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Sample records for redundant olivocerebellar contacts

  1. Neuronal death and synapse elimination in the olivocerebellar system: III. Cell counts in the inferior olive of developing rats X-irradiated from birth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geoffroy, B.; Shojaeian, H.; Delhaye-Bouchaud, N.; Mariani, J.

    1988-01-01

    The change with age of cell number in the developing inferior olivary nucleus (ION) of the normal rat, compared to the time course of the regression of the polyneuronal innervation of Purkinje cells by olivary axons (i.e., the climbing fibers), suggests that the involution of the redundant olivocerebellar contacts is caused by a reduction of axonal branching rather than by degeneration of the parent cells, this being also suggested by the normal size of the olivary population in adult rodents whose Purkinje cells retain polyneuronal innervation. However, the similar size of the adult ION population does not necessarily imply that the development history is the same in normal and multiply innervated adult rodents. Therefore, cell counts were performed in developing rats which had been repeatedly X-irradiated from birth until postnatal day 14 and which retained polyneuronal innervation. The results show that, although less marked than during normal development, the evolution of the ION population is also characterized by a phase of cell loss followed by a slow increase. However, the number of cells in X-irradiated rats is higher than in their controls from birth to postnatal day 15 but becomes identical at 20 days and later. These data confirm that cell death in the ION does not play a major role in the shaping of olivocerebellar connections

  2. Neuronal death and synapse elimination in the olivocerebellar system. II. Cell counts in the inferior olive of adult x-irradiated rats and weaver and reeler mutant mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shojaeian, H.; Delhaye-Bouchaud, N.; Mariani, J.

    1985-01-01

    Cell death in the developing rat inferior olive precedes the regression of the polyneuronal innervation of Purkinje cells by olivary axons (i.e., climbing fibers), suggesting that the involution of the redundant olivocerebellar contacts is caused by a withdrawal of supernumerary axonal collaterals rather than by degeneration of the parent cell. However, a subsequent apparent increase of the olivary population occurs, which could eventually mask a residual presynaptic cell death taking place at the same time. Therefore, cell counts were performed in the inferior olive of adult rodents in which the multiple innervation of Purkinje cells by olivary axons is maintained, with the idea that if cell death plays a role in the regression of supernumerary climbing fibers, the number of olivary cells should be higher in these animals than in their controls. The results show that the size of the cell population in the inferior olive of weaver and reeler mutant mice and rats degranulated by early postnatal x-irradiation does not differ significantly from that of their controls. Similarly, the distribution of the cells in the four main olivary subnuclei is not modified in weaver mice and x-irradiated rats. The present data further support the assumption that the regression of the polyneuronal innervation of Purkinje cells occurs independently of cell death in the presynaptic population

  3. The roles of the olivocerebellar pathway in motor learning and motor control. A consensus paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Eric J.; Apps, Richard; Bengtsson, Fredrik; Cerminara, Nadia L.; De Zeeuw, Chris I.; Ebner, Timothy J.; Heck, Detlef H.; Jaeger, Dieter; Jörntell, Henrik; Kawato, Mitsuo; Otis, Thomas S.; Ozyildirim, Ozgecan; Popa, Laurentiu S.; Reeves, Alexander M.B.; Schweighofer, Nicolas; Sugihara, Izumi; Xiao, Jianqiang

    2016-01-01

    For many decades the predominant view in the cerebellar field has been that the olivocerebellar system's primary function is to induce plasticity in the cerebellar cortex, specifically, at the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse. However, it has also long been proposed that the olivocerebellar system participates directly in motor control by helping to shape ongoing motor commands being issued by the cerebellum. Evidence consistent with both hypotheses exists; however, they are often investigated as mutually exclusive alternatives. In contrast, here we take the perspective that the olivocerebellar system can contribute to both the motor learning and motor control functions of the cerebellum, and might also play a role in development. We then consider the potential problems and benefits of its having multiple functions. Moreover, we discuss how its distinctive characteristics (e.g., low firing rates, synchronization, variable complex spike waveform) make it more or less suitable for one or the other of these functions, and why its having a dual role makes sense from an evolutionary perspective. We did not attempt to reach a consensus on the specific role(s) the olivocerebellar system plays in different types of movements, as that will ultimately be determined experimentally; however, collectively, the various contributions highlight the flexibility of the olivocerebellar system, and thereby suggest it has the potential to act in both the motor learning and motor control functions of the cerebellum. PMID:27193702

  4. Ethernet redundancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burak, K. [Invensys Process Systems, M/S C42-2B, 33 Commercial Street, Foxboro, MA 02035 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    We describe the Ethernet systems and their evolution: LAN Segmentation, DUAL networks, network loops, network redundancy and redundant network access. Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) is an open standard with no licensing fees and its specifications are freely available. As a result, it is the most popular data link protocol in use. It is important that the network be redundant and standard Ethernet protocols like RSTP (IEEE 802.1w) provide the fast network fault detection and recovery times that is required today. As Ethernet does continue to evolve, network redundancy is and will be a mixture of technology standards. So it is very important that both end-stations and networking devices be Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) compliant. Then when new technologies, such as the IEEE 802.1aq Shortest Path Bridging protocol, come to market they can be easily deployed in the network without worry.

  5. Ethernet redundancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burak, K.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the Ethernet systems and their evolution: LAN Segmentation, DUAL networks, network loops, network redundancy and redundant network access. Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) is an open standard with no licensing fees and its specifications are freely available. As a result, it is the most popular data link protocol in use. It is important that the network be redundant and standard Ethernet protocols like RSTP (IEEE 802.1w) provide the fast network fault detection and recovery times that is required today. As Ethernet does continue to evolve, network redundancy is and will be a mixture of technology standards. So it is very important that both end-stations and networking devices be Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) compliant. Then when new technologies, such as the IEEE 802.1aq Shortest Path Bridging protocol, come to market they can be easily deployed in the network without worry

  6. Analysis of gait in rats with olivocerebellar lesions and ability of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist varenicline to attenuate impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, C S; Philpot, R M; Engberg, M E; Johns, B E; Wecker, L

    2015-09-15

    Studies have demonstrated that administration of the neuronal nicotinic receptor agonist varenicline to rats with olivocerebellar lesions attenuates balance deficits on a rotorod and balance beam, but the effects of this drug on gait deficits have not been investigated. To accomplish this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to walk on a motorized treadmill at 25 and 35 cm/s and baseline performance determined; both temporal and spatial gait parameters were analyzed. A principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify the key components of gait, and the cumulative gait index (CGI) was calculated, representing deviations from prototypical gait patterns. Subsequently, animals either remained as non-lesioned controls or received injections of 3-acetylpyridine (3-AP)/nicotinamide to destroy the climbing fibers innervating Purkinje cells. The gait of the non-lesioned group was assessed weekly to monitor changes in the normal population, while the gait of the lesioned group was assessed 1 week following 3-AP administration, and weekly following the daily administration of saline or varenicline (0.3, 1.0, or 3.0mg free base/kg) for 2 weeks. Non-lesioned animals exhibited a 60-70% increased CGI over time due to increases in temporal gait measures, whereas lesioned animals exhibited a nearly 3-fold increased CGI as a consequence of increases in spatial measures. Following 2 weeks of treatment with the highest dose of varenicline (3.0mg free base/kg), the swing duration of lesioned animals normalized, and stride duration, stride length and step angle in this population did not differ from the non-lesioned population. Thus, varenicline enabled animals to compensate for their impairments and rectify the timing of the gait cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Palpebral redundancy from hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortsman, J; Wavak, P

    1980-01-01

    A patient is described with disabling palpebral edema. Primary hypothyroidism had been previously diagnosed and treated. Testing of thyroid function revealed persistence of the hypothyroidism. Treatment with L-thyroxine produced normalization of the biochemical parameters and resolution of palpebral edema. The search for hypothyrodism in patients with palpebral redundancy is emphasized.

  8. Olivo-Cerebellar Controller

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R

    2008-01-01

    ...) used in a maneuvering controller or control system of an underwater vehicle. In order to attain the objects described, the present invention provides closed-loop control of multiple inferior olives (IOs...

  9. Motion control of musculoskeletal systems with redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoo; Durand, Dominique M

    2008-12-01

    Motion control of musculoskeletal systems for functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a challenging problem due to the inherent complexity of the systems. These include being highly nonlinear, strongly coupled, time-varying, time-delayed, and redundant. The redundancy in particular makes it difficult to find an inverse model of the system for control purposes. We have developed a control system for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) redundant musculoskeletal systems with little prior information. The proposed method separates the steady-state properties from the dynamic properties. The dynamic control uses a steady-state inverse model and is implemented with both a PID controller for disturbance rejection and an artificial neural network (ANN) feedforward controller for fast trajectory tracking. A mechanism to control the sum of the muscle excitation levels is also included. To test the performance of the proposed control system, a two degree of freedom ankle-subtalar joint model with eight muscles was used. The simulation results show that separation of steady-state and dynamic control allow small output tracking errors for different reference trajectories such as pseudo-step, sinusoidal and filtered random signals. The proposed control method also demonstrated robustness against system parameter and controller parameter variations. A possible application of this control algorithm is FES control using multiple contact cuff electrodes where mathematical modeling is not feasible and the redundancy makes the control of dynamic movement difficult.

  10. Software engineering : redundancy is key

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den M.G.J.; Groote, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    Software engineers are humans and so they make lots of mistakes. Typically 1 out of 10 to 100 tasks go wrong. The only way to avoid these mistakes is to introduce redundancy in the software engineering process. This article is a plea to consciously introduce several levels of redundancy for each

  11. Quantum redundancies and local realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horodecki, R.; Horodecki, P.

    1994-01-01

    The basic properties of quantum redundancies are presented. The previous definitions of the informationally coherent quantum (ICQ) system are generalized in terms of the redundancies. The ICQ systems are also considered in the context of local realism in terms of the information integrity factor η. The classical region η≤qslant[1]/[2] for the two classes of mixed, nonfactorizable states admitting the local hidden variable model is found. ((orig.))

  12. 75 FR 65238 - Loan Guaranty: Elimination of Redundant Regulations; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 36 RIN 2900-AN71 Loan Guaranty: Elimination of... June 15, 2010 (75 FR 33704), amending its loan guaranty regulations to eliminate redundant regulations... INFORMATION CONTACT: William White, Acting Assistant Director for Loan Processing and Valuation (262...

  13. Redundancy in Nigerian Business Organizations: Alternatives (Pp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Redundancy in Nigerian Business Organizations: Alternatives (Pp. ... When business downturns ... The galloping pace of information technologies is a harbinger of profound ... Redundant staff in public departments can also be retained as.

  14. Redundant measurements for controlling errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehinger, M.H.; Crawford, J.M.; Madeen, M.L.

    1979-07-01

    Current federal regulations for nuclear materials control require consideration of operating data as part of the quality control program and limits of error propagation. Recent work at the BNFP has revealed that operating data are subject to a number of measurement problems which are very difficult to detect and even more difficult to correct in a timely manner. Thus error estimates based on operational data reflect those problems. During the FY 1978 and FY 1979 R and D demonstration runs at the BNFP, redundant measurement techniques were shown to be effective in detecting these problems to allow corrective action. The net effect is a reduction in measurement errors and a significant increase in measurement sensitivity. Results show that normal operation process control measurements, in conjunction with routine accountability measurements, are sensitive problem indicators when incorporated in a redundant measurement program

  15. High precision redundant robotic manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, K.K.D.

    1998-01-01

    A high precision redundant robotic manipulator for overcoming contents imposed by obstacles or imposed by a highly congested work space is disclosed. One embodiment of the manipulator has four degrees of freedom and another embodiment has seven degrees of freedom. Each of the embodiments utilize a first selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) configuration to provide high stiffness in the vertical plane, a second SCARA configuration to provide high stiffness in the horizontal plane. The seven degree of freedom embodiment also utilizes kinematic redundancy to provide the capability of avoiding obstacles that lie between the base of the manipulator and the end effector or link of the manipulator. These additional three degrees of freedom are added at the wrist link of the manipulator to provide pitch, yaw and roll. The seven degrees of freedom embodiment uses one revolute point per degree of freedom. For each of the revolute joints, a harmonic gear coupled to an electric motor is introduced, and together with properly designed based servo controllers provide an end point repeatability of less than 10 microns. 3 figs

  16. Redundancy in Nigerian Business Organizations: Alternatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This theoretical discourse examined the incidence of work redundancy in Nigerian organizations as to offer alternative options. Certainly, some redundancy exercises may be necessary for the survival of the organizations but certain variables may influence employees' reactions to the exercises and thus influence the ...

  17. Increasing The Dexterity Of Redundant Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1990-01-01

    Redundant coordinates used to define additional tasks. Configuration control emerging as effective way to control motions of robot having more degrees of freedom than necessary to define trajectory of end effector and/or of object to be manipulated. Extra or redundant degrees of freedom used to give robot humanlike dexterity and versatility.

  18. Redundant arrays of IDE drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. Sanders et al.

    2002-01-02

    The authors report tests of redundant arrays of IDE disk drives for use in offline high energy physics data analysis. Parts costs of total systems using commodity EIDE disks are now at the $4000 per Terabyte level. Disk storage prices have now decreased to the point where they equal the cost per Terabyte of Storage Technology tape silos. The disks, however, offer far better granularity; even small institutions can afford to deploy systems. The tests include reports on software RAID-5 systems running under Linux 2.4 using Promise Ultra 100{trademark} disk controllers. RAID-5 protects data in case of a single disk failure by providing parity bits. Tape backup is not required. Journaling file systems are used to allow rapid recovery from crashes. The data analysis strategy is to encapsulate data and CPU processing power. Analysis for a particular part of a data set takes place on the PC where the data resides. The network is only used to put results together. They explore three methods of moving data between sites; internet transfers, not pluggable IDE disks in FireWire cases, and DVD-R disks.

  19. Redundant arrays of IDE drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    The authors report tests of redundant arrays of IDE disk drives for use in offline high energy physics data analysis. Parts costs of total systems using commodity EIDE disks are now at the $4000 per Terabyte level. Disk storage prices have now decreased to the point where they equal the cost per Terabyte of Storage Technology tape silos. The disks, however, offer far better granularity; even small institutions can afford to deploy systems. The tests include reports on software RAID-5 systems running under Linux 2.4 using Promise Ultra 100trademark disk controllers. RAID-5 protects data in case of a single disk failure by providing parity bits. Tape backup is not required. Journaling file systems are used to allow rapid recovery from crashes. The data analysis strategy is to encapsulate data and CPU processing power. Analysis for a particular part of a data set takes place on the PC where the data resides. The network is only used to put results together. They explore three methods of moving data between sites; internet transfers, not pluggable IDE disks in FireWire cases, and DVD-R disks

  20. Reliability–redundancy allocation problem considering optimal redundancy strategy using parallel genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heungseob; Kim, Pansoo

    2017-01-01

    To maximize the reliability of a system, the traditional reliability–redundancy allocation problem (RRAP) determines the component reliability and level of redundancy for each subsystem. This paper proposes an advanced RRAP that also considers the optimal redundancy strategy, either active or cold standby. In addition, new examples are presented for it. Furthermore, the exact reliability function for a cold standby redundant subsystem with an imperfect detector/switch is suggested, and is expected to replace the previous approximating model that has been used in most related studies. A parallel genetic algorithm for solving the RRAP as a mixed-integer nonlinear programming model is presented, and its performance is compared with those of previous studies by using numerical examples on three benchmark problems. - Highlights: • Optimal strategy is proposed to solve reliability redundancy allocation problem. • The redundancy strategy uses parallel genetic algorithm. • Improved reliability function for a cold standby subsystem is suggested. • Proposed redundancy strategy enhances the system reliability.

  1. Redundant correlation effect on personalized recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tian; Han, Teng-Yue; Zhong, Li-Xin; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Chen, Guang

    2014-02-01

    The high-order redundant correlation effect is investigated for a hybrid algorithm of heat conduction and mass diffusion (HHM), through both heat conduction biased (HCB) and mass diffusion biased (MDB) correlation redundancy elimination processes. The HCB and MDB algorithms do not introduce any additional tunable parameters, but keep the simple character of the original HHM. Based on two empirical datasets, the Netflix and MovieLens, the HCB and MDB are found to show better recommendation accuracy for both the overall objects and the cold objects than the HHM algorithm. Our work suggests that properly eliminating the high-order redundant correlations can provide a simple and effective approach to accurate recommendation.

  2. A Modular Approach to Redundant Robot Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.J.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a modular approach for computing redundant robot kinematics. First some conventional redundant control methods are presented and shown to be 'passive control laws', i.e. they can be represented by a network consisting of passive elements. These networks are then put into modular form by applying scattering operator techniques. Additional subnetwork modules can then be added to further shape the motion. Modules for obstacle detection, joint limit avoidance, proximity sensing, and for imposing nonlinear velocity constraints are presented. The resulting redundant robot control system is modular, flexible and robust

  3. Exploiting Redundancy in an OFDM SDR Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Palenik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Common OFDM system contains redundancy necessary to mitigate interblock interference and allows computationally effective single-tap frequency domain equalization in receiver. Assuming the system implements an outer error correcting code and channel state information is available in the receiver, we show that it is possible to understand the cyclic prefix insertion as a weak inner ECC encoding and exploit the introduced redundancy to slightly improve error performance of such a system. In this paper, an easy way to implement modification to an existing SDR OFDM receiver is presented. This modification enables the utilization of prefix redundancy, while preserving full compatibility with existing OFDM-based communication standards.

  4. Image Registration Using Redundant Wavelet Transforms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Richard

    2001-01-01

    .... In our research, we present a fundamentally new wavelet-based registration algorithm utilizing redundant transforms and a masking process to suppress the adverse effects of noise and improve processing efficiency...

  5. The Effects of Race Conditions When Implementing Single-Source Redundant Clock Trees in Triple Modular Redundant Synchronous Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie D.; Kim, Hak S.; Phan, Anthony M.; Seidleck, Christina M.; Label, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan A.; Campola, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    We present the challenges that arise when using redundant clock domains due to their time-skew. Radiation data show that a singular clock domain provides an improved triple modular redundant (TMR) scheme over redundant clocks.

  6. Redundancy for electric motors in spacecraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert J.; Flew, Alastair R.

    1986-01-01

    The parts of electric motors which should be duplicated in order to provide maximum reliability in spacecraft application are identified. Various common types of redundancy are described. The advantages and disadvantages of each are noted. The principal types are illustrated by reference to specific examples. For each example, constructional details, basic performance data and failure modes are described, together with a discussion of the suitability of particular redundancy techniques to motor types.

  7. Dynamic Control of Kinematically Redundant Robotic Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Lunde

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Several methods for task space control of kinematically redundant manipulators have been proposed in the literature. Most of these methods are based on a kinematic analysis of the manipulator. In this paper we propose a control algorithm in which we are especially concerned with the manipulator dynamics. The algorithm is particularly well suited for the class of redundant manipulators consisting of a relatively small manipulator mounted on a larger positioning part.

  8. How Redundant Are Redundant Color Adjectives? An Efficiency-Based Analysis of Color Overspecification

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio-Fern?ndez, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Color adjectives tend to be used redundantly in referential communication. I propose that redundant color adjectives are often intended to exploit a color contrast in the visual context and hence facilitate object identification, despite not being necessary to establish unique reference. Two language-production experiments investigated two types of factors that may affect the use of redundant color adjectives: factors related to the efficiency of color in the visual context and factors relate...

  9. An efficient simulated annealing algorithm for the redundancy allocation problem with a choice of redundancy strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambari, Amirhossain; Najafi, Amir Abbas; Rahmati, Seyed Habib A.; Karimi, Aida

    2013-01-01

    The redundancy allocation problem (RAP) is an important reliability optimization problem. This paper studies a specific RAP in which redundancy strategies are chosen. To do so, the choice of the redundancy strategies among active and cold standby is considered as decision variables. The goal is to select the redundancy strategy, component, and redundancy level for each subsystem such that the system reliability is maximized. Since RAP is a NP-hard problem, we propose an efficient simulated annealing algorithm (SA) to solve it. In addition, to evaluating the performance of the proposed algorithm, it is compared with well-known algorithms in the literature for different test problems. The results of the performance analysis show a relatively satisfactory efficiency of the proposed SA algorithm

  10. Interaction control of a redundant mobile manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, J.H.; Velinsky, S.A.; Hess, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the modeling and control of a spatial mobile manipulator that consists of a robotic manipulator mounted on a wheeled mobile platform. The Lagrange-d'Alembert formulation is used to obtain a concise description of the dynamics of the system, which is subject to nonholonomic constraints. The complexity of the model is increased by introducing kinematic redundancy, which is created when a multilinked manipulator is used. The kinematic redundancy is resolved by decomposing the mobile manipulator into two subsystems: the mobile platform and the manipulator. The redundancy resolution scheme employs a nonlinear interaction-control algorithm, which is developed and applied to coordinate the two subsystems' controllers. The subsystem controllers are independently designed, based on each subsystem's dynamic characteristics. Simulation results show the promise of the developed algorithm

  11. Self-Healing Networks: Redundancy and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrociocchi, Walter; Caldarelli, Guido; Scala, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the concept of self-healing in the field of complex networks modelling; in particular, self-healing capabilities are implemented through distributed communication protocols that exploit redundant links to recover the connectivity of the system. We then analyze the effect of the level of redundancy on the resilience to multiple failures; in particular, we measure the fraction of nodes still served for increasing levels of network damages. Finally, we study the effects of redundancy under different connectivity patterns—from planar grids, to small-world, up to scale-free networks—on healing performances. Small-world topologies show that introducing some long-range connections in planar grids greatly enhances the resilience to multiple failures with performances comparable to the case of the most resilient (and least realistic) scale-free structures. Obvious applications of self-healing are in the important field of infrastructural networks like gas, power, water, oil distribution systems. PMID:24533065

  12. Motion compensation via redundant-wavelet multihypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, James E; Cui, Suxia; Wang, Yonghui

    2006-10-01

    Multihypothesis motion compensation has been widely used in video coding with previous attention focused on techniques employing predictions that are diverse spatially or temporally. In this paper, the multihypothesis concept is extended into the transform domain by using a redundant wavelet transform to produce multiple predictions that are diverse in transform phase. The corresponding multiple-phase inverse transform implicitly combines the phase-diverse predictions into a single spatial-domain prediction for motion compensation. The performance advantage of this redundant-wavelet-multihypothesis approach is investigated analytically, invoking the fact that the multiple-phase inverse involves a projection that significantly reduces the power of a dense-motion residual modeled as additive noise. The analysis shows that redundant-wavelet multihypothesis is capable of up to a 7-dB reduction in prediction-residual variance over an equivalent single-phase, single-hypothesis approach. Experimental results substantiate the performance advantage for a block-based implementation.

  13. A control method for manipulators with redundancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusho, Junji; Usui, Hiroyuki

    1989-01-01

    Redundant manipulators have more ability than nonredundant ones in many aspects such as avoiding obstacles, avoiding singular states, etc. In this paper, a control algorithm for redundant manipulators working under the circumstance in the presence of obstacles is presented. First, the measure of manipulability for robot manipulators under obstacle circumstances is defined. Then, the control algorithm for the obstacle avoidance is derived by using this measure of manipulability. The obstacle avoidance and the maintenance of good posture are simultaneously achieved by this algorithm. Lastly, an experiment and simulation results using an eight degree of freedom manipulator are shown. (author)

  14. Redundancy Elimination in DTN via ACK Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiqing Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The traditional routing protocols for delay tolerant networks (DTN usually take the strategy of spreading multiple copies of one message to the networks. When one copy reaches destination, the transmission of other copies not only waste the bandwidth but also deprive other messages of the opportunities for transmission. This paper brings up a mechanism to eliminate the redundant copies. By adding an acknowledge field to the packet header to delete redundant copies, it can degrade the network overhead while improve the delivery ratio. Simulation results confirm that the proposed method can improve the performance of epidemic and Spray and Wait routing protocol.

  15. Analysis of singularity in redundant manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Koichi

    2000-03-01

    In the analysis of arm positions and configurations of redundant manipulators, the singularity avoidance problems are important themes. This report presents singularity avoidance computations of a 7 DOF manipulator by using a computer code based on human-arm models. The behavior of the arm escaping from the singular point can be identified satisfactorily through the use of 3-D plotting tools. (author)

  16. Coded aperture imaging with uniformly redundant arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.; Cannon, T.M.

    1980-01-01

    A system is described which uses uniformly redundant arrays to image non-focusable radiation. The array is used in conjunction with a balanced correlation technique to provide a system with no artifacts so that virtually limitless signal-to-noise ratio is obtained with high transmission characteristics. The array is mosaicked to reduce required detector size over conventional array detectors. 15 claims

  17. On Redundancy in Describing Linguistic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Borissov Pericliev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On Redundancy in Describing Linguistic Systems The notion of system of linguistic elements figures prominently in most post-Saussurian linguistics up to the present. A “system” is the network of the contrastive (or, distinctive features each element in the system bears to the remaining elements. The meaning (valeur of each element in the system is the set of features that are necessary and jointly sufficient to distinguish this element from all others. The paper addresses the problems of “redundancy”, i.e. the occurrence of features that are not strictly necessary in describing an element in a system. Redundancy is shown to smuggle into the description of linguistic systems, this infelicitous practice illustrated with some examples from the literature (e.g. the classical phonemic analysis of Russian by Cherry, Halle, and Jakobson, 1953. The logic and psychology of the occurrence of redundancy are briefly sketched and it is shown that, in addition to some other problems, redundancy leads to a huge and unresolvable ambiguity of descriptions of linguistic systems (the Buridan’s ass problem.

  18. Structural redundance of NPPs and diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Znyshev, V.V.; Sabaev, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    A new approach to functional diagnosis of NPP state based on structural redundance, owing to which in major of the facilities there are elements identical as to the structure and operational conditions, is suggested. The difference from zero by the given value for one parameter measured for various identical elements is an indicator of a failed element and a signal for diagnostic analysis

  19. Impedance Control of a Redundant Parallel Manipulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Méndez, Juan de Dios Flores; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design of Impedance Control to a redundantly actuated Parallel Kinematic Manipulator. The proposed control is based on treating each limb as a single system and their connection through the internal interaction forces. The controller introduces a stiffness and damping...

  20. REDUNDANT ARRAY CONFIGURATIONS FOR 21 cm COSMOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Joshua S.; Parsons, Aaron R., E-mail: jsdillon@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Realizing the potential of 21 cm tomography to statistically probe the intergalactic medium before and during the Epoch of Reionization requires large telescopes and precise control of systematics. Next-generation telescopes are now being designed and built to meet these challenges, drawing lessons from first-generation experiments that showed the benefits of densely packed, highly redundant arrays—in which the same mode on the sky is sampled by many antenna pairs—for achieving high sensitivity, precise calibration, and robust foreground mitigation. In this work, we focus on the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) as an interferometer with a dense, redundant core designed following these lessons to be optimized for 21 cm cosmology. We show how modestly supplementing or modifying a compact design like HERA’s can still deliver high sensitivity while enhancing strategies for calibration and foreground mitigation. In particular, we compare the imaging capability of several array configurations, both instantaneously (to address instrumental and ionospheric effects) and with rotation synthesis (for foreground removal). We also examine the effects that configuration has on calibratability using instantaneous redundancy. We find that improved imaging with sub-aperture sampling via “off-grid” antennas and increased angular resolution via far-flung “outrigger” antennas is possible with a redundantly calibratable array configuration.

  1. Beyond redundancy how geographic redundancy can improve service availability and reliability of computer-based systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Eric; Eustace, Dan

    2012-01-01

    "While geographic redundancy can obviously be a huge benefit for disaster recovery, it is far less obvious what benefit is feasible and likely for more typical non-catastrophic hardware, software, and human failures. Georedundancy and Service Availability provides both a theoretical and practical treatment of the feasible and likely benefits of geographic redundancy for both service availability and service reliability. The text provides network/system planners, IS/IT operations folks, system architects, system engineers, developers, testers, and other industry practitioners with a general discussion about the capital expense/operating expense tradeoff that frames system redundancy and georedundancy"--

  2. Trophic redundancy reduces vulnerability to extinction cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Dirk; Thébault, Elisa; Kehoe, Rachel; Frank van Veen, F J

    2018-03-06

    Current species extinction rates are at unprecedentedly high levels. While human activities can be the direct cause of some extinctions, it is becoming increasingly clear that species extinctions themselves can be the cause of further extinctions, since species affect each other through the network of ecological interactions among them. There is concern that the simplification of ecosystems, due to the loss of species and ecological interactions, increases their vulnerability to such secondary extinctions. It is predicted that more complex food webs will be less vulnerable to secondary extinctions due to greater trophic redundancy that can buffer against the effects of species loss. Here, we demonstrate in a field experiment with replicated plant-insect communities, that the probability of secondary extinctions is indeed smaller in food webs that include trophic redundancy. Harvesting one species of parasitoid wasp led to secondary extinctions of other, indirectly linked, species at the same trophic level. This effect was markedly stronger in simple communities than for the same species within a more complex food web. We show that this is due to functional redundancy in the more complex food webs and confirm this mechanism with a food web simulation model by highlighting the importance of the presence and strength of trophic links providing redundancy to those links that were lost. Our results demonstrate that biodiversity loss, leading to a reduction in redundant interactions, can increase the vulnerability of ecosystems to secondary extinctions, which, when they occur, can then lead to further simplification and run-away extinction cascades. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  3. Language Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelde, Peter Hans

    1995-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  4. Does functional redundancy stabilize fish communities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rice, Jake; Daan, Niels; Gislason, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Functional redundancy is a community property thought to contribute to ecosystem resilience. It is argued that trophic (or other) functional groups with more species have more linkages and opportunities to buffer variation in abundance of individual species. We explored this concept with a 30‐year...... time‐series of data on 83 species sampled in the International Bottom Trawl Survey. Our results were consistent with the hypothesis that functional redundancy leads to more stable (and by inference more resilient) communities. Over the time‐series trophic groups (assigned by diet, size (Lmax) group......, or both factors) with more species had lower coefficients of variation (CVs) in abundance and biomass than did trophic groups with fewer species. These findings are also consistent with Bernoulli’s Law of Large Numbers, a rule that does not require complex ecological and evolutionary processes to produce...

  5. Dynamically redundant particle components in mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Martinas, K.

    1984-10-01

    Examples are shown for cases in which the number of different kinds of particles in a system is not necessarily equal to the number of particle degrees of freedom in thermodynamical sense, and at the same time, the observed dynamics of the evolution of the system does not indicate a definite number of degrees of freedeom. The possibility for introducing dynamically redundant particles is discussed. (author)

  6. Parameter identifiability and redundancy: theoretical considerations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Little

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Models for complex biological systems may involve a large number of parameters. It may well be that some of these parameters cannot be derived from observed data via regression techniques. Such parameters are said to be unidentifiable, the remaining parameters being identifiable. Closely related to this idea is that of redundancy, that a set of parameters can be expressed in terms of some smaller set. Before data is analysed it is critical to determine which model parameters are identifiable or redundant to avoid ill-defined and poorly convergent regression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this paper we outline general considerations on parameter identifiability, and introduce the notion of weak local identifiability and gradient weak local identifiability. These are based on local properties of the likelihood, in particular the rank of the Hessian matrix. We relate these to the notions of parameter identifiability and redundancy previously introduced by Rothenberg (Econometrica 39 (1971 577-591 and Catchpole and Morgan (Biometrika 84 (1997 187-196. Within the widely used exponential family, parameter irredundancy, local identifiability, gradient weak local identifiability and weak local identifiability are shown to be largely equivalent. We consider applications to a recently developed class of cancer models of Little and Wright (Math Biosciences 183 (2003 111-134 and Little et al. (J Theoret Biol 254 (2008 229-238 that generalize a large number of other recently used quasi-biological cancer models. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have shown that the previously developed concepts of parameter local identifiability and redundancy are closely related to the apparently weaker properties of weak local identifiability and gradient weak local identifiability--within the widely used exponential family these concepts largely coincide.

  7. Redundant sensor validation by using fuzzy logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holbert, K.E.; Heger, A.S.; Alang-Rashid, N.K.

    1994-01-01

    This research is motivated by the need to relax the strict boundary of numeric-based signal validation. To this end, the use of fuzzy logic for redundant sensor validation is introduced. Since signal validation employs both numbers and qualitative statements, fuzzy logic provides a pathway for transforming human abstractions into the numerical domain and thus coupling both sources of information. With this transformation, linguistically expressed analysis principles can be coded into a classification rule-base for signal failure detection and identification

  8. Redundancy Determination of HVDC MMC Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanki Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An availability and a reliability prediction has been made for a high-voltage direct-current (HVDC module of VSC (Voltage Source Converter containing DC/DC converter, gate driver, capacitor and insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT. This prediction was made using published failure rates for the electronic equipment. The purpose of this prediction is to determinate the additional module redundancy of VSC and the used method is “binomial failure method”.

  9. Distributed redundancy and robustness in complex systems

    KAUST Repository

    Randles, Martin

    2011-03-01

    The uptake and increasing prevalence of Web 2.0 applications, promoting new large-scale and complex systems such as Cloud computing and the emerging Internet of Services/Things, requires tools and techniques to analyse and model methods to ensure the robustness of these new systems. This paper reports on assessing and improving complex system resilience using distributed redundancy, termed degeneracy in biological systems, to endow large-scale complicated computer systems with the same robustness that emerges in complex biological and natural systems. However, in order to promote an evolutionary approach, through emergent self-organisation, it is necessary to specify the systems in an \\'open-ended\\' manner where not all states of the system are prescribed at design-time. In particular an observer system is used to select robust topologies, within system components, based on a measurement of the first non-zero Eigen value in the Laplacian spectrum of the components\\' network graphs; also known as the algebraic connectivity. It is shown, through experimentation on a simulation, that increasing the average algebraic connectivity across the components, in a network, leads to an increase in the variety of individual components termed distributed redundancy; the capacity for structurally distinct components to perform an identical function in a particular context. The results are applied to a specific application where active clustering of like services is used to aid load balancing in a highly distributed network. Using the described procedure is shown to improve performance and distribute redundancy. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  10. Nonlinear Redundancy Analysis. Research Report 88-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burg, Eeke; de Leeuw, Jan

    A non-linear version of redundancy analysis is introduced. The technique is called REDUNDALS. It is implemented within the computer program for canonical correlation analysis called CANALS. The REDUNDALS algorithm is of an alternating least square (ALS) type. The technique is defined as minimization of a squared distance between criterion…

  11. How redundant are redundant color adjectives? An efficiency-based analysis of color overspecification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula eRubio-Fernández

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Color adjectives tend to be used redundantly in referential communication. I propose that redundant color adjectives are often intended to exploit a color contrast in the visual context and hence facilitate object identification, despite not being necessary to establish unique reference. Two language-production experiments investigated two types of factors that may affect the use of redundant color adjectives: factors related to the efficiency of color in the visual context and factors related to the semantic category of the noun. The results of Experiment 1 confirmed that people produce redundant color adjectives when color may facilitate object recognition; e.g., they do so more often in polychrome displays than in monochrome displays, and more often in English (pre-nominal position than in Spanish (post-nominal position. Redundant color adjectives are also used when color is a central property of the object category; e.g., people referred to the color of clothes more often than to the color of geometrical figures (Experiment 1, and they overspecified atypical colors more often than variable and stereotypical colors (Experiment 2. These results are relevant for pragmatic models of referential communication based on Gricean pragmatics and informativeness. An alternative analysis is proposed, which focuses on the efficiency and pertinence of color in a given referential situation.

  12. A new model for the redundancy allocation problem with component mixing and mixed redundancy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholinezhad, Hadi; Zeinal Hamadani, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops a new model for redundancy allocation problem. In this paper, like many recent papers, the choice of the redundancy strategy is considered as a decision variable. But, in our model each subsystem can exploit both active and cold-standby strategies simultaneously. Moreover, the model allows for component mixing such that components of different types may be used in each subsystem. The problem, therefore, boils down to determining the types of components, redundancy levels, and number of active and cold-standby units of each type for each subsystem to maximize system reliability by considering such constraints as available budget, weight, and space. Since RAP belongs to the NP-hard class of optimization problems, a genetic algorithm (GA) is developed for solving the problem. Finally, the performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by applying it to a well-known test problem from the literature with relatively satisfactory results. - Highlights: • A new model for the redundancy allocation problem in series–parallel systems is proposed. • The redundancy strategy of each subsystem is considered as a decision variable and can be active, cold-standby or mixed. • Component mixing is allowed, in other words components of any subsystem can be non-identical. • A genetic algorithm is developed for solving the problem. • Computational experiments demonstrate that the new model leads to interesting results.

  13. Redundancy of Redundancy in Justifications of Verdicts of Polish The Constitutional Tribuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Winczorek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of an empirical study of 150 justifications of verdicts of the Polish Constitutional Tribunal (CT are discussed. CT justifies its decisions mostly on authoritative references to previous decisions and other doxa- type arguments. It thus does not convince the audience of a decision's validity, but rather documents it. Further, the methodology changes depending on features of the case. The results are analysed using a conceptual    framework    of sociological systems theory. It is shown that CT's justification methodology ignores the redundancy (excess of references and dependencies of the legal system, finding redundancy redundant. This is a risky strategy of decision- making, enabling political influence.

  14. Language as an information system: redundancy and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Mikhaylovna Nekipelova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to research of the language system as an information system. The distinguishing feature of any natural living language system is redundant of elements of its structure. Redundancy, broken terms of universality peculiar to artificial information systems, makes language mobile in time and in space. It should be marked out informational redundancy of two types: language redundancy, when information overlay of language units within the system occurs and speech redundancy when condense of information into syntagmatic level occurs. Language redundancy is potential and speech redundancy is actual. In general, it should be noted that the language redundancy is necessary for language: complicating the relationships between language units, language redundancy creates in language situation of choice, leading to a disorder of language system, increasing of entropy and, as a result, the appearing of the information that can be accepted or cannot be by language system. Language redundancy is one of the reasons for growth of information in language. In addition, the information redundancy in language is one of the factors of language system development.

  15. Tomographical properties of uniformly redundant arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, T.M.; Fenimore, E.E.

    1978-01-01

    Recent work in coded aperture imaging has shown that the uniformly redundant array (URA) can image distant planar radioactive sources with no artifacts. The performance of two URA apertures when used in a close-up tomographic imaging system is investigated. It is shown that a URA based on m sequences is superior to one based on quadratic residues. The m sequence array not only produces less obnoxious artifacts in tomographic imaging, but is also more resilient to some described detrimental effects of close-up imaging. It is shown that in spite of these close-up effects, tomographic depth resolution increases as the source is moved closer to the detector

  16. Flat H Redundant Frangible Joint Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Orion and Commercial Crew Program (CCP) Partners have chosen to use frangible joints for certain separation events. The joints currently available are zero failure tolerant and will be used in mission safety applications. The goal is to further develop a NASA designed redundant frangible joint that will lower flight risk and increase reliability. FY16 testing revealed a successful design in subscale straight test specimens that gained efficiency and supports Orion load requirements. Approach / Innovation A design constraint is that the redundant joint must fit within the current Orion architecture, without the need for additional vehicle modification. This limitation required a design that changed the orientation of the expanding tube assemblies (XTAs), by rotating them 90deg from the standard joint configuration. The change is not trivial and affects the fracture mechanism and structural load paths. To address these changes, the design incorporates cantilevered arms on the break plate. The shock transmission and expansion of the XTA applies force to these arms and creates a prying motion to push the plate walls outward to the point of structural failure at the notched section. The 2014 test design revealed that parts could slip during functioning wasting valuable energy needed to separate the structure with only a single XTA functioning. Dual XTA functioning fully separated the assembly showing a discrepancy can be backed up with redundancy. Work on other fully redundant systems outside NASA is limited to a few patents that have not been subjected to functionality testing Design changes to prevent unwanted slippage (with ICA funding in 2015) showed success with a single XTA. The main goal for FY 2016 was to send the new Flat H RFJ to WSTF where single XTA test failures occurred back in 2014. The plan was to gain efficiency in this design by separating the Flat H RFJ with thicker ligaments with dimensions baselined in 2014. Other modifications included geometry

  17. Sharing the cost of redundant items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moulin, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    We ask how to share the cost of finitely many public goods (items) among users with different needs: some smaller subsets of items are enough to serve the needs of each user, yet the cost of all items must be covered, even if this entails inefficiently paying for redundant items. Typical examples...... are network connectivity problems when an existing (possibly inefficient) network must be maintained. We axiomatize a family cost ratios based on simple liability indices, one for each agent and for each item, measuring the relative worth of this item across agents, and generating cost allocation rules...... additive in costs....

  18. Designing Broadband Access Networks with Triple Redundancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Riaz, Muhammad Tahir; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip

    2005-01-01

    An architecture is proposed for designing broadband access networks, which offer triple redundancy to the end users, resulting in networks providing connectivity even in case of any two independent node or line failures. Two physically independent connections are offered by fiber, and the last...... provided by some wireless solution. Based on experience with planning Fiber To The Home, the architecture is designed to meet a number of demands, making it practicable and useful in realworld network planning. The proposed wired topology is planar, and suitable for being fitted onto the road network...

  19. Diabetes classification using a redundancy reduction preprocessor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áurea Celeste Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Introduction Diabetes patients can benefit significantly from early diagnosis. Thus, accurate automated screening is becoming increasingly important due to the wide spread of that disease. Previous studies in automated screening have found a maximum accuracy of 92.6%. Methods This work proposes a classification methodology based on efficient coding of the input data, which is carried out by decreasing input data redundancy using well-known ICA algorithms, such as FastICA, JADE and INFOMAX. The classifier used in the task to discriminate diabetics from non-diaibetics is the one class support vector machine. Classification tests were performed using noninvasive and invasive indicators. Results The results suggest that redundancy reduction increases one-class support vector machine performance when discriminating between diabetics and nondiabetics up to an accuracy of 98.47% while using all indicators. By using only noninvasive indicators, an accuracy of 98.28% was obtained. Conclusion The ICA feature extraction improves the performance of the classifier in the data set because it reduces the statistical dependence of the collected data, which increases the ability of the classifier to find accurate class boundaries.

  20. Kinematically Optimal Robust Control of Redundant Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicki, M.

    2017-12-01

    This work deals with the problem of the robust optimal task space trajectory tracking subject to finite-time convergence. Kinematic and dynamic equations of a redundant manipulator are assumed to be uncertain. Moreover, globally unbounded disturbances are allowed to act on the manipulator when tracking the trajectory by the endeffector. Furthermore, the movement is to be accomplished in such a way as to minimize both the manipulator torques and their oscillations thus eliminating the potential robot vibrations. Based on suitably defined task space non-singular terminal sliding vector variable and the Lyapunov stability theory, we derive a class of chattering-free robust kinematically optimal controllers, based on the estimation of transpose Jacobian, which seem to be effective in counteracting both uncertain kinematics and dynamics, unbounded disturbances and (possible) kinematic and/or algorithmic singularities met on the robot trajectory. The numerical simulations carried out for a redundant manipulator of a SCARA type consisting of the three revolute kinematic pairs and operating in a two-dimensional task space, illustrate performance of the proposed controllers as well as comparisons with other well known control schemes.

  1. Learners misperceive the benefits of redundant text in multimedia learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenesi, Barbara; Kim, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    Research on metacognition has consistently demonstrated that learners fail to endorse instructional designs that produce benefits to memory, and often prefer designs that actually impair comprehension. Unlike previous studies in which learners were only exposed to a single multimedia design, the current study used a within-subjects approach to examine whether exposure to both redundant text and non-redundant text multimedia presentations improved learners' metacognitive judgments about presentation styles that promote better understanding. A redundant text multimedia presentation containing narration paired with verbatim on-screen text (Redundant) was contrasted with two non-redundant text multimedia presentations: (1) narration paired with images and minimal text (Complementary) or (2) narration paired with minimal text (Sparse). Learners watched presentation pairs of either Redundant + Complementary, or Redundant + Sparse. Results demonstrate that Complementary and Sparse presentations produced highest overall performance on the final comprehension assessment, but the Redundant presentation produced highest perceived understanding and engagement ratings. These findings suggest that learners misperceive the benefits of redundant text, even after direct exposure to a non-redundant, effective presentation.

