and controlling study of dissolved oxygen concentration in closed-type aeration tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C K; Lo, S L

    2005-07-01

    This study investigated the promotion and control of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of the closed-type aeration tank via practical experiments in the wastewater treatment system of a 5-star hotel in Taipei. As with limited and treasured space in Taiwan, before the completion of the sewer system construction in cities, to utilize the mat foundation under large buildings as the space of sewage treatment plant still has been one of the alternatives of those sewage treatments. However, aeration tanks constructed in the mat foundation of buildings have smaller effective water depth, which will cause a lower total transfer amount of DO. Controlling the total exhaust gas flow rate can increase the pressure on such closed-type aeration tanks. The DO concentration thus may increase according to Henry's Law. Furthermore, it may enable operators to adjust the DO concentration of the aeration tank more precisely and thus sustain optimal operating conditions in these treatment facilities. Practical experiments indicated that the DO concentration of aeration tank maintains an average of 3.8 mg l(-1), obtaining the optimum operating conditions. The efficiency of the biological treatment facilities in the mat foundation could be markedly improved.

  19. Studies of short-lived nuclei in the proximity of closed shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omtvedt, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    In this work the structure of {sup 84,85}Se at the closed N=50 neutron shell, and the {sup 132}Sb, {sup 132}Sn, and {sup 134}Te nuclei, at the doubly closed N=82,Z=50 shells, was studied. The experiments were performed at the OSIRIS fission product mass separator at Studsvik, Sweden. The excited levels of the studied nuclei were populated in {beta} decay. The sources were produced in fission of {sup 235}U in the OSIRIS combined target and ion source. The nuclei were studied by standard nuclear spectroscopy measuring techniques: Singles {gamma} spectra and {gamma}{gamma}-coincidence data were obtained. In addition {gamma}{gamma}({theta}) angular correlation and {beta}{gamma}{gamma}(t) triple coincidence ``fast-timing`` ,measurements were performed on the nuclei in the {sup 132}Sn (N=82,Z=50) region. Detailed level schemes for the {sup 84,85}Se, {sup 132}Sb,{sup 132}Sn, {sup 132}Te nuclei were built, greatly improvi our knowledge of the structure of these nuclei. The experimentally deduced transition rates and multipole mixing ratios of the studied {sup 132}Sn region nuclei were compared to theoretical calculations within the random phase approximation framework and related models. Particular attention was paid to the collective properties of nuclei in the {sup 132}Sn region, parametrized by the electrical octupole effective charge. A range of general software spectroscopic tools were developed for the purpose of analysing the experimental data. This included a program, Yggdrasil, which for the first time allowed a complete two-dimensional {gamma}{gamma}-coincidence matrix to be analysed on ordinary ``small`` personal computers (PCs). 49 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Neutron reflectivity studies of single lipid bilayers supported on planar substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, S.; Orts, W.J.; Berk, N.F.; Majkrzak, C.F. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Koenig, B.W. [National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Neutron reflectivity was used to probe the structure of single phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid bilayers adsorbed onto a planar silicon surface in an aqueous environment. Fluctuations in the neutron scattering length density profiles perpendicular to the silicon/water interface were determined for different lipids as a function of the hydrocarbon chain length. The lipids were studied in both the gel and liquid crystalline phases by monitoring changes in the specularly-reflected neutron intensity as a function of temperature. Contrast variation of the neutron scattering length density was applied to both the lipid and the solvent. Scattering length density profiles were determined using both model-independent and model-dependent fitting methods. During the reflectivity measurements, a novel experimental set-up was implemented to decrease the incoherent background scattering due to the solvent. Thus, the reflectivity was measured to Q {approx} 0.3{Angstrom}{sup -1}, covering up to seven orders of magnitude in reflected intensity, for PC bilayers in D{sub 2}O and silicon-matched (38% D{sub 2}O/62% H{sub 2}O) water. The kinetics of lipid adsorption at the silicon/water interface were also explored by observing changes in the reflectivity at low Q values under silicon-matched water conditions.

  1. Diffuse reflectance startigraphy - a new method in the study of loess (?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    József, Szeberényi; Balázs, Bradák; Klaudia, Kiss; József, Kovács; György, Varga; Réka, Balázs; Viczián, István

    2017-04-01

    The different varieties of loess (and intercalated paleosol layers) together constitute one of the most widespread terrestrial sediments, which was deposited, altered, and redeposited in the course of the changing climatic conditions of the Pleistocene. To reveal more information about Pleistocene climate cycles and/or environments the detailed lithostratigraphical subdivision and classification of the loess variations and paleosols are necessary. Beside the numerous method such as various field measurements, semi-quantitative tests and laboratory investigations, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is one of the well applied method on loess/paleosol sequences. Generally, DRS has been used to separate the detrital and pedogenic mineral component of the loess sections by the hematite/goethite ratio. DRS also has been applied as a joint method of various environmental magnetic investigations such as magnetic susceptibility- and isothermal remanent magnetization measurements. In our study the so-called "diffuse reflectance stratigraphy method" were developed. At First, complex mathematical method was applied to compare the results of the spectral reflectance measurements. One of the most preferred multivariate methods is cluster analysis. Its scope is to group and compare the loess variations and paleosol based on the similarity and common properties of their reflectance curves. In the Second, beside the basic subdivision of the profiles by the different reflectance curves of the layers, the most characteristic wavelength section of the reflectance curve was determined. This sections played the most important role during the classification of the different materials of the section. The reflectance value of individual samples, belonged to the characteristic wavelength were depicted in the function of depth and well correlated with other proxies like grain size distribution and magnetic susceptibility data. The results of the correlation showed the significance of the

  2. Reflections of a Multicultural Counseling Course: A Qualitative Study with Counseling Students and Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagnici, Dilek Yelda

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the contributions of a single multicultural counseling course designed with experiential learning strategies on multicultural awareness and knowledge competencies and the reflections of the training on the counselors' social and vocational life after graduation. For this purpose, two studies were conducted. In…

  3. Exploring Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Practices through Reflective Practice: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.; Ives, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a case study that explored and reflected on the relationship between the stated beliefs and observed classroom practices of one second language reading teacher. The findings of this study revealed that this particular teacher holds complex beliefs about teaching reading that were evident to some extent in many of his…

  4. Reflections on Teaching Periodic Table Concepts: A Case Study of Selected Schools in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokiwa, Hamza Omari

    2017-01-01

    The Periodic Table of Elements is central to the study of modern Physics and Chemistry. It is however, considered by teachers as difficult to teach. This paper reports on a case study exploring reflections on teaching periodic table concepts in five secondary schools from South Africa. Qualitative methodology of interviews and document analysis…

  5. Embedded Teacher Learning Opportunities as a Site for Reflective Practice: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camburn, Eric M.

    2010-01-01

    Framed by sociocultural learning perspectives, this study examines whether embedded learning opportunities for teachers are more supportive of reflective practice than traditional professional development. All schools in this study implemented a comprehensive school reform program. The designs of the programs introduced embedded learning…

  6. Closed patella fracture combined with cruciate ligament injury:a case control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Han; WANG Wei; LIU Yue-ju; CHEN Wei; ZHANG Qi; LI Xu; ZHU Lian

    2013-01-01

    Background Patellar fracture and cruciate ligament injury are a common consequence of traumatic knee injury.Patellar fracture combined with cruciate ligament injury is rarely reported,although the mechanisms of two things are similar.This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of closed patella fracture combined with cruciate ligament injury.Methods From 2012 March 1 to June 30,magnetic resonance images of 60 patients with unilateral closed patellar fracture were studied in our institution.The mean age of the patients at presentation was 40.2 years (range,13-64 years) and 48 patients were men.First,patients were divided according to the cause of injury.Twenty-eight patients had highenergy trauma from a falling injury or motor vehicle accident,and 32 patients had low-energy trauma resulting from a tumbling injury.Second,according to the fracture pattern,31 patients had a transverse fracture and 29 patients had a comminuted fracture.Results We found seven cases of closed patellar fracture combined with cruciate ligament injury among 60 patients,including two cases of a completely ruptured posterior cruciate ligament,two with a partially torn posterior cruciate ligament,and three with a partially torn anterior cruciate ligament.The percentage of this combined injury was 11.6% (7/60).The incidence of a combined injury of the cruciate ligament with a comminuted fracture (6/29,20.7%) was significantly higher than that with a transverse fracture (1/31,3.2%,P <0.05).The most common mechanism of injury in patellar fracture combined with cruciate ligament injury was high-energy trauma from road traffic accidents (94%),whereas in the patellar fracture alone,it was tumbling (62%).The incidence of combined injury with high-energy trauma (6/28,21.4%) was significantly higher than that with low-energy trauma (1/32,3.1%,P <0.05).Conclusions These data suggest that high-energy trauma often results in a comminuted patellar fracture,which is often combined with

  7. Acceptability of a reflective e-portfolio instituted in an orthodontic specialist programme: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonni, I; Oliver, R G

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to highlight students' and mentors' acceptability of a reflective e-portfolio instituted in a postgraduate orthodontic programme in the UK. A reflective e-portfolio was developed on the basis of principles provided by a literature search and was piloted for 2 months with six students and seven mentors. At the end of the experience, mentors' and students' acceptability of the e-portfolio with a reflective component was studied using questionnaires. The data were analysed using basic quantitative and qualitative methods. Students' response highlighted acceptability issues related to each aspect of the e-portfolio derived from the literature: relevance of the e-portfolio reflective part; time required for the process; support and mentoring; the implementation method; and the electronic medium. Mentors showed a more positive attitude towards the e-portfolio, expressing only some concerns about the time involved in using it. Furthermore, the analysis of the data highlighted some other acceptability matters: the specificity of the e-portfolio, the communication amongst students and the relationship between students and mentors. The future successful implementation of the reflective e-portfolio will depend on the productive management of the acceptability issues identified by students and mentors, in particular:(i)the specificity of the e-portfolio that would avoid its overlapping with other part of the programme;(ii)the increasing communication amongst students to improve their knowledge of the reflective writing process; and (iii)the development of a relationship between students and mentors helping to create the appropriate environment for reflection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Study of the pd(dp) -> 3He pi pi reactions close to threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Bellemann, F; Bisplinghoff, J; Bohlscheid, G; Ernst, J; Henrich, C; Hinterberger, F; Ibald, R; Jahn, R; Joosten, R; Kilian, K; Kozela, A; Machner, H; Magiera, A; Munkel, J; von Neumann-Cosel, P; von Rossen, P; Schnitker, H; Scho, K; Smyrski, J; Toelle, R; Wilkin, C

    2016-01-01

    New experimental data on the pd -> 3He pi+ pi- reaction obtained with the COSY-MOMO detector below the three-pion threshold are presented. The reaction was also studied in inverse kinematics with a deuteron beam and the higher counting rates achieved were especially important at low excess energies. The comparison of these data with inclusive pd -> 3He+X rates allowed estimates also to be made of pi0 pi0 production. The results confirm our earlier findings that close to threshold there is no enhancement at low excitation energies in the pi+ pi- system, where the data seem largely suppressed compared to phase space. Possible explanations for this behavior, such as strong p- waves in the pi+pi- -system or the influence of two-step processes, are explored.

  9. Study of closed orbit response to magnet vibrations at the SSRF storage ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-Hui; ZHAO Zhen-Tang; DAI Zhi-Min; LIU Gui-Min

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the analytical and simulation responses of the closed orbit distortion in the SSRF storage ring to random and plane wave like magnet vibrations respectively. It is shown that the use of girder is very beneficial in the view of suppressing this response function. Effect of the independently supported gradient bending magnets to the closed orbit response is given. An analytic formula is written to give a rough estimate of the closed orbit distortion due to ground motion, taking into account the closed orbit response function and girder transfer function. As an example, the result of SSRF case is given.

  10. Reflection seismic studies at the Laxemar area; Reflektionsseismiska studier inom Laxemaromraadet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, B.; Juhlin, C.; Palm, H. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2001-02-01

    Two 2 km long crossing lines with high-resolution reflection seismics were acquired at Laxemar, close to The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, in December 1999. The main goal with the investigation was to make a full-scale test of developed methods in reflection seismics with the use of small shotholes and small explosive charges. The secondary goal was to identify fracture zones that might correlate with water bearing fracture zones found in boreholes. Both lines had 10-meter separation between the geophones and charge holes. Shot sizes were 15-gram plastic explosives for shots in rock and 75-gram ones for shots in lose sediments and till. The results from the measurements show that the small shotholes technique and small charges works well to investigate the rock down to a depth of 3-4 kilometers. The signal penetrates at least to 1500-metres (500 ms travel time for the seismic signal) along both lines. Over some parts of the lines the seismic signal penetrates to c. 6000- metres (2 seconds travel time). Five dipping reflectors (c. 30-50 deg) can be identified. Three of these can be projected up to the surface on both lines and their 3D orientation can be determined. These reflectors also coincide with topographical depressions. The two other dipping reflectors are only visible on one line, but can be assumed to correlate with topographical depressions and that way be assigned a three dimensional orientation. Four of the reflectors correlate with previously mapped fracture zones. A zone of sub-horizontal reflectivity (0-15 deg) is visible at 650-900 meters depth where the lines cross the deep borehole KLX02. This zone dips gently towards the east and can be correlated with sections of greenstones found in KLX02. The zone of sub-horizontal reflectivity continues to the deep borehole KLX01, but is not as clear here. This sub-horizontal zone may be the hydraulic connection between the boreholes in their deeper part. Deeper down at 1100 ms (c. 3 km), there are strong

  11. Which characteristics of written feedback are perceived as stimulating students' reflective competence : an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Hanke; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Snoek, Jos W.; van der Molen, Thys; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-01-01

    Background: Teacher feedback on student reflective writing is recommended to improve learners' reflective competence. To be able to improve teacher feedback on reflective writing, it is essential to gain insight into which characteristics of written feedback stimulate students' reflection processes.

  12. Which characteristics of written feedback are perceived as stimulating students' reflective competence : an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Hanke; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Snoek, Jos W.; van der Molen, Thys; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-01-01

    Background: Teacher feedback on student reflective writing is recommended to improve learners' reflective competence. To be able to improve teacher feedback on reflective writing, it is essential to gain insight into which characteristics of written feedback stimulate students' reflection processes.

  13. Sleep duration: how well do self-reports reflect objective measures? The CARDIA Sleep Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lauderdale, Diane S.; Knutson, Kristen L.; Yan, Lijing L.; Liu, Kiang; Rathouz, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have found that sleep duration is associated with obesity, diabetes, hypertension and mortality. These studies have used self-reported habitual sleep duration, which has not been well validated. We model the extent to which self-reported habitual sleep reflects average objectively measured sleep. Eligible participants at the Chicago site of Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study were invited to participate in a 2003-2004 ancillary sleep study; 82% ...

  14. Measuring third year undergraduate nursing students' reflective thinking skills and critical reflection self-efficacy following high fidelity simulation: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutticci, Naomi; Lewis, Peter A; Coyer, Fiona

    2016-05-01

    Critical reflection underpins critical thinking, a highly desirable generic nursing graduate capability. To improve the likelihood of critical thinking transferring to clinical practice, reflective thinking needs to be measured within the learning space of simulation. This study was divided into two phases to address the reliability and validity measures of previously untested surveys. Phase One data was collected from individuals (n = 6) using a 'think aloud' approach and an expert panel to review content validity, and verbatim comment analysis was undertaken. The Reflective Thinking Instrument and Critical Reflection Self-Efficacy Visual Analogue Scale items were contextualised to simulation. The expert review confirmed these instruments exhibited content validity. Phase Two data was collected through an online survey (n = 58). Cronbach's alpha measured internal consistency and was demonstrated by all subscales and the Instrument as a whole (.849). There was a small to medium positive correlation between critical reflection self-efficacy and general self-efficacy (r = .324, n = 56, p = .048). Participant responses were positive regarding the simulation experience. The research findings demonstrated that the Reflective Thinking and Simulation Satisfaction survey is reliable. Further development of this survey to establish validity is recommended to make it viable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship of Dyadic Closeness with Work-Related Stress: A Daily Diary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Yoav; Ben-Ari, Adital

    2007-01-01

    We examined the association between work-related stress of both spouses and daily fluctuations in their affective states and dyadic closeness. Daily diary data from 169 Israeli dual-earner couples were analyzed using multilevel modeling. The findings indicate that work stress has no direct effect on dyadic closeness but rather is mediated by the…

  16. Relationship of Dyadic Closeness with Work-Related Stress: A Daily Diary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Yoav; Ben-Ari, Adital

    2007-01-01

    We examined the association between work-related stress of both spouses and daily fluctuations in their affective states and dyadic closeness. Daily diary data from 169 Israeli dual-earner couples were analyzed using multilevel modeling. The findings indicate that work stress has no direct effect on dyadic closeness but rather is mediated by the…

  17. Study on feasibility of laser reflective tomography with satellite-accompany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yu; Hu, Yi-hua; Hao, Shi-qi; Gu, You-lin; Zhao, Nan-xiang; Wang, Yang-yang

    2015-10-01

    Laser reflective tomography is a long-range, high-resolution active detection technology, whose advantage is that the spatial resolution is unrelated with the imaging distance. Accompany satellite is a specific satellite around the target spacecraft with encircling movement. When using the accompany satellite to detect the target aircraft, multi-angle echo data can be obtained with the application of reflective tomography imaging. The feasibility of such detection working mode was studied in this article. Accompany orbit model was established with horizontal circular fleet and the parameters of accompany flight was defined. The simulation of satellite-to-satellite reflective tomography imaging with satellite-accompany was carried out. The operating mode of reflective tomographic data acquisition from monostatic laser radar was discussed and designed. The flight period, which equals to the all direction received data consuming time, is one of the important accompany flight parameters. The azimuth angle determines the plane of image formation while the elevation angle determines the projection direction. Both of the azimuth and elevation angles guide the satellite attitude stability controller in order to point the laser radar spot on the target. The influences of distance between accompany satellite and target satellite on tomographic imaging consuming time was analyzed. The influences of flight period, azimuth angle and elevation angle on tomographic imaging were analyzed as well. Simulation results showed that the satellite-accompany laser reflective tomography is a feasible and effective method to the satellite-to-satellite detection.

  18. REFLECTIVE PRACTICE THROUGH JOURNAL WRITING AND PEER OBSERVATION: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Samrajya LAKSHMI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Journal writing and Peer Observation in an educational context have become popular techniques, with several different types of applications. They have now been used quite widely in both language teaching and in teacher training. However, despite its reported advantages in both teaching and research, there are not many Peer Observation and Diary studies available based on the writing of experienced language teachers. The Teacher participants maintain Journal writing and Peer Observation as a means of reflective practice. They consider these practices as a mirror, which reflects the teacher’s own image as a practioner. The post-reflection discussion reveals that the teacher participants believe in reflective practice as an effective means of self-evaluation and of developing sensitivity to students’ learning. This paper examines Peer Observation and journal writing of two teachers working on the same language programme in terms of a variety of topic headings, and suggests that reflective practice can be a useful tool for both classroom research and teachers’ professional development.

  19. Students' views of reflective learning techniques: an efficacy study at a UK medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Andrew; Kinnersley, Paul; Metcalf, Elizabeth; Pill, Roisin; Houston, Helen

    2006-04-01

    To describe the effects of a voluntary intervention using reflective learning techniques on students' learning. An interventional study with reflective learning techniques offered to medical students. Year 3 of undergraduate medicine at Cardiff University where the curriculum is integrated with early clinical contact. All 232 Year 3 students were invited to participate. A total of 65 attended an introductory lecture. After the lecture 35 students agreed to take part; 15 of these subsequently dropped out (some before attending tutorial groups, others after taking part for some weeks). Participants kept learning journals for 2 terms and attended fortnightly, facilitated tutorial groups where they discussed their reflective journal entries. Main outcome measures were qualitative interviews and examination results. Interviews were carried out with 19 full participants, 4 initial participants and 7 non-participants. Participants perceived that they gained a greater ability to identify learning objectives and to integrate learning. The tutorial groups encouraged students to compare progress with their peers. Some students did not take part because they thought that the large factual content of the curriculum would make reflective learning less useful. There were no differences between the groups in examination results. Students among the small, self-selected group of participants were better able to identify what they needed to learn although there was no improvement in examination results. Students appear unlikely to take up voluntary reflective learning if they do not think it relates to the curriculum and assessments. Student culture exerts a potent effect on willingness to attend extra tutorial groups.

  20. Projection-reflection ultrasound images using PE-CMOS sensor: a preliminary bone fracture study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Liu, Chu-Chuan; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong-Ki; Kula, John; Lasser, Marvin E.; Lasser, Bob; Wang, Yue Joseph

    2008-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the characteristics of the ultrasound reflective image obtained by a CMOS sensor array coated with piezoelectric material (PE-CMOS). The laboratory projection-reflection ultrasound prototype consists of five major components: an unfocused ultrasound transducer, an acoustic beam splitter, an acoustic compound lens, a PE-CMOS ultrasound sensing array (Model I400, Imperium Inc. Silver Spring, MD), and a readout circuit system. The prototype can image strong reflective materials such as bone and metal. We found this projection-reflection ultrasound prototype is able to reveal hairline bone fractures with and without intact skin and tissue. When compared, the image generated from a conventional B-scan ultrasound on the same bone fracture is less observable. When it is observable with the B-scan system, the fracture or crack on the surface only show one single spot of echo due to its scan geometry. The corresponding image produced from the projection-reflection ultrasound system shows a bright blooming strip on the image clearly indicating the fracture on the surface of the solid material. Speckles of the bone structure are also observed in the new ultrasound prototype. A theoretical analysis is provided to link the signals as well as speckles detected in both systems.

  1. Crystal growth and reflectivity studies of Zn1–MnTe crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Veera Brahmam; D Raja Reddy; B K Reddy

    2005-08-01

    Single crystals of Zn1–MnTe were prepared by vertical Bridgman crystal growth method for different concentrations of Mn. Chemical analysis and reflectivity studies were carried out for compositional and band structure properties. Microscopic variation in composition between starting and end compounds was observed from EDAX analysis. Linear dependence of fundamental absorption edge (0) as a function of Mn concentration () was expressed in terms of a straight line fit and a shift in 0 towards higher energy was observed in reflectivity spectra of Zn1–MnTe.

  2. In situ anodization of aluminum surfaces studied by x-ray reflectivity and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, F.; Zhang, F.; Evertsson, J.; Carlà, F.; Pan, J.; Messing, M. E.; Mikkelsen, A.; Nilsson, J.-O.; Lundgren, E.

    2014-07-01

    We present results from the anodization of an aluminum single crystal [Al(111)] and an aluminum alloy [Al 6060] studied by in situ x-ray reflectivity, in situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and ex situ scanning electron microscopy. For both samples, a linear increase of oxide film thickness with increasing anodization voltage was found. However, the slope is much higher in the single crystal case, and the break-up of the oxide film grown on the alloy occurs at a lower anodization potential than on the single crystal. The reasons for these observations are discussed as are the measured differences observed for x-ray reflectivity and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  3. In situ anodization of aluminum surfaces studied by x-ray reflectivity and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, F., E-mail: florian.bertram@sljus.lu.se; Evertsson, J.; Messing, M. E.; Mikkelsen, A.; Lundgren, E. [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Zhang, F.; Pan, J. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, Drottning Kristinas väg 51, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Carlà, F. [ESRF, B. P. 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Nilsson, J.-O. [Sapa Technology, Kanalgatan 1, 612 31 Finspång (Sweden)

    2014-07-21

    We present results from the anodization of an aluminum single crystal [Al(111)] and an aluminum alloy [Al 6060] studied by in situ x-ray reflectivity, in situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and ex situ scanning electron microscopy. For both samples, a linear increase of oxide film thickness with increasing anodization voltage was found. However, the slope is much higher in the single crystal case, and the break-up of the oxide film grown on the alloy occurs at a lower anodization potential than on the single crystal. The reasons for these observations are discussed as are the measured differences observed for x-ray reflectivity and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  4. Diffuse and bi-directional reflectance spectrometry to study European volcanic soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Salzano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse and bi-directional reflectance spectroscopy were applied in this research in order to characterize chemical and mineralogical properties in volcanic soils. The study was conducted on 77 volcanic soil profiles from several European countries. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy was used in conjunction with parameterization using the second derivative of the Kubelka-Munk function and colour calculation. From derivative curves, one band of interest was characterized and identified around 450 nm. Using correlation analysis, significant relationships were observed between amplitude of this band and Fed (r = 0.6. In addition, the data showed that soil organic matter content, Ald and Fep were moderately correlated with reflectance values centered at 546, 579 and 2048 nm.

  5. Molecular orientation in soft matter thin films studied by resonant soft X-ray reflectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezger, Markus; Jerome, Blandine; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Valvidares, Manuel; Gullikson, Eric; Giglia, Angelo; Mahne, Nicola; Nannarone, Stefano

    2011-01-12

    We present a technique to study depth profiles of molecular orientation in soft matter thin films with nanometer resolution. The method is based on dichroism in resonant soft X-ray reflectivity using linear s- and p-polarization. It combines the chemical sensitivity of Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy to specific molecular bonds and their orientation relative to the polarization of the incident beam with the precise depth profiling capability of X-ray reflectivity. We demonstrate these capabilities on side chain liquid crystalline polymer thin films with soft X-ray reflectivity data at the carbon K edge. Optical constants of the anisotropic refractive index ellipsoid were obtained from a quantitative analysis using the Berreman formalism. For films up to 50 nm thickness we find that the degree of orientation of the long axis exhibits no depth variation and isindependent of the film thickness.

  6. Structural studies of mixed lipid bilayers on solid substrates using x-ray reflectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Mukhopadhyay, Mrinmay; Ma, Yicong; Sinha, Sunil; Jiang, Zhang; Decaro, Curt; Berry, Justin; Lurio, Laurence; Brozell, Adrian; Parikh, Atul

    2009-03-01

    The lipid bilayers of natural membranes generally exist in a fluid state which occurs above the gel to liquid crystalline phase transition temperature. Knowledge of the structure of such bilayers is important for understanding fundamental biological processes mediated by or occurring within membranes. We have performed systematic measurements on bilayers of 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphoethanolamine (DPPE) and its mixture with 1,2-Dioleoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphocholine (DOPC) and cholesterol (CH) on silicon substrates with x-ray reflectivity both below and above their phase transition temperatures. Structural variations as a function of temperature are demonstrated by fitting the reflectivity data with both a model dependent and a model independent routine. Studies of Au nanoparticle labeled DOPC and DOPC + DPPE + CH mixture are also performed and the location of Au nanoparticles in these bilayers is established by analyzing the x-ray reflectivity data.

  7. Growth studies of heteroepitaxial oxide thin films using reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, G.; Huijben, M.; Janssen, A.; Rijnders, A.J.H.M.; Koster, G.; Huijben, M.; Rijnders, A.J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) in combination with pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is described. Both the use of RHEED as a real-time rate-monitoring technique and methods to study nucleation and growth during PLD are discussed. After a brief introduction of RHEED

  8. Engaged Pedagogy: A Study of the Use of Reflective Journals in Accounting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisman, Jayne

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a report on a study of innovation in postgraduate education in which a reflective learning journal was used for formal assessment purposes in a management accounting course. Prompted by the discourse on the shortcomings of accounting education in terms of learning processes, learning experiences and learning outcomes, the…

  9. Culture, Globalisation and the Study of Giftedness: Reflections on Persson's Analysis and Recommendations for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Jennifer; Renzulli, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Persson's (2012a) target article addresses a number of key points that will greatly impact the study of giftedness, gifted education, and talent development in the "flat" world of the 21st century and beyond. Research in these areas needs to continually reflect upon changes in the social world outside its narrow purview to validate its…

  10. The Influence of Reflection on Employee Psychological Empowerment: Report of an Exploratory Workplace Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyboran, Vincent L.

    2005-01-01

    The study examined the influences of reflection on the self-perception of empowerment in the workplace. The convenience sample consisted of non-management knowledge workers at a software company headquartered in the United States. A pretest, posttest control group design was used. The experimental group kept guided journals of their learning…

  11. Reflections on Modern China and the Progressive Power of Educational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong

    2011-01-01

    The turn towards using domestic experience in contemporary Chinese educational studies has led to the development of theoretical frames rooted in the reality of Chinese society. This article identifies four ways of understanding and reforming Chinese society that have been developed by 20th century Chinese educators. By reflecting on these four…

  12. The Experience of Critical Self-Reflection by Life Coaches: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Deanna Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the experience of critical self-reflection by life coaches. Life coaching is expanding within many disciplines including education, health care, business, social work, and wellness. Life coaching involves a coach working with an individual or groups aimed at effecting change for professional and personal…

  13. Culture, Globalisation and the Study of Giftedness: Reflections on Persson's Analysis and Recommendations for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Jennifer; Renzulli, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Persson's (2012a) target article addresses a number of key points that will greatly impact the study of giftedness, gifted education, and talent development in the "flat" world of the 21st century and beyond. Research in these areas needs to continually reflect upon changes in the social world outside its narrow purview to validate its…

  14. Reflectivity studies on a synchrotron radiation mirror in the hard X-ray regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keil, P. E-mail: pkeil@uni-wuppertal.de; Luetzenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Novikov, D.V.; Hahn, U.; Frahm, R

    2001-07-21

    The optical performance and roughness parameters of an X-ray mirror that was used for several years in a synchrotron radiation beamline are determined by studying its X-ray reflectivity and diffuse scattering behavior. These values are compared to the data derived from topographic measurements with an atomic force microscope (AFM)

  15. Reflectivity studies on a synchrotron radiation mirror in the hard X-ray regime

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, P; Novikov, D V; Hahn, U; Frahm, R

    2001-01-01

    The optical performance and roughness parameters of an X-ray mirror that was used for several years in a synchrotron radiation beamline are determined by studying its X-ray reflectivity and diffuse scattering behavior. These values are compared to the data derived from topographic measurements with an atomic force microscope (AFM).

  16. Teachers as Researchers of New Literacies: Reflections on Qualitative Self-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, Bryan; Given, Kim; Brass, Jory

    2011-01-01

    In this article, a beginning teacher, experienced teacher, and teacher educator reflect upon their experiences with qualitative self-studies of language and literacy in teacher education courses. The goal of these course projects was to introduce teachers to sociocultural theories, qualitative research, and "new" literacies. Sharing…

  17. A Collaborative Autoethnography Study to Inform the Teaching of Reflective Practice in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hains-Wesson, Rachael; Young, Karen

    2017-01-01

    The paper explores a collaborative self-study, autoethnography research project, which aided in informing practice for the teaching of reflective practice in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) at an Australian university. Self-report methods were used, because it enabled the collection of a variety of self-awareness data…

  18. Promoting Reflective Teaching through Simulation in a Study in Mexico Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butvilofsky, Sandra A.; Escamilla, Kathy; Soltero-Gonzalez, Lucinda; Aragon, Lorenso

    2012-01-01

    Preparing teachers to meet the educational needs of bilingual Latino students in U.S. schools has been termed a demographic imperative. This study explored 57 U.S. teachers' reactions and reflections to participation in a simulation experience held during a teaching/learning experience in Mexico as part of their master's program in bilingual/ESL…

  19. Reflective Processes: A Qualitative Study Exploring Early Learning Student Teacher Mentoring Experiences in Student Teaching Practicums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral thesis explored mentoring in early learning teacher preparation programs. This study explored the reflective processes embedded in the work between student teachers and their mentors during early learning student teacher experiences at Washington State community and technical colleges. Schon's (1987a) concepts of…

  20. The adsorption of fluorinated dopants at the surface of 5CB: a neutron reflection study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mears, Laura L.E.; Vos, de Wiebe M.; Prescott, Stuart W.; Magro, Germinal; Rogers, Sarah; Skoda, Maximilian W.A.; Watkins, Erik B.; Zimmerman, Herbert; Richardson, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of dopants at the surface of 5CB has been studied using neutron reflection. The dopants were versions of 11OCB with partly fluorinated chains, and the 5CB was interfaced with air or with silica treated with fluorocarbon or hydrocarbon coatings. At the air interface, the F17-11OCB adso

  1. High energy x-ray reflectivity and scattering study from spectrum-x-gamma flight mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Frederiksen, P. Kk

    1993-01-01

    Line radiation from Fe K-alpha(1), Cu K-alpha(1), and Ag K-alpha(1) is used to study the high energy X-ray reflectivity and scattering behavior of flight-quality X-ray mirrors having various Al substrates. When both the specular and the scattered radiation are integrated, near theoretical...

  2. Teaching, Learning, and Assessment Together: Reflective Assessments for Middle and High School English and Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Arthur K.; Evans, Laurynn

    2010-01-01

    This book offers easy-to-use classroom strategies for middle and high school English and Social Studies classrooms. They demonstrate how teaching, learning, and assessment are inseparable and seamless. Each strategy will engage your students in activity and reflection, consuming little class time, costing nothing, and uniting the three dimensions…

  3. High energy x-ray reflectivity and scattering study from spectrum-x-gamma flight mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Frederiksen, P. Kk

    1993-01-01

    Line radiation from Fe K-alpha(1), Cu K-alpha(1), and Ag K-alpha(1) is used to study the high energy X-ray reflectivity and scattering behavior of flight-quality X-ray mirrors having various Al substrates. When both the specular and the scattered radiation are integrated, near theoretical...

  4. The Reflective Model of Intercultural Competency: A Multidimensional, Qualitative Approach to Study Abroad Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tracy Rundstrom

    2009-01-01

    Judging from the recent surge in research on outcomes assessment, many study abroad offices rely on quantitative surveys and measures to collect student outcomes data. This paper presents a multidimensional, qualitative approach to data collection. This approach makes qualitative data easy to collect and encourages students to reflect and…

  5. The Influence of Reflection on Employee Psychological Empowerment: Report of an Exploratory Workplace Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyboran, Vincent L.

    2005-01-01

    The study examined the influences of reflection on the self-perception of empowerment in the workplace. The convenience sample consisted of non-management knowledge workers at a software company headquartered in the United States. A pretest, posttest control group design was used. The experimental group kept guided journals of their learning…

  6. Port-City Closeness and Turnaround Time Critical for Short Sea Shipping Sustainable Performance a Case Study: Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Martínez de Osés

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is the most relevant externality of maritime transport and its effects are more acute in urban areas. As Short Sea Shipping (SSS services call ports frequently and expend significant time in port, both the overall turnaround time and the port city closeness, become critical in their sustainable performance. This paper analyses the impact of maritime transport on Spanish SSS ports and identifies the ideal ones, reflecting the differences in their sustainable performance and finally identifying the characteristics that a harbour needs to gather in order to minimize air pollution impact in the maritime transport sector.

  7. Reflections of physiotherapy students in the United Arab Emirates during their clinical placements: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Shamlan Amal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Western models of education are being used to establish health professional programs in non-Western countries, little is known about how students in these countries perceive their learning experiences. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the reflections of physiotherapy students from a Middle East culture during their clinical placements and to compare them to reflections of physiotherapy students from a Western culture. Methods Subjects were six senior students (3 females, 3 males, mean age 22.6 years and 15 junior, female students (mean age 20.1 years in the baccalaureate physiotherapy program at a university in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. They wrote weekly entries in a journal while in their clinical placements. They described an event, their reaction to it, and how it might affect their future behavior. Two evaluators independently read and coded the content of all the journals, and then worked together to categorize the data and develop themes. A third evaluator, an UAE national, independently read the journals to validate the content analysis. A feedback session with students was used to further validate the data interpretation. The themes were compared to those derived from a similar study of Canadian physiotherapy students. Results The content of the students' reflections were grouped into 4 themes: professional behavior, awareness of learning, self-development and shift to a patient orientation, and identification and analysis of ethical issues. Although the events were different, students from the UAE considered many of the same issues reflected on by Canadian students. Conclusion Physiotherapy students from a Middle East culture consider many of the same issues as students from a Western culture when asked to reflect on their clinical experience. They reflect on their personal growth, on how they learn in a clinical setting, and on the ethical and professional behaviors of themselves

  8. [Closed claims in obstetrics: A study based on French Sham insurance data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theissen, A; Fuz, F; Carbonne, B; Bonnet, L; Rouquette-Vincenti, I; Niccolai, P; Raucoules-Aime, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the medicolegal claims related to obstetrics in French hospitals. We did retrospective study on insurance claims provided by Sham insurances and which has been settled by a court over a 3-year period (2004-2006). We analyzed 66 closed claims that occurred between 1983 and 2005 in French hospitals (54 general hospitals and 12 academic). The average time between the declaration of the claim and the court conviction was 6 years. The average amount of compensation per claim was 500,000 €. The damage occurred during vaginal delivery (n=44), planned (n=5) or unplanned (n=4) cesarean. The more often claims are fetal asphyxia (n=24) or shoulder dystocia (n=8). The consequences are very important: cerebral palsy (16), death of the newborn (12), death of the mother (2) or brachial plexus injuries (6). The causes identified by the expert are always multifactorial with generally a misdiagnosis (n=27), a decision making error (n=36), a care error by the midwife (n=21) and/or a delay in medical care (n=13). These data should help strengthen the quality approach in obstetrics. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Reflection photoelasticity: a new method for studies of clinical mechanics in prosthetic dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Cláudio P; Glantz, Per Olof J; Svensson, Stig A; Bergmark, Anders

    2003-03-01

    This research was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of reflective photoelasticity as an in vivo technique for monitoring the strain/stress distribution in prosthetic devices during function. Seven subjects were selected for this study and divided into three groups according to the design of the prostheses. The buccal surfaces of the experimental prostheses were coated with a birefringent resin 2mm thick. Using a reflection polariscope, fringe patterns were documented on video tape during standardized in vivo loadings. Strain and stress levels (gamma(max) and tau(max)) were calculated from isochromatic fringe order determinations. The intra-observer variability in counting fringe orders and the accuracy level of reflective photoelasticity as compared to strain gauge results were also studied. The strain results of in vivo loading of the prostheses were analyzed with ANOVA and Scheffés tests. The intra-observer variability was analyzed with the Friedman nonparametric test. Comparisons of photoelastic data and strain gauges were tested with Pearson's correlation. Coated areas accessible to normally incident light, produced comprehensive maps of strain distribution. Significant differences were found in the in vivo gamma(max) values for the prostheses designs (preflective photoelasticity showed a high correlation r=0.98 and 0.99) with values obtained at the same areas using strain gauges. Reflective photoelasticity is a valid, reliable and accurate technique to be used for in vivo studies on the biomechanical behavior of prosthetic devices.

  10. What can science and technology studies learn from art and design? Reflections on 'Synthetic Aesthetics'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Jane; Schyfter, Pablo

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we reflect on a project called 'Synthetic Aesthetics', which brought together synthetic biologists with artists and designers in paired exchanges. We - the STS researchers on the project - were quickly struck by the similarities between our objectives and those of the artists and designers. We shared interests in forging new collaborations with synthetic biologists, 'opening up' the science by exploring implicit assumptions, and interrogating dominant research agendas. But there were also differences between us, the most important being that the artists and designers made tangible artefacts, which had an immediacy and an ability to travel, and which seemed to allow different types of discussions from those initiated by our academic texts. The artists and designers also appeared to have the freedom to be more playful, challenging and perhaps subversive in their interactions with synthetic biology. In this paper we reflect on what we learned from working with the artists and designers on the project, and we argue that engaging more closely with art and design can enrich STS work by enabling an emergent form of critique.

  11. Reflective electronic portfolios: a design process for integrating liberal and professional studies and experiential education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Lorna M; Blackmer, Betsey; Canali, Alicia; Dimarco, Rosemarie; Russell, Alicia; Aman, Susan; Rossi, Jessica; Sloane, Lucia

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the process used to create and pilot-test a customized reflective electronic portfolio (e-portfolio) that integrates learning across three distinct components of an entry-level 6.5 year Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) program. During the 2004-2005 academic year, a pilot test was conducted with 10 students, representative of all 6.5 years in the DPT program. Development of our reflective e-portfolio model consisted of four stages: design a paper-based portfolio model to organize and create linkages among the liberal studies, professional, and experiential components of a DPT program; transform the model into an electronic format; create a demonstration e-portfolio tutorial; and evaluate the e-portfolio model via pilot testing. An interdepartmental team of faculty from physical therapy (PT), cooperative education, educational technology, and two PT students developed the e-portfolio model to map, visualize, and create linkages for student learning. Input to assist with the model design process was gathered from PT faculty and students through three focus groups. Data were collected on student experiences with the e-portfolio through written surveys at three points during the project and through face-to-face discussion. Written reflection, integral to the model, required students to reflect on artifacts selected from existing academic and experiential materials. Our project resulted in the generation of a reflective e-portfolio and tutorial customized for DPT students. Evaluation by users indicated that the reflective e-portfolio helped them organize and integrate academic and experiential learning and illuminate developmental transitions. Further research with a larger sample is indicated to examine the impact of e-portfolios on student learning and professional development.

  12. A closed-loop photon beam control study for the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portmann, G.; Bengtsson, J.

    1993-05-01

    The third generation Advanced Light Source (ALS) will produce extremely bright photon beams using undulators and wigglers. In order to position the photon beams accurate to the micron level, a closed-loop feedback system is being developed. Using photon position monitors and dipole corrector magnets, a closed-loop system can automatically compensate for modeling uncertainties and exogenous disturbances. The following paper will present a dynamics model for the perturbations of the closed orbit of the electron beam in the ALS storage ring including the vacuum chamber magnetic field penetration effects. Using this reference model, two closed-loop feedback algorithms will be compared -- a classical PI controller and a two degree-of-freedom approach. The two degree-of-freedom method provides superior disturbance rejection while maintaining the desired performance goals. Both methods will address the need to gain schedule the controller due to the time varying dynamics introduced by changing field strengths when scanning the insertion devices.

  13. Study of the Fast—Closing Switch Used for Fault Current Limiters in Power System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹积岩; 陈金祥; 等

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new type of fault current limiter(FCL) based on fast-closing switch,which is composed of a capacitor bank and a reactor in series.The main control component is a fast-closing switch connected in parallel with the capactitors,which is drien by the electromagnetic repulsion force.It can response the order within 1 ms.When fault occurs,the switch closes and the capacitors are bypassed.and the fault current is limited by the reactor,Simulation analysis and experiment show that the electromagnetic repulsion force actuator can meet the demand of fast-closing switch,it is feasible to develop the FCL with low cost and high reliability.

  14. Study on 3D simulation of wave fields in acoustic reflection image logging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The borehole acoustic reflection imaging logging is a newly developed acoustic logging method that has attracted many interests. These converted and reflected waves for imaging are usually mixed up with borehole guided waves and therefore difficult to be clearly identified. To improve the downhole tool design and develop more sophisticate data processing and interpretation algorithms,studies on precisely numerical modeling of the wave fields in the acoustic reflection imaging logging are neces-sary and critical. This paper developed a parallelized scheme of 3D finite difference (3DFD) with non-uniform staggered grid and PML absorbing boundary to simulate the acoustic wave fields in isotropic and anisotropic formations. Applications of this scheme to the typical cases of isotropic and anisot-ropic formations and comparison with the results from published analytical solutions have demon-strated the validation and efficiency of the scheme. Higher accuracy and lower computation cost (3.5 times faster than the conventional schemes) have been achieved with this scheme for modeling such a complex wave fields of 60 dB dynamic range with higher frequency (10 kHz). This simulating program provides a quantitative analytical means for studying acoustic reflection imaging tool and development of the data processing and interpretation methods.

  15. Application of close-range aerial infrared thermography to detect landfill gas emissions: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanda, G.; Migliazzi, M.; Chiarabini, V.; Cinquetti, P.