  2. Optimal redundant systems for works with random processing time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.; Nakagawa, T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the optimal redundant policies for a manufacturing system processing jobs with random working times. The redundant units of the parallel systems and standby systems are subject to stochastic failures during the continuous production process. First, a job consisting of only one work is considered for both redundant systems and the expected cost functions are obtained. Next, each redundant system with a random number of units is assumed for a single work. The expected cost functions and the optimal expected numbers of units are derived for redundant systems. Subsequently, the production processes of N tandem works are introduced for parallel and standby systems, and the expected cost functions are also summarized. Finally, the number of works is estimated by a Poisson distribution for the parallel and standby systems. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the optimization problems of redundant systems

  3. Reliability Analysis Multiple Redundancy Controller for Nuclear Safety Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Gwangseop; Kim, Donghoon; Son, Choulwoong

    2013-01-01

    This controller is configured for multiple modular redundancy (MMR) composed of dual modular redundancy (DMR) and triple modular redundancy (TMR). The architecture of MRC is briefly described, and the Markov model is developed. Based on the model, the reliability and Mean Time To Failure (MTTF) are analyzed. In this paper, the architecture of MRC for nuclear safety systems is described. The MRC is configured for multiple modular redundancy (MMR) composed of dual modular redundancy (DMR) and triple modular redundancy (TMR). Markov models for MRC architecture was developed, and then the reliability was analyzed by using the model. From the reliability analyses for the MRC, it is obtained that the failure rate of each module in the MRC should be less than 2 Χ 10 -4 /hour and the MTTF average increase rate depending on FCF increment, i. e. ΔMTTF/ΔFCF, is 4 months/0.1

  4. Predicting genome-wide redundancy using machine learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasha Dennis E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene duplication can lead to genetic redundancy, which masks the function of mutated genes in genetic analyses. Methods to increase sensitivity in identifying genetic redundancy can improve the efficiency of reverse genetics and lend insights into the evolutionary outcomes of gene duplication. Machine learning techniques are well suited to classifying gene family members into redundant and non-redundant gene pairs in model species where sufficient genetic and genomic data is available, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, the test case used here. Results Machine learning techniques that combine multiple attributes led to a dramatic improvement in predicting genetic redundancy over single trait classifiers alone, such as BLAST E-values or expression correlation. In withholding analysis, one of the methods used here, Support Vector Machines, was two-fold more precise than single attribute classifiers, reaching a level where the majority of redundant calls were correctly labeled. Using this higher confidence in identifying redundancy, machine learning predicts that about half of all genes in Arabidopsis showed the signature of predicted redundancy with at least one but typically less than three other family members. Interestingly, a large proportion of predicted redundant gene pairs were relatively old duplications (e.g., Ks > 1, suggesting that redundancy is stable over long evolutionary periods. Conclusions Machine learning predicts that most genes will have a functionally redundant paralog but will exhibit redundancy with relatively few genes within a family. The predictions and gene pair attributes for Arabidopsis provide a new resource for research in genetics and genome evolution. These techniques can now be applied to other organisms.

  5. Redundancy and Reliability for an HPC Data Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Erhan Yılmaz

    2012-01-01

    Defining a level of redundancy is a strategic question when planning a new data centre, as it will directly impact the entire design of the building as well as the construction and operational costs. It will also affect how to integrate future extension plans into the design. Redundancy is also a key strategic issue when upgrading or retrofitting an existing facility. Redundancy is a central strategic question to any business that relies on data centres for its operation. In th...

  6. Study of redundant Models in reliability prediction of HXMT's HES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinming; Liu Congzhan; Zhang Zhi; Ji Jianfeng

    2010-01-01

    Two redundant equipment structures of HXMT's HES are proposed firstly, the block backup and dual system cold-redundancy. Then prediction of the reliability is made by using parts count method. Research of comparison and analysis is also performed on the two proposals. A conclusion is drawn that a higher reliability and longer service life could be offered by taking a redundant equipment structure of block backup. (authors)

  7. Reliability of redundant structures of nuclear reactor protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojnovic, B.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, reliability of various redundant structures of PWR protection systems has been analysed. Structures of reactor tip systems as well as the systems for activation of safety devices have been presented. In all those systems redundancy is achieved by means of so called majority voting logic ('r out of n' structures). Different redundant devices have been compared, concerning probability of occurrence of safe as well as unsafe failures. (author)

  8. Redundant information encoding in QED during decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuziemski, J.; Witas, P.; Korbicz, J. K.

    2018-01-01

    Broadly understood decoherence processes in quantum electrodynamics, induced by neglecting either the radiation [L. Landau, Z. Phys. 45, 430 (1927), 10.1007/BF01343064] or the charged matter [N. Bohr and L. Rosenfeld, K. Danske Vidensk. Selsk, Math.-Fys. Medd. XII, 8 (1933)], have been studied from the dawn of the theory. However, what happens in between, when a part of the radiation may be observed, as is the case in many real-life situations, has not been analyzed yet. We present such an analysis for a nonrelativistic, pointlike charge and thermal radiation. In the dipole approximation, we solve the dynamics and show that there is a regime where, despite the noise, the observed field carries away almost perfect and hugely redundant information about the charge momentum. We analyze a partial charge-field state and show that it approaches a so-called spectrum broadcast structure.

  9. Timing control by redundant inhibitory neuronal circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tristan, I., E-mail: itristan@ucsd.edu; Rulkov, N. F.; Huerta, R.; Rabinovich, M. [BioCircuits Institute, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0402 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Rhythms and timing control of sequential activity in the brain is fundamental to cognition and behavior. Although experimental and theoretical studies support the understanding that neuronal circuits are intrinsically capable of generating different time intervals, the dynamical origin of the phenomenon of functionally dependent timing control is still unclear. Here, we consider a new mechanism that is related to the multi-neuronal cooperative dynamics in inhibitory brain motifs consisting of a few clusters. It is shown that redundancy and diversity of neurons within each cluster enhances the sensitivity of the timing control with the level of neuronal excitation of the whole network. The generality of the mechanism is shown to work on two different neuronal models: a conductance-based model and a map-based model.

  10. Does functional redundancy stabilize fish communities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rice, Jake; Daan, Niels; Gislason, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    in abundance or biomass could be accounted for by the Law of Large Numbers, providing no evidence that specific ecological processes or co-adaptations are necessary to produce this effect. This implies that successful conservation policies to maintain the resilience of a marine fish community could be based......Functional redundancy of species sharing a feeding strategy and/or maximum size has been hypothesized to contribute to increased resilience of marine fish communities (the “portfolio effect”). A consistent time-series of survey data of fish in the North Sea was used to examine if trophic functional...... groups or maximum length of species (Lmax) groups with larger numbers of species had lower coefficients of variation in abundance and biomass over time than did groupings with fewer species. Results supported this hypothesis. However, the stabilizing effect of numbers of species in a group on variation...

  11. Timing control by redundant inhibitory neuronal circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tristan, I.; Rulkov, N. F.; Huerta, R.; Rabinovich, M.

    2014-01-01

    Rhythms and timing control of sequential activity in the brain is fundamental to cognition and behavior. Although experimental and theoretical studies support the understanding that neuronal circuits are intrinsically capable of generating different time intervals, the dynamical origin of the phenomenon of functionally dependent timing control is still unclear. Here, we consider a new mechanism that is related to the multi-neuronal cooperative dynamics in inhibitory brain motifs consisting of a few clusters. It is shown that redundancy and diversity of neurons within each cluster enhances the sensitivity of the timing control with the level of neuronal excitation of the whole network. The generality of the mechanism is shown to work on two different neuronal models: a conductance-based model and a map-based model

  12. Analysis and Design of Offset QPSK Using Redundant Filter Banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Vazquez, Alfonso; Jovanovic-Dolecek, Gordana

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the analysis and design of OQPSK digital modulation. We first establish the discrete time formulation, which allows us to find the equivalent redundant filter banks. It is well known that redundant filter banks are related with redundant transformation of the Frame theory. According to the Frame theory, the redundant transformations and corresponding representations are not unique. In this way, we show that the solution to the pulse shaping problem is not unique. Then we use this property to minimize the effect of the channel noise in the reconstructed symbol stream. We evaluate the performance of the digital communication using numerical examples.

  13. Detection of sensor failures in nuclear plants using analytic redundancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, M.

    1980-01-01

    A method for on-line, nonperturbative detection and identification of sensor failures in nuclear power plants was studied to determine its feasibility. This method is called analytic redundancy, or functional redundancy. Sensor failure has traditionally been detected by comparing multiple signals from redundant sensors, such as in two-out-of-three logic. In analytic redundancy, with the help of an assumed model of the physical system, the signals from a set of sensors are processed to reproduce the signals from all system sensors

  14. Redundant interferometric calibration as a complex optimization problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, T. L.; Bernardi, G.; Kenyon, J. S.; Parsons, A. R.; Smirnov, O. M.

    2018-05-01

    Observations of the redshifted 21 cm line from the epoch of reionization have recently motivated the construction of low-frequency radio arrays with highly redundant configurations. These configurations provide an alternative calibration strategy - `redundant calibration' - and boost sensitivity on specific spatial scales. In this paper, we formulate calibration of redundant interferometric arrays as a complex optimization problem. We solve this optimization problem via the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. This calibration approach is more robust to initial conditions than current algorithms and, by leveraging an approximate matrix inversion, allows for further optimization and an efficient implementation (`redundant STEFCAL'). We also investigated using the preconditioned conjugate gradient method as an alternative to the approximate matrix inverse, but found that its computational performance is not competitive with respect to `redundant STEFCAL'. The efficient implementation of this new algorithm is made publicly available.

  15. Prioritising Redundant Network Component for HOWBAN Survivability Using FMEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheong Loong Chan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deploying redundant component is the ubiquitous approach to improve the reliability and survivability of a hybrid optical wireless broadband access network (HOWBAN. Much work has been done to study the cost and impact of deploying redundant component in the network but no formal tools have been used to enable the evaluation and decision to prioritise the deployment of redundant facilities in the network. In this paper we show how FMEA (Failure Mode Effect and Analysis technique can be adapted to identify the critical segment in the network and prioritise the redundant component to be deployed to ensure network survivability. Our result showed that priority must be given to redundancy to mitigate grid power outage particularly in less developed countries which is poised for rapid expansion in broadband services.

  16. N + 1 redundancy on ATCA instrumentation for Nuclear Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Miguel, E-mail: miguelfc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico – Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Sousa, Jorge; Rodrigues, António P.; Batista, António J.N.; Combo, Álvaro; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Santos, Bruno; Carvalho, Paulo F.; Gonçalves, Bruno [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico – Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, Carlos M.B.A. [Centro de Instrumentação, Departamento de Física, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Varandas, Carlos A.F. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico – Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► In Nuclear Fusion, demanding security and high-availability requirements call for redundancy to be available. ► ATCA standard features desirable redundancy features for Fusion instrumentation. ► The developed control and data acquisition hardware modules support additional redundancy schemes. ► Implementation of N + 1 redundancy of host processor and I/O data modules. -- Abstract: The role of redundancy on control and data acquisition systems has gained a significant importance in the case of Nuclear Fusion, as demanding security and high-availability requirements call for redundancy to be available. IPFN's control and data acquisition system hardware is based on an Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) set of I/O (DAC/ADC endpoints) and data/timing switch modules, which handle data and timing from all I/O endpoints. Modules communicate through Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe), established over the ATCA backplane and controlled by one or more external hosts. The developed hardware modules were designed to take advantage of ATCA specification's redundancy features, namely at the hardware management level, including support of: (i) multiple host operation with N + 1 redundancy – in which a designated failover host takes over data previously assigned to a suddenly malfunctioning host and (ii) N + 1 redundancy of I/O and data/timing switch modules. This paper briefly describes IPFN's control and data acquisition system, which is being developed for ITER fast plant system controller (FPSC), and analyses the hardware implementation of its supported redundancy features.

  17. Pedestrian detection based on redundant wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Ji, Liping; Hu, Ping; Yang, Tiejun

    2016-10-01

    Intelligent video surveillance is to analysis video or image sequences captured by a fixed or mobile surveillance camera, including moving object detection, segmentation and recognition. By using it, we can be notified immediately in an abnormal situation. Pedestrian detection plays an important role in an intelligent video surveillance system, and it is also a key technology in the field of intelligent vehicle. So pedestrian detection has very vital significance in traffic management optimization, security early warn and abnormal behavior detection. Generally, pedestrian detection can be summarized as: first to estimate moving areas; then to extract features of region of interest; finally to classify using a classifier. Redundant wavelet transform (RWT) overcomes the deficiency of shift variant of discrete wavelet transform, and it has better performance in motion estimation when compared to discrete wavelet transform. Addressing the problem of the detection of multi-pedestrian with different speed, we present an algorithm of pedestrian detection based on motion estimation using RWT, combining histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) and support vector machine (SVM). Firstly, three intensities of movement (IoM) are estimated using RWT and the corresponding areas are segmented. According to the different IoM, a region proposal (RP) is generated. Then, the features of a RP is extracted using HOG. Finally, the features are fed into a SVM trained by pedestrian databases and the final detection results are gained. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm can detect pedestrians accurately and efficiently.

  18. Optimizing ISOCAM data processing using spatial redundancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Boulanger, F.; Abergel, A.; Bernard, J.-P.

    2000-11-01

    Several instrumental effects of the Long Wavelength channel of ISOCAM, the camera on board the Infrared Space Observatory, degrade the processed images. We present new data-processing techniques that correct these defects, taking advantage of the fact that a position in the sky has been observed by several pixels at different times. We use this redundant information (1) to correct the long-term variation of the detector response, (2) to correct memory effects after glitches and point sources, and (3) to refine the deglitching process. As an example we have applied our processing to the gamma-ray burst observation GRB 970402. Our new data-processing techniques allow the detection of faint extended emission with contrast smaller than 1% of the zodiacal background. The data reduction corrects instrumental effects to the point where the noise in the final map is dominated by the readout and the photon noises. All raster ISOCAM observations can benefit from the data processing described here. This includes mapping of solar system extended objects (comet dust trails), nearby clouds and star forming regions, images from diffuse emission in the Galactic plane and external galaxies. These techniques could also be applied to other raster type observations (e.g. ISOPHOT). Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, The Netherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

  19. The issue of redundant places of worship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Cavana

    2012-03-01

    Abstract: Nowadays one of the major issues concerning ecclesiastical, or religious, property in Europe, as elsewhere, consists of deciding what to do with redundant churches and places of worship of traditional Christian denominations, all of which have lost their original use, either due to a formal decision of the ecclesiastical authorities or to simple closure to the public. This might have been caused by a series of events, like a significant decrease in the church attendance, limited public resources, new urban planning projects and the fall in religious vocation. For these places there is either the prospect of a new use, or a slow process of decay which can ultimately end up in a sale, or demolition. This problem is faced today with singular urgency in Europe, where it determines an increased risk of decay of much of the historical-artistic heritage, together with the abandonment of the countryside and mountain locations and a progressive desertion of historical town centres. Consequently, the issue concerns not only the religious community but also the civil authorities and public opinion, more and more sensitive to the protection of cultural heritage and the historical memory of local communities. This paper examines many aspects of the issue in some countries (Italy, Germany, Switzerland, France, Québec, the United States, comparing the different legal frameworks and the documents of some national episcopal assemblies on the subject, especially about the change in the use of churches. Finally it concentrates on the situation in Italy, where the legal framework on this subject is strictly connected with the system of church-state relations, making some concluding remarks about future prospects and possible solutions to some of the more serious aspects of the issue.

  20. Sibling rivalry: related bacterial small RNAs and their redundant and non-redundant roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Clayton C; Oglesby-Sherrouse, Amanda G; Murphy, Erin R

    2014-01-01

    Small RNA molecules (sRNAs) are now recognized as key regulators controlling bacterial gene expression, as sRNAs provide a quick and efficient means of positively or negatively altering the expression of specific genes. To date, numerous sRNAs have been identified and characterized in a myriad of bacterial species, but more recently, a theme in bacterial sRNAs has emerged: the presence of more than one highly related sRNAs produced by a given bacterium, here termed sibling sRNAs. Sibling sRNAs are those that are highly similar at the nucleotide level, and while it might be expected that sibling sRNAs exert identical regulatory functions on the expression of target genes based on their high degree of relatedness, emerging evidence is demonstrating that this is not always the case. Indeed, there are several examples of bacterial sibling sRNAs with non-redundant regulatory functions, but there are also instances of apparent regulatory redundancy between sibling sRNAs. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge of bacterial sibling sRNAs, and also discusses important questions about the significance and evolutionary implications of this emerging class of regulators.

  1. Sibling rivalry: Related bacterial small RNAs and their redundant and non-redundant roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton eCaswell

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Small RNA molecules (sRNAs are now recognized as key regulators controlling bacterial gene expression, as sRNAs provide a quick and efficient means of positively or negatively altering the expression of specific genes. To date, numerous sRNAs have been identified and characterized in a myriad of bacterial species, but more recently, a theme in bacterial sRNAs has emerged: the presence of more than one highly related sRNAs produced by a given bacterium, here termed sibling sRNAs. Sibling sRNAs are those that are highly similar at the nucleotide level, and while it might be expected that sibling sRNAs exert identical regulatory functions on the expression of target genes based on their high degree of relatedness, emerging evidence is demonstrating that this is not always the case. Indeed, there are several examples of bacterial sibling sRNAs with non-redundant regulatory functions, but there are also instances of apparent regulatory redundancy between sibling sRNAs. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge of bacterial sibling sRNAs, and also discusses important questions about the significance and evolutionary implications of this emerging class of regulators.

  2. Redundancy proves its worth in FR Germany [emergency power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, M.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of loss of power events at nuclear power stations in FR Germany has confirmed the data used in the German risk study and underlined the advantages of providing a high degree of redundancy in emergency power supplies. (author)

  3. Retraction: Redundant Publication of the article Dental caries and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retraction: Redundant Publication of the article Dental caries and oral health practices among 12 year old children in Nairobi West and Mathira West Districts, Kenya. Gladwell Gathecha et al. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2012;12:42.

  4. Signal validation in nuclear power plants using redundant measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glockler, O.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Morgenstern, V.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the basic principles of a multivariable signal validation software system utilizing redundant sensor readings of process variables in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The technique has been tested in numerical experiments, and was applied to actual data from a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The simultaneous checking within one redundant measurement set, and the cross-checking among redundant measurement sets of dissimilar process variables, results in an algorithm capable of detecting and isolating bias-type errors. A case in point occurs when a majority of the direct redundant measurements of more than one process variable has failed simultaneously by a common-mode or correlated failures can be detected by the developed approach. 5 refs

  5. Selective Redundancy Removal: A Framework for Data Hiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Fiore

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Data hiding techniques have so far concentrated on adding or modifying irrelevant information in order to hide a message. However, files in widespread use, such as HTML documents, usually exhibit high redundancy levels, caused by code-generation programs. Such redundancy may be removed by means of optimization software. Redundancy removal, if applied selectively, enables information hiding. This work introduces Selective Redundancy Removal (SRR as a framework for hiding data. An example application of the framework is given in terms of hiding information in HTML documents. Non-uniformity across documents may raise alarms. Nevertheless, selective application of optimization techniques might be due to the legitimate use of optimization software not supporting all the optimization methods, or configured to not use all of them.

  6. Triple3 Redundant Spacecraft Subsystems (T3RSS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Redefine Technologies, along with researchers at the University of Colorado, will use three redundancy methods to decrease the susceptibility of a spacecraft, on a...

  7. Resolving Actuator Redundancy - Control Allocation vs. Linear Quadratic Control

    OpenAIRE

    Härkegård, Ola

    2004-01-01

    When designing control laws for systems with more inputs than controlled variables, one issue to consider is how to deal with actuator redundancy. Two tools for distributing the control effort among a redundant set of actuators are control allocation and linear quadratic control design. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between these two design tools when a quadratic performance index is used for control allocation. We show that for a particular class of linear systems, they give...

  8. Kinematic control of redundant robots and the motion optimizability measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Gruver, W A; Zhang, Q; Yang, Z

    2001-01-01

    This paper treats the kinematic control of manipulators with redundant degrees of freedom. We derive an analytical solution for the inverse kinematics that provides a means for accommodating joint velocity constraints in real time. We define the motion optimizability measure and use it to develop an efficient method for the optimization of joint trajectories subject to multiple criteria. An implementation of the method for a 7-dof experimental redundant robot is present.

  9. LANL Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    : (505) 665-3664 ethics@lanl.gov Journalist queries Communications Office (505) 667-7000 Media contacts programs and employee resources. General Employee directory Emergency communication Communications Office (505) 667-7000 Ethics & Audits Internal Audit: (505) 665-3104 Ethics Office: (505) 667-7506 Fax

  10. Neural redundancy applied to the parity space for signal validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mol, Antonio Carlos de Abreu; Pereira, Claudio Marcio Nascimento Abreu; Martinez, Aquilino Senra

    2005-01-01

    The objective of signal validation is to provide more reliable information from the plant sensor data The method presented in this work introduces the concept of neural redundancy and applies it to the space parity method [1] to overcome an inherent deficiency of this method - the determination of the best estimative of the redundant measures when they are inconsistent. The concept of neural redundancy consists on the calculation of a redundancy through neural networks based on the time series of the own state variable. Therefore, neural networks, dynamically trained with the time series, will estimate the current value of the own measure, which will be used as referee of the redundant measures in the parity space. For this purpose the neural network should have the capacity to supply the neural redundancy in real time and with maximum error corresponding to the group deviation. The historical series should be enough to allow the estimate of the next value, during transients and at the same time, it should be optimized to facilitate the retraining of the neural network to each acquisition. In order to have the capacity to reproduce the tendency of the time series even under accident condition, the dynamic training of the neural network privileges the recent points of the time series. The tests accomplished with simulated data of a nuclear plant, demonstrated that this method applied on the parity space method improves the signal validation process. (author)

  11. Neural redundancy applied to the parity space for signal validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mol, Antonio Carlos de Abreu; Pereira, Claudio Marcio Nascimento Abreu [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: cmnap@ien.gov.br; Martinez, Aquilino Senra [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia]. E-mail: aquilino@lmp.br

    2005-07-01

    The objective of signal validation is to provide more reliable information from the plant sensor data The method presented in this work introduces the concept of neural redundancy and applies it to the space parity method [1] to overcome an inherent deficiency of this method - the determination of the best estimative of the redundant measures when they are inconsistent. The concept of neural redundancy consists on the calculation of a redundancy through neural networks based on the time series of the own state variable. Therefore, neural networks, dynamically trained with the time series, will estimate the current value of the own measure, which will be used as referee of the redundant measures in the parity space. For this purpose the neural network should have the capacity to supply the neural redundancy in real time and with maximum error corresponding to the group deviation. The historical series should be enough to allow the estimate of the next value, during transients and at the same time, it should be optimized to facilitate the retraining of the neural network to each acquisition. In order to have the capacity to reproduce the tendency of the time series even under accident condition, the dynamic training of the neural network privileges the recent points of the time series. The tests accomplished with simulated data of a nuclear plant, demonstrated that this method applied on the parity space method improves the signal validation process. (author)

  12. Reliability optimization of a redundant system with failure dependencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Haiyang [Institute Charles Delaunay (ICD, FRE CNRS 2848), Troyes University of Technology, Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes (France)]. E-mail: Haiyang.YU@utt.fr; Chu Chengbin [Institute Charles Delaunay (ICD, FRE CNRS 2848), Troyes University of Technology, Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes (France); Management School, Hefei University of Technology, 193 Tunxi Road, Hefei (China); Chatelet, Eric [Institute Charles Delaunay (ICD, FRE CNRS 2848), Troyes University of Technology, Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes (France); Yalaoui, Farouk [Institute Charles Delaunay (ICD, FRE CNRS 2848), Troyes University of Technology, Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes (France)

    2007-12-15

    In a multi-component system, the failure of one component can reduce the system reliability in two aspects: loss of the reliability contribution of this failed component, and the reconfiguration of the system, e.g., the redistribution of the system loading. The system reconfiguration can be triggered by the component failures as well as by adding redundancies. Hence, dependency is essential for the design of a multi-component system. In this paper, we study the design of a redundant system with the consideration of a specific kind of failure dependency, i.e., the redundant dependency. The dependence function is introduced to quantify the redundant dependency. With the dependence function, the redundant dependencies are further classified as independence, weak, linear, and strong dependencies. In addition, this classification is useful in that it facilitates the optimization resolution of the system design. Finally, an example is presented to illustrate the concept of redundant dependency and its application in system design. This paper thus conveys the significance of failure dependencies in the reliability optimization of systems.

  13. Reliability optimization of a redundant system with failure dependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Haiyang; Chu Chengbin; Chatelet, Eric; Yalaoui, Farouk

    2007-01-01

    In a multi-component system, the failure of one component can reduce the system reliability in two aspects: loss of the reliability contribution of this failed component, and the reconfiguration of the system, e.g., the redistribution of the system loading. The system reconfiguration can be triggered by the component failures as well as by adding redundancies. Hence, dependency is essential for the design of a multi-component system. In this paper, we study the design of a redundant system with the consideration of a specific kind of failure dependency, i.e., the redundant dependency. The dependence function is introduced to quantify the redundant dependency. With the dependence function, the redundant dependencies are further classified as independence, weak, linear, and strong dependencies. In addition, this classification is useful in that it facilitates the optimization resolution of the system design. Finally, an example is presented to illustrate the concept of redundant dependency and its application in system design. This paper thus conveys the significance of failure dependencies in the reliability optimization of systems

  14. Joint optimization of redundancy level and spare part inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleptchenko, Andrei; Heijden, Matthieu van der

    2016-01-01

    We consider a “k-out-of-N” system with different standby modes. Each of the N components consists of multiple part types. Upon failure, a component can be repaired within a certain time by switching the failed part by a spare, if available. We develop both an exact and a fast approximate analysis to compute the system availability. Next, we jointly optimize the component redundancy level with the inventories of the various spare parts. We find that our approximations are very accurate and suitable for large systems. We apply our model to a case study at a public organization in Qatar, and find that we can improve the availability-to-cost ratio by reducing the redundancy level and increasing the spare part inventories. In general, high redundancy levels appear to be useful only when components are relatively cheap and part replacement times are high. - Highlights: • We analyze a redundant system (k-out-of-N) with multiple parts and spares. • We jointly optimize the redundancy level and the spare part inventories. • We develop an exact method and an approximation to evaluate the system availability. • Adding spare parts and reducing the redundancy level cuts cost by 50% in a case study. • The availability is not very sensitive to the shape of the failure time distribution.

  15. Coherent network detection of gravitational waves: the redundancy veto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Linqing; Schutz, Bernard F

    2005-01-01

    A network of gravitational wave detectors is called redundant if, given the direction to a source, the strain induced by a gravitational wave in one or more of the detectors can be fully expressed in terms of the strain induced in others in the network. Because gravitational waves have only two polarizations, any network of three or more differently oriented interferometers with similar observing bands is redundant. The three-armed LISA space interferometer has three outputs that are redundant at low frequencies. The two aligned LIGO interferometers at Hanford WA are redundant, and the LIGO detector at Livingston LA is nearly redundant with either of the Hanford detectors. Redundant networks have a powerful veto against spurious noise, a linear combination of the detector outputs that contains no gravitational wave signal. For LISA, this 'null' output is known as the Sagnac mode, and its use in discriminating between detector noise and a cosmological gravitational wave background is well understood. But the usefulness of the null veto for ground-based detector networks has been ignored until now. We show that it should make it possible to discriminate in a model-independent way between real gravitational waves and accidentally coincident non-Gaussian noise 'events' in redundant networks of two or more broadband detectors. It has been shown that with three detectors, the null output can even be used to locate the direction to the source, and then two other linear combinations of detector outputs give the optimal 'coherent' reconstruction of the two polarization components of the signal. We discuss briefly the implementation of such a detection strategy in realistic networks, where signals are weak, detector calibration is a significant uncertainty, and the various detectors may have different (but overlapping) observing bands

  16. Optimization of robustness of interdependent network controllability by redundant design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenghu Zhang

    Full Text Available Controllability of complex networks has been a hot topic in recent years. Real networks regarded as interdependent networks are always coupled together by multiple networks. The cascading process of interdependent networks including interdependent failure and overload failure will destroy the robustness of controllability for the whole network. Therefore, the optimization of the robustness of interdependent network controllability is of great importance in the research area of complex networks. In this paper, based on the model of interdependent networks constructed first, we determine the cascading process under different proportions of node attacks. Then, the structural controllability of interdependent networks is measured by the minimum driver nodes. Furthermore, we propose a parameter which can be obtained by the structure and minimum driver set of interdependent networks under different proportions of node attacks and analyze the robustness for interdependent network controllability. Finally, we optimize the robustness of interdependent network controllability by redundant design including node backup and redundancy edge backup and improve the redundant design by proposing different strategies according to their cost. Comparative strategies of redundant design are conducted to find the best strategy. Results shows that node backup and redundancy edge backup can indeed decrease those nodes suffering from failure and improve the robustness of controllability. Considering the cost of redundant design, we should choose BBS (betweenness-based strategy or DBS (degree based strategy for node backup and HDF(high degree first for redundancy edge backup. Above all, our proposed strategies are feasible and effective at improving the robustness of interdependent network controllability.

  17. The heuristic value of redundancy models of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonekamp, Jelle J; Briga, Michael; Verhulst, Simon

    2015-11-01

    Molecular studies of aging aim to unravel the cause(s) of aging bottom-up, but linking these mechanisms to organismal level processes remains a challenge. We propose that complementary top-down data-directed modelling of organismal level empirical findings may contribute to developing these links. To this end, we explore the heuristic value of redundancy models of aging to develop a deeper insight into the mechanisms causing variation in senescence and lifespan. We start by showing (i) how different redundancy model parameters affect projected aging and mortality, and (ii) how variation in redundancy model parameters relates to variation in parameters of the Gompertz equation. Lifestyle changes or medical interventions during life can modify mortality rate, and we investigate (iii) how interventions that change specific redundancy parameters within the model affect subsequent mortality and actuarial senescence. Lastly, as an example of data-directed modelling and the insights that can be gained from this, (iv) we fit a redundancy model to mortality patterns observed by Mair et al. (2003; Science 301: 1731-1733) in Drosophila that were subjected to dietary restriction and temperature manipulations. Mair et al. found that dietary restriction instantaneously reduced mortality rate without affecting aging, while temperature manipulations had more transient effects on mortality rate and did affect aging. We show that after adjusting model parameters the redundancy model describes both effects well, and a comparison of the parameter values yields a deeper insight in the mechanisms causing these contrasting effects. We see replacement of the redundancy model parameters by more detailed sub-models of these parameters as a next step in linking demographic patterns to underlying molecular mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Human genetics of infectious diseases: Unique insights into immunological redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2018-04-01

    For almost any given human-tropic virus, bacterium, fungus, or parasite, the clinical outcome of primary infection is enormously variable, ranging from asymptomatic to lethal infection. This variability has long been thought to be largely determined by the germline genetics of the human host, and this is increasingly being demonstrated to be the case. The number and diversity of known inborn errors of immunity is continually increasing, and we focus here on autosomal and X-linked recessive traits underlying complete deficiencies of the encoded protein. Schematically, four types of infectious phenotype have been observed in individuals with such deficiencies, each providing information about the redundancy of the corresponding human gene, in terms of host defense in natural conditions. The lack of a protein can confer vulnerability to a broad range of microbes in most, if not all patients, through the disruption of a key immunological component. In such cases, the gene concerned is of low redundancy. However, the lack of a protein may also confer vulnerability to a narrow range of microbes, sometimes a single pathogen, and not necessarily in all patients. In such cases, the gene concerned is highly redundant. Conversely, the deficiency may be apparently neutral, conferring no detectable predisposition to infection in any individual. In such cases, the gene concerned is completely redundant. Finally, the lack of a protein may, paradoxically, be advantageous to the host, conferring resistance to one or more infections. In such cases, the gene is considered to display beneficial redundancy. These findings reflect the current state of evolution of humans and microbes, and should not be considered predictive of redundancy, or of a lack of redundancy, in the distant future. Nevertheless, these observations are of potential interest to present-day biologists testing immunological hypotheses experimentally and physicians managing patients with immunological or infectious

  19. The cellular robustness by genetic redundancy in budding yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Li

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The frequent dispensability of duplicated genes in budding yeast is heralded as a hallmark of genetic robustness contributed by genetic redundancy. However, theoretical predictions suggest such backup by redundancy is evolutionarily unstable, and the extent of genetic robustness contributed from redundancy remains controversial. It is anticipated that, to achieve mutual buffering, the duplicated paralogs must at least share some functional overlap. However, counter-intuitively, several recent studies reported little functional redundancy between these buffering duplicates. The large yeast genetic interactions released recently allowed us to address these issues on a genome-wide scale. We herein characterized the synthetic genetic interactions for ∼500 pairs of yeast duplicated genes originated from either whole-genome duplication (WGD or small-scale duplication (SSD events. We established that functional redundancy between duplicates is a pre-requisite and thus is highly predictive of their backup capacity. This observation was particularly pronounced with the use of a newly introduced metric in scoring functional overlap between paralogs on the basis of gene ontology annotations. Even though mutual buffering was observed to be prevalent among duplicated genes, we showed that the observed backup capacity is largely an evolutionarily transient state. The loss of backup capacity generally follows a neutral mode, with the buffering strength decreasing in proportion to divergence time, and the vast majority of the paralogs have already lost their backup capacity. These observations validated previous theoretic predictions about instability of genetic redundancy. However, departing from the general neutral mode, intriguingly, our analysis revealed the presence of natural selection in stabilizing functional overlap between SSD pairs. These selected pairs, both WGD and SSD, tend to have decelerated functional evolution, have higher propensities of co

  20. Redundant nerve roots of the cauda equina : MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kyu Hyen; Lee, Jung Man; Jung, Hak Young; Lee, Young Hwan; Sung, Nak Kwan; Chung, Duck Soo; Kim, Ok Dong; Lee, Sang Kwon; Suh, Kyung Jin

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate MR findings of redundant nerve roots (RNR) of the cauda equina. 17 patients with RNR were studied; eight were men and nine were women, and their ages ranged from 46 to 82 (mean 63) years. Diagroses were established on the basis of T2-weighted sagittal and coronal MRI, which showed a tortuous or coiled configuration of the nerve roots of the cauda equina. MR findings were reviewed for location, magnitude, and signal intensity of redundant nerve roots, and the relationship between magnitude of redundancy and severity of lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS) was evaluated. In all 17 patients, MR showed moderate or severe LSCS caused by herniation or bulging of an intervertebral disc, osteophyte from the vertebral body or facet joint, thickening of the ligamentum flavum, degenerative spondylolisthesis, or a combination of these. T2-weighted sagittal and coronal MR images well clearly showed the location of RNR of the cauda equina;in 16 patients(94%), these were seen above the level of constriction of the spinal canal, and in one case, they were observed below the level of constriction. T2-weighted axial images showed the thecal sac filled with numerous nerve roots. The magnitude of RNR was mild in six cases (35%), moderate in five cases (30%), and severe in six cases (35%). Compared with normal nerve roots, the RNR signal on T2-weighted images was iso-intense. All patients with severe redundancy showed severe LSCS, but not all cases with severe LSCS showed severe redundancy. Redundant nerve roots of cauda equina were seen in relatively older patients with moderate or severe LSCS and T2-weighted MR images were accurate in identifying redundancy of nerve roots and evaluating their magnitude and location

  1. Radiation-Tolerance Assessment of a Redundant Wireless Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Q.; Jiang, J.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a method to evaluate radiation-tolerance without physical tests for a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS)-based monitoring device for high level radiation fields, such as those found in post-accident conditions in a nuclear power plant (NPP). This paper specifically describes the analysis of radiation environment in a severe accident, radiation damages in electronics, and the redundant solution used to prolong the life of the system, as well as the evaluation method for radiation protection and the analysis method of system reliability. As a case study, a wireless monitoring device with redundant and diversified channels is evaluated by using the developed method. The study results and system assessment data show that, under the given radiation condition, performance of the redundant device is more reliable and more robust than those non-redundant devices. The developed redundant wireless monitoring device is therefore able to apply in those conditions (up to 10 M Rad (Si)) during a severe accident in a NPP.

  2. Working memory capacity and redundant information processing efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Michael J; Houpt, Joseph W; Donkin, Chris; Finn, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    Working memory capacity (WMC) is typically measured by the amount of task-relevant information an individual can keep in mind while resisting distraction or interference from task-irrelevant information. The current research investigated the extent to which differences in WMC were associated with performance on a novel redundant memory probes (RMP) task that systematically varied the amount of to-be-remembered (targets) and to-be-ignored (distractor) information. The RMP task was designed to both facilitate and inhibit working memory search processes, as evidenced by differences in accuracy, response time, and Linear Ballistic Accumulator (LBA) model estimates of information processing efficiency. Participants (N = 170) completed standard intelligence tests and dual-span WMC tasks, along with the RMP task. As expected, accuracy, response-time, and LBA model results indicated memory search and retrieval processes were facilitated under redundant-target conditions, but also inhibited under mixed target/distractor and redundant-distractor conditions. Repeated measures analyses also indicated that, while individuals classified as high (n = 85) and low (n = 85) WMC did not differ in the magnitude of redundancy effects, groups did differ in the efficiency of memory search and retrieval processes overall. Results suggest that redundant information reliably facilitates and inhibits the efficiency or speed of working memory search, and these effects are independent of more general limits and individual differences in the capacity or space of working memory.

  3. Mobility and Position Error Analysis of a Complex Planar Mechanism with Redundant Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qipeng; Li, Gangyan

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays mechanisms with redundant constraints have been created and attracted much attention for their merits. The mechanism of the redundant constraints in a mechanical system is analyzed in this paper. A analysis method of Planar Linkage with a repetitive structure is proposed to get the number and type of constraints. According to the difference of applications and constraint characteristics, the redundant constraints are divided into the theoretical planar redundant constraints and the space-planar redundant constraints. And the calculation formula for the number of redundant constraints and type of judging method are carried out. And a complex mechanism with redundant constraints is analyzed of the influence about redundant constraints on mechanical performance. With the combination of theoretical derivation and simulation research, a mechanism analysis method is put forward about the position error of complex mechanism with redundant constraints. It points out the direction on how to eliminate or reduce the influence of redundant constraints.

  4. Repetitive motion planning and control of redundant robot manipulators

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yunong

    2013-01-01

    Repetitive Motion Planning and Control of Redundant Robot Manipulators presents four typical motion planning schemes based on optimization techniques, including the fundamental RMP scheme and its extensions. These schemes are unified as quadratic programs (QPs), which are solved by neural networks or numerical algorithms. The RMP schemes are demonstrated effectively by the simulation results based on various robotic models; the experiments applying the fundamental RMP scheme to a physical robot manipulator are also presented. As the schemes and the corresponding solvers presented in the book have solved the non-repetitive motion problems existing in redundant robot manipulators, it is of particular use in applying theoretical research based on the quadratic program for redundant robot manipulators in industrial situations. This book will be a valuable reference work for engineers, researchers, advanced undergraduate and graduate students in robotics fields. Yunong Zhang is a professor at The School of Informa...

  5. On Planning of FTTH Access Networks with and without Redundancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, M. Tahir; Haraldsson, Gustav; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a planning analysis of FTTH access network with and without redundancy. Traditionally, access networks are planned only without redundancy, which is mainly due to lowering the cost of deployment. As fiber optics provide a huge amount of capacity, more and more services are being...... offered on a single fiber connection. As a single point of failure in fiber connection can cause multiple service deprivation therefore redundancy is very crucial. In this work, an automated planning model was used to test different scenarios of implementation. A cost estimation is presented in terms...... of digging and amount of fiber used. Three topologies, including the traditional one “tree topology”, were test with combination of various passive optical technologies....

  6. Program management aid for redundancy selection and operational guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, P. W.; Davis, W. L.; Frumkin, B.

    1972-01-01

    Although this criterion was developed specifically for use on the shuttle program, it has application to many other multi-missions programs (i.e. aircraft or mechanisms). The methodology employed is directly applicable even if the tools (nomographs and equations) are for mission peculiar cases. The redundancy selection criterion was developed to insure that both the design and operational cost impacts (life cycle costs) were considered in the selection of the quantity of operational redundancy. These tools were developed as aids in expediting the decision process and not intended as the automatic decision maker. This approach to redundancy selection is unique in that it enables a pseudo systems analysis to be performed on an equipment basis without waiting for all designs to be hardened.

  7. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  8. Multisensory processing in the redundant-target effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Niederhaus, Birgit; Rösler, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Participants respond more quickly to two simultaneously presented target stimuli of two different modalities (redundant targets) than would be predicted from their reaction times to the unimodal targets. To examine the neural correlates of this redundant-target effect, event-related potentials...... (ERPs) were recorded to auditory, visual, and bimodal standard and target stimuli presented at two locations (left and right of central fixation). Bimodal stimuli were combinations of two standards, two targets, or a standard and a target, presented either from the same or from different locations...

  9. Information filtering based on corrected redundancy-eliminating mass diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Yang, Yujie; Chen, Guilin; Medo, Matus; Tian, Hui; Cai, Shi-Min

    2017-01-01

    Methods used in information filtering and recommendation often rely on quantifying the similarity between objects or users. The used similarity metrics often suffer from similarity redundancies arising from correlations between objects' attributes. Based on an unweighted undirected object-user bipartite network, we propose a Corrected Redundancy-Eliminating similarity index (CRE) which is based on a spreading process on the network. Extensive experiments on three benchmark data sets-Movilens, Netflix and Amazon-show that when used in recommendation, the CRE yields significant improvements in terms of recommendation accuracy and diversity. A detailed analysis is presented to unveil the origins of the observed differences between the CRE and mainstream similarity indices.

  10. Redundant information from thermal illumination: quantum Darwinism in scattered photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jess Riedel, C; Zurek, Wojciech H, E-mail: criedel@physics.ucsb.edu [Theory Division, LANL, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    We study quantum Darwinism, the redundant recording of information about the preferred states of a decohering system by its environment, for an object illuminated by a blackbody. We calculate the quantum mutual information between the object and its photon environment for blackbodies that cover an arbitrary section of the sky. In particular, we demonstrate that more extended sources have a reduced ability to create redundant information about the system, in agreement with previous evidence that initial mixedness of an environment slows-but does not stop-the production of records. We also show that the qualitative results are robust for more general initial states of the system.

  11. Redundant information from thermal illumination: quantum Darwinism in scattered photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jess Riedel, C.; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2011-07-01

    We study quantum Darwinism, the redundant recording of information about the preferred states of a decohering system by its environment, for an object illuminated by a blackbody. We calculate the quantum mutual information between the object and its photon environment for blackbodies that cover an arbitrary section of the sky. In particular, we demonstrate that more extended sources have a reduced ability to create redundant information about the system, in agreement with previous evidence that initial mixedness of an environment slows—but does not stop—the production of records. We also show that the qualitative results are robust for more general initial states of the system.

  12. Reliability model for common mode failures in redundant safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, K.N.

    1974-12-01

    A method is presented for computing the reliability of redundant safety systems, considering both independent and common mode type failures. The model developed for the computation is a simple extension of classical reliability theory. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated with the use of an example. The probability of failure of a typical diesel-generator emergency power system is computed based on data obtained from U. S. diesel-generator operating experience. The results are compared with reliability predictions based on the assumption that all failures are independent. The comparison shows a significant increase in the probability of redundant system failure, when common failure modes are considered. (U.S.)

  13. A Comparison of Routing Protocol for WSNs: Redundancy Based Approach A Comparison of Routing Protocol for WSNs: Redundancy Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Prakash

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs with their dynamic applications gained a tremendous attention of researchers. Constant monitoring of critical situations attracted researchers to utilize WSNs at vast platforms. The main focus in WSNs is to enhance network localization as much as one could, for efficient and optimal utilization of resources. Different approaches based upon redundancy are proposed for optimum functionality. Localization is always related with redundancy of sensor nodes deployed at remote areas for constant and fault tolerant monitoring. In this work, we propose a comparison of classic flooding and the gossip protocol for homogenous networks which enhances stability and throughput quiet significantly.  

  14. Biogeographical disparity in the functional diversity and redundancy of corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, Mike; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Baird, Andrew H; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Madin, Joshua S; Hughes, Terry P

    2018-03-20

    Corals are major contributors to a range of key ecosystem functions on tropical reefs, including calcification, photosynthesis, nutrient cycling, and the provision of habitat structure. The abundance of corals is declining at multiple scales, and the species composition of assemblages is responding to escalating human pressures, including anthropogenic global warming. An urgent challenge is to understand the functional consequences of these shifts in abundance and composition in different biogeographical contexts. While global patterns of coral species richness are well known, the biogeography of coral functions in provinces and domains with high and low redundancy is poorly understood. Here, we quantify the functional traits of all currently recognized zooxanthellate coral species ( n = 821) in both the Indo-Pacific and Atlantic domains to examine the relationships between species richness and the diversity and redundancy of functional trait space. We find that trait diversity is remarkably conserved (>75% of the global total) along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients in species richness, falling away only in species-poor provinces ( n < 200), such as the Persian Gulf (52% of the global total), Hawaii (37%), the Caribbean (26%), and the East-Pacific (20%), where redundancy is also diminished. In the more species-poor provinces, large and ecologically important areas of trait space are empty, or occupied by just a few, highly distinctive species. These striking biogeographical differences in redundancy could affect the resilience of critical reef functions and highlight the vulnerability of relatively depauperate, peripheral locations, which are often a low priority for targeted conservation efforts.

  15. Inhibition and Language Pragmatic View in Redundant Data Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setti, Annalisa; Caramelli, Nicoletta

    2007-01-01

    The present study concerns redundant data problems, defined as problems in which irrelevant data is provided. This type of problem provides a misleading context [Pascual-Leone, J. (1987). Organismic process for neo-Piagetian theories: A dialectical causal account of cognitive development. "International Journal of Psychology," 22, 531-570] similar…

  16. Sexual selection, redundancy and survival of the most beautiful

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A model is described of a highly redundant complex organism that has overlapping banks of genes such that each vital function is specified by several different genetic systems. This generates a synergistic profile linking probability of survival to the number of deleterious mutations in the genome. Computer models show ...

  17. Redundancy scheme for multi-layered accelerator control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Amit; Fatnani, Pravin

    2009-01-01

    The control system for SRS Indus-2 has three-layered architecture. There are VMEbus based stations at the lower two layers that are controlled by their respective CPU board. The 'Profibus' fieldbus standard is used for communication between these VME stations distributed in the field. There is a Profibus controller board at each station to implement the communication protocol. The mode of communication is master-slave (command-response) type. This paper proposes a scheme to implement redundancy at the lower two layers namely Layer-2 (Supervisory Layer / Profibus-master) and Layer-3 (Equipment Unit Interface Layer / Profibus-slave). The redundancy is for both the CPU and the communication board. The scheme uses two CPU boards and two Profi controller boards at each L-3 station. This helps in decreasing any downtime resulting either from CPU faults or communication board faults that are placed in the field area. Redundancy of Profi boards provides two active communication channels between the stations that can be used in different ways thereby increasing the availability on a communication link. Redundancy of CPU boards provides certain level of auto fault-recovery as one CPU remains active and the other CPU remains in standby mode, which takes over the control of VMEbus in case of any fault in the main CPU. (author)

  18. The restricted isometry property meets nonlinear approximation with redundant frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    with a redundant frame. The main ingredients of our approach are: a) Jackson and Bernstein inequalities, associated to the characterization of certain approximation spaces with interpolation spaces; b) a proof that for overcomplete frames which satisfy a Bernstein inequality, these interpolation spaces are nothing...

  19. Mutual information and redundancy in spontaneous communication between cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanski, J; Arnold, M; Wajnryb, E; Amigó, J M; Sanchez-Vives, M V

    2011-03-01

    An important question in neural information processing is how neurons cooperate to transmit information. To study this question, we resort to the concept of redundancy in the information transmitted by a group of neurons and, at the same time, we introduce a novel concept for measuring cooperation between pairs of neurons called relative mutual information (RMI). Specifically, we studied these two parameters for spike trains generated by neighboring neurons from the primary visual cortex in the awake, freely moving rat. The spike trains studied here were spontaneously generated in the cortical network, in the absence of visual stimulation. Under these conditions, our analysis revealed that while the value of RMI oscillated slightly around an average value, the redundancy exhibited a behavior characterized by a higher variability. We conjecture that this combination of approximately constant RMI and greater variable redundancy makes information transmission more resistant to noise disturbances. Furthermore, the redundancy values suggest that neurons can cooperate in a flexible way during information transmission. This mostly occurs via a leading neuron with higher transmission rate or, less frequently, through the information rate of the whole group being higher than the sum of the individual information rates-in other words in a synergetic manner. The proposed method applies not only to the stationary, but also to locally stationary neural signals.

  20. The bliss (not the problem) of motor abundance (not redundancy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, Mark L

    2012-03-01

    Motor control is an area of natural science exploring how the nervous system interacts with other body parts and the environment to produce purposeful, coordinated actions. A central problem of motor control-the problem of motor redundancy-was formulated by Nikolai Bernstein as the problem of elimination of redundant degrees-of-freedom. Traditionally, this problem has been addressed using optimization methods based on a variety of cost functions. This review draws attention to a body of recent findings suggesting that the problem has been formulated incorrectly. An alternative view has been suggested as the principle of abundance, which considers the apparently redundant degrees-of-freedom as useful and even vital for many aspects of motor behavior. Over the past 10 years, dozens of publications have provided support for this view based on the ideas of synergic control, computational apparatus of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis, and the equilibrium-point (referent configuration) hypothesis. In particular, large amounts of "good variance"-variance in the space of elements that has no effect on the overall performance-have been documented across a variety of natural actions. "Good variance" helps an abundant system to deal with secondary tasks and unexpected perturbations; its amount shows adaptive modulation across a variety of conditions. These data support the view that there is no problem of motor redundancy; there is bliss of motor abundance.

  1. Virtual Modular Redundancy of Processor Module in the PLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang-Il; Hwang, SungJae; Yoon, DongHwa

    2016-01-01

    Dual Modular Redundancy (DMR) is mainly used to implement these safety control systems. DMR is conveyed when components of a system are duplicated, providing another component in case one should fault or fail. This feature has a high availability and large fault tolerant. It provides zero downtime that is required for nuclear power plants. So nuclear power plant has been commercialized by multiple redundant systems. The following paper, we propose a Virtual Modular Redundancy (VMR) rather than physical triple of the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) processor module to ensure the reliability of the nuclear power plant control system. VMR implementation minimizes design changes to continue to use the commercially available redundant system. Also, the purpose of the VMR is to improve the efficiency and reliability in many ways, such as fault tolerant and fail-safe and cost. VMR guarantees a wide range of reliable fault recovery, fault tolerance, etc. It is prevented before it causes great damages due to the continuous failure of the two modules. The reliable communication speed is slow and also it has a small bandwidth. It is a great loss in the safety control system. However, VMR aims to avoid nuclear power plants that were suspended due to fail-safe. It is not for the purpose of commonly used. Application of VMR is actually expected to require a lot of research and trial and error until they adapt to the nuclear regulatory and standards

  2. Testing the significance of canonical axes in redundancy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legendre, P.; Oksanen, J.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2011-01-01

    1. Tests of significance of the individual canonical axes in redundancy analysis allow researchers to determine which of the axes represent variation that can be distinguished from random. Variation along the significant axes can be mapped, used to draw biplots or interpreted through subsequent

  3. Redundancy Optimization for Error Recovery in Digital Microfluidic Biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alistar, Mirela; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic-based biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers, and are able to integrate all the necessary functions for biochemical analysis. The digital microfluidic biochips are based on the manipulation of liquids not as a continuous flow, but as discrete droplets. Research......Microfluidic-based biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers, and are able to integrate all the necessary functions for biochemical analysis. The digital microfluidic biochips are based on the manipulation of liquids not as a continuous flow, but as discrete droplets....... Researchers have proposed approaches for the synthesis of digital microfluidic biochips, which, starting from a biochemical application and a given biochip architecture, determine the allocation, resource binding, scheduling, placement and routing of the operations in the application. During the execution...... propose an online recovery strategy, which decides during the execution of the biochemical application the introduction of the redundancy required for fault-tolerance. We consider both time redundancy, i.e., re-executing erroneous operations, and space redundancy, i.e., creating redundant droplets...

  4. Network Gateway Technology: The Issue of Redundancy towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Internet has provided advancement in the areas of network and networking facilities. Everyone connected to the Internet is concerned about two basic things: the availability of network services and the speed of the network. Network gateway redundancy technology falls within these categories and happens to be one of ...

  5. The Evolution of Functionally Redundant Species; Evidence from Beetles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, M.; Vergnon, R.O.H.; Nes, van E.H.; Cuppen, J.G.M.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Leijs, R.; Nilsson, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    While species fulfill many different roles in ecosystems, it has been suggested that numerous species might actually share the same function in a near neutral way. So-far, however, it is unclear whether such functional redundancy really exists. We scrutinize this question using extensive data on the

  6. Simulator of a fail detector system for redundant sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assumpcao Filho, E.O.; Nakata, H.

    1990-01-01

    A failure detection and isolation system (FDI) simulation program has been developed for IBM-PC microcomputers. The program, based on the sequencial likelihood ratio testing method developed by A. Wald, was implemented with Monte-Carlo technique. The calculated failure detection rate was favorably compared against the wind-tunnel experimental redundant temperature sensors. (author)

  7. Virtual Modular Redundancy of Processor Module in the PLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang-Il; Hwang, SungJae; Yoon, DongHwa [SOOSAN ENS Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Dual Modular Redundancy (DMR) is mainly used to implement these safety control systems. DMR is conveyed when components of a system are duplicated, providing another component in case one should fault or fail. This feature has a high availability and large fault tolerant. It provides zero downtime that is required for nuclear power plants. So nuclear power plant has been commercialized by multiple redundant systems. The following paper, we propose a Virtual Modular Redundancy (VMR) rather than physical triple of the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) processor module to ensure the reliability of the nuclear power plant control system. VMR implementation minimizes design changes to continue to use the commercially available redundant system. Also, the purpose of the VMR is to improve the efficiency and reliability in many ways, such as fault tolerant and fail-safe and cost. VMR guarantees a wide range of reliable fault recovery, fault tolerance, etc. It is prevented before it causes great damages due to the continuous failure of the two modules. The reliable communication speed is slow and also it has a small bandwidth. It is a great loss in the safety control system. However, VMR aims to avoid nuclear power plants that were suspended due to fail-safe. It is not for the purpose of commonly used. Application of VMR is actually expected to require a lot of research and trial and error until they adapt to the nuclear regulatory and standards.

  8. The redundant target effect is affected by modality switch costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Lange, K.; Rösler, F.

    2004-01-01

    When participants have to respond to stimuli of two modalities, faster reaction times are observed for simultaneous, bimodal events than for unimodal events (the redundant target effect [RTE]). This finding has been interpreted as reflecting processing gains for bimodal relative to unimodal stimu...

  9. Mediated Instruction and Redundancy Remediation in Sciences in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data were analyzed using t-test statistics. Data analysis revealed that use of mediated instruction significantly removed redundancy for science students also the use of mediated instruction influenced academic achievement of science students in secondary schools. Some of the recommendations include that science ...

  10. A redundancy-removing feature selection algorithm for nominal data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available No order correlation or similarity metric exists in nominal data, and there will always be more redundancy in a nominal dataset, which means that an efficient mutual information-based nominal-data feature selection method is relatively difficult to find. In this paper, a nominal-data feature selection method based on mutual information without data transformation, called the redundancy-removing more relevance less redundancy algorithm, is proposed. By forming several new information-related definitions and the corresponding computational methods, the proposed method can compute the information-related amount of nominal data directly. Furthermore, by creating a new evaluation function that considers both the relevance and the redundancy globally, the new feature selection method can evaluate the importance of each nominal-data feature. Although the presented feature selection method takes commonly used MIFS-like forms, it is capable of handling high-dimensional datasets without expensive computations. We perform extensive experimental comparisons of the proposed algorithm and other methods using three benchmarking nominal datasets with two different classifiers. The experimental results demonstrate the average advantage of the presented algorithm over the well-known NMIFS algorithm in terms of the feature selection and classification accuracy, which indicates that the proposed method has a promising performance.

  11. Network Gateway Technology: The Issue of Redundancy towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Everyone connected to the Internet is concerned about two basic things: the availability of network services and the speed of the network. Network gateway redundancy technology falls within these categories and happens to be one of the newest technologies which only few companies, such as mobile companies and ...

  12. Redundancy Effect on Retention of Vocabulary Words Using Multimedia Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samur, Yavuz

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of the redundancy principle in a multimedia presentation constructed for foreign language vocabulary learning on undergraduate students' retention. The underlying hypothesis of this study is that when the students are exposed to the material in multiple ways through animation, concurrent narration,…

  13. The conservation of redundancy in genetic systems: effects of sexual ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    probability of a fatal error is reduced by a redundant sampling system, but the chance of error rises as the sys- .... Thus every function is covered three times and every component covers a ... ples reduce the variance of the distributions in figure 3a and thereby ..... cases p = 0⋅1, q = 1000 and the value of b is adjusted to.

  14. Contact Lens Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Contact Lens Care Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... www.fda.gov/medwatch Learn More about Contact Lens Care Other Tips on Contact Lenses Decorative Contact ...

  15. SIMULATION MODEL FOR DESIGN SUPPORT OF INFOCOMM REDUNDANT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bogatyrev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with the effectiveness of multipath transfer of request copies through the network and their redundant service without the use of laborious analytical modeling. The model and support tools for the design of highly reliable distributed systems based on simulation modeling have been created. Method. The effectiveness of many variants of service organization and delivery through the network to the query servers is formed and analyzed. Options for providing redundant service and delivery via the network to the servers of request copies are also considered. The choice of variants for the distribution and service of requests is carried out taking into account the criticality of queries to the time of their stay in the system. The request is considered successful if at least one of its copies is accurately delivered to the working server, ready to service the request received through a network, if it is fulfilled in the set time. Efficiency analysis of the redundant transmission and service of requests is based on the model built in AnyLogic 7 simulation environment. Main Results. Simulation experiments based on the proposed models have shown the effectiveness of redundant transmission of copies of queries (packets to the servers in the cluster through multiple paths with redundant service of request copies by a group of servers in the cluster. It is shown that this solution allows increasing the probability of exact execution of at least one copy of the request within the required time. We have carried out efficiency evaluation of destruction of outdated request copies in the queues of network nodes and the cluster. We have analyzed options for network implementation of multipath transfer of request copies to the servers in the cluster over disjoint paths, possibly different according to the number of their constituent nodes. Practical Relevance. The proposed simulation models can be used when selecting the optimal

  16. Susceptibility of Redundant Versus Singular Clock Domains Implemented in SRAM-Based FPGA TMR Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    We present the challenges that arise when using redundant clock domains due to their clock-skew. Radiation data show that a singular clock domain (DTMR) provides an improved TMR methodology for SRAM-based FPGAs over redundant clocks.

  17. The Birth and Death of Redundancy in Decoherence and Quantum Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Charles; Zurek, Wojciech; Zwolak, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the quantum-classical transition and the identification of a preferred classical domain through quantum Darwinism is based on recognizing high-redundancy states as both ubiquitous and exceptional. They are produced ubiquitously during decoherence, as has been demonstrated by the recent identification of very general conditions under which high-redundancy states develop. They are exceptional in that high-redundancy states occupy a very narrow corner of the global Hilbert space; states selected at random are overwelming likely to exhibit zero redundancy. In this letter, we examine the conditions and time scales for the transition from high-redundancy states to zero-redundancy states in many-body dynamics. We identify sufficient condition for the development of redundancy from product states and show that the destruction of redundancy can be accomplished even with highly constrained interactions.

  18. In-flight performance optimization for rotorcraft with redundant controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Gurbuz Taha

    A conventional helicopter has limits on performance at high speeds because of the limitations of main rotor, such as compressibility issues on advancing side or stall issues on retreating side. Auxiliary lift and thrust components have been suggested to improve performance of the helicopter substantially by reducing the loading on the main rotor. Such a configuration is called the compound rotorcraft. Rotor speed can also be varied to improve helicopter performance. In addition to improved performance, compound rotorcraft and variable RPM can provide a much larger degree of control redundancy. This additional redundancy gives the opportunity to further enhance performance and handling qualities. A flight control system is designed to perform in-flight optimization of redundant control effectors on a compound rotorcraft in order to minimize power required and extend range. This "Fly to Optimal" (FTO) control law is tested in simulation using the GENHEL model. A model of the UH-60, a compound version of the UH-60A with lifting wing and vectored thrust ducted propeller (VTDP), and a generic compound version of the UH-60A with lifting wing and propeller were developed and tested in simulation. A model following dynamic inversion controller is implemented for inner loop control of roll, pitch, yaw, heave, and rotor RPM. An outer loop controller regulates airspeed and flight path during optimization. A Golden Section search method was used to find optimal rotor RPM on a conventional helicopter, where the single redundant control effector is rotor RPM. The FTO builds off of the Adaptive Performance Optimization (APO) method of Gilyard by performing low frequency sweeps on a redundant control for a fixed wing aircraft. A method based on the APO method was used to optimize trim on a compound rotorcraft with several redundant control effectors. The controller can be used to optimize rotor RPM and compound control effectors through flight test or simulations in order to

  19. A Cause-Consequence Chart of a Redundant Protection System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dan Sandvik; Platz, O.; Runge, B.

    1975-01-01

    A cause-consequence chart is applied in analysing failures of a redundant protection system (a core spray system in a nuclear power plant). It is shown how the diagram provides a basis for calculating two probability measures for malfunctioning of the protection system. The test policy of compone...... of components is taken into account. The possibility of using parameter variation as a basis for the choice of test policy is indicated.......A cause-consequence chart is applied in analysing failures of a redundant protection system (a core spray system in a nuclear power plant). It is shown how the diagram provides a basis for calculating two probability measures for malfunctioning of the protection system. The test policy...

  20. Case studies in configuration control for redundant robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, H.; Lee, T.; Colbaugh, R.; Glass, K.

    1989-01-01

    A simple approach to configuration control of redundant robots is presented. The redundancy is utilized to control the robot configuration directly in task space, where the task will be performed. A number of task-related kinematic functions are defined and combined with the end-effector coordinates to form a set of configuration variables. An adaptive control scheme is then utilized to ensure that the configuration variables track the desired reference trajectories as closely as possible. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the control scheme. The scheme has also been implemented for direct online control of a PUMA industrial robot, and experimental results are presented. The simulation and experimental results validate the configuration control scheme for performing various realistic tasks.

  1. Probability Model for Data Redundancy Detection in Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensor networks are made of autonomous devices that are able to collect, store, process and share data with other devices. Large sensor networks are often redundant in the sense that the measurements of some nodes can be substituted by other nodes with a certain degree of confidence. This spatial correlation results in wastage of link bandwidth and energy. In this paper, a model for two associated Poisson processes, through which sensors are distributed in a plane, is derived. A probability condition is established for data redundancy among closely located sensor nodes. The model generates a spatial bivariate Poisson process whose parameters depend on the parameters of the two individual Poisson processes and on the distance between the associated points. The proposed model helps in building efficient algorithms for data dissemination in the sensor network. A numerical example is provided investigating the advantage of this model.

  2. Information filtering based on corrected redundancy-eliminating mass diffusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuzhen Zhu

    Full Text Available Methods used in information filtering and recommendation often rely on quantifying the similarity between objects or users. The used similarity metrics often suffer from similarity redundancies arising from correlations between objects' attributes. Based on an unweighted undirected object-user bipartite network, we propose a Corrected Redundancy-Eliminating similarity index (CRE which is based on a spreading process on the network. Extensive experiments on three benchmark data sets-Movilens, Netflix and Amazon-show that when used in recommendation, the CRE yields significant improvements in terms of recommendation accuracy and diversity. A detailed analysis is presented to unveil the origins of the observed differences between the CRE and mainstream similarity indices.

  3. Low-redundancy linear arrays in mirrored interferometric aperture synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong; Hu, Fei; Wu, Liang; Li, Jun; Lang, Liang

    2016-01-15

    Mirrored interferometric aperture synthesis (MIAS) is a novel interferometry that can improve spatial resolution compared with that of conventional IAS. In one-dimensional (1-D) MIAS, antenna array with low redundancy has the potential to achieve a high spatial resolution. This Letter presents a technique for the direct construction of low-redundancy linear arrays (LRLAs) in MIAS and derives two regular analytical patterns that can yield various LRLAs in short computation time. Moreover, for a better estimation of the observed scene, a bi-measurement method is proposed to handle the rank defect associated with the transmatrix of those LRLAs. The results of imaging simulation demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Information theory and artificial grammar learning: inferring grammaticality from redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Randall K; Nevzorova, Uliana; Lee, Graham; Mewhort, D J K

    2016-03-01

    In artificial grammar learning experiments, participants study strings of letters constructed using a grammar and then sort novel grammatical test exemplars from novel ungrammatical ones. The ability to distinguish grammatical from ungrammatical strings is often taken as evidence that the participants have induced the rules of the grammar. We show that judgements of grammaticality are predicted by the local redundancy of the test strings, not by grammaticality itself. The prediction holds in a transfer test in which test strings involve different letters than the training strings. Local redundancy is usually confounded with grammaticality in stimuli widely used in the literature. The confounding explains why the ability to distinguish grammatical from ungrammatical strings has popularized the idea that participants have induced the rules of the grammar, when they have not. We discuss the judgement of grammaticality task in terms of attribute substitution and pattern goodness. When asked to judge grammaticality (an inaccessible attribute), participants answer an easier question about pattern goodness (an accessible attribute).

  5. Ageing behaviour of [(n-1)/n] active redundancy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, M.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Ageing of systems becomes a real concern if intelligent maintenance is required. Determining the ageing behaviour of a system necessitate having a powerful calculating tool and knowing the ageing behaviour of the basic components of the systems. Consequently, time dependent failure rates are required for basic components and need to be determined for systems. As, this is the general problem in reliability analysis, only (n-1)/n active redundancy system will be examined in the paper. Systems with (n-1)/n active redundancy are commonly used in a wide range of engineering fields. This should permit a priori improving the system reliability. Still, a deeper analysis of the ageing behaviour of such systems may reveal some particular aspects. (authors). 2 refs., 5 figs

  6. Industrial plant electrical systems: Simplicity, reliability, cost savings, redundancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestri, A.; Tommazzolli, F.; Pavia Univ.

    1992-01-01

    This article represents a compact but complete design and construction manual for industrial plant electrical systems. It is to be used by design engineers having prior knowledge of local power supply routes and voltages and regards principally the optimum choice of internal distribution systems which can be radial or single, double ringed or with various network configurations, and with single or multiple supplies, and many or few redundancies. After giving guidelines on the choosing of these options, the manual deals with problematics relevant to suitable cable sizing. A cost benefit benefit analysis method is suggested for the choice of the number of redundancies. Recommendations are given for the choice of transformers, motorized equipment, switch boards and circuit breakers. Reference is made to Italian electrical safety and building codes

  7. . Redundancy and blocking in the spatial domain: A connectionist model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. L. Mc Laren

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available How can the observations of spatial blocking (Rodrigo, Chamizo, McLaren & Mackintosh, 1997 and cue redundancy (O’Keefe and Conway, 1978 be reconciled within the framework provided by an error-correcting, connectionist account of spatial navigation? I show that an implementation of McLaren’s (1995 better beta model can serve this purpose, and examine some of the implications for spatial learning and memory.

  8. State-space Generalized Predicitve Control for redundant parallel robots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Belda, Květoslav; Böhm, Josef; Valášek, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2003), s. 413-432 ISSN 1539-7734 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/03/0620 Grant - others:CTU(CZ) 0204512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : parallel robot construction * generalized predictive control * drive redundancy Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/historie/belda-0411126.pdf

  9. Estimation of component redundancy in optimal age maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Siopa, Jorge; Garção, José; Silva, Júlio

    2012-01-01

    The classical Optimal Age-Replacement defines the maintenance strategy based on the equipment failure consequences. For severe consequences an early equipment replacement is recommended. For minor consequences the repair after failure is proposed. One way of reducing the failure consequences is the use of redundancies, especially if the equipment failure rate is decreasing over time, since in this case the preventive replacement does not reduce the risk of failure. The estimation of an ac...

  10. Incident detection and isolation in drilling using analytical redundancy relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willersrud, Anders; Blanke, Mogens; Imsland, Lars

    2015-01-01

    must be avoided. This paper employs model-based diagnosis using analytical redundancy relations to obtain residuals which are affected differently by the different incidents. Residuals are found to be non-Gaussian - they follow a multivariate t-distribution - hence, a dedicated generalized likelihood...... measurements available. In the latter case, isolation capability is shown to be reduced to group-wise isolation, but the method would still detect all serious events with the prescribed false alarm probability...

  11. Systematic Luby Transform codes as incremental redundancy scheme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, TL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Transform Codes as Incremental Redundancy Scheme T. L. Grobler y, E. R. Ackermann y, J. C. Olivier y and A. J. van Zylz Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa Email: trienkog...@gmail.com, etienne.ackermann@ieee.org yDefence, Peace, Safety and Security (DPSS) Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Pretoria 0001, South Africa zDepartment of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South...

  12. Toward an Integrated Design, Inspection and Redundancy Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    William Creelman William H. Silcox National Marine Service Standard Oil Company of California St. Louis, Missouri San Francisco, California .-- N...develop physical models and generic tools for analyzing the effects of redundancy, reserve strength, and residual strength on the system behavior of marine...probabilistic analyses to be applicable to real-world problems, this program needs to provide - the deterministic physical models and generic tools upon

  13. Flexible Procurement of Services with Uncertain Durations using Redundancy

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, S; Gerding, E; Rogers, A; Larson, K; Jennings, NR

    2009-01-01

    Emerging service-oriented technologies allow software agents to automatically procure distributed services to complete complex tasks. However, in many application scenarios, service providers demand financial remuneration, execution times are uncertain and consumers have deadlines for their tasks. In this paper, we address these issues by developing a novel approach that dynamically procures multiple, redundant services over time, in order to ensure success by the deadline. Specifically, we f...

  14. A comparison of Heuristic method and Llewellyn’s rules for identification of redundant constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estiningsih, Y.; Farikhin; Tjahjana, R. H.

    2018-03-01

    Important techniques in linear programming is modelling and solving practical optimization. Redundant constraints are consider for their effects on general linear programming problems. Identification and reduce redundant constraints are for avoidance of all the calculations associated when solving an associated linear programming problems. Many researchers have been proposed for identification redundant constraints. This paper a compararison of Heuristic method and Llewellyn’s rules for identification of redundant constraints.

  15. Superlinearly scalable noise robustness of redundant coupled dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohar, Vivek; Kia, Behnam; Lindner, John F; Ditto, William L

    2016-03-01

    We illustrate through theory and numerical simulations that redundant coupled dynamical systems can be extremely robust against local noise in comparison to uncoupled dynamical systems evolving in the same noisy environment. Previous studies have shown that the noise robustness of redundant coupled dynamical systems is linearly scalable and deviations due to noise can be minimized by increasing the number of coupled units. Here, we demonstrate that the noise robustness can actually be scaled superlinearly if some conditions are met and very high noise robustness can be realized with very few coupled units. We discuss these conditions and show that this superlinear scalability depends on the nonlinearity of the individual dynamical units. The phenomenon is demonstrated in discrete as well as continuous dynamical systems. This superlinear scalability not only provides us an opportunity to exploit the nonlinearity of physical systems without being bogged down by noise but may also help us in understanding the functional role of coupled redundancy found in many biological systems. Moreover, engineers can exploit superlinear noise suppression by starting a coupled system near (not necessarily at) the appropriate initial condition.

  16. Structural Equation Models in a Redundancy Analysis Framework With Covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovaglio, Pietro Giorgio; Vittadini, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    A recent method to specify and fit structural equation modeling in the Redundancy Analysis framework based on so-called Extended Redundancy Analysis (ERA) has been proposed in the literature. In this approach, the relationships between the observed exogenous variables and the observed endogenous variables are moderated by the presence of unobservable composites, estimated as linear combinations of exogenous variables. However, in the presence of direct effects linking exogenous and endogenous variables, or concomitant indicators, the composite scores are estimated by ignoring the presence of the specified direct effects. To fit structural equation models, we propose a new specification and estimation method, called Generalized Redundancy Analysis (GRA), allowing us to specify and fit a variety of relationships among composites, endogenous variables, and external covariates. The proposed methodology extends the ERA method, using a more suitable specification and estimation algorithm, by allowing for covariates that affect endogenous indicators indirectly through the composites and/or directly. To illustrate the advantages of GRA over ERA we propose a simulation study of small samples. Moreover, we propose an application aimed at estimating the impact of formal human capital on the initial earnings of graduates of an Italian university, utilizing a structural model consistent with well-established economic theory.

  17. Intuitive theories of information: beliefs about the value of redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soll, J B

    1999-03-01

    In many situations, quantity estimates from multiple experts or diagnostic instruments must be collected and combined. Normatively, and all else equal, one should value information sources that are nonredundant, in the sense that correlation in forecast errors should be minimized. Past research on the preference for redundancy has been inconclusive. While some studies have suggested that people correctly place higher value on uncorrelated inputs when collecting estimates, others have shown that people either ignore correlation or, in some cases, even prefer it. The present experiments show that the preference for redundancy depends on one's intuitive theory of information. The most common intuitive theory identified is the Error Tradeoff Model (ETM), which explicitly distinguishes between measurement error and bias. According to ETM, measurement error can only be averaged out by consulting the same source multiple times (normatively false), and bias can only be averaged out by consulting different sources (normatively true). As a result, ETM leads people to prefer redundant estimates when the ratio of measurement error to bias is relatively high. Other participants favored different theories. Some adopted the normative model, while others were reluctant to mathematically average estimates from different sources in any circumstance. In a post hoc analysis, science majors were more likely than others to subscribe to the normative model. While tentative, this result lends insight into how intuitive theories might develop and also has potential ramifications for how statistical concepts such as correlation might best be learned and internalized. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  18. Analysis of informational redundancy in the protein-assembling machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovich, Simon

    2004-03-01

    Entropy analysis of the DNA structure does not reveal a significant departure from randomness indicating lack of informational redundancy. This signifies the absence of a hidden meaning in the genome text and supports the 'barcode' interpretation of DNA given in [1]. Lack of informational redundancy is a characteristic property of an identification label rather than of a message of instructions. Yet randomness of DNA has to induce non-random structures of the proteins. Protein synthesis is a two-step process: transcription into RNA with gene splicing and formation a structure of amino acids. Entropy estimations, performed by A. Djebbari, show typical values of redundancy of the biomolecules along these pathways: DNA gene 4proteins 15-40in gene expression, the RNA copy carries the same information as the original DNA template. Randomness is essentially eliminated only at the step of the protein creation by a degenerate code. According to [1], the significance of the substitution of U for T with a subsequent gene splicing is that these transformations result in a different pattern of RNA oscillations, so the vital DNA communications are protected against extraneous noise coming from the protein making activities. 1. S. Berkovich, "On the 'barcode' functionality of DNA, or the Phenomenon of Life in the Physical Universe", Dorrance Publishing Co., Pittsburgh, 2003

  19. Advantage of redundancy in the controllability of remote handling manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Ali; Mattila, Jouni; Vilenius, Matti; Siuko, Mikko; Semeraro, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    To carry out a variety of remote handling operations inside the ITER divertor a Water Hydraulic MANipulator (WHMAN) and its control system have been designed and developed at Tampere University of Technology. The manipulator is installed on top of Cassette Multifunctional Mover (CMM) to assist during the cassette removal and installation operations. While CMM is designed to carry heavy components such as cassettes through the service ducts relying on positioning accuracy and repeatability, WHMAN is designed to execute a mix of remote handling operations using position trajectories and master-slave telemanipulation. WHMAN is composed of eight joints: six rotational and two translational. Since a manipulator requires only six joints to acquire the desired position and orientation in operational-space, the two additional joints of WHMAN provide the redundant degrees of mobility. This paper presents how this redundancy of WHMAN can be an advantage to optimize the execution of remote handling tasks. The paper also discusses an effective way to practically exploit the redundancy. The results show that the additional degrees of freedom can be utilized to improve the dynamic behavior of the manipulator.

  20. Fuzzy modeling of analytical redundancy for sensor failure detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, T.M.; Chou, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    Failure detection and isolation (FDI) in dynamic systems may be accomplished by testing the consistency of the system via analytically redundant relations. The redundant relation is basically a mathematical model relating system inputs and dissimilar sensor outputs from which information is extracted and subsequently examined for the presence of failure signatures. Performance of the approach is often jeopardized by inherent modeling error and noise interference. To mitigate such effects, techniques such as Kalman filtering, auto-regression-moving-average (ARMA) modeling in conjunction with probability tests are often employed. These conventional techniques treat the stochastic nature of uncertainties in a deterministic manner to generate best-estimated model and sensor outputs by minimizing uncertainties. In this paper, the authors present a different approach by treating the effect of uncertainties with fuzzy numbers. Coefficients in redundant relations derived from first-principle physical models are considered as fuzzy parameters and on-line updated according to system behaviors. Failure detection is accomplished by examining the possibility that a sensor signal occurred in an estimated fuzzy domain. To facilitate failure isolation, individual FDI monitors are designed for each interested sensor

  1. Occupational contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doutre, Marie-Sylvie

    2005-01-01

    Irritant dermatitis and eczema are the most prevalent occupational skin diseases. Less common are immediate contact reactions such as contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis. Occupational contact urticaria can be subdivided into two categories, immunological and non immunological. However, some agents can induce these two types of reactions. Contact urticaria to natural rubber latex is particularly frequent among health care personnel, but contact urticaria to a wide variety of other substances occurs in many other occupations. Among those at risk are cooks, bakers, butchers, restaurant personnel, veterinarians, hairdressers, florists, gardeners, and forestry workers. Protein contact dermatitis in some of these occupations is caused principally by proteins of animal or plant origin, especially among individuals with a history of atopic dermatitis. Diagnosis requires careful interrogation, clinical examination and skin tests (open tests and prick tests with immediate lecture) to identify a particular contact allergen.

  2. Operator-in-the-loop simulation of a redundant manipulator under teleoperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yae, K.H.; Lin, T.C.; Chern, S.T.

    1993-01-01

    For an interactive simulation of 7 degree-of-freedom redundant manipulator under teleoperation, this paper describes an iterative form of resolved-motion rate control in which the constraint Jacobian is constructed on-line in real time and used in the pseudoinverse method as the manipulator is teleoperated. The manipulator's tasks may involve trajectory following in free space and frequent contact with the environment through pick-and-put operation. The operator's command is interpreted as a series of increments in Cartesian space, and then the constraint Jacobian is developed between two successive increments by viewing the predecessor as the initial configuration and the successor as the target configuration. The pseudoinverse of the constraint Jacobian then generates necessary changes in joint variables and subsequently joint torque. The Jacobian constructed in this way enables us to treat both free motion and environmental contact in the same way. The simulator is built on a two-processor IRIS workstation, with one processor for graphics and the other for dynamics and control analysis. This simulator has a potential for training the teleoperator, developing operational scenarios through visualization of the simulation, and testing the design of operator-machine interface

  3. Application study of EPICS-based redundant method for reactor control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ning; Han Lifeng; Chen Yongzhong; Guo Bing; Yin Congcong

    2013-01-01

    In the reactor control system prototype development of TMSR (Thorium Molten Salt Reactor system, CAS) project, EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) is adopted as Instrument and Control software platform. For the aim of IOC (Input/Output Controller) redundancy and data synchronization of the system, the EPICS-based RMT (Redundancy Monitor Task ) software package and its data-synchronization component CCE (Continuous Control Executive) were introduced. By the development of related IOC driver, redundant switch-over control of server IOC was implemented. The method of redundancy implementation using RMT in server and redundancy performance test for power control system are discussed in this paper. (authors)

  4. Quantum Darwinism: Entanglement, branches, and the emergent classicality of redundantly stored quantum information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blume-Kohout, Robin; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2006-01-01

    We lay a comprehensive foundation for the study of redundant information storage in decoherence processes. Redundancy has been proposed as a prerequisite for objectivity, the defining property of classical objects. We consider two ensembles of states for a model universe consisting of one system and many environments: the first consisting of arbitrary states, and the second consisting of 'singly branching' states consistent with a simple decoherence model. Typical states from the random ensemble do not store information about the system redundantly, but information stored in branching states has a redundancy proportional to the environment's size. We compute the specific redundancy for a wide range of model universes, and fit the results to a simple first-principles theory. Our results show that the presence of redundancy divides information about the system into three parts: classical (redundant); purely quantum; and the borderline, undifferentiated or 'nonredundant', information

  5. Quantum Darwinism: Entanglement, branches, and the emergent classicality of redundantly stored quantum information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Kohout, Robin; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2006-06-01

    We lay a comprehensive foundation for the study of redundant information storage in decoherence processes. Redundancy has been proposed as a prerequisite for objectivity, the defining property of classical objects. We consider two ensembles of states for a model universe consisting of one system and many environments: the first consisting of arbitrary states, and the second consisting of “singly branching” states consistent with a simple decoherence model. Typical states from the random ensemble do not store information about the system redundantly, but information stored in branching states has a redundancy proportional to the environment’s size. We compute the specific redundancy for a wide range of model universes, and fit the results to a simple first-principles theory. Our results show that the presence of redundancy divides information about the system into three parts: classical (redundant); purely quantum; and the borderline, undifferentiated or “nonredundant,” information.

  6. Exploration of joint redundancy but not task space variability facilitates supervised motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Puneet; Jana, Sumitash; Ghosal, Ashitava; Murthy, Aditya

    2016-12-13

    The number of joints and muscles in a human arm is more than what is required for reaching to a desired point in 3D space. Although previous studies have emphasized how such redundancy and the associated flexibility may play an important role in path planning, control of noise, and optimization of motion, whether and how redundancy might promote motor learning has not been investigated. In this work, we quantify redundancy space and investigate its significance and effect on motor learning. We propose that a larger redundancy space leads to faster learning across subjects. We observed this pattern in subjects learning novel kinematics (visuomotor adaptation) and dynamics (force-field adaptation). Interestingly, we also observed differences in the redundancy space between the dominant hand and nondominant hand that explained differences in the learning of dynamics. Taken together, these results provide support for the hypothesis that redundancy aids in motor learning and that the redundant component of motor variability is not noise.

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... Costume Contact Lenses Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored ...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  9. Utilizing Nested Normal Form to Design Redundancy Free JSON Schemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Yin Mok

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available JSON (JavaScript Object Notation is a lightweight data-interchange format for the Internet. JSON is built on two structures: (1 a collection of name/value pairs and (2 an ordered list of values (http://www.json.org/. Because of this simple approach, JSON is easy to use and it has the potential to be the data interchange format of choice for the Internet. Similar to XML, JSON schemas allow nested structures to model hierarchical data. As data interchange over the Internet increases exponentially due to cloud computing or otherwise, redundancy free JSON data are an attractive form of communication because they improve the quality of data communication through eliminating update anomaly. Nested Normal Form, a normal form for hierarchical data, is a precise characterization of redundancy. A nested table, or a hierarchical schema, is in Nested Normal Form if and only if it is free of redundancy caused by multivalued and functional dependencies. Using Nested Normal Form as a guide, this paper introduces a JSON schema design methodology that begins with UML use case diagrams, communication diagrams and class diagrams that model a system under study. Based on the use cases’ execution frequencies and the data passed between involved parties in the communication diagrams, the proposed methodology selects classes from the class diagrams to be the roots of JSON scheme trees and repeatedly adds classes from the class diagram to the scheme trees as long as the schemas satisfy Nested Normal Form. This process continues until all of the classes in the class diagram have been added to some JSON scheme trees.

  10. Time efficient signed Vedic multiplier using redundant binary representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Kumar Barik

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a high-speed signed Vedic multiplier (SVM architecture using redundant binary (RB representation in Urdhva Tiryagbhyam (UT sutra. This is the first ever effort towards extension of Vedic algorithms to the signed numbers. The proposed multiplier architecture solves the carry propagation issue in UT sutra, as carry free addition is possible in RB representation. The proposed design is coded in VHDL and synthesised in Xilinx ISE 14.4 of various FPGA devices. The proposed SVM architecture has better speed performances as compared with various state-of-the-art conventional as well as Vedic architectures.

  11. Polycomb complexes act redundantly to repress genomic repeats and genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeb, Martin; Pasini, Diego; Novatchkova, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Polycomb complexes establish chromatin modifications for maintaining gene repression and are essential for embryonic development in mice. Here we use pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells to demonstrate an unexpected redundancy between Polycomb-repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and PRC2 during...... the formation of differentiated cells. ES cells lacking the function of either PRC1 or PRC2 can differentiate into cells of the three germ layers, whereas simultaneous loss of PRC1 and PRC2 abrogates differentiation. On the molecular level, the differentiation defect is caused by the derepression of a set...

  12. A case for Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, David A.; Gibson, Garth; Katz, Randy H.

    1988-01-01

    Increasing performance of CPUs and memories will be squandered if not matched by a similar performance increase in I/O. While the capacity of Single Large Expensive Disks (SLED) has grown rapidly, the performance improvement of SLED has been modest. Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID), based on the magnetic disk technology developed for personal computers, offers an attractive alternative to SLED, promising improvements of an order of magnitude in performance, reliability, power consumption, and scalability. This paper introduces five levels of RAIDs, giving their relative cost/performance, and compares RAID to an IBM 3380 and a Fujitsu Super Eagle.

  13. The human brain maintains contradictory and redundant auditory sensory predictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Pieszek

    Full Text Available Computational and experimental research has revealed that auditory sensory predictions are derived from regularities of the current environment by using internal generative models. However, so far, what has not been addressed is how the auditory system handles situations giving rise to redundant or even contradictory predictions derived from different sources of information. To this end, we measured error signals in the event-related brain potentials (ERPs in response to violations of auditory predictions. Sounds could be predicted on the basis of overall probability, i.e., one sound was presented frequently and another sound rarely. Furthermore, each sound was predicted by an informative visual cue. Participants' task was to use the cue and to discriminate the two sounds as fast as possible. Violations of the probability based prediction (i.e., a rare sound as well as violations of the visual-auditory prediction (i.e., an incongruent sound elicited error signals in the ERPs (Mismatch Negativity [MMN] and Incongruency Response [IR]. Particular error signals were observed even in case the overall probability and the visual symbol predicted different sounds. That is, the auditory system concurrently maintains and tests contradictory predictions. Moreover, if the same sound was predicted, we observed an additive error signal (scalp potential and primary current density equaling the sum of the specific error signals. Thus, the auditory system maintains and tolerates functionally independently represented redundant and contradictory predictions. We argue that the auditory system exploits all currently active regularities in order to optimally prepare for future events.