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring waste disposal sites is important to check that the produced biogas, potentially explosive, is properly collected by the biogas extraction system of the landfill site and to evaluate the residual biogas flow escaping from upper surface of the landfill. As the biogas migrates to the surface, the soil through which it flows is expected to reach a higher temperature than the surrounding environment; thus, measuring the thermal footprint of the landfill soil surface could allow the detection of biogas leakages and spots suitable for the gas extraction. Close-range aerial infrared thermography is an innovative approach able to identify thermal anomalies with a good resolution over a large region of the landfill surface. A simple procedure to deduce the biogas flow rate emerging from the soil into the atmosphere, based on infrared thermography measurements, is presented. The approach has been applied to a case study concerning a large landfill located in Genoa (Italy). Aerial infrared photographs taken during different days and seasons showed the presence of thermal anomalies over regions along the peripheral boundary of the landfill still not interested in biogas extraction.

  16. Transcription closed and open complex dynamics studies reveal balance between genetic determinants and co-factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Adrien; Shoaib, Muhammad; Anufrieva, Olga; Mutharasu, Gnanavel; Jahan Hoque, Rawnak; Yli-Harja, Olli; Kandhavelu, Meenakshisundaram

    2015-05-19

    In E. coli, promoter closed and open complexes are key steps in transcription initiation, where magnesium-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes RNA synthesis. However, the exact mechanism of initiation remains to be fully elucidated. Here, using single mRNA detection and dual reporter studies, we show that increased intracellular magnesium concentration affects Plac initiation complex formation resulting in a highly dynamic process over the cell growth phases. Mg2+ regulates transcription transition, which modulates bimodality of mRNA distribution in the exponential phase. We reveal that Mg2+ regulates the size and frequency of the mRNA burst by changing the open complex duration. Moreover, increasing magnesium concentration leads to higher intrinsic and extrinsic noise in the exponential phase. RNAP-Mg2+ interaction simulation reveals critical movements creating a shorter contact distance between aspartic acid residues and Nucleotide Triphosphate residues and increasing electrostatic charges in the active site. Our findings provide unique biophysical insights into the balanced mechanism of genetic determinants and magnesium ion in transcription initiation regulation during cell growth.

  17. A Study of the Closed-Loop Supply Chain Coordination on Waste Glass Bottles Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxue Ran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recycling of waste products can sharply save manufacturing cost and improve the economic efficiency and corporate-reputation. It also has a great effect on the environment and resources protection. In the management of the closed-loop supply chain, the recycling of waste products and decision-making on pricing often directly affect the supply and demand of products and the operation efficiency of supply chain. Therefore, first we take waste glass bottles as an example and establish a mathematical model to solve the profit of manufacturers and retailers solely. Then, we analyzed whole supply chain profit under a dual-channel recycling condition which is directly recycled by consumers or by retailers. Finally, we concluded that no matter what product’s price, quality, profit, or operational efficiency of supply chain is, the overall recycling is better than the single node recycling model. Based on the analysis, we developed a new model to coordinate the profit of manufacturers and retailers in the supply chain with revenue-sharing contract. A numerical study shows that this approach is applicable and effective.

  18. Studies of Dynamic, Radiative Macroscopic Magnetized HED Plasmas with Closed B-Field Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frese, Michael H. [NumerEx, LLC, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Frese, Sherry D. [NumerEx, LLC, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this research has been to study the physics of macroscopic magnetized high-energy-density laboratory plasmas (HEDLPs) created through the compression of a high-beta compact toroid (CT) plasma having closed magnetic field lines. The high-beta CT chosen for this work is a field-reversed configuration (FRC). The basic approach is to investigate CT plasmas as they are compressed to a HED state by the electromagnetic implosion of a surrounding metallic shell or solid liner (Figure 1). The shell provides an axisymmetric, electrically-conducting boundary around the plasma and its supporting magnetic field and is imploded by means of the magnetic pressure force arising from axial current flow in the liner interacting with its associated azimuthal magnetic field. Compression of the CT will bring the plasma to fusion temperatures at higher densities and magnetic fields (multi-MegaGauss [MG]) than have previously been present in conventional magnetic fusion approaches. The resulting energy densities will be ~1 Mbar or greater and thus will place the plasma in a parameter space intermediate to MFE and IFE. This work has been a collaboration between the Air Force Research Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and NumerEx, LLC.

  19. Photoluminescence Study of Gallium Nitride Thin Films Obtained by Infrared Close Space Vapor Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Hernández

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Photoluminescence (PL studies in GaN thin films grown by infrared close space vapor transport (CSVT-IR in vacuum are presented in this work. The growth of GaN thin films was done on a variety of substrates like silicon, sapphire and fused silica. Room temperature PL spectra of all the GaN films show near band-edge emission (NBE and a broad blue and green luminescence (BL, GL, which can be seen with the naked eye in a bright room. The sample grown by infrared CSVT on the silicon substrate shows several emission peaks from 2.4 to 3.22 eV with a pronounced red shift with respect to the band gap energy. The sample grown on sapphire shows strong and broad ultraviolet emission peaks (UVL centered at 3.19 eV and it exhibits a red shift of NBE. The PL spectrum of GaN films deposited on fused silica exhibited a unique and strong blue-green emission peak centered at 2.38 eV. The presence of yellow and green luminescence in all samples is related to native defects in the structure such as dislocations in GaN and/or the presence of amorphous phases. We analyze the material quality that can be obtained by CSVT-IR in vacuum, which is a high yield technique with simple equipment set-up, in terms of the PL results obtained in each case.

  20. The application of heterogeneous cluster grouping to reflective writing for medical humanities literature study to enhance students' empathy, critical thinking, and reflective writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hung-Chang; Wang, Ya-Huei

    2016-09-02

    To facilitate interdisciplinary collaboration and to make connections between patients' diseases and their social/cultural contexts, the study examined whether the use of heterogeneous cluster grouping in reflective writing for medical humanities literature acquisition could have positive effects on medical university students in terms of empathy, critical thinking, and reflective writing. A 15-week quasi-experimental design was conducted to investigate the learning outcomes. After conducting cluster algorithms, heterogeneous learning clusters (experimental group; n = 43) and non-heterogeneous learning clusters (control group; n = 43) were derived for a medical humanities literature study. Before and after the intervention, an Empathy Scale in Patient Care (ES-PC), a critical thinking disposition assessment (CTDA-R), and a reflective writing test were administered to both groups. The findings showed that on the empathy scale, significant differences in the "behavioral empathy," "affective empathy," and overall sections existed between the post-test mean scores of the experimental group and those of the control group, but such differences did not exist in "intelligent empathy." Regarding critical thinking, there were significant differences in "systematicity and analyticity," "skepticism and well-informed," "maturity and skepticism," and overall sections. As for reflective writing, significant differences existed in "ideas," "voice and point of view," "critical thinking and representation," "depth of reflection on personal growth," and overall sections, but not in "focus and context structure" and "language and conventions." This study outlined an alternative for using heterogeneous cluster grouping in reflective writing about medical humanities literature to facilitate interdisciplinary cooperation to provide more humanizing medical care.

  1. Study of an electrodynamic system consisting of a laser cavity and an external weakly reflecting element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatrov, A. D.; Dubrov, M. N.; Aleksandrov, D. V.

    2016-12-01

    The behaviour of the electromagnetic field in a three-mirror laser cavity is described using the method of integral equations. The results of numerical calculations and experimental studies for particular examples implementing the considered configuration are presented. The conditions for optimal tuning of a laser interferometer-deformograph with a three-mirror cavity are determined. The contribution of the reflected and scattered light and arising additional seismic noises to the resulting error of laser gravitational wave detectors is studied.

  2. Reflection ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boura, Christina; Canteaut, Anne; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2017-01-01

    study the necessary properties for this coupling permutation. Special care has to be taken of some related-key distinguishers since, in the context of reflection ciphers, they may provide attacks in the single-key setting.We then derive some criteria for constructing secure reflection ciphers...... and analyze the security properties of different families of coupling permutations. Finally, we concentrate on the case of reflection block ciphers and, as an illustration, we provide concrete examples of key schedules corresponding to several coupling permutations, which lead to new variants of the block...

  3. Soil chemistry and pollution study of a closed landfill site at Ampar Tenang, Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Adnan, Siti Nur Syahirah Binti; Yusoff, Sumiani; Piaw, Chua Yan

    2013-06-01

    A total of 20 landfills are located in State of Selangor, Malaysia. This includes the Ampar Tenang landfill site, which was closed on 26 January 2010. It was reported that the landfill has been upgraded to a level I type of sanitary classification. However, the dumpsite area is not being covered according to the classification. In addition, municipal solid waste was dumped directly on top of the unlined natural alluvium formation. This does not only contaminate surface and subsurface soils, but also initiates the potential risk of groundwater pollution. Based on previous studies, the Ampar Tenang soil has been proven to no longer be capable of preventing pollution migration. In this study, metal concentrations of soil samples up to 30 m depth were analyzed based on statistical analysis. It is very significant because research of this type has not been carried out before. The subsurface soils were significantly polluted by arsenic (As), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and aluminium (Al). As and Pb exceeded the safe limit values of 5.90 mg/kg and 31.00 mg/kg, respectively, based on Provincial Sediment Quality Guidelines for Metals and the Interim Sediment Quality Values. Furthermore, only Cu concentrations showed a significantly decreasing trend with increasing depth. Most metals were found on clay-type soils based on the cluster analysis method. Moreover, the analysis also differentiates two clusters: cluster I-Pb, As, zinc, Cu, manganese, calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium and Fe; cluster II-Al. Different clustering may suggest a different contamination source of metals.

  4. Specular reflectance of soiled glass mirrors - Study on the impact of incidence angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimsath, Anna; Lindner, Philip; Klimm, Elisabeth; Schmid, Tobias; Moreno, Karolina Ordonez; Elon, Yehonatan; Am-Shallem, Morag; Nitz, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The accumulation of dust and soil on the surface of solar reflectors is an important factor reducing the power output of solar power plants. Therefore the effect of accumulated dust on the specular reflectance of solar mirrors should be understood well in order to improve the site-dependent performance prediction. Furthermore, an optimization of the CSP System maintenance, in particular the cleaning cycles, can be achieved. Our measurements show a noticeable decrease of specular reflectance when the angle of incidence is increased. This effect may be explained by shading and blocking mechanisms caused by dirt particles. The main physical causes of radiation loss being absorption and scattering, the near-angle scattering leads to a further decrease of specular reflectance for smaller angles of acceptance. Within this study mirror samples were both outdoor exposed and indoor artificially soiled. For indoor soiling, the mirror samples were artificially soiled in an in-house developed dusting device using both artificial-standardized dust and real dust collected from an arid outdoor test field at the Negev desert. A model function is proposed that approximates the observed reduction of specular reflectance with the incidence angle with a sufficient accuracy and by simple means for this soil type. Hence a first step towards a new approach to improve site dependent performance prediction of solar power plants is taken.

  5. Reflecting reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    Reflection has moved from the margins to the mainstream in supervision. Notions of reflection have become well established since the late 1980s. These notions have provided useful framing devices to help conceptualize some important processes in guidance and counseling. However, some applications...

  6. Caregiver-recipient closeness and symptom progression in Alzheimer disease. The Cache County Dementia Progression Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Maria C; Piercy, Kathleen W; Rabins, Peter V; Green, Robert C; Breitner, John C S; Ostbye, Truls; Corcoran, Christopher; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Tschanz, Joann T

    2009-09-01

    Applying Rusbult's investment model of dyadic relationships, we examined the effect of caregiver-care recipient relationship closeness (RC) on cognitive and functional decline in Alzheimer's disease. After diagnosis, 167 participants completed up to six visits, observed over an average of 20 months. Participants were 64% women, had a mean age of 86 years, and mean dementia duration of 4 years. Caregiver-rated closeness was measured using a six-item scale. In mixed models adjusted for dementia severity, dyads with higher levels of closeness (p Alzheimer's dementia (AD) decline with closer relationships, particularly with spouse caregivers, are consistent with investment theory. Future interventions designed to enhance the caregiving dyadic relationship may help slow decline in AD.

  7. Morbidity and mortality of people who live close to municipal waste landfills: a multisite cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataloni, Francesca; Badaloni, Chiara; Golini, Martina Nicole; Bolignano, Andrea; Bucci, Simone; Sozzi, Roberto; Forastiere, Francesco; Davoli, Marina; Ancona, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Background: The evidence on the health effects related to residing close to landfills is controversial. Nine landfills for municipal waste have been operating in the Lazio region (Central Italy) for several decades. We evaluated the potential health effects associated with contamination from landfills using the estimated concentration of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) as exposure. Methods: A cohort of residents within 5 km of landfills was enrolled (subjects resident on 1 January 1996 and those who subsequently moved into the areas until 2008) and followed for mortality and hospitalizations until 31 December 2012. Assessment of exposure to the landfill (H2S as a tracer) was performed for each subject at enrolment, using a Lagrangian dispersion model. Information on several confounders was available (gender, age, socioeconomic position, outdoor PM10 concentration, and distance from busy roads and industries). Cox regression analysis was performed [Hazard Ratios (HRs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs)]. Results: The cohort included 242 409 individuals. H2S exposure was associated with mortality from lung cancer and respiratory diseases (e.g. HR for increment of 1 ng/m3 H2S: 1.10, 95% CI 1.02–1.19; HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.00–1.19, respectively). There were also associations between H2S and hospitalization for respiratory diseases (HR = 1.02, 95% CI 1.00–1.03), especially acute respiratory infections among children (0–14 years) (HR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.02–1.11). Conclusions: Exposure to H2S, a tracer of airborne contamination from landfills, was associated with lung cancer mortality as well as with mortality and morbidity for respiratory diseases. The link with respiratory disease is plausible and coherent with previous studies, whereas the association with lung cancer deserves confirmation. PMID:27222499

  8. Closing the Water Balance for Arid Soils - First Results from a Large Lysimeter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twarakavi, N.; Chief, K.; Berli, M.; Caldwell, T. G.; Daniels, J.; Young, M.

    2011-12-01

    Many ecological and hydrological processes cannot be fully assessed without full closure of the water balance. The weighing lysimeter facility in Boulder City, NV provides an excellent opportunity to study water infiltration, redistribution, storage and evaporation of bare soils at the intermediate (meter) scale under well-defined boundary conditions. Each of three lysimeters is weighed on separate balances, with a resolution of roughly 100 g or 0.025 mm of water. Each lysimeter contains 12 m3 of repacked homogenized and layered desert soil (dimensions: 2.26 m diameter and 3 m deep) and is instrumented with 13 different sensor technologies to measure state variables including water content, matric potential, and thermal properties at 15 depth planes. An angled rhizotron tube visually monitors movement the infiltration front. Between July 2008 and 2011, 15 storm events were recorded, with the largest storm total from 19-22 December 2010 yielding 62 mm of precipitation (originally in the form of snow). By July 2011, nearly 350 mm of cumulative precipitation was recorded, and the wetting front had reached 150 cm depth. This presentation analyzes storm events over the past three years with respect to changes in total soil mass to determine the amount of infiltration, storage, and evaporation; alterations in soil moisture and matric potential profiles determined by in situ sensors; and wetting front movement observed by the rhizotron. This lysimeter facility fills a critical gap in the vadose zone hydrology of arid environments by closing the total water balance and providing discrete data on soil moisture redistribution in a 3 meter deep soil profile to evaluate and improve infiltration models.

  9. Controlling the oscillation phase through precisely timed closed-loop optogenetic stimulation: a computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Annette; Palmigiano, Agostina; Neef, Andreas; El Hady, Ahmed; Wolf, Fred; Battaglia, Demian

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic oscillatory coherence is believed to play a central role in flexible communication between brain circuits. To test this communication-through-coherence hypothesis, experimental protocols that allow a reliable control of phase-relations between neuronal populations are needed. In this modeling study, we explore the potential of closed-loop optogenetic stimulation for the control of functional interactions mediated by oscillatory coherence. The theory of non-linear oscillators predicts that the efficacy of local stimulation will depend not only on the stimulation intensity but also on its timing relative to the ongoing oscillation in the target area. Induced phase-shifts are expected to be stronger when the stimulation is applied within specific narrow phase intervals. Conversely, stimulations with the same or even stronger intensity are less effective when timed randomly. Stimulation should thus be properly phased with respect to ongoing oscillations (in order to optimally perturb them) and the timing of the stimulation onset must be determined by a real-time phase analysis of simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFPs). Here, we introduce an electrophysiologically calibrated model of Channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2)-induced photocurrents, based on fits holding over two decades of light intensity. Through simulations of a neural population which undergoes coherent gamma oscillations—either spontaneously or as an effect of continuous optogenetic driving—we show that precisely-timed photostimulation pulses can be used to shift the phase of oscillation, even at transduction rates smaller than 25%. We consider then a canonic circuit with two inter-connected neural populations oscillating with gamma frequency in a phase-locked manner. We demonstrate that photostimulation pulses applied locally to a single population can induce, if precisely phased, a lasting reorganization of the phase-locking pattern and hence modify functional interactions between the

  10. Controlling the oscillation phase through precisely timed closed-loop optogenetic stimulation: a computational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette eWitt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic oscillatory coherence is believed to play a central role in flexible communication between brain circuits. To test this communication-through-coherence hypothesis, experimental protocols that allow a reliable control of phase-relations between neuronal populations are needed. In this modeling study, we explore the potential of closed-loop optogenetic stimulation for the control of functional interactions mediated by oscillatory coherence. The theory of nonlinear oscillators predicts that the efficacy of local stimulation will depend not only on the stimulation intensity but also on its timing relative to the ongoing oscillation in the target area. Induced phase-shifts are expected to be stronger when the stimulation is applied within specific narrow phase intervals. Conversely, stimulations with the same or even stronger intensity are less effective when timed randomly. Stimulation should thus be properly phased with respect to ongoing oscillations (in order to optimally perturb them and the timing of the stimulation onset must be determined by a real-time phase analysis of simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFPs.Here, we introduce an electrophysiologically calibrated model of Channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2-induced photocurrents, based on fits holding over two decades of light intensity. Through simulations of a neural population which undergoes coherent gamma oscillations —either spontaneously or as an effect of continuous optogenetic driving—, we show that precisely-timed photostimulation pulses can be used to shift phase, even at transduction rates smaller than 25%. We consider then a canonic circuit with two inter-connected neural populations oscillating with gamma frequency in a phase-locked manner. We demonstrate that photostimulation pulses applied locally to a single population can induce, if precisely phased, a lasting reorganization of the phase-locking pattern and hence modify functional interactions between the two

  11. Parametric Analysis of Acoustical Requirements for Lateral Reflections: Melbourne Recital Hall Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Claustro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an investigation of the Melbourne Recital Centre as a case study to define the parameters necessary for good acoustical quality as it relates to the Binaural Quality Index and determining the intimacy of the hall by its initial time delay gap. The Melbourne Recital Centre, designed by Ashton Raggatt McDougall Architects, is a significant case study, as its design was driven by the acoustic requirements of reflection and diffusion through Odeon Acoustical Software. It achieves the same acoustical quality of older, ornately designed shoebox concert halls, from the perspective of contemporary design and fabrication tools and techniques. The sleek design of the Melbourne Recital Centre successfully reflects sound waves in low, mid, and high frequencies due to corresponding wall panel differentiation in the corresponding scales, as engineered by Arup Acoustics.

  12. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON RETRO-REFLECTIVE COATED PAPER BASED ON MICRO-GLASS BEADS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulong Wang; Chuanshan Zhao; Tao Zhang

    2004-01-01

    High-reflectivity micro-glass bead, as a kind of retro-reflective material, is widely used in reflective fabric or film and other reflective coatings. But it is rarely used in coated paper. The retro-reflective theory of micro-bead is described. Also the effect of size of micro-bead, dosage of binder and different color layers on reflective properties of coated paper are discussed in this article. The results show that its retro-reflective efficiency is good, equally to reflective fabric or film when the micro-glass bead is used in coated paper.

  13. TIBIAL DIAPHYSEAL FRACTURES IN ADULTS TREATED BY CLOSED REAMED INTRAMEDULLARY INTERLOCKING NAIL: A FOLLOW-UP STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayashankar M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Closed Tibial Fractures is one of the commonest injuries among the young and active adults. Intramedullary interlocking nail of these fractures reduces morbidity and provides excellent alignment. OBJECTIVES This study was intended with the objective of assessing the efficacy of intramedullary interlocking nail in the treatment of closed tibial fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was done at a 300 bed tertiary care hospital situated in the heart of Chennai city where more number of orthopaedic cases are admitted. It was done as a hospital-based prospective study during the period of January 2008 to June 2009, among twenty patients admitted with closed tibial diaphyseal fractures. These patients underwent intramedullary interlocking nailing for fracture fixation in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Southern Railway Headquarters Hospital, Chennai. Results: This study has included 20 patients with closed tibial diaphyseal fractures of which 60% of study participants showed excellent results, 20% with good results, fair in 15%, poor in 5%. The complication rate was a little high in this study, which included 10% malunion, 5% of infection and 5% of restriction of ankle and knee movements. Conclusion: Intramedullary interlocking nail is a reliable, versatile and effective treatment for closed tibial diaphyseal fractures as it minimizes the hospital stay and reduces the economic burden and enhances early return to work.

  14. Study on Birefringent Color Generation for a Reflective Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyukh, Sergiy; Valyukh, Iryna; Xu, Peizhi; Chigrinov, Vladimir

    2006-10-01

    We study the possibility of a layer of a surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal coupled with several retardation plates for birefringent color generation. Double and single polarizer reflective bistable dichromatic ferroelectric liquid crystal displays are considered. We demonstrate that one or two retardation plates are sufficient for a display having good color characteristics and high brightness. Optimal parameters for green/red and blue/yellow ferroelectric liquid crystal displays are found.

  15. Study towards diversity oriented synthesis of optically active substituted cyclopentane fused carbocyclic and oxacyclic medium-sized rings: Competition between Grubbs-II catalyzed ring closing olefin metathesis and ring closing carbonyl-olefin metathesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P CHAKRABORTY; S C ROY

    2016-12-01

    A study towards diversity-oriented synthesis of optically active cyclopentane fused bicyclic frameworks has been accomplished. The common intermediate was prepared from commercially available starting material (S)-carvone. The observations on competition between Grubbs-II catalyzed ring closing metathesis (RCM) and ring closing carbonyl-olefin metathesis (RCCOM) were the key features of the study.

  16. Study of optical reflectance properties in 1D annular photonic crystal containing double negative (DNG) metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sanjeev K.; Aghajamali, Alireza

    2016-05-01

    Theoretical investigation of photonic band gaps or reflection bands in one-dimensional annular photonic crystal (APC) containing double negative (DNG) metamaterials and air has been presented. The proposed structure consists of the alternate layers of dispersive DNG material and air immersed in free space. In order to study photonic band gaps we obtain the reflectance spectrum of the annular PC by employing the transfer matrix method (TMM) in the cylindrical waves for both TE and TM polarizations. In this work we study the effect of azimuthal mode number (m) and starting radius (ρ0) on the three band gaps viz. zero averaged refractive index (zero-nbar) gap, zero permittivity (zero- ε) and zero permeability (zero- μ) gaps. It is found that for m ≥ 1 , zero- μ gap appears in TE mode and zero- ε gap appears in TM mode. The width of both zero- μ and zero- ε gap increases by increasing m values, but the enhancement of zero- μ gap is more appreciable. Also, the effect of ρ0 on the three band gaps (reflection bands) of annular PC structure at the given m-number has been studied, for both TE and TM polarizations. The result shows that in both polarizations zero- ε and zero- μ gaps decreases when ρ0 increases, whereas zero-nbar gap remains invariant.

  17. Transition from closed system to Internet of Things: A study in standardizing building lighting systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathews, E.; Muller, G.

    2016-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) is triggering changes in lighting industry from the traditional closed and propriety systems to flexible, interoperable and service oriented systems. To address the challenges of this transition and catering the specific requirements of lighting networks, an Open Architectur

  18. How Can Visual Experience Be Depicted? A Study of Close-Up Double Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James; Pepperell, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The attempt to record visual experience has been of central importance to many artists throughout the history of art. Vision itself is made up of many processes, both psychological and physiological, and is still only partially understood. This paper presents research into an aspect of visual experience descried as "close-up double…

  19. Do cry features reflect pain intensity in preterm neonates? A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C C; Sherrard, A; Stevens, B; Franck, L; Stremler, R; Jack, A

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if cries from preterm neonates would reflect changes in pain intensity following interventions. The cries from 25 preterm neonates from an original sample of 122 were audiorecorded while the infant was undergoing heelstick during a randomized crossover design testing the efficacy of: pacifier with sucrose or water, or prone position as compared to standard care. Both pacifier conditions reduced procedural pain according to a validated composite pain measure (the Premature Infant Pain Profile). There were proportionately fewer cries in the two pacifier groups compared to the prone positioning and standard care groups, and cry duration was positively correlated with PIPP scores. However, neither cry duration nor fundamental frequency reflected group differences. Further research is needed to determine if cry is a sensitive and valid indicator of pain in preterm infants.

  20. Cr/B4C multilayer mirrors: Study of interfaces and X-ray reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcklen, C.; Soufli, R.; Dennetiere, D.; Polack, F.; Capitanio, B.; Gullikson, E.; Meltchakov, E.; Thomasset, M.; Jérome, A.; de Rossi, S.; Delmotte, F.

    2016-03-01

    We present an experimental study of the effect of layer interfaces on the x-ray reflectance in Cr/B4C multilayer interference coatings with layer thicknesses ranging from 0.7 nm to 5.4 nm. The multilayers were deposited by magnetron sputtering and by ion beam sputtering. Grazing incidence x-ray reflectometry, soft x-ray reflectometry, and transmission electron microscopy reveal asymmetric multilayer structures with a larger B4C-on-Cr interface, which we modeled with a 1-1.5 nm thick interfacial layer. Reflectance measurements in the vicinity of the Cr L2,3 absorption edge demonstrate fine structure that is not predicted by simulations using the currently tabulated refractive index (optical constants) values for Cr.

  1. Student Reflections on a Study Abroad Course to the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navalta, James W; Lyons, Scott; Gibson, Fred W

    The authors lead a study abroad trip to Beijing, China during the 2008 Summer Olympic Games. Included are reflections from the students who participated. Throughout the visit, students had the opportunity to complete learning outside of the traditional classroom setting. In addition, various challenges were faced and overcome which also constituted a learning experience and was the cause of reflection. The country of China and all of its historical landmarks had a great impression on these students, especially the day that was spent at the Great Wall. Finally, being able to be at the Olympic Games was a life-changing experience, from the Opening Ceremony to the events that were attended. In all, it was a thoroughly worthwhile adventure and one that we hope to replicate every two years.

  2. Retrieval of aerosol optical depth in vicinity of broken clouds from reflectance ratios: case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kassianov

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A recently developed reflectance ratio (RR method for the retrieval of aerosol optical depth (AOD is evaluated using extensive airborne and ground-based data sets collected during the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC and the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS, which took place in June 2007 over the US Department of Energy (DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Southern Great Plains site. A detailed case study is performed for a field of single-layer shallow cumuli observed on 12 June 2007. The RR method is applied to retrieve the spectral values of AOD from the reflectance ratios measured by the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS for two pairs of wavelengths (660 and 470 nm, 870 and 470 nm collected at a spatial resolution of 0.05 km. The retrieval is compared with an independent AOD estimate from three ground-based Multi-filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers (MFRSRs. The interpolation algorithm that is used to project MFRSR point measurements onto the aircraft flight tracks is tested using AOD derived from NASA Langley High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL. The RR AOD estimates are in a good agreement (within 5% with the MFRSR-derived AOD values for the 660-nm wavelength. The AODs obtained from MAS reflectance ratios overestimate those derived from MFRSR measurements by 15–30% for the 470-nm wavelength and underestimate the 870-nm AOD by the same amount.

  3. A PROSPECTIVE COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN CLOSED MITRAL VALVOTOMY AND BALLOON VALVOPLASTY AS TREATMENT FOR RHEUMATIC NON CALCIFIC MITRAL STENOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikrishnan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Treatment of rheumatic mitral stenosis ranges from conservative medical management to closed mitral valvotomy and the more recent balloon mitral valvoplasty. This is a prospective study to compare the results of closed mitral valvotomy with percutaneous b alloon valvoplasty in 100 cases (50 patients in each group of rheumatic non - calcific mitral stenosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From November 2011 to March 2012, 50 patient underwent closed mitral valvotomy and another 50 had percutaneous balloon mitral valv oplasty. Balloon mitral valvoplasty was performed by Inoue technique and closed mitral valvotomy was carried out through standard anterolateral thoracotomy with transventricular gradual Tubbs dilatation. NYHA functional status, left atrial size, transmitra l end diastolic gradient, mean diastolic gradient and mitral valve area were recorded. The results at the 4 day post procedure and the results at the 6 months follow up were compared. RESULTS: Residual atrial septal defect (ASD was present in 6 patients a t 6 month follow up after balloon mitral valvoplasty. Severe mitral regurgitation occurred in 3 cases of closed mitral valvotomy group as compared to 7 cases of balloon mitral valvoplasty group. Urgent mitral valve replacement was needed in 2 patient of ba lloon mitral valvoplasty group. There was single mortality in each group. CONCLUSION: No statistical significant difference between the result of closed mitral valvotomy and balloon mitral valvoplasty but better outcome obtained by closed mitral valvotomy. Hemodynamic and functional improvement was sustained through 6 month of follow up in both groups. Procedural cost of closed mitral valvotomy was significantly lower than the procedural cost of balloon mitral valvoplasty.

  4. Reflective Teaching as Alternative Assessment in Teacher Education: A Case Study of Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astika, Gusti

    2014-01-01

    Critical reflective teaching has been a goal of English teacher preparation program. Although many English educators have promoted and carried out reflective teaching in their methodology courses, success of such practice has been limited, not sufficiently reflecting what has been desired. Questions have been raised whether reflective teaching…

  5. STUDY FOR 2D MOVING CONTACT ELASTIC BODY WITH CLOSED CRACK USING BEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲军平; 姚振汉

    2003-01-01

    Using a sub-regional boundary element method, an algorithm for the two-dimensionalelastic bodies with a closed crack loaded by a moving contact elastic body is proposed. Since the extentand status of the contact surface of two elastic bodies and the crack within the body are all not knownin advance, a double iterative contact algorithm is used. The BEM program for solving the closedcrack problems is developed, some numerical examples are calculated, and the results of the centercrack cases are shown to be in good agreement with the analytical solution in the classical fracturemechanics. In the condition of friction and non-friction, some coupling computational results of theSIF for the closed crack, with different angles and loaded by a moving contact elastic body, are alsoobtained by a numerical computation.

  6. Smaller stomata require less severe leaf drying to close: A case study in Rosa hydrida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebraegziabher, Habtamu Giday; Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Fanourakis, D.

    2013-01-01

    Stomata formed at high relative air humidity (RH) close less as leaf dries; an effect that varies depending on the genotype. We here quantified the contribution of each stomatal response characteristic to the higher water loss of high RH-grown plants, and assessed the relationship between respons...... indicate that stomatal size xplains much of the intraspecific variation in the regulation of transpiration upon water deprivation on rose.......Stomata formed at high relative air humidity (RH) close less as leaf dries; an effect that varies depending on the genotype. We here quantified the contribution of each stomatal response characteristic to the higher water loss of high RH-grown plants, and assessed the relationship between response...... characteristics and intraspecific variation in stomatal size. Stomatal size (length multiplied by width), density and responsiveness to desiccation, as well as pore dimensions were analyzed in ten rose cultivars grown at moderate (60%) or high (85%) RH. Leaf morphological components and transpiration at growth...

  7. Optical spectroscopy to study confined and semi-closed explosions of homogeneous and composite charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiz, Lotfi; Trzciński, Waldemar A.; Paszula, Józef

    2017-01-01

    Confined and semi-closed explosions of new class of energetic composites as well as TNT and RDX charges were investigated using optical spectroscopy. These composites are considered as thermobarics when used in layered charges or enhanced blast explosives when pressed. Two methods to estimate fireball temperature histories of both homogeneous and metallized explosives from the spectroscopic data are also presented, compared and analyzed. Fireball temperature results of the charges detonated in a small explosion chamber under air and argon atmospheres, and detonated in a semi-closed bunker are presented and compared with theoretical ones calculated by a thermochemical code. Important conclusions about the fireball temperatures and the physical and chemical phenomena occurring after the detonation of homogeneous explosives and composite formulations are deduced.

  8. Exploratory study of the characteristics of feedback in the reflective dialogue group given to medical students in a clinical clerkship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chen Wen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Structured narrative reflective writing combined with guided feedback is an efficient teaching method for enhancing medical students’ reflective capacity. However, what kinds of feedback offered and reflection presented in a reflective group remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of feedback in a reflective dialogue group. Methods: Fifth-year medical students on a monthly interval rotation at the pediatric department of a medical center in eastern Taiwan during the 2012 academic year completed their reflective writing regarding patient and family psychosocial issues, and were subsequently debriefed in a 2-h group discussion session to receive feedback from a clinical tutor and peers. Content analysis was conducted to explore the characteristics of feedback and reflection presented in the reflective dialogue. The evaluative questionnaire regarding the benefits of reflection with others was administrated following the group session. Results: Forty students participated in five reflective groups and 108 psychosocial issues were discussed and identified. The tutor played an initiating role in the group discussion by providing six equal feedback types involving exploring new knowledge, initiating advanced discussion, highlighting the issues, and encouraging the students. The students provided eight types of feedback that involved a substantial deep discussion on psychosocial issues and action plans based on the complex interactive ecological network of clinical encounters. Each student attained 1.25 times the depth or breadth of reflection after receiving feedback and experienced the benefits of reflection with others. Conclusion: Through structured narrative reflective writing combined with pluralistic group discussion with a tutor and peers, the medical students had time to think deeply and broadly about psychosocial issues among patients and their family members. Facilitative feedback providing new

  9. Exploratory study of the characteristics of feedback in the reflective dialogue group given to medical students in a clinical clerkship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chin-Chen; Lin, Meei-Ju; Lin, Chi-Wei; Chu, Shao-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Structured narrative reflective writing combined with guided feedback is an efficient teaching method for enhancing medical students’ reflective capacity. However, what kinds of feedback offered and reflection presented in a reflective group remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of feedback in a reflective dialogue group. Methods Fifth-year medical students on a monthly interval rotation at the pediatric department of a medical center in eastern Taiwan during the 2012 academic year completed their reflective writing regarding patient and family psychosocial issues, and were subsequently debriefed in a 2-h group discussion session to receive feedback from a clinical tutor and peers. Content analysis was conducted to explore the characteristics of feedback and reflection presented in the reflective dialogue. The evaluative questionnaire regarding the benefits of reflection with others was administrated following the group session. Results Forty students participated in five reflective groups and 108 psychosocial issues were discussed and identified. The tutor played an initiating role in the group discussion by providing six equal feedback types involving exploring new knowledge, initiating advanced discussion, highlighting the issues, and encouraging the students. The students provided eight types of feedback that involved a substantial deep discussion on psychosocial issues and action plans based on the complex interactive ecological network of clinical encounters. Each student attained 1.25 times the depth or breadth of reflection after receiving feedback and experienced the benefits of reflection with others. Conclusion Through structured narrative reflective writing combined with pluralistic group discussion with a tutor and peers, the medical students had time to think deeply and broadly about psychosocial issues among patients and their family members. Facilitative feedback providing new knowledge, deeper

  10. Algal culture studies related to a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmer, R.; Behrens, P.; Fernandez, E.; Ollinger, O.; Howell, C.; Venables, A.; Huggins, D.; Gladue, R.

    1984-01-01

    In many respects, algae would be the ideal plant component for a biologically based controlled life support system, since they are eminently suited to the closely coupled functions of atmosphere regeneration and food production. Scenedesmus obliquus and Spirulina platensis were grown in three continuous culture apparatuses. Culture vessels their operation and relative merits are described. Both light and nitrogen utilization efficiency are examined. Long term culture issues are detailed and a discussion of a plasmid search in Spirulina is included.

  11. Thoughts on Reflection (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been some acknowledgement in the published literature that reflection is a crucial element of the evidence based library and information practice (EBLIP model we have adopted (Booth 2004, 2006; Grant 2007; Helliwell 2007. As we work through a problem and try to incorporate the best available evidence into our decision making, reflection is required at several stages, including the very identification of the problem through to our assessment of the process itself and what we have learned in order to inform future practice. However, reflection and reflective writing have not fully been integrated into the process we espouse, and very little has been done to look more closely at this element of the model and how it can be integrated into professional learning.In a recently published research article, Sen (2010 confirms the relationship between reflection and several aspects of professional practice. These include critical review and decision making, two aspects that are tied closely to the evidence based process. Sen notes: Students were more likely to show evidence of learning, self‐development, the ability to review issues crucially, awareness of their own mental functions, ability to make decision [sic] and being empowered when they had mastered the art of reflective practice and the more deeply analytical reflective writing. (p.84 EBLIP (the journal tries to incorporate elements of reflection within the articles we publish. While we clearly believe in the need for our profession to do quality research and publish that research so that it can be accessible to practitioners, we also know that research cannot be looked at in isolation. Our evidence summaries are one way of reflecting critically on previously published research, and in the same vein, our classics bring older research studies back to the foreground. This work needs to continue to be discussed and looked at for its impact on our profession.More directly, the Using

  12. Neutron reflectivity study of substrate surface chemistry effects on supported phospholipid bilayer formation on (1120) sapphire.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleson, Timothy A. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Sahai, Nita [University of Akron; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Dura, Joseph A [ORNL; Majkrzak, Charles F [ORNL; Giuffre, Anthony J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2012-01-01

    Oxide-supported phospholipid bilayers (SPBs) used as biomimetric membranes are significant for a broad range of applications including improvement of biomedical devices and biosensors, and in understanding biomineralization processes and the possible role of mineral surfaces in the evolution of pre-biotic membranes. Continuous-coverage and/or stacjed SPBs retain properties (e.,g. fluidity) more similar to native biological membranes, which is desirable for most applications. Using neutron reflectivity, we examined face coverage and potential stacking of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers on the (1120) face of sapphire (a-Al2O3). Nearly full bilayers were formed at low to neutral pH, when the sapphire surface is positively charged, and at low ionic strength (l=15 mM NaCl). Coverage decreased at higher pH, close to the isoelectric point of sapphire, and also at high I>210mM, or with addition of 2mM Ca2+. The latter two effects are additive, suggesting that Ca2+ mitigates the effect of higher I. These trends agree with previous results for phospholipid adsorption on a-Al2O3 particles determined by adsorption isotherms and on single-crystal (1010) sapphire by atomic force microscopy, suggesting consistency of oxide surface chemistry-dependent effects across experimental techniques.

  13. Absence of phase-dependent noise in time-domain reflectivity studies of impulsively excited phonons

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, A.

    2010-06-17

    There have been several reports of phase-dependent noise in time-domain reflectivity studies of optical phonons excited by femtosecond laser pulses in semiconductors, semimetals, and superconductors. It was suggested that such behavior is associated with the creation of squeezed phonon states although there is no theoretical model that directly supports such a proposal. We have experimentally re-examined the studies of phonons in bismuth and gallium arsenide, and find no evidence of any phase-dependent noise signature associated with the phonons. We place an upper limit on any such noise at least 40–50 dB lower than previously reported.

  14. Comparative study of reflectance properties of nanodiamonds, onion-like carbon and multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, V.L. [Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova St. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Moseenkov, S.I. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, SB RAS, Lavrentiev Ave. 5, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, SB RAS, Lavrentiev Ave. 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Elumeeva, K.V. [Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova St. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, SB RAS, Lavrentiev Ave. 5, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Larina, T.V.; Anufrienko, V.F. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, SB RAS, Lavrentiev Ave. 5, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Romanenko, A.I.; Anikeeva, O.B.; Tkachev, E.N. [Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova St. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, SB RAS, Lavrentiev Ave. 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-15

    Carbon nanomaterials are the promising candidates for potential broadband limiting applications and extremely low reflectance coatings, particularly in the infrared, visible and UV spectral regions. In this paper we have performed the comparative study of diffuse reflectance of nanodiamond (ND), sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} composites, onion-like carbon (OLC) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in visible and UV regions. ND, sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} composites and OLC produced via high temperature annealing of the same set of NDs allow us to vary sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} carbon ratio, size of primary particle agglomerates and concentration of defects while MWNT set provides possibility to vary NT diameters and length, order/disorder degree (via high temperature MWNTS annealing). The diffuse reflectance of carbon nanomaterials depends mainly on the electronic configuration, defect concentration, size of graphene-like ordered fragments and agglomerates of nanoparticles along with their morphology. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Polarized infrared reflectance study of free standing cubic GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.C., E-mail: saicheonglee86@yahoo.com [Nano-Optoelectronics Research Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ng, S.S.; Hassan, H. Abu; Hassan, Z.; Zainal, N. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Novikov, S.V.; Foxon, C.T.; Kent, A.J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Optical properties of free standing cubic gallium nitride grown by molecular beam epitaxy system are investigated by a polarized infrared (IR) reflectance technique. A strong reststrahlen band, which reveals the bulk-like optical phonon frequencies, is observed. Meanwhile, continuous oscillation fringes, which indicate the sample consists of two homogeneous layers with different dielectric constants, are observed in the non-reststrahlen region. By obtaining the first derivative of polarized IR reflectance spectra measured at higher angles of incidence, extra phonon resonances are identified at the edges of the reststrahlen band. The observations are verified with the theoretical results simulated based on a multi-oscillator model. - Highlights: • First time experimental studies of IR optical phonons in bulk like, cubic GaN layer. • Detection of extra phonon modes of cubic GaN by polarized IR reflectance technique. • Revelation of IR multiphonon modes of cubic GaN by first derivative numerical method. • Observation of multiphonon modes requires very high angle of incidence. • Resonance splitting effect induced by third phonon mode is a qualitative indicator.

  16. Error-preceding brain activity reflects (mal-)adaptive adjustments of cognitive control: a modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Marco; Eichele, Heike; Juvodden, Hilde T; Huster, Rene J; Ullsperger, Markus; Eichele, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Errors in choice tasks are preceded by gradual changes in brain activity presumably related to fluctuations in cognitive control that promote the occurrence of errors. In the present paper, we use connectionist modeling to explore the hypothesis that these fluctuations reflect (mal-)adaptive adjustments of cognitive control. We considered ERP data from a study in which the probability of conflict in an Eriksen-flanker task was manipulated in sub-blocks of trials. Errors in these data were preceded by a gradual decline of N2 amplitude. After fitting a connectionist model of conflict adaptation to the data, we analyzed simulated N2 amplitude, simulated response times (RTs), and stimulus history preceding errors in the model, and found that the model produced the same pattern as obtained in the empirical data. Moreover, this pattern is not found in alternative models in which cognitive control varies randomly or in an oscillating manner. Our simulations suggest that the decline of N2 amplitude preceding errors reflects an increasing adaptation of cognitive control to specific task demands, which leads to an error when these task demands change. Taken together, these results provide evidence that error-preceding brain activity can reflect adaptive adjustments rather than unsystematic fluctuations of cognitive control, and therefore, that these errors are actually a consequence of the adaptiveness of human cognition.

  17. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for monitoring diabetic foot ulcer - A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Suresh; Sujatha, N.; Narayanamurthy, V. B.; Seshadri, V.; Poddar, Richa

    2014-02-01

    Foot ulceration due to diabetes mellitus is a major problem affecting 12-25% of diabetic subjects in their lifetime. An untreated ulcer further gets infected which causes necrosis leading to amputation of lower extremities. Early identification of risk factors and treatment for these chronic wounds would reduce health care costs and improve the quality of life for people with diabetes. Recent clinical investigations have shown that a series of factors including reduced oxygen delivery and disturbed metabolism have been observed on patients with foot ulceration due to diabetes. Also, these factors can impair the wound healing process. Optical techniques based on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy provide characteristic spectral finger prints shed light on tissue oxygenation levels and morphological composition of a tissue. This study deals with the application of diffuse reflectance intensity ratios based on oxyhemoglobin bands (R542/R580), ratios of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin bands (R580/R555), total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygen saturation between normal and diabetic foot ulcer sites. Preliminary results obtained are found to be promising indicating the application of reflectance spectroscopy in the assessment of foot ulcer healing.