  14. The Evolution of Functionally Redundant Species; Evidence from Beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marten Scheffer

    Full Text Available While species fulfill many different roles in ecosystems, it has been suggested that numerous species might actually share the same function in a near neutral way. So-far, however, it is unclear whether such functional redundancy really exists. We scrutinize this question using extensive data on the world's 4168 species of diving beetles. We show that across the globe these animals have evolved towards a small number of regularly-spaced body sizes, and that locally co-existing species are either very similar in size or differ by at least 35%. Surprisingly, intermediate size differences (10-20% are rare. As body-size strongly reflects functional aspects such as the food that these generalist predators can eat, these beetles thus form relatively distinct groups of functional look-a-likes. The striking global regularity of these patterns support the idea that a self-organizing process drives such species-rich groups to self-organize evolutionary into clusters where functional redundancy ensures resilience through an insurance effect.

  15. Mature neurons dynamically restrict apoptosis via redundant premitochondrial brakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, Ryan P; Swahari, Vijay; Nakamura, Ayumi; Xie, Alison X; Hammond, Scott M; Deshmukh, Mohanish

    2016-12-01

    Apoptotic cell death is critical for the early development of the nervous system, but once the nervous system is established, the apoptotic pathway becomes highly restricted in mature neurons. However, the mechanisms underlying this increased resistance to apoptosis in these mature neurons are not completely understood. We have previously found that members of the miR-29 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) are induced with neuronal maturation and that overexpression of miR-29 was sufficient to restrict apoptosis in neurons. To determine whether endogenous miR-29 alone was responsible for the inhibition of cytochrome c release in mature neurons, we examined the status of the apoptotic pathway in sympathetic neurons deficient for all three miR-29 family members. Unexpectedly, we found that the apoptotic pathway remained largely restricted in miR-29-deficient mature neurons. We therefore probed for additional mechanisms by which mature neurons resist apoptosis. We identify miR-24 as another miRNA that is upregulated in the maturing cerebellum and sympathetic neurons that can act redundantly with miR-29 by targeting a similar repertoire of prodeath BH3-only genes. Overall, our results reveal that mature neurons engage multiple redundant brakes to restrict the apoptotic pathway and ensure their long-term survival. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  16. Contact Dermatitis in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Janice L; Perez, Caroline; Jacob, Sharon E

    2016-08-01

    Contact dermatitis is an umbrella term that describes the skin's reaction to contacted noxious or allergenic substances. The two main categories of contact dermatitis are irritant type and allergic type. This review discusses the signs, symptoms, causes, and complications of contact dermatitis. It addresses the testing, treatment, and prevention of contact dermatitis. Proper management of contact dermatitis includes avoidance measures for susceptible children. Implementation of a nickel directive (regulating the use of nickel in jewelry and other products that come into contact with the skin) could further reduce exposure to the most common allergens in the pediatric population. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e287-e292.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Method and system for redundancy management of distributed and recoverable digital control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Kent (Inventor); Hess, Richard (Inventor); Kelley, Gerald B (Inventor); Rogers, Randy (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method and system for redundancy management is provided for a distributed and recoverable digital control system. The method uses unique redundancy management techniques to achieve recovery and restoration of redundant elements to full operation in an asynchronous environment. The system includes a first computing unit comprising a pair of redundant computational lanes for generating redundant control commands. One or more internal monitors detect data errors in the control commands, and provide a recovery trigger to the first computing unit. A second redundant computing unit provides the same features as the first computing unit. A first actuator control unit is configured to provide blending and monitoring of the control commands from the first and second computing units, and to provide a recovery trigger to each of the first and second computing units. A second actuator control unit provides the same features as the first actuator control unit.

  18. A succession of theories: purging redundancy from disturbance theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsford, Stephanie A; Lindenmayer, David B; Driscoll, Don A

    2016-02-01

    The topics of succession and post-disturbance ecosystem recovery have a long and convoluted history. There is extensive redundancy within this body of theory, which has resulted in confusion, and the links among theories have not been adequately drawn. This review aims to distil the unique ideas from the array of theory related to ecosystem change in response to disturbance. This will help to reduce redundancy, and improve communication and understanding between researchers. We first outline the broad range of concepts that have developed over the past century to describe community change in response to disturbance. The body of work spans overlapping succession concepts presented by Clements in 1916, Egler in 1954, and Connell and Slatyer in 1977. Other theories describing community change include state and transition models, biological legacy theory, and the application of functional traits to predict responses to disturbance. Second, we identify areas of overlap of these theories, in addition to highlighting the conceptual and taxonomic limitations of each. In aligning each of these theories with one another, the limited scope and relative inflexibility of some theories becomes apparent, and redundancy becomes explicit. We identify a set of unique concepts to describe the range of mechanisms driving ecosystem responses to disturbance. We present a schematic model of our proposed synthesis which brings together the range of unique mechanisms that were identified in our review. The model describes five main mechanisms of transition away from a post-disturbance community: (i) pulse events with rapid state shifts; (ii) stochastic community drift; (iii) facilitation; (iv) competition; and (v) the influence of the initial composition of a post-disturbance community. In addition, stabilising processes such as biological legacies, inhibition or continuing disturbance may prevent a transition between community types. Integrating these six mechanisms with the functional

  19. One size does not fit all: older adults benefit from redundant text in multimedia instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Fenesi, Barbara; Vandermorris, Susan; Kim, Joseph A.; Shore, David I.; Heisz, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    The multimedia design of presentations typically ignores that younger and older adults have varying cognitive strengths and weaknesses. We examined whether differential instructional design may enhance learning in these populations. Younger and older participants viewed one of three computer-based presentations: Audio only (narration), Redundant (audio narration with redundant text), or Complementary (audio narration with non–redundant text and images). Younger participants learned better ...

  20. Contact mechanics: contact area and interfacial separation from small contact to full contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C; Persson, B N J

    2008-01-01

    We present a molecular dynamics study of the contact between a rigid solid with a randomly rough surface and an elastic block with a flat surface. The numerical calculations mainly focus on the contact area and the interfacial separation from small contact (low load) to full contact (high load). For a small load the contact area varies linearly with the load and the interfacial separation depends logarithmically on the load. For a high load the contact area approaches the nominal contact area (i.e. complete contact), and the interfacial separation approaches zero. The numerical results have been compared with analytical theory and experimental results. They are in good agreement with each other. The present findings may be very important for soft solids, e.g. rubber, or for very smooth surfaces, where complete contact can be reached at moderately high loads without plastic deformation of the solids

  1. Coordination of dual robot arms using kinematic redundancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Il Hong; Shin, Kang G.

    1988-01-01

    A method is developed to coordinate the motion of dual robot arms carrying a solid object, where the first robot (leader) grasps one end of the object rigidly and the second robot (follower) is allowed to change its grasping position at the other end of the object along the object surface while supporting the object. It is shown that this flexible grasping is equivalent to the addition of one more degree of freedom (dof), giving the follower more maneuvering capabilities. In particular, motion commands for the follower are generated by using kinematic redundancy. To show the utility and power of the method, an example system with two PUMA 560 robots carrying a beam is analyzed.

  2. Basic aspects of stochastic reliability analysis for redundancy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerre, P.

    1989-01-01

    Much confusion has been created by trying to establish common cause failure (CCF) as an extra phenomenon which has to be treated with extra methods in reliability and data analysis. This paper takes another approach which can be roughly described by the statement that dependent failure is the basic phenomenon, while 'independent failure' refers to a special limiting case, namely the perfectly homogeneous population. This approach is motivated by examples demonstrating that common causes do not lead to dependent failure, so far as physical dependencies like shared components are excluded, and that stochastic dependencies are not related to common causes. The possibility to select more than one failure behaviour from an inhomogeneous population is identified as an additional random process which creates stochastic dependence. However, this source of randomness is usually treated in the deterministic limit, which destroys dependence and hence yields incorrect multiple failure frequencies for redundancy structures, thus creating the need for applying corrective CCF models. (author)

  3. Energy distribution for Coefficients of Redundant Signal Representations of Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Endelt, Line Ørtoft; la Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2005-01-01

    different time-frequency dictionaries. We have applied these methods to music to examine their ability to express music signals in a sparse manner for a number of dictionaries and window lengths. The evaluation is based on the m-term approximation needed to represent 90 %, 95 %, 99 % and 99......In this paper we investigate how the energy is distributed in the coefficients vector of various redundant signal representations of music signals. The representations are found using Basis Pursuit, Matching Pursuit, Alternating Projections, Best Orthogonal Basis and Method of Frames, with five.......9 % of the energy in the coefficients, also the time consummation for finding the representations are considered. The distribution of energy in the coefficients of the representations found using Basis Pursuit, Matching Pursuit, Alternating Projections and Best Orthogonal Basis depends mainly on the signal...

  4. About the complete loss of functions assumed by redundant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boaretto, Y.; Cayol, A.; Fourest, M.; Guimbail, H.

    1980-04-01

    Are to be taken into account situations resulting from loss of redundant safety systems. Two ways of approach were to be probed: evaluation of the failure probability and analysis of the consequences of those situations. The first way leads to improve reliability of concerned systems, the second way to set up mitigating means. Before TMI-2 occured, safety advices had already been issued about three kinds of situations: anticipated transients without scram, loss of ultimate heat sink, simultaneous loss of out-and inside power supplies. That, in some cases, something had to be done to improve safety showed the rightness of the concern. Next step is the study of the loss of both normal and emergency feedwater: The regulatory request has been issued on September 1979

  5. A fully redundant power hinge for LANDSAT-D appendages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamrol, F. E.; Matteo, D. N.

    1981-01-01

    The configuration and testing of a power driven hinge for deployment of the solar array and antenna boom for the LANDSAT-D spacecraft is discussed. The hinge is fully mechanically and electrically redundant and, thereby, can sustain a single point failure of any one motor (or its power supply), speed reducer, or bearing set without loss of its ability to function. This design utilizes the capability of the stepper motor drive to remove the flexibility of the drive train from the joint stiffness equation when the hinge is loaded against its stop. This feature precludes gapping of the joint under spacecraft maneuver loads even in the absence of a latching feature. Thus, retraction is easily accomplished by motor reversal without the need for a solenoid function to remove the latch.

  6. Handling data redundancy and update anomalies in fuzzy relational databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.; Kerre, E.E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses various data redundancy and update anomaly problems that may occur with fuzzy relational databases. In coping with these problems to avoid undesirable consequences when fuzzy databases are updated via data insertion, deletion and modification, a number of fuzzy normal forms (e.g., F1NF, 0-F2NF, 0-F3NF, 0-FBCNF) are used to guide the design of relation schemes such that partial and transitive fuzzy functional dependencies (FFDs) between relation attributes are restricted. Based upon FFDs and related concepts, particular attention is paid to 0-F3NF and 0-FBCNF, and to the corresponding decomposition algorithms. These algorithms not only produce relation schemes which are either in 0-F3NF or in 0-FBCNF, but also guarantee that the information (data content and FFDs) with original schemes can be recovered with those resultant schemes

  7. Redundancies in Data and their Effect on the Evaluation of Recommendation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basaran, Daniel; Ntoutsi, Eirini; Zimek, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    A collection of datasets crawled from Amazon, “Amazon reviews”, is popular in the evaluation of recommendation systems. These datasets, however, contain redundancies (duplicated recommendations for variants of certain items). These redundancies went unnoticed in earlier use of these datasets...... and thus incurred to a certain extent wrong conclusions in the evaluation of algorithms tested on these datasets. We analyze the nature and amount of these redundancies and their impact on the evaluation of recommendation methods. While the general and obvious conclusion is that redundancies should...

  8. The Development of Synchronization Function for Triple Redundancy System Based on SCADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moupeng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Redundancy technique is an effective approach to improve the reliability and security of flight control system, synchronization function of redundancy system is the key technology of redundancy management. The flight control computer synchronization model is developed by graphical modeling method in the SCADE development environment, the automatic code generation technology is used to generate high level reliable embedded real-time code for synchronization function, omitting the code test process, shorten the development cycle. In the practical application, the program can accomplish the functional synchronization, and lay a well foundation for the redundancy system.

  9. Reliability Analysis and Calibration of Partial Safety Factors for Redundant Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1998-01-01

    Redundancy is important to include in the design and analysis of structural systems. In most codes of practice redundancy is not directly taken into account. In the paper various definitions of a deterministic and reliability based redundancy measure are reviewed. It is described how reundancy can...... be included in the safety system and how partial safety factors can be calibrated. An example is presented illustrating how redundancy is taken into account in the safety system in e.g. the Danish codes. The example shows how partial safety factors can be calibrated to comply with the safety level...

  10. Multi-finger prehension: control of a redundant mechanical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, Mark L; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M

    2009-01-01

    The human hand has been a fascinating object of study for researchers in both biomechanics and motor control. Studies of human prehension have contributed significantly to the progress in addressing the famous problem of motor redundancy. After a brief review of the hand mechanics, we present results of recent studies that support a general view that the apparently redundant design of the hand is not a source of computational problems but a rich apparatus that allows performing a variety of tasks in a reliable and flexible way (the principle of abundance). Multi-digit synergies have been analyzed at two levels of a hypothetical hierarchy involved in the control of prehensile actions. At the upper level, forces and moments produced by the thumb and virtual finger (an imagined finger with a mechanical action equal to the combined mechanical action of all four fingers of the hand) co-vary to stabilize the gripping action and the orientation of the hand-held object. These results support the principle of superposition suggested earlier in robotics with respect to the control of artificial grippers. At the lower level of the hierarchy, forces and moments produced by individual fingers co-vary to stabilize the magnitude and direction of the force vector and the moment of force produced by the virtual finger. Adjustments to changes in task constraints (such as, for example, friction under individual digits) may be local and synergic. The latter reflect multi-digit prehension synergies and may be analyzed with the so-called chain effects: Sequences of relatively straightforward cause-effect links directly related to mechanical constraints leading to non-trivial strong co-variation between pairs of elemental variables. Analysis of grip force adjustments during motion of hand-held objects suggests that the central nervous system adjusts to gravitational and inertial loads differently. The human hand is a gold mine for researchers interested in the control of natural human

  11. False targets vs. redundancy in homogeneous parallel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitin, Gregory; Hausken, Kjell

    2009-01-01

    System defense against natural threats and disasters that have a stochastic nature includes providing redundancy and protecting system elements. The defense against strategic intentional attacks can also include deploying false targets aimed at misleading the attacker. Distribution of the available resources among different defensive means is an important problem that arises in organizing the defense of complex civil infrastructures, industrial systems or military objects. The article considers defense resource allocation in a system exposed to external intentional attack. The expected damage caused by the attack is evaluated as system unsupplied demand. The defender distributes its limited resource between deploying redundant genuine elements and false elements, both of which are targets of attack. The attacker attacks a subset of the elements and distributes its limited resource evenly among the attacked elements. Two cases are considered: in the first one the number of attacked elements and the vulnerability of each genuine element are fixed and the defense resource distribution is determined as a solution of an optimization problem; in the second one the number of attacked elements is the attacker's free choice variable and the element's vulnerability depends on a contest determined by the defender's and attacker's resources allocated to each element. The defender's optimal resource distribution strategy is determined as a solution of a two-period minmax game. It is shown that the optimal number of genuine elements decreases monotonically with the growth of the element cost and vulnerability, whereas the optimal number of false elements demonstrates non-monotonic behavior. The contest intensity is an important factor influencing the optimal defense resource distribution. It cannot be ignored when the defense strategy is determined, and it thus also impacts the attack strategy

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... new application of artificial intelligence shows whether a patient’s eyes point to high blood pressure or risk ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Costume Contacts May Contain Chemicals Harmful to Eyes Four Ways Over-the-Counter Costume Contact Lenses Can ... was in severe pain and on medication for four weeks, and couldn't see well enough to ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ... wear any kind of contact lens. In Butler's case, the lenses caused an infection and left her ...

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados ... truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non- ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados ... truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non- ...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... the lenses. Never share contact lenses with another person. Get follow up exams with your eye care ...

  19. Contact Angle Goniometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The FTA32 goniometer provides video-based contact angle and surface tension measurement. Contact angles are measured by fitting a mathematical expression...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ... wear costume contact lenses for Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye ...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... glow-in-the-dark lizard lenses, costume contacts can certainly add a spooky, eye-popping touch. But ... consideration as a standard contact lens because they can be purchased over-the-counter or on the ...

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at ...

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ...

  4. Dermatitis, contact (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This picture shows a skin inflammation (dermatitis) caused by contact with a material that causes an allergic reaction in this person. Contact dermatitis is a relatively common condition, and can be caused ...

  5. Contact materials for nanoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.; Quevedo-Ló pez, Manuel Angel Quevedo; Majhi, Prashant

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we review current research activities in contact material development for electronic and nanoelectronic devices. A fundamental issue in contact materials research is to understand and control interfacial reactions and phenomena

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the United States. All contact lenses are medical devices that require a prescription and proper fitting by an eye-care professional. Retailers that sell contacts without a ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescription. Follow the contact lens care directions for cleaning, disinfecting, and wearing the lenses. Never share contact ... with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  8. Redundancy in electronic health record corpora: analysis, impact on text mining performance and mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Raphael; Elhadad, Michael; Elhadad, Noémie

    2013-01-16

    The increasing availability of Electronic Health Record (EHR) data and specifically free-text patient notes presents opportunities for phenotype extraction. Text-mining methods in particular can help disease modeling by mapping named-entities mentions to terminologies and clustering semantically related terms. EHR corpora, however, exhibit specific statistical and linguistic characteristics when compared with corpora in the biomedical literature domain. We focus on copy-and-paste redundancy: clinicians typically copy and paste information from previous notes when documenting a current patient encounter. Thus, within a longitudinal patient record, one expects to observe heavy redundancy. In this paper, we ask three research questions: (i) How can redundancy be quantified in large-scale text corpora? (ii) Conventional wisdom is that larger corpora yield better results in text mining. But how does the observed EHR redundancy affect text mining? Does such redundancy introduce a bias that distorts learned models? Or does the redundancy introduce benefits by highlighting stable and important subsets of the corpus? (iii) How can one mitigate the impact of redundancy on text mining? We analyze a large-scale EHR corpus and quantify redundancy both in terms of word and semantic concept repetition. We observe redundancy levels of about 30% and non-standard distribution of both words and concepts. We measure the impact of redundancy on two standard text-mining applications: collocation identification and topic modeling. We compare the results of these methods on synthetic data with controlled levels of redundancy and observe significant performance variation. Finally, we compare two mitigation strategies to avoid redundancy-induced bias: (i) a baseline strategy, keeping only the last note for each patient in the corpus; (ii) removing redundant notes with an efficient fingerprinting-based algorithm. (a)For text mining, preprocessing the EHR corpus with fingerprinting yields

  9. Contact Lens Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... There is a risk of eye infection from bacteria in swimming pool water, hot tubs, lakes and the ocean Replace your contact lens storage case every 3 months or as directed by your eye care professional. Other Risks of Contact Lenses Other risks of contact lenses include pink eye ( ...

  10. Hydrogenation of passivated contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemeth, William; Yuan, Hao-Chih; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Stradins, Pauls; Page, Matthew R.

    2018-03-06

    Methods of hydrogenation of passivated contacts using materials having hydrogen impurities are provided. An example method includes applying, to a passivated contact, a layer of a material, the material containing hydrogen impurities. The method further includes subsequently annealing the material and subsequently removing the material from the passivated contact.

  11. Mixed Lubricated Line Contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faraon, I.C.

    2005-01-01

    The present work deals with friction in mixed lubricated line contacts. Components in systems are becoming smaller and due to, for instance power transmitted, partial contact may occur. In industrial applications, friction between the moving contacting surfaces cannot be avoided, therefore it is

  12. New Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and immunologic contact urticaria are potential immune-mediated adverse effects from cosmetics. Fragrance components and preservatives are certainly the most frequently observed allergens; however, all ingredients must be considered when investigating for contact allergy.

  13. Equivalence of velocity-level and acceleration-level redundancy-resolution of manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Binghuang; Zhang Yunong

    2009-01-01

    The equivalence of velocity-level and acceleration-level redundancy resolution of robot manipulators is investigated in this Letter. Theoretical analysis based on gradient-descent method and computer simulations based on PUMA560 robot manipulator both demonstrate the equivalence of redundancy-resolution schemes at different levels.

  14. Maximization of learning speed in the motor cortex due to neuronal redundancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Takiyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many redundancies play functional roles in motor control and motor learning. For example, kinematic and muscle redundancies contribute to stabilizing posture and impedance control, respectively. Another redundancy is the number of neurons themselves; there are overwhelmingly more neurons than muscles, and many combinations of neural activation can generate identical muscle activity. The functional roles of this neuronal redundancy remains unknown. Analysis of a redundant neural network model makes it possible to investigate these functional roles while varying the number of model neurons and holding constant the number of output units. Our analysis reveals that learning speed reaches its maximum value if and only if the model includes sufficient neuronal redundancy. This analytical result does not depend on whether the distribution of the preferred direction is uniform or a skewed bimodal, both of which have been reported in neurophysiological studies. Neuronal redundancy maximizes learning speed, even if the neural network model includes recurrent connections, a nonlinear activation function, or nonlinear muscle units. Furthermore, our results do not rely on the shape of the generalization function. The results of this study suggest that one of the functional roles of neuronal redundancy is to maximize learning speed.

  15. Analysis of functional redundancies within the Arabidopsis TCP transcription factor family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danisman, S.; Dijk, van A.D.J.; Bimbo, A.; Wal, van der F.; Hennig, L.; Folter, de S.; Angenent, G.C.; Immink, R.G.H.

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of the functions of TEOSINTE-LIKE1, CYCLOIDEA, and ROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR1 (TCP) transcription factors have been hampered by functional redundancy between its individual members. In general, putative functionally redundant genes are predicted based on sequence similarity and confirmed by

  16. Minister wants age balance to play greater role in redundancy selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.

    2004-01-01

    In May 2004, the Dutch Minister of Social Affairs proposed changes to the statutory rules on selection for redundancy, with less emphasis on the last in, first out seniority-based principle and a greater focus on distributing the redundancies between employees of different ages. The social partners

  17. Solving the redundancy allocation problem with multiple strategy choices using a new simplified particle swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Xiangyong; Gao, Liqun; Ouyang, Haibin; Li, Steven

    2015-01-01

    In most research on redundancy allocation problem (RAP), the redundancy strategy for each subsystem is assumed to be predetermined and fixed. This paper focuses on a specific RAP with multiple strategy choices (RAP-MSC), in which both active redundancy and cold standby redundancy can be selected as an additional decision variable for individual subsystems. To do so, the component type, redundancy strategy and redundancy level for each subsystem should be chosen subject to the system constraints appropriately such that the system reliability is maximized. Meanwhile, imperfect switching for cold standby redundancy is considered and a k-Erlang distribution is introduced to model the time-to-failure component as well. Given the importance and complexity of RAP-MSC, we propose a new efficient simplified version of particle swarm optimization (SPSO) to solve such NP-hard problems. In this method, a new position updating scheme without velocity is presented with stochastic disturbance and a low probability. Moreover, it is compared with several well-known PSO variants and other state-of-the-art approaches in the literature to evaluate its performance. The experiment results demonstrate the superiority of SPSO as an alternative for solving the RAP-MSC. - Highlights: • A more realistic RAP form with multiple strategy choices is focused. • Redundancy strategies are to be selected rather than fixed in general RAP. • A new simplified particle swarm optimization is proposed. • Higher reliabilities are achieved than the state-of-the-art approaches.

  18. Management of redundancy in flight control systems using optimal decision theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The problem of using redundancy that exists between dissimilar systems in aircraft flight control is addressed. That is, using the redundancy that exists between a rate gyro and an accelerometer--devices that have dissimilar outputs which are related only through the dynamics of the aircraft motion. Management of this type of redundancy requires advanced logic so that the system can monitor failure status and can reconfigure itself in the event of one or more failures. An optimal decision theory was tutorially developed for the management of sensor redundancy and the theory is applied to two aircraft examples. The first example is the space shuttle and the second is a highly maneuvering high performance aircraft--the F8-C. The examples illustrate the redundancy management design process and the performance of the algorithms presented in failure detection and control law reconfiguration.

  19. Does plant species richness guarantee the resilience of local medical systems? A perspective from utilitarian redundancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Rosa Santoro

    Full Text Available Resilience is related to the ability of a system to adjust to disturbances. The Utilitarian Redundancy Model has emerged as a tool for investigating the resilience of local medical systems. The model determines the use of species richness for the same therapeutic function as a facilitator of the maintenance of these systems. However, predictions generated from this model have not yet been tested, and a lack of variables exists for deeper analyses of resilience. This study aims to address gaps in the Utilitarian Redundancy Model and to investigate the resilience of two medical systems in the Brazilian semi-arid zone. As a local illness is not always perceived in the same way that biomedicine recognizes, the term "therapeutic targets" is used for perceived illnesses. Semi-structured interviews with local experts were conducted using the free-listing technique to collect data on known medicinal plants, usage preferences, use of redundant species, characteristics of therapeutic targets, and the perceived severity for each target. Additionally, participatory workshops were conducted to determine the frequency of targets. The medical systems showed high species richness but low levels of species redundancy. However, if redundancy was present, it was the primary factor responsible for the maintenance of system functions. Species richness was positively associated with therapeutic target frequencies and negatively related to target severity. Moreover, information about redundant species seems to be largely idiosyncratic; this finding raises questions about the importance of redundancy for resilience. We stress the Utilitarian Redundancy Model as an interesting tool to be used in studies of resilience, but we emphasize that it must consider the distribution of redundancy in terms of the treatment of important illnesses and the sharing of information. This study has identified aspects of the higher and lower vulnerabilities of medical systems, adding

  20. Past and Present Biophysical Redundancy of Countries as a Buffer to Changes in Food Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Marianela; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Carr, Joel; Dell' Angelo, Jampel; D' Odorico, Paolo; Gephart, Jessica A.; Kummu, Matti; Magliocca, Nicholas; Porkka, Miina; Prell, Christina; hide

    2016-01-01

    Spatially diverse trends in population growth, climate change, industrialization, urbanization and economic development are expected to change future food supply and demand. These changes may affect the suitability of land for food production, implying elevated risks especially for resource constrained, food-importing countries. We present the evolution of biophysical redundancy for agricultural production at country level, from 1992 to 2012. Biophysical redundancy, defined as unused biotic and abiotic environmental resources, is represented by the potential food production of 'spare land', available water resources (i.e., not already used for human activities), as well as production increases through yield gap closure on cultivated areas and potential agricultural areas. In 2012, the biophysical redundancy of 75 (48) countries, mainly in North Africa, Western Europe, the Middle East and Asia, was insufficient to produce the caloric nutritional needs for at least 50% (25%) of their population during a year. Biophysical redundancy has decreased in the last two decades in 102 out of 155 countries, 11 of these went from high to limited redundancy, and nine of these from limited to very low redundancy. Although the variability of the drivers of change across different countries is high, improvements in yield and population growth have a clear impact on the decreases of redundancy towards the very low redundancy category. We took a more detailed look at countries classified as 'Low Income Economies (LIEs)' since they are particularly vulnerable to domestic or external food supply changes, due to their limited capacity to offset for food supply decreases with higher purchasing power on the international market. Currently, nine LIEs have limited or very low biophysical redundancy. Many of these showed a decrease in redundancy over the last two decades, which is not always linked with improvements in per capita food availability.

  1. Past and present biophysical redundancy of countries as a buffer to changes in food supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Marianela; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Carr, Joel; Dell'Angelo, Jampel; D'Odorico, Paolo; Gephart, Jessica A.; Kummu, Matti; Magliocca, Nicholas; Porkka, Miina; Prell, Christina; Puma, Michael J.; Ratajczak, Zak; Seekell, David A.; Suweis, Samir; Tavoni, Alessandro

    2016-05-01

    Spatially diverse trends in population growth, climate change, industrialization, urbanization and economic development are expected to change future food supply and demand. These changes may affect the suitability of land for food production, implying elevated risks especially for resource-constrained, food-importing countries. We present the evolution of biophysical redundancy for agricultural production at country level, from 1992 to 2012. Biophysical redundancy, defined as unused biotic and abiotic environmental resources, is represented by the potential food production of ‘spare land’, available water resources (i.e., not already used for human activities), as well as production increases through yield gap closure on cultivated areas and potential agricultural areas. In 2012, the biophysical redundancy of 75 (48) countries, mainly in North Africa, Western Europe, the Middle East and Asia, was insufficient to produce the caloric nutritional needs for at least 50% (25%) of their population during a year. Biophysical redundancy has decreased in the last two decades in 102 out of 155 countries, 11 of these went from high to limited redundancy, and nine of these from limited to very low redundancy. Although the variability of the drivers of change across different countries is high, improvements in yield and population growth have a clear impact on the decreases of redundancy towards the very low redundancy category. We took a more detailed look at countries classified as ‘Low Income Economies (LIEs)’ since they are particularly vulnerable to domestic or external food supply changes, due to their limited capacity to offset for food supply decreases with higher purchasing power on the international market. Currently, nine LIEs have limited or very low biophysical redundancy. Many of these showed a decrease in redundancy over the last two decades, which is not always linked with improvements in per capita food availability.

  2. A hybrid Jaya algorithm for reliability-redundancy allocation problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavidel, Sahand; Azizivahed, Ali; Li, Li

    2018-04-01

    This article proposes an efficient improved hybrid Jaya algorithm based on time-varying acceleration coefficients (TVACs) and the learning phase introduced in teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO), named the LJaya-TVAC algorithm, for solving various types of nonlinear mixed-integer reliability-redundancy allocation problems (RRAPs) and standard real-parameter test functions. RRAPs include series, series-parallel, complex (bridge) and overspeed protection systems. The search power of the proposed LJaya-TVAC algorithm for finding the optimal solutions is first tested on the standard real-parameter unimodal and multi-modal functions with dimensions of 30-100, and then tested on various types of nonlinear mixed-integer RRAPs. The results are compared with the original Jaya algorithm and the best results reported in the recent literature. The optimal results obtained with the proposed LJaya-TVAC algorithm provide evidence for its better and acceptable optimization performance compared to the original Jaya algorithm and other reported optimal results.

  3. Redundancy and divergence in the amyloid precursor protein family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, S Ali M; De Strooper, Bart

    2013-06-27

    Gene duplication provides genetic material required for functional diversification. An interesting example is the amyloid precursor protein (APP) protein family. The APP gene family has experienced both expansion and contraction during evolution. The three mammalian members have been studied quite extensively in combined knock out models. The underlying assumption is that APP, amyloid precursor like protein 1 and 2 (APLP1, APLP2) are functionally redundant. This assumption is primarily supported by the similarities in biochemical processing of APP and APLPs and on the fact that the different APP genes appear to genetically interact at the level of the phenotype in combined knockout mice. However, unique features in each member of the APP family possibly contribute to specification of their function. In the current review, we discuss the evolution and the biology of the APP protein family with special attention to the distinct properties of each homologue. We propose that the functions of APP, APLP1 and APLP2 have diverged after duplication to contribute distinctly to different neuronal events. Our analysis reveals that APLP2 is significantly diverged from APP and APLP1. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Video rate morphological processor based on a redundant number representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczborski, Wojciech; Attikiouzel, Yianni; Crebbin, Gregory A.

    1992-03-01

    This paper presents a video rate morphological processor for automated visual inspection of printed circuit boards, integrated circuit masks, and other complex objects. Inspection algorithms are based on gray-scale mathematical morphology. Hardware complexity of the known methods of real-time implementation of gray-scale morphology--the umbra transform and the threshold decomposition--has prompted us to propose a novel technique which applied an arithmetic system without carrying propagation. After considering several arithmetic systems, a redundant number representation has been selected for implementation. Two options are analyzed here. The first is a pure signed digit number representation (SDNR) with the base of 4. The second option is a combination of the base-2 SDNR (to represent gray levels of images) and the conventional twos complement code (to represent gray levels of structuring elements). Operation principle of the morphological processor is based on the concept of the digit level systolic array. Individual processing units and small memory elements create a pipeline. The memory elements store current image windows (kernels). All operation primitives of processing units apply a unified direction of digit processing: most significant digit first (MSDF). The implementation technology is based on the field programmable gate arrays by Xilinx. This paper justified the rationality of a new approach to logic design, which is the decomposition of Boolean functions instead of Boolean minimization.

  5. Accurate and diverse recommendations via eliminating redundant correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Tao; Su Riqi; Liu Runran; Jiang Luoluo; Wang Binghong [Department of Modern Physics and Nonlinear Science Center, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang Yicheng [Department of Physics, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Musee 3, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland)], E-mail: bhwang@ustc.edu.cn

    2009-12-15

    In this paper, based on a weighted projection of a bipartite user-object network, we introduce a personalized recommendation algorithm, called network-based inference (NBI), which has higher accuracy than the classical algorithm, namely collaborative filtering. In NBI, the correlation resulting from a specific attribute may be repeatedly counted in the cumulative recommendations from different objects. By considering the higher order correlations, we design an improved algorithm that can, to some extent, eliminate the redundant correlations. We test our algorithm on two benchmark data sets, MovieLens and Netflix. Compared with NBI, the algorithmic accuracy, measured by the ranking score, can be further improved by 23 per cent for MovieLens and 22 per cent for Netflix. The present algorithm can even outperform the Latent Dirichlet Allocation algorithm, which requires much longer computational time. Furthermore, most previous studies considered the algorithmic accuracy only; in this paper, we argue that the diversity and popularity, as two significant criteria of algorithmic performance, should also be taken into account. With more or less the same accuracy, an algorithm giving higher diversity and lower popularity is more favorable. Numerical results show that the present algorithm can outperform the standard one simultaneously in all five adopted metrics: lower ranking score and higher precision for accuracy, larger Hamming distance and lower intra-similarity for diversity, as well as smaller average degree for popularity.

  6. Accurate and diverse recommendations via eliminating redundant correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Su, Ri-Qi; Liu, Run-Ran; Jiang, Luo-Luo; Wang, Bing-Hong; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, based on a weighted projection of a bipartite user-object network, we introduce a personalized recommendation algorithm, called network-based inference (NBI), which has higher accuracy than the classical algorithm, namely collaborative filtering. In NBI, the correlation resulting from a specific attribute may be repeatedly counted in the cumulative recommendations from different objects. By considering the higher order correlations, we design an improved algorithm that can, to some extent, eliminate the redundant correlations. We test our algorithm on two benchmark data sets, MovieLens and Netflix. Compared with NBI, the algorithmic accuracy, measured by the ranking score, can be further improved by 23 per cent for MovieLens and 22 per cent for Netflix. The present algorithm can even outperform the Latent Dirichlet Allocation algorithm, which requires much longer computational time. Furthermore, most previous studies considered the algorithmic accuracy only; in this paper, we argue that the diversity and popularity, as two significant criteria of algorithmic performance, should also be taken into account. With more or less the same accuracy, an algorithm giving higher diversity and lower popularity is more favorable. Numerical results show that the present algorithm can outperform the standard one simultaneously in all five adopted metrics: lower ranking score and higher precision for accuracy, larger Hamming distance and lower intra-similarity for diversity, as well as smaller average degree for popularity.

  7. Accurate and diverse recommendations via eliminating redundant correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tao; Su Riqi; Liu Runran; Jiang Luoluo; Wang Binghong; Zhang Yicheng

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, based on a weighted projection of a bipartite user-object network, we introduce a personalized recommendation algorithm, called network-based inference (NBI), which has higher accuracy than the classical algorithm, namely collaborative filtering. In NBI, the correlation resulting from a specific attribute may be repeatedly counted in the cumulative recommendations from different objects. By considering the higher order correlations, we design an improved algorithm that can, to some extent, eliminate the redundant correlations. We test our algorithm on two benchmark data sets, MovieLens and Netflix. Compared with NBI, the algorithmic accuracy, measured by the ranking score, can be further improved by 23 per cent for MovieLens and 22 per cent for Netflix. The present algorithm can even outperform the Latent Dirichlet Allocation algorithm, which requires much longer computational time. Furthermore, most previous studies considered the algorithmic accuracy only; in this paper, we argue that the diversity and popularity, as two significant criteria of algorithmic performance, should also be taken into account. With more or less the same accuracy, an algorithm giving higher diversity and lower popularity is more favorable. Numerical results show that the present algorithm can outperform the standard one simultaneously in all five adopted metrics: lower ranking score and higher precision for accuracy, larger Hamming distance and lower intra-similarity for diversity, as well as smaller average degree for popularity.

  8. Redundant unbalance compensation of an active magnetic bearing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutterer, Markus; Kalteis, Gerald; Schrödl, Manfred

    2017-09-01

    To achieve a good running behavior of a magnetic levitated rotor, a well-developed position controller and different compensation methods are required. Two very important structures in this context are the reduction of the gyroscopic effect and the unbalance vibration. Both structures have in common that they need the angular velocity information for calculation. For industrial applications this information is normally provided by an angle sensor which is fixed on the rotor. The angle information is also necessary for the field oriented control of the electrical drive. The main drawback of external position sensors are the case of a breakdown or an error of the motor controller. Therefore, the magnetic bearing can get unstable, because no angular velocity information is provided. To overcome this problem the presented paper describes the development of a selfsensing unbalance rejection in combination with a selfsensing speed control of the motor controller. Selfsensing means in this context that no angle sensor is required for the unbalance or torque control. With such structures two redundant speed and angle information sources are available and can be used for the magnetic bearing and the motor controller without the usage of an angle sensor.

  9. High performance 14-bit pipelined redundant signed digit ADC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narula, Swina; Pandey, Sujata

    2016-01-01

    A novel architecture of a pipelined redundant-signed-digit analog to digital converter (RSD-ADC) is presented featuring a high signal to noise ratio (SNR), spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) and signal to noise plus distortion (SNDR) with efficient background correction logic. The proposed ADC architecture shows high accuracy with a high speed circuit and efficient utilization of the hardware. This paper demonstrates the functionality of the digital correction logic of 14-bit pipelined ADC at each 1.5 bit/stage. This prototype of ADC architecture accounts for capacitor mismatch, comparator offset and finite Op-Amp gain error in the MDAC (residue amplification circuit) stages. With the proposed architecture of ADC, SNDR obtained is 85.89 dB, SNR is 85.9 dB and SFDR obtained is 102.8 dB at the sample rate of 100 MHz. This novel architecture of digital correction logic is transparent to the overall system, which is demonstrated by using 14-bit pipelined ADC. After a latency of 14 clocks, digital output will be available at every clock pulse. To describe the circuit behavior of the ADC, VHDL and MATLAB programs are used. The proposed architecture is also capable of reducing the digital hardware. Silicon area is also the complexity of the design. (paper)

  10. Skew redundant MEMS IMU calibration using a Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafari, M; Sahebjameyan, M; Moshiri, B; Najafabadi, T A

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel calibration procedure for skew redundant inertial measurement units (SRIMUs) based on micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) is proposed. A general model of the SRIMU measurements is derived which contains the effects of bias, scale factor error and misalignments. For more accuracy, the effect of lever arms of the accelerometers to the center of the table are modeled and compensated in the calibration procedure. Two separate Kalman filters (KFs) are proposed to perform the estimation of error parameters for gyroscopes and accelerometers. The predictive error minimization (PEM) stochastic modeling method is used to simultaneously model the effect of bias instability and random walk noise on the calibration Kalman filters to diminish the biased estimations. The proposed procedure is simulated numerically and has expected experimental results. The calibration maneuvers are applied using a two-axis angle turntable in a way that the persistency of excitation (PE) condition for parameter estimation is met. For this purpose, a trapezoidal calibration profile is utilized to excite different deterministic error parameters of the accelerometers and a pulse profile is used for the gyroscopes. Furthermore, to evaluate the performance of the proposed KF calibration method, a conventional least squares (LS) calibration procedure is derived for the SRIMUs and the simulation and experimental results compare the functionality of the two proposed methods with each other. (paper)

  11. The disposal of redundant teletherapy units from NHS hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffka, A.P.; Ord, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The removal/disposal of redundant teletherapy units from NHS hospitals is described, detailing the operational procedures and the transport package background. The Harwell section of the Transport Technology Department has been carrying out these operations since 1991, where initially the service was just offered to the NHS; however, today their specialist transport service has significantly widened and is now offered to other business sectors. Due to the level of radioactivity found in each teletherapy unit, it was necessary to design a special transport packaging to meet the requirements for shipment of these units. Approval was sought from the Department of Transport to adapt a standard Type B package as no other packaging could be found to comply with the necessary requirements. All work undertaken on the removal and disposal of these units complied with an approved scheme of work and was carried out in accordance with a Quality Assurance workplan. However, to keep abreast of modern standards in a manner which is cost effective to customers and acceptable to the general public, the full development of a new Type B packaging is taking place, which is specifically designed to undertake these removal/disposal duties. (author)

  12. Reliability analysis of a complex standby redundant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, R.; Anantharaman, V.

    1995-01-01

    In any redundant system, the state of the standby unit is usually taken to be hot, warm or cold. In this paper, we present a new model of a two unit standby system wherein the standby unit is put in cold state for a certain amount of time before it is allowed to become warm. Upon failure of the online unit, the standby unit, if in warm state, instantaneously starts operating online; if it is in cold state, an emergency switching is made which takes it to warm state (and hence online) either instantaneously or non-instantaneously--each with some probability; if it is under repair, the system breaks down. Assuming all the associated distributions to be general except that of the life time of the standby unit in the warm state, various reliability characteristics that are of interest to reliability engineers and system designers are derived. A comprehensive cost function is also constructed and is then optimized with respect to three different control parameters numerically. In addition numerical results are presented to illustrate the behaviour of the various reliability characteristics derived

  13. Triple Modular Redundancy verification via heuristic netlist analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Beltrame

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR is a common technique to protect memory elements for digital processing systems subject to radiation effects (such as in space, high-altitude, or near nuclear sources. This paper presents an approach to verify the correct implementation of TMR for the memory elements of a given netlist (i.e., a digital circuit specification using heuristic analysis. The purpose is detecting any issues that might incur during the use of automatic tools for TMR insertion, optimization, place and route, etc. Our analysis does not require a testbench and can perform full, exhaustive coverage within less than an hour even for large designs. This is achieved by applying a divide et impera approach, splitting the circuit into smaller submodules without loss of generality, instead of applying formal verification to the whole netlist at once. The methodology has been applied to a production netlist of the LEON2-FT processor that had reported errors during radiation testing, successfully showing a number of unprotected memory elements, namely 351 flip-flops.

  14. Redundancy in Kiss1 Expression Safeguards Reproduction in the Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Simina M.; Moriyama, Ryutaro M.; Caligioni, Claudia S.; Yang, Jasmine J.; Cho, Caroline M.; Concepcion, Tessa L.; Oakley, Amy E.; Lee, In Hae; Sanz, Elisenda; Amieux, Paul S.; Caraty, Alain; Palmiter, Richard D.; Navarro, Victor M.; Chan, Yee-Ming; Seminara, Stephanie B.; Clifton, Donald K.