  18. Studies of float glass surfaces by neutron and x-ray reflection

    CERN Document Server

    Dalgliesh, R

    2001-01-01

    applicability of current off-specular scattering models. A rich surface structure has been found which results in reflection effects that cannot be explained by these models. Model systems have also been developed in an attempt to combine x-ray fluorescence techniques with reflectivity. The surface of glass and glass coatings have been studied using x-ray and neutron scattering techniques. In particular, the effect of aqueous solutions and humid atmospheres on both the fire polished and the tin rich side of float glass have been investigated using neutron and x-ray reflection. Isotopic substitution has enabled the number density of water molecules within the float glass surface to be monitored with respect to immersion time, temperature and impurity content. A thin gel-like water-rich layer of thickness approx 30A is observed at the surface accompanied by a more deeply penetrating layer which increases in depth with time reaching approx 500A after 6 months. The rate of water ingression is higher than predicte...

  19. Ground-penetrating radar study of the Cena Bog, Latvia: linkage of reflections with peat moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karušs, J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Present work illustrates results of the ground-penetrating radar (GPR study of the Cena Bog, Latvia. Six sub-horizontal reflections that most probably correspond to boundaries between sediments with different electromagnetic properties were identified. One of the reflections corresponds to bog peat mineral bottom interface but the rest are linked to boundaries within the peat body. The radar profiles are incorporated with sediment cores and studies of peat moisture and ash content, and degree of decomposition. Most of the electromagnetic wave reflections are related to changes in peat moisture content. The obtained data show that peat moisture content changes of at least 3 % are required to cause GPR signal reflection. However, there exist reflections that do not correlate with peat moisture content. As a result, authors disagree with a dominant opinion that all reflections in bogs are solely due to changes in volumetric peat moisture content.

  20. The application of heterogeneous cluster grouping to reflective writing for medical humanities literature study to enhance students' empathy, critical thinking, and reflective writing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liao, Hung-Chang; Wang, Ya-Huei

    2016-01-01

    ... grouping in reflective writing for medical humanities literature acquisition could have positive effects on medical university students in terms of empathy, critical thinking, and reflective writing...

  1. A Study of Learners’ Reflection on Andragogical Skills of Distance Education Tutors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The researcher conducted present study with the objectives to a. evaluate attitude of learners towards academic and tutoring skills of distance education tutors, b. assess the opinion of distance learners about assessment and evaluation skills of their tutors and c. examine reflection of learners on scaffolding skills of distance education tutors. The population of the study consisted of learners of pre-service teacher education (B.Ed semester spring 2010 programme of Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad. The sample of the study was taken through the convenient sampling technique from three regions of Allama Iqbal Open University situated in the Punjab Province. A questionnaire was designed using a five-point (rating/Likert scale to elicit the reflection of (600 learners. However, the response rate was 78% (468 of the total sample. Interview schedule was also used as a research tool for collecting qualitative data from (50 respondents in five groups. The researcher analysed data quantitatively and qualitatively. The study concluded that the overall reflection of distance learners on andragogical skills of their tutors was positive. Apparently they were satisfied with andragogical skills of their tutors. They asserted that their tutors had academic and tutoring skills (consisting of encouraging, guiding & facilitating –emboldening and enabling skills, assessment & evaluation skills, and technical and social skills. However, tutors needed training to use social websites, Skype and mobile phone conferences and online discussion. Keeping in view the conclusion of the study, the researcher recommended short and long term training of tutors to use information and communication technologies appropriately.

  2. Reflections on Tutoring Ancient Greek Philosophy: A Case Study of Teaching First-Year Undergraduates in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This is a case study of my reflections on teaching a first-year undergraduate tutorial on Ancient Greek Philosophy in the UK. This study draws upon the notion of reflective practice as an essential feature of teaching, in this case applied to Higher Education. My aim is to show how a critical engagement with my teaching practices and the overall…

  3. Reflections on Tutoring Ancient Greek Philosophy: A Case Study of Teaching First-Year Undergraduates in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This is a case study of my reflections on teaching a first-year undergraduate tutorial on Ancient Greek Philosophy in the UK. This study draws upon the notion of reflective practice as an essential feature of teaching, in this case applied to Higher Education. My aim is to show how a critical engagement with my teaching practices and the overall…

  4. [Closing diastemas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, L C; Pereira, J C; Coradazzi, J L; Francischone, C E

    1990-01-01

    The authors describe a clinical case of closing upper central incisives diastema, reconstructiva of a conoid upper lateral and the rechaping of an upper canine to a lateral incisive. The material used was composite resin.

  5. Relationship between reflection ability and clinical performance: a cross-sectional and retrospective-longitudinal correlational cohort study in midwifery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embo, M; Driessen, E; Valcke, M; van der Vleuten, C P M

    2015-01-01

    increasingly, reflection is highlighted as integral to core practice competencies but empirical research into the relationship between reflection and performance in the clinical workplace is scarce. this study investigated the relationship between reflection ability and clinical performance. we designed a cross-sectional and a retrospective-longitudinal cohort study. Data from first, second and third year midwifery students were collected to study the variables 'clinical performance' and 'reflection ability'. Data were analysed with SPSS for Windows, Release 20.0. Descriptive statistics, Pearson׳s Product Moment Correlation Coefficients (r) and r² values were computed to investigate associations between the research variables. the results showed a moderate observed correlation between reflection ability and clinical performance scores. When adopting a cross-sectional perspective, all correlation values were significant (pcorrelations. Assuming perfect reliability in the measurement, the adjusted correlations, for year 2 and year 3 indicated a high association between reflection ability and clinical performance (>0.6). The results based on the retrospective-longitudinal data set explained a moderate proportion of the variance after correction for attenuation. Finally, the results indicate that 'reflection ability' scores of earlier years are significant related with 'clinical performance' scores of subsequent years. These results suggest that (1) reflection ability is linked to clinical performance; (2) that written reflections are an important, but not the sole way to assess professional competence and that (3) reflection is a contributor to clinical performance improvement. the data showed a moderate but significant relationship between 'reflection ability' and 'clinical performance' scores in clinical practice of midwifery students. Reflection therefore seems an important component of professional competence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Importance of closed quark loops for lattice QCD studies of tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Berlin, Joshua; Alexandrou, Constantia; Brida, Mattia Dalla; Finkenrath, Jacob; Gravina, Mario; Leontiou, Theodoros; Wagner, Marc

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the light scalar tetraquark candidate $a_0(980)$ (quantum numbers $J^P =0^+$), a correlation matrix including a variety of two- and four-quark interpolating operators has to be computed. We discuss efficient techniques to compute the elements of this correlation matrix, in particular diagrams with closed quark loops. Furthermore, we present evidence that such diagrams are not negligible given our precision, and their contribution is essential to obtain physically meaningful results. In particular, we find indications of the existence of an "additional" state around the two-particle thresholds of $K+ \\bar K$ and $\\eta +\\pi$, which could correspond to the $a_0(980)$ meson.

  7. Study on bifurcation and stability of the closed-loop current-programmed boost converters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yi-Bo; Zhang Dao-Yang; Zhang Chi-Jian

    2007-01-01

    In order to predict bifurcation point of the closed-loop current-programmed boost converter and enable this converter to operate at stable parameter space, this paper firstly establishes stroboscopic maps for this converter in the continuous conduction mode according to operating characteristics and topple of this converter. Parameter space at the steady state and bifurcation types are analysed together with stability theory of nonlinear equation. In the solving course, the duty cycle is avoided because of inversive solution, and accuracy is increased. Finally, correction is proved by numerical calculation.

  8. How do medical specialists value their own intercultural communication behaviour? A reflective practice study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternotte, E; Scheele, F; van Rossum, T R; Seeleman, M C; Scherpbier, A J J A; van Dulmen, A M

    2016-08-24

    Intercultural communication behaviour of doctors with patients requires specific intercultural communication skills, which do not seem structurally implemented in medical education. It is unclear what motivates doctors to apply intercultural communication skills. We investigated how purposefully medical specialists think they practise intercultural communication and how they reflect on their own communication behaviour. Using reflective practice, 17 medical specialists independently watched two fragments of videotapes of their own outpatient consultations: one with a native patient and one with a non-native patient. They were asked to reflect on their own communication and on challenges they experience in intercultural communication. The interviews were open coded and analysed using thematic network analysis. The participants experienced only little differences in their communication with native and non-native patients. They mainly mentioned generic communication skills, such as listening and checking if the patient understood. Many participants experienced their communication with non-native patients positively. The participants mentioned critical incidences of intercultural communication: language barriers, cultural differences, the presence of an interpreter, the role of the family and the atmosphere. Despite extensive experience in intercultural communication, the participants of this study noticed hardly any differences between their own communication behaviour with native and non-native patients. This could mean that they are unaware that consultations with non-native patients might cause them to communicate differently than with native patients. The reason for this could be that medical specialists lack the skills to reflect on the process of the communication. The participants focused on their generic communication skills rather than on specific intercultural communication skills, which could either indicate their lack of awareness, or demonstrate that

  9. Comparison of individual canine retraction using HYCON device and nickel titanium closed coil spring: In vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the individual canine retraction using HYCON device and Nickel Titanium closed coil springs. Materials and Methods: The sample consists of 20 patients, 10 males and 10 females. Class1 bimaxillary protrusion cases were selected for the study with age group ranging from 14 to 23 years. HYCON device was placed on the right side of the maxillary arch and Nickel Titanium closed coil spring were placed on left side of the maxillary arch. Lateral cephalograms, OPG and study models were taken before retraction (T0 and records were taken after retraction (T1. Results: The duration of this study is for 3 months. HYCON device retracted canines by 2.42 mm/mo whereas NiTi closed coil spring retracted canines by 1.34 mm/mo in a period of 3 months. Anchorage loss with a minimal of 1.40 mm is seen in HYCON device whereas in case of NiTi closed coil spring the anchorage loss was 3.35 mm. The angular rotation of canines measured was found to be 2.59 degrees in HYCON device and 10.80 in NiTi closed coil spring. Clinically and radiologically, in most of the cases canines moved bodily with 1.90 degrees of tipping for HYCON device while NiTi closed coil spring canine tipping was 6.95 degrees. Conclusion: For rapid space closure HYCON device is a promising appliance. With HYCON device, canines can be completely retracted in 3 months and there was bodily movement of canines seen in all cases with minimum amount of tipping.

  10. Study on focusing performance of the twice reflecting laser focusing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Qiangcheng [Company of Postgraduate Management, Academy of Equipment Command and Technology, Beijing 101416 (China); Zhi Guodou, E-mail: nazis76@163.com [Department of Basic Theories, Academy of Equipment Command and Technology, Beijing 101416 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Laser thrusters characterized by feasible application perspective all possess the twice reflecting laser focusing system. Nonetheless, studies on its focusing performance are imperative for the research of flight route of the thruster and haven't been developed yet. Under three different focusing design modes, assisted with optical design software ZEMAX which employing Monte Carlo ray tracing, performance of twice reflecting laser focusing system including focusing performance parameters, radiation intensity distribution and the details of ignition region on the focusing plane are studied comparatively, and the studied two main angular aberrations are beam out-coming aberration from laser source and flying aberration from thruster itself. Studies show even slight aberration will result in steep falling focusing performance and strong deviation of beam spot for any focusing design mode, while different aberrations bring in distinctive falling tendencies and the evolutions of ignition region. It strongly demands the directional precision of laser beam, and the attitude control of laser thruster is indispensable. And it's not recommended that one focusing design mode is superior to another. Which kind of aberration is dominant should be taken into account when choosing focusing mode.

  11. Developing and Reflecting on a Black Disability Studies Pedagogy: Work from the National Black Disability Coalition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Dunhamn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This collection of writing has grown from the work of the National Black Disability Coalition, led by Jane Dunhamn and Leroy Moore. The Coalition met on June 7, 2013, in the historic Shiloh Baptist Church in Trenton, New Jersey to discuss the future of Black Disability Studies (BDS. Since that time, members of the Coalition have written an outline for a BDS course, presented at conferences, and developed strategies to incorporate BDS into the disciplines of Black Studies and Disability Studies. We have also reflected deeply on what the introduction of BDS will mean, both for Black Studies and for disability studies. Our writings in this collection are intended to mark the work of the National Black Disability Coalition thus far, but also to provide a platform from which further work in BDS can grow. By underscoring the development and potential of BDS, this article articulates the need for BDS within mainstream disability studies, and advocates for BDS not to be taken as a marginalized special-topic course, but rather to be engaged in every and at the heart of Disability Studies courses and pedagogies. Although we believe that BDS should be integrated into every Disability Studies course, we recognize that, like disability itself, it cannot simply be “added and stirred”; rather, the inclusion of BDS is a paradigm-shifting change. The pieces included in this collection are enactments of an ongoing conversation--a conversation that we hope the readers of Disability Studies Quarterly will join thoughtfully. The sections comprise statements from the leaders of the National Black Disability Coalition, Jane Dunhamn and Leroy Moore; reflective writings from three instructors and two students of Black Disability Studies; and a copy of the course outline.

  12. SARS E protein in phospholipid bilayers: an anomalous X-ray reflectivity study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khattari, Z. [Institut fuer Roentgenphysik, Universitaet Goettingen, Geiststrasse 11, 37073 Goettingen (Germany); Brotons, G. [Institut fuer Roentgenphysik, Universitaet Goettingen, Geiststrasse 11, 37073 Goettingen (Germany); Arbely, E. [Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, Department of Biological Chemistry, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Givat-Ram, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Arkin, I.T. [Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, Department of Biological Chemistry, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Givat-Ram, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Metzger, T.H. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Boite Postale 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Salditt, T. [Institut fuer Roentgenphysik, Universitaet Goettingen, Geiststrasse 11, 37073 Goettingen (Germany)]. E-mail: tsaldit@gwdg.de

    2005-02-28

    We report on an anomalous X-ray reflectivity study to locate a labelled residue of a membrane protein with respect to the lipid bilayer. From such experiments, important constraints on the protein or peptide conformation can be derived. Specifically, our aim is to localize an iodine-labelled phenylalanine in the SARS E protein, incorporated in DMPC phospholipid bilayers, which are deposited in the form of thick multilamellar stacks on silicon surfaces. Here, we discuss the experimental aspects and the difficulties associated with the Fourier synthesis analysis that gives the electron density profile of the membranes.

  13. From small angle x-ray scattering to reflectivity: Instrumentation and sample study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, D.W. [Center for Micro-Engineered Ceramics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-6041 (United States); Beaucage, G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0012 (United States); Kent, M.S. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    1996-02-01

    In this study, we described the first results from an x-ray reflectometer which has been modified from an existing Kratky small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) camera at the UNM/Sandia scattering center. Typically, seven orders of magnitude of reflectivity can be obtained over a range of 0.02 to 0.5 A{sup {minus}1} in {ital q}. This allows the resolution of surface features of 10 to 1000 A. The conversion to reflectometer is reversible and can be achieved in a short time, allowing for dual use of an existing Kratky camera. {copyright} {ital 1996 Materials Research Society.}

  14. Study on Objective Sound Quality Evaluation of Automotive Door Closing Sound%汽车车门关闭声声品质客观评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓江华; 夏洪兵

    2011-01-01

    目前汽车声品质的研究多针对稳态声,非稳态声声品质评价方法欠缺,且噪声信号处理多采用FFT等传统方法,未充分考虑其非稳态特性.汽车车门关闭声为一种瞬态的非稳态噪声,关门声声品质的好坏常常能反映出整车的品质.以多款汽车关门声为研究对象,采用常用的声品质评价参数对其进行声品质分析.另外,采用小波变换方法,对关门声声信号进行时频分析,并对多款车的车门关闭声进行声品质评价,提出仅仅用响度、尖锐度等传统评价参量并不能很好反映非稳态噪声声品质特性,而通过时频分析则能对其进行很好的补充,但评价参量的确定还有待进一步研究,最后,提出下一步的研究方向和内容.%Currently, research of sound quality of automobiles is mainly focused on the steady sound, and there are very few methods for transient sound quality evaluation. In addition, traditional FFT method is often adopted in sound signal processing, while the transient property of the acoustic signal has not been considered adequately. Automotive door closing sound is a transient impulse sound, and the quality of door closing sound can reflect the quality of vehicles. In this paper, first of all, the quality of door closing sound of some types of vehicles is evaluated using traditional evaluation parameters. Then, the wavelet transform method is used to analyze the sound signal of the door closing sound in time frequency domain. It is indicated that the traditional parameters such as loudness, sharpness, roughness, and so on can not sufficiently reflect the sound quality characteristics of transient sound, while the time-frequency analysis is a good complement for the sound quality evaluation. However, selection of the evaluation parameters remains a problem for further study.

  15. Recovery of mouth-opening after closed treatment of a fracture of the mandibular condyle : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niezen, E. T.; Stuive, I.; Post, W. J.; Bos, R. R. M.; Dijkstra, P. U.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to assess recovery of mouth opening after closed treatment of fractures of the mandibular condyle, and analyse which characteristics might influence recovery. We measured mouth opening in 142 patients (mean (SD) age 30 (14) years, 96 of whom were male) during

  16. Genetic variability of Appaloosa horses: a study of a closed breeding population from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Malena CORBI-BOTTO,Sebastian Andres SADABA,Elina Ines FRANCISCO,Paula Belen KALEMKERIAN,Juan Pedro LIRON,Egle Etel VILLEGAS-CASTAGNASSO,Guillermo GIOVAMBATTISTA,Pilar PERAL-GARCIA,Silvina DIAZ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity and structure of 72 Appaloosa horses belonging to a closed breeding population from an ecological reserve in Buenos Aires, Argentina, was investigated using eight microsatellite markers from the International Society for Animal Genetics panel. Our data showed that this Appaloosa horse population had an elevated degree of genetic diversity (He= 0.746 and did not present a significant increase of homozygous individuals (FIS~0. However, the short tandem repeats, AHT5, ASB2, HTG10 and VHL20, were not in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (P-value<0.05. Genetic relationships between this population and other well known horse breeds showed that Appaloosa horses from Argentina could have had their origin in the horses of the Nez Perce's people in Idaho while other Appaloosa horses may have had influences from Andalusian and Lusitano breeds. This closed breeding population conserves an important degree of Appaloosa genetic diversity and notwithstanding its particular breeding characteristics, represents a valuable genetic resource for conservation.

  17. Studying abroad inclusively: Reflections by college students with and without intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohn, Seb M; Kelley, Kelly R; Westling, David L

    2016-12-01

    Postsecondary education programs have increased opportunities for students with and without intellectual disabilities to study abroad as inclusive classes. Using open-coding qualitative techniques, the authors examined an inclusive study abroad group's daily reflective journals during a study abroad trip to London and Dublin. Three shared categories emerged from analysis: personal development, bonding/social inclusion, and learning from English and Irish adults with intellectual disabilities. Each group reported two distinct categories as well. Students with intellectual disabilities described the importance of mobility/transportation and fun, while their classmates without intellectual disabilities described the importance of inclusive learning and an increasing awareness of barriers to full participation for people with disabilities. Student-constructed categories are used to describe the benefits of inclusive study abroad and build future inclusive international opportunities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Reflective Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2013-01-01

    Thomas Farrell's "Reflective Teaching" outlines four principles that take teachers from just doing reflection to making it a way of being. Using the four principles, Reflective Practice Is Evidence Based, Reflective Practice Involves Dialogue, Reflective Practice Links Beliefs and Practices, and Reflective Practice Is a Way of Life,…

  19. Studying the Impact of Web-Based Learning (Weblog With a Problem Solving Approach on Student's Reflective Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Namvar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is studying the effect of web- based learning(weblog by problem solving approach on English Literature student's reflective thinking, who study in Islamic Azad University of Ardebil. Required data for this study was gathered through reflective thinking questionnaire -designed by Camber et al on the basis of Maziro's Theory- in pretest and posttest form, for the two experimental and control groups each consisting of 15 students. Analyzing the gained data showed that there was significant difference between the two experimental and control groups regarding the level of thinking about the three categories of understanding, reflection, and critical reflection, and it was significant in T-test at level 0.05 and this shows that the weblog based learning affects on the development of student's reflective thinking.

  20. EXPERIMENT STUDY AND CLINICAL OBSERVATION WITH LIGATION METHOD FOR CLOSING BRONCHIAL STUMP FOLLOWING LOBECTOMY FOR LUNG NEOPLASMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Keneng; Yang Guoliang; Xie Wei; Hu Minbo; Feng Ruiqing; Shi Xiaotian

    1998-01-01

    Objective: Traditional method of closing bronchial stumps after lobectomy was whole layer suture by hand or by stapler. Little is known about the ligated bronchial stump following lobectomy. To evaluate the characteristics of ligation method for closing bronchial stumps. Methods: In this study 90 lobectomies on 15 mongrel dogs and 75 bronchial stump models on fresh cadaver bronchus were performed. Multivariables comparison experimental studies were made on the results of three different closing methods: simple ligation,manual suture and stapling. Results: In the ligation group, the operation time was significantly shortened (P<0.01). The depth of stump cavity between ligation group and suture group was of no difference significantly (P>0.05). The resistance against intrabronchial pressure was greater in the ligation group than in the suture group (P<0.01). Pathological studies illustrated earlier healing of mucosal membrane with milder inflammatory reactions.In clinical practice, 121 lobectomies were successfully performed with simple ligation of the stumps.Conclusion: Simple ligation is a safe, reliable, simple, and applicable method for closing bronchial stump following lobectomies.

  1. The ALHAMBRA survey: an empirical estimation of the cosmic variance for merger fraction studies based on close pairs

    CERN Document Server

    López-Sanjuan, C; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Varela, J; Molino, A; Arnalte-Mur, P; Ascaso, B; Castander, F J; Fernández-Soto, A; Huertas-Company, M; Márquez, I; Martínez, V J; Masegosa, J; Moles, M; Pović, M; Aguerri, J A L; Alfaro, E; Benítez, N; Broadhurst, T; Cabrera-Caño, J; Cepa, J; Cerviño, M; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D; Del Olmo, A; Delgado, R M González; Husillos, C; Infante, L; Perea, J; Prada, F; Quintana, J M

    2014-01-01

    Our goal is to estimate empirically, for the first time, the cosmic variance that affects merger fraction studies based on close pairs. We compute the merger fraction from photometric redshift close pairs with 10h^-1 kpc <= rp <= 50h^-1 kpc and Dv <= 500 km/s, and measure it in the 48 sub-fields of the ALHAMBRA survey. We study the distribution of the measured merger fractions, that follow a log-normal function, and estimate the cosmic variance sigma_v as the intrinsic dispersion of the observed distribution. We develop a maximum likelihood estimator to measure a reliable sigma_v and avoid the dispersion due to the observational errors (including the Poisson shot noise term). The cosmic variance of the merger fraction depends mainly on (i) the number density of the populations under study, both for the principal (n_1) and the companion (n_2) galaxy in the close pair, and (ii) the probed cosmic volume V_c. We find a significant dependence on neither the search radius used to define close companions, t...

  2. An OEF/OIF study of close combat missions using small unmanned aircraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifschitz, Gabriel; Tierney, Richard J.; Vitali, Juan A.

    2007-04-01

    The Small Unmanned Aircraft System (SUAS) is a rucksack portable aerial observation vehicle designed to supplement reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition tasks of an infantry company. The Raven is an earlier version of the SUAS. Raven is an Urgent Material Release (UMR) acquisition and has been used for the past two years by selected Army units in Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF). Army Test and Evaluation Command-led surveys were used to assess the capabilities and limitations of the Raven in OEF/OIF. Results and analyses of the surveys indicate that Raven enhances situational awareness of a small unit in urban areas and in selected close combat missions. Users of the Raven state it is easy to use, although there are major issues with frequency de-confliction, airspace management, short endurance, and sensor performance. The SUAS is a program of record and completed developmental and operational testing in preparation for full rate production. This paper addresses the SUAS effectiveness, suitability, and survivability evaluation strategy based on actual testing of the system. During the Initial Operational Test (IOT), the SUAS was found to be effective with limitations in a set of 21 closed combat missions and two call for fire tests for which it was tested. Low Mean Time Between Operational Mean Failure (MTBOMF) and human factors issues make the system suitable with limitations. Acoustic (audible to the human ear) and electronic vulnerabilities make the system non-survivable in most combat scenarios. The SUAS was found to be useful as an extra asset usable in certain infantry company close combat missions where terrain and visual line of sight give the system an advantage over traditional reconnaissance patrols. Army aviation and infantry units uncover new ways every day to use this portable "eye in the sky", especially when unmanned aerial reconnaissance assets are in premium demand. A discussion on changes in doctrine with the

  3. Isomeric states close to doubly magic $^{132}$Sn studied with JYFLTRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Kankainen, A; Eronen, T; Gorelov, D; Jokinen, A; Kolhinen, V S; Moore, I D; Penttilä, H; Rinta-Antila, S; Rissanen, J; Saastamoinen, A; Sonnenschein, V; Äystö, J

    2012-01-01

    The double Penning trap mass spectrometer JYFLTRAP has been employed to measure masses and excitation energies for $11/2^-$ isomers in $^{121}$Cd, $^{123}$Cd, $^{125}$Cd and $^{133}$Te, for $1/2^-$ isomers in $^{129}$In and $^{131}$In, and for $7^-$ isomers in $^{130}$Sn and $^{134}$Sb. These first direct mass measurements of the Cd and In isomers reveal deviations to the excitation energies based on results from beta-decay experiments and yield new information on neutron- and proton-hole states close to $^{132}$Sn. A new excitation energy of 144(4) keV has been determined for $^{123}$Cd$^m$. A good agreement with the precisely known excitation energies of $^{121}$Cd$^m$, $^{130}$Sn$^m$, and $^{134}$Sb$^m$ has been found.

  4. Study on the economic mining method for the close quarter coal seams with thin rock sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOU Pan-feng; CHEN Zhao-qiang; YUN Xiao-you

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents the mining method for the close quarter coal seams with thin rock sheet, that is mining the low coal seam, recovering the top coal seam aft er putting down the roof rock of the low coal seam. Practice has proved that in recovering the top coal outside the face width after the rock between seams fall s naturally or is demolished, the technology is simple, easy to operate and doe s not make a great demand for technical equipment. In the process of recovering t he top coal, the low seam support could not be affected seriously, and two seams mining could be coordinated. Compared with the individual mining method, this m ining method can produce a better economic benefit.

  5. Study on the economic mining method for the close quarter coal seams with thin rock sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    勾攀峰; 陈兆强; 员小有

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents the mining method for the close quarter coal seams with thin rock sheet, that is mining the low coal seam, recovering the top coal seam after putting down the roof rock of the low coal seam. Practice has proved that in recovering the top coal outside the face width after the rock between seams falls naturally or is demolished, the technology is simple, easy to operate and does not make a great demand for technical equipment. In the process of recovering the top coal, the low seam support could not be affected seriously, and two seams mining could be coordinated. Compared with the individual mining method, this mining method can produce a better economic benefit.

  6. Study on Purification Diatomite with nitric acid by Thermal Closed System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang Meng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, a purification approach using nitric acid leaching at thermal closed system was developed to improve the porous structure of raw diatomite by removal of impurities from its surface and clogged pores. The feasibility and efficiency of this approach were determined by XRF for chemical constitution of diatomite, SEM for morphology and BET for specific surface area of purified diatomite. The investigations indicated that the content of SiO2 was in order of 85.14% for raw diatomite and 98% for purified diatomite, the content of Fe2O3 decreases after purified; the integrity of the porous structure was confirmed by SEM, and increase in specific surface area from 18m2·g-1 to 36m2·g-1.

  7. Drug makers and drug regulators: too close for comfort. A study of the Canadian situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexchin, J

    1990-01-01

    Canadian drug laws and regulations have been made increasingly more stringent over the past 40 years and are now considered among the strictest in the world. However, there are still major gaps in the Canadian regulatory process. These deficiencies exist primarily in the areas of the evaluation of the efficacy of 'old' (pre-1963) drugs; the reporting of adverse effects of both old and investigational new drugs; and the requirements for and monitoring of clinical drug trials. Each of these problems are discussed and where possible concrete examples are used to show how these gaps have either directly or potentially endangered the health of Canadians. It is the thesis of this paper that these deficiencies result from the close working relationship between the Health Protection Branch, which is responsible for regulating drug safety, quality and efficacy, and the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association of Canada, representing the multinational companies. These two groups interact primarily through an extensive system of liaison committees that allow the PMAC to participate in the early stages of drug policy formation. Other groups such as workers and consumers are excluded from such discussions. The HPB has also ceded responsibility for enforcement of regulations to the PMAC in the areas of quality control of manufacturing and pharmaceutical promotion. Restricting the interactions between HPB officials and the drug companies is not a viable option. As long as the present arrangement is in place with privately owned companies being regulated by government, a situation that is likely to prevail for the foreseeable future, then it will be necessary for the two groups to have frequent and close contacts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Cognitive Reflection and the Diligent Worker: An Experimental Study of Millennials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice Corgnet

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that despite crucially needing the creative talent of millennials (people born after 1980 organizations have been reluctant to hire young workers because of their supposed lack of diligence. We propose to help resolve this dilemma by studying the determinants of task performance and shirking behaviors of millennials in a laboratory work environment. We find that cognitive ability is a good predictor of task performance in line with previous literature. In contrast with previous research, personality traits do not consistently predict either task performance or shirking behaviors. Shirking behaviors, as measured by the time participants spent browsing the internet for non-work purposes (Cyberloafing, were only explained by the performance on the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT. This finding echoes recent research in cognitive psychology according to which conventional measures of cognitive ability only assess a narrow concept of rational thinking (the algorithmic mind that fails to capture individuals' capacity to reflect and control their impulses. Our findings suggest that hiring diligent millennials relies on the use of novel cognitive measures such as CRT in lieu of standard personality and intelligence tests.

  9. Cognitive Reflection and the Diligent Worker: An Experimental Study of Millennials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corgnet, Brice; Hernán Gonzalez, Roberto; Mateo, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that despite crucially needing the creative talent of millennials (people born after 1980) organizations have been reluctant to hire young workers because of their supposed lack of diligence. We propose to help resolve this dilemma by studying the determinants of task performance and shirking behaviors of millennials in a laboratory work environment. We find that cognitive ability is a good predictor of task performance in line with previous literature. In contrast with previous research, personality traits do not consistently predict either task performance or shirking behaviors. Shirking behaviors, as measured by the time participants spent browsing the internet for non-work purposes (Cyberloafing), were only explained by the performance on the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT). This finding echoes recent research in cognitive psychology according to which conventional measures of cognitive ability only assess a narrow concept of rational thinking (the algorithmic mind) that fails to capture individuals' capacity to reflect and control their impulses. Our findings suggest that hiring diligent millennials relies on the use of novel cognitive measures such as CRT in lieu of standard personality and intelligence tests.

  10. Polarimetric phenomenology in the reflective regime: a case study using polarized hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibney, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the phenomenology of polarimetric data is necessary if we want to obtain the maximum benefit when we exploit that data. To first order, polarimetric phenomenology is driven by two things; the target material type (specular or diffuse) and the illuminating source (point (sun) or extended (body emission)). Polarimetric phenomenology can then be broken into three basic categories; ([specular material/sun source], [diffuse/sun], [specular/body]) where we have assigned body emission to the IR passband where materials are generally specular. The task of interest determines the category of interest since the task determines the dominant target material and the illuminating source (eg detecting diffuse targets under trees in VNIR = [diffuse/sun] category). In this paper, a specific case study for the important [diffuse/sun] category will be presented. For the reflective regime (0.3 - 3.0um), the largest polarimetric signal is obtained when the sun illuminates a significant portion of the material BRDF lobe. This naturally points us to problems whose primary target materials are diffuse since the BRDF lobe for specular materials is tiny (low probability of acquiring on the BRDF lobe) and glinty (high probability of saturating the sensor when on lobe). In this case study, we investigated signatures of solar illuminated diffuse paints acquired by a polarimetric hyperspectral sensor. We will discuss the acquisition, reduction and exploitation of that data, and use it to illustrate the primary characteristics of reflective polarimetric phenomenology.

  11. Professional Expertise in Magic – Reflecting on professional expertise in magic:An interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli eRissanen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigation was to analyse interviews of highly regarded Finnish magicians. Social network analysis (N=120 was used to identify Finland’s most highly regarded magicians (N=16. The selected participants’ careers in professional magic and various aspects of their professional conduct were examined by relying on semi-structured interviews. The results revealed that cultivation of professional level competence in magic usually requires an extensive period of time compared with other domains of expertise. Magic is a unique performing art and it differs from other professions focusing on deceiving the audience. A distinctive feature of magical expertise is that the process takes place entirely through informal training supported by communities of magical practitioners. Three interrelated aspects of magical activity were distinguished: magic tricks, performance, and audience. Although magic tricks constitute a central aspect of magic activity, the participants did not talk about their tricks extensively; this is in accordance with the secretive nature of magic culture.The interviews revealed that a core aspect of the magicians’ activity is performance in front of an audience that repeatedly validates competence cultivated through years of practice. The interviewees reported investing a great deal of effort in planning, orchestrating, and reflecting on their performances. Close interaction with the audience plays an important role in most interviewees’ activity. Many participants put a great deal of effort in developing novel magic tricks. It is common to borrow magic effects from fellow magicians and develop novel methods of implementation. Because magic tricks or programs are not copyrighted, many interviewees considered stealing an unacceptable and unethical aspect of magical activity. The interviewees highlighted the importance of personality and charisma in the successful pursuit of magic activity.

  12. Structure of Protein Layers in Polyelectrolyte Matrices Studied by Neutron Reflectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlovskaya, Veronika [University of Alabama, Birmingham; Ankner, John Francis [ORNL; O' Neill, Hugh Michael [ORNL; Zhang, Qiu [ORNL; Kharlampieva, Eugenia [University of Alabama, Birmingham

    2011-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayer films obtained by localized incorporation of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) within electrostatically assembled matrices of poly(styrene sulfonate)/poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PSS/PAH) via spin-assisted layer-by-layer growth were discovered to be highly structured, with closely packed monomolecular layers of the protein within the bio-hybrid films. The structure of the films was evaluated in both vertical and lateral directions with neutron reflectometry, using deuterated GFP as a marker for neutron scattering contrast. Importantly, the GFP preserves its structural stability upon assembly as confirmed by circular dichroism (CD) and in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Atomic force microscopy was complimented with X-ray reflectometry to characterize the external roughness of the biohybrid films. Remarkably, films assembled with a single GFP layer confined at various distances from the substrate exhibit a strong localization of the GFP layer without intermixing into the LbL matrix. However, partial intermixing of the GFP layers with polymeric material is evidenced in multiple-GFP layer films with alternating protein-rich and protein-deficient regions. We hypothesize that the polymer-protein exchange observed in the multiple-GFP layer films suggests the existence of a critical protein concentration which can be accommodated by the multilayer matrix. Our results yield new insights into the mechanism of GFP interaction with a polyelectrolyte matrix and open opportunities for fabrication of bio-hybrid films with well-organized structure and controllable function, a crucial requirement for advanced sensing applications.

  13. Methodological reflections on some contributions of the systemic family therapy to an anthropological study of family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Maffia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The migratory phenomenon has been dealt from different historical, sociological, demographic and anthropological studies. Several times these approaches only offer partial answers to the issues involved in migration. Our research was focused on the study of Cape Verdean immigrant groups in Argentina, providing models about the organization and interaction of these groups in order to explore critical topics such as immigration and family, identity and ethnicity, among others. After long years of work, we have adjusted methodologies, especially those resulting from the traditional anthropology, looking for alternatives, “recycling” premises, guidelines and techniques from other disciplines, such as psychology (in particular family therapy of systemic orientation. In this work, we reflect on some methodological issues, especially the use of genograms implemented in the kinship study and Cape Verdean family in a migratory context, whose analysis was one of the objectives considered in the research project on the mentioned group in Argentina.

  14. Studying Corporality in the Gym: Practical Reflections for the Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Sossa Rojas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of the body has led to more than five decades of varied and prolific production by social scientists. However, their theoretical and methodological approaches have been as diverse as these investigations. This article, using concrete examples, reflects on the theoretical and methodological implications applied to the study of the body and corporality in the gyms, and aims to show that there is not a rigid set of embodied practices or one type of gym users; on the contrary, they can vary depending on multiple factors such as economic, cultural, or geographical context. It concludes with the author's opinion that Physical Cultural Studies offers an excellent set of tools to investigate the physical and subjective aspects of gym practices.

  15. Awakening to the other: reflections on developing intercultural competence through an undergraduate study tour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Teresa E; Francis, Lyn; van der Riet, Pamela; Dedkhard, Saowapa; Junlapeeya, Piyatida; Orwat, Edith

    2014-12-01

    For the past 4 years, undergraduate students from the Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia, have undertaken a two week cultural study tour in Thailand, being exposed to a broad range of cultural interactions, health settings in rural and remote areas, and health-treatment approaches, including traditional and complementary therapies. Student evaluations and reflections were collected after the 2010 and 2011 study tours. This paper reports on findings following thematic analysis of the data, which identified central themes, including connectivity to others, "awakenings", "embodiment", and looking to the future. Findings included a recognition by students of a growth in awareness and change in perspective, which they felt would impact on their future approach in caring for patients from culturally- and linguistically-diverse backgrounds. We conclude that the study tour provided an effective way of sensitizing students to cultural differences and promoting cross-cultural awareness.

  16. Studies of Scattering, Reflectivity, and Transmitivity in WBAN Channel: Feasibility of Using UWB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Humaun Kabir

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN is one of the fledging paradigms that the next generation of wireless systems is sprouting towards. Among them, a more specific category is the Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN used for health monitoring. On the other hand, Ultra-Wideband (UWB comes with a number of desirable features at the physical layer for wireless communications. One big challenge in adoption of UWB in WBAN is the fact that signals get attenuated exponentially. Due to the intrinsic structural complexity in human body, electromagnetic waves show a profound variation during propagation through it. The reflection and transmission coefficients of human body are highly dependent upon the dielectric constants as well as upon the frequency. The difference in structural materials such as fat, muscles and blood essentially makes electromagnetic wave attenuation to be different along the way. Thus, a complete characterization of body channel is a challenging task. The connection between attenuation and frequency of the signal makes the investigation of UWB in WBAN an interesting proposition. In this paper, we study analytically the impact of body channels on electromagnetic signal propagation with reference to UWB. In the process, scattering, reflectivity and transmitivity have been addressed with analysis of approximate layer-wise modeling, and with numerical depictions. Pulses with Gaussian profile have been employed in our analysis. It shows that, under reasonable practical approximations, the human body channel can be modeled in layers so as to have the effects of total reflections or total transmissions in certain frequency bands. This could help decide such design issues as antenna characteristics of implant devices for WBAN employing UWB.

  17. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON RETRO-REFLECTIVE COATED PAPER BASED ON MICRO-GLASS BEADS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YulongWang; ChuanshanZhao; TaoZhang

    2004-01-01

    High-reflectivity micro-glass bead, as a kind ofretro-reflective material, is widely used in reflectivefabric or film and other reflective coatings. But it israrely used in coated paper. The retro-reflectivetheory of micro-bead is described. Also the effect ofsize of micro-bead, dosage of binder and differentcolor layers on reflective properties of coated paperare discussed in this article. The results show that itsretro-reflective efficiency is good, equally toreflective fabric or film when the micro-glass bead isused in coated paper.

  18. The motivational hierarchy between the personal self and close others in the Chinese brain: an ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangru Zhu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available People base their decisions not only on their own self-interest but also on the interests of close others. Generally, the personal self has primacy in the motivational hierarchy in the Western culture. A recent study found that friends have the same motivational hierarchy as the personal self in the Eastern collectivist culture. Remaining unknown is whether the motivational hierarchy of the personal self and close others can be manifested in the collectivist brain. In the present study, we asked participants to gamble for the personal self, close others (i.e., mother, father, and close friend, and strangers. The positive-going deflection of event-related potentials (ERPs in response to positive feedback showed the following pattern: personal self = mother = father > friend > stranger. In the loss condition, no significant beneficiary effect was observed. The present results indicate that the personal self and parents are intertwined in the motivational system in the Chinese undergraduate student brain, supporting the view that the personal self and parents have the same motivational primacy at the electrocortical level.

  19. The Motivational Hierarchy between the Personal Self and Close Others in the Chinese Brain: an ERP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiangru; Wang, Lili; Yang, Suyong; Gu, Ruolei; Wu, Haiyan; Luo, Yuejia

    2016-01-01

    People base their decisions not only on their own self-interest but also on the interests of close others. Generally, the personal self has primacy in the motivational hierarchy in the Western culture. A recent study found that friends have the same motivational hierarchy as the personal self in the Eastern collectivist culture. Remaining unknown is whether the motivational hierarchy of the personal self and close others can be manifested in the collectivist brain. In the present study, we asked participants to gamble for the personal self, close others (i.e., mother, father, and close friend), and strangers. The positive-going deflection of event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to positive feedback showed the following pattern: personal self = mother = father > friend > stranger. In the loss condition, no significant beneficiary effect was observed. The present results indicate that the personal self and parents are intertwined in the motivational system in the Chinese undergraduate student brain, supporting the view that the personal self and parents have the same motivational primacy at the electrocortical level.

  20. Reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis: a pilot study conducted on biopsy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hongki; Kang, DongKyun; Katz, Aubrey J; Lauwers, Gregory Y; Nishioka, Norman S; Yagi, Yukako; Tanpowpong, Pornthep; Namati, Jacqueline; Bouma, Brett E; Tearney, Guillermo J

    2011-11-01

    Diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) currently requires endoscopic biopsy and histopathologic analysis of the biopsy specimens to count intraepithelial eosinophils. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is an endomicroscopy technology that is capable of obtaining high-resolution, optically sectioned images of esophageal mucosa without the administration of exogenous contrast. In this study, we investigated the capability of a high-speed form of RCM, termed spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM), to count intraepithelial esophageal eosinophils and characterize other microscopic findings of EoE. A total of 43 biopsy samples from 35 pediatric patients and 8 biopsy samples from 8 adult patients undergoing EGD for EoE were imaged by SECM immediately after their removal and then processed for routine histopathology. Two SECM readers, trained on adult cases, prospectively counted intraepithelial eosinophils and detected the presence of abscess, degranulation, and basal cell hyperplasia on SECM images from the pediatric patients. A pathologist blinded to the SECM data analyzed the same from corresponding slides. The Gastrointestinal Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital. Eosinophils by SECM demonstrated a higher reflectance than the surrounding cells and other inflammatory cells. There was good correlation between SECM and histology maximum eosinophil counts/high-power field (R = 0.76, P biopsy samples. These findings suggest that RCM may be developed into a tool for assessing eosinophilic infiltration in the esophagus in vivo. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Does N200 reflect semantic processing?--An ERP study on Chinese visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yingchun; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, John X

    2014-01-01

    Recent event-related potential research has reported a N200 response or a negative deflection peaking around 200 ms following the visual presentation of two-character Chinese words. This N200 shows amplitude enhancement upon immediate repetition and there has been preliminary evidence that it reflects orthographic processing but not semantic processing. The present study tested whether this N200 is indeed unrelated to semantic processing with more sensitive measures, including the use of two tasks engaging semantic processing either implicitly or explicitly and the adoption of a within-trial priming paradigm. In Exp. 1, participants viewed repeated, semantically related and unrelated prime-target word pairs as they performed a lexical decision task judging whether or not each target was a real word. In Exp. 2, participants viewed high-related, low-related and unrelated word pairs as they performed a semantic task judging whether each word pair was related in meaning. In both tasks, semantic priming was found from both the behavioral data and the N400 ERP responses. Critically, while repetition priming elicited a clear and large enhancement on the N200 response, semantic priming did not show any modulation effect on the same response. The results indicate that the N200 repetition enhancement effect cannot be explained with semantic priming and that this specific N200 response is unlikely to reflect semantic processing.