    2013-01-01

    Kisspeptin (Kiss1) signaling to GnRH neurons is widely acknowledged to be a prerequisite for puberty and reproduction. Animals lacking functional genes for either kisspeptin or its receptor exhibit low gonadotropin secretion and infertility. Paradoxically, a recent study reported that genetic ablation of nearly all Kiss1-expressing neurons (Kiss1 neurons) does not impair reproduction, arguing that neither Kiss1 neurons nor their products are essential for sexual maturation. We posited that only minute quantities of kisspeptin are sufficient to support reproduction. If this were the case, animals having dramatically reduced Kiss1 expression might retain fertility, testifying to the redundancy of Kiss1 neurons and their products. To test this hypothesis and to determine whether males and females differ in the required amount of kisspeptin needed for reproduction, we used a mouse (Kiss1-CreGFP) that has a severe reduction in Kiss1 expression. Mice that are heterozygous and homozygous for this allele (Kiss1Cre/+ and Kiss1Cre/Cre) have ∼50% and 95% reductions in Kiss1 transcript, respectively. We found that although male Kiss1Cre/Cre mice sire normal-sized litters, female Kiss1Cre/Cre mice exhibit significantly impaired fertility and ovulation. These observations suggest that males require only 5% of normal Kiss1 expression to be reproductively competent, whereas females require higher levels for reproductive success. PMID:23736293

  15. The error performance analysis over cyclic redundancy check codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hee B.

    1991-06-01

    The burst error is generated in digital communication networks by various unpredictable conditions, which occur at high error rates, for short durations, and can impact services. To completely describe a burst error one has to know the bit pattern. This is impossible in practice on working systems. Therefore, under the memoryless binary symmetric channel (MBSC) assumptions, the performance evaluation or estimation schemes for digital signal 1 (DS1) transmission systems carrying live traffic is an interesting and important problem. This study will present some analytical methods, leading to efficient detecting algorithms of burst error using cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code. The definition of burst error is introduced using three different models. Among the three burst error models, the mathematical model is used in this study. The probability density function, function(b) of burst error of length b is proposed. The performance of CRC-n codes is evaluated and analyzed using function(b) through the use of a computer simulation model within CRC block burst error. The simulation result shows that the mean block burst error tends to approach the pattern of the burst error which random bit errors generate.

  16. FIZCON, ENDF/B Cross-Sections Redundancy Check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, Charles L.

    2007-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FIZCON is a program for checking that an evaluated data file has valid data and conforms to recommended procedures. Version 7.01 (April 2005): set success flag after return from beginning; fixed valid level check for an isomer; fixed subsection energy range test in ckf9; changed lower limit on potential scattering test; fixed error in j-value test when l=0 and i=0; added one more significant figure to union grid check and sum up output messages; partial fission cross sections mt=19,20,21 and 38 did not require secondary energy distributions in file 5; corrected product test for elastic scattering; moved potential scattering test to psyche. Version 7.02 (May 2005): Fixed resonance parameter sum test. 2 - Method of solution: FIZCON can recognise the difference between ENDF-6 and ENDF-5 formats and performs its tests accordingly. Some of the tests performed include: data arrays are in increasing energy order; resonance parameter widths add up to the total; Q-values are reasonable and consistent; no required sections are missing and all cover the proper energy range; secondary distributions are normalized to 1.0; energy conservation in decay spectra. Optional tests can be performed to check the redundant cross sections, and algorithms can be used to check for possible incorrect entry of data values (Deviant Point test)

  17. Qualitative processing of uncertainty, conflicts and redundancy in knowledge bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbytovsky, V.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes two techniques, created and implemented in the course of development of the real-time on-line expert system Recon at the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez, Czech Republic. The first of them is the qualitative processing of uncertainty, which is based on the introduction of the third logic value to logic data objects, and the credibility flag to arithmetic data objects. The treatment of the third value and credibility flags during the inference, the explanation method based on the graphic representation and the uncertainty processing during the explanation are also mentioned. The second technique, is a semantic checking of knowledge bases, which enables us to recover parts of the bases, that are meaningless, either because of an error during their implementation into a base, or because they are redundant. The paper includes the explanation of basic terms of this method, such as so called conflicts, K-group and K-situation. The two types of the conflict (dead-end and bubble) are also discussed. The paper also offers the complete mathematical apparatus, which the checking method is based on. (author). 4 refs, tabs

  18. Design of a redundant meteorological station for a BWR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez S, R.; Celis del Angel, L.; Bucio, F.; Rivero, T.; Palacios, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this work the design of a meteorological station for a reactor type BWR is proposed. Two independent channels of data acquisition that allow him to have a bigger readiness is exposed. It is incorporate sensors without mobile parts to measure speed, wind direction and pluvial precipitation. It also counts, with sensors of global solar radiation, net radiation, barometric pressure, relative humidity and ambient temperature; with them they are possible to be calculated, moreover, other variables as temperature differential, dew point and atmospheric stability. The sensors are placed on a tower to different heights and send their information (each second) to a local registration system, the one which in turn, it remits the data to the monitoring office so that a computer is linked with the system, display and management the information in real time and automatic way. The redundant structure allows that in the event of maintenance the data acquisition is not interrupted, even if the information is transferred to another place. In all the station sections it is used protocols of standard communication to allow that a great quantity of devices can be connected without major problem. The above-mentioned would allow to the operators in the control room to have reliable information during the whole time of the reactor operation. (Author)

  19. A Reliable Bistable Board Implementation through I/O Redundancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Gyu; Chung, Tae Hyok; Lee, Youn Sang; Kim, Tae Hee; Song, Seung Hwan

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power plant safety systems and related equipment used in the design, including an accident in all driving conditions that must be proven In addition, the safety-related equipment that is derived according to the digitization of the safety equipment is the most important factors. Therefore, it is necessary to prove that the device was satisfied the requirements for a given performance for safety-related digital equipment for the life of the installation. These proven is done through the process, design verification of the equipment, production management, such as installation and maintenance. Among other things, it is most important to implement of the performance and reliability features the safety-related equipment in the design phase. In this paper, Bistable Board implemented to generate a ESF sign-on signal throughout the signal processing of input signal from sensors. Also, for the reliable signal input and output, I/O Module that implements the redundancy increases the reliability of the Bistable Board , to verify the performance of safety-related equipment

  20. State Estimation for Robots with Complementary Redundant Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Carnevale

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, robots equipped with two complementary typologies of redundant sensors are considered: one typology provides sharp measures of some geometrical entity related to the robot pose (e.g., distance or angle but is not univocally associated with this quantity; the other typology is univocal but is characterized by a low level of precision. A technique is proposed to properly combine these two kinds of measurement both in a stochastic and in a deterministic context. This framework may occur in robotics, for example, when the distance from a known landmark is detected by two different sensors, one based on the signal strength or time of flight of the signal, while the other one measures the phase-shift of the signal, which has a sharp but periodical dependence on the robot-landmark distance. In the stochastic case, an effective solution is a two-stage extended Kalman filter (EKF which exploits the precise periodic signal only when the estimate of the robot position is sufficiently precise. In the deterministic setting, an approach based on a switching hybrid observer is proposed, and results are analyzed via simulation examples.

  1. DID RAMSEY EVER ENDORSE A REDUNDANCY THEORY OF TRUTH?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Frápolli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with Ramsey´s theory of truth and its aim is twofold: on the one hand, it will explain what position about truth Ramsey actually defended, and, on the other hand, we will pursue Ramsey’s insight in the XXth century. When the name of Frank Ramsey is mentioned, one of the things that comes to mind is the theory of truth as redundancy. In the following pages we will argue that Ramsey never supported such a theory, but rather an analysis of truth noticeably similar to the prosentential account. In fact, the very word “pro-sentence” appears for the first time in the XXth Century in Ramsey´s unfinished work “The nature of truth”, written around 1929. Besides, we will show that the prosentential account of truth is a neglected trend throughout the history of analytic philosophy, even though relevant analytic philosophers, such as Prior, Strawson, Williams, Grover and Brandom, have endorsed it.

  2. CONTACT RESISTANCE MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. LOSKUTOV

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the contribution of the real contact spots distribution in the total conductivity of the conductors contact. Methodology. The electrical contact resistance research was carried out on models. The experimental part of this work was done on paper with a graphite layer with membranes (the first type and conductive liquids with discrete partitions (the second type. Findings. It is shown that the contact electrical resistance is mainly determined by the real area of metal contact. The experimental dependence of the electrical resistance of the second type model on the distance between the electrodes and the potential distribution along the sample surface for the first type model were obtained. The theoretical model based on the principle of electric field superposition was considered. The dependences obtained experimentally and calculated by using the theoretical model are in good agreement. Originality. The regularity of the electrical contact resistance formation on a large number of membranes was researched for the first time. A new model of discrete electrical contact based on the liquid as the conducting environment with nuclear membrane partitions was developed. The conclusions of the additivity of contact and bulk electrical resistance were done. Practical value. Based on these researches, a new experimental method of kinetic macroidentation that as a parameter of the metal surface layer deformation uses the real contact area was developed. This method allows to determine the value of average contact stresses, yield point, change of the stress on the depth of deformation depending on the surface treatment.

  3. Contact and symplectic topology

    CERN Document Server

    Colin, Vincent; Stipsicz, András

    2014-01-01

    Symplectic and contact geometry naturally emerged from the mathematical description of classical physics. The discovery of new rigidity phenomena and properties satisfied by these geometric structures launched a new research field worldwide. The intense activity of many European research groups in this field is reflected by the ESF Research Networking Programme "Contact And Symplectic Topology" (CAST). The lectures of the Summer School in Nantes (June 2011) and of the CAST Summer School in Budapest (July 2012) provide a nice panorama of many aspects of the present status of contact and symplectic topology. The notes of the minicourses offer a gentle introduction to topics which have developed in an amazing speed in the recent past. These topics include 3-dimensional and higher dimensional contact topology, Fukaya categories, asymptotically holomorphic methods in contact topology, bordered Floer homology, embedded contact homology, and flexibility results for Stein manifolds.

  4. Introduction to contact mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer-Cripps, Anthony C

    2000-01-01

    Contact mechanics deals with the elastic or plastic contact between two solid objects, and is thus intimately connected with such topics as fracture, hardness, and elasticity.This text, intended for advanced undergraduates, begins with an introduction to the mechanical properties of materials, general fracture mechanics, and fractures in brittle solids.This is followed by a detailed discussion of stresses and the nature of elastic and elastic-plastic contact.

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial ...

  6. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Önder

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis is the delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to exogenous agents. Allergic contact dermatitis may clinically present acutely after allergen exposure and initial sensitization in a previously sensitized individual. Acute phase is characterized by erythematous, scaly plaques. In severe cases vesiculation and bullae in exposed areas are very characteristic. Repeated or continuous exposure of sensitized individual with allergen result in chronic dermatitis. Lichenification, erythematous plaques, hyperkeratosis and fissuring may develop in chronic patients. Allergic contact dermatitis is very common dermatologic problem in dermatology daily practice. A diagnosis of contact dermatitis requires the careful consideration of patient history, physical examination and patch testing. The knowledge of the clinical features of the skin reactions to various contactans is important to make a correct diagnosis of contact dermatitis. It can be seen in every age, in children textile product, accessories and touch products are common allergens, while in adults allergic contact dermatitis may be related with topical medicaments. The contact pattern of contact dermatitis depends on fashion and local traditions as well. The localization of allergic reaction should be evaluated and patients’ occupation and hobbies should be asked. The purpose of this review is to introduce to our collaques up dated allergic contact dermatitis literatures both in Turkey and in the World.

  7. Colors and contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects.

  8. 3D seismic denoising based on a low-redundancy curvelet transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Jingjie; Zhao, Jingtao; Hu, Zhiying

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of seismic signal with noise is one of the main challenges during seismic data processing. Several methods exist for eliminating different types of noises, but optimal random noise attenuation remains difficult. Based on multi-scale, multi-directional locality of curvelet transform, the curvelet thresholding method is a relatively new method for random noise elimination. However, the high redundancy of a 3D curvelet transform makes its computational time and memory for massive data processing costly. To improve the efficiency of the curvelet thresholding denoising, a low-redundancy curvelet transform was introduced. The redundancy of the low-redundancy curvelet transform is approximately one-quarter of the original transform and the tightness of the original transform is also kept, thus the low-redundancy curvelet transform calls for less memory and computational resource compared with the original one. Numerical results on 3D synthetic and field data demonstrate that the low-redundancy curvelet denoising consumes one-quarter of the CPU time compared with the original curvelet transform using iterative thresholding denoising when comparable results are obtained. Thus, the low-redundancy curvelet transform is a good candidate for massive seismic denoising. (paper)

  9. Comparison of Fresnel zone plates and uniformly redundant arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.; Cannon, T.M.; Miller, E.L.

    1978-01-01

    Several imaging systems in laser fusion, e-beam fusion, and astronomy employ a Fresnel zone plate (FZP) as a coded aperture. The recent development of uniformly redundant arrays (URAs) promises several improvements in these systems. The first advantage of the URA is the fact that its modulation transfer function (MTF) is the same as the MTF of a single pinhole, whereas the MTF of an FZP is an erratic function including some small values. This means that if inverse filtering is used, the URA will be less susceptible to noise. If a correlation analysis is used, the FZP will produce artifacts whereas the URA has no artifacts (assuming planar sources). Both the FZP and URA originated from functions which had flat MTFs. However, practical considerations in the implementation of the FZP detracted from its good characteristics whereas the URA was only mildly affected. The second advantage of the URA is that it better utilizes the available detector area. With the FZP, the aperture should be smaller than the detector in order to maintain the full angular resolution corresponding to the thinnest zone. The cyclic nature of the URA allows one to mosaic it in such a way that the entire detector area collects photons from all of the sources within the field of view while maintaining the full angular resolution. If the FZP is as large (or larger) than the detector, all parts of the source will not be resolved with the same resolution. The FZP does have some advantages, in particular its radial symmetry eases the alignment problem; it has a convenient optical decoding method; and higher diffraction order reconstruction might provide better spatial resolution

  10. FIXUP2007, ENDF Format Redundant Cross-Sections Check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FIXUP is designed to read evaluated data in the ENDF/B format, perform corrections and output the results in the ENDF/B format. One of the most important functions of this code is to redefine all redundant cross sections to be exactly equal to the sum of its parts. IAEA1309/11: This version includes the updates up to January 30, 2007. Changes in ENDF/B-VII Format and procedures, as well as the evaluations themselves, make it impossible for versions of the ENDF/B pre-processing codes earlier than PREPRO 2007 (2007 Version) to accurately process current ENDF/B-VII evaluations. The present code can handle all existing ENDF/B-VI evaluations through release 8, which will be the last release of ENDF/B-VI. Modifications from previous versions: - Fixup VERS. 2007-1 (Jan. 2007): checked against all ENDF/B-VII; increased page size from 60,000 to 600,000 data points 2 - Method of solution: FIXUP: All MAT numbers on an ENDF/B tape are processed; each MAT is treated separately. Within each MAT, each section before and after MF=3 is read, checked/corrected and output. When MF=3 is located, all cross sections are read, sections deleted, created, checked/corrected (based on user input) and after several intermediate stages written to output. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The program uses only the ENDF/B BCD format tape and copy all sections except File 3 as read. It is assumed that the data is correctly coded. No error checking is performed. Since File 3 data are in identical format for ENDF/B versions I through VI, the program can be used with all these versions. - All data in file 3 and 23 must be linearly interpolable

  11. Roles of HMGA proteins in cancer: Expression, pathways, and redundancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancotti V

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The expression of the High Mobility Group A (HMGA proteins, their participation in cancer signalling pathways, and their redundant functions have been reviewed in seven types of cancer: breast, colorectal, prostate, lung, ovarian, thyroid, and brain. The analysis of cell lines and tumours revealed an elevated level of their expression in all fully transformed cancer systems, which represents a step of the main cancer signalling pathways. In breast, colorectal, prostate, and lung cancers Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a master inducer of cell transformation in which are deeply involved HMG A1 and A2 proteins. On the other hand, IL-6/Stat3 pathway is responsible for cancer transformation in breast, lung, and prostate. The expression of HMGA1 in lung and ovarian cancers is due to an active PI3K/Akt pathway. The let-7 family of microRNA represses the expression of HMGA showing specificity by its different forms: the let-7b form is able to inhibit both proteins A1 and A2, the last also inhibited by a, c, d, and g forms. Moreover, both proteins are down-regulated by the repressor couple p53/microRNA-34a. The protein A1 and A2 participate to the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition cooperating with the three couples of factors Twist1/2, Snai1/2, and Zeb1/2. Through a combination of pathways, there is the simultaneous presence of high levels of both A1 and A2 together with the expression of other factors: a high co-operating efficiency is reached that supplies the tumour cells with properties of self-renewal, resistance, and invasiveness.

  12. Reliability optimization of series–parallel systems with mixed redundancy strategy in subsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abouei Ardakan, Mostafa; Zeinal Hamadani, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally in redundancy allocation problem (RAP), it is assumed that the redundant components are used based on a predefined active or standby strategies. Recently, some studies consider the situation that both active and standby strategies can be used in a specific system. However, these researches assume that the redundancy strategy for each subsystem can be either active or standby and determine the best strategy for these subsystems by using a proper mathematical model. As an extension to this assumption, a novel strategy, that is a combination of traditional active and standby strategies, is introduced. The new strategy is called mixed strategy which uses both active and cold-standby strategies in one subsystem simultaneously. Therefore, the problem is to determine the component type, redundancy level, number of active and cold-standby units for each subsystem in order to maximize the system reliability. To have a more practical model, the problem is formulated with imperfect switching of cold-standby redundant components and k-Erlang time-to-failure (TTF) distribution. As the optimization of RAP belongs to NP-hard class of problems, a genetic algorithm (GA) is developed. The new strategy and proposed GA are implemented on a well-known test problem in the literature which leads to interesting results. - Highlights: • In this paper the redundancy allocation problem (RAP) for a series–parallel system is considered. • Traditionally there are two main strategies for redundant component namely active and standby. • In this paper a new redundancy strategy which is called “Mixed” redundancy strategy is introduced. • Computational experiments demonstrate that implementing the new strategy lead to interesting results

  13. On the value of redundancy subject to common-cause failures: Toward the resolution of an on-going debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoepfer, V.M.; Saleh, J.H.; Marais, K.B.

    2009-01-01

    Common-cause failures (CCF) are one of the more critical and challenging issues for system reliability and risk analyses. Academic interest in modeling CCF, and more broadly in modeling dependent failures, has steadily grown over the years in the number of publications as well as in the sophistication of the analytical tools used. In the past few years, several influential articles have shed doubts on the relevance of redundancy arguing that 'redundancy backfires' through common-cause failures, and that the latter dominate unreliability, thus defeating the purpose of redundancy. In this work, we take issue with some of the results of these publications. In their stead, we provide a nuanced perspective on the (contingent) value of redundancy subject to common-cause failures. First, we review the incremental reliability and MTTF provided by redundancy subject to common-cause failures. Second, we introduce the concept and develop the analytics of the 'redundancy-relevance boundary': we propose this redundancy-relevance boundary as a design-aid tool that provides an answer to the following question: what level of redundancy is relevant or advantageous given a varying prevalence of common-cause failures? We investigate the conditions under which different levels of redundancy provide an incremental MTTF over that of the single component in the face of common-cause failures. Recognizing that redundancy comes at a cost, we also conduct a cost-benefit analysis of redundancy subject to common-cause failures, and demonstrate how this analysis modifies the redundancy-relevance boundary. We show how the value of redundancy is contingent on the prevalence of common-cause failures, the redundancy level considered, and the monadic cost-benefit ratio. Finally we argue that general unqualified criticism of redundancy is misguided, and efforts are better spent for example on understanding and mitigating the potential sources of common-cause failures rather than deriding the concept

  14. Redundant cryorefrigerator system for a refrigerated superconductive magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a cryorefrigerator system for a refrigerated superconductive magnet. It comprises a mounting means rigidly attached to the magnet; at least two cryorefrigerator means mounted on the mounting means such that the cryorefrigerator means moves on the mounting means and at least one of the two cryorefrigerator means being substantially out of contact with the magnet; and an adjustment means rigidly attached to the cryorefrigerator means for moving the at least one of the cryorefrigerator means

  15. Redundant role of protein kinase C delta and epsilon during mouse embryonic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Carracedo

    Full Text Available Protein Kinase C delta and epsilon are mediators of important cellular events, such as cell proliferation, migration or apoptosis. The formation of blood vessels, i.e., vasculo- and angiogenesis, is a process where these isoforms have also been shown to participate. However, mice deficient in either Protein Kinase C delta or epsilon are viable and therefore their individual contribution to the formation of the vasculature appeared so far dispensable. In this study, we show that double null mutation of Protein Kinase C delta and epsilon causes embryonic lethality at approximately E9.5. At this stage, whole mount staining of the endothelial marker CD31 in double null embryos revealed defective blood vessel formation. Moreover, culture of double deficient mouse allantois showed impaired endothelial cell organization, and analyses of double deficient embryo sections showed dilated vessels, decreased endothelial-specific adherent junctions, and decreased contact of endothelial cells with mural cells. Protein kinase C delta and epsilon also appeared essential for vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation, since α-smooth muscle actin, a classical marker for vascular smooth muscle cells, was almost undetectable in double deficient embryonic aorta at E9.5. Subsequent qPCR analyses showed decreased VE-cadherin, Vegfr2, Cd31, Cdh2, Ets1, and Fli-1, among other angiogenesis related transcripts in double deficient embryos. Taken together, these data suggest for the first time an in vivo redundant role between members of the novel Protein Kinase C subfamily that allows for mutual compensation during mouse embryonic development, with vasculogenesis/angiogenesis as an obvious common function of these two Protein Kinase Cs. Protein Kinase C delta and epsilon might therefore be useful targets for inhibiting vasculo- and/or angiogenesis.

  16. Kinematics analysis of a novel planar parallel manipulator with kinematic redundancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Haibo; Guo, Sheng [Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China)

    2017-04-15

    In this paper, a novel planar parallel manipulator with kinematic redundancy is proposed. First, the Degrees of freedom (DOF) of the whole parallel manipulator and the Relative DOF (RDOF) between the moving platform and fixed base are studied. The results indicate that the proposed mechanism is kinematically redundant. Then, the kinematics, Jacobian matrices and workspace of this proposed parallel manipulator with kinematic redundancy are analyzed. Finally, the statics simulation of the proposed parallel manipulator is performed. The obtained stress and displacement distribution can be used to determine the easily destroyed place in the mechanism configurations.

  17. Multisensory processing of redundant information in go/no-go and choice responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blurton, Steven Paul; Greenlee, Mark W.; Gondan, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    In multisensory research, faster responses are commonly observed when multimodal stimuli are presented as compared to unimodal target presentations. This so-called redundant signals effect can be explained by several frameworks including separate activation and coactivation models. The redundant ...... of redundant information provided by different sensory channels and is not restricted to simple responses. The results connect existing theories on multisensory integration with theories on choice behavior....... processes (Schwarz, 1994) within two absorbing barriers. The diffusion superposition model accurately describes mean and variance of response times as well as the proportion of correct responses observed in the two tasks. Linear superposition seems, thus, to be a general principle in integration...

  18. Quantum Darwinism Requires an Extra-Theoretical Assumption of Encoding Redundancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Chris

    2010-10-01

    Observers restricted to the observation of pointer states of apparatus cannot conclusively demonstrate that the pointer of an apparatus mathcal{A} registers the state of a system of interest S without perturbing S. Observers cannot, therefore, conclusively demonstrate that the states of a system S are redundantly encoded by pointer states of multiple independent apparatus without destroying the redundancy of encoding. The redundancy of encoding required by quantum Darwinism must, therefore, be assumed from outside the quantum-mechanical formalism and without the possibility of experimental demonstration.

  19. The Interface Between Redundant Processor Modules Of Safety Grade PLC Using Mass Storage DPRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sung Jae; Song, Seong Hwan; No, Young Hun; Yun, Dong Hwa; Park, Gang Min; Kim, Min Gyu; Choi, Kyung Chul; Lee, Ui Taek

    2010-01-01

    Processor module of safety grade PLC (hereinafter called as POSAFE-Q) developed by POSCO ICT provides high reliability and safety. However, POSAFEQ would have suffered a malfunction when we think taking place of abnormal operation by exceptional environmental. POSAFE-Q would not able to conduct its function normally in such case. To prevent these situations, the necessity of redundant processor module has been raised. Therefore, redundant processor module, NCPU-2Q, has been developed which has not only functions of single processor module with high reliability and safety but also functions of redundant processor

  20. Redundant actuator development study. [flight control systems for supersonic transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    Current and past supersonic transport configurations are reviewed to assess redundancy requirements for future airplane control systems. Secondary actuators used in stability augmentation systems will probably be the most critical actuator application and require the highest level of redundancy. Two methods of actuator redundancy mechanization have been recommended for further study. Math models of the recommended systems have been developed for use in future computer simulations. A long range plan has been formulated for actuator hardware development and testing in conjunction with the NASA Flight Simulator for Advanced Aircraft.

  1. Kinematics analysis of a novel planar parallel manipulator with kinematic redundancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Haibo; Guo, Sheng

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a novel planar parallel manipulator with kinematic redundancy is proposed. First, the Degrees of freedom (DOF) of the whole parallel manipulator and the Relative DOF (RDOF) between the moving platform and fixed base are studied. The results indicate that the proposed mechanism is kinematically redundant. Then, the kinematics, Jacobian matrices and workspace of this proposed parallel manipulator with kinematic redundancy are analyzed. Finally, the statics simulation of the proposed parallel manipulator is performed. The obtained stress and displacement distribution can be used to determine the easily destroyed place in the mechanism configurations

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye-care professional. Retailers that sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. "Many of the lenses found online or in beauty salons, novelty shops or in pop-up ... contact lenses from a retailer that does not ask for a prescription. ...

  3. Electric contact arcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuthrell, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Electrical contacts must function properly in many types of components used in nuclear weapon systems. Design, application, and testing of these components require detailed knowledge of chemical and physical phenomena associated with stockpile storage, stockpile testing, and operation. In the past, investigation of these phenomena has led to significant discoveries on the effects of surface contaminants, friction and wear, and the mechanics of closure on contact performance. A recent investigation of contact arcing phenomena which revealed that, preceding contact closure, arcs may occur at voltages lower than had been previously known is described. This discovery is important, since arcing may damage contacts, and repetitive testing of contacts performed as part of a quality assurance program might produce cumulative damage that would yield misleading life-test data and could prevent proper operation of the contacts at some time in the future. This damage can be avoided by determining the conditions under which arcing occurs, and ensuring that these conditions are avoided in contact testing

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get follow up exams with your eye care provider. If you notice redness, swelling, excessive discharge, pain or discomfort from wearing contact lenses, remove the lenses and seek immediate medical attention from an ophthalmologist. Related resources: Learn how to properly care for contact lenses . ...

  5. Sciences & Nature: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Ehouan Etienne Ehile Professor University of Abobo-Adjamé 02 BP 801 Abidjan 02. Phone: (+225) 2030 4201. Fax: (+225) 2030 4203. Email: eh_ehile@yahoo.fr. Support Contact. Irie Zoro Bi Email: banhiakalou@yahoo.fr. ISSN: 1812-0741. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  6. Contact Us | DOepatents

    Science.gov (United States)

    advance. Your help is appreciated. Contact us by email Email doepatentscomments@osti.gov NOTE: Email us by phone Phone Phone (865) 241-5275 Contact us in writing Mail U.S. Department of Energy Office of non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site. Javascript Not Enabled Email Link

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the FDA? Check the FDA's database of approved contact lenses . Related Stories Prevent Infection ...

  8. Contact dermatitis. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Benezra, C; Burrows, D

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a dramatic rise in our understanding of contact dermatitis. This paper is a review of our knowledge of the mechanisms involved in contact dermatitis and related phenomena, the investigation of these events and the emergence of significant new allergens during...

  9. Contact Hamiltonian mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravetti, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.bravetti@iimas.unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones en Matemáticas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70543, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Cruz, Hans, E-mail: hans@ciencias.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70543, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Tapias, Diego, E-mail: diego.tapias@nucleares.unam.mx [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70543, México, DF 04510 (Mexico)

    2017-01-15

    In this work we introduce contact Hamiltonian mechanics, an extension of symplectic Hamiltonian mechanics, and show that it is a natural candidate for a geometric description of non-dissipative and dissipative systems. For this purpose we review in detail the major features of standard symplectic Hamiltonian dynamics and show that all of them can be generalized to the contact case.

  10. Contact Quality in Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Jensen, Olav Storm

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the concept of participation from the perspective of quality of the contact in the communicative interactions between participants. We argue for the need for an academic-personal competence that qualifies the human contact central in all Participatory Design (PD) activities as a way...

  11. Nigerian Food Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Food Journal. ... Nigerian Food Journal: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > Nigerian Food Journal: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Mailing Address. Department of Food Science and Technology University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far ... Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored ...

  13. Contact materials for nanoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.

    2011-02-01

    In this article, we review current research activities in contact material development for electronic and nanoelectronic devices. A fundamental issue in contact materials research is to understand and control interfacial reactions and phenomena that modify the expected device performance. These reactions have become more challenging and more difficult to control as new materials have been introduced and as device sizes have entered the deep nanoscale. To provide an overview of this field of inquiry, this issue of MRS Bulletin includes articles on gate and contact materials for Si-based devices, junction contact materials for Si-based devices, and contact materials for alternate channel substrates (Ge and III-V), nanodevices. © 2011 Materials Research Society.

  14. Noneczematous Contact Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Caterina; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Irritant or allergic contact dermatitis usually presents as an eczematous process, clinically characterized by erythematoedematovesicous lesions with intense itching in the acute phase. Such manifestations become erythematous-scaly as the condition progresses to the subacute phase and papular-hyperkeratotic in the chronic phase. Not infrequently, however, contact dermatitis presents with noneczematous features. The reasons underlying this clinical polymorphism lie in the different noxae and contact modalities, as well as in the individual susceptibility and the various targeted cutaneous structures. The most represented forms of non-eczematous contact dermatitis include the erythema multiforme-like, the purpuric, the lichenoid, and the pigmented kinds. These clinical entities must obviously be discerned from the corresponding “pure” dermatitis, which are not associated with contact with exogenous agents. PMID:24109520

  15. Performance and delay analysis of hybrid ARQ with incremental redundancy over double rayleigh fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chelli, Ali; Zedini, Emna; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Barry, John R.; Pä tzold, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    the performance of HARQ from an information theoretic perspective. Analytical expressions are derived for the \\epsilon-outage capacity, the average number of transmissions, and the average transmission rate of HARQ with incremental redundancy assuming a maximum

  16. Intraguild predation reduces redundancy of predator species in multiple predator assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffen, Blaine D; Byers, James E

    2006-07-01

    1. Interference between predator species frequently decreases predation rates, lowering the risk of predation for shared prey. However, such interference can also occur between conspecific predators. 2. Therefore, to understand the importance of predator biodiversity and the degree that predator species can be considered functionally interchangeable, we determined the degree of additivity and redundancy of predators in multiple- and single-species combinations. 3. We show that interference between two invasive species of predatory crabs, Carcinus maenas and Hemigrapsus sanguineus, reduced the risk of predation for shared amphipod prey, and had redundant per capita effects in most multiple- and single-species predator combinations. 4. However, when predator combinations with the potential for intraguild predation were examined, predator interference increased and predator redundancy decreased. 5. Our study indicates that trophic structure is important in determining how the effects of predator species combine and demonstrates the utility of determining the redundancy, as well as the additivity, of multiple predator species.

  17. Practical, redundant, failure-tolerant, self-reconfiguring embedded system architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarer, Paul R.; Hayward, David R.; Amai, Wendy A.

    2006-10-03

    This invention relates to system architectures, specifically failure-tolerant and self-reconfiguring embedded system architectures. The invention provides both a method and architecture for redundancy. There can be redundancy in both software and hardware for multiple levels of redundancy. The invention provides a self-reconfiguring architecture for activating redundant modules whenever other modules fail. The architecture comprises: a communication backbone connected to two or more processors and software modules running on each of the processors. Each software module runs on one processor and resides on one or more of the other processors to be available as a backup module in the event of failure. Each module and backup module reports its status over the communication backbone. If a primary module does not report, its backup module takes over its function. If the primary module becomes available again, the backup module returns to its backup status.

  18. Quantifying Net Synergy/Redundancy of Spontaneous Variability Regulation via Predictability and Transfer Entropy Decomposition Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Alberto; Bari, Vlasta; De Maria, Beatrice; Takahashi, Anielle C M; Guzzetti, Stefano; Colombo, Riccardo; Catai, Aparecida M; Raimondi, Ferdinando; Faes, Luca

    2017-11-01

    Objective: Indexes assessing the balance between redundancy and synergy were hypothesized to be helpful in characterizing cardiovascular control from spontaneous beat-to-beat variations of heart period (HP), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), and respiration (R). Methods: Net redundancy/synergy indexes were derived according to predictability and transfer entropy decomposition strategies via a multivariate linear regression approach. Indexes were tested in two protocols inducing modifications of the cardiovascular regulation via baroreflex loading/unloading (i.e., head-down tilt at -25° and graded head-up tilt at 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90°, respectively). The net redundancy/synergy of SAP and R to HP and of HP and R to SAP were estimated over stationary sequences of 256 successive values. Results: We found that: 1) regardless of the target (i.e., HP or SAP) redundancy was prevalent over synergy and this prevalence was independent of type and magnitude of the baroreflex challenge; 2) the prevalence of redundancy disappeared when decoupling inputs from output via a surrogate approach; 3) net redundancy was under autonomic control given that it varied in proportion to the vagal withdrawal during graded head-up tilt; and 4) conclusions held regardless of the decomposition strategy. Conclusion: Net redundancy indexes can monitor changes of cardiovascular control from a perspective completely different from that provided by more traditional univariate and multivariate methods. Significance: Net redundancy measures might provide a practical tool to quantify the reservoir of effective cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms sharing causal influences over a target variable. Objective: Indexes assessing the balance between redundancy and synergy were hypothesized to be helpful in characterizing cardiovascular control from spontaneous beat-to-beat variations of heart period (HP), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), and respiration (R). Methods: Net redundancy

  19. Performance of hybrid-ARQ with incremental redundancy over relay channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chelli, Ali; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a relay network consisting of a source, a relay, and a destination. The source transmits a message to the destination using hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with incremental redundancy (IR). The relay overhears

  20. An analytical and experimental study of the behaviour of redundant controllers applied to a nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, L.A.J.

    1964-02-01

    The behaviour of a number of configurations of redundant controllers is examined and the design problems discussed in relation to the engineering of reliable control rod drive systems for nuclear plant. (author)

  1. Unified performance analysis of hybrid-ARQ with incremental redundancy over free-space optical channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zedini, Emna; Chelli, Ali; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we carry out a unified performance analysis of hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with incremental redundancy (IR) from an information theoretic perspective over a point-to-point free-space optical (FSO) system. First, we

  2. Revisions to Conventional Clock Domain Crossing Methodologies in Triple Modular Redundant Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2018-01-01

    We present updates to the conventional methodology of triple modular redundancy (TMR) insertion as it pertains to clock domain crossings (CDCs). Three types of TMR schemes and their suggested corresponding CDC revisions are discussed.

  3. Multi-objective reliability optimization of series-parallel systems with a choice of redundancy strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safari, Jalal

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a variant of the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) to solve a novel mathematical model for multi-objective redundancy allocation problems (MORAP). Most researchers about redundancy allocation problem (RAP) have focused on single objective optimization, while there has been some limited research which addresses multi-objective optimization. Also all mathematical multi-objective models of general RAP assume that the type of redundancy strategy for each subsystem is predetermined and known a priori. In general, active redundancy has traditionally received greater attention; however, in practice both active and cold-standby redundancies may be used within a particular system design. The choice of redundancy strategy then becomes an additional decision variable. Thus, the proposed model and solution method are to select the best redundancy strategy, type of components, and levels of redundancy for each subsystem that maximizes the system reliability and minimize total system cost under system-level constraints. This problem belongs to the NP-hard class. This paper presents a second-generation Multiple-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (MOEA), named NSGA-II to find the best solution for the given problem. The proposed algorithm demonstrates the ability to identify a set of optimal solutions (Pareto front), which provides the Decision Maker (DM) with a complete picture of the optimal solution space. After finding the Pareto front, a procedure is used to select the best solution from the Pareto front. Finally, the advantages of the presented multi-objective model and of the proposed algorithm are illustrated by solving test problems taken from the literature and the robustness of the proposed NSGA-II is discussed.

  4. Functional redundancy patterns reveal non-random assembly rules in a species-rich marine assemblage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Guillemot

    Full Text Available The relationship between species and the functional diversity of assemblages is fundamental in ecology because it contains key information on functional redundancy, and functionally redundant ecosystems are thought to be more resilient, resistant and stable. However, this relationship is poorly understood and undocumented for species-rich coastal marine ecosystems. Here, we used underwater visual censuses to examine the patterns of functional redundancy for one of the most diverse vertebrate assemblages, the coral reef fishes of New Caledonia, South Pacific. First, we found that the relationship between functional and species diversity displayed a non-asymptotic power-shaped curve, implying that rare functions and species mainly occur in highly diverse assemblages. Second, we showed that the distribution of species amongst possible functions was significantly different from a random distribution up to a threshold of ∼90 species/transect. Redundancy patterns for each function further revealed that some functions displayed fast rates of increase in redundancy at low species diversity, whereas others were only becoming redundant past a certain threshold. This suggested non-random assembly rules and the existence of some primordial functions that would need to be fulfilled in priority so that coral reef fish assemblages can gain a basic ecological structure. Last, we found little effect of habitat on the shape of the functional-species diversity relationship and on the redundancy of functions, although habitat is known to largely determine assemblage characteristics such as species composition, biomass, and abundance. Our study shows that low functional redundancy is characteristic of this highly diverse fish assemblage, and, therefore, that even species-rich ecosystems such as coral reefs may be vulnerable to the removal of a few keystone species.

  5. Contacts to semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tove, P.A.

    1975-08-01

    Contacts to semiconductors play an important role in most semiconductor devices. These devices range from microelectronics to power components, from high-sensitivity light or radiation detectors to light-emitting of microwave-generating components. Silicon is the dominating material but compound semiconductors are increasing in importance. The following survey is an attempt to classify contact properties and the physical mechanisms involved, as well as fabrication methods and methods of investigation. The main interest is in metal-semiconductor type contacts where a few basic concepts are dealt with in some detail. (Auth.)

  6. An efficient particle swarm approach for mixed-integer programming in reliability-redundancy optimization applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Coelho, Leandro dos

    2009-01-01

    The reliability-redundancy optimization problems can involve the selection of components with multiple choices and redundancy levels that produce maximum benefits, and are subject to the cost, weight, and volume constraints. Many classical mathematical methods have failed in handling nonconvexities and nonsmoothness in reliability-redundancy optimization problems. As an alternative to the classical optimization approaches, the meta-heuristics have been given much attention by many researchers due to their ability to find an almost global optimal solutions. One of these meta-heuristics is the particle swarm optimization (PSO). PSO is a population-based heuristic optimization technique inspired by social behavior of bird flocking and fish schooling. This paper presents an efficient PSO algorithm based on Gaussian distribution and chaotic sequence (PSO-GC) to solve the reliability-redundancy optimization problems. In this context, two examples in reliability-redundancy design problems are evaluated. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed PSO-GC is a promising optimization technique. PSO-GC performs well for the two examples of mixed-integer programming in reliability-redundancy applications considered in this paper. The solutions obtained by the PSO-GC are better than the previously best-known solutions available in the recent literature

  7. Reliability-redundancy optimization by means of a chaotic differential evolution approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Leandro dos Santos

    2009-01-01

    The reliability design is related to the performance analysis of many engineering systems. The reliability-redundancy optimization problems involve selection of components with multiple choices and redundancy levels that produce maximum benefits, can be subject to the cost, weight, and volume constraints. Classical mathematical methods have failed in handling nonconvexities and nonsmoothness in optimization problems. As an alternative to the classical optimization approaches, the meta-heuristics have been given much attention by many researchers due to their ability to find an almost global optimal solution in reliability-redundancy optimization problems. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) - paradigms of evolutionary computation field - are stochastic and robust meta-heuristics useful to solve reliability-redundancy optimization problems. EAs such as genetic algorithm, evolutionary programming, evolution strategies and differential evolution are being used to find global or near global optimal solution. A differential evolution approach based on chaotic sequences using Lozi's map for reliability-redundancy optimization problems is proposed in this paper. The proposed method has a fast convergence rate but also maintains the diversity of the population so as to escape from local optima. An application example in reliability-redundancy optimization based on the overspeed protection system of a gas turbine is given to show its usefulness and efficiency. Simulation results show that the application of deterministic chaotic sequences instead of random sequences is a possible strategy to improve the performance of differential evolution.

  8. Input relegation control for gross motion of a kinematically redundant manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unseren, M.A.

    1992-10-01

    This report proposes a method for resolving the kinematic redundancy of a serial link manipulator moving in a three-dimensional workspace. The underspecified problem of solving for the joint velocities based on the classical kinematic velocity model is transformed into a well-specified problem. This is accomplished by augmenting the original model with additional equations which relate a new vector variable quantifying the redundant degrees of freedom (DOF) to the joint velocities. The resulting augmented system yields a well specified solution for the joint velocities. Methods for selecting the redundant DOF quantifying variable and the transformation matrix relating it to the joint velocities are presented so as to obtain a minimum Euclidean norm solution for the joint velocities. The approach is also applied to the problem of resolving the kinematic redundancy at the acceleration level. Upon resolving the kinematic redundancy, a rigid body dynamical model governing the gross motion of the manipulator is derived. A control architecture is suggested which according to the model, decouples the Cartesian space DOF and the redundant DOF.

  9. One Size Does Not Fit All: Older Adults Benefit From Redundant Text in Multimedia Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eFenesi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The multimedia design of presentations typically ignores that younger and older adults have varying cognitive strengths and weaknesses. We examined whether differential instructional design may enhance learning in these populations. Younger and older participants viewed one of three computer-based presentations: Audio only (narration, Redundant (audio narration with redundant text, or Complementary (audio narration with non–redundant text and images. Younger participants learned better when audio narration was paired with relevant images compared to when audio narration was paired with redundant text. However, older participants learned best when audio narration was paired with redundant text. Younger adults, who presumably have a higher working memory capacity, appear to benefit more from complementary information that may drive deeper conceptual processing. In contrast, older adults learn better from presentations that support redundant coding across modalities, which may help mitigate the effects of age-related decline in working memory capacity. Additionally, several misconceptions of design quality appeared across age groups: both younger and older participants positively rated less effective designs. Findings suggest that one-size does not fit all, with older adults requiring unique multimedia design tailored to their cognitive abilities for effective learning.

  10. One size does not fit all: older adults benefit from redundant text in multimedia instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenesi, Barbara; Vandermorris, Susan; Kim, Joseph A; Shore, David I; Heisz, Jennifer J

    2015-01-01

    The multimedia design of presentations typically ignores that younger and older adults have varying cognitive strengths and weaknesses. We examined whether differential instructional design may enhance learning in these populations. Younger and older participants viewed one of three computer-based presentations: Audio only (narration), Redundant (audio narration with redundant text), or Complementary (audio narration with non-redundant text and images). Younger participants learned better when audio narration was paired with relevant images compared to when audio narration was paired with redundant text. However, older participants learned best when audio narration was paired with redundant text. Younger adults, who presumably have a higher working memory capacity (WMC), appear to benefit more from complementary information that may drive deeper conceptual processing. In contrast, older adults learn better from presentations that support redundant coding across modalities, which may help mitigate the effects of age-related decline in WMC. Additionally, several misconceptions of design quality appeared across age groups: both younger and older participants positively rated less effective designs. Findings suggest that one-size does not fit all, with older adults requiring unique multimedia design tailored to their cognitive abilities for effective learning.