  2. Abnormal N400 Semantic Priming Effect May Reflect Psychopathological Processes in Schizophrenia: A Twin Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Activation of semantic networks is indexed by the N400 effect. We used a twin study design to investigate whether N400 effect abnormalities reflect genetic/trait liability or are related to psychopathological processes in schizophrenia. Methods. We employed robust linear regression to compare N400 and behavioral priming effects across 36 monozygotic twin pairs (6 pairs concordant for schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder, 11 discordant pairs, and 19 healthy control pairs performing a lexical decision task. Moreover, we examined the correlation between Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS score and the N400 effect and the influence of medication status on this effect. Results. Regression yielded a significant main effect of group on the N400 effect only in the direct priming condition (p=0.003. Indirect condition and behavioral priming effect showed no significant effect of group. Planned contrasts with the control group as a reference group revealed that affected concordant twins had significantly reduced N400 effect compared to controls, and discordant affected twins had a statistical trend for reduced N400 effect compared to controls. The unaffected twins did not differ significantly from the controls. There was a trend for correlation between reduced N400 effect and higher BPRS scores, and the N400 effect did not differ significantly between medicated and unmedicated patients. Conclusions. Reduced N400 effect may reflect disease-specific processes in schizophrenia implicating frontotemporal brain network in schizophrenia pathology.

  3. Study of the reflection spectrum of the LMXB 4U 1702-429

    CERN Document Server

    Iaria, R; Del Santo, M; Pintore, F; Sanna, A; Papitto, A; Burderi, L; Riggio, A; Gambino, A F; Matranga, M

    2016-01-01

    The source 4U 1702-429 (Ara X-1) is a low-mass X-ray binary system hosting a neutron star. Albeit the source is quite bright ( $\\sim10^{37}$ erg s$^{-1}$) its broadband spectrum has never been studied. Neither dips nor eclipses have been observed in the light curve suggesting that its inclination angle is smaller than 60$^{\\circ}$.We analysed the broadband spectrum of 4U 1702-429 in the 0.3-60 keV energy range, using XMM-Newton and INTEGRAL data, to constrain its Compton reflection component if it is present. After excluding the three time intervals in which three type-I X-ray bursts occurred, we fitted the joint XMM-Newton and INTEGRAL spectra obtained from simultaneous observations. A broad emission line at 6.7 keV and two absorption edges at 0.87 and 8.82 keV were detected. We found that a self-consistent reflection model fits the 0.3-60 keV spectrum well. The broadband continuum is composed of an emission component originating from the inner region of the accretion disc, a Comptonised direct emission comi...

  4. Mott transition of excitons in ZnSe studied by phase resolved reflection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzke, Guenter; Henneberger, Klaus; Seemann, Matthias; Stolz, Heinrich [University Rostock (Germany). Institute of Physics

    2009-02-15

    The Mott transition of excitons in a semiconductor with increasing carrier density is in principle well understood as a consequence of screening of the Coulomb interaction between carriers. While the position of the exciton stays widely unchanged the exciton peak disappears due to band gap shrinkage. However, a more quantitative check of applied theoretical models for the screening and of the role of quantum kinetic effects in this process is still open.We demonstrate that the phase-resolved reflection in shallow-confined ZnSSe heterostructures opens the possibility of a detailed study of the Mott transition due to the appearance of pronounced interferences effects of propagating polariton modes. Our theoretical approach for the investigation of the influence of excited carriers on the dielectric susceptibility is based (i) on a quasi-particle approximation for the carrier energies and damping, and (ii) on the semiconductor Bloch equations including dynamical screening and a quantum kinetic treatment of scattering. These manybody effects lead to drastic changes of both amplitude and phase of the reflected light: Jumps of the phase are steepened, show abrupt changes from +{pi} to -{pi} and are smoothed out, and interference peaks in the amplitude decrease and disappear completely with increasing excitation. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Experimental study of visible and IR light reflection by planetary-like granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douté, S.; Grundy, W.; Devedeux, F.; Schmitt, B.; Brissaud, O.

    2003-04-01

    The exploration of planetary surfaces by spacecrafts now often involves imaging spectroscopy in the visible and near infrared ranges. The development of methods to analyse the generated image cubes requires theoretical as well as experimental studies to model the bidirectional reflectance (BRDF) of dense granular materials. The physics of the reflection depends on many parameters like the intrinsic optical properties, the shapes, sizes and the packing density of the mineral or icy grains forming the top few centimeters of many solid planetary surfaces. The structural characteristics of the transition zone between the materials and the atmosphere or the vacuum may also play a key role. In particular surface roughness at the scale of tens of grain lengths and facets preferentially oriented in the horizontal plane may greatly determine the BRDF. In this paper, we present the results of a systematic experimental campaign designed to quantify the dependence of the BRDF on the crucial parameters mentioned above. For that purpose we measured, with a spectrophoto-goniometer, the BRDF of various test granular materials (paraffin, glass fragments, epsomite or sodium fluoride, etc.) at several wavelengths. These materials present an increasing optical index from 1.32 to 3.4 and sometimes show isolated absorption bands. They come in various grain sizes and shapes and were prepared using different methods to make samples with different surface textures.

  6. Communication technologies in the study environment: institutional and personal media as a reflection of organisational structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mette Thorhauge

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I will analyse and discuss two qualitative case studies concerning ICT in the study environment at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark. I will place special focus on the way in which organisational perspectives as well as technological affordances shape how communication technologies are integrated into organisational structures and practices on campus. This involves a comparison between course management systems on the one hand and students’ personal media (mobile phones, e-mails on the other hand, with regard to how these are used on campus. On the basis of this analysis, I will argue that the ways in which these technologies are used reflects two different perspectives on the interplay between communication technology and organisational structure: organisational structure as an anticipation of communication patterns implied in course management system’s design and implementation as well as organisational structure as a product of the use of personal media.

  7. Incorporating the cultural diversity of family and close relationships into the study of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Belinda; Kim, Heejung S

    2017-09-01

    Relationships are at the center of the human social environment, and their quality and longevity are now recognized to have particular relevance for health. The goal of this article is to bring attention to the role of culture in how relationships, particularly close relationships and family relationships, influence health. To this end, 2 contexts that are characterized by 2 distinct forms of cultural collectivism (East Asian and Latino) are spotlighted to highlight the unique patterns that underlie broader cultural categories (e.g., collectivism). In addition, related research on other understudied cultures and nonethnic or nonnational forms of culture (e.g., social class, religion) is also discussed. The review centers on social support, a key pathway through which relationships shape psychological and physical health, as the psychological process that has received the most empirical attention in this area. Overall, it is clear that new and more systematic approaches are needed to generate a more comprehensive, novel, and inclusive understanding of the role of culture in relationship processes that shape health. Three recommendations are offered for researchers and professionals to generate and incorporate knowledge of culture-specific relationship processes into their understanding of health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The first Infrared study of the close environment of a long Gamma-Ray Burst

    CERN Document Server

    Floc'h, E Le; Gordon, K; Forrest, W J; Brandl, B; Schaerer, D; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M; Armus, L

    2011-01-01

    We present a characterization of the close environment of GRB980425 based on 5-160mic spectro-imaging obtained with Spitzer. The Gamma-Ray Burst GRB980425 occurred in a nearby (z=0.0085) SBc-type dwarf galaxy, at a projected distance of 900pc from an HII region with strong signatures of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars. While this "WR region" produces less than 5% of the B-band emission of the host, we find that it is responsible for 45+/-10% of the total infrared luminosity, with a maximum contribution reaching 75% at 25-30mic. This atypical property is rarely observed among morphologically-relaxed dwarves, suggesting a strong causal link with the GRB event. The luminosity of the WR region (L_8-1000mic=4.6x10^8 Lsol), the peak of its spectral energy distribution at <~100mic and the presence of highly-ionized emission lines (e.g., [NeIII]) also reveal extremely young (<5Myr) star-forming activity, with a typical time-scale of only 47Myr to double the stellar mass already built. Finally, the mid-IR over B-band lumi...

  9. High-Temperature Studies of Glass Dissolution Rates Close to Saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, M; Roberts, S; Zhao, P; Williams, R; Rose, T; Rainer, A; Pawloski, G

    2004-06-14

    Most long-lived radionuclides associated with an underground nuclear test are incorporated into a melt glass and are released by glass dissolution to become part of the hydrologic source term (HST) (Pawloski et al., 2001). Although the rates of rhyolite glass dissolution are well known under conditions where the fluid is far from saturation with respect to glass, the rates are not well known under conditions where the fluid approaches saturation. These rates are commonly much lower than the far-fromsaturation rates, often by a factor greater than 100. In recent HST simulations (Pawloski et al., 2001; Pawloski et al., 2000; Tompson et al., 1999), we conservatively estimated steady-state release rates based on a far-from-saturation fluid conditions. In recent CHESHIRE near-field simulations (Pawloski et al., 2001), it was predicted that {approx}30% of the nuclear melt glass dissolved over 1000 years. Although the ''far-from-saturation rate'' approach provides a conservative estimate of glass dissolution, it may greatly overestimate the rates of melt glass dissolution. At CHESHIRE, less conservative estimates suggest that only {approx}1% of the nuclear melt glass will dissolve in 1000 years. Lower glass dissolution rates result in lower radionuclide release rates from nuclear melt glass. The following report documents glass dissolution experiments performed to measure glass dissolution rates close to saturation.

  10. Studies on the closed-loop digital control of multi-modular reactors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J.A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Nuclear Reactor Lab.; Henry, A.F.; Lanning, D.D.; Meyer, J.E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1992-11-01

    This report describes the theoretical development and the evaluation via both experiment and simulation of digital methods for the closed-loop control of power, temperature, and steam generator level in multi-modular reactors. The major conclusion of the research reported here is that the technology is currently available to automate many aspects of the operation of multi-modular plants. This will in turn minimize the number of required personnel and thus contain both operating and personnel costs, allow each module to be operated at a different power level thereby staggering the times at which refuelings would be needed, and maintain the competitiveness of US industry relative to foreign vendors who are developing and applying advanced control concepts. The technology described in this report is appropriate to the proposed multi-modular reactor designs and to present-generation pressurized water reactors. Its extension to boiling water reactors is possible provided that the commitment is made to create a real-time model of a BWR. The work reported here was performed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) under contract to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and to the United States Department of Energy (Division of Industry and University Programs, Contract No. DE-FG07-90ER12930.)

  11. Studies on the closed-loop digital control of multi-modular reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J.A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Nuclear Reactor Lab.); Henry, A.F.; Lanning, D.D.; Meyer, J.E. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1992-11-01

    This report describes the theoretical development and the evaluation via both experiment and simulation of digital methods for the closed-loop control of power, temperature, and steam generator level in multi-modular reactors. The major conclusion of the research reported here is that the technology is currently available to automate many aspects of the operation of multi-modular plants. This will in turn minimize the number of required personnel and thus contain both operating and personnel costs, allow each module to be operated at a different power level thereby staggering the times at which refuelings would be needed, and maintain the competitiveness of US industry relative to foreign vendors who are developing and applying advanced control concepts. The technology described in this report is appropriate to the proposed multi-modular reactor designs and to present-generation pressurized water reactors. Its extension to boiling water reactors is possible provided that the commitment is made to create a real-time model of a BWR. The work reported here was performed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) under contract to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and to the United States Department of Energy (Division of Industry and University Programs, Contract No. DE-FG07-90ER12930.)

  12. REFLECTIVE TEACHING AS ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT IN TEACHER EDUCATION: A CASE STUDY OF PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSTI ASTIKA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical reflective teaching has been a goal of English teacher preparation program. Although many English educators have promoted and carried out reflective teaching in their methodology courses, success of such practice has been limited, not sufficiently reflecting what has been desired. Questions have been raised whether reflective teaching within pre-service English teacher education is a realistic aim. One argument for this has been: reflective teaching can only be learned by beginning teachers working in schools with experienced teachers who value critical reflection. This article examines 40 journals of teaching reflection produced by 40 pre-service English teachers after they completed teaching practicum in schools over a period of three months. The journals were analyzed using a theoretical model developed by Smith (2011 which encompasses different purposes with different forms of reflection: personal, interpersonal, contextual, and critical. The analysis shows that the teaching journals contained more reflection on the personal and contextual domains of teaching, indicating that the pre-service teachers were more concerned with the contextual aspects of teaching which influenced their practices in the classroom. It is recommended that a more balanced reflection be created as an alternative form of assessment in English teacher education involving personal as well as social aspects of teaching.

  13. Diffuse near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy during heatstroke in a mouse model: pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abookasis, David; Zafrir, Elad; Nesher, Elimelech; Pinhasov, Albert; Sternklar, Shmuel; Mathews, Marlon S.

    2012-10-01

    Heatstroke, a form of hyperthermia, is a life-threatening condition characterized by an elevated core body temperature that rises above 40°C (104°F) and central nervous system dysfunction that results in delirium, convulsions, or coma. Without emergency treatment, the victim lapses into a coma and death soon follows. The study presented was conducted with a diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) setup to assess the effects of brain dysfunction that occurred during heatstroke in mice model (n=6). It was hypothesized that DRS can be utilized in small animal studies to monitor change in internal brain tissue temperature during heatstroke injury since it induces a sequence of pathologic changes that change the tissue composition and structure. Heatstroke was induced by exposure of the mice body under general anesthesia, to a high ambient temperature. A type of DRS in which the brain tissue was illuminated through the intact scalp with a broadband light source and diffuse reflected spectra was employed, taking in the spectral region between 650 and 1000 nm and acquired at an angle of 90 deg at a position on the scalp ˜12 mm from the illumination site. The temperature at the onset of the experiment was ˜34°C (rectal temperature) with increasing intervals of 1°C until mouse death. The increase in temperature caused optical scattering signal changes consistent with a structural alteration of brain tissue, ultimately resulting in death. We have found that the peak absorbance intensity and its second derivative at specific wavelengths correlate well with temperature with an exponential dependence. Based on these findings, in order to estimate the influence of temperature on the internal brain tissue a reflectance-temperature index was established and was seen to correlate as well with measured temperature. Overall, results indicate variations in neural tissue properties during heatstroke and the feasibility to monitor and assess internal temperature variations using

  14. X-ray Reflectivity Study of Ionic Liquids at Electrified Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Miaoqi

    X-ray reflectivity (XRR) versatile technique that characterize the surface structures. However, due to the lack of phase information of X-ray data, the reconstruction of electron density profile (EDP) from XRR data is an ill-posed inverse problem that requires extra attention. In Chapter 1, several key concepts in XRR data analysis are reviewed. The typical XRR data acquisition procedure and methods of modeling electron density are introduced. The widely used logarithm form of merit function is justified with mathematical deduction and numerical experiment. A scheme that generates artificial reflectivity data with theoretical statistical error but not systematical error is proposed. With the methods and schemes described in Chapter 1, simulated reflectivity data of a simple one-slab model is generated and fitted to test the efficient of EDP reconstruction. By isolating the parameters, the effects of slab width, electron density contrast and maximal wave transfer are studied individually. It?s demonstrated that best-fit/global minima, result reported by most XRR studies, don?t necessary reflect the real EDP. By contrast, mapping the merit function in the parametric space can capture much more details. Additionally, the widely accepted concept about the XRR theoretical spatial resolution (pi/q_{max}) as well the using Patterson function are brought to test. In the perspective of XRR data analysis, this chapter puts forward general rules to design and optimize XRR experiments. It also demonstrates how susceptible the fitting result will be if it?s not done carefully. In Chapter 3, the interface between hydrophobic OTS film and several solvents is studied with XRR in a transmission-cell setup. The solvents, from water, acetone, to alcohol (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol), to alkane (pentane, hexane and heptane), vary significantly in terms of polarity and hydrogen bonding. However, the XRR data from different solvents are subtle. The methods and principles elicited in

  15. A closely-spaced magnetotelluric study of the Ahuachapan-Chipilapa geothermal field, El Salvador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romo, Jose Manuel; Flores, Carlos; Vega, Raymundo; Vazquez, Rogelio; Flores, Marco A. Perez; Trevino, Enrique Gomez; Esparza, Francisco J.; Garcia, Victor H. [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Quijano, Julio E. [Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL), Santa Tecla (El Salvador)

    1997-12-01

    The distribution of electrical conductivity beneath the Ahuachapan-Chipilapa geothermal area was simulated using 2-D models based on 126 closely-spaced magnetotelluric (MT) measurements. The observed MT response was interpreted as being produced by the superposition of two orthogonal geological structural systems: an approximately E-W regional trend associated with the Central Graben structure, which affects the loner period response, and a local and younger N-S fault system that is responsible for the short-to-intermediate period data. The MT response in the 0.02-10 s range period was used to simulate the conductivity structure within the first 2 km depth. By correlating the low-resistivity zones between twelve 2-D models, maps of the spatial distribution of conductors at three different depth levels were constructed. Three deep conductors were identified, one of the associated with the Ahuachapan reservoir, another apparently related to the Laguna Verde volcano, and a third one controlled by El Tortuguero Graben. The subsurface geometry of these conductivity anomalies suggests that the the Chipilapa and La Labor hot springs are supplied by two separate sources of hot fluids, one coming from the east and the other from the south or southwest. The distribution of the shallow high-conductivity zones agrees with the hydrothermal alteration zones mapped at the surface, suggesting that at shallow levels the argillitization process contributes significantly to the low resistivity. The large number of drillholes and the dense MT site coverage allowed the definition of important correlations between high temperatures and high conductivity, as well as between deep conductivity anomalies and productive wells. On this basis two years for future drilling are proposed. (Author)

  16. Open Source Subtitle Editor Software Study for Section 508 Close Caption Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, F. Brandon

    2013-01-01

    This paper will focus on a specific item within the NASA Electronic Information Accessibility Policy - Multimedia Presentation shall have synchronized caption; thus making information accessible to a person with hearing impairment. This synchronized caption will assist a person with hearing or cognitive disability to access the same information as everyone else. This paper focuses on the research and implementation for CC (subtitle option) support to video multimedia. The goal of this research is identify the best available open-source (free) software to achieve synchronized captions requirement and achieve savings, while meeting the security requirement for Government information integrity and assurance. CC and subtitling are processes that display text within a video to provide additional or interpretive information for those whom may need it or those whom chose it. Closed captions typically show the transcription of the audio portion of a program (video) as it occurs (either verbatim or in its edited form), sometimes including non-speech elements (such as sound effects). The transcript can be provided by a third party source or can be extracted word for word from the video. This feature can be made available for videos in two forms: either Soft-Coded or Hard-Coded. Soft-Coded is the more optional version of CC, where you can chose to turn them on if you want, or you can turn them off. Most of the time, when using the Soft-Coded option, the transcript is also provided to the view along-side the video. This option is subject to compromise, whereas the transcript is merely a text file that can be changed by anyone who has access to it. With this option the integrity of the CC is at the mercy of the user. Hard-Coded CC is a more permanent form of CC. A Hard-Coded CC transcript is embedded within a video, without the option of removal.

  17. The ALHAMBRA survey: An empirical estimation of the cosmic variance for merger fraction studies based on close pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sanjuan, C.; Cenarro, A. J.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Varela, J.; Molino, A.; Arnalte-Mur, P.; Ascaso, B.; Castander, F. J.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Huertas-Company, M.; Márquez, I.; Martínez, V. J.; Masegosa, J.; Moles, M.; Pović, M.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Alfaro, E.; Aparicio-Villegas, T.; Benítez, N.; Broadhurst, T.; Cabrera-Caño, J.; Cepa, J.; Cerviño, M.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; Del Olmo, A.; González Delgado, R. M.; Husillos, C.; Infante, L.; Perea, J.; Prada, F.; Quintana, J. M.

    2014-04-01

    Aims: Our goal is to estimate empirically the cosmic variance that affects merger fraction studies based on close pairs for the first time. Methods: We compute the merger fraction from photometric redshift close pairs with 10 h-1 kpc ≤ rp ≤ 50 h-1 kpc and Δv ≤ 500 km s-1 and measure it in the 48 sub-fields of the ALHAMBRA survey. We study the distribution of the measured merger fractions that follow a log-normal function and estimate the cosmic variance σv as the intrinsic dispersion of the observed distribution. We develop a maximum likelihood estimator to measure a reliable σv and avoid the dispersion due to the observational errors (including the Poisson shot noise term). Results: The cosmic variance σv of the merger fraction depends mainly on (i) the number density of the populations under study for both the principal (n1) and the companion (n2) galaxy in the close pair and (ii) the probed cosmic volume Vc. We do not find a significant dependence on either the search radius used to define close companions, the redshift, or the physical selection (luminosity or stellar mass) of the samples. Conclusions: We have estimated the cosmic variance that affects the measurement of the merger fraction by close pairs from observations. We provide a parametrisation of the cosmic variance with n1, n2, and Vc, σv ∝ n1-0.54Vc-0.48 (n_2/n_1)-0.37 . Thanks to this prescription, future merger fraction studies based on close pairs could properly account for the cosmic variance on their results. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA) at Heidelberg and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC).Appendix is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. Blogging for Self-reflection among Pre-service English Language Teachers in Saudi Arabia: An Exploratory Study of Students' Own Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al Khateeb

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the involvement of blogging as a novel practice within a graduation project course for undergraduate students. The course involves writing a sound research proposal followed by accomplishing research in one of three main areas of study: linguistics, literature and translation. The participants consisted of fifty-five students learning E nglish as foreign language. They managed to create their own personal blogs, using Blogger, which were personal journals composed of their reflections and understanding of the process of writing a research paper in the form of multimodal literacy. The analysis of the data was qualitatively based through two means: an analysis of blog content and an open-survey for those who create such blogs. The survey includes questions such as whether the participants want to use blogging for other courses or not and why and what the merits and demerits of integrating blogs are with remaining courses. Through this practice, the students started to build on existing writing experience along with maximizing opportunities for autonomous thinking. This practice has also led the participants to consider writing research projects for advanced levels such as how to write a Masters dissertation. Keywords: Blogging, Self-reflection, Writing, Teachers of English as a foreign language, a research paper

  19. A review of neuroimaging studies of race-related prejudice: does amygdala response reflect threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekroud, Adam M.; Everett, Jim A. C.; Bridge, Holly; Hewstone, Miles

    2014-01-01

    Prejudice is an enduring and pervasive aspect of human cognition. An emergent trend in modern psychology has focused on understanding how cognition is linked to neural function, leading researchers to investigate the neural correlates of prejudice. Research in this area using racial group memberships has quickly highlighted the amygdala as a neural structure of importance. In this article, we offer a critical review of social neuroscientific studies of the amygdala in race-related prejudice. Rather than the dominant interpretation that amygdala activity reflects a racial or outgroup bias per se, we argue that the observed pattern of sensitivity in this literature is best considered in terms of potential threat. More specifically, we argue that negative culturally-learned associations between black males and potential threat better explain the observed pattern of amygdala activity. Finally, we consider future directions for the field and offer specific experiments and predictions to directly address unanswered questions. PMID:24734016

  20. A review of neuroimaging studies of race-related prejudice: Does amygdala response reflect threat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Mourad Chekroud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Prejudice is an enduring and pervasive aspect of human cognition. An emergent trend in modern psychology has focused on understanding how cognition is linked to neural function, leading researchers to investigate the neural correlates of prejudice. Research in this area, using racial group memberships, quickly highlighted the amygdala as a neural structure of importance. In this article, we offer a critical review of social neuroscientific studies of the amygdala in race-related prejudice. Rather than the dominant interpretation that amygdala activity reflects a racial or outgroup bias per se, we argue that the observed pattern of sensitivity in this literature is best considered in terms of potential threat. More specifically, we argue that negative culturally-learned associations between black males and potential threat better explain the observed pattern of amygdala activity. Finally, we consider future directions for the field, and offer specific experiments and predictions to directly address unanswered questions.

  1. Longitudinal acoustic waves in layered media: Comparative study of Raman scattering and reflection delay time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Boudouti, E H; Zelmat, R; Bailich, R [LDOM, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mohamed I, 60000 Oujda (Morocco); Hassouani, Y El [Universite de Bordeaux, Laboratoire de Mecanique Physique, Talence F-33405 (France); Djafari-Rouhani, B, E-mail: elboudouti@yahoo.f [Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie, UMR CNRS 8520, UFR de Physique, Universite de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2010-03-01

    Using a Green's function method, we present a theoretical analysis of the propagation of acoustic waves in multilayer structures. The structure studied consists of a finite superlattice (SL) made of a periodic repetition of N unit cells deposited on a substrate. Such a structure exhibits extended modes constituting the allowed bands separated by forbidden bands where localized modes associated to free surfaces, defect layers, ... may exist. These modes can be observed either by Raman scattering when an incident light is launched from vacuum towards the multilayer, or by the reflection delay time when an incident acoustic wave is launched from the substrate. Specific applications of our results are given for some available experiments in the literature (e.g., Si/Ge{sub x}Si{sub 1-x}, GaSb-AlSb) and a good agreement has been obtained between our theoretical results and the experimental data.

  2. Studies on the grain boundary effect in polycrystalline CdTe films using optical reflectance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, J. (Dept. of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Calcutta (India)); Pal, R. (Dept. of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Calcutta (India)); Bhattacharyya, S.K. (Central Glass and Ceramic Research Inst., Calcutta (India)); Chaudhuri, S. (Dept. of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Calcutta (India)); Pal, A.K. (Dept. of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Calcutta (India))

    1993-11-15

    The grain boundary effect in polycrystalline CdTe films deposited at various substrate temperatures has been studied critically. The grain boundary potential, the density of trap states at the boundary region and the carrier concentration in the films were obtained by an alternative technique that utilizes the reflectance measurements of the highly resistive films deposited on a nonabsorbing substrate. The barrier height in the CdTe films decreased from 0.34 to 0.2 eV as the grain size increased from 60 to 133 nm, owing to the increase in the deposition temperature from 373 to 523 K. Correspondingly, the density of trap states in the grain boundary region decreased from 1.63x10[sup 13] to 6.15x10[sup 12] cm[sup -2]. (orig.)

  3. Mathematics teacher professional development in and through internet use: reflections on an ethnographic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patahuddin, Sitti Maesuri

    2013-12-01

    This paper is a reflection on a model for mathematics teacher professional development with respect to technology. The model was informed by three interrelated concepts: (1) a theory of teacher professional development from analysis of the field, (2) the zone theory of teacher professional learning, and (3) ethnography as a method. The model was applied in a study that focused on the uses of the Internet for primary mathematics teacher professional development, particularly to exploit the potential of the Internet for professional learning and to use it in professional work. This is illustrated through selected critical events over an eight-month ethnographic intervention in a primary mathematics classroom in Australia. Though the model is theoretically grounded, it opens up questions about the power, potential, and challenges as well as its feasibility, with respect to not only the teacher but also the ethnographer.

  4. An attenuated total reflectance mid infrared (ATR-MIR) spectroscopy study of gelatinization in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, D; Roumeliotis, S; Eglinton, J

    2014-08-08

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of attenuated total reflectance and mid infrared (ATR-MIR) spectroscopy and to understand the gelatinization and retro-gradation of flour barley samples and the relationship with malting quality. Samples were sourced from two commercial barley varieties exhibiting high hot water extract (HWE) namely Navigator (n=8), and Admiral (n=8). Samples were analysed using the Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA) and ATR-MIR analysis. These results showed that ATR-MIR spectroscopy is capable of characterising gel samples derived from barley flour samples having different malting characteristics. Infrared spectra can effectively represent a 'fingerprint' of the sample being analysed and can be used to simplify and reduce analytical times in the routine methods currently used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Phthalocyanine identification in paintings by reflectance spectroscopy. A laboratory and in situ study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poldi, G.; Caglio, S.

    2013-06-01

    The importance of identifying pigments using non invasive (n.i.) analyses has gained increasing importance in the field of spectroscopy applied to art conservation and art studies. Among the large set of pigments synthesized and marketed during 20th century, surely phthalocyanine blue and green pigments occupy an important role in the field of painting (including restoration) and printing, thanks to their characteristics like brightness and fastness. This research focused on the most used phthalocyanine blue (PB15:1 and PB15:3) and green pigments (PG7), and on the possibility to identify these organic compounds using a methodology like reflectance spectroscopy in the UV, visible and near IR range (UV-vis-NIR RS), performed easily through portable instruments. Laboratory tests and three examples carried out on real paintings are discussed.

  6. Kinetic and modeling studies on ETBE pyrolysis behind reflected shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaga, Kenji; Kuraguchi, Yuma; Hidaka, Yoshiaki; Takahashi, Osamu; Yamada, Hiroshi; Koike, Tohru

    2008-01-01

    The high temperature pyrolysis of ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) was studied behind reflected shock waves coupled with the single-pulse method and UV (195 nm) absorption spectroscopy in the temperature range 1000-1500 K at total pressures ranging between 1.0 and 9.0 atm. The energies of ETBE and transition states for the reactions ETBE = iso-C 4H 8 + C 2H 5OH (1) and ETBE = C 2H 4 + tert-C 4H 9OH (2) were calculated at the MP4/cc-pVTZ//MP2/cc-pVTZ level of theory. A 170-reaction mechanism was constructed to explain the product distribution. From the UV absorption experiment, the rate coefficient k1 = 1.7 × 10 14exp(-254.0 kJ mol -1/RT) s -1 was found to reach its high-pressure limit.

  7. Comparative study of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in transmission, attenuated total reflection, and total reflection modes for the analysis of plastics in the cultural heritage field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picollo, Marcello; Bartolozzi, Giovanni; Cucci, Costanza; Galeotti, Monica; Marchiafava, Veronica; Pizzo, Benedetto

    2014-01-01

    This study was completed within the framework of two research projects dealing with the conservation of contemporary artworks. The first is the Seventh Framework Project (FP7) of the European Union, Preservation of Plastic ARTefacts in Museum Collections (POPART), spanning years 2008-2012, and the second is the Italian project funded by the Tuscan Region, Preventive Conservation of Contemporary Art (Conservazione Preventiva dell'Arte Contemporanea (COPAC)), spanning 2011-2013. Both of these programs pointed out the great importance of having noninvasive and portable analytical techniques that can be used to investigate and characterize modern and contemporary artworks, especially those consisting of synthetic polymers. Indeed, despite the extensive presence of plastics in museum collections, there is still a lack of analytical tools for identifying, characterizing, and setting up adequate conservation strategies for these materials. In this work, the potentials of in situ and noninvasive Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, implemented by means of portable devices that operate in reflection mode, are investigated with a view to applying the results in large-scale surveys of plastic objects in museums. To this end, an essential prerequisite are the reliability of spectral data acquired in situ and the availability of spectral databases acquired from reference materials. A collection of polymeric samples, which are available commercially as ResinKit, was analyzed to create a reference spectral archive. All the spectra were recorded using three FT-IR configurations: transmission (trans), attenuated total reflection (ATR), and total reflection (TR). A comparative evaluation of the data acquired using the three instrumental configurations is presented, together with an evaluation of the similarity percentages and a discussion of the critical cases.

  8. A Preliminary Study on Identification of Clay Minerals in Soils with Reference to Reflectance Spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUBIN-BIN; LIDE-CHENG; 等

    1995-01-01

    The characteristics of the reflectance spectra of clay minerals and their influences on the reflectance spectra of soils are dealt with in the paper.The results showed that dominant clay minerals in soils could be distinguished in light of the spectral -form parameters of the reflectance spectra of soils,thus making it possible to develop a quick method to determine clay minerals by means of reflectance spectra of soils in the lab.and providing a theoretic basis for remote sensing of clay minerals in soils with a high resolution imaging spectrometer.

  9. Takotsubo syndrome – A close connection to the brain: A prospective study investigating neuropsychiatric traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina N. Mayer

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The study highlights a high prevalence of psychiatric and neurologic comorbidities in patients with TTS, which so far have been under-diagnosed. Future studies will have to show whether these patients might benefit from a combined psychocardiologic rehabilitation.

  10. Fact or fiction? A longitudinal study of play and the development of reflective functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, V P; Normandin, L; Ensink, K; Fonagy, P

    2016-01-01

    In Fonagy and Target's (1996, 2000) developmental model of mentalization, play is theorized as a precursor of later mentalization and reflective function (RF); however, the relationship between play and later mentalization and RF has yet to be empirically tested. These processes are particularly important in the context of trauma, but an empirical model of the relationships among mentalization, play, and trauma is currently lacking. The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine whether children's capacity to engage in pretend play, to symbolize, and to make play narratives was associated with later RF in those children. Thirty-nine sexually abused children and 21 nonabused children (aged 3 to 8) participated in the study. The Children's Play Therapy Instrument was used to assess children's free play. Three years after the play assessment, children's RF was assessed using the Child Attachment Interview, coded with the Child and Adolescent Reflective Functioning Scale. Pretend play completion was associated with later other-understanding. Play was also found to mediate the relationship between sexual abuse and children's later mentalization regarding others. These findings are consistent with Fonagy and Target's emphasis on the role of pretend play in the development of a nuanced sense of the qualities of the mind and reality. In sum, the findings lend support to Fonagy and Target's account of playing with reality, and the development of mentalization suggests that it may be more than "fiction." Furthermore, these results suggest that children's ability to create meaningful and coherent play sequences after sexual abuse is associated with the development of a better understanding of their relationships with others. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.

  11. Detection of cervical lesions by multivariate analysis of diffuse reflectance spectra: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabitha, Vasumathi Gopala; Suchetha, Sambasivan; Jayanthi, Jayaraj Lalitha; Baiju, Kamalasanan Vijayakumary; Rema, Prabhakaran; Anuraj, Koyippurath; Mathews, Anita; Sebastian, Paul; Subhash, Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance (DR) spectroscopy is a non-invasive, real-time, and cost-effective tool for early detection of malignant changes in squamous epithelial tissues. The present study aims to evaluate the diagnostic power of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for non-invasive discrimination of cervical lesions in vivo. A clinical trial was carried out on 48 sites in 34 patients by recording DR spectra using a point-monitoring device with white light illumination. The acquired data were analyzed and classified using multivariate statistical analysis based on principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Diagnostic accuracies were validated using random number generators. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted for evaluating the discriminating power of the proposed statistical technique. An algorithm was developed and used to classify non-diseased (normal) from diseased sites (abnormal) with a sensitivity of 72 % and specificity of 87 %. While low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) could be discriminated from normal with a sensitivity of 56 % and specificity of 80 %, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) from normal with a sensitivity of 89 % and specificity of 97 %, LSIL could be discriminated from HSIL with 100 % sensitivity and specificity. The areas under the ROC curves were 0.993 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.0 to 1) and 1 (95 % CI 1) for the discrimination of HSIL from normal and HSIL from LSIL, respectively. The results of the study show that DR spectroscopy could be used along with multivariate analytical techniques as a non-invasive technique to monitor cervical disease status in real time.

  12. Combined Studies of ODP log Data and Seismic Reflection Data at Southern Hydrate Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papenberg, C. A.; Petersen, J.; Klaeschen, D.

    2003-12-01

    In August 2002 Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 204 (Hydrate Ridge) provided essential borehole data to complement recent seismic studies at Hydrate Ridge to correlate amplitude analysis investigations and to constrain previous results. Seismic data was acquired during cruise SO-150 in September 2000 on the German RV SONNE, aiming at qualitative and quantitative estimates of free gas and gas hydrates within the sediments across Hydrate Ridge. Hydrate Ridge is part of the accretionary complex and is characterized by the presence of extensive gas hydrates, causing a prominent Bottom Simulating Reflector (BSR) in marine seismic records. Several seismic in- and crosslines were shot across the ridge to map the spatial distribution of the BSR. Wide angle reflection data of narrowly spaced Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) allow frequency dependent amplitude variations with offset (AVO) investigations. Seismic reflection data, recorded simultaneously with a single channel surface and deep tow streamer completed the data set. The usage of different sources during acquisition provided additional information of the frequency response of the BSR signature. This data set was used to study the complex seismic behaviour of such gas hydrate environments in detail. The borehole data, collected during ODP Leg 204, now improve recent seismic investigations and support previous results. Within the COLIBRI project log information (Vp, Vs and density) was used for forward modeling to combine seismic investigations with new borehole data. The P wave velocity model of a traveltime inversion and AVO analysis of the seismic OBS sections suggest rather low quantities of gas hydrate or at least the lack of massive hydrate zones. Shear wave phases, identified in the seismic OBS sections, refer to slow S wave velocities in the upper sediment layers above the BSR, which support a model with small amounts of hydrate or patchy hydrate zones within the upper sediments.

  13. Comparative Study of Two Daylighting Analysis Methods with Regard to Window Orientation and Interior Wall Reflectance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeo Beom Yoon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy and speed of the daylighting analysis developed for use in EnergyPlus is better than its predecessors. In EnergyPlus, the detailed method uses the Split-flux algorithm whereas the DElight method uses the Radiosity algorithm. Many existing studies have addressed the two methods, either individually or compared with other daylight analysis methods like Ray tracing but still there is lack of detailed comparative study of these two methods. Our previous studies show that the Split-flux method overestimates the illuminance, especially for the areas away from the window. The Radiosity method has the advantage of accurately predicting this illuminance because of how it deals with the diffuse light. For this study, the EnergyPlus model, which has been calibrated using data measured in a real building in previous studies, has also been used. The calibrated model has a south oriented window only. This model is then used to analyze the interior illuminance inside the room for north, west and east orientation of the window by rotating the model and by changing the wall reflectance of the model with south oriented window. Direct and diffuse component of the illuminance as well as the algorithms have been compared for a detailed analysis.

  14. Study on the effect of ambient gas on nanostructure formation on metal surfaces during femtosecond laser ablation for fabrication of low-reflective surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smausz, Tomi; Csizmadia, Tamás; Tápai, Csaba; Kopniczky, Judit; Oszkó, Albert; Ehrhardt, Martin; Lorenz, Pierre; Zimmer, Klaus; Prager, Andrea; Hopp, Béla

    2016-12-01

    Nanostructure formation on bulk metals (silver, gold, copper and titanium) by femtosecond Ti-sapphire laser irradiation (775 nm, 150 fs) is studied aiming the production of low-reflectivity surfaces and the better understanding of the development process. The experiments were performed in nitrogen, air, oxygen and helium environments at atmospheric pressure. The samples were irradiated with fluences in the 0.1-2 J/cm2 range and an average pulse number of 100 falling over a given area. The reflectivity of the treated surfaces was determined by a microspectrometer in the 450-800 nm range and their morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The gas ambience influenced the results via two effects: formation processes and the chemically-induced modifications of the nanostructures. In case of He the nanoparticle aggregates-otherwise generally present-are predominantly missing, which leads to a lower darkening efficiency. The presence of oxygen enhances the darkening effect for copper mostly at lower fluences, while causes a slow increase in reflectivity in the case of titanium (in case of pure oxygen) in the high fluence range. The surface morphology in case of nitrogen and air were quite similar probably due to their close molecular mass values.

  15. Numerical study of reflectance imaging using a parallel Monte Carlo method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Lu, Jun Q; Li, Kai; Zhao, Suisheng; Brock, R Scott; Hu, Xin-Hua

    2007-07-01

    Reflectance imaging of biological tissues with visible and near-infrared light has the significant potential to provide a noninvasive and safe imaging modality for diagnosis of dysplastic and malignant lesions in the superficial tissue layers. The difficulty in the extraction of optical and structural parameters lies in the lack of efficient methods for accurate modeling of light scattering in biological tissues of turbid nature. We present a parallel Monte Carlo method for accurate and efficient modeling of reflectance images from turbid tissue phantoms. A parallel Monte Carlo code has been developed with the message passing interface and evaluated on a computing cluster with 16 processing elements. The code was validated against the solutions of the radiative transfer equation on the bidirectional reflection and transmission functions. With this code we investigated numerically the dependence of reflectance image on the imaging system and phantom parameters. The contrasts of reflectance images were found to be nearly independent of the numerical aperture (NA) of the imaging camera despite the fact that reflectance depends on the NA. This enables efficient simulations of the reflectance images using an NA at 1.00. Using heterogeneous tissue phantoms with an embedded region simulating a lesion, we investigated the correlation between the reflectance image profile or contrast and the phantom parameters. It has been shown that the image contrast approaches 0 when the single-scattering albedos of the two regions in the heterogeneous phantoms become matched. Furthermore, a zone of detection has been demonstrated for determination of the thickness of the embedded region and optical parameters from the reflectance image profile and contrast. Therefore, the utility of the reflectance imaging method with visible and near-infrared light has been firmly established. We conclude from these results that the optical parameters of the embedded region can be determined inversely

  16. Remote sensing study of the influence of herbicides on the spectral reflectance of pea plant leaves (Pisum sativum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezhova, D.; Alexieva, V.; Yanev, T.; Ivanov, S.

    Results from a remote sensing study of spectral reflectance of leaves of pea plants Pisum sativum L treated by the herbicides atrazine 2 4-D glyphosate fluridone and chlorsulfuron are reported According to the classification of the Herbicide Action Committee reflecting their mode of action they belong to different groups photosystem II bloker - C1 atrazine synthetic auxins - O 2 4-D inhibition of EPSP synthase - G glyphosate photobleaching - F1 fluridone and inhibition of acetoctate synthase - B chlorsulfuron The plants studied were grown hydroponically in a growth chamber in a nutritious medium to which every herbicide was added at three low concentrations 1 mu M 0 1 mu M and 0 01 mu M with respect to the field dose applied in the agricultural practice The spectral measurements of the leaf spectral reflectance were carried out in laboratory using a multichannel spectrometer in the visible and near infrared regions of the spectrum 480 div 810 nm Data was registered in 128 channels at a high spectral resolution of 2 6 nm halfwidth and a spatial resolution of 2 mm 2 The reflectance spectra were obtained from the leaf-reflected radiation referenced against a standard white screen To assess the changes arising in the leaf spectral reflectance under the herbicide action the developed by us approach based on discriminant analysis and other statistical methods was applied The spectral reflectance characteristics SRC were investigated in three spectral intervals 520 div 580 nm region of maximal

  17. Unifying Spectral and Timing Studies of Relativistic Reflection in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Christopher

    X-ray observations of active galactic nuclei (AGN) contain a wealth of information relevant for understanding the structure of AGN, the process of accretion, and the gravitational physics of supermassive black holes. A particularly exciting development over the past four years has been the discovery and subsequent characterization of time delays between variability of the X-ray power-law continuum and the inner disk reflection spectrum including the broad iron line. The fact that the broad iron line shows this echo, or reverberation, in XMM-Newton, Suzaku and NuSTAR data is a strong confirmation of the disk reflection paradigm and has already been used to place constraints on the extent and geometry of the X-ray corona. However, current studies of AGN X-ray variability, including broad iron line reverberation, are only scratching the surface of the available data. At the present time, essentially all studies conduct temporal analyzes in a manner that is largely divorced from detailed spectroscopy - consistency between timing results (e.g., conclusions regarding the location of the primary X-ray source) and detailed spectral fits is examined after the fact. We propose to develop and apply new analysis tools for conducting a truly unified spectraltiming analysis of the X-ray properties of AGN. Operationally, this can be thought of as spectral fitting except with additional parameters that are accessing the temporal properties of the dataset. Our first set of tools will be based on Fourier techniques (via the construction and fitting of the energy- and frequency-dependent cross-spectrum) and most readily applicable to long observations of AGN with XMM-Newton. Later, we shall develop more general schemes (of a more Bayesian nature) that can operate on irregularly sampled data or quasi-simultaneous data from multiple instruments. These shall be applied to the long joint XMM-Newton/NuSTAR and Suzaku/NuSTAR AGN campaigns as well as Swift monitoring campaigns. Another

  18. A study on reflection pattern of swells from the shoreline of peninsular India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anoop, T.R.; SanilKumar, V.; Johnson, G.

    Information on reflected surface gravity waves from the shoreline is required for understanding the coastal hydrodynamics. We have quantified the reflected swells (frequency band 0.045–0.12 Hz) from the west and east coast of India based...

  19. Reflective Practices in Professional Learning Communities: A Case Study of the Missouri Professional Learning Communities Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Dewey (1933) provided the foundation for reflective practice in education with the notion that learning is not in the doing, but rather it is in the thinking about the doing that creates learning. Evidence is growing about the importance of reflection for improving teaching and learning practices to increase student achievement (York-Barr, et al.,…

  20. Development of Strategic Skills in Impulsive and Reflective Children: A Longitudinal Study of Metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Beth E.; Borkowski, John G.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the relationships between metamemory and strategic behavior in impulsive and reflective children. Children in three experimental groups received (1) prose summarization instructions; (2) summarization instructions in conjunction with meta-cognitive training about the importance of a reflective approach to learning; or (3) no instructions.…

  1. A Psycholinguistic Study of the Reflection of First Language Acquisition in Bilingualism: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reem omar maghrabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on fossilization and its influence on language acquisition processes. It attempts to trace the phonological errors to decide what factors affect the occurrence of phonological fossilization. The study will trace the existence of phonological linguistic processes underlying segmental sound change such as segment addition, segment loss, segment movement, and segment substitution. The study is done on two types of speech; spontaneous and formal speech by a bilingual. Therefore, this will help to seek whether fossilization could be attributed to other factors rather than L1 acquisition processes. It has been found that L1 acquisition processes such as, overgeneralization, simplification and transfer play a considerable role in phonological fossilization in the aforementioned types of speech. It is found that fossilization occurs more frequently in formal speech than in spontaneous speech. The unconscious production of the second language speaker (i.e. the bilingual is minimizing the phonological fossilized errors. Hence, there may be a correlation between the consciousness and the frequency of the fossilized phonological errors in the speech.

  2. [Study on the Character Relationship Between the Density and Susceptibility of the Rock and the Reflection Spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng-long; Yang, Chang-bao; Liu, Wan-song; Wu, Yan-gang; Zhang, Chen-xi

    2015-08-01

    It chooses 15 kinds of rock from the three major rock categories as the rock samples (the number of rock samples is 208) and obtains the density, susceptibility and reflection spectrum at the wave band of 350~2500 nm. It calculates the correlative coefficients with the aim of studying the characteristic relationship between the property (including the density and the susceptibility) of the rock and the reflectivity. It concludes the wave band of the reflection spectrum which owes the prospect to discuss the density and susceptibility of the rock qualitatively or quantitatively, meanwhile, it sums up the characteristic of the curves of the correlative coefficients. In this paper, the discussion and analysis based on the results show that the study on the character relationship between the property of rock (density and susceptibility) and the reflection spectrum is meaningful and workable.

  3. Effluent Tenascin-C Levels Reflect Peritoneal Deterioration in Peritoneal Dialysis: MAJOR IN PD Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Hirahara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peritoneal deterioration causing structural changes and functional decline is a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD. The aim of this study was to explore effluent biomarkers reflecting peritoneal deterioration. In an animal study, rats were intraperitoneally administered with PD fluids adding 20 mM methylglyoxal (MGO or 20 mM formaldehyde (FA every day for 21 days. In the MGO-treated rats, tenascin-C (TN-C levels in the peritoneal effluents were remarkably high and a cluster of TN-C-positive mesothelial cells with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition- (EMT- like change excessively proliferated at the peritoneal surface, but not in the FA-treated rats. Effluent matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 levels increased in both the MGO- and FA-treated rats. In a clinical study at 18 centers between 2006 and 2013, effluent TN-C and MMP-2 levels were quantified in 182 PD patients with end-stage renal disease. Peritoneal function was estimated using the peritoneal equilibration test (PET. From the PET results, the D/P Cr ratio was correlated with effluent levels of TN-C (ρ = 0.57, p<0.001 and MMP-2 (ρ = 0.73, p<0.001. We suggest that TN-C in the effluents may be a diagnostic marker for peritoneal deterioration with EMT-like change in mesothelial cells in PD.

  4. X-ray reflectivity study of bias graded diamond like carbon film synthesized by ECR plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R M Dey; S K Deshpande; S B Singh; N Chand; D S Patil; S K Kulkarni

    2013-02-01

    Diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings were deposited on silicon substrates by microwave electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma CVD process using plasma of Ar and CH4 gases under the influence of negative d.c. self bias generated on the substrates by application of RF (13.56 MHz) power. The negative bias voltage was varied from −60 V to −150 V during deposition of DLC films on Si substrate. Detailed X-ray reflectivity (XRR) study was carried out to find out film properties like surface roughness, thickness and density of the films as a function of variation of negative bias voltage. The study shows that the DLC films constituted of composite layer i.e. the upper sub surface layer followed by denser bottom layer representing the bulk of the film. The upper layer is relatively thinner as compared to the bottom layer. The XRR study was an attempt to substantiate the sub-plantation model for DLC film growth.

  5. The study of the Christianization of the Nordic countries: some reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnhild Bjerre Finnestad

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is some problems that appear in the study of the transition from old Norse religion to Christianity, which requires further reflection. The problems may be said to arise from the need for clearer and more pragmatic definitions of analytical categories and, also, for more precise explications of the object of study. One of the most popular concerns of the study has been to ask whether a particular idea or custom or value is "Christian" or "old Norse". Often the question tacitly, but evidently, presupposes that "Christianity" and "old Norse religion" refer to well-defined sets of ideas, customs, and values, fixed within their respective systems. But, in the first place, Christianity did not come as a homogeneous entity to the North, but as differing versions. There are grounds for presuming that "old Norse" religion displayed a heterogeneous picture, as well. Secondly, no living religion is fixed, but is continually changing. Among the most influential factors in this dynamic process are what a religion adopts from other religions, and in this respect Christianity and old Norse religion have influenced each other over a long period of time, a fact which complicates the question of identity.

  6. Reflection and Non-Reflection of Particle Wavepackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Timothy; Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Exact closed-form solutions of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation are obtained, describing the propagation of wavepackets in the neighbourhood of a potential. Examples given include zero reflection, total reflection and partial reflection of the wavepacket, for the sech[superscript 2]x/a, 1/x[superscript 2] and delta(x) potentials,…

  7. Performance study involving a force-reflecting joystick for spastic individuals performing two types of tracking tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repperger, D W; Phillips, C A; Chelette, T L

    1995-10-01

    10 upper-extremity spastic subjects and 10 normal subjects were studied with a force-reflecting joystick in the performance of a continuous time-tracking task as well as an acquisition task termed, "Fitts' Law." Certain force-reflection paradigms, in a spatial sense, allowed the spastic subjects to obtain performance proficiency near levels of the normal subjects as measured by a capacity metric.

  8. Theoretical study of closed-loop recycling liquid-liquid chromatography and experimental verification of the theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanyan, Artak E; Erastov, Andrey A

    2016-09-02

    The non-ideal recycling equilibrium-cell model including the effects of extra-column dispersion is used to simulate and analyze closed-loop recycling counter-current chromatography (CLR CCC). Previously, the operating scheme with the detector located before the column was considered. In this study, analysis of the process is carried out for a more realistic and practical scheme with the detector located immediately after the column. Peak equation for individual cycles and equations describing the transport of single peaks and complex chromatograms inside the recycling closed-loop, as well as equations for the resolution between single solute peaks of the neighboring cycles, for the resolution of peaks in the recycling chromatogram and for the resolution between the chromatograms of the neighboring cycles are presented. It is shown that, unlike conventional chromatography, increasing of the extra-column volume (the recycling line length) may allow a better separation of the components in CLR chromatography. For the experimental verification of the theory, aspirin, caffeine, coumarin and the solvent system hexane/ethyl acetate/ethanol/water (1:1:1:1) were used. Comparison of experimental and simulated processes of recycling and distribution of the solutes in the closed-loop demonstrated a good agreement between theory and experiment.

  9. A Study of Deep CNN-Based Classification of Open and Closed Eyes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Wan Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The necessity for the classification of open and closed eyes is increasing in various fields, including analysis of eye fatigue in 3D TVs, analysis of the psychological states of test subjects, and eye status tracking-based driver drowsiness detection. Previous studies have used various methods to distinguish between open and closed eyes, such as classifiers based on the features obtained from image binarization, edge operators, or texture analysis. However, when it comes to eye images with different lighting conditions and resolutions, it can be difficult to find an optimal threshold for image binarization or optimal filters for edge and texture extraction. In order to address this issue, we propose a method to classify open and closed eye images with different conditions, acquired by a visible light camera, using a deep residual convolutional neural network. After conducting performance analysis on both self-collected and open databases, we have determined that the classification accuracy of the proposed method is superior to that of existing methods.

  10. Study of validation of the Portuguese version of the inventory «Experiences in Close Relationships»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Alexandra Paiva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The ‗Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory‘ permits to evaluate attachment in close relationships during adulthood based on two dimensions able to be present in this kind of relationships: the avoidance of proximity and the anxiety related with to abandonment. It is a self-report 7- points likert scale composed by 36 items. The Portuguese version was administered to a sample of 551 university students (60% female, the majority with ages between 19 and 24 years old (88% in a dating relationship (86%. The principal components analysis with oblimin rotation was performed. The total scale has good internal consistency (α=.86, as also has the 2 sub-scales: anxiety (α=.86 and avoidance (α=.88. The two dimensions evaluated are significantly correlated with socio-demographics, relational characteristics (jealousy, relationship distress, and compromise, wishes (enmeshment versus differentiation and fears (abandonment versus control related to attitudes in significant relationships, which testify the construct validity of the instrument. The results obtained are coherent with the original version and other ECR‘s adaptations. Practitioners and researchers in the context of clinical psychology and related areas have now at their disposal the Portuguese version of the ECR inventory, which has shown its very high usefulness in the study of close relationships, and specifically attachment in adulthood.

  11. Close Encounters with Nature in an Urban Kindergarten: A Study of Learners' Inquiry and Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafouri, Farveh

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a recent qualitative grounded theory research study in a metropolitan area in the south-east of Canada examining one junior/senior kindergarten classroom's engagement with nature. It focuses on the role of the learners, the children and the teacher, in co-constructing two very different learning experiences.…

  12. Teaching with a Closed Mind: The Threat of Censorship in the Social Studies Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Kenneth W.

    1990-01-01

    Traces the history of censorship. Examines the current censorship controversy, focusing on the conflict over censorship in the schools. Discusses organizations concerned with censorship issues and identifies specific instances of censorship in the social studies. Outlines censorship tactics, and presents positive reactions to take toward…

  13. Prediction of sound reflection by corrugated porous surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, J-F; Dazel, O; Gautier, G; Groby, J-P; Lauriks, W

    2011-04-01

    The coupled mode (CM) and finite-element methods (FEMs) are developed and used to predict the acoustic reflection coefficient of a semi-infinite porous medium with closely spaced two-dimensional (2D) periodical corrugations. These methods are also applied to predict the reflection coefficient of a periodic array of porous corrugations installed on an acoustically rigid surface. It is shown that the predictions by the both methods agree closely. The reflection coefficient and Brewster angle of total refraction for the corrugated semi-infinite medium predicted with these methods are compared against that predicted by the Biot/Tolstoy/Howe/Twersky and extended Twersky models. A similar analysis is carried out for porous corrugations set on a rigid backing. The behavior of the reflection coefficient and the pole in the expression for the reflection coefficient located close to grazing incidence is studied.

  14. Constrained Hartree-Fock Theory and Study of Deformed Structures of Closed Shell Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praharaj, Choudhury

    2016-03-01

    We have studied some N or Z = 50 nuclei in a microscopic model with effective interaction in a reasonably large shell model space. Excitation of particles across 50 shell closure leads to well-deformed excited prolate configurations. The potential energy surfaces of nuclei are studied using Hartree-Fock theory with quadrupole constraint to explore the various deformed configurations of N = 50 nuclei 82Ge , 84Se and 86Kr . Energy spectra are calculated from various intrinsic states using Peierls-Yoccoz angular momentum projection technique. Results of spectra and electromagnetic moments and transitions will be presented for N = 50 nuclei and for Z = 50 114Sn nucleus. Supported by Grant No SB/S2/HEP-06/2013 of DST.

  15. Studying Closed Hydrodynamic Models of “In Vivo” DNA Perfusion in Pig Liver for Gene Therapy Translation to Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendra, Luis; Miguel, Antonio; Pérez-Enguix, Daniel; Montalvá, Eva; García-Gimeno, María Adelaida; Noguera, Inmaculada; Díaz, Ana; Pérez, Judith; Sanz, Pascual; López-Andújar, Rafael; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Aliño, Salvador F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Expressing exogenous genes after naked DNA delivery into hepatocytes might achieve sustained and high expression of human proteins. Tail vein DNA injection is an efficient procedure for gene transfer in murine liver. Hydrodynamic procedures in large animals require organ targeting, and improve with liver vascular exclusion. In the present study, two closed liver hydrofection models employing the human alpha-1-antitrypsin (hAAT) gene are compared to reference standards in order to evaluate their potential clinical interest. Material and Methods A solution of naked DNA bearing the hAAT gene was retrogradely injected in 7 pig livers using two different closed perfusion procedures: an endovascular catheterization-mediated procedure (n = 3) with infrahepatic inferior vena cava and portal vein blockage; and a surgery-mediated procedure (n = 4) with completely sealed liver. Gene transfer was performed through the suprahepatic inferior cava vein in the endovascular procedure and through the infrahepatic inferior vena cava in the surgical procedure. The efficiency of the procedures was evaluated 14 days after hydrofection by quantifying the hAAT protein copies per cell in tissue and in plasma. For comparison, samples from mice (n = 7) successfully hydrofected with hAAT and healthy human liver segments (n = 4) were evaluated. Results Gene decoding occurs efficiently using both procedures, with liver vascular arrest improving its efficiency. The surgically closed procedure (sealed organ) reached higher tissue protein levels (4x10^5- copies/cell) than the endovascular procedure, though the levels were lower than in human liver (5x10^6- copies/cell) and hydrofected mouse liver (10^6- copies/cell). However, protein levels in plasma were lower (p<0.001) than the reference standards in all cases. Conclusion Hydrofection of hAAT DNA to “in vivo” isolated pig liver mediates highly efficient gene delivery and protein expression in tissue. Both endovascular and

  16. The Ten Essential Shared Capabilities: reflections on education in values based practice: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonagle, Ian; Jackson, Christine S; Kane, Roslyn

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study exploring the impact of a values-based training initiative on the practice of mental health workers. This work is set within the context of increasing attention on the values of nurses and other health care workers as a response to national reports on care failure and negative media attention. To examine written response feedback from participants on a national training programme for values-based practice (VBP) in order to examine any intention to change practice. A national evaluation using quantitative and qualitative methodologies was conducted to gather data on reflections and self-report impact of the Ten Essential Shared Capabilities' training programme. The training was delivered in a range of hospital, community and third sector training programmes across eight regions in England. The participants were predominantly nurses but all sectors in the mental health community including service users as co-facilitators and participants were represented. This study presents the qualitative findings from a cross-sectional survey. Using NVIVO 10 software, data were analysed using the framework method of qualitative analysis. Four principal themes emerged from the data'Thinking differently''Changes to practice''Creating an effective learning environment and skills for practice development' and 'Increasing self-awareness'. The quality and safety drive in the NHS has an emphasis on delivery of evidence based practice. It was concluded that an active focus on values based practice merits equal attention and status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. X-ray reflectivity and diffuse studies of lipid bilayer stacks on solid substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Mukhopadhyay, M.; Ma, Y.; Sinha, Sunil K.; Decaro, C.; Berry, J.; Lurio, Laurence B.; Jiang, Z.; Brozell, A.; Bricarello, D.; Parikh, Atul N.

    2010-03-01

    Recently, major efforts have been made to study model lipid membranes supported on a solid substrate. A typical bilayer is characterized by its static structure and dynamic thermal fluctuations which are described by three physical quantities, the bending modulus, the surface tension, and the external potential due to a nearby surface or neighboring bilayers. The solid substrate affects both the static and dynamic behaviors of the bilayer deposited on its top. We have carried out a systematic study of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DPPE) bilayer stacks up to five bilayers prepared with Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and Langmuir-Schaeffer (LS) methods. A complete picture of the static bilayer structure, both in-plane and out of plane, and the dynamic fluctuations as a function of temperature and the number of stacks, i.e., the distance from the substrate, is obtained with x-ray reflectivity, Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS), and rocking scans. (Work supported by NSF, DMR0706369)

  18. The discourse of ethics in nursing education: experience and reflections of Brazilian teachers - case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza; de Pires, Denise Elvira Pires; Brehmer, Laura Cavalcanti de Farias; Gelbcke, Francine Lima; Schmoeller, Soraia Dornelles; Lorenzetti, Jorge

    2013-10-01

    From a scenario of political and technological changes in work and health education, the purpose of this study was to understand the ethics discourse in nurses' education process in Brazilian nursing schools. A research was performed with a qualitative approach, characterized as a case study, involving six schools of a region in the south of Brazil. The data were collected by focal groups involving 50 teachers. The results were organized in three categories: (1) experience and motivation to teach ethics and bioethics, (2) indicators of change identified in global and local contexts and (3) challenges in the education of ethics, values and related themes. The teachers have highlighted complex elements related to scientific, educational and professional contexts, and pointed out the need for a critical perspective on the professional scenario and on their own situations as nurses and educators. The analyzed discourse brings to light the topic of ethics, seen as peculiar to the present day and in intimate connection with the daily routine of clinical, pedagogical and political professional practices. The findings suggest that the reflections on nurses' ethics education should not be limited to discussing content and pedagogical strategies but should be extended to include a commitment to the adoption of values in professional practice and to the process of the construction of a professional identity.

  19. Environmental Collaborations Between Indigenous Communities and Western Science: Case Studies and Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, R. E.

    2016-12-01

    The study of coupled natural and human systems in a changing world can benefit greatly from indigenous perspectives, which have the potential to bring deep, placed-based understanding to complex environmental issues while promoting sustainable solutions to pressing socio-environmental problems. In recent years, scientists have begun to embrace indigenous knowledge and perspectives, but indigenous voices in the sciences remain relatively few. At the same time, indigenous communities face wide ranging and unique vulnerabilities to global environmental change on a variety of fronts, particularly where water resources are concerned. Given this situation, indigenous scientists often find themselves bridging both western scientific and indigenous communities, sometimes embodying the nexus in a literal sense. Here I reflect on this nexus from the perspective of an indigenous hydrologist collaborating with American Indian communities in North Carolina, which has the largest American Indian population of any state in the eastern US. Intertwining case studies of coupled natural and human systems illustrate some of the the challenges, complexities, and successes of ongoing collaborations with tribal communities and Native-serving organizations on water resource issues, environmental impacts of food and energy production, and broadening participation of American Indians in the sciences.

  20. Written reflection and drawing as assessment: A case study of a Navajo elementary science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Madeline

    The purpose of the study was to assess if science learning could be determined by using written reflection and drawings in a science classroom of 5 th-grade Navajo students. The significance of this study was the understanding of the culture, assessments and learning of Navajo students. I studied a classroom on the Navajo reservation wherein 26 members of the class took part in science instruction complemented by using writing and drawing which were used as their assessments. The perceptions of the 8 students who were interviewed represent the case. In the study I profiled the 8 participants. Their culture, language, and views on assessment and learning were documented by their words. Their responses described their learning experiences. Assessments were seen as frustrating and limiting expression of what was known and damaging when not contributed to learning. Students explained that drawing enabled them to remember along with provoking vocabulary development. Student cultural knowledge was documented as valuable background experience contributing to learning within the classroom. Students viewed science as needing to be useful in their culture. Finally, they were also very candid that their teachers must first get to know them for meaningful learning to begin. Learning for students was reinforced through writing and drawing the lesson's activities. Further concept development was assisted utilizing metacognition and creative problem solving techniques of elaboration and fluency applied to the writing and drawings. Based on the findings of this study, recommendations were made for use of holistic means of assessing Navajo children in science where preferred learning styles along with cultural background need to be included in assessment protocols. Using new and better assessment techniques can directly impact how students document their learning as well as reveal how they acquire new knowledge.

  1. Cognitive training transfer using a personal computer-based game: A close quarters battle case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Michael D.

    In this dissertation, liquid crystal (LC) materials and devices are investigated in order to meet the challenges for photonics and displays applications. We have studied three kinds of liquid crystal materials: positive dielectric anisotropic LCs, negative dielectric anisotropic LCs, and dual-frequency LCs. For the positive dielectric anisotropic LCs, we have developed some high birefringence isothiocyanato tolane LC compounds with birefringence ˜0.4, and super high birefringence isothiocyanato biphenyl-bistolane LC compounds with birefringence as high as ˜0.7. Moreover, we have studied the photostability of several high birefringence LC compounds, mixtures, and LC alignment layers in order to determine the failure mechanism concerning the lifetime of LC devices. Although cyano and isothiocyanato LC compounds have similar absorption peaks, the isothiocyanato compounds are more stable than their cyano counterparts under the same illumination conditions. This ultraviolet-durable performance of isothiocyanato compounds originates from its molecular structure and the delocalized electron distribution. We have investigated the alignment performance of negative dielectric anisotropic LCs in homeotropic (vertical aligned, VA) LC cell. Some (2, 3) laterally difluorinated biphenyls, terphenyls and tolanes are selected for this study. Due to the strong repulsive force between LCs and alignment layer, (2,3) laterally difluorinated terphenyls and tolanes do not align well in a VA cell resulting in a poor contrast ratio for the LC panel. We have developed a novel method to suppress the light leakage at dark state. By doping positive Deltaepsilon or non-polar LC compounds or mixtures into the host negative LC mixtures, the repulsive force is reduced and the cell exhibits an excellent dark state. In addition, these dopants increase the birefringence and reduce the viscosity of the host LCs which leads to a faster response time. In this dissertation, we investigate the

  2. A STUDY OF CLOSED INTERLOCKING NAILING FOR FRACTURES OF SHAFT OF FEMUR IN ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:-This study is to determine the clinical course and results after interlocking nailing for femoral shaft fractures , merits and demerits of interlocking nailing, achieving the final goals of femoral shaft fracture management with special references to time for radiological union, knee stiffness, limb length discrepancy, ambulation and return to work. Femur is the strongest and heaviest bone in the human skeleton. It is also the longest bone contributing 26% to height of an individual. Fractures of the shaft of the femur are among the most common fractures encountered in orthopaedic practice, can cause prolong morbidity and extensive disability unless treatment is appropriate. Many treatment modalities were described; with many surgeons advocating different methods of treatment .At present Interlocking nailing of the femur seems to be the ideal method of treatment for complex femoral fractures.

  3. Agent-based simulation of pedestrian behaviour in closed spaces: a museum case study

    CERN Document Server

    Pluchino, Alessandro; Inturri, Giuseppe; Rapisarda, Andrea; Ignaccolo, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    In order to analyse the behaviour of pedestrians at the very fine scale, while moving along the streets, in open spaces or inside a building, simulation modelling becomes an essential tool. In these spatial environments, in the presence of unusual demand flows, simulation requires the ability to model the local dynamics of individual decision making and behaviour, which is strongly affected by the geometry, randomness, social preferences, local and collective behaviour of other individuals. The dynamics of people visiting and evacuating a museum offers an excellent case study along this line. In this paper we realize an agent-based simulation of the Castello Ursino museum in Catania (Italy), evaluating its carrying capacity in terms of both satisfaction of the visitors in regime of normal fruition and their safety under alarm conditions.

  4. Smoking close to others and butt littering at bus stops: pilot observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Wilson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Transportation settings such as bus stops and train station platforms are increasingly the target for new smokefree legislation. Relevant issues include secondhand smoke exposure, nuisance, litter, fire risks and the normalization of smoking. We therefore aimed to pilot study aspects of smoking behavior and butt disposal at bus stops.Methods. Systematic observation of smoking and butt disposal by smokers at bus stops. The selection of 11 sites was a mix of convenience and purposeful (bus stops on main routes in two New Zealand cities.Results. During 27 h of observation, a total of 112 lit cigarettes were observed being smoked. Smoking occurred in the presence of: just adults (46%, both young people and adults (44%, just young people (6% and alone (5%. An average of 6.3 adults and 3.8 young people were present at the bus stops while smoking occurred, at average minimum distances of 1.7 and 2.2 m respectively. In bus stops that included an enclosed shelter, 33% of the cigarettes were smoked inside the shelter with others present. Littering was the major form of cigarette disposal with 84% of cigarettes smoked being littered (95% CI; 77%–90%. Also, 4% of disposals were into vegetation, which may pose a fire risk.Conclusions. This pilot study is limited by its small size and various methodological aspects but it appears to be a first attempt to provide observational evidence around smoking at bus stops. The issues described could be considered by policy makers who are investigating national smokefree laws or by-laws covering transportation settings.

  5. Smoking close to others and butt littering at bus stops: pilot observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Oliver, Jane; Thomson, George

    2014-01-01

    Background. Transportation settings such as bus stops and train station platforms are increasingly the target for new smokefree legislation. Relevant issues include secondhand smoke exposure, nuisance, litter, fire risks and the normalization of smoking. We therefore aimed to pilot study aspects of smoking behavior and butt disposal at bus stops. Methods. Systematic observation of smoking and butt disposal by smokers at bus stops. The selection of 11 sites was a mix of convenience and purposeful (bus stops on main routes) in two New Zealand cities. Results. During 27 h of observation, a total of 112 lit cigarettes were observed being smoked. Smoking occurred in the presence of: just adults (46%), both young people and adults (44%), just young people (6%) and alone (5%). An average of 6.3 adults and 3.8 young people were present at the bus stops while smoking occurred, at average minimum distances of 1.7 and 2.2 m respectively. In bus stops that included an enclosed shelter, 33% of the cigarettes were smoked inside the shelter with others present. Littering was the major form of cigarette disposal with 84% of cigarettes smoked being littered (95% CI; 77%-90%). Also, 4% of disposals were into vegetation, which may pose a fire risk. Conclusions. This pilot study is limited by its small size and various methodological aspects but it appears to be a first attempt to provide observational evidence around smoking at bus stops. The issues described could be considered by policy makers who are investigating national smokefree laws or by-laws covering transportation settings.

  6. The educational practice of preceptors in healthcare residencies: a study on reflective practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Regina Barros RIBEIRO

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to reflect on the practice of preceptorship as an educational practice in the training and qualifications of professional health information for the public health system. This is a theoretical reflection with support in the literature. The teacher addresses the teaching-learning process and transforms the activities in the work on educational moments. In this area arise questions about what is being preceptor and their role in health education. It is necessary to teach knowledge beyond the content of the discipline, and reflecting about preceptorship as an educational practice in the workplace, the preceptor needs pedagogical preparation. Herewith, being a preceptor means being a teacher? This reflection places us in front of a problem present in our daily exercise, which is the pedagogical training of those who teach for a transformation of practice in health.

  7. The Effect of a Self-Reflection and Insight Program on the Nursing Competence of Nursing Students: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Hsiang-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Nurses have to solve complex problems for their patients and their families, and as such, nursing care capability has become a focus of attention. The aim of this longitudinal study was to develop a self-reflection practice exercise program for nursing students to be used during clinical practice and to evaluate the effects of this program empirically and longitudinally on change in students' clinical competence, self-reflection, stress, and perceived teaching quality. An additional aim was to determine the predictors important to nursing competence. We sampled 260 nursing students from a total of 377 practicum students to participate in this study. A total of 245 students nurse completed 4 questionnaires, Holistic Nursing Competence Scale, Self-Reflection and Insight Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and Clinical Teaching Quality Scale, at 2, 4, and 6 months after clinical practice experience. Generalized estimating equation models were used to examine the change in scores on each of the questionnaires. The findings showed that, at 6 months after clinical practice, nursing competence was significantly higher than at 2 and 4 months, was positively related to self-reflection and insight, and was negatively related to practice stress. Nursing students' competence at each time period was positively related to clinical teachers' instructional quality at 4 and 6 months. These results indicate that a clinical practice program with self-reflection learning exercise improves nursing students' clinical competence and that nursing students' self-reflection and perceived practice stress affect their nursing competence. Nursing core competencies are enhanced with a self-reflection program, which helps nursing students to improve self-awareness and decrease stress that may interfere with learning. Further, clinical practice experience, self-reflection and insight, and practice stress are predictors of nursing students' clinical competence.

  8. Study on ascending mining roadway layout of close distance coal seams in deep mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yong-kui; MO Ji

    2007-01-01

    To solve the problems appeared in mining process of No.2 seam, the ascending stress-releasing mining method was adopted. Studying on the reasonable layout of actual mining roadway in upper coal seams is the precondition of successful ascending mining.By using "device of leak measuring by blocking up double ends", it detected the height of overburden water flowing fractured zone originated from sub-coal seams mining. Thus it proved that the actual mining roadway of No.2 upper ascending seam was located in the smooth sagging zone. On the basis of analyzing the stress-releasing effect of sub-coal seams mining to upper coal seams by using RFPA software, it analyzed the stability of up-face coal seams and the reasonable location of starting cut in up-face coal seams. It also analyzed the reasonable gateway location in upper coal seams, which ensured the crossheading in upper coal seams out of the effect of sub-coal work face mining by using theory of underground pressure. Meanwhile, the reasonable pillars dimensions in upper coal seams by building the structure mechanics model of stope were researched. It can make the roadway driven along next goaf to be located in low stress zone, and be beneficial to keeping roads stable owing to less stress of surrounding rock. Finally, it tested the rationality of the layout method of roads in upper coal seams by engineering field measurement in 3221 working face.

  9. What people close to death say about euthanasia and assisted suicide: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, A; Ziebland, S; McPherson, A; Herxheimer, A

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore the experiences of people with a “terminal illness”, focusing on the patients' perspective of euthanasia and assisted suicide. Method A qualitative study using narrative interviews was conducted throughout the UK. The views of the 18 people who discussed euthanasia and assisted suicide were explored. These were drawn from a maximum variation sample, who said that they had a “terminal” illness, malignant or non‐malignant. Results That UK law should be changed to allow assisted suicide or voluntary euthanasia was felt strongly by most people. Those who had seen others die were particularly convinced that this should be a right. Some had multiple reasons, including pain and anticipated pain, fear of indignity, loss of control and cognitive impairment. Those who did not want to be a burden also had other reasons for wanting euthanasia. Suicide was contemplated by a few, who would have preferred a change in the law to allow them to end their lives with medical help and in the company of family or friends. The few who opposed a change in UK law, or who felt ambivalent, focused on involuntary euthanasia, cited religious reasons or worried that new legislation might be open to abuse. Conclusion Qualitative research conducted on people who know they are nearing death is an important addition to the international debate on euthanasia and assisted suicide. Those who had seen others die were particularly convinced that the law should be changed to allow assisted death. PMID:17145910

  10. What people close to death say about euthanasia and assisted suicide: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, A; Ziebland, S; McPherson, A; Herxheimer, A

    2006-12-01

    To explore the experiences of people with a "terminal illness", focusing on the patients' perspective of euthanasia and assisted suicide. A qualitative study using narrative interviews was conducted throughout the UK. The views of the 18 people who discussed euthanasia and assisted suicide were explored. These were drawn from a maximum variation sample, who said that they had a "terminal" illness, malignant or non-malignant. That UK law should be changed to allow assisted suicide or voluntary euthanasia was felt strongly by most people. Those who had seen others die were particularly convinced that this should be a right. Some had multiple reasons, including pain and anticipated pain, fear of indignity, loss of control and cognitive impairment. Those who did not want to be a burden also had other reasons for wanting euthanasia. Suicide was contemplated by a few, who would have preferred a change in the law to allow them to end their lives with medical help and in the company of family or friends. The few who opposed a change in UK law, or who felt ambivalent, focused on involuntary euthanasia, cited religious reasons or worried that new legislation might be open to abuse. Qualitative research conducted on people who know they are nearing death is an important addition to the international debate on euthanasia and assisted suicide. Those who had seen others die were particularly convinced that the law should be changed to allow assisted death.

  11. Assessment of Thermal Comfort: A Study at Closed and Ventilated Call Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Ismail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aims of study were to investigate the effects of environmental factors including the human physiology and thermal comfort during the cycle of process works in workplace. Approach: The selected production line was handling the restoration of trouble report. The environment examined was the relative humidity (%, wind speed (m sec-1, illuminance (lux and air temperature (°C of the surrounding workstation area. The environmental factors were measured using thermal comfort apparatus, which is capable to measure simultaneously those mentioned environmental factors. The time series data of fluctuating level of factors were plotted to identify the significant changes of factors. Then the thermal comfort of the workers was assessed by using ISO Standard 7730 and thermal sensation scale by using Predicted Mean Vote (PMV. Further Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD is used to estimate the thermal comfort satisfaction of the occupant. Finally the PMV were plotted to present the thermal comfort scenario of workers involved in related workstation. Results: The thermal comfort assessment of this workplace which is slightly warm following by thermal sensation and likely to be dissatisfied by the occupant. Conclusion: The result indicated that the activity level and clothing more influenced comfort to the occupants.

  12. Understanding the Development of a Hybrid Practice of Inquiry-Based Science Instruction and Language Development: A Case Study of One Teacher's Journey Through Reflections on Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitelli, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Rankin, Lynn; Austin, Marilyn; Caven, Gennifer

    2016-04-01

    This qualitative case study looks closely at an elementary teacher who participated in professional development experiences that helped her develop a hybrid practice of using inquiry-based science to teach both science content and English language development (ELD) to her students, many of whom are English language learners (ELLs). This case study examines the teacher's reflections on her teaching and her students' learning as she engaged her students in science learning and supported their developing language skills. It explicates the professional learning experiences that supported the development of this hybrid practice. Closely examining the pedagogical practice and reflections of a teacher who is developing an inquiry-based approach to both science learning and language development can provide insights into how teachers come to integrate their professional development experiences with their classroom expertise in order to create a hybrid inquiry-based science ELD practice. This qualitative case study contributes to the emerging scholarship on the development of teacher practice of inquiry-based science instruction as a vehicle for both science instruction and ELD for ELLs. This study demonstrates how an effective teaching practice that supports both the science and language learning of students can develop from ongoing professional learning experiences that are grounded in current perspectives about language development and that immerse teachers in an inquiry-based approach to learning and instruction. Additionally, this case study also underscores the important role that professional learning opportunities can play in supporting teachers in developing a deeper understanding of the affordances that inquiry-based science can provide for language development.

  13. "Creative Blocs": Action Research Study on the Implementation of Lego as a Tool for Reflective Practice with Social Care Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliero, Tamsin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether Lego could be used as a tool for reflective practice with social care practitioners (SCPs) and student practitioners. This article outlines an action research study conducted in an institute of higher education in Ireland. Findings from this study suggest that Lego can be used to support student…

  14. Study on the SiN_x/Al rear reflectance performance of crystalline silicon solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The performance of internal rear surface reflectance of crystalline silicon solar cells is becoming more and more important with the decrease of thickness of the silicon wafers. In this paper PC1D was used to simulate the correlations between the rear surface reflectance and the electrical as well as optical properties of the solar cells. The results showed that the short circuit current, open circuit voltage and quantum efficiency were all enhanced with the increase of the rear reflectance. When the rear reflectance increased from 60% to 100%, the short circuit current, open circuit voltage and maximum output power were improved by about 0.128 A, 0.007 V, and 0.066 W, respectively. The internal quantum efficiency was improved by 39.9%, the external quantum increased by 17.4%, and the efficiency of the solar cells was enhanced by 0.4% at 1100 nm wavelength. The screen-printing was selected to prepare SiNx/Al reflector, and experimental results showed that the SiNx/Al reflector has desired characteristic of internal rear reflectance, with the reflectivity of 15% higher than that of conventional aluminum BSF at 1100 nm wavelength.

  15. Spectroscopic study of terahertz reflection and transmission properties of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Shi, Changcheng; Ma, Yuting; Han, Xiaohui; Li, Wei; Chang, Tianying; Wei, Dongshan; Du, Chunlei; Cui, Hong-Liang

    2015-05-01

    Carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites are widely used in aerospace and concrete structure reinforcement due to their high strength and light weight. Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy is an attractive tool for defect inspection in CFRP composites. In order to improve THz nondestructive testing of CFRP composites, we have carried out systematic investigations of THz reflection and transmission properties of CFRP. Unidirectional CFRP composites with different thicknesses are measured with polarization directions 0 deg to 90 deg with respect to the fiber direction, in both reflection and transmission modes. As shown in the experiments, CFRP composites are electrically conducting and therefore exhibit a high THz reflectivity. In addition, CFRP composites have polarization-dependent reflectivity and transmissivity for THz radiation. The reflected THz power in the case of parallel polarization is nearly 1.8 times higher than for perpendicular polarization. At the same time, in the transmission of THz wave, a CFRP acts as a Fabry-Pérot cavity resulting from multiple internal reflections from the CFRP-air interfaces. Moreover, from the measured data, we extract the refractive index and absorption coefficient of CFRP composites in the THz frequency range.

  16. Moist wound healing compared with standard care of treatment of primary closed vascular surgical wounds: a prospective randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, Katja C; Uhlyarik, M; Schroeder, Torben V

    2007-01-01

    This study was a randomized-controlled trial comparing the standard type of dry dressing, Mepore, with moist wound healing, using a hydrofiber dressing, Aquacel, in primary closed wounds after vascular surgery. The endpoints were patient comfort, cost-effectiveness, infections, wound complications....... No difference in the infection rate (13% vs. 11%, p=0.73), length of hospital stay, or wound complications was noted between the two groups. We conclude that although the Aquacel dressing needed significantly fewer changes than the conventional dressing, this did not influence the patient comfort. Moreover...

  17. Experimental study of the relationship between local particle-size distributions and local ordering in random close packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Rei

    2015-12-01

    We experimentally study the structural properties of a sediment of size distributed colloids. By determining each particle size using a size estimation algorithm, we are able to investigate the relationship between local environment and local ordering. Our results show that ordered environments of particles tend to generate where the local particle-size distribution is within 5%. In addition, we show that particles whose size is close to the average size have 12 coordinate neighbors, which matches the coordination number of the fcc and hcp crystals. On the other hand, bcc structures are observed around larger particles. Our results represent experiments to show a size dependence of the specific ordering in colloidal systems.

  18. MONOPOLY AND OLIGOPOLY: CAUSES OF ENTERPRISES CLOSED IN VENEZUELA. A CASE STUDY IN THE ZULIA STATE.GROUP SIDEPRO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Agostini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The economy has been impacted because of the monopoly and oligopoly Venezuela markets. This study analyzes the causes of the closure of the main company producing pipes for the oil industry in Zulia State.(Group SIDERPRO It is a research field, documentary and descriptive. The information was collected on experiences arising in the process of expropriation and recovery. As a result evidence of the need to propose a macroeconomic planning and control allowing to speed recovery of closed industrial parks and Venezuela recovery process model.

  19. First-principles study of the effects of Si doping on geometric and electronic structure of closed carbon nanotube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Junzhe; WANG Chongyu

    2005-01-01

    The effects of Si doping on geometric and electronic structure of closed carbon nanotube (CNT) are studied by, a first-principles method, DMol. It is found that the local density of states at the Fermi level (EF) increases due to the Si-doping and the non-occupied states above the EF go down toward the lower energy range under an external electronic field. In addition, due to the doping of Si, a sub-tip on the CNT cap is formed, which consisted of the Si atom and its neighbor C atoms. From these results it is concluded that Si-doping is beneficial to the CNT field emission properties.

  20. Closed-Form Solutions for a Nonlinear Partial Differential Equation Arising in the Study of a Fourth Grade Fluid Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Aziz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The unsteady unidirectional flow of an incompressible fourth grade fluid bounded by a suddenly moved rigid plate is studied. The governing nonlinear higher order partial differential equation for this flow in a semiinfinite domain is modelled. Translational symmetries in variables and are employed to construct two different classes of closed-form travelling wave solutions of the model equation. A conditional symmetry solution of the model equation is also obtained. The physical behavior and the properties of various interesting flow parameters on the structure of the velocity are presented and discussed. In particular, the significance of the rheological effects are mentioned.

  1. [Infusion of propofol or closed-circuit isoflurane. A study of cost].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, N; Rezzoug, A; Dolan, P; Bonada, G; Feiss, P

    1993-01-01

    The choice of an anaesthetic agent is influenced by its cost. The use of a circle absorber system decreases the cost of the maintenance of anaesthesia with halogenated agents. Fast recovery and low incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting are the main advantages of propofol. The cost of propofol can limit its use for the maintenance of anaesthesia except for short procedures. This prospective study compared in 50 ASA 1 and 2 patients the cost of anaesthesia with either propofol (group P, n = 25) or the association thiopentone-isoflurane administered with a rebreathing circuit (group I, n = 25). Patients were premedicated the evening before surgery with 2.5 mg lorazepam. Anaesthesia was induced with either propofol (2-3 mg.kg-1) or thiopentone (4-6 mg.kg-1) and maintained with either propofol (6-10 mg.kg-1.h-1) in group P or isoflurane continuously injected as liquid in the expiratory limb of the circuit in group I. The side effects of anaesthesia and the delay of recovery and discharge from the recovery room were assessed. Peroperative cost of anaesthesia included nitrous oxide, isoflurane and i.v. agents, fluids volumes and disposable devices. The total cost of anaesthesia included also the recovery room stay. The mean duration of anaesthesia was not significantly different between the two groups (109.4 +/- 7.1 min vs 107.3 +/- 7.3 min group P vs group I). The delay lf recovery (eyes opening) was shorter in the propofol group (14.4 +/- 1.3 min vs 19.4 +/- 1.4 min) as well as the delay of discharge from the recovery room (70 +/- 4 min, vs 82.4 +/- 4.6 min).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Different size biomolecules anchoring on porous silicon surface: fluorescence and reflectivity pores infiltration comparative studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannozzi, Andrea M.; Rossi, Andrea M. [National Institute for Metrological Research, Thermodynamic Division, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Renacco, Chiara; Farano, Alessandro [Ribes Ricecrhe Srl, Via Lavoratori Vittime del Col du Mont 24, 11100 Aosta (Italy); Derosas, Manuela [Biodiversity Srl, Via Corfu 71, 25124 Brescia (Italy); Enrico, Emanuele [National Institute for Metrological Research, Electromagnetism Division, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    The performance of porous silicon optical based biosensors strongly depends on material nanomorphology, on biomolecules distribution inside the pores and on the ability to link sensing species to the pore walls. In this paper we studied the immobilization of biomolecules with different size, such as antibody anti aflatoxin (anti Aflatox Ab, {proportional_to}150 KDa), malate dehydrogenase (MDH, {proportional_to}36KDa) and metallothionein (MT, {proportional_to}6KDa) at different concentrations on mesoporous silicon samples ({proportional_to}15 nm pores diameter). Fluorescence measurements using FITC- labeled biomolecules and refractive index analysis based on reflectivity spectra have been employed together to detect the amount of proteins bound to the surface and to evaluate their diffusion inside the pores. Here we suggest that these two techniques should be used together to have a better understanding of what happens at the porous silicon surface. In fact, when pores dimensions are not perfectly tuned to the protein size a higher fluorescence signal doesn't often correspond to a higher biomolecules distribution inside the pores. When a too much higher concentration of biomolecule is anchored on the surface, steric crowd effects and repulsive interactions probably take over and hinder pores infiltration, inducing a small or absent shift in the fringe pattern even if a higher fluorescence signal is registered. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Theory and software: reflections about the division of labor in literary studies yesterday and today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Seligmann-Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a reflection on the Literary Studies field, but that can also be applied to the humanities, that tries to emphasize how theory is created and circulates now a days. Departing from the idea that for all canon change it should also follow a shift at the theoretical basis, the text diagnostic is that, although the canon was expanded during the last decades, theory did not went through a significant change, and also the dynamics of theory production/consumption did not change as it should. We still produce and export more theory (software from the central countries and, at the same time, we consume and translate those theories in the peripheral ones. Departing from Vilém Flusser, the article concludes pointing to the need to create new transnational circular and network dialog ways, that will be able to break with the domination of northèsouth discourse. Central discourse and its importation/translation have to be substituted by a genuinely horizontal dialog with theory translation in both directions.