  11. Efficient exact optimization of multi-objective redundancy allocation problems in series-parallel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Dingzhou; Murat, Alper; Chinnam, Ratna Babu

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a decomposition-based approach to exactly solve the multi-objective Redundancy Allocation Problem for series-parallel systems. Redundancy allocation problem is a form of reliability optimization and has been the subject of many prior studies. The majority of these earlier studies treat redundancy allocation problem as a single objective problem maximizing the system reliability or minimizing the cost given certain constraints. The few studies that treated redundancy allocation problem as a multi-objective optimization problem relied on meta-heuristic solution approaches. However, meta-heuristic approaches have significant limitations: they do not guarantee that Pareto points are optimal and, more importantly, they may not identify all the Pareto-optimal points. In this paper, we treat redundancy allocation problem as a multi-objective problem, as is typical in practice. We decompose the original problem into several multi-objective sub-problems, efficiently and exactly solve sub-problems, and then systematically combine the solutions. The decomposition-based approach can efficiently generate all the Pareto-optimal solutions for redundancy allocation problems. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method over meta-heuristic methods on a numerical example taken from the literature.

  12. Developmental changes in children’s processing of redundant modifiers in definite object descriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud Koolen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates developmental changes in children’s processing of redundant information in definite object descriptions. In two experiments, children of two age groups (six or seven, and nine or ten years old were presented with pictures of sweets. In the first experiment (pairwise comparison, two identical sweets were shown, and one of these was described with a redundant modifier. After the description, the children had to indicate the sweet they preferred most in a forced-choice task. In the second experiment (graded rating, only one sweet was shown, which was described with a redundant color modifier in half of the cases (e.g., the blue sweet and in the other half of the cases simply as the sweet. This time, the children were asked to indicate on a 5-point rating scale to what extent they liked the sweets. In both experiments, the results showed that the younger children had a preference for the sweets described with redundant information, while redundant information did not have an effect on the preferences for the older children. These results imply that children are learning to distinguish between situations in which redundant information carries an implicature and situations in which this is not the case.

  13. Comparing surgical trays with redundant instruments with trays with reduced instruments: a cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Baptiste, A; Sowerby, L J; Chin, C J; Martin, J; Rotenberg, B W

    2016-01-01

    When prearranged standard surgical trays contain instruments that are repeatedly unused, the redundancy can result in unnecessary health care costs. Our objective was to estimate potential savings by performing an economic evaluation comparing the cost of surgical trays with redundant instruments with surgical trays with reduced instruments ("reduced trays"). We performed a cost-analysis from the hospital perspective over a 1-year period. Using a mathematical model, we compared the direct costs of trays containing redundant instruments to reduced trays for 5 otolaryngology procedures. We incorporated data from several sources including local hospital data on surgical volume, the number of instruments on redundant and reduced trays, wages of personnel and time required to pack instruments. From the literature, we incorporated instrument depreciation costs and the time required to decontaminate an instrument. We performed 1-way sensitivity analyses on all variables, including surgical volume. Costs were estimated in 2013 Canadian dollars. The cost of redundant trays was $21 806 and the cost of reduced trays was $8803, for a 1-year cost saving of $13 003. In sensitivity analyses, cost savings ranged from $3262 to $21 395, based on the surgical volume at the institution. Variation in surgical volume resulted in a wider range of estimates, with a minimum of $3253 for low-volume to a maximum of $52 012 for high-volume institutions. Our study suggests moderate savings may be achieved by reducing surgical tray redundancy and, if applied to other surgical specialties, may result in savings to Canadian health care systems.

  14. An efficient particle swarm approach for mixed-integer programming in reliability-redundancy optimization applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Coelho, Leandro dos [Industrial and Systems Engineering Graduate Program, LAS/PPGEPS, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUCPR, Imaculada Conceicao, 1155, 80215-901 Curitiba, Parana (Brazil)], E-mail: leandro.coelho@pucpr.br

    2009-04-15

    The reliability-redundancy optimization problems can involve the selection of components with multiple choices and redundancy levels that produce maximum benefits, and are subject to the cost, weight, and volume constraints. Many classical mathematical methods have failed in handling nonconvexities and nonsmoothness in reliability-redundancy optimization problems. As an alternative to the classical optimization approaches, the meta-heuristics have been given much attention by many researchers due to their ability to find an almost global optimal solutions. One of these meta-heuristics is the particle swarm optimization (PSO). PSO is a population-based heuristic optimization technique inspired by social behavior of bird flocking and fish schooling. This paper presents an efficient PSO algorithm based on Gaussian distribution and chaotic sequence (PSO-GC) to solve the reliability-redundancy optimization problems. In this context, two examples in reliability-redundancy design problems are evaluated. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed PSO-GC is a promising optimization technique. PSO-GC performs well for the two examples of mixed-integer programming in reliability-redundancy applications considered in this paper. The solutions obtained by the PSO-GC are better than the previously best-known solutions available in the recent literature.

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not been properly fitted by an eye care professional, the lenses stuck to my eye like a ... prescription and proper fitting by an eye-care professional. Retailers that sell contacts without a prescription are ...

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ... About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of ...

  17. Contact Line Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiss, Gunilla; Holmgren, Hanna; Kronbichler, Martin; Ge, Anthony; Brant, Luca

    2017-11-01

    The conventional no-slip boundary condition leads to a non-integrable stress singularity at a moving contact line. This makes numerical simulations of two-phase flow challenging, especially when capillarity of the contact point is essential for the dynamics of the flow. We will describe a modeling methodology, which is suitable for numerical simulations, and present results from numerical computations. The methodology is based on combining a relation between the apparent contact angle and the contact line velocity, with the similarity solution for Stokes flow at a planar interface. The relation between angle and velocity can be determined by theoretical arguments, or from simulations using a more detailed model. In our approach we have used results from phase field simulations in a small domain, but using a molecular dynamics model should also be possible. In both cases more physics is included and the stress singularity is removed.

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... away without suffering an eye injury. However, the natural protective mechanisms of the eye – such as the ...

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ... a laser pointer several times, according to a report published this month in the New England Journal ...

  20. SAM Technical Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    These technical contacts are available to help with questions regarding method deviations, modifications, sample problems or interferences, quality control requirements, the use of alternative methods, or the need to address analytes or sample types.

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are ... this month in the New England Journal of Medicine. Unfortunately, this kind of injury is all too ...

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

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  3. GAS-FOVEAL CONTACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberti, Mark; la Cour, Morten

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare gas-foveal contact in face-down positioning (FDP) and nonsupine positioning (NSP), to analyze causes of gas-foveal separation and to determine how gas-foveal contact affects clinical outcome after idiopathic macular hole repair. METHODS: Single center, randomized controlled...... study. Participants with an idiopathic macular hole were allocated to either FDP or NSP. Primary outcome was gas-foveal contact, calculated by analyzing positioning in relation to intraocular gas fill. Positioning was measured with an electronic device recording positioning for 72 hours postoperatively....... RESULTS: Positioning data were available for 33/35 in the FDP group and 35/37 in the NSP group, thus results are based on 68 analyzed participants. Median gas-foveal contact was 99.82% (range 73.6-100.0) in the FDP group and 99.57% (range 85.3-100.0) in the NSP group (P = 0.22). In a statistical model...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but 10 hours after ... are being sold illegally," Dr. Steinemann said. Never buy colored contact lenses from a retailer that does ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... 2018 By Dan T. Gudgel Do you know what the difference is between ophthalmologists and optometrists? A ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye exam from a licensed eye ... available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but ... require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can be ...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... seek immediate medical attention from an ophthalmologist. Related resources: Learn how to properly care for contact lenses . ... have given blind patients some functional vision, using human embryonic stem cells. Two blind patients regained enough ...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir ... Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored contact lenses without ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... With Proper Contact Lens Care Apr 23, 2018 Solar Eclipse Inflicts Damage in the Shape of the ... edging closer, thanks to a wave of new technologies aiming to fix failing eye parts with human- ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... videos on your website Promotional materials for eye health observances EyeSmart resources are also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ... Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

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  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & ...

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About ...

  1. Ergonomics SA: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Mrs June McDougall. Rhodes University. Department of Human Kinetics and Ergonomics. P.O. Box 94. Rhodes University. Grahamstown. 6140. Phone: +27 46 6038471. Email: j.mcdougall@ru.ac.za ...

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

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  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From blood-drenched vampire eyes to glow-in-the-dark ... properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into the cornea. Even if ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... the United States. All contact lenses are medical devices that require a prescription and proper fitting by ... Care Apr 23, 2018 How long does it take the eye to go back to its original ...

  7. Tomato contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    The tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important crop worldwide. Whereas immediate-type reactions to tomato fruits are well known, contact dermatitis caused by tomatoes or tomato plants is rarely reported. The aims of this study were to present new data on contact sensitization to tomato...... plants and review the literature on contact dermatitis caused by both plants and fruits. An ether extract of tomato plants made as the original oleoresin plant extracts, was used in aimed patch testing, and between 2005 and 2011. 8 of 93 patients (9%) tested positive to the oleoresin extracts....... This prevalence is in accordance with the older literature that reports tomato plants as occasional sensitizers. The same applies to tomato fruits, which, in addition, may cause protein contact dermatitis. The allergens of the plant are unknown, but both heat-stable and heat-labile constituents seem...

  8. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology ...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ...

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive ... Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can ... Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... ask for a prescription. There is no such thing as a "one size fits all" contact lens. ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical ...

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus ... Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without ...

  17. Lettuce contact allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-02-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy degradability of lettuce allergens, it is recommended to patch test with freshly cut lettuce stem and supplement this with Compositae mix. As contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis may present as dermatitis, it is important to perform prick-to-prick tests, and possibly scratch patch tests as well. Any person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. How do we manage post-OLT redundant bile duct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Victor; Martinez, Nicholas; Lee, Gabriel; Almeda, Jose; Gross, Glenn; Patel, Sandeep; Rosenkranz, Laura

    2013-04-28

    To address endoscopic outcomes of post-Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) patients diagnosed with a "redundant bile duct" (RBD). Medical records of patients who underwent OLT at the Liver Transplant Center, University Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Texas were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with suspected biliary tract complications (BTC) underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). All ERCP were performed by experienced biliary endoscopist. RBD was defined as a looped, sigmoid-shaped bile duct on cholangiogram with associated cholestatic liver biomarkers. Patients with biliary T-tube placement, biliary anastomotic strictures, bile leaks, bile-duct stones-sludge and suspected sphincter of oddi dysfunction were excluded. Therapy included single or multiple biliary stents with or without sphincterotomy. The incidence of RBD, the number of ERCP corrective sessions, and the type of endoscopic interventions were recorded. Successful response to endoscopic therapy was defined as resolution of RBD with normalization of associated cholestasis. Laboratory data and pertinent radiographic imaging noted included the pre-ERCP period and a follow up period of 6-12 mo after the last ERCP intervention. One thousand two hundred and eighty-two patient records who received OLT from 1992 through 2011 were reviewed. Two hundred and twenty-four patients underwent ERCP for suspected BTC. RBD was reported in each of the initial cholangiograms. Twenty-one out of 1282 (1.6%) were identified as having RBD. There were 12 men and 9 women, average age of 59.6 years. Primary indication for ERCP was cholestatic pattern of liver associated biomarkers. Nineteen out of 21 patients underwent endoscopic therapy and 2/21 required immediate surgical intervention. In the endoscopically managed group: 65 ERCP procedures were performed with an average of 3.4 per patient and 1.1 stent per session. Fifteen out of 19 (78.9%) patients were successfully managed with

  19. EFFICIENCY OF REDUNDANT QUERY EXECUTION IN MULTI-CHANNEL SERVICE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bogatyrev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.The paper deals with analysis of the effectiveness of redundant queries based on untrusted computing in computer systems, represented by multi-channel queuing systems with a common queue. The objective of research is the possibility of increasing the efficiency of service requests while performing redundant copies of requests in different devices of a multi-channel system under conditions of calculations unreliability. The redundant service of requests requires the infallibility of its implementation at least in one of the devices.Method. We have considered estimation of the average time spent in the system with and without the use of redundant requests at the presentation of a simple queuing model of the M / M / n type to analyze the effectiveness of redundant service of requests. Presented evaluation of the average waiting time in the redundant queries is the upper one, since it ignores the possibility of reducing the average waiting time as a result of the spread of the probability of time querying at different devices. The integrated efficiency of redundant service of requests is defined based on the multiplicative index that takes into account the infallibility of calculations and the average time allowance with respect to the maximum tolerated delay of service. Evaluation of error-free computing at reserved queries is received at the requirement of faultless execution of at least one copy of the request. Main Results. We have shown that the reservation of requests gives the gain in efficiency of the system at low demand rate (load. We have defined the boundaries of expediency (efficiency for redundant service of requests. We have shown the possibility of the effectiveness increasing of the adaptive changes in the multiplicity of the reservation of requests, depending on the intensity of the flow of requests. We have found out that the choice of service discipline in information service systems is largely determined by

  20. Patients with multiple contact allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit Christina; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Menné, Torkil

    2008-01-01

    Patients with multiple contact allergies, also referred to as polysensitized, are more frequent than predicted from prevalence of single sensitivities. The understanding of why some people develop multiple contact allergies, and characterization of patients with multiple contact allergies...... of developing multiple contact allergies. Evidence of allergen clusters among polysensitized individuals is also reviewed. The literature supports the idea that patients with multiple contact allergies constitute a special entity within the field of contact allergy. There is no generally accepted definition...... of patients with multiple contact allergies. We suggest that contact allergy to 3 or more allergens are defined as multiple contact allergies....

  1. Chemokine Signaling in Allergic Contact Dermatitis: Toward Targeted Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey S; Rajagopal, Sudarshan; Atwater, Amber Reck

    2018-06-22

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease that results in significant cost and morbidity. Despite its high prevalence, therapeutic options are limited. Allergic contact dermatitis is regulated primarily by T cells within the adaptive immune system, but also by natural killer and innate lymphoid cells within the innate immune system. The chemokine receptor system, consisting of chemokine peptides and chemokine G protein-coupled receptors, is a critical regulator of inflammatory processes such as ACD. Specific chemokine signaling pathways are selectively up-regulated in ACD, most prominently CXCR3 and its endogenous chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11. Recent research demonstrates that these 3 chemokines are not redundant and indeed activate distinct intracellular signaling profiles such as those activated by heterotrimeric G proteins and β-arrestin adapter proteins. Such differential signaling provides an attractive therapeutic target for novel ACD therapies and other inflammatory diseases.

  2. REDUNDANT ELECTRIC MOTOR DRIVE CONTROL UNIT DESIGN USING AUTOMATA-BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Yu. Yankin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of redundant unit for motor drive control based on programmable logic devices is discussed. Continuous redundancy method is used. As compared to segregated standby redundancy and whole system standby redundancy, such method provides preservation of all unit functions in case of redundancy and gives the possibility for continuous monitoring of major and redundant elements. Example of that unit is given. Electric motor drive control channel block diagram contains two control units – the major and redundant; it also contains four power supply units. Control units programming was carried out using automata-based approach. Electric motor drive control channel model was developed; it provides complex simulation of control state-machine and power converter. Through visibility and hierarchy of finite state machines debug time was shortened as compared to traditional programming. Control state-machine description using hardware description language is required for its synthesis with FPGA-devices vendor design software. This description was generated automatically by MATLAB software package. To verify results two prototype control units, two prototype power supply units, and device mock-up were developed and manufactured. Units were installed in the device mock-up. Prototype units were created in accordance with requirements claimed to deliverable hardware. Control channel simulation and tests results in the perfect state and during imitation of major element fault are presented. Automata-based approach made it possible to observe and debug control state-machine transitions during simulation of transient processes, occurring at imitation of faults. Results of this work can be used in development of fault tolerant electric motor drive control channels.

  3. Rough Surface Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Nguyen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the contact of general rough curved surfaces having nearly identical geometries, assuming the contact at each differential area obeys the model proposed by Greenwood and Williamson. In order to account for the most general gross geometry, principles of differential geometry of surface are applied. This method while requires more rigorous mathematical manipulations, the fact that it preserves the original surface geometries thus makes the modeling procedure much more intuitive. For subsequent use, differential geometry of axis-symmetric surface is considered instead of general surface (although this “general case” can be done as well in Chapter 3.1. The final formulas for contact area, load, and frictional torque are derived in Chapter 3.2.

  4. Acrylate Systemic Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Maxwell B; Pratt, Melanie D

    2015-01-01

    Acrylates, the 2012 American Contact Dermatitis Society allergen of the year, are found in a range of products including the absorbent materials within feminine hygiene pads. When fully polymerized, acrylates are nonimmunogenic; however, if not completely cured, the monomers can be potent allergens.A 28-year-old woman is presented, who had her teeth varnished with Isodan (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France) containing HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with no initial reaction. Approximately 1 month later, the patient developed a genital dermatitis secondary to her feminine hygiene pads. The initial reaction resolved, but 5 months later, the patient developed a systemic contact dermatitis after receiving a second varnishing.The patient was dramatically patch test positive to many acrylates. This case demonstrates a reaction to likely unpolymerized acrylates within a feminine hygiene pad, as well as broad cross-reactivity or cosensitivity to acrylates, and possibly a systemic contact dermatitis with systemic re-exposure to unpolymerized acrylates.

  5. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.

  6. RSAT matrix-clustering: dynamic exploration and redundancy reduction of transcription factor binding motif collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Mondragon, Jaime Abraham; Jaeger, Sébastien; Thieffry, Denis; Thomas-Chollier, Morgane; van Helden, Jacques

    2017-07-27

    Transcription factor (TF) databases contain multitudes of binding motifs (TFBMs) from various sources, from which non-redundant collections are derived by manual curation. The advent of high-throughput methods stimulated the production of novel collections with increasing numbers of motifs. Meta-databases, built by merging these collections, contain redundant versions, because available tools are not suited to automatically identify and explore biologically relevant clusters among thousands of motifs. Motif discovery from genome-scale data sets (e.g. ChIP-seq) also produces redundant motifs, hampering the interpretation of results. We present matrix-clustering, a versatile tool that clusters similar TFBMs into multiple trees, and automatically creates non-redundant TFBM collections. A feature unique to matrix-clustering is its dynamic visualisation of aligned TFBMs, and its capability to simultaneously treat multiple collections from various sources. We demonstrate that matrix-clustering considerably simplifies the interpretation of combined results from multiple motif discovery tools, and highlights biologically relevant variations of similar motifs. We also ran a large-scale application to cluster ∼11 000 motifs from 24 entire databases, showing that matrix-clustering correctly groups motifs belonging to the same TF families, and drastically reduced motif redundancy. matrix-clustering is integrated within the RSAT suite (http://rsat.eu/), accessible through a user-friendly web interface or command-line for its integration in pipelines. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Techno-Economic Assessment of Redundancy Systems for a Cogeneration Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mohd Amin Abd

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of distributed power generation has advantage as well as disadvantage. One of the disadvantages is that the plant requires a dependable redundancy system to provide back up of power during failure of its power generation equipment. This paper presents a study on techno-economic assessment of redundancy systems for a cogeneration plant. Three redundancy systems were investigated; using public utility, generator set and gas turbine as back up during failures. Results from the analysis indicate that using public utility provides technical as well as economic advantages in comparison to using generator set or turbine as back up. However, the economic advantage of the public utility depends on the frequency of failures the plant will experience as well on the maximum demand charge. From the break even analysis of the understudied plant, if the number of failures exceeds 3 failures per year for the case of maximum demand charge of RM56.80, it is more economical to install a generator set as redundancy. The study will be useful for the co-generator operators to evaluate the feasibility of redundancy systems.

  8. Redundancy of einselected information in quantum Darwinism: The irrelevance of irrelevant environment bits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolak, Michael; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2017-03-01

    The objective, classical world emerges from the underlying quantum substrate via the proliferation of redundant copies of selected information into the environment, which acts as a communication channel, transmitting that information to observers. These copies are independently accessible, allowing many observers to reach consensus about the state of a quantum system via its imprints in the environment. Quantum Darwinism recognizes that the redundancy of information is thus central to the emergence of objective reality in the quantum world. However, in addition to the "quantum system of interest," there are many other systems "of no interest" in the Universe that can imprint information on the common environment. There is therefore a danger that the information of interest will be diluted with irrelevant bits, suppressing the redundancy responsible for objectivity. We show that mixing of the relevant (the "wheat") and irrelevant (the "chaff") bits of information makes little quantitative difference to the redundancy of the information of interest. Thus, we demonstrate that it does not matter whether one separates the wheat (relevant information) from the (irrelevant) chaff: The large redundancy of the relevant information survives dilution, providing evidence of the objective, effectively classical world.

  9. Design method of redundancy of brace-anchor sharing supporting based on cooperative deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-yan; Li, Bing; Liu, Yan; Cai, Shan-bing

    2017-11-01

    Because of the complicated environment requirement, the support form of foundation pit is diversified, and the brace-anchor sharing support is widely used. However, the research on the force deformation characteristics and the related aspects of the cooperative response of the brace-anchor sharing support is insufficient. The application of redundancy theory in structural engineering has been more mature, but there is little theoretical research on redundancy theory in underground engineering. Based on the idea of collaborative deformation, the paper calculates the ratio of the redundancy degree of the cooperative deformation by using the local reinforcement design method and the structural component redundancy parameter calculation formula based on Frangopol. Combined with the engineering case, through the calculation of the ratio of cooperative deformation redundancy in the joint of brace-anchor sharing support. This paper explores the optimal anchor distribution form under the condition of cooperative deformation, and through the analysis and research of displacement field and stress field, the results of the collaborative deformation are validated by comparing the field monitoring data. It provides theoretical basis for the design of this kind of foundation pit in the future.

  10. An improved method for calculating self-motion coordinates for redundant manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reister, D.B.

    1997-04-01

    For a redundant manipulator, the objective of redundancy resolution is to follow a specified path in Cartesian space and simultaneously perform another task (for example, maximize an objective function or avoid obstacles) at every point along the path. The conventional methods have several drawbacks: a new function must be defined for each task, the extended Jacobian can be singular, closed cycles in Cartesian space may not yield closed cycles in joint space, and the objective is point-wise redundancy resolution (to determine a single point in joint space for each point in Cartesian space). The author divides the redundancy resolution problem into two parts: (1) calculate self-motion coordinates for all possible positions of a manipulator at each point along a Cartesian path and (2) determination of optimal self-motion coordinates that maximize an objective function along the path. This paper will discuss the first part of the problem. The path-wise approach overcomes all of the drawbacks of conventional redundancy resolution methods: no need to define a new function for each task, extended Jacobian cannot be singular, and closed cycles in extended Cartesian space will yield closed cycles in joint space

  11. The impact of the operating environment on the design of redundant configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marseguerra, M.; Padovani, E.; Zio, E.

    1999-01-01

    Safety systems are often characterized by substantial redundancy and diversification in safety critical components. In principle, such redundancy and diversification can bring benefits when compared to single-component systems. However, it has also been recognized that the evaluation of these benefits should take into account that redundancies cannot be founded, in practice, on the assumption of complete independence, so that the resulting risk profile is strongly dominated by dependent failures. It is therefore mandatory that the effects of common cause failures be estimated in any probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). Recently, in the Hughes model for hardware failures and in the Eckhardt and Lee models for software failures, it was proposed that the stressfulness of the operating environment affects the probability that a particular type of component will fail. Thus, dependence of component failure behaviors can arise indirectly through the variability of the environment which can directly affect the success of a redundant configuration. In this paper we investigate the impact of indirect component dependence by means of the introduction of a probability distribution which describes the variability of the environment. We show that the variance of the distribution of the number, or times, of system failures can give an indication of the presence of the environment. Further, the impact of the environment is shown to affect the reliability and the design of redundant configurations

  12. Compliant behaviour of redundant robot arm - experiments with null-space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Petar B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents theoretical and experimental aspects of Jacobian nullspace use in kinematically redundant robots for achieving kinetostatically consistent control of their compliant behavior. When the stiffness of the robot endpoint is dominantly influenced by the compliance of the robot joints, generalized stiffness matrix can be mapped into joint space using appropriate congruent transformation. Actuation stiffness matrix achieved by this transformation is generally nondiagonal. Off-diagonal elements of the actuation matrix can be generated by redundant actuation only (polyarticular actuators, but such kind of actuation is very difficult to realize practically in technical systems. The approach of solving this problem which is proposed in this paper is based on the use of kinematic redundancy and nullspace of the Jacobian matrix. Evaluation of the developed analytical model was done numerically by a minimal redundant robot with one redundant d.o.f. and experimentally by a 7 d.o.f. Yaskawa SIA 10F robot arm. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35007

  13. ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisna Yuliharti Tersinanda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Allergic contact dermatitis is an immunologic reaction that tends to involve the surrounding skin and may even spread beyond affected sites. This skin disease is one of the more frequent, and costly dermatologic problems. Recent data from United Kingdom and United States suggest that the percentage of occupational contact dermatitis due to allergy may be much higher, thus raising the economic impact of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. There is not enough data about the epidemiology of allergic contact dermatitis in Indonesia, however based on research that include beautician in Denpasar, about 27,6 percent had side effect of cosmetics, which is 25,4 percent of it manifested as allergic contact dermatitis. Diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis is based on anamnesis, physical examination, patch test, and this disease should be distinguished from other eczematous skin disease. The management is prevention of allergen exposure, symptomatic treatment, and physicochemical barrier /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  14. Analytical Redundancy Design for Aeroengine Sensor Fault Diagnostics Based on SROS-ELM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical redundancy technique is of great importance to guarantee the reliability and safety of aircraft engine system. In this paper, a machine learning based aeroengine sensor analytical redundancy technique is developed and verified through hardware-in-the-loop (HIL simulation. The modified online sequential extreme learning machine, selective updating regularized online sequential extreme learning machine (SROS-ELM, is employed to train the model online and estimate sensor measurements. It selectively updates the output weights of neural networks according to the prediction accuracy and the norm of output weight vector, tackles the problems of singularity and ill-posedness by regularization, and adopts a dual activation function in the hidden nodes combing neural and wavelet theory to enhance prediction capability. The experimental results verify the good generalization performance of SROS-ELM and show that the developed analytical redundancy technique for aeroengine sensor fault diagnosis based on SROS-ELM is effective and feasible.

  15. Fault detection in multiply-redundant measurement systems via sequential testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, A.

    1988-01-01

    The theory and application of a sequential test procedure for fault detection and isolation. The test procedure is suited for development of intelligent instrumentation in strategic processes like aircraft and nuclear plants where redundant measurements are usually available for individual critical variables. The test procedure consists of: (1) a generic redundancy management procedure which is essentially independent of the fault detection strategy and measurement noise statistics, and (2) a modified version of sequential probability ratio test algorithm for fault detection and isolation, which functions within the framework of this redundancy management procedure. The sequential test procedure is suitable for real-time applications using commercially available microcomputers and its efficacy has been verified by online fault detection in an operating nuclear reactor. 15 references

  16. Fault-Tolerant Region-Based Control of an Underwater Vehicle with Kinematically Redundant Thrusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zool H. Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new control approach for an underwater vehicle with a kinematically redundant thruster system. This control scheme is derived based on a fault-tolerant decomposition for thruster force allocation and a region control scheme for the tracking objective. Given a redundant thruster system, that is, six or more pairs of thrusters are used, the proposed redundancy resolution and region control scheme determine the number of thruster faults, as well as providing the reference thruster forces in order to keep the underwater vehicle within the desired region. The stability of the presented control law is proven in the sense of a Lyapunov function. Numerical simulations are performed with an omnidirectional underwater vehicle and the results of the proposed scheme illustrate the effectiveness in terms of optimizing the thruster forces.

  17. Optimal design of a system containing mixed redundancies with respect to reliability and cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, K.B.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear system generally consists of subsystems that may employ any of the partial, standby, and active redundancies, and is, therefore, a system with mixed type of redundancies. Optimization of reliability or availability of such systems at the design stage is a difficult problem. There appears to be no published work on the optimal design of maintained systems consisting of mixed redundancies. An attempt is therefore made, to present the basis of design and the solution technique to achieve this. An algorithm is described which makes the solution of this mathematically difficult problem possible. Some examples are demonstrated. To achieve further efficiency a study was organized and the recommendations for obtaining a minimum solution time are provided. Although, in the illustration, only the linear constraints and reliability, as the only design parameter, have been considered, the algorithm works well with the nonlinear type of constraints and can be used with other design parameters also. (author)

  18. Effect of a certain class of potential common mode failures on the reliability of redundant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolakis, G.E.

    1975-11-01

    This is a theoretical investigation of the importance of common mode failures on the reliability of redundant systems. These failures are assumed to be the result of fatal shocks (e.g., from earthquakes, explosions, etc.) which occur at a constant rate. This formulation makes it possible to predict analytically results obtained in the past which showed that the probability of a common mode failure of the redundant channels of the protection system of a typical nuclear power plant was orders of magnitude larger than the probability of failure from chance failures alone. Furthermore, since most reliability analyses of redundant systems do not include potential common mode failures in the probabilistic calculations, criteria are established which can be used to decide either that the common-mode-failure effects are indeed insignificant or that such calculations are meaningless, and more sophisticated methods of analysis are required, because common mode failures cannot be ignored

  19. The Effect of Antenna Position Errors on Redundant-Baseline Calibration of HERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Naomi; Dillon, Joshua; Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Parsons, Aaron; HERA Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    HERA (the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array) is a large, highly-redundant radio interferometer in South Africa currently being built out to 350 14-m dishes. Its mission is to probe large scale structure during and prior to the epoch of reionization using the 21 cm hyperfine transition of neutral hydrogen. The array is designed to be calibrated using redundant baselines of known lengths. However, the dishes can deviate from ideal positions, with errors on the order of a few centimeters. This potentially increases foreground contamination of the 21 cm power spectrum in the cleanest part of Fourier space. The calibration algorithm treats groups of baselines that should be redundant, but are not due to position errors, as if they actually are. Accurate, precise calibration is critical because the foreground signals are 100,000 times stronger than the reionization signal. We explain the origin of this effect and discuss weighting strategies to mitigate it.

  20. Electronic logic to enhance switch reliability in detecting openings and closures of redundant switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, James A.

    1986-01-01

    A logic circuit is used to enhance redundant switch reliability. Two or more switches are monitored for logical high or low output. The output for the logic circuit produces a redundant and failsafe representation of the switch outputs. When both switch outputs are high, the output is high. Similarly, when both switch outputs are low, the logic circuit's output is low. When the output states of the two switches do not agree, the circuit resolves the conflict by memorizing the last output state which both switches were simultaneously in and produces the logical complement of this output state. Thus, the logic circuit of the present invention allows the redundant switches to be treated as if they were in parallel when the switches are open and as if they were in series when the switches are closed. A failsafe system having maximum reliability is thereby produced.

  1. Interactions between facial emotion and identity in face processing: evidence based on redundancy gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankouskaya, Alla; Booth, David A; Humphreys, Glyn

    2012-11-01

    Interactions between the processing of emotion expression and form-based information from faces (facial identity) were investigated using the redundant-target paradigm, in which we specifically tested whether identity and emotional expression are integrated in a superadditive manner (Miller, Cognitive Psychology 14:247-279, 1982). In Experiments 1 and 2, participants performed emotion and face identity judgments on faces with sad or angry emotional expressions. Responses to redundant targets were faster than responses to either single target when a universal emotion was conveyed, and performance violated the predictions from a model assuming independent processing of emotion and face identity. Experiment 4 showed that these effects were not modulated by varying interstimulus and nontarget contingencies, and Experiment 5 demonstrated that the redundancy gains were eliminated when faces were inverted. Taken together, these results suggest that the identification of emotion and facial identity interact in face processing.

  2. Robust Redundant Input Reliable Tracking Control for Omnidirectional Rehabilitative Training Walker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of robust reliable tracking control on the omnidirectional rehabilitative training walker is examined. The new nonlinear redundant input method is proposed when one wheel actuator fault occurs. The aim of the study is to design an asymptotically stable controller that can guarantee the safety of the user and ensure tracking on a training path planned by a physical therapist. The redundant degrees of freedom safety control and the asymptotically zero state detectable concept of the walker are presented, the model of redundant degree is constructed, and the property of center of gravity constant shift is obtained. A controller that can satisfy asymptotic stability is obtained using a common Lyapunov function for admissible uncertainties resulting from an actuator fault. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method and verify that the walker can provide safe sequential motion when one wheel actuator is at fault.

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers ... Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescription. There is no such thing as a "one size fits all" contact lens. Lenses that are not properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into the cornea. Even if you have perfect vision, you need to get an eye exam and a prescription ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the ... Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  7. Fermilab | Contact Fermilab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Safety Sustainability and Environment Contact Related Links DOE FRA UChicago URA Newsroom -840-3000 Fax: 630-840-4343 Shipping address Fermilab Receiving Wilson Street and Kirk Road Batavia IL 60510-5011 Phone: 630-840-3000 Visiting address Fermilab entrance Kirk Road and Pine Street Batavia IL

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ...

  9. Lettuce contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present...... person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy.......Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present...... new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22...

  10. Contact allergy to spices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Van den Akker Th. (W.); I.D. Roesyanto-Mahadi (I.); A.W. van Toorenenbergen (Albert); Th. van Joost (Theo)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractA group of 103 patients suspected of contact allergy was tested with the European standard series, wood tars and spices; paprika, cinnamon, laurel, celery seed, nutmeg, curry, black pepper, cloves, while pepper, coriander, cacao and garlic. 32 patients (Group I) were selected on the

  11. Fermilab Education Office - Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search The Office of Education and Public Outreach: Contacts All telephone numbers require area code Presentations for Presenters 840-3094 Office of Education and Public Outreach Spencer Pasero spasero@fnal.gov Education Office 840-3076 Fermilab Friends for Science Education General Questions Susan Dahl sdahl@fnal.gov

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A medical degree and many more years of training, for starters. A recent article from U.S. News and World Report explains what ophthalmologists are and how they can help you look after ... Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical ...

  13. Mathematics Connection: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr. Kofi Mereku Executive Editor Department of Mathematics Education, UCE Mathematical Association of Ghana, C/o Department of Mathematics Education University College of Education of Winneba P. O. Box 25, Winneba, Ghana Phone: +233244961318. Email: dkmereku@uew.edu.gh ...

  14. Contact activation: a revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaier, A H

    1997-07-01

    In conclusion, a revised view of the contact system has been presented. This system has little to do with the initiation of hemostasis. Like lupus anticoagulants, deficiencies of contact proteins give prolonged APTTs but may be risk factors for thrombosis. BK from kininogens is a potent modulator of vascular biology inducing vasodilation, tissue plasminogen activator release, and prostacyclin liberation. Kininogens, themselves, are selective inhibitors of alpha-thrombin-induced platelet activation preventing alpha-thrombin from cleaving the cloned thrombin receptor after arginine41. Kininogens' alpha-thrombin inhibitory activity exists in intact kininogens, BK, and all of BK's breakdown products. HK also is the pivotal protein for contact protein assembly on endothelium. It is the receptor for prekallikrein which when bound to HK becomes activated to kallikrein by an endothelial cell enzyme system independent of activated forms of plasma factor XII. Prekallikrein activation on endothelial cells results in kinetically favorable single chain urokinase and plasminogen activation. Thus the "physiologic, negatively charged surface" for contact system activation is really the assembly of these proteins on cell membranes and activation by membrane-associated enzymes.

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wear any kind of contact lens. In Butler's case, the lenses caused an infection and left her with a corneal ... A recent article from U.S. News and World Report explains what ophthalmologists are and how they can ...

  16. Language Contact and Bilingualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appel, René; Muysken, Pieter

    2006-01-01

    What happens - sociologically, linguistically, educationally, politically - when more than one language is in regular use in a community? How do speakers handle these languages simultaneously, and what influence does this language contact have on the languages involved? Although most people in the

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but 10 hours ...

  18. Pizza makers' contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembo, Serena; Lembo, Claudio; Patruno, Cataldo; Balato, Anna; Balato, Nicola; Ayala, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Contact eczema to foods, spices, and food additives can occur in occupational and nonoccupational settings in those who grow, handle, prepare, or cook food. Pizza is one of the most eaten foods in every continent, and pizza making is a common work in many countries. We aimed to evaluate the occurrence and the causes of contact dermatitis in pizza makers in Naples. We performed an observational study in 45 pizza makers: all the enrolled subjects had to answer a questionnaire designed to detect personal history of respiratory or cutaneous allergy, atopy; work characteristics and timing were also investigated. Every subject attended the dermatology clinic for a complete skin examination, and when needed, patients were patch tested using the Italian baseline series of haptens integrated with an arbitrary pizza makers series. Our results reported that 13.3% of the enrolled pizza makers (6/45) presented hand eczema, and that 8.9% (4/45) were affected by occupational allergic contact dermatitis. Diallyl disulfide and ammonium persulfate were the responsible substances. Performing patch tests in pizza makers and food handlers affected by hand contact dermatitis is useful. We propose a specific series of haptens for this wide working category.

  19. Contact: Releasing the news

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  20. Rigid Bodies in Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebe, Sarah Maria

    . A contact point determination method, based on boolean surface maps, is developed to handle collisions between tetrahedral meshes. The novel nonsmooth nonlinear conjugate gradient (NNCG) method is presented. The NNCG method is comparable in terms of accuracy to the state-of-the-art method, projected Gauss...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... ask for a prescription. There is no such thing as a "one size fits all" contact lens. Lenses that are not properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into ...

  2. Contact allergy to cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Held, E; Johansen, J D; Agner, T

    1999-01-01

    In a 2-year period, 1527 patients with contact dermatitis were investigated in the patch-test clinic. In 531 patients, allergy to cosmetics was suspected from the history and they were tested with their own cosmetic products. 40 (7.5%) (of the 531 patients) had 1 or more positive reactions, 82 (15...

  3. Ghana Mining Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Professor Daniel Mireku-Gyimah Editor-in-Chief University of Mines & Technology Ghana Mining Journal University of Mines & Technology P. O. BOX 237 Tarkwa Ghana Phone: +233 362 20280/20324. Fax: +233 362 20306. Email: dm.gyimah@umat.edu.gh ...

  4. Molecular dynamics study of contact mechanics: contact area and interfacial separation from small to full contact

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, C.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2007-01-01

    We report a molecular dynamics study of the contact between a rigid solid with a randomly rough surface and an elastic block with a flat surface. We study the contact area and the interfacial separation from small contact (low load) to full contact (high load). For small load the contact area varies linearly with the load and the interfacial separation depends logarithmically on the load. For high load the contact area approaches to the nominal contact area (i.e., complete contact), and the i...

  5. A novel redundant INS based on triple rotary inertial measurement units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Li, Kui; Wang, Wei; Li, Peng

    2016-10-01

    Accuracy and reliability are two key performances of inertial navigation system (INS). Rotation modulation (RM) can attenuate the bias of inertial sensors and make it possible for INS to achieve higher navigation accuracy with lower-class sensors. Therefore, the conflict between the accuracy and cost of INS can be eased. Traditional system redundancy and recently researched sensor redundancy are two primary means to improve the reliability of INS. However, how to make the best use of the redundant information from redundant sensors hasn’t been studied adequately, especially in rotational INS. This paper proposed a novel triple rotary unit strapdown inertial navigation system (TRUSINS), which combines RM and sensor redundancy design to enhance the accuracy and reliability of rotational INS. Each rotary unit independently rotates to modulate the errors of two gyros and two accelerometers. Three units can provide double sets of measurements along all three axes of body frame to constitute a couple of INSs which make TRUSINS redundant. Experiments and simulations based on a prototype which is made up of six fiber-optic gyros with drift stability of 0.05° h-1 show that TRUSINS can achieve positioning accuracy of about 0.256 n mile h-1, which is ten times better than that of a normal non-rotational INS with the same level inertial sensors. The theoretical analysis and the experimental results show that due to the advantage of the innovative structure, the designed fault detection and isolation (FDI) strategy can tolerate six sensor faults at most, and is proved to be effective and practical. Therefore, TRUSINS is particularly suitable and highly beneficial for the applications where high accuracy and high reliability is required.

  6. Objective past of a quantum universe: Redundant records of consistent histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, C. Jess; Zurek, Wojciech H.; Zwolak, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Motivated by the advances of quantum Darwinism and recognizing the role played by redundancy in identifying the small subset of quantum states with resilience characteristic of objective classical reality, we explore the implications of redundant records for consistent histories. The consistent histories formalism is a tool for describing sequences of events taking place in an evolving closed quantum system. A set of histories is consistent when one can reason about them using Boolean logic, i.e., when probabilities of sequences of events that define histories are additive. However, the vast majority of the sets of histories that are merely consistent are flagrantly nonclassical in other respects. This embarras de richesses (known as the set selection problem) suggests that one must go beyond consistency to identify how the classical past arises in our quantum universe. The key intuition we follow is that the records of events that define the familiar objective past are inscribed in many distinct systems, e.g., subsystems of the environment, and are accessible locally in space and time to observers. We identify histories that are not just consistent but redundantly consistent using the partial-trace condition introduced by Finkelstein as a bridge between histories and decoherence. The existence of redundant records is a sufficient condition for redundant consistency. It selects, from the multitude of the alternative sets of consistent histories, a small subset endowed with redundant records characteristic of the objective classical past. The information about an objective history of the past is then simultaneously within reach of many, who can independently reconstruct it and arrive at compatible conclusions in the present.

  7. A novel redundant INS based on triple rotary inertial measurement units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Gang; Li, Kui; Wang, Wei; Li, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Accuracy and reliability are two key performances of inertial navigation system (INS). Rotation modulation (RM) can attenuate the bias of inertial sensors and make it possible for INS to achieve higher navigation accuracy with lower-class sensors. Therefore, the conflict between the accuracy and cost of INS can be eased. Traditional system redundancy and recently researched sensor redundancy are two primary means to improve the reliability of INS. However, how to make the best use of the redundant information from redundant sensors hasn’t been studied adequately, especially in rotational INS. This paper proposed a novel triple rotary unit strapdown inertial navigation system (TRUSINS), which combines RM and sensor redundancy design to enhance the accuracy and reliability of rotational INS. Each rotary unit independently rotates to modulate the errors of two gyros and two accelerometers. Three units can provide double sets of measurements along all three axes of body frame to constitute a couple of INSs which make TRUSINS redundant. Experiments and simulations based on a prototype which is made up of six fiber-optic gyros with drift stability of 0.05° h −1 show that TRUSINS can achieve positioning accuracy of about 0.256 n mile h −1 , which is ten times better than that of a normal non-rotational INS with the same level inertial sensors. The theoretical analysis and the experimental results show that due to the advantage of the innovative structure, the designed fault detection and isolation (FDI) strategy can tolerate six sensor faults at most, and is proved to be effective and practical. Therefore, TRUSINS is particularly suitable and highly beneficial for the applications where high accuracy and high reliability is required. (paper)

  8. Reliability optimization of series-parallel systems with a choice of redundancy strategies using a genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R. [Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11365/4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)], E-mail: tavakoli@ut.ac.ir; Safari, J. [Department of Industrial Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: jalalsafari@pideco.com; Sassani, F. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)], E-mail: sassani@mech.ubc.ca

    2008-04-15

    This paper proposes a genetic algorithm (GA) for a redundancy allocation problem for the series-parallel system when the redundancy strategy can be chosen for individual subsystems. Majority of the solution methods for the general redundancy allocation problems assume that the redundancy strategy for each subsystem is predetermined and fixed. In general, active redundancy has received more attention in the past. However, in practice both active and cold-standby redundancies may be used within a particular system design and the choice of the redundancy strategy becomes an additional decision variable. Thus, the problem is to select the best redundancy strategy, component, and redundancy level for each subsystem in order to maximize the system reliability under system-level constraints. This belongs to the NP-hard class of problems. Due to its complexity, it is so difficult to optimally solve such a problem by using traditional optimization tools. It is demonstrated in this paper that GA is an efficient method for solving this type of problems. Finally, computational results for a typical scenario are presented and the robustness of the proposed algorithm is discussed.