  4. Non-invasive detection of periodontal disease using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: a clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanth, Chandra Sekhar; Betsy, Joseph; Subhash, Narayanan; Jayanthi, Jayaraj L.; Prasanthila, Janam

    2012-03-01

    In clinical diagnostic procedures, gingival inflammation is considered as the initial stage of periodontal breakdown. This is often detected clinically by bleeding on probing as it is an objective measure of inflammation. Since conventional diagnostic procedures have several inherent drawbacks, development of novel non-invasive diagnostic techniques assumes significance. This clinical study was carried out in 15 healthy volunteers and 25 patients to demonstrate the applicability of diffuse reflectance (DR) spectroscopy for quantification and discrimination of various stages of inflammatory conditions in periodontal disease. The DR spectra of diseased lesions recorded using a point monitoring system consisting of a tungsten halogen lamp and a fiber-optic spectrometer showed oxygenated hemoglobin absorption dips at 545 and 575 nm. Mean DR spectra on normalization shows marked differences between healthy and different stages of gingival inflammation. Among the various DR intensity ratios investigated, involving oxy Hb absorption peaks, the R620/R575 ratio was found to be a good parameter of gingival inflammation. In order to screen the entire diseased area and its surroundings instantaneously, DR images were recorded with an EMCCD camera at 620 and 575 nm. We have observed that using the DR image intensity ratio R620/R575 mild inflammatory tissues could be discriminated from healthy with a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 93%, and from moderate with a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 96%. The sensitivity and specificity obtained between moderate and severe inflammation are 82% and 76% respectively.

  5. Reflected electron energy loss microscopy (REELM) studies of metals, semiconductors and insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paparazzo, E. [Istituto di Sruttura della Materia del CNR, Area della Ricerca di Roma, Tor Vergata, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: paparazzo@ism.cnr.it

    2005-05-15

    The potential of reflected electron energy loss microscopy (REELM) are tested in surface and interface studies of metals, semiconductors and insulators. We present spectroscopic analyses of loss signals occurring at {approx}5-30 eV of the elastic peak, and microscopic analyses based on the same signals performed via spot mode, as well as via linescanning and imaging modes. Materials investigated include a UHV cleaved InSb surface, InP/SiO{sub 2} and GaAs/Au systems, W tips for use in an STM microscope, a ZrO{sub 2} single crystal, and an archaeological bronze covered with a thick patina. Advantages and shortcomings of REELM are outlined against the diagnostic value of parallel results obtained by scanning Auger microscopy (SAM) techniques. Although comparatively poor focussing powers preclude the attainment of high spatial resolution, and spectral interference problems may hinder the chemical characterization of multi-phase materials, REELM features unique capabilities. Among others, these include a chemical contrast that is much superior to that of SAM, the possibility of characterizing the coverage distribution of adlayer surface species, as well as of investigating the microchemistry of insulators' surfaces. The first application of REELM in the analysis of archaeological materials is presented.

  6. Abandoned seasonal livestock migration reflected by plant functional traits: A case study in Kyrgyz rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Franziska; Zhusui Kyzy, Taalaigul; Usupbaev, Adilet; Schickoff, Udo

    2017-04-01

    At least 30% of Kyrgyz pasture areas are considered to be subject to vegetation and soil degradation. Since animal husbandry is the economic basis to sustain people's livelihoods, rangeland degradation presents a threat for the majority of the population. Recently, the usage of plant functional traits as a powerful tool for the characterization of vegetation dynamics in response to anthropogenic and natural disturbances has been put forward. Grazing is one of the most severe disturbances on vegetation, which concerns equally the loss of area and biomass. Because grazing is both depending on and affecting plant functional traits, important insights can be generated, based on this codependency. We hypothesized that the contrasting grazing intensity of summer and winter pastures is reflected by the chosen traits. We used traits such as plant height, flowering start, growth form as well as SLA (Specific Leaf Area) and LMA (Leaf Mass per Area). Based on former phytosociological classification of the main pasture types (summer and winter pastures), community structure and the traits of dominant plant species were analyzed. Our results showed that on winter pastures grazing decreased plant height and SLA and favored plants with an earlier flowering start as well as rosette plants and ascending plants. We conclude that the study of trait composition in relation to anthropogenic disturbances can provide important insights into the mechanism of plant response to grazing in high-altitude rangelands.

  7. The Study of Semantic Constructs Reflecting the Attitude towards Nationalities and Nationalism in Juvenile Offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurina O.D.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Wide distribution of xenophobia and hostility towards other nationalities among adolescents is a danger to society. The problem of relations of adolescents with illegal conduct towards nationalism and ethnic groups is poorly understood. Clarification of the nature of semantic constructs that reflect the attitude toward nationality and nationalism in juvenile offenders without nationalistic motivation, and those who have committed the crime of aggression on a national basis, is important to choose the right correction and rehabilitation work with juvenile offenders. The current study involved 62 adolescent males aged 14 to 18 years. We used color relations test as a psychosemantic technique. As a result, it was found that solidarisation with ideology of nationalism, negative attitudes towards other nationalities, and problematic gender identity formation increase the risk of delinquency on a national basis and contribute to them. At the same time, the lack of focus on the nationalism values and identification with the group of "skinheads" restrains offenses on a national basis.

  8. Confocal reflectance quantitative phase microscopy system for cell biology studies (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay Raj; So, Peter T. C.

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative phase microscopy (QPM), used to measure the refractive index, provides the optical path delay measurement at each point of the specimen under study and becomes an active field in biological science. In this work we present development of confocal reflection phase microscopy system to provide depth resolved quantitative phase information for investigation of intracellular structures and other biological specimen. The system hardware development is mainly divided into two major parts. First, creates a pinhole array for parallel confocal imaging of specimen at multiple locations simultaneously. Here a digital micro mirror device (DMD) is used to generate pinhole array by turning on a subset micro-mirrors arranged on a grid. Second is the detection of phase information of confocal imaging foci by using a common path interferometer. With this novel approach, it is possible to measure the nuclei membrane fluctuations and distinguish them from the plasma membrane fluctuations. Further, depth resolved quantitative phase can be correlated to the intracellular contents and 3D map of refractive index measurements.

  9. Photometric and spectroscopic study of low mass embedded star clusters in reflection nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, J. B.; Bica, E.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.

    2005-02-01

    An analysis of the candidate embedded stellar systems in the reflection nebulae vdBH-RN 26, vdBH-RN} 38, vdBH-RN} 53a, GGD 20, ESO 95-RN 18 and NGC 6595 is presented. Optical spectroscopic data from CASLEO (Argentina) in conjunction with near infrared photometry from the 2MASS Point Source Catalogue were employed. The analysis is based on source surface density, colour-colour and colour-magnitude diagrams together with theoretical pre-main sequence isochrones. We take into account the field population affecting the analysis by carrying out a statistical subtraction. The fundamental parameters for the stellar systems were derived. The resulting ages are in the range 1-4 Myr and the objects are dominated by pre-main sequence stars. The observed masses locked in the clusters are less than 25 M⊙. The studied systems have no stars of spectral types earlier than B, indicating that star clusters do not necessarily evolve through an HII region phase. The relatively small locked mass combined with the fact that they are not numerous in catalogues suggests that these low mass clusters are not important donors of stars to the field populations. Based on observations made at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan, Argentina.

  10. Optical reflectance studies of highly specular anisotropic nanoporous (111) InP membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, J. A.; Lewis, R. A.; Sirbu, L.; Enachi, M.; Tiginyanu, I. M.; Skuratov, V. A.

    2015-04-01

    High-precision optical angular reflectance measurements are reported for a specular anisotropic nanoporous (111) InP membrane prepared by doping-assisted wet-electrochemical etching. The membrane surface morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscope imaging and revealed a quasi-uniform and self-organized nanoporous network consisting of semiconductor ‘islands’ in the sub-wavelength regime. The optical response of the nanoporous InP surface was studied at 405 nm (740 THz; UV), 633 nm (474 THz; VIS) and 1064 nm (282 THz; NIR), and exhibited a retention of basic macro-dielectric properties. Refractive index determinations demonstrate an optical anisotropy for the membrane which is strongly dependent on the wavelength of incident light, and exhibits an interesting inversion (positive anisotropy to negative) between 405 and 633 nm. The inversion of optical anisotropy is attributed to a strongly reduced ‘metallic’ behaviour in the membrane when subject to above-bandgap illumination. For the simplest case of sub-bandgap incident irradiation, the optical properties of the nanoporous InP sample are analysed in terms of an effective refractive index neff and compared to effective media approximations.

  11. Skin, a mirror reflecting diabetes mellitus: A longitudinal study in a tertiary care hospital in Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshni Vahora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Diabetes mellitus (DM is the most common of the endocrine disorders. Mucocutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus are many and vary from trivial to life-threatening. Sometimes, mucocutaneous disorders may herald the onset of diabetes. Aims: To study the pattern of mucocutaneous manifestations in diabetics and role of it in diagnosing diabetes mellitus and its complications. Settings and Design: It was a longitudinal observational study of patients having diabetes with skin complaints attending skin outdoor department or admitted in wards for any reason in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Total 300 patients were included in the study. Detailed history, clinical examination, and relevant investigations were done to diagnose the mucocutaneous disorders, diabetes, and diabetic complications. Statistical Analysis Used: The data was analyzed by using Epi info software. Results: Demographic profile shown majority of cases (78.66% in more than 40 years of age with almost equal male and female preponderance. Mucocutaneous manifestations as presenting feature of diabetes were observed in 21.67% cases. Infections were most common in 119 (39.66% cases, followed by acanthosis nigricans in 46 (15.33% cases. Various associated complications like hypertension, retinopathy, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, neuropathy, nephropathy, and diabetic ketoacidosis were observed in 160 (53.3%. Conclusions: Skin is the mirror, which reflects internal diseases; this aptly applies to skin and diabetes mellitus. Through awareness about cutaneous manifestations of DM, dermatologist can not only take credit for detecting DM but also facilitate early diagnosis of systemic complications of DM. This is immensely beneficial to patients in long run.

  12. Study of neutron noise from reflected, metal assemblies with criticality safety applications in mind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, C.S.

    1985-08-20

    The author studied the statistics of detected neutrons that leaked from four subcritical reflected, enriched-uranium assemblies, to explore the feasibility of developing a criticality warning system based on neutron noise analysis. The calculated multiplication factors of the assemblies are 0.59, 0.74, 0.82, and 0.92. The author studied three possible discriminators, i.e., three signatures that might be used to discriminate among assemblies of various multiplications. They are: (1) variance-to-mean ratio of the counts in a time bin (V/M); (2) covariance-to-mean ratio of the counts in a common time bin from two different detectors (C/M); and (3) covariance-to-mean ratio of the counts from a single detector in two adjacent time bins of equal length, which the author calls the serial-covariance-to-mean ratio (SC/M). The performances of the three discriminators were not greatly different, but a hierarchy did emerge: SC/M greater than or equal to V/M greater than or equal to C/M. An example of some results: in the neighborhood of k = 0.6 the ..delta..k required for satisfactory discrimination varies from about 3% to 7% as detector solid angle varies from 19% to 5%. In the neighborhood of k = 0.8 the corresponding ..delta..ks are 1% and 2%. The noise analysis techniques studied performed well enough in deeply subcritical situations to deserve testing in an applications environment. They have a good chance of detecting changes in reactivity that are potentially dangerous. One can expect sharpest results when doing comparisons, i.e., when comparing two records, one taken in the past under circumstances known to be normal and one taken now to search for change.

  13. Embarrassment When Illness Strikes A Close Relative: A World Mental Health Survey Consortium Multi-Site Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedani, Brian K.; Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Kessler, Ronald C.; de Graaf, Ron; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Zarkov, Zahari; Viana, Maria Carmen; Huang, Y.Q.; Hu, Chiyi; Posada-Villa, Jose A.; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Karam, Aimee N.; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Gureje, Oye; Ferry, Finola; Sagar, Rajesh; Anthony, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Background This global study seeks to estimate the degree to which a family member might feel embarrassed when a close relative is suffering from an alcohol, drug, or mental health condition (ADMC) versus a general medical condition (GMC). To date, most studies have considered embarrassment and stigma in society and internalized by the afflicted individual, but have not assessed family embarrassment in a large scale study. Method In 16 sites of the World Mental Health Surveys (WMHS), standardized assessments were completed including items on family embarrassment. Site matching was used to constrain local socially shared determinants of stigma-related feelings, enabling a conditional logistic regression model that estimates the embarrassment close relatives may hold in relation to family members affected by an ADMC, GMC, or both conditions. Results There was a statistically robust association such that subgroups with an ADMC-affected relative were more likely to feel embarrassed as compared to subgroups with a relative affected by a GMC (p<0.001), even with covariate adjustments for age and sex. Conclusions The pattern of evidence from this research is consistent with conceptual models for interventions that target individual- and family-level stigma-related feelings of embarrassment as might be part of the obstacles to effective early intervention and treatment for ADMC conditions. Macro-level interventions are underway, but micro-level interventions also may be required among family members, along with care for each person with an ADMC. PMID:23298443

  14. THE STUDIES OF THE CURING OF AN EPOXY RESIN ON COPPER WIRE BY FTIR EXTERNAL REFLECTION SPECTROSCOPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Gi; LIU Shiying; JIANG Shangen

    1988-01-01

    The epoxy coating on copper wire has been studied by a modified sampling technique using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) diffuse reflectance attachment. As the wire axis was parallel to the incident plane, a reflection spectrum of thin layer coating on a copper wire can be obtained. The study found that imidazole, especially the acetic acid treated imidazole, can be used as an effective curing catalyst of the epoxy resin on copper. This is the first report about the IR study of coatings on metal wires.

  15. A study of the relationship between reflective writing and critical thinking in seventh grade integrated science students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowicki, Mark Adam

    This study examined the role of reflective journal writing on the development of critical thinking in seventh grade integrated science students. The students participating in this study were part of four science classes taught by the same instructor, using the same curriculum and methods employed during this study. The larger working group consisted of 69 seventh grade students who were allowed to participate in this study by virtue of a signed consent form. The 12 students who comprised the smaller writing group were selected from the larger working group. The smaller, criterion-based writing group was selected from the working group based on their level of critical thinking as indicated on the pre-test instrument. The study utilized several methods of data collection. Data were collected through analyses of student journal entries, class discussions, and a pre and posttest instrument to measure a student's level of critical thinking. All participants were given code names to mask their identity. The findings of this study indicate that a majority of the students' ability to think critically appeared to improve after 18 weeks of reflective journal writing. However, no relationship was found between a student's level of critical thinking and his or her ability to write reflectively. Although many participants did improve their level of reflective writing and critical thinking, there was no direct relationship found between the two skills. This study provided some evidence that reflective journal writing is beneficial for students although some benefits may be intangible. The attitudes of many students toward writing improved, and there was a noticeable increase in students' willingness to share their thoughts and respond to questions in class. Practice in reflective writing also contributed to improved writing skills by the participants. Additionally, there are five recommendations for further research derived from this study.

  16. Reflective Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenkiel Jørgensen, Andriette

    2016-01-01

    Høeg etetera. The dialogues work as a tool of reflection in terms of providing opportunity to examine his own beliefs, to explore the possible reasons for engaging in a particular activity. On the basis of Sven-Ingvar Andersson’s book a teaching program at the Aarhus School of Architecture provides...... a contribution to the discussions about the role of reflection in design work and in learning situations at large. By engaging with the dialogic reflection, which is one of the four essential types of reflection, (the three others being descriptive writing, descriptive reflection and critical reflection...

  17. Autistic expertise: a critical reflection on the production of knowledge in autism studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Damian Em

    2014-10-01

    The field of autism studies is a highly disputed territory within which competing contradictory discourses abound. In this field, it is the voices and claims of autistic people regarding their own expertise in knowledge production concerning autism that is most recent in the debate, and traditionally the least attended to. In this article, I utilise the theories of Harry Collins and colleagues in order to reflect upon and conceptualise the various claims to knowledge production and expertise within the field of autism studies, from the perspective of an author who has been diagnosed as being on the autism spectrum. The notion that autistic people lack sociality is problematised, with the suggestion that autistic people are not well described by notions such as the 'social brain', or as possessing 'zero degrees of cognitive empathy'. I then argue, however, that there is a qualitative difference in autistic sociality, and question to what extent such differences are of a biological or cultural nature, and to what extent interactional expertise can be gained by both parties in interactions between autistic and non-autistic people. In conclusion, I argue that autistic people have often become distrustful of researchers and their aims, and are frequently frozen out of the processes of knowledge production. Such a context results in a negative feedback spiral with further damage to the growth of interactional expertise between researchers and autistic people, and a breakdown in trust and communication leading to an increase in tension between stakeholder groups. The involvement of autistic scholars in research and improvements in participatory methods can thus be seen as a requirement, if social research in the field of autism is to claim ethical and epistemological integrity.

  18. STUDY OF INK LAYER BY METHOD OF ATTENUATED TOTAL REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Fatkhullina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. Researchresults of thickness distribution of an ink layer smearedon a glass surface are presented. The orange ink which is used as a coloring pigment in writing instrument (highlighter is selectedasan object of study. Method. Researches were carried out by the method of attenuated total reflectance(ATR spectroscopy. The spectral setup fitted up on the basis of monochromator MDR-204 was usedin the experiment. The peculiarity of the measurement scheme is the applicationofhigh-resolution camera as a radiation detector and information storage as an images package. Researches allowed receivingexperimental data in the form of ink ATR spectra arrayfor studied areas of layer surface in a given spectral range. Main Results. The estimation of ink layer thickness was done, that gives the possibilityto visualize its distribution over the surface using three-dimensional modeling capabilities. The thickness of the ink layer is not more than 0.12 microns and arithmetic mean of the thickness is0.06 microns. The local areas are observed in an ink distribution, they have a maximum layer thickness (0.07-0.12 microns or areas with the ink thickness less then 0.03 microns. Variation of the ink layer thicknessbetween the local areas is smooth. Practical Relevance. The proposed measuring scheme, the sequence of registration and processing of experimental data can be used to studyink distribution within the thickness of a surface layer of other materials,for example, in analysis of signs performed by an ink on paper medium in order to identify them in such areas of science as forensic science andstudy of art.

  19. Sensitivity Studies for Space-based Measurement of Atmospheric Total Column Carbon Dioxide Using Reflected Sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jianping; Kawa, S. Randolph

    2003-01-01

    A series of sensitivity studies is carried out to explore the feasibility of space-based global carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for global and regional carbon cycle studies. The detection method uses absorption of reflected sunlight in the CO2 vibration-rotation band at 1.58 microns. The sensitivities of the detected radiances are calculated using the line-by-line model (LBLRTM), implemented with the DISORT (Discrete Ordinates Radiative Transfer) model to include atmospheric scattering in this band. The results indicate that (a) the small (approx.1%) changes in CO2 near the Earth's surface are detectable in this CO2 band provided adequate sensor signal-to-noise ratio and spectral resolution are achievable; (b) the radiance signal or sensitivity to CO2 change near the surface is not significantly diminished even in the presence of aerosols and/or thin cirrus clouds in the atmosphere; (c) the modification of sunlight path length by scattering of aerosols and cirrus clouds could lead to large systematic errors in the retrieval; therefore, ancillary aerosol/cirrus cloud data are important to reduce retrieval errors; (d) CO2 retrieval requires good knowledge of the atmospheric temperature profile, e.g. approximately 1K RMS error in layer temperature; (e) the atmospheric path length, over which the CO2 absorption occurs, must be known in order to correctly interpret horizontal gradients of CO2 from the total column CO2 measurement; thus an additional sensor for surface pressure measurement needs to be attached for a complete measurement package.

  20. Sensitivity Studies for Space-based Measurements of Atmospheric Total Column Carbon Dioxide Using Reflected Sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jianping; Kawa, S. Randolph

    2003-01-01

    A series of sensitivity studies is carried out to explore the feasibility of space-based global carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for global and regional carbon cycle studies. The detection method uses absorption of reflected sunlight in the CO2 vibration-rotation band at 1.58 micron. The sensitivities of the detected radiances are calculated using the line-by-line model (LBLRTM), implemented with the DISORT (Discrete Ordinates Radiative Transfer) model to include atmospheric scattering in this band. The results indicate that (a) the small (approx.1%) changes in CO2 near the Earth's surface are detectable in this CO2 band provided adequate sensor signal-to-noise ratio and spectral resolution are achievable; (b) the effects of other interfering constituents, such as water vapor, aerosols and cirrus clouds, on the radiance are significant but the overall effects of the modification of light path length on total back-to-space radiance sensitivity to CO2 change are minor for general cases, which means that generally the total column CO2 can be derived in high precision from the ratio of the on-line center to off-line radiances; (c) together with CO2 gas absorption aerosol/cirrus cloud layer has differential scattering which may result in the modification of on-line to off-line radiance ratio which could lead a large bias in the total column CO2 retrieval. Approaches to correct such bias need further investigation. (d) CO2 retrieval requires good knowledge of the atmospheric temperature profile, e.g. approximately 1K RMS error in layer temperature, which is achievable from new atmospheric sounders in the near future; (e) the atmospheric path length, over which the CO2 absorption occurs, should be known in order to correctly interpret horizontal gradients of CO2 from the total column CO2 measurement; thus an additional sensor for surface pressure measurement needs to be attached for a complete measurement package.

  1. Compressive sensing in reflectance confocal microscopy of skin images: a preliminary comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Fernando X.; Sierra, Heidy; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; Arzuaga, Emmanuel

    2016-03-01

    Compressive Sensing (CS)-based technologies have shown potential to improve the efficiency of acquisition, manipulation, analysis and storage processes on signals and imagery with slight discernible loss in data performance. The CS framework relies on the reconstruction of signals that are presumed sparse in some domain, from a significantly small data collection of linear projections of the signal of interest. As a result, a solution to the underdetermined linear system resulting from this paradigm makes it possible to estimate the original signal with high accuracy. One common approach to solve the linear system is based on methods that minimize the L1-norm. Several fast algorithms have been developed for this purpose. This paper presents a study on the use of CS in high-resolution reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) images of the skin. RCM offers a cell resolution level similar to that used in histology to identify cellular patterns for diagnosis of skin diseases. However, imaging of large areas (required for effective clinical evaluation) at such high-resolution can turn image capturing, processing and storage processes into a time consuming procedure, which may pose a limitation for use in clinical settings. We present an analysis on the compression ratio that may allow for a simpler capturing approach while reconstructing the required cellular resolution for clinical use. We provide a comparative study in compressive sensing and estimate its effectiveness in terms of compression ratio vs. image reconstruction accuracy. Preliminary results show that by using as little as 25% of the original number of samples, cellular resolution may be reconstructed with high accuracy.

  2. Numerical and Analytical Study of Optimal Low-Thrust Limited-Power Transfers between Close Circular Coplanar Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro da Silva Fernandes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical and analytical study of optimal low-thrust limited-power trajectories for simple transfer (no rendezvous between close circular coplanar orbits in an inverse-square force field is presented. The numerical study is carried out by means of an indirect approach of the optimization problem in which the two-point boundary value problem, obtained from the set of necessary conditions describing the optimal solutions, is solved through a neighboring extremal algorithm based on the solution of the linearized two-point boundary value problem through Riccati transformation. The analytical study is provided by a linear theory which is expressed in terms of nonsingular elements and is determined through the canonical transformation theory. The fuel consumption is taken as the performance criterion and the analysis is carried out considering various radius ratios and transfer durations. The results are compared to the ones provided by a numerical method based on gradient techniques.

  3. Radiological and Functional Outcome of Displaced Colles’ Fracture Managed with Closed Reduction and Percutaneous Pinning: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Kishor; Kharel, Krishna; Byanjankar, Subin; Sharma, Jay R; Shrestha, Rahul; Vaishya, Raju; Agarwal, Amit Kumar; Vijay, Vipul

    2017-01-01

    Background: Displaced Colles’ fractures are treated by manipulation and below elbow cast application. Malunion is a common complication, resulting in pain, mid-carpal instability, and post-traumatic arthritis. Fracture stabilization by percutaneous pinning is a simple, minimally invasive technique that helps prevent displacement of the fracture, thereby minimizing complications. This study aims to assess the amount of collapse after closed manipulation and percutaneous pinning with Kirschner wires (K-wires) and its correlation with the functional outcome of the wrist after union. Methods: A prospective study was conducted from May 2015 to May 2016 in a tertiary orthopedic center. Ninety patients (60 females, 30 males) with an average age of 54.93 years with Type II fractures underwent closed manipulation and percutaneous pinning with crossed K-wires as the primary procedure. Serial radiographs were taken to document the amount of collapse. The functional outcome was assessed using the Cooney Wrist Score. Results: At the final follow-up at six months, the collapse in the mean dorsal angle was 0.94 and mean ulnar variance was 0.51. Functionally, 48 patients (53.33%) had an excellent outcome, 36 patients (40%) had a good outcome, and six patients (6.67%) had a fair outcome. Conclusions: Displaced Colles’ fractures should be reduced and stabilized with percutaneous K-wires to achieve an excellent functional outcome. PMID:28191366

  4. A comprehensive ray tracing study on the impact of solar reflections from glass curtain walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Justin S J

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate the investigation of the impact of solar reflection from the façades of skyscrapers to surrounding environment, a comprehensive ray tracing model has been developed using the International Commerce Centre (ICC) in Hong Kong as an example. Taking into account the actual physical dimensions of buildings and meteorological data, the model simulates and traces the paths of solar reflections from ICC to the surrounding buildings, assessing the impact in terms of hit locations, light intensity and the hit time on each day throughout the year. Our analyses show that various design and architectural features of ICC have amplified the intensity of reflected solar rays and increased the hit rates of surrounding buildings. These factors include the high reflectivity of glass panels, their upward tilting angles, the concave profile of the 'Dragon Tail' (glass panels near the base), the particular location and orientation of ICC, as well as the immense height of ICC with its large reflective surfaces. The simulation results allow us to accurately map the date and time when the ray projections occur on each of the target buildings, rendering important information such as the number of converging (overlapping) projections, and the actual light intensity hitting each of the buildings at any given time. Comparisons with other skyscrapers such as Taipei 101 in Taiwan and 2-IFC (International Finance Centre) Hong Kong are made. Remedial actions for ICC and preventive measures are also discussed.

  5. Reflection in Learning through a Self-monitoring Device: Design Research on EEG Self-Monitoring during a Study Session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Durall

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of self-monitoring technologies has created opportunities for gaining awareness about one’s own behavior and reflecting on it. In teaching and learning, there is interest in using self-monitoring technologies, but very few studies have explored the possibilities. In this paper, we present a design study that investigates a technology (called Feeler that guides students to follow a specific learning script, monitors changes in their electroencephalogram (EEG while studying, and later provides visualization of the EEG data. The results are two-fold: (1 the hardware/software prototype and (2 the conclusions from the proof-of-concept research conducted with the prototype and six participants. In the research, we collected qualitative data from interviews to identify whether the prototype supported students to develop their reflective skills. The thematic analysis of the interviews showed that the Feeler’s learning script and visualization of the EEG data supported greater levels of reflection by fostering students’ curiosity, puzzlement, and personal inquiry. The proof-of-concept research also provided insights into several factors, such as the value of personal experience, the challenge of assumptions, and the contextualization of the data that trigger reflective thinking. The results validate the design concept and the role of the prototype in supporting awareness of and reflection about students’ mental states when they perform academic tasks.

  6. A Case Study of Teacher Reflection: Examining Teacher Participation in a Video-Based Professional Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeg, Susanna M.

    2016-01-01

    Professional learning communities (PLCs) constitute worthwhile spaces in which to study teacher participation in the reflective practices that have potential to shift their teaching. This qualitative case study details the interactions between dual-language and ELL teachers in a grade-level PLC as they met together to confer over video-clips of…

  7. Lesson Study in Prospective Mathematics Teacher Education: Didactic and Paradidactic Technology in the Post-Lesson Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the post-lesson reflection, carried out in the context of eight cases of lesson study conducted by teams of Danish, lower secondary prospective teachers and their supervisors. The participants, representing different institutions, were all new to the lesson study format. Nevertheless, it is demonstrated…

  8. Laser trapping and assembling of nanoparticles at solution surface studied by reflection micro-spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shun-Fa; Yuyama, Ken-ichi; Suigiyama, Teruki; Masuhara, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    We present the laser power dependent behavior of optical trapping assembling of 208-nm polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles at the solution surface layer. The assembling dynamics is examined by reflection microspectroscopy as well as transmission and backscattering imaging. The transmission imaging shows that the laser irradiation at the solution surface layer forms a nanoparticle assembly, whose diameter becomes large with the increase in the laser power. The backscattering image of the assembly gives structural color, meaning that nanoparticles are periodically arranged over the whole assembly region. In reflection microspectroscopy, one band appears at long wavelength and is gradually shifted to the short wavelength with the irradiation. After the blue shift, the reflection band is located at the shorter wavelength under the laser irradiation at the higher power. We discuss these spectral changes from the viewpoint of the inter-particle distance determined by the dynamic balance between attractive optical force and repulsive electrostatic force among nanoparticles.

  9. On fuzzy weakly-closed sets

    OpenAIRE

    Mahanta, J.; P. K. Das

    2012-01-01

    A new class of fuzzy closed sets, namely fuzzy weakly closed set in a fuzzy topological space is introduced and it is established that this class of fuzzy closed sets lies between fuzzy closed sets and fuzzy generalized closed sets. Alongwith the study of fundamental results of such closed sets, we define and characterize fuzzy weakly compact space and fuzzy weakly closed space.

  10. A study of muscular tissue of animal origin by reflection-spectroscopy methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, L. V.; Nechiporenko, A. P.; Orekhova, S. M.; Plotnikov, P. P.; Ishevskii, A. L.

    2017-06-01

    A comparative analysis of the spectral characteristics of the surface of muscular tissue of animal origin (pork) and its main components has been performed by the methods of diffuse reflection electronic spectroscopy (DRES) and frustrated total internal reflection IR spectroscopy. The experiments have shown that the application of the DRES method makes it possible to detect more pronounced changes in the surface optical characteristics of muscular tissue and obtain electronic spectra containing information about the component composition of its main parts under successive extraction of sarcoplasmic materials, myofibrillar proteins of the actomyosin complex, and stroma mucopolysaccharides.

  11. Neutron Reflection Study of Surface Adsorption of Fc, Fab, and the Whole mAb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zongyi; Li, Ruiheng; Smith, Charles; Pan, Fang; Campana, Mario; Webster, John R P; van der Walle, Christopher F; Uddin, Shahid; Bishop, Steve M; Narwal, Rojaramani; Warwicker, Jim; Lu, Jian Ren

    2017-07-12

    Characterizing the influence of fragment crystallization (Fc) and antigen-binding fragment (Fab) on monoclonal antibody (mAb) adsorption at the air/water interface is an important step to understanding liquid mAb drug product stability during manufacture, shipping, and storage. Here, neutron reflection is used to study the air/water adsorption of a mAb and its Fc and Fab fragments. By varying the isotopic contrast, the adsorbed amount, thickness, orientation, and immersion of the adsorbed layers could be determined unambiguously. While Fc adsorption reached saturation within the hour, its surface adsorbed amount showed little variation with bulk concentration. In contrast, Fab adsorption was slower and the adsorbed amount was concentration dependent. The much higher Fc adsorption, as compared to Fab, was linked to its lower surface charge. Time and concentration dependence of mAb adsorption was dominated by Fab behavior, although both Fab and Fc behaviors contributed to the amount of mAb adsorbed. Changing the pH from 5.5 to 8.8 did not much perturb the adsorbed amount of Fc, Fab, or mAb. However, a small decrease in adsorption was observed for the Fc over pH 8-8.8 and vice versa for the Fab and mAb, consistent with a dominant Fab behavior. As bulk concentration increased from 5 to 50 ppm, the thicknesses of the Fc layers were almost constant at 40 Å, while Fab and mAb layers increased from 45 to 50 Å. These results imply that the adsorbed mAb, Fc, and Fab all retained their globular structures and were oriented with their short axial lengths perpendicular to the interface.

  12. Electronic and optical properties of Fe, Pd, and Ti studied by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, Dahlang [Department of Physics, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 (Indonesia); Kraaer, Jens; Tougaard, Sven [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2014-06-28

    We have studied the electronic and optical properties of Fe, Pd, and Ti by reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy (REELS). REELS spectra recorded for primary energies in the range from 300 eV to 10 keV were corrected for multiple inelastically scattered electrons to determine the effective inelastic-scattering cross section. The dielectric functions and optical properties were determined by comparing the experimental inelastic-electron scattering cross section with a simulated cross section calculated within the semi-classical dielectric response model in which the only input is Im(−1/ε) by using the QUEELS-ε(k,ω)-REELS software package. The complex dielectric functions ε(k,ω), in the 0–100 eV energy range, for Fe, Pd, and Ti were determined from the derived Im(−1/ε) by Kramers-Kronig transformation and then the refractive index n and extinction coefficient k. The validity of the applied model was previously tested and found to give consistent results when applied to REELS spectra at energies between 300 and 1000 eV taken at widely different experimental geometries. In the present paper, we provide, for the first time, a further test on its validity and find that the model also gives consistent results when applied to REELS spectra in the full range of primary electron energies from 300 eV to 10000 eV. This gives confidence in the validity of the applied method.

  13. Tethered bilayer lipid membranes studied by simultaneous attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Andreas; Bushby, Richard J.; Evans, Stephen D.; Jeuken, Lars J. C.

    2013-01-01

    The formation of tethered lipid bilayer membranes (tBLMs) from unilamelar vesicles of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EggPC) on mixed self–assembled monolayers (SAMs) from varying ratios of 6-mercaptohexanol and EO3Cholesteryl on gold has been monitored by simultaneous attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared (ATR–FTIR) spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The influence of the lipid orientation (and hence the anisotropy) of lipids on a gold film on the dichroic ratio was studied by simulations of spectra with a matrix method for anisotropic layers. It is shown that for certain tilt angles of the dielectric tensor of the adsorbed anisotropic layer dispersive and negative absorption bands are possible. The experimental data indicates that the structure of the assemblies obtained varies with varying SAM composition. On SAMs with a high content of EO3Cholesteryl, tBLMs with reduced fluidity are formed. For SAMs with high content of 6-mercaptohexanol, the results are consistent with the adsorption of flattened vesicles, while spherical vesicles have been found in a small range of surface compositions. The kinetics of the adsorption process is consistent with the assumption of spherical vesicles as long–living intermediates for surfaces of high 6-mercaptohexanol content. No long–living spherical vesicles have been detected for surfaces with large fraction of EO3Cholesteryl tethers. The observed differences between the surfaces suggest that for the formation of tBLMs (unlike supported BLMs) no critical surface coverage of vesicles is needed prior to lipid bilayer formation. PMID:17388505

  14. A case study in risk management : remediation of residual salt impacts at a closed sour gas processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewster, M.L.; Penny, S.; MacDonald, J.; Hamilton, A.; Oness, M. [WorleyParsons Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation described the post remediation management of residual salt impacts at a closed former sour gas processing plant. Generic guidelines were discussed along with guideline recalculation and ongoing risk management. Green remediation objectives that incorporate sustainable environmental practices into remediation of contaminated sites were also presented. A case study of the Okotoks Gas Plant was also provided. The case study discussed post shutdown activities; land blocks; escarpment feature; simplified hydrogeologic cross-section; the upper terrace remediation program; remedial excavations; groundwater remediation; risk management plan; vegetation surveys; soil stratification scheme; groundwater risk management; and geophysical monitoring. It was concluded that Alberta needs a risk management framework in order to promote site re-development, reduce contamination and control exposure and adopt principles of green and sustainable remediation.

  15. Comparative study of final visual outcome between open- and closed-globe injuries following surgical treatment of traumatic cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mehul Ashvin; Shah, Shreya Mehul; Shah, Shashank B; Patel, Chintan G; Patel, Utsav A; Appleware, Adway; Gupta, Ashish

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this work is to compare final visual outcomes in cases of surgically treated traumatic cataract between open-globe and closed-globe groups, as classified by the Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology system. Observational cohort study. Tertiary eye-care center at the trijunction of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Rajasthan states in central western India. We enrolled patients meeting specific inclusion criteria, examined their eyes to review any co-morbidities due to trauma, performed surgery for traumatic cataracts, and implanted lenses. The patients were re-examined 6 weeks postoperatively. We classified the cases of traumatic cataract as either open-globe (group 1) or closed-globe (group 2), according to the Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology (BETT) system, and compared visual acuity. Visual Acuity. Our cohort of 687 eyes with traumatic cataracts included 496 eyes in group 1 and 191 in group 2. Six weeks postoperatively, the visual acuity was >20/60 in 298 (58%) and 75 (39.1%) operated eyes in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p 20/60 vision was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (OR = 1.61; 95% CI, 0.85-3.02). Overall, 373 eyes (54.3%) regained final visual acuity >20/60. Open-globe injury has a more favorable prognosis for satisfactory (>20/60) visual recovery after management of traumatic cataracts.

  16. close: Closure of patent foramen ovale, oral anticoagulants or antiplatelet therapy to prevent stroke recurrence: Study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Jean-Louis; Derumeaux, Geneviève; Amarenco, Pierre; Arquizan, Caroline; Aubry, Pierre; Barthelet, Martine; Bertrand, Bernard; Brochet, Eric; Cabanes, Laure; Donal, Erwan; Dubois-Randé, Jean-Luc; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Ernande, Laura; Finet, Gérard; Fraisse, Alain; Giroud, Maurice; Guérin, Patrice; Habib, Gilbert; Juliard, Jean-Michel; Leys, Didier; Lièvre, Michel; Lusson, Jean-René; Marcon, François; Michel, Patrick; Moulin, Thierry; Mounier-Vehier, François; Pierard, Luc; Piot, Christophe; Rey, Christian; Rodier, Gilles; Roudaut, Raymond; Schleich, Jean-Marc; Teiger, Emmanuel; Turc, Guillaume; Vuillier, Fabrice; Weimar, Christian; Woimant, France; Chatellier, Gilles

    2016-08-01

    Currently available data do not provide definitive evidence on the comparative benefits of closure of patent foramen ovale, oral anticoagulants and antiplatelet therapy in patients with patent foramen ovale-associated cryptogenic stroke To assess whether transcatheter patent foramen ovale closure plus antiplatelet therapy is superior to antiplatelet therapy alone and whether oral anticoagulant therapy is superior to antiplatelet therapy, for secondary stroke prevention in patients aged 16 to 60 years with a large patent foramen ovale or a patent foramen ovale associated with an atrial septal aneurysm, and an otherwise unexplained ischaemic stroke or retinal ischaemia. Six hundred and sixty-four patients were included in the study. CLOSE is an academic-driven, multicentre, randomized, open-label, three-group, superiority trial with blinded adjudication of outcome events. The trial has been registered with Clinical Trials Register (Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00562289). Patient recruitment started in December 2007. Patient follow-up will continue until December 2016. Expected mean follow-up = 5.6 years. The primary efficacy outcome is the occurrence of fatal or nonfatal stroke. Safety outcomes include fatal, life-threatening or major procedure- or device-related complications and fatal, life-threatening or major haemorrhagic complications. CLOSE is the first specifically designed trial to assess the superiority of patent foramen ovale closure over antiplatelet therapy alone and the superiority of oral anticoagulants over antiplatelet therapy to prevent stroke recurrence in patients with patent foramen ovale-associated cryptogenic stroke. © 2016 World Stroke Organization.

  17. Study of some CVD intensifying lipids over a period of aerobic exercise in the open and closed environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan darvakh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the importance of physical activity in preventing lipids disorders, this study was done with the goal of comparing one type of aerobic exercise in open and closed place on some lipids intensify CVD disorders, In this study, 45 healthy middle aged postmenopausal women were randomly divided into 3 groups of 15, tow earobic exercise and control. First, the heart rate was measured (04/15 ± 47/80, then maximal oxygen consumption (22.65 ± 1.46 and the body dimensions, including height ( 156.7 ± 6.72 weight (68.87 ± 9.22 and body mass i ndex (28.74 ± 1.78, then, cholesterol, VLDL and triglycerides values were studied in Laboratory. Time and intensity of exercise were identical for two groups. Increasing intensity of 50-70% of maximum heart rate was in 12 weeks, 30 to 90 minutes, and 5 times a week (30 minutes at 50% MHR intensity for the first week and 90 minutes of 70 percent MHR in the last week. After the training period, cholesterol, VLDL and triglycerides values were measured again and the data were analyzed with the dependent T-test, MANOVA and TUKY follow-up test. The results indicate that differences between exercise groups and control group were significant. Accordingly, the results of exercise group in open place had significant effects on reducing mean cholesterol, VLDL and triglycerides (P≤0.05. And aerobic exercise in closed place had significant effects on reducing mean cholesterol, VLDL but had not significant effects on reducing mean triglycerides and there was significant difference in VLDL values between two groups after 12 weeks (P≤0.05 as the open place group showed higher mean. As the exercise group in open place showed higher mean, this study showed that aerobic exercise, either exercise group in open place or in the exercise group in closed place causes decrease in the mean of some blood lipids like cholesterol, VLDL and triglycerides in postmenopausal women, among which exercise group in open place maby

  18. Study on the Use of Social Media and Its Reflections on Turkish Regarding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Mesut

    2013-01-01

    The way of communication has developed on social media, an environment where informal education occurs, and the social media language or social media Turkish which has emerged as a result of this communication is an important subject which needs to be discussed in terms of Turkish teaching. The reflections of the use of social media on Turkish in…

  19. Channeling, volume reflection, and volume capture study of electrons in a bent silicon crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistisen, T. N.; Uggerhoj, U. I.; Wienands, U.;

    2016-01-01

    We present the experimental data and analysis of experiments conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory investigating the processes of channeling, volume-reflection and volume-capture along the (111) plane in a strongly bent quasimosaic silicon crystal. These phenomena were investigated at...

  20. Case Study 1: Playful Team Reflection Using LEGO® Serious Play®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Teamwork and cooperation are important 21st century skills and therefore important parts of the higher education curriculum. Following Kolb's "experiential learning cycle" model a combination of project work and moderated reflection can help students to acquire these skills. This article elaborates how LEGO® Serious Play® (LSP) can be…

  1. ELT Curriculum Development: A Case Study in Keeping a Reflective Teaching Journal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglese, Dominick

    2011-01-01

    Volumes of literature outline the benefits of using journals in the classroom, most of which give methods on how to generate, administer and assess student journal writings. And although vast numbers of publications overflow with literature retelling theories and methods on how to engage in reflective practice, few are the submissions of concrete…

  2. Numerical Simulated Study on the Separation of Oblique Incident and Reflected Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵利民; 俞聿修

    2001-01-01

    The Goda's method of separating the frequency spectrum of the unidirectional incident and reflected waves is improved. The proposed method can be applied to the separation of oblique incident and reflected waves and the two wave gauges can be arranged in an arbitrary angle in front of a structure. When the projected distance of the two probes on the incident wave direction is the multiple ofthe half length of the incident waves, the singular problem will emerge by using the method. It is advised that when the projected distance of the two measured points on the incident wave direction is 0.05~0.45 times the wave length of peak frequency wave, good results can be obtained. The simulated resultant waves are separated by the method of numerical simulation and the separated wave spectra are basically corresponding to the target spectra input. The wave trains calculated by the separated incident and reflected wave frequency spectrum are approximated to the input wave trains and the reflected coefficient can be derived correctly. Therefore, the method proposed in this paper is reliable.

  3. A sensitivity study of atmospheric reflectance to aerosol layer height based on multi-angular polarimetric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qie, Lili; Li, Donghui; Li, Zhengqiang; Zhang, Ying; Hou, Weizhen; Chen, Xingfeng

    2015-10-01

    The reflected Solar radiance at top of atmosphere (TOA) are, to some degree, sensitive to the vertical distribution of absorbing aerosols, especially at short wavelengths (i.e. blue and UV bands). If properly exploited, it may enable the extraction of basic information on aerosol vertical distribution. In recent years, rapid development of the advanced spectral multi-angle polarimetric satellite observation technology and aerosol inversion algorithm makes the extraction of more aerosol information possible. In this study, we perform a sensitivity analysis of the reflection function at TOA to the aerosol layer height, to explore the potential for aerosol height retrievals by using multi-angle total and polarized reflectance passive observations at short wavelength. Employing a vector doubling-adding method radiative transfer code RT3, a series of numerical experiments were conducted considering different aerosol model, optical depth (AOD), single-scattering albedo (SSA), and scale height (H), also the wavelength, solar-viewing geometry, etc. The sensitivity of both intensity and polarization signals to the aerosol layer height as well as the interacted impactions with SSA and AOD are analyzed. It's found that the sensitivity of the atmospheric reflection function to aerosol scale height increase with aerosol loading (i.e. AOD) and aerosol absorption (i.e. SSA), and decrease with wavelength. The scalar reflectance is sensitive to aerosol absorption while the polarized reflectance is more influenced by the altitude. Then the aerosol H and SSA may be derived simultaneously assuming that the total and polarized radiances in UV bands deconvolve the relative influences of height and absorption. Aerosol layer height, Atmospheric reflection function, Sensitivity, Ultraviolet (UV) band.

  4. Simulation study of the aerosol information content in OMI spectral reflectance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Veihelmann

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI is an imaging UV-VIS solar backscatter spectrometer and is designed and used primarily to retrieve trace gases like O3 and NO2 from the measured Earth reflectance spectrum in the UV-visible (270–500 nm. However, also aerosols are an important science target of OMI. The multi-wavelength algorithm is used to retrieve aerosol parameters from OMI spectral reflectance measurements in up to 20 wavelength bands. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA is performed to quantify the information content of OMI reflectance measurements on aerosols and to assess the capability of the multi-wavelength algorithm to discern various aerosol types. This analysis is applied to synthetic reflectance measurements for desert dust, biomass burning aerosols, and weakly absorbing anthropogenic aerosol with a variety of aerosol optical thicknesses, aerosol layer altitudes, refractive indices and size distributions. The range of aerosol parameters considered covers the natural variability of tropospheric aerosols. This theoretical analysis is performed for a large number of scenarios with various geometries and surface albedo spectra for ocean, soil and vegetation. When the surface albedo spectrum is accurately known and clouds are absent, OMI reflectance measurements have 2 to 4 degrees of freedom that can be attributed to aerosol parameters. This information content depends on the observation geometry and the surface albedo spectrum. An additional wavelength band is evaluated, that comprises the O2-O2 absorption band at a wavelength of 477 nm. It is found that this wavelength band adds significantly more information than any other individual band.

  5. Are closed landfills free of CH_{4} emissions? A case study of Arico's landfill, Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrancos, José; Cook, Jenny; Phillips, Victoria; Asensio-Ramos, María; Melián, Gladys; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    Landfills are authentic chemical and biological reactors that introduce in the environment a wide amount of gas pollutants (CO2, CH4, volatile organic compounds, etc.) and leachates. Even after years of being closed, a significant amount of landfill gas could be released to the atmosphere through the surface in a diffuse form, also known as non-controlled emission. The study of the spatial-temporal distribution of diffuse emissions provides information of how a landfill degassing takes place. The main objective of this study was to estimate the diffuse uncontrolled emission of CH4 into the atmosphere from the closed Arico's landfill (0.3 km2) in Tenerife Island, Spain. To do so, a non-controlled biogenic gas emission survey of nearly 450 sampling sites was carried out during August 2015. Surface gas sampling and surface landfill CO2 efflux measurements were carried out at each sampling site by means of a portable non-dispersive infrared spectrophotometer (NDIR) model LICOR Li800 following the accumulation chamber method. Landfill gases, CO2 and CH4, were analyzed using a double channel VARIAN 4900 micro-GC. The CH4 efflux was computed combining CO2 efflux and CH4/CO2 ratio in the landfill's surface gas. To quantify the total CH4 emission, CH4 efflux contour map was constructed using sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) as interpolation method. The total diffuse CH4 emission was estimated in 2.2 t d-1, with CH4 efflux values ranging from 0-922 mg m-2 d-1. This type of studies provides knowledge of how a landfill degasses and serves to public and private entities to establish effective systems for extraction of biogas. This aims not only to achieve higher levels of controlled gas release from landfills resulting in a higher level of energy production but also will contribute to minimize air pollution caused by them.

  6. Spectral invariance hypothesis study of polarized reflectance with Ground-based Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (GroundMSPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Christine L.; Kupinski, Meredith; Diner, David J.; Xu, Feng; Chipman, Russell A.

    2015-09-01

    Many models used to represent the boundary condition for the separation of atmospheric scattering from the surface reflectance in polarized remote sensing measurements assume that the polarized surface reflectance is spectrally neutral. The Spectral Invariance Hypothesis asserts that the magnitude and shape of the polarized bidirectional reflectance factor (pBRF) is equal for all wavelengths. In order to test this hypothesis, JPL's Ground-based Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (GroundMSPI) is used to measure polarization information of different outdoor surface types. GroundMSPI measures the linear polarization Stokes parameters (I, Q, U), at three wavelengths, 470 nm, 660 nm, and 865 nm. The camera is mounted on a two-axis gimbal to accurately select the view azimuth and elevation directions. On clear sky days we acquired day-long scans of scenes that contain various surface types such as grass, dirt, cement, brick, and asphalt and placed a Spectralon panel in the camera field of view to provide a reflectance reference. Over the course of each day, changing solar position in the sky provides a large range of scattering angles for this study. The polarized bidirectional reflectance factor (pBRF) is measured for the three wavelengths and the best fit slope of the spectral correlation is reported. This work reports the range of best fit slopes measured for five region types.

  7. Study on sodium water glass-based anti-reflective film and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Q.Z. [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangdong Key Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy Research and Development, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shi, J.F., E-mail: shijf@ms.giec.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangdong Key Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy Research and Development, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510000 (China); Wang, L.L.; Li, Y.J.; Zhong, L.W. [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangdong Key Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy Research and Development, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510000 (China); Xu, G., E-mail: xugang@ms.giec.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangdong Key Laboratory of New and Renewable Energy Research and Development, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510000 (China)

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, anti-reflective (AR) films are prepared from sodium water glass with a simple dip-coating method. The effects of SiO{sub 2}/Na{sub 2}O molar ratio, concentration of water glass, and withdrawal speed on the anti-reflection performance of the AR films are systematically studied. The optimized AR film is further applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The optical properties and surface morphology of AR films are analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscope, and atomic force microscope. Transmittance of the glass coated with sodium water glass-based AR film is increased by 3.2% when the SiO{sub 2}/Na{sub 2}O molar ratio, concentration, and withdrawal speed equal to 3.8, 5 wt%, and 80 mm/min, respectively. Under this condition, the thickness of the AR film is 127 nm and the AR film has obvious porous structure. In addition, the power conversion efficiency of DSC coated by AR film is increased from 7.92% to 8.24%, compared with the DSC without AR film. - Highlights: • Anti-reflective films are prepared from sodium water glass. • Transmittance of anti-reflective film is increased by 3.2%. • Efficiency of dye-sensitized cell is improved by anti-reflective film.

  8. Off-axis phonon and photon propagation in porous silicon superlattices studied by Brillouin spectroscopy and optical reflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, L. C., E-mail: lcparsons@mun.ca; Andrews, G. T., E-mail: tandrews@mun.ca [Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, Newfoundland A1B 3X7 (Canada)

    2014-07-21

    Brillouin light scattering experiments and optical reflectance measurements were performed on a pair of porous silicon-based optical Bragg mirrors which had constituent layer porosity ratios close to unity. For off-axis propagation, the phononic and photonic band structures of the samples were modeled as a series of intersecting linear dispersion curves. Zone-folding was observed for the longitudinal bulk acoustic phonon and the frequency of the probed zone-folded longitudinal phonon was shown to be dependent on the propagation direction as well as the folding order of the mode branch. There was no conclusive evidence of coupling between the transverse and the folded longitudinal modes. Two additional observed Brillouin peaks were attributed to the Rayleigh surface mode and a possible pseudo-surface mode. Both of these modes were dispersive, with the velocity increasing as the wavevector decreased.

  9. Experimental study of the p d (d p )→3Heπ π reactions close to threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellemann, F.; Berg, A.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bohlscheid, G.; Ernst, J.; Henrich, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Ibald, R.; Jahn, R.; Joosten, R.; Kilian, K.; Kozela, A.; Machner, H.; Magiera, A.; Munkel, J.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; von Rossen, P.; Schnitker, H.; Scho, K.; Smyrski, J.; Tölle, R.; Wilkin, C.; COSY-MOMO Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    New experimental data on the p d → 3Heπ+π- reaction obtained with the COSY-MOMO detector below the three-pion threshold are presented. The reaction was also studied in inverse kinematics with a deuteron beam and the higher counting rates achieved were especially important at low excess energies. The comparison of these data with inclusive p d → 3HeX0 rates allowed estimates also to be made of π0π0 production. The results confirm our earlier findings that, close to threshold, there is no enhancement at low excitation energies in the π+π- system, where the data seem largely suppressed compared with phase space. Possible explanations for this behavior, such as strong p waves in the π+π- system or the influence of two-step processes, are explored.

  10. Circuit for studying the spatial profile of a laser beam using a closed-circuit television camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navathe, C. P.; Narayan, B. S.; Oak, S. M.; Gupta, B. L.

    1988-11-01

    A circuit for studying the laser beam spatial intensity profile using a closed-circuit television camera (CCTV) has been developed. The camera gives an output proportional to the laser beam intensity in the form of a composite video signal. The circuit can select any scan line and the intensity variation along that line can be displayed on an oscilloscope. The circuit also generates a trigger pulse for firing the laser synchronized with the selected scan line. It can be operated in either a single-shot or repetitive mode. The circuit can be used for both pulsed and cw lasers. The dynamic range, resolution, linearity, and accuracy of measurement all depend on the CCTV camera and the oscilloscope used. The dynamic range and resolution for our particular vidicon is limited to 5 and 12 lp/mm (line pairs/mm), respectively, for a 15-ns excitation pulse and to 10 and 18 lp/mm for cw and long pulse signal.

  11. Real-time in vivo tissue characterization with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy during transthoracic lung biopsy: a clinical feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spliethoff, Jarich; Prevoo, Warner; Meier, Mark A.J.; de Jong, Jeroen; Evers, Daniel; Evers, Daniel J.; Sterenborg, Hendricus J.C.M.; Lucassen, Gerald; Lucassen, Gerald W.; Hendriks, Benno H.W.; Ruers, Theo J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study presents the first in vivo real-time tissue characterization during image-guided percutaneous lung biopsies using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) sensing at the tip of a biopsy needle with integrated optical fibers. Experimental Design: Tissues from 21 consented patients

  12. On Reflective Teaching of EFL Teachers in Local Universities of China--A Case Study of Leshan Normal University, Sichuan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zou; Ye, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Presently, China plays a vital role in the world. Therefore, Chinese passion for English has reached an unprecedented level. Nevertheless, various problems occur in EFL teaching. Thus, EFL teachers must make the teaching qualities better by reflective teaching, an effective way to improving EFL teaching. The paper is to study the definitions,…

  13. Self-reflection and the brain : A theoretical review and meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies with implications for schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Lisette; Costafreda, Sergi; Aleman, Andre; David, Anthony S.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the neural correlates of self-reflection. In the paradigm most commonly used to address this concept, a subject is presented with trait adjectives or sentences and asked whether they describe him or her. Functional neuroimaging research has revealed a set of regions

  14. STUDYING ATMOSPHERE-DOMINATED HOT JUPITER KEPLER PHASE CURVES: EVIDENCE THAT INHOMOGENEOUS ATMOSPHERIC REFLECTION IS COMMON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shporer, Avi; Hu, Renyu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    We identify three Kepler transiting planets, Kepler-7b, Kepler-12b, and Kepler-41b, whose orbital phase-folded light curves are dominated by planetary atmospheric processes including thermal emission and reflected light, while the impact of non-atmospheric (i.e., gravitational) processes, including beaming (Doppler boosting) and tidal ellipsoidal distortion, is negligible. Therefore, those systems allow a direct view of their atmospheres without being hampered by the approximations used in the inclusion of both atmospheric and non-atmospheric processes when modeling the phase-curve shape. We present here the analysis of Kepler-12b and Kepler-41b atmosphere based on their Kepler phase curve, while the analysis of Kepler-7b was already presented elsewhere. The model we used efficiently computes reflection and thermal emission contributions to the phase curve, including inhomogeneous atmospheric reflection due to longitudinally varying cloud coverage. We confirm Kepler-12b and Kepler-41b show a westward phase shift between the brightest region on the planetary surface and the substellar point, similar to Kepler-7b. We find that reflective clouds located on the west side of the substellar point can explain the phase shift. The existence of inhomogeneous atmospheric reflection in all three of our targets, selected due to their atmosphere-dominated Kepler phase curve, suggests this phenomenon is common. Therefore, it is also likely to be present in planetary phase curves that do not allow a direct view of the planetary atmosphere as they contain additional orbital processes. We discuss the implications of a bright-spot shift on the analysis of phase curves where both atmospheric and gravitational processes appear, including the mass discrepancy seen in some cases between the companion’s mass derived from the beaming and ellipsoidal photometric amplitudes. Finally, we discuss the potential detection of non-transiting but otherwise similar planets, whose mass is too

  15. Fourth year medical students’ reflective writing on “death of Ivan Ilych: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHSHID ZOHOURI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical students should be familiar with the end of life ethical issues and its considerations. For teaching end of life care to medical students, literature is a source of excellent narratives of patients with experiences of terminally ill condition in their journey through suffering and one of the most favourite bioethics literature readings has been the death of Ivan Ilych by Tolstoy. We used this novel to show medical students end of life events and suffering and asked them to write a reflective essay on it. We aimed to find what students think about terminally ill patients and their journey to death. Methods: In an inductive qualitative content analysis model, 350 essays, collected by homogenous sampling, were analyzed. The fourth year medical students were provided with the Death of Ivan Ilych novel to read. They were asked to write a reflection essay based on the reflective stages defined by Sandars. These essays served as the unit of analysis, each being read several times and a coding model was formed according to main topics. The related concepts in each unit were named as themes and each theme was abstracted to a code and the related codes were compared and developed as categories. Results: Qualitative content analysis of 350 essays of fourth year medical students revealed three major categories in students’ reflection on reading Death of Ivan Ilych as an end of life human body. These included: 1 Emotional experience, 2 Empathy and effective communication, 3 Spirituality and dignity. Analysis of essays showed that this reflection activity may help medical students have a deeper idea of the end of life situation and feelings. Conclusion: This project suggests that literature can be used as an example to introduce new ethical concepts to less experienced medical trainees. The students acquired the concept of the story and reflected the major aspects of the suffering of a human being in their essays. Having used and

  16. Fourth year medical students’ reflective writing on “death of Ivan Ilych: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZOHOURI, MAHSHID; AMINI, MITRA; SAGHEB, MOHAMMAD MEHDI

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Medical students should be familiar with the end of life ethical issues and its considerations. For teaching end of life care to medical students, literature is a source of excellent narratives of patients with experiences of terminally ill condition in their journey through suffering and one of the most favourite bioethics literature readings has been the death of Ivan Ilych by Tolstoy. We used this novel to show medical students end of life events and suffering and asked them to write a reflective essay on it. We aimed to find what students think about terminally ill patients and their journey to death. Methods: In an inductive qualitative content analysis model, 350 essays, collected by homogenous sampling, were analyzed. The fourth year medical students were provided with the Death of Ivan Ilych novel to read. They were asked to write a reflection essay based on the reflective stages defined by Sandars. These essays served as the unit of analysis, each being read several times and a coding model was formed according to main topics. The related concepts in each unit were named as themes and each theme was abstracted to a code and the related codes were compared and developed as categories. Results: Qualitative content analysis of 350 essays of fourth year medical students revealed three major categories in students’ reflection on reading Death of Ivan Ilych as an end of life human body. These included: 1) Emotional experience, 2) Empathy and effective communication, 3) Spirituality and dignity. Analysis of essays showed that this reflection activity may help medical students have a deeper idea of the end of life situation and feelings. Conclusion: This project suggests that literature can be used as an example to introduce new ethical concepts to less experienced medical trainees. The students acquired the concept of the story and reflected the major aspects of the suffering of a human being in their essays. Having used and evaluated the effect

  17. Modelling study of challenges in sinkhole detection with shear wave reflection seismics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burschil, Thomas; Krawczyk, CharLotte M.

    2016-04-01

    The detection of cavities with reflection seismics is a difficult task even if high impedance contrasts are assumed. Especially the shear wave reflection method with a higher resolution potential trough lower velocities and short wavelength has come into focus of investigation. But shear wave propagation fails if material exists that partially has no shear strength. The shear wave does not propagate into or through those voids. Here, we evaluate the influence of a possible fracture zone above a cavity. We simulate shear wave propagation with finite difference modelling for two reference models, with and without cavity, and various sets of input models with a fracture zone above the cavity. Reflections and multiples of the reference models image the subsidence structure and the cavity. For the fracture input models, we implemented a fracture network, derived from numerical crack propagation modelling (Schneider-Löbens et al., 2015). The cracks possess the minimum possible aperture of one grid point (i.e. 0.1 m) and no shear stiffness. The seismic modelling exhibits that the shear wave does not pass through the fracture zone and shadows the subjacent cavity. Sequences of randomly discontinuous cracks, cf. displacement discontinuity model with zero crack stiffness, approximate partially seismic connected rock on both sides of the crack. The amount of these seismic pathways determines whether a reflection of the cavity can be detected at the surface or not. Cracks with higher aperture, e.g. two or three grid points, need a higher amount of intact rock/defective cracks, since more connected grid points are necessary to create seismic pathways. Furthermore, it turns out that the crack filling is important for shear wave transmission. While a mineralized fracture zone, implemented with high velocity, facilitate shear wave propagation, water or air-filled cracks avoid shear wave transmission. Crack orientation affects the shear wave propagation through the geometry. A

  18. Fourth year medical students' reflective writing on "death of Ivan Ilych: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohouri, Mahshid; Amini, Mitra; Sagheb, Mohammad Mehdi

    2017-04-01

    Medical students should be familiar with the end of life ethical issues and its considerations. For teaching end of life care to medical students, literature is a source of excellent narratives of patients with experiences of terminally ill condition in their journey through suffering and one of the most favourite bioethics literature readings has been the death of Ivan Ilych by Tolstoy. We used this novel to show medical students end of life events and suffering and asked them to write a reflective essay on it. We aimed to find what students think about terminally ill patients and their journey to death. In an inductive qualitative content analysis model, 350 essays, collected by homogenous sampling, were analyzed. The fourth year medical students were provided with the Death of Ivan Ilych novel to read. They were asked to write a reflection essay based on the reflective stages defined by Sandars. These essays served as the unit of analysis, each being read several times and a coding model was formed according to main topics. The related concepts in each unit were named as themes and each theme was abstracted to a code and the related codes were compared and developed as categories. Qualitative content analysis of 350 essays of fourth year medical students revealed three major categories in students' reflection on reading Death of Ivan Ilych as an end of life human body. These included: 1) Emotional experience, 2) Empathy and effective communication, 3) Spirituality and dignity. Analysis of essays showed that this reflection activity may help medical students have a deeper idea of the end of life situation and feelings. This project suggests that literature can be used as an example to introduce new ethical concepts to less experienced medical trainees. The students acquired the concept of the story and reflected the major aspects of the suffering of a human being in their essays. Having used and evaluated the effect of literature on facilitating ethical insight

  19. Applicability of the Vectrino profiler to study fluid flow in the close vicinity of the sediment-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Andreas; Christian, Dinkel; Christian, Noss; Bernhard, Wehrli; Markus, Holzner

    2016-04-01

    The interaction of bottom currents with the sediment surface is the main driving force for the generation of turbulence in the bottom boundary layer of lakes and estuaries. As a consequence, these currents are an important factor for the exchange of solutes across the sediment-water interface. Close to the sediment, turbulent fluctuations are dampened and flow gradually becomes laminar. In this transition zone, momentum transfer is governed increasingly by viscosity and solute transfer is increasingly controlled by to molecular diffusion. Despite of its importance, this zone extends only a few cm above the sediment, while the laminar zone, which is generally called the viscous boundary layer, extends only over a few mm. Thus, velocity measurements at mm resolution are necessary to investigate the fluid dynamics at the sediment-water interface. Due to the fine resolution required and the difficulty to deploy and operate suitable instruments in the field, these measurements were mainly conducted in the laboratory and only a few attempts have been made to study these processes in-situ. Recently, a novel acoustic Doppler profiler has become commercially available which allows the recording of flow profiles with a spatial resolution of 1 mm and a measurement frequency of 100 Hz. We tested this device in the laboratory as well as in a run-of-the-river hydropower reservoir. We found that average velocities were determined adequately by the profiler, while the characterization of turbulent quantities suffered from noise as well as from signal decorrelation. This contribution will illustrate the potential of the device for studies close to the sediment-water interface and discuss data correction schemes we developed which allow the accurate determination of turbulent quantities.

  20. The stomatogastric nervous system as a model for studying sensorimotor interactions in real-time closed-loop conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly eDaur

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The perception of proprioceptive signals that report the internal state of the body is one of the essential tasks of the nervous system and helps to continuously adapt body movements to changing circumstances. Despite the impact of proprioceptive feedback on motor activity it has rarely been studied in conditions in which motor output and sensory activity interact as they do in behaving animals, i.e. in closed-loop conditions. The interaction of motor and sensory activities, however, can create emergent properties that may govern the functional characteristics of the system. We here demonstrate the use of a well-characterized model system for central pattern generation, the stomatogastric nervous system, for studying these properties in vitro. We created a real-time computer model of a single-cell muscle tendon organ in the gastric mill of the crab foregut that uses intracellular current injections to control the activity of the biological proprioceptor. The resulting motor output of a gastric mill motor neuron is then recorded intracellularly and fed into a simple muscle model consisting of a series of low-pass filters. The muscle output is used to activate a one-dimensional Hodgkin-Huxley type model of the muscle tendon organ in real-time, allowing closed-loop conditions. Model properties were either hand-tuned to achieve the best match with data from semi-intact muscle preparations, or an exhaustive search was performed to determine the best set of parameters. We report the real-time capabilities of our models, its performance and its interaction with the biological motor system.

  1. Closed-loop control of ankle plantarflexors and dorsiflexors using an inverted pendulum apparatus: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Same Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable demand exists for a device to facilitate hands-free, stable stance in individuals with neurological disorders such as spinal cord injury (SCI and stroke. In this regard, applying functional electrical stimulation (FES to muscles of the lower limbs in closed loop has shown promise. In particular, it has been suggested that a PID control strategy could offer functional benefits to stability by mimicking the neurological control strategy employed in able-bodied stance. In this proof of concept study, we tested this assertion by examining the potential of a PID control strategy with gravity compensation to effectively maintain balance during quiet stance by regulating FES-induced contractions of the ankle plantarflexors and dorsiflexors in able-bodied individuals. A novel Inverted Pendulum Standing Apparatus (IPSA was employed to simulate quiet stance whilst minimizing the voluntary control of able-bodied subjects. Quiet and perturbed standing trials were performed in 3 able-bodied subjects. Performance metrics including those pertaining to stability during quiet stance (root mean square difference, perturbation rejection capabilities (settling time, peak deviation, and ability to transition from an offset initial position (settling time, were examined. For all 3 subjects and for all of the metrics examined, our results showed that the proposed closed-loop controlled FES system improved performance in comparison to voluntary control. These results indicate that the PID plus gravity control strategy used in this study offers meaningful benefits over voluntary control in terms of standing stability. Thus, the controller could potentially be applied to the problem of improving or restoring standing ability in some neurologic patient populations.

  2. Experimental Studies of Microwave Reflection and Attenuation by Plasmas Produced by Burning Chemicals in Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Zhongcai; SHI Jiaming; WANG Jiachun

    2007-01-01

    A series of chemicals are designed and prepared.With the method of thermodynamics,the average electron densities of the plasmas generated by burning chemicals are calculated.The reflection and attenuation of the microwaves,in a frequency band of 2 GHz to 15 GHz,by the plasma are measured.The results of measurements indicate that the plasma can absorb the energies of the microwaves in a broad band and reflect them faintly.Moreover,theoretical discussion reveals that the electron-neutral collision is the major factor that results in the absorption in the wide band.By using Appleton equations,average collision frequencies and electron densities are calculated from the attenuations of microwaves.

  3. Study of air pollutant signatures for remote sensing. [of the spectral reflectivity of leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for a possible new, indirect signature for air pollutants: the spectral reflectivity of plant leaves. Sub-visual changes (up to 160%) in the spectral reflectivity of bean and tobacco leaves were observed over the range 475nm to 750nm in response to SO2 exposures such as 2ppm/4hrs or 4ppm/16hrs, or to O3 exposures such as 90pphm/21hrs or 7.5pphm/292hrs. Such changes might be observed from a satellite using either laser or sunlight as the illumination source. Inasmuch as the plants appear to become acclimated to some of these exposure doses, environmental changes may be most important for this type of plant-response.

  4. Channeling, volume reflection, and volume capture study of electrons in a bent silicon crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wistisen, T. N.; Uggerhøj, U. I.; Wienands, U.; Markiewicz, T. W.; Noble, R. J.; Benson, B. C.; Smith, T.; Bagli, E.; Bandiera, L.; Germogli, G.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Holtzapple, R.; Tucker, S.

    2016-07-01

    We present the experimental data and analysis of experiments conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory investigating the processes of channeling, volume-reflection and volume-capture along the (111) plane in a strongly bent quasimosaic silicon crystal. These phenomena were investigated at 5 energies: 3.35, 4.2, 6.3, 10.5, and 14.0 GeV with a crystal with bending radius of 0.15 m, corresponding to curvatures of 0.053, 0.066, 0.099, 0.16, and 0.22 times the critical curvature, respectively. Based on the parameters of fitting functions we have extracted important parameters describing the channeling process such as the dechanneling length, the angle of volume reflection, the surface transmission, and the widths of the distribution of channeled particles parallel and orthogonal to the plane.

  5. A feasibility study on diagnosing wheat water status using spectral reflectance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A total of 110 wheat leaf samples were collected in the field andtheir spectral reflectances were measured with a spectroradiometer in laboratory. After a spectral normalizing technique, the spectral absorption feature parameters such as the absorption depth and area, were extracted from each leaf spectrum. The relative water content (RWC) was measured for samples. The experimental results indicated that the spectral absorption depth and area of wheat leaves at 1 450 nm were correlated with their RWC. So we can diagnose wheat water status by using their spectral reflectances. Furthermore, we discuss the possibility of developing new instruments based on the analysis of the spectroradiometer data for non-destructive and instantaneous measurement of the wheat water status in the field.

  6. Constrained reaction volume approach for studying chemical kinetics behind reflected shock waves

    KAUST Repository

    Hanson, Ronald K.

    2013-09-01

    We report a constrained-reaction-volume strategy for conducting kinetics experiments behind reflected shock waves, achieved in the present work by staged filling in a shock tube. Using hydrogen-oxygen ignition experiments as an example, we demonstrate that this strategy eliminates the possibility of non-localized (remote) ignition in shock tubes. Furthermore, we show that this same strategy can also effectively eliminate or minimize pressure changes due to combustion heat release, thereby enabling quantitative modeling of the kinetics throughout the combustion event using a simple assumption of specified pressure and enthalpy. We measure temperature and OH radical time-histories during ethylene-oxygen combustion behind reflected shock waves in a constrained reaction volume and verify that the results can be accurately modeled using a detailed mechanism and a specified pressure and enthalpy constraint. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  7. The Importance of Magnetic Reflection Condition and Polarization Factor: Case Study of MnF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Purwanto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Neutron diffraction has been widely accepted as a versatile tool to investigate magnetic structure of crystalline materials, which contribute significantly to the scientific and technological advances. Starting from a general formulation of the magnetic structure factor, one can often simplify the formulation depending on the crystallographic structure and the magnetic wave propagation vector of the sample. The simplification allows magnetic moment coupling and polarization deduction without the need of the refinement process. This paper elaborates such simplification for MnF2 to provide the determination of the magnetic moment coupling and polarization direction simply based on the reflection condition and polarization factor. The determination of the magnetic structure excluding its magnitude by the reflection condition and polarization factor is much more conclusive than by any magnetic structure refinement. Furthermore, MnF2 illustrates a rare compound that has antiferromagnetic structure with zero magnetic wave propagation vector, i.e.; it has the same antiferromagnetic and crystallographic unit cell.

  8. The lamellar period in symmetric diblock copolymer thin films studied by neutron reflectivity and AFM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadegaard, N.; Almdal, K.; Larsen, N.B.

    1999-01-01

    experimental results are compared to theoretical predictions on the scaling behavior of the lamella period as a function of temperature. The morphology of the surface was investigated by atomic force microscopy. Holes were found around defects in the films. The cross-section of the holes revealed the lamellar...... structure with a periodicity comparable to what was found by neutron reflectivity. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  9. A reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy study of underpotential deposition of copper onto Au(110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. I.; Farell, T.; Lucas, C. A.; Nichols, R. J.; Weightman, P.

    2005-11-01

    The underpotential deposition of Cu on Au(110) has been monitored by Reflection Anisotropy Spectroscopy (RAS). The changes in the intensity of spectral features observed at 2.6 eV and 3.4 eV in the RA spectrum of Au(110) that are induced by the deposition of Cu occur on different timescales. It is suggested that these changes arise, respectively, from the partial quenching of surface states and from changes in surface morphology.

  10. Clinical study of emergency treatment and selective closed reduction for the treatment of supracondylar humerus fracture in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of emergency treatment, selective closed reduction combined with percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation on the treatment of Gartland type-II and type-III supracondylar humerus fracture. Methods: Children who sustained the Gartland type-II and type-III supracondylar fractures of humerus treated with selective closed reduction combined with percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation in our hospital from May 2012 to August 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. They were divided into group A (emergency operation group and group B (selective operation group according to different operation timing. Perioperative situation, blood biochemical parameters, swelling degree and elbow joint function of affected limb were compared between two groups. Results: Operation time for patients of group A was significantly shorter than that of group B [(17.19 ± 2.85 vs. (21.43 ± 3.91 min], and frequency of fluoroscopy during operation of group A was obviously less than that of group B [(6.03 ± 0.95 vs. (7.61 ± 0.92 times]. Swelling index of affected limb in group A at 3 days, 5 days and 7 days after injury was all significantly lower than that in group B [(1.20 ± 0.17 vs. (1.38 ± 0.14, (1.13 ± 0.13 vs. (1.30 ± 0.18, (1.02 ± 0.15 vs. (1.22 ± 0.15]. Hospital for special surgery score at 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 and 4 weeks after removing Kirschner wire had no significant difference between group A and B (88.75 ± 10.18 vs. (89.14 ± 10.52, (94.22 ± 10.85 vs. (93.85 ± 11.08, (95.52 ± 11.27 vs. (95.92 ± 12.19, (95.43 ± 10.96 vs. (96.02 ± 11.38. Contents of serum alanine transaminase, aspertate aminotransferase, total protein, albumin and C-reactive protein in perioperative period had no obvious difference between patients in group A and B. Conclusions: Emergency closed reduction combined with percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation for Gartland type-II and type-III supracondylar humerus fracture in children has less trauma, low swelling degree

  11. Clinical study of emergency treatment and selective closed reduction for the treatment of supracondylar humerus fracture in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhong; Xue-Wen Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of emergency treatment, selective closed reduction combined with percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation on the treatment of Gartland type-II and type-III supracondylar humerus fracture. Methods: Children who sustained the Gartland type-II and type-III supracondylar fractures of humerus treated with selective closed reduction combined with percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation in our hospital from May 2012 to August 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. They were divided into group A (emergency operation group) and group B (selective operation group) according to different operation timing. Perioperative sit-uation, blood biochemical parameters, swelling degree and elbow joint function of affected limb were compared between two groups. Results: Operation time for patients of group A was significantly shorter than that of group B [(17.19 ± 2.85) vs. (21.43 ± 3.91) min], and frequency of fluoroscopy during operation of group A was obviously less than that of group B [(6.03 ± 0.95) vs. (7.61 ± 0.92) times]. Swelling index of affected limb in group A at 3 days, 5 days and 7 days after injury was all significantly lower than that in group B [(1.20 ± 0.17) vs. (1.38 ± 0.14), (1.13 ± 0.13) vs. (1.30 ± 0.18), (1.02 ± 0.15) vs. (1.22 ± 0.15)]. Hospital for special surgery score at 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 and 4 weeks after removing Kirschner wire had no significant difference between group A and B (88.75 ± 10.18) vs. (89.14 ± 10.52), (94.22 ± 10.85) vs. (93.85 ± 11.08), (95.52 ± 11.27) vs. (95.92 ± 12.19), (95.43 ± 10.96) vs. (96.02 ± 11.38). Contents of serum alanine transaminase, aspertate aminotransferase, total protein, albumin and C-reactive protein in perioperative period had no obvious difference between patients in group A and B. Conclusions: Emergency closed reduction combined with percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation for Gartland type-II and type-III supracondylar humerus fracture in children has less trauma, low swelling

  12. Partial-reflection studies of D-region winter variability. [electron density measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, B. W.; Bowhill, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    D-region electron densities were measured from December, 1972, to July, 1973, at Urbana, Illinois (latitude 40.2N) using the partial-reflection technique. During the winter, electron densities at altitudes of 72, 76.5, and 81 km show cyclical changes with a period of about 5 days that are highly correlated between these altitudes, suggesting that the mechanism responsible for the winter anomaly in D-region ionization applies throughout this height region. From January 13 to February 3, a pronounced wave-like variation occurred in the partial-reflection measurements, apparently associated with a major stratospheric warming that developed in that period. During the same time period, a traveling periodic variation is observed in the 10-mb height; it is highly correlated with the partial-reflection measurements. Electron density enhancements occur approximately at the same time as increases in the 10-mb height. Comparison of AL and A3 absorption measurements with electron density measurements below 82 km indicates that the winter anomaly in D-region ionization is divided into two types. Type 1, above about 82 km, extends horizontally for about 200 km while type 2, below about 82 km, extends for a horizontal scale of at least 1000 km.

  13. Experimental and numerical studies on interactions of a spherical flame with incident and reflected shocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingyue Gui; Baochun Fan; Gang Dong; Jingfang Ye

    2009-01-01

    Observations are presented from experiments and calculations where a laminar spherical CH4/air flame is perturbed successively by incident and reflected shock waves.The experiments are performed in a standard shock tube arrangement, in which a high-speed shadowgraph imagingsystem is used to record evolutions of the flame. Numerical simulations are conducted by using second-order wave propagation algorithms, based on two-dimensional axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations with detailed chemical reactions. Qualitative agreements are obtained between the experimental and numerical results. Under actions of incident shock waves, Richtmyer-Meshkov instability responsible for the flame deformation is induced in the flame, and the distorted flame takes a barrel shape. Then, under subsequent actions of the shock wave reflected from a planar wall, the flame takes an inclined non-symmetrical kidney shape in a symmetric cross section, which means a mushroom-like shape of the flame comes finally into being. The vorticity direction in the ring cap has been altered by the reflected shock's action, which makes the head of the mushroom-like flame extend quickly to the side wall.

  14. Numerical study of three-dimensional sound reflection from corrugated surface waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Youngmin; Song, H C; Seong, Woojae

    2016-10-01

    When a sound wave propagates in a water medium bounded by a smooth surface wave, reflection from a wave crest can lead to focusing and result in rapid variation of the received waveform as the surface wave moves [Tindle, Deane, and Preisig, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 66-72 (2009)]. In prior work, propagation paths have been constrained to be in a plane parallel to the direction of corrugated surface waves, i.e., a two-dimensional (2-D) propagation problem. In this paper, the azimuthal dependence of sound propagation as a three-dimensional (3-D) problem is investigated using an efficient, time-domain Helmholtz-Kirchhoff integral formulation. When the source and receiver are in the plane orthogonal to the surface wave direction, the surface wave curvature vanishes in conventional 2-D treatments and the flat surface simply moves up and down, resulting in minimal temporal variation of the reflected signal intensity. On the other hand, the 3-D propagation analysis reveals that a focusing phenomenon occurs in the reflected signal due to the surface wave curvature formed along the orthogonal plane, i.e., out-of-plane scattering.

  15. High-pressure Raman study of two ferroelectric crystals closely related to PbTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Gerald; Sanjurjo, J. A.; López-Cruz, E.

    1984-12-01

    We report high-pressure Raman measurements of the zone-center phonons in two ferroelectric crystals that closely resemble the ABO3 perovskite crystal PbTiO3. These crystals are (Pb0.22Ba0.78)TiO3, i.e., Ba replacing Pb on the A site, and Pb(Ti0.81Sn0.19)O3, i.e., Sn replacing Ti on the B site. In both cases, at room temperature, we follow the modes and determine Pc, the transition pressure from the ferroelectric tetragonal phase to the cubic phase, to be 4.3 and 9.0 GPa, respectively. By observing the coalescence to the same frequency of the appropriate high-energy A1(TO)+E(TO) pairs of phonons, we determine the second-order character of the phase transitions at Pc. The tendency towards a second-order phase transition seems to be the rule at Pc as long as one makes the measurements at a temperature well below Tc; this is in agreement with theory. Thus, these systems exhibit tricritical points in the (P,T) phase diagram. The soft-E(TO)-phonon frequency (ω0) and damping constant (γ) can be measured to pressures reasonably close to Pc while the mode remains underdamped. These results are discussed in terms of a frequency-independent damping constant for the behavior of ω0 and γ near Pc. In the (Pb,Ba)TiO3 crystal, the hydrostatic pressure increases the intensity of the soft A1(TO) mode making it observable. This seems to happen in general in the perovskites. In the Pb(Ti,Sn)O3 crystal we observe the coupling of the soft E(TO) mode with an extra mode at 59 cm-1; this also has been studied as a function of temperature.

  16. Early tracheostomy in closed head injuries: experience at a tertiary center in a developing country – a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyambada Binita

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important factor contributing to the high mortality in patients with severe head trauma is cerebral hypoxia. The mechanical ventilation helps both by reduction in the intracranial pressure and hypoxia. Ventilatory support is also required in these patients because of patient's inability to protect the airway, persistence of excessive secretions, and inadequacy of spontaneous ventilation. Prolonged endotracheal intubation is however associated with trauma to the larynx, trachea, and patient discomfort in addition to requirement of sedatives. Tracheostomy has been found to play an integral role in the airway management of such patients, but its timing remains subject to considerable practice variation. In a developing country like India where the intensive care facilities are scarce and rarely available, these critical patients have to be managed in high dependency cubicles in the ward, often with inadequately trained nursing staff and equipment to monitor them. An early tracheostomy in the selected group of patients based on Glasgow Coma Score(GCS may prove to be life saving.Against this background a prospective study was contemplated to assess the role of early tracheostomy in patients with isolated closed head injury. Methods The series consisted of a cohort of 50 patients admitted to the surgical emergency with isolated closed head injury, that were not considered for surgery by the neuro-surgeon or shifted to ICU, but had GCS score of less than 8 and SAPS II score of more than 50. First 50 case records from January 2001 that fulfilled the criteria constituted the control group. The patients were managed as per ATLS protocol and intubated if required at any time before decision to perform tracheostomy was taken. These patients were serially assessed for GCS (worst score of the day as calculated by senior surgical resident and SAPS scores till day 15 to chart any changes in their status of head injuries and predictive

  17. Lesson study in prospective mathematics teacher education: didactic and paradidactic technology in the post-lesson reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the post-lesson reflection, carried out in the context of eight cases of lesson study conducted by teams of Danish, lower secondaryprospective teachers and their supervisors. The participants, representing different institutions, were all new to the lesson...... study format. Nevertheless, it is demonstrated how their interaction shape the development of discourse about mathematical learning. The anthropological theory of the didactic is employed as the theoretical approach to analyse the mathematical and primarily didactical praxeologies developed...

  18. Experimental study on the non-specularly reflected ultrasonic beam on a liquid-solid interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The reflected fields of a slightly divergent ultrasonic beam on aliquid-solid interface are recorded by a Schlieren system, and the lateral beam displacements on the interface are measured. The range of the incident angle θi is ±5° around the Rayleigh angle θc. The displacements Δ are found to decrease as the incident angle increases. Theoretical calculation reveals that the displacements decrease with the increase in the incident angle for a divergent incident beam, but increase with that for a convergent one. The calculated curve of Δ-θi are in agreement with the experimental results.

  19. An experimental study on the performance of closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP) with methanol as a working fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Lutfor; Nourin, Farah Nazifa; Salsabil, Zaimaa; Yasmin, Nusrat; Ali, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    Thermal control is an important topic for thermal management of small electrical and electronic devices. Closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP) arises as the best solution for thermal control. The aim of this experimental study is to search a CLPHP of better thermal performance for cooling different electrical and electronic devices. In this experiment, methanol is used as working fluid. The effect of using methanol as a working fluid is studied on thermal performance in different filling ratios and angles of inclination. A copper capillary tube is used where the inner diameter is 2mm,outer diameter is 2.5mm and 250mm long. The CLPHP has 8 loops where the evaporation section is 50mm, adiabatic section is 120mm and condensation section is 80mm. The experiment is done using FR of 40%-70% with 10% of interval and angles of inclination 0° (vertical), 30°, 45°, 60° varying heat input. The results are compared on the basis of evaporator temperature, condenser temperature and their differences, thermal resistance, heat transfer co-efficient, power input and pulsating time. The results demonstrate the effect of methanol in different filling ratios and angles of inclination. M ethanol shows better performance at 30° inclination with 40% FR.

  20. Healing of periodontal flaps when closed with silk sutures and N-butyl cyanoacrylate: A clinical and histological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Sudhindra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The closure of the periodontal flaps post-surgery is a necessity for attainment of a primary union between the flap margins and the establishment of a healthy dentogingival junction. N-butyl cyanoacrylate is a tissue adhesive, which can be used for the closure of the incised wounds to overcome the problems associated with conventional suture materials like silk. Objective: The present study was carried out to assess the healing of the periodontal flaps when closed with the conventional silk sutures and N-butyl cyanoacrylate. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 24 patients who needed flap surgical procedure for pocket therapy. Results: It was found that healing with the cyanoacrylate is associated with less amount of inflammation during the first week when compared with silk. However, over a period of 21 days to 6 weeks, the sites treated with both the materials showed similar healing patterns. Conclusion: It can be concluded that cyanoacrylate aids in early initial healing.

  1. The database on transgenic luminescent microorganisms as an instrument of studying a microbial component of closed ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyandin, A. N.; Lankin, Y. P.; Kargatova, T. V.; Popova, L. Y.; Pechurkin, N. S.