  9. Reliability optimization of series-parallel systems with a choice of redundancy strategies using a genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R.; Safari, J.; Sassani, F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a genetic algorithm (GA) for a redundancy allocation problem for the series-parallel system when the redundancy strategy can be chosen for individual subsystems. Majority of the solution methods for the general redundancy allocation problems assume that the redundancy strategy for each subsystem is predetermined and fixed. In general, active redundancy has received more attention in the past. However, in practice both active and cold-standby redundancies may be used within a particular system design and the choice of the redundancy strategy becomes an additional decision variable. Thus, the problem is to select the best redundancy strategy, component, and redundancy level for each subsystem in order to maximize the system reliability under system-level constraints. This belongs to the NP-hard class of problems. Due to its complexity, it is so difficult to optimally solve such a problem by using traditional optimization tools. It is demonstrated in this paper that GA is an efficient method for solving this type of problems. Finally, computational results for a typical scenario are presented and the robustness of the proposed algorithm is discussed

  10. Risk-based replacement strategies for redundant deteriorating reinforced concrete pipe networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adey, B.; Bernard, O.; Gerard, B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives an example of how predictive models of the deterioration of reinforced concrete pipes and the consequences of failure can be used to develop risk-based replacement strategies for redundant reinforced concrete pipe networks. It also shows how an accurate deterioration prediction can lead to a reduction of agency costs, and illustrates the limitation of the incremental intervention step algorithm. The main conclusion is that the use of predictive models, such as those developed by Oxand S.A., in the determination of replacement strategies for redundant reinforced concrete pipe networks can lead to a significant reduction in overall costs for the owner of the structure. (author)

  11. Obstacle avoidance for kinematically redundant robots using an adaptive fuzzy logic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beheshti, M.T.H.; Tehrani, A.K.

    1999-05-01

    In this paper the Adaptive Fuzzy Logic approach for solving the inverse kinematics of redundant robots in an environment with obstacles is presented. The obstacles are modeled as convex bodies. A fuzzy rule base that is updated via an adaptive law is used to solve the inverse kinematic problem. Additional rules have been introduced to take care of the obstacles avoidance problem. The proposed method has advantages such as high accuracy, simplicity of computations and generality for all redundant robots. Simulation results illustrate much better tracking performance than the dynamic base solution for a given trajectory in cartesian space, while guaranteeing a collision-free trajectory and observation of a mechanical joint limit

  12. Statistical Redundancy Testing for Improved Gene Selection in Cancer Classification Using Microarray Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sunil Rao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In gene selection for cancer classifi cation using microarray data, we define an eigenvalue-ratio statistic to measure a gene’s contribution to the joint discriminability when this gene is included into a set of genes. Based on this eigenvalueratio statistic, we define a novel hypothesis testing for gene statistical redundancy and propose two gene selection methods. Simulation studies illustrate the agreement between statistical redundancy testing and gene selection methods. Real data examples show the proposed gene selection methods can select a compact gene subset which can not only be used to build high quality cancer classifiers but also show biological relevance.

  13. CCF analysis of high redundancy systems safety/relief valve data analysis and reference BWR application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankamo, T.; Bjoere, S.; Olsson, Lena

    1992-12-01

    Dependent failure analysis and modeling were developed for high redundancy systems. The study included a comprehensive data analysis of safety and relief valves at the Finnish and Swedish BWR plants, resulting in improved understanding of Common Cause Failure mechanisms in these components. The reference application on the Forsmark 1/2 reactor relief system, constituting of twelve safety/relief lines and two regulating relief lines, covered different safety criteria cases of reactor depressurization and overpressure protection function, and failure to re close sequences. For the quantification of dependencies, the Alpha Factor Model, the Binomial Probability Model and the Common Load Model were compared for applicability in high redundancy systems

  14. A model for the coupling of failure rates in a redundant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppmann, W.G.; Wutschig, R.

    1986-01-01

    A model is developed which takes into acount the coupling between failure rates or identical components in different redundancies of a safety system, i.e., the fact that the failure rates of identical components subjected to the same operating conditions will scatter less than the failure rates of any two components of the same type. It is shown that with increasing coupling the expectation value and the variance of the distribution of the failure probability of the redundant system increases. A consistent way to incorporate operating experience in a Bayesian framework is developed and the reults are presented. (orig.)

  15. A new way to improve the robustness of complex communication networks by allocating redundancy links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Chunhui; Zhuo Yue; Tang Jieying; Long Keping; Peng Yunfeng

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the robustness of complex communication networks on allocating redundancy links. The protecting key nodes (PKN) strategy is proposed to improve the robustness of complex communication networks against intentional attack. Our numerical simulations show that allocating a few redundant links among key nodes using the PKN strategy will significantly increase the robustness of scale-free complex networks. We have also theoretically proved and demonstrated the effectiveness of the PKN strategy. We expect that our work will help achieve a better understanding of communication networks. (paper)

  16. Focusing on Contact Lens Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their practices. Decorative contacts (also called “costume,” colored,” “fashion,” or “plano” contacts). The FDA has often warned ... Lenses Decorative Contact Lenses Hydrogen Peroxide Solution Related Consumer Updates 'Colored' and Decorative Contact Lenses: A Prescription ...

  17. Electrical contacts principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Slade, Paul G

    2013-01-01

    Covering the theory, application, and testing of contact materials, Electrical Contacts: Principles and Applications, Second Edition introduces a thorough discussion on making electric contact and contact interface conduction; presents a general outline of, and measurement techniques for, important corrosion mechanisms; considers the results of contact wear when plug-in connections are made and broken; investigates the effect of thin noble metal plating on electronic connections; and relates crucial considerations for making high- and low-power contact joints. It examines contact use in switch

  18. [News on occupational contact dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crépy, Marie-Noëlle; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda

    2014-03-01

    Contact dermatitis--irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis and protein contact dermatitis--are the most common occupational skin diseases, most often localized to the hands. Contact urticaria is rarer The main occupational irritants are wet work, detergents and disinfectants, cutting oils, and solvents. The main occupational allergens are rubber additives, metals (chromium, nickel, cobalt), plastics (epoxy resins, acrylic), biocides and plants. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination, medical history and allergy testing. For a number of irritating or sensitizing agents, irritant or allergic dermatitis can be notified as occupational diseases. The two main prevention measures are reducing skin contact with irritants and complete avoidance of skin contact with offending allergens.

  19. HTSC-Josephson step contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, K.

    1994-03-01

    In this work the properties of josephson step contacts are investigated. After a short introduction into Josephson step contacts the structure, properties and the Josphson contacts of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x high-T c superconductors is presented. The fabrication of HTSC step contacts and the microstructure is discussed. The electric properties of these contacts are measured together with the Josephson emission and the magnetic field dependence. The temperature dependence of the stationary transport properties is given. (WL)

  20. Contact dynamics math model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaese, John R.; Tobbe, Patrick A.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station Mechanism Test Bed consists of a hydraulically driven, computer controlled six degree of freedom (DOF) motion system with which docking, berthing, and other mechanisms can be evaluated. Measured contact forces and moments are provided to the simulation host computer to enable representation of orbital contact dynamics. This report describes the development of a generalized math model which represents the relative motion between two rigid orbiting vehicles. The model allows motion in six DOF for each body, with no vehicle size limitation. The rotational and translational equations of motion are derived. The method used to transform the forces and moments from the sensor location to the vehicles' centers of mass is also explained. Two math models of docking mechanisms, a simple translational spring and the Remote Manipulator System end effector, are presented along with simulation results. The translational spring model is used in an attempt to verify the simulation with compensated hardware in the loop results.

  1. Contact allergy to lanolin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransen, Marloes; Overgaard, Line E K; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lanolin has been tested as lanolin alcohols (30% pet.) in baseline patch test series since 1969, and this has shown clinically relevant allergic contact dermatitis cases. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the temporal development of lanolin allergy (i.e. positive reaction to lanolin alcohols...... and/or Amerchol™ L-101), and the association between contact allergy to lanolin and patient characteristics from the MOAHLFA index. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of consecutively patch tested dermatitis patients (n = 9577) between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2015 with lanolin...... alcohols 30% pet. and Amerchol™ L-101 50% pet. was performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of lanolin allergy increased from 0.45% in 2004 to 1.81% in 2015. In age-adjusted and sex-adjusted analyses, weak, significant associations were found between atopic dermatitis and lanolin and lanolin alcohols allergy...

  2. Contact stress sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovsky, Jack [Oakland, CA

    2012-02-07

    A contact stress sensor includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a thermal compensator and a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  3. Occupational protein contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaud, Annick; Poreaux, Claire; Penven, Emmanuelle; Waton, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is generally caused by haptens but can also be induced by proteins causing mainly immunological contact urticaria (ICU); chronic hand eczema in the context of protein contact dermatitis (PCD). In a monocentric retrospective study, from our database, only 31 (0.41%) of patients with contact dermatitis had positive skin tests with proteins: 22 had occupational PCD, 3 had non-occupational PCD, 5 occupational ICU and 1 cook had a neutrophilic fixed food eruption (NFFE) due to fish. From these results and analysis of literature, the characteristics of PCD can be summarized as follows. It is a chronic eczematous dermatitis, possibly exacerbated by work, suggestive if associated with inflammatory perionyxix and immediate erythema with pruritis, to be investigated when the patient resumes work after a period of interruption. Prick tests with the suspected protein-containing material are essential, as patch tests have negative results. In case of multisensitisation revealed by prick tests, it is advisable to analyse IgE against recombinant allergens. A history of atopy, found in 56 to 68% of the patients, has to be checked for. Most of the cases are observed among food-handlers but PCD can also be due to non-edible plants, latex, hydrolysed proteins or animal proteins. Occupational exposure to proteins can thus lead to the development of ICU. Reflecting hypersensitivity to very low concentrations of allergens, investigating ICU therefore requires caution and prick tests should be performed with a diluted form of the causative protein-containing product. Causes are food, especially fruit peel, non-edible plants, cosmetic products, latex, animals.

  4. Fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne D

    2003-01-01

    . This gives a positive patch-test reaction in about 10% of tested patients with eczema, and the most recent estimates show that 1.7-4.1% of the general population are sensitized to ingredients of the fragrance mix. Fragrance allergy occurs predominantly in women with facial or hand eczema. These women...... development to identify contact allergy to new allergens, reflecting the continuous developments and trends in exposure....

  5. Pediatric contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD in children, until recently, was considered rare. ACD was considered as a disorder of the adult population and children were thought to be spared due to a lack of exposure to potential allergens and an immature immune system. Prevalence of ACD to even the most common allergens in children, like poison ivy and parthenium, is relatively rare as compared to adults. However, there is now growing evidence of contact sensitization of the pediatric population, and it begins right from early childhood, including 1-week-old neonates. Vaccinations, piercing, topical medicaments and cosmetics in younger patients are potential exposures for sensitization. Nickel is the most common sensitizer in almost all studies pertaining to pediatric contact dermatitis. Other common allergens reported are cobalt, fragrance mix, rubber, lanolin, thiomersol, neomycin, gold, mercapto mix, balsum of Peru and colophony. Different factors like age, sex, atopy, social and cultural practices, habit of parents and caregivers and geographic changes affect the patterns of ACD and their variable clinical presentation. Patch testing should be considered not only in children with lesions of a morphology suggestive of ACD, but in any child with dermatitis that is difficult to control.

  6. Functional redundancy and sensitivity of fish assemblages in European rivers, lakes and estuarine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Nils; Lepage, Mario; Sagouis, Alban; Borja, Angel; Chust, Guillem; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Pasquaud, Stéphanie; Schinegger, Rafaela; Segurado, Pedro; Argillier, Christine

    2017-12-14

    The impact of species loss on ecosystems functioning depends on the amount of trait similarity between species, i.e. functional redundancy, but it is also influenced by the order in which species are lost. Here we investigated redundancy and sensitivity patterns across fish assemblages in lakes, rivers and estuaries. Several scenarios of species extinction were simulated to determine whether the loss of vulnerable species (with high propensity of extinction when facing threats) causes a greater functional alteration than random extinction. Our results indicate that the functional redundancy tended to increase with species richness in lakes and rivers, but not in estuaries. We demonstrated that i) in the three systems, some combinations of functional traits are supported by non-redundant species, ii) rare species in rivers and estuaries support singular functions not shared by dominant species, iii) the loss of vulnerable species can induce greater functional alteration in rivers than in lakes and estuaries. Overall, the functional structure of fish assemblages in rivers is weakly buffered against species extinction because vulnerable species support singular functions. More specifically, a hotspot of functional sensitivity was highlighted in the Iberian Peninsula, which emphasizes the usefulness of quantitative criteria to determine conservation priorities.

  7. Microsatellite-aided detection of genetic redundancy improves management of the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), the tree from which cocoa butter and chocolate is derived, is conserved in field genebanks. The largest of these ex situ collections in the public domain is the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T). Reduction of genetic redundancy is essential to improve the acc...

  8. The Redundancy Effect on Retention and Transfer for Individuals with High Symptoms of ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Victoria; Lewis, David; Toussaint, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The multimedia elements of text and audio need to be carefully integrated together to maximize the impact of those elements for learning in a multimedia environment. Redundancy information presented through audio and visual channels can inhibit learning for individuals diagnosed with ADHD, who may experience challenges in the processing of…

  9. Reliability Equivalence to Symmetrical UHVDC Transmission Systems Considering Redundant Structure Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Jiang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the ultra-high voltage direct current (UHVDC transmission system has been developed rapidly for its significant long-distance, high-capacity and low-loss properties. Equipment failures and overall outages of the UHVDC system have increasingly vital influence on the power supply of the receiving end grid. To improve the reliability level of UHVDC systems, a quantitative selection and configuration approach of redundant structures is proposed in this paper, which is based on multi-state reliability equivalence. Specifically, considering the symmetry characteristic of an UHVDC system, a state space model is established as a monopole rather than a bipole, which effectively reduces the state space dimensions to be considered by deducing the reliability merging operator of two poles. Considering the standby effect of AC filters and the recovery effect of converter units, the number of available converter units and corresponding probability are expressed with in universal generating function (UGF form. Then, a sensitivity analysis is performed to quantify the impact of component reliability parameters on system reliability and determine the most specific devices that should be configured in the redundant structure. Finally, a cost-benefit analysis is utilized to help determine the optimal scheme of redundant devices. Case studies are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method. Based on the numerical results, configuring a set of redundant transformers is indicated to be of the greatest significance to improve the reliability level of UHVDC transmission systems.

  10. Temporal information partitioning: Characterizing synergy, uniqueness, and redundancy in interacting environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwell, Allison E.; Kumar, Praveen

    2017-07-01

    Information theoretic measures can be used to identify nonlinear interactions between source and target variables through reductions in uncertainty. In information partitioning, multivariate mutual information is decomposed into synergistic, unique, and redundant components. Synergy is information shared only when sources influence a target together, uniqueness is information only provided by one source, and redundancy is overlapping shared information from multiple sources. While this partitioning has been applied to provide insights into complex dependencies, several proposed partitioning methods overestimate redundant information and omit a component of unique information because they do not account for source dependencies. Additionally, information partitioning has only been applied to time-series data in a limited context, using basic pdf estimation techniques or a Gaussian assumption. We develop a Rescaled Redundancy measure (Rs) to solve the source dependency issue, and present Gaussian, autoregressive, and chaotic test cases to demonstrate its advantages over existing techniques in the presence of noise, various source correlations, and different types of interactions. This study constitutes the first rigorous application of information partitioning to environmental time-series data, and addresses how noise, pdf estimation technique, or source dependencies can influence detected measures. We illustrate how our techniques can unravel the complex nature of forcing and feedback within an ecohydrologic system with an application to 1 min environmental signals of air temperature, relative humidity, and windspeed. The methods presented here are applicable to the study of a broad range of complex systems composed of interacting variables.

  11. Fault Tolerance for Industrial Actuators in Absence of Accurate Models and Hardware Redundancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papageorgiou, Dimitrios; Blanke, Mogens; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates Fault-Tolerant Control for closed-loop systems where only coarse models are available and there is lack of actuator and sensor redundancies. The problem is approached in the form of a typical servomotor in closed-loop. A linear model is extracted from input/output data to ...

  12. Too Few Apples: The Challenge of Declining Enrolments and Teacher Redundancy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Richard J.

    This study provides a review of the nature and success of programs dealing with excess teacher supply. The causes and effects of teacher redundancy are discussed, and methods of supply and demand planning are examined. Strategies to deal with inservice retraining and programs that present career alternatives are reviewed. Among the solutions…

  13. The Identity of Information: How Deterministic Dependencies Constrain Information Synergy and Redundancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chicharro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how different information sources together transmit information is crucial in many domains. For example, understanding the neural code requires characterizing how different neurons contribute unique, redundant, or synergistic pieces of information about sensory or behavioral variables. Williams and Beer (2010 proposed a partial information decomposition (PID that separates the mutual information that a set of sources contains about a set of targets into nonnegative terms interpretable as these pieces. Quantifying redundancy requires assigning an identity to different information pieces, to assess when information is common across sources. Harder et al. (2013 proposed an identity axiom that imposes necessary conditions to quantify qualitatively common information. However, Bertschinger et al. (2012 showed that, in a counterexample with deterministic target-source dependencies, the identity axiom is incompatible with ensuring PID nonnegativity. Here, we study systematically the consequences of information identity criteria that assign identity based on associations between target and source variables resulting from deterministic dependencies. We show how these criteria are related to the identity axiom and to previously proposed redundancy measures, and we characterize how they lead to negative PID terms. This constitutes a further step to more explicitly address the role of information identity in the quantification of redundancy. The implications for studying neural coding are discussed.

  14. Redundancy control in music performance : towards an understanding of the role of constraint satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, H.J.I.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated two redundancy control problems related to music performance, one in computer science and one in motor control research, viz., score-performance matching and guitar fingering. In score-performance matching, a score and a performance have to be compared note by note to find the

  15. Quantifying the value of redundant measurements at GCOS Reference Upper-Air Network sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Madonna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential for measurement redundancy to reduce uncertainty in atmospheric variables has not been investigated comprehensively for climate observations. We evaluated the usefulness of entropy and mutual correlation concepts, as defined in information theory, for quantifying random uncertainty and redundancy in time series of the integrated water vapour (IWV and water vapour mixing ratio profiles provided by five highly instrumented GRUAN (GCOS, Global Climate Observing System, Reference Upper-Air Network stations in 2010–2012. Results show that the random uncertainties on the IWV measured with radiosondes, global positioning system, microwave and infrared radiometers, and Raman lidar measurements differed by less than 8%. Comparisons of time series of IWV content from ground-based remote sensing instruments with in situ soundings showed that microwave radiometers have the highest redundancy with the IWV time series measured by radiosondes and therefore the highest potential to reduce the random uncertainty of the radiosondes time series. Moreover, the random uncertainty of a time series from one instrument can be reduced by ~ 60% by constraining the measurements with those from another instrument. The best reduction of random uncertainty is achieved by conditioning Raman lidar measurements with microwave radiometer measurements. Specific instruments are recommended for atmospheric water vapour measurements at GRUAN sites. This approach can be applied to the study of redundant measurements for other climate variables.

  16. Developmental Changes in Children’s Processing of Redundant Modifiers in Definite Object Descriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, Ruud; Krahmer, Emiel; Swerts, Marc

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates developmental changes in children’s processing of redundant information in definite object descriptions. In two experiments, children of two age groups (6 or 7, and 9 or 10 years old) were presented with pictures of sweets. In the first experiment (pairwise comparison), two

  17. Learning contrast-invariant cancellation of redundant signals in neural systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge F Mejias

    Full Text Available Cancellation of redundant information is a highly desirable feature of sensory systems, since it would potentially lead to a more efficient detection of novel information. However, biologically plausible mechanisms responsible for such selective cancellation, and especially those robust to realistic variations in the intensity of the redundant signals, are mostly unknown. In this work, we study, via in vivo experimental recordings and computational models, the behavior of a cerebellar-like circuit in the weakly electric fish which is known to perform cancellation of redundant stimuli. We experimentally observe contrast invariance in the cancellation of spatially and temporally redundant stimuli in such a system. Our model, which incorporates heterogeneously-delayed feedback, bursting dynamics and burst-induced STDP, is in agreement with our in vivo observations. In addition, the model gives insight on the activity of granule cells and parallel fibers involved in the feedback pathway, and provides a strong prediction on the parallel fiber potentiation time scale. Finally, our model predicts the existence of an optimal learning contrast around 15% contrast levels, which are commonly experienced by interacting fish.

  18. Redundant filtration system of the fuel buildings,units 1 and 2 Almaraz NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Tanco, J.

    2011-01-01

    The project redundant filtering fuel buildings in units 1 and 2 of Almaraz NPP, will compliance to the requirements established in the complementary technical instructions to the authorization of exploitation of Almaraz NPP, established by the CSN and will consist of the installation of a new filtration unit.

  19. Redundancy Factors for the Seismic Design of Ductile Reinforced Concrete Chevron Braced Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eber Alberto Godínez-Domínguez

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper the authors summarize the results of a study devoted to assess, using nonlinear static analyses, the impact of increasing the structural redundancy in ductile moment-resisting reinforced concrete concentric braced frames structures (RC-MRCBFs. Among the studied variables were the number of stories and the number of bays. Results obtained were compared with the currently proposed values in the Manual of Civil Structures (MOC-08, a model code of Mexico. The studied frames have 4, 8, 12 and 16-story with a story height h=3.5 m. and a fixed length L=12 m., where 1, 2, 3 or 4 bays have to be located. RC-MRCBFs were assumed to be located in soft soil conditions in Mexico City and were designed using a capacity design methodology adapted to general requirements of the seismic, reinforced concrete and steel guidelines of Mexican Codes. From the results obtained in this study it is possible to conclude that a different effect is observed in overstrength redundancy factors respect to ductility redundancy factors due to an increase of the bay number considered. Also, the structural redundancy factors obtained for this particular structural system varies respect to the currently proposed in MOC-08.

  20. 77 FR 28797 - Redundancy of Communications Systems: Backup Power Private Land Mobile Radio Services: Selection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 12 and 90 [DA 11-1838] Redundancy of Communications Systems: Backup Power Private Land Mobile Radio Services: Selection and Assignment of Frequencies, and Transition of the Upper 200 Channels in the 800 MHz Band to EA Licensing AGENCY: Federal Communications...

  1. Reliability analysis of component-level redundant topologies for solid-state fault current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Masoud; Abapour, Mehdi; Mohammadi-Ivatloo, Behnam

    2018-04-01

    Experience shows that semiconductor switches in power electronics systems are the most vulnerable components. One of the most common ways to solve this reliability challenge is component-level redundant design. There are four possible configurations for the redundant design in component level. This article presents a comparative reliability analysis between different component-level redundant designs for solid-state fault current limiter. The aim of the proposed analysis is to determine the more reliable component-level redundant configuration. The mean time to failure (MTTF) is used as the reliability parameter. Considering both fault types (open circuit and short circuit), the MTTFs of different configurations are calculated. It is demonstrated that more reliable configuration depends on the junction temperature of the semiconductor switches in the steady state. That junction temperature is a function of (i) ambient temperature, (ii) power loss of the semiconductor switch and (iii) thermal resistance of heat sink. Also, results' sensitivity to each parameter is investigated. The results show that in different conditions, various configurations have higher reliability. The experimental results are presented to clarify the theory and feasibility of the proposed approaches. At last, levelised costs of different configurations are analysed for a fair comparison.

  2. Global Energy-Optimal Redundancy Resolution of Hydraulic Manipulators: Experimental Results for a Forestry Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmo Nurmi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the energy-inefficiency problem of four-degrees-of-freedom (4-DOF hydraulic manipulators through redundancy resolution in robotic closed-loop controlled applications. Because conventional methods typically are local and have poor performance for resolving redundancy with respect to minimum hydraulic energy consumption, global energy-optimal redundancy resolution is proposed at the valve-controlled actuator and hydraulic power system interaction level. The energy consumption of the widely popular valve-controlled load-sensing (LS and constant-pressure (CP systems is effectively minimised through cost functions formulated in a discrete-time dynamic programming (DP approach with minimum state representation. A prescribed end-effector path and important actuator constraints at the position, velocity and acceleration levels are also satisfied in the solution. Extensive field experiments performed on a forestry hydraulic manipulator demonstrate the performance of the proposed solution. Approximately 15–30% greater hydraulic energy consumption was observed with the conventional methods in the LS and CP systems. These results encourage energy-optimal redundancy resolution in future robotic applications of hydraulic manipulators.

  3. Production-on-the-Go Practice: Storyboarding as a Retrospective and Redundant School Literacy Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lynde

    2013-01-01

    Storyboarding is one common strategy used in teaching young people digital media. This paper argues that in adolescents' literacy practices, they engage in production on the go. The metaphor is described in this paper to put forward the argument that storyboarding can be a retrospective and redundant literacy activity in adolescents' school…

  4. Hardware for Accelerating N-Modular Redundant Systems for High-Reliability Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Carl, Sr.

    2012-01-01

    A hardware unit has been designed that reduces the cost, in terms of performance and power consumption, for implementing N-modular redundancy (NMR) in a multiprocessor device. The innovation monitors transactions to memory, and calculates a form of sumcheck on-the-fly, thereby relieving the processors of calculating the sumcheck in software

  5. [Sport injuries in full contact and semi-contact karate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greier, K; Riechelmann, H; Ziemska, J

    2014-03-01

    Karate enjoys great popularity both in professional and recreational sports and can be classified into full, half and low contact styles. The aim of this study was the analysis of sports injuries in Kyokushinkai (full contact) and traditional Karate (semi-contact). In a retrospective study design, 215 active amateur karateka (114 full contact, 101 semi-contact) were interviewed by means of a standardised questionnaire regarding typical sport injuries during the last 36 months. Injuries were categorised into severity grade I (not requiring medical treatment), grade II (single medical treatment), grade III (several outpatient medical treatments) and grade IV (requiring hospitalisation). In total, 217 injuries were reported in detail. 125 injuries (58%) occurred in full contact and 92 (42%) in semi-contact karate. The time related injury rate of full contact karateka was 1.9/1000 h compared to 1.3/1000 h of semi-contact karateka (p injuries were musculoskeletal contusions (33% full contact, 20% semi-contact), followed by articular sprains with 19% and 16%. The lower extremity was affected twice as often in full contact (40%) as in semi-contact (20%) karate. Training injuries were reported by 80% of the full contact and 77% of the semi-contact karateka. Most injuries, both in training and competition, occurred in kumite. 75% of the reported injuries of full contact and 70% of semi-contact karateka were classified as low grade (I or II). The high rate of injuries during training and kumite (sparring) points to specific prevention goals. The emphasis should be put on proprioceptive training and consistent warm-up. In the actual competition the referees play a vital role regarding prevention. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Mechanical Contact Experiments and Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martins, P; Zhang, W.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical contact is studied under dynamic development by means of a combined numerical and experimental investigation. The experiments are designed to allow dynamical development of non-planar contact areas with significant expansion in all three directions as the load is increased. Different....... The overall investigation serves for testing and validating the numerical implementation of the mechanical contact, which is one of the main contributions to a system intended for 3D simulation of resistance welding. Correct modelling of contact between parts to be welded, as well as contact with electrodes......, is crucial for satisfactory modelling of the resistance welding process. The resistance heating at the contact interfaces depends on both contact area and pressure, and as the contact areas develop dynamically, the presented tests are relevant for assessing the validity and accuracy of the mechanical contact...

  7. Availability analysis of safety grade multiple redundant controller used in advanced nuclear safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Kwang Seop; Kim, Dong Hoon; Park, Gee Yong; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2018-01-01

    Highlights: •The multiple redundant controller, SPLC is configured as the combination of DMR and TMR architecture. •We construct the Markov model of SPLC using the concept of the system unavailability rate. •To satisfy the availability requirement of safety grade controller, the fault coverage factor (FCF) should be ≥0.8 and the MTTR of each module should be ≤100 h when FCF is 0.9. •The availability of SPLC is better than that of PLC having iTMR architecture however it is poorer than iTMR considering the off-line test and inspection on the assumption that MTTR of each module is ≤200 h. -- Abstract: We analyze the availability of the Safety Programmable Logic Controller (SPLC) having multiple redundant architectures. In the SPLC, input/output and processor module are configured as triple modular redundancy (TMR), and backplane bus, power and communication modules are configured as dual modular redundancy (DMR). The voting logics for redundant architectures are based on the forwarding error detection. It means that the receivers perform the voting logics based on the status information of transmitters. To analyze the availability of SPLC, we construct the Markov model and simplify the model adopting the system unavailability rate. The results show that the fault coverage factor should be ≥0.8 and Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) should be ≤100 h in order to satisfy the requirement that the availability of the safety grade PLC should be ≥0.995. Also we evaluate the availability of SPLC comparing to other PLCs such as simplex, processor DMR (pDMR) and independent TMR (iTMR) PLCs used in the existing nuclear safety systems. The availability of SPLC is higher than those of the simplex, pDMR but is lower than that of iTMR for one month which is the periodic off-line test and inspection. That’s why the number of redundant modules used in PLC is more dominant to increasing the availability than the number of fault masking methods such as voting logics used

  8. Evaluation of software based redundancy algorithms for the EOS storage system at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Andreas-Joachim; Sindrilaru, Elvin Alin; Zigann, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    EOS is a new disk based storage system used in production at CERN since autumn 2011. It is implemented using the plug-in architecture of the XRootD software framework and allows remote file access via XRootD protocol or POSIX-like file access via FUSE mounting. EOS was designed to fulfill specific requirements of disk storage scalability and IO scheduling performance for LHC analysis use cases. This is achieved by following a strategy of decoupling disk and tape storage as individual storage systems. A key point of the EOS design is to provide high availability and redundancy of files via a software implementation which uses disk-only storage systems without hardware RAID arrays. All this is aimed at reducing the overall cost of the system and also simplifying the operational procedures. This paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of redundancy by hardware (most classical storage installations) in comparison to redundancy by software. The latter is implemented in the EOS system and achieves its goal by spawning data and parity stripes via remote file access over nodes. The gain in redundancy and reliability comes with a trade-off in the following areas: • Increased complexity of the network connectivity • CPU intensive parity computations during file creation and recovery • Performance loss through remote disk coupling An evaluation and performance figures of several redundancy algorithms are presented for dual parity RAID and Reed-Solomon codecs. Moreover, the characteristics and applicability of these algorithms are discussed in the context of reliable data storage systems.

  9. Synergy and redundancy in the Granger causal analysis of dynamical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stramaglia, Sebastiano; M Cortes, Jesus; Marinazzo, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    We analyze, by means of Granger causality (GC), the effect of synergy and redundancy in the inference (from time series data) of the information flow between subsystems of a complex network. While we show that fully conditioned GC (CGC) is not affected by synergy, the pairwise analysis fails to prove synergetic effects. In cases when the number of samples is low, thus making the fully conditioned approach unfeasible, we show that partially conditioned GC (PCGC) is an effective approach if the set of conditioning variables is properly chosen. Here we consider two different strategies (based either on informational content for the candidate driver or on selecting the variables with highest pairwise influences) for PCGC and show that, depending on the data structure, either one or the other might be equally valid. On the other hand, we observe that fully conditioned approaches do not work well in the presence of redundancy, thus suggesting the strategy of separating the pairwise links in two subsets: those corresponding to indirect connections of the CGC (which should thus be excluded) and links that can be ascribed to redundancy effects and, together with the results from the fully connected approach, provide a better description of the causality pattern in the presence of redundancy. Finally we apply these methods to two different real datasets. First, analyzing electrophysiological data from an epileptic brain, we show that synergetic effects are dominant just before seizure occurrences. Second, our analysis applied to gene expression time series from HeLa culture shows that the underlying regulatory networks are characterized by both redundancy and synergy. (paper)

  10. Stabilization Methods for the Integration of DAE in the Presence of Redundant Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, Maria Augusta; Ambrosio, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    The use of multibody formulations based on Cartesian or natural coordinates lead to sets of differential-algebraic equations that have to be solved. The difficulty in providing compatible initial positions and velocities for a general spatial multibody model and the finite precision of such data result in initial errors that must be corrected during the forward dynamic solution of the system equations of motion.As the position and velocity constraint equations are not explicitly involved in the solution procedure, any integration error leads to the violation of these equations in the long run. Another problem that is very often impossible to avoid is the presence of redundant constraints.Even with no initial redundancy it is possible for some systems to achieve singular configurations in which kinematic constraints become temporarily redundant. In this work several procedures to stabilize the solution of the equations of motion and to handle redundant constraints are revisited. The Baumgarte stabilization, augmented Lagrangian and coordinate partitioning methods are discussed in terms of their efficiency and computational costs. The LU factorization with full pivoting of the Jacobian matrix directs the choice of the set of independent coordinates, required by the coordinate partitioning method.Even when no particular stabilization method is used, a Newton-Raphson iterative procedure is still required in the initial time step to correct the initial positions and velocities, thus requiring the selection of the independent coordinates. However, this initial selection does not guarantee that during the motion of the system other constraints do not become redundant. Two procedures based on the single value decomposition and Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization are revisited for the purpose. The advantages and drawbacks of the different procedures,used separately or in conjunction with each other and their computational costs are finally discussed

  11. Modified parity space averaging approaches for online cross-calibration of redundant sensors in nuclear reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moath Kassim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To maintain safety and reliability of reactors, redundant sensors are usually used to measure critical variables and estimate their averaged time-dependency. Nonhealthy sensors can badly influence the estimation result of the process variable. Since online condition monitoring was introduced, the online cross-calibration method has been widely used to detect any anomaly of sensor readings among the redundant group. The cross-calibration method has four main averaging techniques: simple averaging, band averaging, weighted averaging, and parity space averaging (PSA. PSA is used to weigh redundant signals based on their error bounds and their band consistency. Using the consistency weighting factor (C, PSA assigns more weight to consistent signals that have shared bands, based on how many bands they share, and gives inconsistent signals of very low weight. In this article, three approaches are introduced for improving the PSA technique: the first is to add another consistency factor, so called trend consistency (TC, to include a consideration of the preserving of any characteristic edge that reflects the behavior of equipment/component measured by the process parameter; the second approach proposes replacing the error bound/accuracy based weighting factor (Wa with a weighting factor based on the Euclidean distance (Wd, and the third approach proposes applying Wd,TC,andC, all together. Cold neutron source data sets of four redundant hydrogen pressure transmitters from a research reactor were used to perform the validation and verification. Results showed that the second and third modified approaches lead to reasonable improvement of the PSA technique. All approaches implemented in this study were similar in that they have the capability to (1 identify and isolate a drifted sensor that should undergo calibration, (2 identify a faulty sensor/s due to long and continuous missing data range, and (3 identify a healthy sensor. Keywords: Nuclear Reactors

  12. Effects of redundancy in the comparison of speech and pictorial displays in the cockpit environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byblow, W D

    1990-06-01

    Synthesised speech and pictorial displays were compared in a spatially compatible simulated cockpit environment. Messages of high or low levels of redundancy were presented to subjects in both modality conditions. Subjects responded to warnings presented in a warning-only condition and in a dual-task condition, in which a simulated flight task was performed with visual and manual input/output modalities. Because the amount of information presented in most real-world applications and experimental paradigms is quantifiably large with respect to present guidelines for the use of synthesised speech warnings, the low-redundancy condition was hypothesised to allow for better performance. Results showed that subjects respond quicker to messages of low redundancy in both modalities. It is suggested that speech messages with low-redundancy levels were effective in minimising message length and ensuring that messages did not overload the short-term memory required to process and maintain speech in memory. Manipulation of phrase structure was used to optimise message redundancy and enhance the conceptual compatibility of the message without increasing message length or imposing a perceptual cost or memory overload. The results also suggest that system response times were quicker when synthesised speech warnings were used. This result is consistent with predictions from multiple resource theory which states that the resources required for the perception of verbal warnings are different from those for the flight task. It is also suggested that the perception of a pictorial display requires the same resources used for the perception of the primary flight task. An alternative explanation is that pictorial displays impose a visual scanning cost which is responsible for decreased performance. Based on the findings reported here, it is suggested that speech displays be incorporated in a spatially compatible cockpit environment because they allow equal or better performance when

  13. Task-space separation principle: a force-field approach to motion planning for redundant manipulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasino, Paolo; Campolo, Domenico

    2017-02-03

    In this work, we address human-like motor planning in redundant manipulators. Specifically, we want to capture postural synergies such as Donders' law, experimentally observed in humans during kinematically redundant tasks, and infer a minimal set of parameters to implement similar postural synergies in a kinematic model. For the model itself, although the focus of this paper is to solve redundancy by implementing postural strategies derived from experimental data, we also want to ensure that such postural control strategies do not interfere with other possible forms of motion control (in the task-space), i.e. solving the posture/movement problem. The redundancy problem is framed as a constrained optimization problem, traditionally solved via the method of Lagrange multipliers. The posture/movement problem can be tackled via the separation principle which, derived from experimental evidence, posits that the brain processes static torques (i.e. posture-dependent, such as gravitational torques) separately from dynamic torques (i.e. velocity-dependent). The separation principle has traditionally been applied at a joint torque level. Our main contribution is to apply the separation principle to Lagrange multipliers, which act as task-space force fields, leading to a task-space separation principle. In this way, we can separate postural control (implementing Donders' law) from various types of tasks-space movement planners. As an example, the proposed framework is applied to the (redundant) task of pointing with the human wrist. Nonlinear inverse optimization (NIO) is used to fit the model parameters and to capture motor strategies displayed by six human subjects during pointing tasks. The novelty of our NIO approach is that (i) the fitted motor strategy, rather than raw data, is used to filter and down-sample human behaviours; (ii) our framework is used to efficiently simulate model behaviour iteratively, until it converges towards the experimental human strategies.

  14. Processing bimodal stimulus information under alcohol: is there a risk to being redundant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmore, Mark T

    2010-10-01

    The impairing effects of alcohol are especially pronounced in environments that involve dividing attention across two or more stimuli. However, studies in cognitive psychology have identified circumstances in which the presentation of multiple stimuli can actually facilitate performance. The "redundant signal effect" (RSE) refers to the observation that individuals respond more quickly when information is presented as redundant, bimodal stimuli (e.g., aurally and visually), rather than as a single stimulus presented to either modality alone. The present study tested the hypothesis that the response facilitation attributed to RSE could reduce the degree to which alcohol slows information processing. Two experiments are reported. Experiment 1 demonstrated the validity of a reaction time model of RSE by showing that adults (N = 15) responded more quickly to redundant, bimodal stimuli (visual + aural) versus either stimuli presented individually. Experiment 2 used the RSE model to test the reaction time performance of 20 adults following three alcohol doses (0.0 g/kg, 0.45 g/kg, and 0.65 g/kg). Results showed that alcohol slowed reaction time in a general dose-dependent manner in all three stimulus conditions with the reaction time (RT) speed-advantage of the redundant signal being maintained, even under the highest dose of alcohol. Evidence for an RT advantage to bimodal stimuli under alcohol challenges the general assumption that alcohol impairment is intensified in multistimulus environments. The current study provides a useful model to investigate how drug effects on behavior might be altered in contexts that involve redundant response signals.

  15. Functional over-redundancy and high functional vulnerability in global fish faunas on tropical reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouillot, David; Villéger, Sébastien; Parravicini, Valeriano; Kulbicki, Michel; Arias-González, Jesus Ernesto; Bender, Mariana; Chabanet, Pascale; Floeter, Sergio R; Friedlander, Alan; Vigliola, Laurent; Bellwood, David R

    2014-09-23

    When tropical systems lose species, they are often assumed to be buffered against declines in functional diversity by the ability of the species-rich biota to display high functional redundancy: i.e., a high number of species performing similar functions. We tested this hypothesis using a ninefold richness gradient in global fish faunas on tropical reefs encompassing 6,316 species distributed among 646 functional entities (FEs): i.e., unique combinations of functional traits. We found that the highest functional redundancy is located in the Central Indo-Pacific with a mean of 7.9 species per FE. However, this overall level of redundancy is disproportionately packed into few FEs, a pattern termed functional over-redundancy (FOR). For instance, the most speciose FE in the Central Indo-Pacific contains 222 species (out of 3,689) whereas 38% of FEs (180 out of 468) have no functional insurance with only one species. Surprisingly, the level of FOR is consistent across the six fish faunas, meaning that, whatever the richness, over a third of the species may still be in overrepresented FEs whereas more than one third of the FEs are left without insurance, these levels all being significantly higher than expected by chance. Thus, our study shows that, even in high-diversity systems, such as tropical reefs, functional diversity remains highly vulnerable to species loss. Although further investigations are needed to specifically address the influence of redundant vs. vulnerable FEs on ecosystem functioning, our results suggest that the promised benefits from tropical biodiversity may not be as strong as previously thought.

  16. An elastic-plastic contact model for line contact structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haibin; Zhao, Yingtao; He, Zhifeng; Zhang, Ruinan; Ma, Shaopeng

    2018-06-01

    Although numerical simulation tools are now very powerful, the development of analytical models is very important for the prediction of the mechanical behaviour of line contact structures for deeply understanding contact problems and engineering applications. For the line contact structures widely used in the engineering field, few analytical models are available for predicting the mechanical behaviour when the structures deform plastically, as the classic Hertz's theory would be invalid. Thus, the present study proposed an elastic-plastic model for line contact structures based on the understanding of the yield mechanism. A mathematical expression describing the global relationship between load history and contact width evolution of line contact structures was obtained. The proposed model was verified through an actual line contact test and a corresponding numerical simulation. The results confirmed that this model can be used to accurately predict the elastic-plastic mechanical behaviour of a line contact structure.

  17. Contacting gases and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, L.F.; Cahalan, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    A process is described for contacting substantially immiscible phases to transfer material from one phase to another, which comprises passing the phases through a contactor, while causing portions of at least one phase to be repeatedly passed through at least one other phase. One phase in the contactor is gaseous, and another liquid. A further phase can be liquid or solid The process may be used for extracting impurities from china clay, or extracting uranium values from ore with oxygen gas acting to oxidise the uranium. (author)

  18. Precision contact level gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejci, M.; Pilat, M.; Stulik, P.

    1977-01-01

    Equipment was developed measuring the heavy water level in the TR-0 reactor core within an accuracy of several hundredths of a millimeter in a range of around 3.5 m and at a temperature of up to 90 degC. The equipment uses a vibrating needle contact as a high sensitivity level gauge and a servomechanical system with a motion screw carrying the gauge for monitoring and measuring the level in the desired range. The advantage of the unique level gauge consists in that that the transducer converts the measured level position to an electric signal, ie., pulse width, with high sensitivity and without hysteresis. (Kr)

  19. Thermal contact conductance

    CERN Document Server

    Madhusudana, Chakravarti V

    2013-01-01

    The work covers both theoretical and practical aspects of thermal contact conductance. The theoretical discussion focuses on heat transfer through spots, joints, and surfaces, as well as the role of interstitial materials (both planned and inadvertent). The practical discussion includes formulae and data that can be used in designing heat-transfer equipment for a variety of joints, including special geometries and configurations. All of the material has been updated to reflect the latest advances in the field.

  20. Contact ionization ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, N.; Van Der Houven Van Oordt, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    An ion source in which an apertured or foraminous electrode having a multiplicity of openings is spaced from one or more active surfaces of an ionisation electrode, the active surfaces comprising a material capable of ionising by contact ionization a substance to be ionized supplied during operation to the active surface or surfaces comprises means for producing during operation a magnetic field which enables a stable plasma to be formed in the space between the active surface or surfaces and the apertured electrode, the field strength of the magnetic field being preferably in the range between 2 and 8 kilogauss. (U.S.)