    Luminescent transgenic microorganisms are widely used for study of microbial communities' functioning including closed ones. Bioluminescence is of high sensitive to effects of different environmental factors. Integration of lux-genes into different metabolic ways allows studying many aspects of microorganisms' life permitting to carry out measurements in situ. There is much information about applications of bioluminescent bacteria in different researches. But for effective using these data their summarizing and accumulation in common source is required. Therefore an information system on characteristics of transgenic microorganisms with cloned lux-genes was created. The database and client software related were developed. A database structure includes information on common characteristics of cloned lux-genes, their sources and properties, on regulation of gene expression in bacterial cells, on dependence of bioluminescence manifestation on biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic environmental factors. The database also can store description of changes in bacterial populations depending on environmental changes. The database created allows storing and using bibliographic information and also links to web sites of world collections of microorganisms. Internet publishing software permitting to open access to the database through the Internet is developed.

  2. Experimental Study of Single Phase Flow in a Closed-Loop Cooling System with Integrated Mini-Channel Heat Sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The flow and heat transfer characteristics of a closed-loop cooling system with a mini-channel heat sink for thermal management of electronics is studied experimentally. The heat sink is designed with corrugated fins to improve its heat dissipation capability. The experiments are performed using variable coolant volumetric flow rates and input heating powers. The experimental results show a high and reliable thermal performance using the heat sink with corrugated fins. The heat transfer capability is improved up to 30 W/cm2 when the base temperature is kept at a stable and acceptable level. Besides the heat transfer capability enhancement, the capability of the system to transfer heat for a long distance is also studied and a fast thermal response time to reach steady state is observed once the input heating power or the volume flow rate are varied. Under different input heat source powers and volumetric flow rates, our results suggest potential applications of the designed mini-channel heat sink in cooling microelectronics.

  3. A study of optical reflectance and localization modes of 1-D Fibonacci photonic quasicrystals using different graded dielectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bipin K.; Pandey, Praveen C.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present an analytical study on the reflection properties of light through one-dimensional (1-D) quasi-periodic multilayer structures. The considered structures are as follows: F7, F8, F9, (F2)10, (F3)10 and some combinations such as: [(F2)10 (F7) (F2)10], [(F2)10 (F8) (F2)10], [(F3)10 (F7) (F3)10], [(F3)10 (F8) (F3)10], [(F2)10(F3)10], [(F2)10 (F7) (F3)10] and [(F2)10 (F8) (F3)10], where (Fj)n represents n period of the Fibonacci sequence of jth generation. These multilayer structures are considered of two types of layers. One type of layer is considered of graded material like normal, linear or exponential graded material, and the second type of layer is considered of constant refractive index material. Transfer matrix method is utilized to calculate the reflection spectra and localization modes of such structures in the frequency range 150-450 THz. This work would provide the basis of understanding of the effect of graded materials on the reflection and localization modes in Fibonacci photonic quasicrystal structures and obtained spectra can be used in the recognition of grading of materials. The considered heterostructures provide the broad reflection band and some localization modes in the calculated region.

  4. Near-surface sensitivity suppression way for diffuse reflective optical tomography: simulation and a phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Keiko; Fujii, Mamiko

    2007-07-01

    Diffuse reflective optical measurement is a useful approach for monitoring the oxygen consumption of living tissue such as brain and muscle. To improve the oxygen consumption measurement accuracy, we propose a method for suppressing the near-surface sensitivity. Diffuse reflective light is detected at the aperture used for irradiating the light and is used as a cancellation signal for near-field sensitivity in the conventional measurement scheme. Photon fluence density functions and positional dependences of detected light sensitivity to change in absorbance were simulated. The sensitivity detected at the same position (aperture) as irradiation was significantly high for the near-surface region. With our method, the near-surface sensitivity is reduced by more than 90% while keeping target sensitivity almost constant (only 3% deterioration). The near-surface and deep-field sensitivity was measured with a phantom with light (785 nm) modulated at 1 kHz through an optical fiber bundle. It confirmed suppressed the near-surface sensitivity by subtracting the light detected at the same aperture from the light detected at another aperture.

  5. Ionospheric (H-atom) Tomography a Feasibility Study using GNSS Reflections

    CERN Document Server

    Marco, J; Ruffini, L; Marco, Josep; Ruffini, Giulio; Ruffini, Leonardo

    2002-01-01

    In this report we analyze the feasibility of ionospheric monitoring using GNSS technology. The focus will be on the use of LEO GNSS data, exploiting GNSS Reflections, Navigation and Occultation TEC measurements. In order to attack this question, we have simulated GNSS ionospheric TEC data as it would be measured from a polar LEO (exploiting Navigation, Occultation and Reflection TEC data) and IGS ground stations, through the use of a climatic ionospheric model (we have explored both NeQuick and PIM). We have then developed a new tomographic approach inspired on the physics of the hydrogen atom, which has been compared to previous successful but somewhat awkward methods (using a voxel representation) and employed to retrieve the Electronic Density field from the simulated TEC data. These tomographic inversion results using simulated data demonstrate the significant impact of GNSS-R and GNSS-NO data: 3D ionospheric Electron Density fields are retrieved over the oceans quite accurately, even as, in the spirit of...

  6. Reflections on Policing in Post-Soviet Ukraine: A Case Study of Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Beck

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 10 years the countries emerging from the break up of the Soviet Union have grappled with the reform of their criminal justice systems, with some enjoying considerable success, while others have seen virtually no change whatsoever. This article reflects upon the experience of Ukraine in its attempts to reform the police, and argues that it is more a story of continuity than change, with pre-independence structures, cultures and power elites predominating. It suggests that political and ideological ambiguity has led to uncertainty about how the police should be reformed from one previously focused on serving the state and ‘collective’ interests to one meeting the needs of the individual and local communities. The article begins by highlighting some of the key reforms that have been undertaken by the Ukrainian police in the years since independence, and then goes on to detail the significant factors that have impeded this process. It concludes by reflecting upon future priorities and the prospects for developing a more democratic policing model in Ukraine.

  7. The value of reflectance confocal microscopy in diagnosis of flat pigmented facial lesions: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurm, E; Pellacani, G; Longo, C; Soyer, H P; Gonzalez, S; Hofmann-Wellenhof, R; Ahlgrimm-Siess, V; Guitera, P; Sinz, C; Kittler, H

    2017-08-01

    Flat pigmented facial lesions are difficult to diagnose even with dermatoscopy. It is controversial how additional information obtained by in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) impacts the diagnosis and management. To examine what in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy of flat pigmented facial lesions adds to clinical examination using dermatoscopy including digital dermatoscopic monitoring. We prospectively collected 70 cases of flat pigmented facial lesions and recorded diagnoses and management decisions by experts based on direct clinical examination aided by dermatoscopy including digital dermatoscopic monitoring and by remote experts who reviewed the corresponding confocal images. The expert confocal readers were blinded to the clinical and dermatoscopic appearance of the lesion. The sensitivity of dermatoscopy plus digital dermatoscopic monitoring was 95.0% (95% CI 75.13% to 99.87%) and the specificity was 84.0% (95% CI 70.89% to 92.83%). The sensitivity of RCM was 95.0% (95% CI 75.13% to 99.87%) and the specificity was 82.0% (95% CI 68.56% to 91.42%). Although most flat pigmented facial lesions can be managed by clinical examination and dermatoscopy alone, confocal microscopy is a useful adjunct in selected lesions. If RCM is not correlated with clinical and dermatoscopic information, there is risk of overdiagnosis of actinic keratosis, however. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  8. Quantifying Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, Gordon Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    This paper documents 1st semester student reflections on “learning to learn” in a team-based PBL environment with quantitative and qualitative student reflective feedback on the learning gains of 60 Architectural Technology and Construction Management students at VIA University College, Denmark....... It contrasts the students’ self-assessment in a range of ‘product’ skills such as Revit, Structural Design, Mathematics of construction, Technical Installations; as well as ‘process’ competencies such as ‘Working in a team’, Sharing knowledge, Maintaining a portfolio and Reflecting ON learning and FOR learning......´ These are all based on Blooms taxonomy and levels of competence and form a major part of individual student and group learning portfolios. Key Words :Project-Based learning, Reflective Portfolios, Self assessment, Defining learning gains, Developing learning strategies , Reflections on and for learning...

  9. EDITORIAL: Close contact Close contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-07-01

    The development of scanning probe techniques, such as scanning tunnelling microscopy [1], has often been touted as the catalyst for the surge in activity and progress in nanoscale science and technology. Images of nanoscale structural detail have served as an invaluable investigative resource and continue to fascinate with the fantastical reality of an intricate nether world existing all around us, but hidden from view of the naked eye by a disparity in scale. As is so often the case, the invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope heralded far more than just a useful new apparatus, it demonstrated the scope for exploiting the subtleties of electronic contact. The shrinking of electronic devices has been a driving force for research into molecular electronics, in which an understanding of the nature of electronic contact at junctions is crucial. In response, the number of experimental techniques in molecular electronics has increased rapidly in recent years. Scanning tunnelling microscopes have been used to study electron transfer through molecular films on a conducting substrate, and the need to monitor the contact force of scanning tunnelling electrodes led to the use of atomic force microscopy probes coated in a conducting layer as studied by Cui and colleagues in Arizona [2]. In this issue a collaboration of researchers at Delft University and Leiden University in the Netherlands report a new device architecture for the independent mechanical and electrostatic tuning of nanoscale charge transport, which will enable thorough studies of molecular transport in the future [3]. Scanning probes can also be used to pattern surfaces, such as through spatially-localized Suzuki and Heck reactions in chemical scanning probe lithography. Mechanistic aspects of spatially confined Suzuki and Heck chemistry are also reported in this issue by researchers in Oxford [4]. All these developments in molecular electronics fabrication and characterization provide alternative

  10. Takifugu obscurus is a euryhaline fugu species very close to Takifugu rubripes and suitable for studying osmoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakai Harumi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome sequence of the pufferfish Takifugu rubripes is an enormously useful tool in the molecular physiology of fish. Euryhaline fish that can survive both in freshwater (FW and seawater (SW are also very useful for studying fish physiology, especially osmoregulation. Recently we learned that there is a pufferfish, Takifugu obscurus, common name "mefugu" that migrates into FW to spawn. If T. obscurus is indeed a euryhaline fish and shares a high sequence homology with T. rubripes, it will become a superior animal model for studying the mechanism of osmoregulation. We have therefore determined its euryhalinity and phylogenetic relationship to the members of the Takifugu family. Results The following six Takifugu species were used for the analyses: T. obscurus, T. rubripes, T. niphobles, T. pardalis, T. poecilonotus, and T. porphyreus. When transferred to FW, only T. obscurus could survive while the others could not survive more than ten days in FW. During this course of FW adaptation, serum Na+ concentration of T. obscurus decreased only slightly, but a rapid and large decrease occurred even in the case of T. niphobles, a peripheral fresh water species that is often seen in brackish river mouths. Phylogenetic analysis using nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene of each species indicated that the six Takifugu species are very closely related with each other. Conclusion T. obscurus is capable of adapting to both FW and SW. Its genomic sequence shares a very high homology with those of the other Takifugu species such that the existing Takifugu genomic information resources can be utilized. These properties make "mefugu", which has drawn little attention from animal physiologists until this study, a useful model animal for studying the molecular mechanism of maintaining body fluid homeostasis.

  11. The Joint Front Range Climate Change Vulnerability Study: Closing the Gap between Science and Water Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatz, L.; Yates, D.; Woodbury, M.

    2008-12-01

    There is increasing concern among metropolitan water providers in Colorado's Front Range about the possible impacts of global and regional climate changes on their future water supply. This is of particular worry given that recent studies indicate global warming may lead to unprecedented drought conditions in the Southwest U.S. (IPCC 2007). The City of Aurora, City of Boulder, Colorado Springs Utilities, Denver Water, City of Ft. Collins, and Northern Colorado Water Conservancy District, along with additional water agencies including the Colorado Water Conservation Board, the Water Research Foundation (formerly AwwaRF), and the NOAA-CIRES Western Water Assessment, have come together to participate in a study intended to provide the education, tools, and methodology necessary to examine possible effects of climate change on several common watersheds. The central objective of this project is to assess possible changes in the timing and volume of hydrologic runoff from selected climate change scenarios centered about the years 2040 and 2070. Two hydrologic models will be calibrated and implemented in the study for this purpose. The future temperature and precipitation scenarios used to generate corresponding future streamflow are based on regionally downscaled temperature and precipitation projections. The projected streamflow obtained by running varied sequences of temperature and precipitation through the hydrologic models, will be compared to historic streamflow to estimate the sensitivity of water supplies to climate change. This regional unified approach is intended to help Colorado water providers communicate with their customers and the media cohesively, by working with the same historic and projected hydrometeorological data, historic natural streamflow, and methodology. Lessons learned from this collaborative approach can be used to encourage and establish other regional efforts throughout the country. Furthermore, this study will set the stage for future

  12. Upscaling reflectance information of lichens and mosses using a singularity index: a case study of the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Neta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessing moisture contents of lichens and mosses using ground-based high spectral resolution spectrometers (400–2500 nm offers immense opportunities for a comprehensive monitoring of peatland moisture status by satellite/airborne imagery. This information may be valuable for present and future carbon balance modeling. Previous studies are based upon point measurements of vegetation moisture content and water table position, and therefore a detailed moisture status of entire northern peatlands is not available. Consequently, upscaling ground and remotely sensed data to the desired spatial resolutions is inevitable. This study continues our previous investigation of the impact of various moisture conditions of common sub-Arctic lichen and moss species (i.e., Cladina stellaris, Cladina rangiferina, Dicranum elongatum, and Tomenthypnum nitens upon the spectral signatures obtained in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada. Upscaling reflectance measurements of the above species were conducted in the field, and reflectance analysis using a singularity index was made, since this study serves as a basis for future aircraft/satellite research. An attempt to upscale current and new spectral reflectance indices developed in our previous studies was made as well. Our findings indicate that the spectral index C. rangiferina is to a lesser amount influenced by scale since it has a small R2 values between the log of the index and the log of the resolution, reduced slopes between the log of the index and the log of the resolution, and similar slopes between log reflectance and log resolution (α of two wavelengths employed by the index. Future study should focus on concurrent monitoring of moisture variations in lichens and mosses both in situ and from satellite and airborne images, as well as analysis of fractal models in relations to the upscaling experiments.

  13. DEM ASSESSMENT DERIVED FROM CLOSE RANGE PHOTOGRAMMETRY: A CASE STUDY FROM KADAVUR AREA, KARUR DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Anbarasan, S.; R. Sakthivel

    2012-01-01

    Close-Range Photogrammetry is an accurate, cost effective technique of collecting measurements of real world objects and conditions, directly from photographs. Photogrammetry utilizes digital images to obtain accurate measurements and geometric data of the object or area of interest, in order to provide spatial information for Engineering design, spatial surveys or 3D modeling. The benefits of close-range Photogrammetry over other field procedures are purported to be: Increased accur...

  14. An aircraft case study of the spatial transition from closed to open mesoscale cellular convection over the Southeast Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wood

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft measurements are presented from 27 to 28 October 2008 case study of the VOCALS Regional Experiment (REx over the remote subtropical southeast Pacific (18° S, 80° W. Data from two aircraft that took measurements approximately twelve hours apart but in the same advected airmass are used to document a remarkably sharp spatial transition in marine boundary layer (MBL, cloud, and aerosol structure across the boundary between a well-mixed MBL containing overcast closed mesoscale cellular stratocumulus, and a pocket of open cells (POC with significantly lower cloud cover. Long (~190–250 km straight and level flight legs at three levels in the marine boundary layer and one level in the lower free troposphere permit sampling of the closed cells, the POC, and a 20–30 km wide transition zone with distinctly different structure from the two airmasses on either side. The POC region consists of intermittent active and strongly precipitating cumulus clouds rising and detraining into patches of drizzling but quiescent stratiform cloud which is optically thin especially toward its edges.

    Mean cloud-base precipitation rates inside the POC are several mm d−1, but rates in the closed cell region are not greatly lower than this, which suggests that precipitation is not a sufficient condition for POC formation from overcast stratocumulus. Despite similar cloud-base precipitation rates in the POC and overcast region, much of the precipitation (>90% evaporates below cloud in the overcast region, while there is significant surface precipitation inside the POC. In the POC and transition region, although the majority of the condensate is in the form of drizzle, the integrated liquid water path is remarkably close to that expected for a moist adiabatic parcel rising from cloud base to top.

    The transition zone between the POC and the closed cells often consists of thick "boundary cell" clouds producing mean surface precipitation

  15. A close-up view on ITS2 evolution and speciation - a case study in the Ulvophyceae (Chlorophyta, Viridiplantae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caisová Lenka

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The second Internal Transcriber Spacer (ITS2 is a fast evolving part of the nuclear-encoded rRNA operon located between the 5.8S and 28S rRNA genes. Based on crossing experiments it has been proposed that even a single Compensatory Base Change (CBC in helices 2 and 3 of the ITS2 indicates sexual incompatibility and thus separates biological species. Taxa without any CBC in these ITS2 regions were designated as a 'CBC clade'. However, in depth comparative analyses of ITS2 secondary structures, ITS2 phylogeny, the origin of CBCs, and their relationship to biological species have rarely been performed. To gain 'close-up' insights into ITS2 evolution, (1 86 sequences of ITS2 including secondary structures have been investigated in the green algal order Ulvales (Chlorophyta, Viridiplantae, (2 after recording all existing substitutions, CBCs and hemi-CBCs (hCBCs were mapped upon the ITS2 phylogeny, rather than merely comparing ITS2 characters among pairs of taxa, and (3 the relation between CBCs, hCBCs, CBC clades, and the taxonomic level of organisms was investigated in detail. Results High sequence and length conservation allowed the generation of an ITS2 consensus secondary structure, and introduction of a novel numbering system of ITS2 nucleotides and base pairs. Alignments and analyses were based on this structural information, leading to the following results: (1 in the Ulvales, the presence of a CBC is not linked to any particular taxonomic level, (2 most CBC 'clades' sensu Coleman are paraphyletic, and should rather be termed CBC grades. (3 the phenetic approach of pairwise comparison of sequences can be misleading, and thus, CBCs/hCBCs must be investigated in their evolutionary context, including homoplasy events (4 CBCs and hCBCs in ITS2 helices evolved independently, and we found no evidence for a CBC that originated via a two-fold hCBC substitution. Conclusions Our case study revealed several discrepancies between ITS2

  16. Nuclear Structure of the Closed Subshell Nucleus 90Zr Studied with the (n,n'(gamma)) Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, P E; Younes, Y; Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Baum, E M; DiPrete, D P; Gatenby, R A; Johnson, E L; McGrath, C A; Yates, S W; Devlin, M; Fotiades, N; Nelson, R O; Brown, B A

    2003-06-12

    States in {sup 90}Zr have been observed with the (n,n{prime}{gamma}) reaction using both spallation and monoenergetic accelerator-produced neutrons. A scheme comprised of 81 levels and 157 transitions was constructed concentrating on levels below 5.6 MeV in excitation energy. Spins have been determined by considering data from all experimental studies performed for {sup 90}Zr. Lifetimes have been deduced using the Doppler-shift attenuation method for many of the states and transition rates have been obtained. A spherical shell-model interpretation in terms of particle-hole excitations assuming a {sup 88}Sr closed core is given. In some cases, enhancements in B(M1) and B(E2) values are observed that cannot be explained by assuming simple particle-hole excitations. Shell-model calculations using an extended f pg-shell model space reproduce the spectrum of excited states very well, and the gross features of the B(M1) and B(E2) transition rates. Transition rates for individual levels show discrepancies between calculations and experimental values.

  17. Property-close source separation of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment--a Swedish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstad, Anna; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Aspegren, Henrik

    2011-03-01

    Through an agreement with EEE producers, Swedish municipalities are responsible for collection of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). In most Swedish municipalities, collection of these waste fractions is concentrated to waste recycling centres where households can source-separate and deposit hazardous waste and WEEE free of charge. However, the centres are often located on the outskirts of city centres and cars are needed in order to use the facilities in most cases. A full-scale experiment was performed in a residential area in southern Sweden to evaluate effects of a system for property-close source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE. After the system was introduced, results show a clear reduction in the amount of hazardous waste and WEEE disposed of incorrectly amongst residual waste or dry recyclables. The systems resulted in a source separation ratio of 70 wt% for hazardous waste and 76 wt% in the case of WEEE. Results show that households in the study area were willing to increase source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE when accessibility was improved and that this and similar collection systems can play an important role in building up increasingly sustainable solid waste management systems.

  18. Along the N=126 closed shell: study of $^{205}$Au through its $\\pi h_{11/2}^{-1}$ isomeric decay

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Excited states have been identified in only three of the N=126 closed shell nuclei 'below' $^{208}$Pb, $^{207}$Tl, $^{206}$Hg and very recently $^{204}$Pt. We aim to extend our knowledge of the neutron-rich N=126 nuclei by observing the internal decay of the $\\pi h^{-1}_{11/2}$ excited state in $^{205}$Au, which is expected to be isomeric. In addition, the decay of the analogous states in the N=122 and N=124 $^{201,203}$Au will be studied. The lifetimes of the expected isomeric states are crucial for the success of the experiment, and they are estimated to be in the range of 0.3-20 s. These are long enough to enable the extraction from the source, but shorter than the $\\beta$-decay half-lives. Proton single-particle energies and transition rates will be extracted, providing information about the robustness of the N=126 shell-closure. Three days of beam-time is requested.

  19. The study of a new PARRNe experimental area using an electron linac close to the Orsay tandem

    CERN Document Server

    Essabaa, S; Ausset, P; Baronick, J P; Bergot, J P; Boulot, A; Clapier, F; Coacolo, J L; Curaudeau, J M; Dupont, F; Galès, Sydney; Gardès, D; Grialou, D; Ibrahim, F; Junquera, T; Kandry-Rody, S; Lefort, H; Le Scornet, J C; Lesrel, J; M'Garrech, S; Müller, A C; Rouvière, N; Tkatchenko, A; Waast, B; Rinolfi, Louis; Rossat, G; Bienvenu, G; Bourdon, J C; Garvey, Terence; Jacquemard, B; Omeich, M

    2002-01-01

    The Production of neutron-rich radioactive nuclei through fission is currently prime of research interest for the future radioactive beam facilities. For example in the EURISOL[1] project, photo-fission and fast neutron induced fission are proposed. The photo-fission cross-section for 238U is about 0.16 barn (against 1.6 barn for fast neutrons of 40 MeV) but the conversion electrons/gammas is much more efficient than that of deuterons/neutrons. It was necessary, to test this new method of production, to carry out, in equivalent conditions, an experiment of the type PARRNe-1 using a 50 MeV electron beam. In April 2001, production of fission fragments induced by gammas proved to be successful. Bremsstrahlung gamma rays were produced by the few nA-50 MeV electron beam delivered by the CERN LEP Injector Linac (LIL). This promising alternative has stimulated the study of a new experimental area at IPNO based on an electron Linac close to the Tandem, through a collaboration with LAL and CERN PS groups.

  20. Formation of plasmonic silver nanoparticles using rapid thermal annealing at low temperature and study in reflectance reduction of Si surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Bidyut; Dhasmana, Hrishikesh; Verma, Abhishek; Kumar, Amit; Pratap Chaudhary, Shiv; Jain, V. K.

    2017-09-01

    This work presents studies of plasmonic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) formation at low temperatures (200 °C-300 °C) onto Si surface by sputtering followed with rapid thermal processing (RTP) for different time durations(5-30 min). The study reveals that 20 min RTP at all temperatures show minimum average size of AgNPs (60.42 nm) with corresponding reduction in reflectance of Si surface from 40.12% to mere 1.15% only in wavelength region 300-800 nm for RTP at 200 °C. A detailed supporting growth mechanism is also discussed. This low temperature technique can be helpful in achieving efficiency improvement in solar cells via reflectance reduction with additional features such as reproducibility, minimal time and very good adhesion without damaging underlying layers device parameters.

  1. Does formal complexity reflect cognitive complexity? Investigating aspects of the Chomsky Hierarchy in an artificial language learning study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öttl, Birgit; Jäger, Gerhard; Kaup, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether formal complexity, as described by the Chomsky Hierarchy, corresponds to cognitive complexity during language learning. According to the Chomsky Hierarchy, nested dependencies (context-free) are less complex than cross-serial dependencies (mildly context-sensitive). In two artificial grammar learning (AGL) experiments participants were presented with a language containing either nested or cross-serial dependencies. A learning effect for both types of dependencies could be observed, but no difference between dependency types emerged. These behavioral findings do not seem to reflect complexity differences as described in the Chomsky Hierarchy. This study extends previous findings in demonstrating learning effects for nested and cross-serial dependencies with more natural stimulus materials in a classical AGL paradigm after only one hour of exposure. The current findings can be taken as a starting point for further exploring the degree to which the Chomsky Hierarchy reflects cognitive processes.

  2. Temporomandibular Joint, Closed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gallery > Oral Health > The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Main Content Title: The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Description: The temporomandibular joint connects the lower ...

  3. Heparin-coated circuit during cardiopulmonary bypass. A clinical study using closed circuit, centrifugal pump and reduced heparinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellevold, O F; Berg, T M; Rein, K A; Levang, O W; Iversen, O J; Bergh, K

    1994-05-01

    A prospective randomized study was performed to investigate the effect of surface coating with covalently endpoint-attached heparin (Carmeda Bio Active Surface) and reduced general heparinization on haematological indices and complement C5 activation. Care was taken to optimize the rheological design of the system using centrifugal pump and a closed system without venting or machine suction. Twenty patients scheduled for aortocoronary bypass grafting (EF > 0.5) participated in the study. Ten patients were randomized to be treated with heparin-coated equipment (CBAS) and reduced i.v. heparin (1.5 mg.kg-1) while 10 patients treated with identical but noncoated equipment and full heparinization (3 mg.kg-1) served in a Control group. A vacuum suction was used to collect the blood from the operating field and it was autotransfused at weaning from extracorporeal circulation (ECC). Blood samples were obtained from the venous (precircuit) and arterial (postcircuit) side. We used a new and very specific method for detection of C5a based on monoclonal antibodies. The concentration of C5a was low in both groups during the operation but a significant increase was seen on days 1 and 2. In the Control group there was an increase from 10.2 ng.ml-1 +/- 1.2 to 27.5 ng.ml-1 +/- 4.8 on day 2 and in the CBAS group from 10.7 ng.ml-1 +/- 1.2 to 35.6 ng.ml-1 +/- 11.6 on day 2 (NS between groups). The granulocytes and total leukocyte count increased at the end of ECC and was maintained at the elevated level throughout the study period. The amount of free haemoglobin was high in the autotransfused blood in both groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Study on computer-aided alignment method of reflective zoom systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jide; Chang, Jun; Xie, Guijuan; Zhang, Ke

    2015-08-01

    Computer-aided alignment is an effective method to improve the imaging quality of high-precision, complex, and off-axis optical systems. However, how to determine the misalignment quickly, exactly and constantly is essential to the technology of computer-aided alignment. Owing to the varying optical characteristics of a zoom system, sensitivity matrices are used in the alignment rather than a single matrix. Thus, the processing of sensitivity matrices is important for the computer-aided alignment of the reflective zoom system. So, the total least squares is proposed in order to solve the problems of the numerical instability and the result inaccuracy which result from the solution of the least squares method directly. Finally, the simulant calculation is processed using the numerical analysis model established in the essay. The results demonstrate that the computation method is rational and effective.

  5. Laser reflection spot as a pattern in a diamond coating – a microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORDANA S. RISTIĆ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Diamond coatings were deposited by the synchronous and coupled action of a hot filament CVD method and a pulsed CO2 laser in spectro-absorbing and spectro-non-absorbing diamond precursor atmospheres. The obtained coatings were structured/patterned, i.e., they were comprised of uncovered, bare locations. An extra effect observed only in the spectro-active diamond precursor atmosphere was the creation of another laser spot in the coating – a reflection spot. In order to establish the practical usability of the latter one, extensive microscopic investigations were performed with consideration of the morphology changes in the spot of the direct laser beam. Normal incidence SEM images of this spot showed a smooth surface, without any pulse radiation damage. AFM imaging revealed the actual surface condition and gave precise data on the surface characteristics.

  6. Wave Reflection Coefficient Spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞聿修; 邵利民; 柳淑学

    2003-01-01

    The wave reflection coefficient frequency spectrum and directional spectrum for concrete face slope breakwaters and rubble mound breakwaters are investigated through physical model tests in the present study. The reflection coefficients of oblique irregular waves are analyzed by the Modified Two-Point Method (MTPM) proposed by the authors. The results show that the wave reflection coefficient decreases with increasing wave frequency and incident angle or decreasing structure slope. The reflection coefficient frequency spectrum and its variation with Iribarren number are given in this paper. The paper also suggests an empirical 3-dimensional reflection coefficient spectrum, i.e. reflection coefficient directional spectrum, which can be used to illustrate quantitatively the variation of reflection coefficient with the incident angle and the Iribarren number for oblique irregular waves.

  7. Science policy up close

    CERN Document Server

    Marburger, John H

    2015-01-01

    In a career that included tenures as president of Stony Brook University, director of Brookhaven National Laboratory, and science advisor to President George W. Bush, John Marburger (1941 2011) found himself on the front line of battles that pulled science ever deeper into the political arena. From nuclear power to global warming and stem cell research, science controversies, he discovered, are never just about science. Science Policy Up Close" presents Marburger s reflections on the challenges science administrators face in the twenty-first century. In each phase of public service Marburger came into contact with a new dimension of science policy. The Shoreham Commission exposed him to the problem of handling a volatile public controversy over nuclear power. The Superconducting Super Collider episode gave him insights into the collision between government requirements and scientists expectations and feelings of entitlement. The Directorship of Brookhaven taught him how to talk to the public about the risks ...

  8. The Computer-Assisted Web Interview Method as Used in the National Study of ICT Use in Primary Healthcare in Poland – Reflections on a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowa Paweł

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development and widespread use of ICT in society are reflected by the way research is designed and conducted. The Computer Assisted Web Interview method is becoming more attractive and is a frequently used method in health sciences. The National Study of ICT Use in Primary Healthcare in Poland was conducted using this method. The aim of this paper is to present the major advantages and disadvantages of web surveys. Technical aspects of methodology and important stages of the aforementioned study, as well as key elements for its procedure, are mentioned. The authors also provide reflections based on their analysis of this national study, conducted between January and April 2014.

  9. Delineation of spall zone from pre/post shot reflections studies: Preliminary results from BEXAR. Los Alamos Source Region Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, S.R.; Cogbill, A.H.; Weaver, T.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Miller, R.; Steeples, D. [Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States)

    1992-12-31

    In order to delineate the lateral and depth extent of spall from a buried nuclear explosion, we have performed a high-resolution pre- and post-shot seismic reflection survey from BEXAR. Although the data quality were marginal due to poor wave propagation through the volcanic tuffs of Pahute Mesa, a number of interesting differences are observed on the pre- and post-shot surveys. On the pre-shot survey, a reflector (reflector `` 1 ``) is observed at 250 ms (or about 150 m depth) using a stacking velocity of 1300 m/s. On the post-shot survey two reflectors are observed and a stacking velocity of 1150 m/s was used representing a 12% reduction in compressional velocity. With this stacking velocity, reflector `` 1 `` is recorded at 290 ms (still at about 150 m depth) and a new reflector ``2`` is observed at 210 ms (or about 100 m depth). These stacking velocities correspond well with available uphole travel times collected in U19ba and nearby U19ax (BEXAR and KEARSARGE emplacement holes, respectively). The cause for the differences observed in the pre- and post-shot surveys may be due to one of two reasons. First, it is possible that the near-surface rocks were damaged as part of the spallation process (thus reducing the in situ velocities) and reflector ``2`` represents a spall detachment surface. However, analysis of acceleration data collected close to the reflection line suggests that the ground motions were probably inadequate to damage the tuffs. Also, no evidence of actual spallation was actually observed. The second hypothesis is that the near-surface velocities of the tuffs were altered by the change in saturation state due to extensive rains occurring between the pre- and postshot surveys. Although the dependence of seismic velocity on saturation state is controlled by a number of complex factors, it cannot be ruled out.

  10. Effect of phospholipid composition and phase on nanodisc films at the solid-liquid interface as studied by neutron reflectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadsäter, Maria Helena; Barker, Robert; Mortensen, Kell;

    2013-01-01

    the ability to determine the average structure of the film along an axis perpendicular to the interface as measured by neutron reflectivity. The nanodisc film was optimized in terms of nanodisc coverage, reduced film roughness, and stability for time-consuming studies. This was achieved by a systematic...... variation of the lipid phase, charge, and length of lipid tails. Herein, we show that, although all studied nanodiscs align with their lipid bilayer parallel to the interface, gel-phase DMPC nanodiscs form the most suitable film for future membrane protein studies since they yield a dense irreversibly...

  11. Pump-probe reflectivity study of ultrafast dynamics of strongly correlated 5f electrons inUO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Au, Yongqiang Q [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Durakiewicz, Tomasz [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    5f electrons in the Mott insulator UO{sub 2} produce intriguing electronic states and dynamics, such as strong correlation and f-f excitations. We have performed femtosecond pump-probe reflectivity measurements on a single crystal UO{sub 2} at temperatures 5-300 K to study the ultrafast dynamics of photoexcited 5f electrons. The laser pulses at 400 nm pump 5 f electrons across the Mott gap, while those at 800 nm probe the pump-induced change of reflectivity. We find temperature-dependent excitation and relaxation processes and long-lived acoustic phonons, and extract picosecond risetimes and microsecond relaxation times at low temperatures. The observed slow relaxation is ascribed to the decay of Hubbard excitons formed by U{sup 3+}-U{sup 5+} pairs.

  12. In vitro motility of cells from human epidermoid carcinomas. A study by phase-contrast and reflection-contrast cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemmerli, G; Sträuli, P

    1981-05-15

    The motile behavior of six cell lines derived from human squamous carcinomas (two from the larynx, four from the tongue) was studied by cinematography under phase- and reflection-contrast illumination. The recorded cell activities consist in spreading, stationary and translocation motility, and aggregate formation. Within this common pattern, quantitative modifications ("sub-pattern") are stable properties of the individual cells lines. Such modifications are particularly evident with regard to the dynamic texture of the aggregates which ranges from loose, netlike structures to compact islands with smooth borders. Accordingly, the intensity of cell traffic within and around the aggregates varies considerably. It is discussed to what extent the in vitro motility of the carcinoma cell populations reflects their behavior in the organism and thus the significance of cell movements for invasion.

  13. The Evolution of an Interprofessional Shared Decision-Making Research Program: Reflective Case Study of an Emerging Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maman Joyce Dogba

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Healthcare research increasingly focuses on interprofessional collaboration and on shared decision making, but knowledge gaps remain about effective strategies for implementing interprofessional collaboration and shared decision-making together in clinical practice. We used Kuhn’s theory of scientific revolutions to reflect on how an integrated interprofessional shared decision-making approach was developed and implemented over time. Methods: In 2007, an interdisciplinary team initiated a new research program to promote the implementation of an interprofessional shared decision-making approach in clinical settings. For this reflective case study, two new team members analyzed the team’s four projects, six research publications, one unpublished and two published protocols and organized them into recognizable phases according to Kuhn’s theory. Results: The merging of two young disciplines led to challenges characteristic of emerging paradigms. Implementation of interprofessional shared-decision making was hindered by a lack of conceptual clarity, a dearth of theories and models, little methodological guidance, and insufficient evaluation instruments. The team developed a new model, identified new tools, and engaged knowledge users in a theory-based approach to implementation. However, several unresolved challenges remain. Discussion: This reflective case study sheds light on the evolution of interdisciplinary team science. It offers new approaches to implementing emerging knowledge in the clinical context.

  14. The Evolution of an Interprofessional Shared Decision-Making Research Program: Reflective Case Study of an Emerging Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogba, Maman Joyce; Menear, Matthew; Stacey, Dawn; Brière, Nathalie; Légaré, France

    2016-07-19

    Healthcare research increasingly focuses on interprofessional collaboration and on shared decision making, but knowledge gaps remain about effective strategies for implementing interprofessional collaboration and shared decision-making together in clinical practice. We used Kuhn's theory of scientific revolutions to reflect on how an integrated interprofessional shared decision-making approach was developed and implemented over time. In 2007, an interdisciplinary team initiated a new research program to promote the implementation of an interprofessional shared decision-making approach in clinical settings. For this reflective case study, two new team members analyzed the team's four projects, six research publications, one unpublished and two published protocols and organized them into recognizable phases according to Kuhn's theory. The merging of two young disciplines led to challenges characteristic of emerging paradigms. Implementation of interprofessional shared-decision making was hindered by a lack of conceptual clarity, a dearth of theories and models, little methodological guidance, and insufficient evaluation instruments. The team developed a new model, identified new tools, and engaged knowledge users in a theory-based approach to implementation. However, several unresolved challenges remain. This reflective case study sheds light on the evolution of interdisciplinary team science. It offers new approaches to implementing emerging knowledge in the clinical context.

  15. Comparative characterisation study of a LaBr$_3$(Ce scintillation crystal in two surface wrapping scenarios: absorptive and reflective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad eAldawood

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The properties of a 50$times$50$times$30 mm$^3$ monolithic LaBr$_3$:Ce scintillator crystal coupled to a position-sensitive multi-anode photomultiplier (PMT, Hamamatsu H9500, representing the absorbing detector of a Compton camera under study for online ion (proton beam range verification in hadron-therapy, was evaluated in combination with either absorptive and reflective crystal surface coating. This study covered an assessment of the energy and position dependent energy resolution, exhibiting a factor of 2.5-3.5 improvement for the reflectively wrapped crystal at 662 keV. The spatial dependency was investigated using a collimated $^{137}$Cs source, showing a steep degradation of the energy resolution at the edges and corners of the absorptively wrapped crystal. Furthermore, the time resolution was determined to be 273 ps (FWHM and 536 ps (FWHM with reflective and absorptive coating, respectively, using a $^{60}$Co source. In contrast, the light spread function (LSF of the light amplitude distribution on the PMT segments improved for the absorptively wrapped detector. Both wrapping modalities showed almost no differences in the energy-dependent photopeak detection efficiency.

  16. Comparative Characterization Study of a LaBr3(Ce) Scintillation Crystal in Two Surface Wrapping Scenarios: Absorptive and Reflective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldawood, Saad; Castelhano, Ines; Gernhäuser, Roman; Van Der Kolff, Hugh; Lang, Christian; Liprandi, Silvia; Lutter, Rudolf; Maier, Ludwig; Marinšek, Tim; Schaart, Dennis R.; Parodi, Katia; Thirolf, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    The properties of a 50 mm × 50 mm × 30 mm monolithic LaBr3:Ce scintillator crystal coupled to a position-sensitive multi-anode photomultiplier (PMT, Hamamatsu H9500), representing the absorbing detector of a Compton camera under study for online ion (proton) beam range verification in hadron therapy, was evaluated in combination with either absorptive or reflective crystal surface coating. This study covered an assessment of the energy and position-dependent energy resolution, exhibiting a factor of 2.5–3.5 improvement for the reflectively wrapped crystal at 662 keV. The spatial dependency was investigated using a collimated 137Cs source, showing a steep degradation of the energy resolution at the edges and corners of the absorptively wrapped crystal. Furthermore, the time resolution was determined to be 273 ps (FWHM) and 536 ps (FWHM) with reflective and absorptive coating, respectively, using a 60Co source. In contrast, the light spread function (LSF) of the light amplitude distribution on the PMT segments improved for the absorptively wrapped detector. Both wrapping modalities showed almost no differences in the energy-dependent photopeak detection efficiency. PMID:26697405

  17. Reflected Glory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    HD 38563B, are the main powerhouses behind Messier 78. However, the nebula is home to many more stars, including a collection of about 45 low mass, young stars (less than 10 million years old) in which the cores are still too cool for hydrogen fusion to start, known as T Tauri stars. Studying T Tauri stars is important for understanding the early stages of star formation and how planetary systems are created. Remarkably, this complex of nebulae has also changed significantly in the last ten years. In February 2004 the experienced amateur observer Jay McNeil took an image of this region with a 75 mm telescope and was surprised to see a bright nebula - the prominent fan shaped feature near the bottom of this picture - where nothing was seen on most earlier images. This object is now known as McNeil's Nebula and it appears to be a highly variable reflection nebula around a young star. This colour picture was created from many monochrome exposures taken through blue, yellow/green and red filters, supplemented by exposures through an H-alpha filter that shows light from glowing hydrogen gas. The total exposure times were 9, 9, 17.5 and 15.5 minutes per filter, respectively. Notes [1] Igor Chekalin from Russia uncovered the raw data for this image of Messier 78 in ESO's archives in the competition Hidden Treasures (eso1102). He processed the raw data with great skill, claiming first prize in the contest for his final image (Flickr link). ESO's team of in-house image processing experts then independently processed the raw data at full resolution to produce the image shown here. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 15 countries: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an

  18. X-ray reflectivity studies of ferroelectric and dielectric multilayer structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiang-Li; Solbach, Axel; Klemradt, Uwe

    2005-02-01

    Dielectric and ferroelectric thin-film capacitors are of great importance as dynamic random-access memories (DRAM) and non-volatile random-access memories (NVRAM) for storage technology applications. Further improvements of the electrical performance of these devices require particularly a better control of thin-film engineering, since nanoscale layers of complex stoichiometry are subjected to relatively high-thermal budgets during the integration process. X-ray specular and diffuse reflectivity can provide valuable insight into current material problems of this field, e.g. structural changes and the possibility of interfacial reactions. An example is given for the annealing of thin Pb(Zr 0.3Ti 0.7)O 3 (PZT) films on Pt/Ti-based layered electrodes. The correlation of electrical function and structural changes subsequent to electrical stress requires in situ investigations under applied electric fields. We report first experiments on Pt/PZT/Pt/Ti-films and discuss the setup of electrical in situ measurements under grazing incidence.

  19. Infrared Studies of the Reflective Properties of Solar Cells and the HS376 Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, James; Reyes, Jacqueline; Cowardin, Heather; Anz-Meador, Phillip; Buckalew, Brent; Lederer, Susan

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, a selection of HS-376 buses were observed photometrically with the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) to explore relationships between time-on-orbit and Near Infrared (NIR) color. These buses were chosen because of their relatively simple shape, for the abundance of similar observable targets, and their surface material being primarily covered by solar cells. While the HS-376 spacecraft were all very similar in design, differences in the specific solar cells used in the construction of each model proved to be an unconstrained variable that could affect the observed reflective properties. In 2016, samples of the solar cells used on various models of HS-376 spacecraft were obtained from Boeing and were analyzed in the Optical Measurements Center at the Johnson Space Center using a visible-near infrared field spectrometer. The laboratory-based spectra are convolved to match the photometric bands previously obtained using UKIRT and compared with the on-orbit photometry. The results and future work are discussed here.

  20. In vivo inflammation mapping of periodontal disease based on diffuse reflectance spectral imaging: a clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanth, Chandra Sekhar; Betsy, Joseph; Jayanthi, Jayaraj L.; Nisha, Unni G.; Prasantila, Janam; Subhash, Narayanan

    2013-02-01

    Since conventional techniques using periodontal probes have inherent drawbacks in the diagnosis of different grades of gingival inflammation, development of noninvasive screening devices becomes significant. Diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra recorded with white light illumination is utilized to detect periodontal inflammation from the oxygenated hemoglobin absorption ratio R620/R575. A multispectral imaging system is utilized to record narrow-band DR images at 575 and 620 nm from the anterior sextant of the gingivia of 15 healthy volunteers and 25 patients (N=40). An experienced periodontist assesses the level of gingival inflammation at each site through periodontal probing and assigns diagnosis as healthy, mild, moderate, or severe inflammation. The DR image ratio R620/R575 computed for each pixel (8-μm resolution) from the monochrome images is pseudo-color-mapped to identify gingival inflammation sites. The DR image ratio values at each site are compared with clinical diagnosis to estimate the specificity and sensitivity of the DR imaging technique in inflammation mapping. The high diagnostic accuracy is utilized to detect underlying inflammation in six patients with a previous history of periodontitis.