  1. Introducing "biophysical redundancy": the global status and past evolution of unused water, land and productivity resources for food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Marianela

    2017-04-01

    Countries have different resilience to sudden and long-term changes in food demand and supply. An important part of this resilience is the degree of biophysical redundancy, defined as the potential food production of 'spare land', available water resources (i.e., not already used for human activities), as well as production increases through yield gap closure on cultivated areas and potential agricultural areas. The presentation will show the results of a recently published paper1 on the evolution of biophysical redundancy for agricultural production at country level, from 1992 to 2012. Results indicate that in 2012, the biophysical redundancy of 75 (48) countries, mainly in North Africa, Western Europe, the Middle East and Asia, was insufficient to produce the caloric nutritional needs for at least 50% (25%) of their population during a year. Biophysical redundancy has decreased in the last two decades in 102 out of 155 countries, 11 of these went from high to limited redundancy, and nine of these from limited to very low redundancy. Although the variability of the drivers of change across different countries is high, improvements in yield and population growth have a clear impact on the decreases of redundancy towards the very low redundancy category. We took a more detailed look at countries classified as 'Low Income Economies (LIEs)' since they are particularly vulnerable to domestic or external food supply changes, due to their limited capacity to offset for food supply decreases with higher purchasing power on the international market. Currently, nine LIEs have limited or very low biophysical redundancy. Many of these showed a decrease in redundancy over the last two decades, which is not always linked with improvements in per capita food availability.

  2. Optimal contact definition for reconstruction of Contact Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stehr Henning

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contact maps have been extensively used as a simplified representation of protein structures. They capture most important features of a protein's fold, being preferred by a number of researchers for the description and study of protein structures. Inspired by the model's simplicity many groups have dedicated a considerable amount of effort towards contact prediction as a proxy for protein structure prediction. However a contact map's biological interest is subject to the availability of reliable methods for the 3-dimensional reconstruction of the structure. Results We use an implementation of the well-known distance geometry protocol to build realistic protein 3-dimensional models from contact maps, performing an extensive exploration of many of the parameters involved in the reconstruction process. We try to address the questions: a to what accuracy does a contact map represent its corresponding 3D structure, b what is the best contact map representation with regard to reconstructability and c what is the effect of partial or inaccurate contact information on the 3D structure recovery. Our results suggest that contact maps derived from the application of a distance cutoff of 9 to 11Å around the Cβ atoms constitute the most accurate representation of the 3D structure. The reconstruction process does not provide a single solution to the problem but rather an ensemble of conformations that are within 2Å RMSD of the crystal structure and with lower values for the pairwise average ensemble RMSD. Interestingly it is still possible to recover a structure with partial contact information, although wrong contacts can lead to dramatic loss in reconstruction fidelity. Conclusions Thus contact maps represent a valid approximation to the structures with an accuracy comparable to that of experimental methods. The optimal contact definitions constitute key guidelines for methods based on contact maps such as structure prediction through

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis from octylisothiazolinone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Anja Pahlow; Frost, Simon; Ohlund, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Octylisothiazolinone is a biocide that has been reported as a moderate, but rare contact allergen.......Octylisothiazolinone is a biocide that has been reported as a moderate, but rare contact allergen....

  4. Fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne D

    2003-01-01

    in the same products. This means that it is difficult to avoid exposure, as products labelled as 'fragrance free' have also been shown to contain fragrance ingredients, either because of the use of fragrance ingredients as preservatives or masking perfumes, or the use of botanicals. About 2500 different...... fragrance ingredients are currently used in the composition of perfumes and at least 100 of these are known contact allergens. Therefore, it is advisable to supplement standard patch testing with the patient's own stay-on cosmetic products, as well as the fragrance chemical hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexane...... carboxaldehyde, which on its own gives responses in 1-3% of tested patients. The focus in recent years on the ingredients of the fragrance mix will probably result in the fragrance industry changing the composition of perfumes, and thus make the current diagnostic test less useful. New diagnostic tests are under...

  5. Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents trends in the frequency of cosmetics as causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis during a 26-year period in 14,911 patients patch-tested between 1990 and 2014, and discusses the cosmetic allergens identified during the last six years (2010–2015 in 603 patients out of 3105 tested. The data were retrieved from, and evaluated with, a patient database developed in-house. The results show the increasing importance of cosmetic allergies, up to 25% of the patients tested during the last five-year period. As expected, fragrance materials, preservatives, and hair dyes were the most frequent culprits, but a great variety of other allergenic ingredients were involved as well. This underlines the need of additional and extensive patch testing with the patient’s products used and their ingredients.

  6. Hair dye contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2004-01-01

    Colouring of hair can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis. The most frequently reported hair dye allergens are p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine, which are included in, respectively, the patch test standard series and the hairdressers series. The aim of the present study...... was to identify dye precursors and couplers in hair dyeing products causing clinical hair dye dermatitis and to compare the data with the contents of these compounds in a randomly selected set of similar products. The patient material comprised 9 cases of characteristic clinical allergic hair dye reaction, where...... exposure history and patch testing had identified a specific hair dye product as the cause of the reaction. The 9 products used by the patients were subjected to chemical analysis. 8 hair dye products contained toluene-2,5-diamine (0.18 to 0.98%). PPD (0.27%) was found in 1 product, and m-aminophenol (0...

  7. Contact expert group for international radwaste projects. Fourth meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The Contact Expert Group for International Radwaste Projects is the result of an IAEA seminar on ''International Co-operation on Nuclear Waste Management in the Russian Federation'', 15-17 May 1995, that was requested and sponsored by the Nordic countries. In two working groups at the Seminar, participants from the Russian Federation and 17 countries and international organizations co-operating with the Russian Federation in waste management projects recognized the need for setting up a contact group of experts to assist in co-ordinating their efforts. Such co-ordination would help avoid redundancy and duplication of effort, assure that priority needs were made known to the international community, and provide points of contact to facilitate co-operation. This report is a compilation of the 4. CEG meeting materials, both prepared by the CEG Secretariat and presented by meeting's participants. The materials discussed by the CEG and subsequently modified are presented in the finally approved version. As in the case of previous similar reports, the documentation presented was just compiled without any editing and thus should be considered only as ''working proceedings'' of the meeting

  8. Mechanoluminescent Contact Type Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Yefremov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanoluminescent sensing elements convert mechanical stress into optical radiation. Advantages of such sensors are the ability to generate an optical signal, solid-state, simple structure, and resistance to electromagnetic interference. Mechanoluminescent sensor implementations can possess the concentrated and distributed sensitivity, thereby allowing us to detect the field of mechanical stresses distributed across the area and in volume. Most modern semiconductor photo-detectors can detect mechanoluminescent radiation, so there are no difficulties to provide its detection when designing the mechanoluminescent sensing devices. Mechanoluminescent substances have especial sensitivity to shock loads, and this effect can be used to create a fuse the structure of which includes a target contact type sensor with a photosensitive actuator. The paper briefly describes the theoretical basics of mechanoluminiscence: a light signal emerges from the interaction of crystalline phosphor luminescence centers with electrically charged dislocations, moving due to the deformation of the crystal. A mathematical model of the mechanoluminescent conversion is represented as a functional interaction between parameters of the mechanical shock excitation and the sensor light emission. Examples of computing the optical mechanoluminescent output signal depending on the duration and peak level of impulse load are given. It is shown that the luminous flux, generated by mechanoluminescent sensing element when there is an ammunition-target collision causes the current emerging in photo-detector (photodiode that is sufficient for a typical actuator of the fuse train to operate. The potential possibility to create a contact target type sensor based on the light-sensitive mechanoluminescent sensor was proved by the calculation and simulation results.

  9. Reducing contact resistance in graphene devices through contact area patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua T; Franklin, Aaron D; Farmer, Damon B; Dimitrakopoulos, Christos D

    2013-04-23

    Performance of graphene electronics is limited by contact resistance associated with the metal-graphene (M-G) interface, where unique transport challenges arise as carriers are injected from a 3D metal into a 2D-graphene sheet. In this work, enhanced carrier injection is experimentally achieved in graphene devices by forming cuts in the graphene within the contact regions. These cuts are oriented normal to the channel and facilitate bonding between the contact metal and carbon atoms at the graphene cut edges, reproducibly maximizing "edge-contacted" injection. Despite the reduction in M-G contact area caused by these cuts, we find that a 32% reduction in contact resistance results in Cu-contacted, two-terminal devices, while a 22% reduction is achieved for top-gated graphene transistors with Pd contacts as compared to conventionally fabricated devices. The crucial role of contact annealing to facilitate this improvement is also elucidated. This simple approach provides a reliable and reproducible means of lowering contact resistance in graphene devices to bolster performance. Importantly, this enhancement requires no additional processing steps.

  10. Contact angle and local wetting at contact line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ri; Shan, Yanguang

    2012-11-06

    This theoretical study was motivated by recent experiments and theoretical work that had suggested the dependence of the static contact angle on the local wetting at the triple-phase contact line. We revisit this topic because the static contact angle as a local wetting parameter is still not widely understood and clearly known. To further clarify the relationship of the static contact angle with wetting, two approaches are applied to derive a general equation for the static contact angle of a droplet on a composite surface composed of heterogeneous components. A global approach based on the free surface energy of a thermodynamic system containing the droplet and solid surface shows the static contact angle as a function of local surface chemistry and local wetting state at the contact line. A local approach, in which only local forces acting on the contact line are considered, results in the same equation. The fact that the local approach agrees with the global approach further demonstrates the static contact angle as a local wetting parameter. Additionally, the study also suggests that the wetting described by the Wenzel and Cassie equations is also the local wetting of the contact line rather than the global wetting of the droplet.

  11. Equilibrium contact angle or the most-stable contact angle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F J; Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A

    2014-04-01

    It is well-established that the equilibrium contact angle in a thermodynamic framework is an "unattainable" contact angle. Instead, the most-stable contact angle obtained from mechanical stimuli of the system is indeed experimentally accessible. Monitoring the susceptibility of a sessile drop to a mechanical stimulus enables to identify the most stable drop configuration within the practical range of contact angle hysteresis. Two different stimuli may be used with sessile drops: mechanical vibration and tilting. The most stable drop against vibration should reveal the changeless contact angle but against the gravity force, it should reveal the highest resistance to slide down. After the corresponding mechanical stimulus, once the excited drop configuration is examined, the focus will be on the contact angle of the initial drop configuration. This methodology needs to map significantly the static drop configurations with different stable contact angles. The most-stable contact angle, together with the advancing and receding contact angles, completes the description of physically realizable configurations of a solid-liquid system. Since the most-stable contact angle is energetically significant, it may be used in the Wenzel, Cassie or Cassie-Baxter equations accordingly or for the surface energy evaluation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Contact and Non-contact Measurements of Grinding Pins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdziak Marek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of contact and non-contact measurements of external profiles of selected grinding pins. The measurements were conducted in order to choose the appropriate measuring technique in the case of the considered measurement task. In the case of contact measurements the coordinate measuring machine ACCURA II was applied. The used coordinate measuring machine was equipped with the contact scanning probe VAST XT and the Calypso inspection software. Contact coordinate measurements were performed by using of different measurement strategies. The applied strategies included different scanning velocities and distances between measured points. Non-contact measurements were conducted by means of the tool presetter produced by the Mahr company. On the basis of gained results the guidelines concerning measurements of grinding pins were formulated. The measurements of analyzed grinding pins performed by means of the non-contact measuring system are characterized by higher reproducibility than the contact measurements. The low reproducibility of contact measurements may be connected with the inaccuracy of the selected coordinate measuring machine and the measuring probe, the measurement parameters and environmental conditions in the laboratory where the coordinate measuring machine is located. Moreover, the paper presents the possible application of results of conducted investigations. The results of non-contact measurements can be used in the simulation studies of grinding processes. The simulations may reduce the costs of machining processes.

  13. The theory of diversity and redundancy in information system security : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayo, Jackson R. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Torgerson, Mark Dolan; Walker, Andrea Mae; Armstrong, Robert C. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Allan, Benjamin A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Pierson, Lyndon George

    2010-10-01

    The goal of this research was to explore first principles associated with mixing of diverse implementations in a redundant fashion to increase the security and/or reliability of information systems. Inspired by basic results in computer science on the undecidable behavior of programs and by previous work on fault tolerance in hardware and software, we have investigated the problem and solution space for addressing potentially unknown and unknowable vulnerabilities via ensembles of implementations. We have obtained theoretical results on the degree of security and reliability benefits from particular diverse system designs, and mapped promising approaches for generating and measuring diversity. We have also empirically studied some vulnerabilities in common implementations of the Linux operating system and demonstrated the potential for diversity to mitigate these vulnerabilities. Our results provide foundational insights for further research on diversity and redundancy approaches for information systems.

  14. Modified Redundancy based Technique—a New Approach to Combat Error Propagation Effect of AES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, B.; Bhunia, C. T.; Maulik, U.

    2012-06-01

    Advanced encryption standard (AES) is a great research challenge. It has been developed to replace the data encryption standard (DES). AES suffers from a major limitation of error propagation effect. To tackle this limitation, two methods are available. One is redundancy based technique and the other one is bite based parity technique. The first one has a significant advantage of correcting any error on definite term over the second one but at the cost of higher level of overhead and hence lowering the processing speed. In this paper, a new approach based on the redundancy based technique is proposed that would certainly speed up the process of reliable encryption and hence the secured communication.

  15. Knowledge sharing in construction partnering projects - redundancy, boundary objects and brokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Thuesen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    is on two dialogue excerpts, one on process, and one on product knowledge exchanges. The diversity and disjunctive feature of the practices form a condition of possibility for knowledge handling and synthesis into the built construct. Relation-based interaction is necessary with boundary objects and brokers......This article adopts practice-based theory for understanding inter-organisational knowledge work and extends it with a discussion of the role of redundancy. In this view, a constellation of firms is a multiple configuration of communities of practices, characterised by overlapping practises......, multiple memberships and different levels of participation, and accompanied by a governance frame. The paper discusses central mechanisms for coordinating knowledge in such a complex construction project. The knowledge relations are conceptualised through focusing on redundancy, understood as negotiated...

  16. The common mode failures analysis of the redundent system with dependent human error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.K.; Chang, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    Common mode failures (CMFs) have been a serious concern in the nuclear power plant. Thereis a broad category of the failure mechanisms that can cause common mode failures. This paper is a theoretical investigation of the CMFs on the unavailability of the redundent system. It is assumed that the total CMFs consist of the potential CMFs and the dependent human error CMFs. As the human error dependency is higher, the total CMFs are more effected by the dependent human error. If the human error dependence is lower, the system unavailability strongly depends on the potential CMFs, rather than the mechanical failure or the dependent human error. And it is shown that the total CMFs are dominant factor to the unavailability of the redundent system. (Author)

  17. Switching Algorithm for Maglev Train Double-Modular Redundant Positioning Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xue

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution positioning for maglev trains is implemented by detecting the tooth-slot structure of the long stator installed along the rail, but there are large joint gaps between long stator sections. When a positioning sensor is below a large joint gap, its positioning signal is invalidated, thus double-modular redundant positioning sensors are introduced into the system. This paper studies switching algorithms for these redundant positioning sensors. At first, adaptive prediction is applied to the sensor signals. The prediction errors are used to trigger sensor switching. In order to enhance the reliability of the switching algorithm, wavelet analysis is introduced to suppress measuring disturbances without weakening the signal characteristics reflecting the stator joint gap based on the correlation between the wavelet coefficients of adjacent scales. The time delay characteristics of the method are analyzed to guide the algorithm simplification. Finally, the effectiveness of the simplified switching algorithm is verified through experiments.

  18. Development of a super-redundant multijoint manipulator for maintenance of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Shugen; Hirose, Shigeo.

    1994-01-01

    A tendon-driven manipulator, the CT Arm, has a specific tendon traction transmission mechanism, in which a pair of tendons for driving a joint is pulled from base actuators via pulleys mounted on the based-side joints. The mechanism makes the most of the coupled drive function of the tendon tractions and thus enables the lightweight manipulator to exhibit enormous payload capability. By this tendon-driven mechanism, a multijoint manipulator with super-redundant degrees of freedom could be realized, which is suitable to the maintenance of nuclear reactors. In this article, we introduce the CT Arm and discuss the possibility to generate a multijoint maintenance manipulator which has a super-redundant degrees of freedom. (author)

  19. Switching algorithm for maglev train double-modular redundant positioning sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ning; Long, Zhiqiang; Xue, Song

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution positioning for maglev trains is implemented by detecting the tooth-slot structure of the long stator installed along the rail, but there are large joint gaps between long stator sections. When a positioning sensor is below a large joint gap, its positioning signal is invalidated, thus double-modular redundant positioning sensors are introduced into the system. This paper studies switching algorithms for these redundant positioning sensors. At first, adaptive prediction is applied to the sensor signals. The prediction errors are used to trigger sensor switching. In order to enhance the reliability of the switching algorithm, wavelet analysis is introduced to suppress measuring disturbances without weakening the signal characteristics reflecting the stator joint gap based on the correlation between the wavelet coefficients of adjacent scales. The time delay characteristics of the method are analyzed to guide the algorithm simplification. Finally, the effectiveness of the simplified switching algorithm is verified through experiments.

  20. A Review of Multimedia Learning Principles: Split-Attention, Modality, and Redundancy Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin YUKSEL ARSLAN

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to present a literature review on three principles of multimedia learningincluding split attention, modality, and redundancy effects with regard to their contribution to cognitiveload theory. According to cognitive load theory, information should be presented by considering excessiveload on working memory. The first principle states that attending to two distinct sources of informationmay impose a high cognitive load, and this process is referred to as the split-attention effect (Kalyuga,Chandler & Sweller, 1991, 1992. The second principle, Modality effect claims that on-screen text shouldbe presented in an auditory form instead of visually when designing a multimedia environment (Moreno &Mayer, 1999. Using more than one sensory mode augments forceful working memory that producesprogressive effects on learning. The third principle redundancy effect occurs when information presentedrepeatedly interferes with learning. This study provides guidance how to create more effective instructionwith multimedia materials for instructional designers.

  1. A Dynamic Linear Hashing Method for Redundancy Management in Train Ethernet Consist Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Nie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive transportation systems like trains are considered critical systems because they use the communication network to control essential subsystems on board. Critical system requires zero recovery time when a failure occurs in a communication network. The newly published IEC62439-3 defines the high-availability seamless redundancy protocol, which fulfills this requirement and ensures no frame loss in the presence of an error. This paper adopts these for train Ethernet consist network. The challenge is management of the circulating frames, capable of dealing with real-time processing requirements, fast switching times, high throughout, and deterministic behavior. The main contribution of this paper is the in-depth analysis it makes of network parameters imposed by the application of the protocols to train control and monitoring system (TCMS and the redundant circulating frames discarding method based on a dynamic linear hashing, using the fastest method in order to resolve all the issues that are dealt with.

  2. Uncertain multiobjective redundancy allocation problem of repairable systems based on artificial bee colony algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Jiansheng; Wang Zutong; Zheng Mingfa; Wang Ying

    2014-01-01

    Based on the uncertainty theory, this paper is devoted to the redundancy allocation problem in repairable parallel-series systems with uncertain factors, where the failure rate, repair rate and other relative coefficients involved are considered as uncertain variables. The availability of the system and the corresponding designing cost are considered as two optimization objectives. A crisp multiobjective optimization formulation is presented on the basis of uncertainty theory to solve this resultant problem. For solving this problem efficiently, a new multiobjective artificial bee colony algorithm is proposed to search the Pareto efficient set, which introduces rank value and crowding distance in the greedy selection strategy, applies fast non-dominated sort procedure in the exploitation search and inserts tournament selection in the onlooker bee phase. It shows that the proposed algorithm outperforms NSGA-II greatly and can solve multiobjective redundancy allocation problem efficiently. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate this approach.

  3. Links between N-modular redundancy and the theory of error-correcting codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobin, V.; Whitaker, S.; Maki, G.

    1992-01-01

    N-Modular Redundancy (NMR) is one of the best known fault tolerance techniques. Replication of a module to achieve fault tolerance is in some ways analogous to the use of a repetition code where an information symbol is replicated as parity symbols in a codeword. Linear Error-Correcting Codes (ECC) use linear combinations of information symbols as parity symbols which are used to generate syndromes for error patterns. These observations indicate links between the theory of ECC and the use of hardware redundancy for fault tolerance. In this paper, we explore some of these links and show examples of NMR systems where identification of good and failed elements is accomplished in a manner similar to error correction using linear ECC's.

  4. Method and apparatus for in-system redundant array repair on integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Arthur A.; Crumley, Paul G.; Dombrowa, Marc B.; Douskey, Steven M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Oakland, Steven F.; Ouellette, Michael R.; Strissel, Scott A.

    2007-12-18

    Disclosed is a method of repairing an integrated circuit of the type comprising of a multitude of memory arrays and a fuse box holding control data for controlling redundancy logic of the arrays. The method comprises the steps of providing the integrated circuit with a control data selector for passing the control data from the fuse box to the memory arrays; providing a source of alternate control data, external of the integrated circuit; and connecting the source of alternate control data to the control data selector. The method comprises the further step of, at a given time, passing the alternate control data from the source thereof, through the control data selector and to the memory arrays to control the redundancy logic of the memory arrays.

  5. Synchronization and fault-masking in redundant real-time systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, C. M.; Shin, K. G.; Butler, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    A real time computer may fail because of massive component failures or not responding quickly enough to satisfy real time requirements. An increase in redundancy - a conventional means of improving reliability - can improve the former but can - in some cases - degrade the latter considerably due to the overhead associated with redundancy management, namely the time delay resulting from synchronization and voting/interactive consistency techniques. The implications of synchronization and voting/interactive consistency algorithms in N-modular clusters on reliability are considered. All these studies were carried out in the context of real time applications. As a demonstrative example, we have analyzed results from experiments conducted at the NASA Airlab on the Software Implemented Fault Tolerance (SIFT) computer. This analysis has indeed indicated that in most real time applications, it is better to employ hardware synchronization instead of software synchronization and not allow reconfiguration.

  6. Quantum Darwinism in an Everyday Environment: Huge Redundancy in Scattered Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Charles; Zurek, Wojciech

    2011-03-01

    We study quantum Darwinism---the redundant recording of information about the preferred states of a decohering system by its environment---for an object illuminated by a blackbody. In the cases of point-source, small disk, and isotropic illumination, we calculate the quantum mutual information between the object and its photon environment. We demonstrate that this realistic model exhibits fast and extensive proliferation of information about the object into the environment and results in redundancies orders of magnitude larger than the exactly soluble models considered to date. We also demonstrate a reduced ability to create records as initial environmental mixedness increases, in agreement with previous studies. This research is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD program and, in part, by the Foundational Questions Institute (FQXi).

  7. The rise and fall of redundancy in decoherence and quantum Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jess Riedel, C.; Zurek, Wojciech H.; Zwolak, Michael

    2012-08-01

    A state selected at random from the Hilbert space of a many-body system is overwhelmingly likely to exhibit highly non-classical correlations. For these typical states, half of the environment must be measured by an observer to determine the state of a given subsystem. The objectivity of classical reality—the fact that multiple observers can agree on the state of a subsystem after measuring just a small fraction of its environment—implies that the correlations found in nature between macroscopic systems and their environments are exceptional. Building on previous studies of quantum Darwinism showing that highly redundant branching states are produced ubiquitously during pure decoherence, we examine the conditions needed for the creation of branching states and study their demise through many-body interactions. We show that even constrained dynamics can suppress redundancy to the values typical of random states on relaxation timescales, and prove that these results hold exactly in the thermodynamic limit.

  8. Redundant imprinting of information in non-ideal environments: Quantum Darwinism via a noisy channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolak, Michael; Quan, Haitao; Zurek, Wojciech

    2011-03-01

    Quantum Darwinism provides an information-theoretic framework for the emergence of the classical world from the quantum substrate. It recognizes that we - the observers - acquire our information about the ``systems of interest'' indirectly from their imprints on the environment. Objectivity, a key property of the classical world, arises via the proliferation of redundant information into the environment where many observers can then intercept it and independently determine the state of the system. While causing a system to decohere, environments that remain nearly invariant under the Hamiltonian dynamics, such as very mixed states, have a diminished ability to transmit information about the system, yet can still acquire redundant information about the system [1,2]. Our results show that Quantum Darwinism is robust with respect to non-ideal initial states of the environment. This research is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program.

  9. Design structure for in-system redundant array repair in integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Arthur A.; Crumley, Paul G.; Dombrowa, Marc; Douskey, Steven M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Oakland, Steven F.; Quellette, Michael R.; Strissel, Scott A.

    2008-11-25

    A design structure for repairing an integrated circuit during operation of the integrated circuit. The integrated circuit comprising of a multitude of memory arrays and a fuse box holding control data for controlling redundancy logic of the arrays. The design structure provides the integrated circuit with a control data selector for passing the control data from the fuse box to the memory arrays; providing a source of alternate control data, external of the integrated circuit; and connecting the source of alternate control data to the control data selector. The design structure further passes the alternate control data from the source thereof, through the control data selector and to the memory arrays to control the redundancy logic of the memory arrays.

  10. Method and apparatus for in-system redundant array repair on integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Arthur A [Croton-on-Hudson, NY; Crumley, Paul G [Yorktown Heights, NY; Dombrowa, Marc B [Bronx, NY; Douskey, Steven M [Rochester, MN; Haring, Rudolf A [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Oakland, Steven F [Colchester, VT; Ouellette, Michael R [Westford, VT; Strissel, Scott A [Byron, MN

    2008-07-29

    Disclosed is a method of repairing an integrated circuit of the type comprising of a multitude of memory arrays and a fuse box holding control data for controlling redundancy logic of the arrays. The method comprises the steps of providing the integrated circuit with a control data selector for passing the control data from the fuse box to the memory arrays; providing a source of alternate control data, external of the integrated circuit; and connecting the source of alternate control data to the control data selector. The method comprises the further step of, at a given time, passing the alternate control data from the source thereof, through the control data selector and to the memory arrays to control the redundancy logic of the memory arrays.

  11. Fuzzy Mutual Information Based min-Redundancy and Max-Relevance Heterogeneous Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daren Yu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection is an important preprocessing step in pattern classification and machine learning, and mutual information is widely used to measure relevance between features and decision. However, it is difficult to directly calculate relevance between continuous or fuzzy features using mutual information. In this paper we introduce the fuzzy information entropy and fuzzy mutual information for computing relevance between numerical or fuzzy features and decision. The relationship between fuzzy information entropy and differential entropy is also discussed. Moreover, we combine fuzzy mutual information with qmin-Redundancy-Max-Relevanceq, qMax-Dependencyq and min-Redundancy-Max-Dependencyq algorithms. The performance and stability of the proposed algorithms are tested on benchmark data sets. Experimental results show the proposed algorithms are effective and stable.

  12. Testing the race model inequality in redundant stimuli with variable onset asynchrony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    distributions of response times for the single-modality stimuli. It has been derived for synchronous stimuli and for stimuli with stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). In most experiments with asynchronous stimuli, discrete SOA values are chosen and the race model inequality is separately tested for each SOA. Due...... to SOAs at which the violation of the race model prediction is expected to be large. In addition, the method enables data analysis for experiments in which stimuli are presented with SOA from a continuous distribution rather than in discrete steps.......In speeded response tasks with redundant signals, parallel processing of the signals is tested by the race model inequality. This inequality states that given a race of two signals, the cumulative distribution of response times for redundant stimuli never exceeds the sum of the cumulative...

  13. Assessment of redundant systems with imperfect coverage by means of binary decision diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Albert F. [Northrop Grumman Corporation, 1840 Century Park East, Los Angeles, CA 90067-2199 (United States)], E-mail: Al.Myers@ngc.com; Rauzy, Antoine [IML/CNRS, 163, Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France)], E-mail: arauzy@iml.univ-mrs.fr

    2008-07-15

    In this article, we study the assessment of the reliability of redundant systems with imperfect fault coverage. We term fault coverage as the ability of a system to isolate and correctly accommodate failures of redundant elements. For highly reliable systems, such as avionic and space systems, fault coverage is in general imperfect and has a significant impact on system reliability. We review here the different models of imperfect fault coverage. We propose efficient algorithms to assess them separately (as k-out-of-n selectors). We show how to implement these algorithms into a binary decision diagrams engine. Finally, we report experimental results on real life test cases that show on the one hand the importance of imperfect coverage and on the other hand the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  14. Kinematics and control of redundant robotic arm based on dielectric elastomer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branz, Francesco; Antonello, Andrea; Carron, Andrea; Carli, Ruggero; Francesconi, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Soft robotics is a promising field and its application to space mechanisms could represent a breakthrough in space technologies by enabling new operative scenarios (e.g. soft manipulators, capture systems). Dielectric Elastomers Actuators have been under deep study for a number of years and have shown several advantages that could be of key importance for space applications. Among such advantages the most notable are high conversion efficiency, distributed actuation, self-sensing capability, multi-degree-of-freedom design, light weight and low cost. The big potentialities of double cone actuators have been proven in terms of good performances (i.e. stroke and force/torque), ease of manufacturing and durability. In this work the kinematic, dynamic and control design of a two-joint redundant robotic arm is presented. Two double cone actuators are assembled in series to form a two-link design. Each joint has two degrees of freedom (one rotational and one translational) for a total of four. The arm is designed to move in a 2-D environment (i.e. the horizontal plane) with 4 DoF, consequently having two degrees of redundancy. The redundancy is exploited in order to minimize the joint loads. The kinematic design with redundant Jacobian inversion is presented. The selected control algorithm is described along with the results of a number of dynamic simulations that have been executed for performance verification. Finally, an experimental setup is presented based on a flexible structure that counteracts gravity during testing in order to better emulate future zero-gravity applications.

  15. Distributed continuous media streaming - Using redundant hierarchy (RED-Hi) servers

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Mohammad Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The first part of this thesis provides a survey of continuous media serves, including discussions on streaming protocols, models and techniques. In the second part, a novel distributed media streaming system is introduced. In order to manage the traffic in a fault tolerant and effective manner a hierarchical topology, so called redundant hierarchy (RED-Hi) is used. The proposed system works in three steps, namely, object location, path reservation and object delivery. Simulations ar...

  16. Pauci ex tanto numero: reduce redundancy in multi-model ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solazzo, E.; Riccio, A.; Kioutsioukis, I.; Galmarini, S.

    2013-08-01

    We explicitly address the fundamental issue of member diversity in multi-model ensembles. To date, no attempts in this direction have been documented within the air quality (AQ) community despite the extensive use of ensembles in this field. Common biases and redundancy are the two issues directly deriving from lack of independence, undermining the significance of a multi-model ensemble, and are the subject of this study. Shared, dependant biases among models do not cancel out but will instead determine a biased ensemble. Redundancy derives from having too large a portion of common variance among the members of the ensemble, producing overconfidence in the predictions and underestimation of the uncertainty. The two issues of common biases and redundancy are analysed in detail using the AQMEII ensemble of AQ model results for four air pollutants in two European regions. We show that models share large portions of bias and variance, extending well beyond those induced by common inputs. We make use of several techniques to further show that subsets of models can explain the same amount of variance as the full ensemble with the advantage of being poorly correlated. Selecting the members for generating skilful, non-redundant ensembles from such subsets proved, however, non-trivial. We propose and discuss various methods of member selection and rate the ensemble performance they produce. In most cases, the full ensemble is outscored by the reduced ones. We conclude that, although independence of outputs may not always guarantee enhancement of scores (but this depends upon the skill being investigated), we discourage selecting the members of the ensemble simply on the basis of scores; that is, independence and skills need to be considered disjointly.

  17. Pauci ex tanto numero: reducing redundancy in multi-model ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solazzo, E.; Riccio, A.; Kioutsioukis, I.; Galmarini, S.

    2013-02-01

    We explicitly address the fundamental issue of member diversity in multi-model ensembles. To date no attempts in this direction are documented within the air quality (AQ) community, although the extensive use of ensembles in this field. Common biases and redundancy are the two issues directly deriving from lack of independence, undermining the significance of a multi-model ensemble, and are the subject of this study. Shared biases among models will determine a biased ensemble, making therefore essential the errors of the ensemble members to be independent so that bias can cancel out. Redundancy derives from having too large a portion of common variance among the members of the ensemble, producing overconfidence in the predictions and underestimation of the uncertainty. The two issues of common biases and redundancy are analysed in detail using the AQMEII ensemble of AQ model results for four air pollutants in two European regions. We show that models share large portions of bias and variance, extending well beyond those induced by common inputs. We make use of several techniques to further show that subsets of models can explain the same amount of variance as the full ensemble with the advantage of being poorly correlated. Selecting the members for generating skilful, non-redundant ensembles from such subsets proved, however, non-trivial. We propose and discuss various methods of member selection and rate the ensemble performance they produce. In most cases, the full ensemble is outscored by the reduced ones. We conclude that, although independence of outputs may not always guarantee enhancement of scores (but this depends upon the skill being investigated) we discourage selecting the members of the ensemble simply on the basis of scores, that is, independence and skills need to be considered disjointly.

  18. ANALYSIS OF RELIABILITY OF THE PERIODICALLY AND CONTINUOUSLY CONTROLLED QUEUING SYSTEM WITH TIME REDUNDANCY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikadze, I.; Namchevadze, T.; Gobiani, I.

    2007-01-01

    There is proposed a generalized mathematical model of the queuing system with time redundancy without preliminary checking of the queuing system at transition from the free state into the engaged one. The model accounts for various failures of the queuing system detected by continuous instrument control, periodic control, control during recovery and the failures revealed immediately after accumulation of a certain number of failures. The generating function of queue length in both stationary and nonstationary modes was determined. (author)

  19. Generalized Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric and redundancy in the generalized Einstein equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, W.F.; Pen, U.

    1991-01-01

    A nontrivial redundancy relation, due to the differential structure of the gravitational Bianchi identity as well as the symmetry of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric, in the gravitational field equation is clarified. A generalized Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric is introduced in order to properly define a one-dimensional reduced problem which offers an alternative approach to obtain the gravitational field equations on Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spaces

  20. Control Systems for Hyper-Redundant Robots Based on Artificial Potential Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Florescu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the control method of hyper-redundant robots based on the artificial potential approach. The principles of this method are shown and a suggestive example is offered. Then, the artificial potential method is applied to the case of a tentacle robot starting from the dynamic model of the robot. In addition, a series of results that are obtained through simulation is presented.

  1. Redundancy control in music performance : towards an understanding of the role of constraint satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Heijink, H.J.I.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated two redundancy control problems related to music performance, one in computer science and one in motor control research, viz., score-performance matching and guitar fingering. In score-performance matching, a score and a performance have to be compared note by note to find the optimal correspondence between the two. There are exponentially many possible correspondences, but we found that a general algorithmic technique that uses structural information in the score performs wel...

  2. Commercialization of JPL Virtual Reality calibration and redundant manipulator control technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won S.; Seraji, Homayoun; Fiorini, Paolo; Brown, Robert; Christensen, Brian; Beale, Chris; Karlen, James; Eismann, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Within NASA's recent thrust for industrial collaboration, JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) has recently established two technology cooperation agreements in the robotics area: one on virtual reality (VR) calibration with Deneb Robotics, Inc., and the other on redundant manipulator control with Robotics Research Corporation (RRC). These technology transfer cooperation tasks will enable both Deneb and RRC to commercialize enhanced versions of their products that will greatly benefit both space and terrestrial telerobotic applications.

  3. Workplace Flexibility Practices in SMEs: Relationship with Performance via Redundancies, Absenteeism, and Financial Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Whyman, Philip B; Petrescu, Alina

    2015-01-01

    This workplace flexibility study uses primary data on private sector small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Lancashire, United Kingdom, collected in 2009 during the recent “credit crunch” recession. Key features include: (1) objective measures of SME performance; (2) a focus on the previously relatively neglected relationship between workplace flexibility practices (WFPs) and three SME performance indicators, namely, redundancies, absenteeism, and financial turnover; and (3) a timely co...

  4. Reliability and mass analysis of dynamic power conversion systems with parallel or standby redundancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1987-01-01

    A combinatorial reliability approach was used to identify potential dynamic power conversion systems for space mission applications. A reliability and mass analysis was also performed, specifically for a 100-kWe nuclear Brayton power conversion system with parallel redundancy. Although this study was done for a reactor outlet temperature of 1100 K, preliminary system mass estimates are also included for reactor outlet temperatures ranging up to 1500 K.

  5. Reliability and mass analysis of dynamic power conversion systems with parallel of standby redundancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, A. J.; Bloomfield, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    A combinatorial reliability approach is used to identify potential dynamic power conversion systems for space mission applications. A reliability and mass analysis is also performed, specifically for a 100 kWe nuclear Brayton power conversion system with parallel redundancy. Although this study is done for a reactor outlet temperature of 1100K, preliminary system mass estimates are also included for reactor outlet temperatures ranging up to 1500 K.

  6. Design of redundant array of independent DVD libraries based on iSCSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yupeng; Pan, Longfa

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents a new approach to realize the redundant array of independent DVD libraries (RAID-LoIP) by using the iSCSI technology and traditional RAID algorithms. Our design reaches the high performance of optical storage system with following features: large storage size, highly accessing rate, random access, long distance of DVD libraries, block I/O storage, long storage life. Our RAID-LoIP system can be a good solution for broadcasting media asset storage system.

  7. Real-time instrument-failure detection in the LOFT pressurizer using functional redundancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylee, J.L.

    1982-07-01

    The functional redundancy approach to detecting instrument failures in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) pressurizer is described and evaluated. This real-time method uses a bank of Kalman filters (one for each instrument) to generate optimal estimates of the pressurizer state. By performing consistency checks between the output of each filter, failed instruments can be identified. Simulation results and actual pressurizer data are used to demonstrate the capabilities of the technique

  8. Verification of Triple Modular Redundancy Insertion for Reliable and Trusted Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    If a system is required to be protected using triple modular redundancy (TMR), improper insertion can jeopardize the reliability and security of the system. Due to the complexity of the verification process and the complexity of digital designs, there are currently no available techniques that can provide complete and reliable confirmation of TMR insertion. We propose a method for TMR insertion verification that satisfies the process for reliable and trusted systems.

  9. A two-stage approach for improved prediction of residue contact maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollastri Gianluca

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein topology representations such as residue contact maps are an important intermediate step towards ab initio prediction of protein structure. Although improvements have occurred over the last years, the problem of accurately predicting residue contact maps from primary sequences is still largely unsolved. Among the reasons for this are the unbalanced nature of the problem (with far fewer examples of contacts than non-contacts, the formidable challenge of capturing long-range interactions in the maps, the intrinsic difficulty of mapping one-dimensional input sequences into two-dimensional output maps. In order to alleviate these problems and achieve improved contact map predictions, in this paper we split the task into two stages: the prediction of a map's principal eigenvector (PE from the primary sequence; the reconstruction of the contact map from the PE and primary sequence. Predicting the PE from the primary sequence consists in mapping a vector into a vector. This task is less complex than mapping vectors directly into two-dimensional matrices since the size of the problem is drastically reduced and so is the scale length of interactions that need to be learned. Results We develop architectures composed of ensembles of two-layered bidirectional recurrent neural networks to classify the components of the PE in 2, 3 and 4 classes from protein primary sequence, predicted secondary structure, and hydrophobicity interaction scales. Our predictor, tested on a non redundant set of 2171 proteins, achieves classification performances of up to 72.6%, 16% above a base-line statistical predictor. We design a system for the prediction of contact maps from the predicted PE. Our results show that predicting maps through the PE yields sizeable gains especially for long-range contacts which are particularly critical for accurate protein 3D reconstruction. The final predictor's accuracy on a non-redundant set of 327 targets is 35

  10. Redundancy-free single-particle equation-of-motion method for nuclei. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolnick, P.; Goswami, A.; Oregon Univ., Eugene

    1986-01-01

    The problem of coupling an odd nucleon to the collective states of an even core is considered in the intermediate-coupling limit. It is now well known that such intermediate-coupling calculations in spherical open-shell nuclei necessitate the inclusion of ground-state correlation or backward coupling which gives rise to an overcomplete basic set of states for the diagonalization of the hamiltonian. In a recent letter, we have derived a technique to free the single-particle equation-of-motion method of redundancy. Here we shall apply this redundancy-free equation-of-motion method to intermediate-coupling calculations in two regions of near-spherical odd-mass nuclei where forward coupling alone has not been successful. It is shown that qualitative effects of backward coupling previously reported are not spurious effects of double counting, although they are significantly modified by the removal of redundancy. We also discuss what further modifications of the theory will be needed in order to treat the dynamical interplay of collective and single-particle modes in nuclei self-consistently on the same footing. (orig.)

  11. A Redundancy Mechanism Design for Hall-Based Electronic Current Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Long Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional current transformers (CTs suffer from DC and AC saturation and remanent magnetization in many industrial applications. Moreover, the drawbacks of traditional CTs, such as closed iron cores, bulky volume, and heavy weight, further limit the development of an intelligent power protection system. In order to compensate for these drawbacks, we proposed a novel current measurement method by using Hall sensors, which is called the Hall-effect current transformer (HCT. The existing commercial Hall sensors are electronic components, so the reliability of the HCT is normally worse than that of the traditional CT. Therefore, our study proposes a redundancy mechanism for the HCT to strengthen its reliability. With multiple sensor modules, the method has the ability to improve the accuracy of the HCT as well. Additionally, the proposed redundancy mechanism monitoring system provides a condition-based maintenance for the HCT. We verify our method with both simulations and an experimental test. The results demonstrate that the proposed HCT with a redundancy mechanism can almost achieve Class 0.2 for measuring CTs according to IEC Standard 60044-8.

  12. Detumbling control for kinematically redundant space manipulator post-grasping a rotational satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingming; Luo, Jianjun; Yuan, Jianping; Walter, Ulrich

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to establish a detumbling strategy and a coordination control scheme for a kinematically redundant space manipulator post-grasping a rotational satellite. First, the dynamics of the kinematically redundant space robot after grasping the target is presented, which lays the foundation for the coordination controller design. Subsequently, optimal detumbling and motion planning strategy for the post-capture phase is proposed based on the quartic Bézier curves and adaptive differential evolution (DE) algorithm subject to the specific constraints. Both detumbling time and control torques are taken into account for the generation of the optimal detumbling strategy. Furthermore, a coordination control scheme is presented to track the designed reference path while regulating the attitude of the chaser to a desired value, which successfully dumps the initial angular velocity of the rotational satellite and controls the base attitude synchronously. Simulation results are presented for detumbling a target with rotational motion using a 7 degree-of-freedom (DOF) redundant space manipulator, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. A heuristic for solving the redundancy allocation problem for multi-state series-parallel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez-Marquez, Jose E.; Coit, David W.

    2004-01-01

    The redundancy allocation problem is formulated with the objective of minimizing design cost, when the system exhibits a multi-state reliability behavior, given system-level performance constraints. When the multi-state nature of the system is considered, traditional solution methodologies are no longer valid. This study considers a multi-state series-parallel system (MSPS) with capacitated binary components that can provide different multi-state system performance levels. The different demand levels, which must be supplied during the system-operating period, result in the multi-state nature of the system. The new solution methodology offers several distinct benefits compared to traditional formulations of the MSPS redundancy allocation problem. For some systems, recognizing that different component versions yield different system performance is critical so that the overall system reliability estimation and associated design models the true system reliability behavior more realistically. The MSPS design problem, solved in this study, has been previously analyzed using genetic algorithms (GAs) and the universal generating function. The specific problem being addressed is one where there are multiple component choices, but once a component selection is made, only the same component type can be used to provide redundancy. This is the first time that the MSPS design problem has been addressed without using GAs. The heuristic offers more efficient and straightforward analyses. Solutions to three different problem types are obtained illustrating the simplicity and ease of application of the heuristic without compromising the intended optimization needs

  14. On modeling human reliability in space flights - Redundancy and recovery operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarset, M.; Wright, J. F.

    The reliability of humans is of paramount importance to the safety of space flight systems. This paper describes why 'back-up' operators might not be the best solution, and in some cases, might even degrade system reliability. The problem associated with human redundancy calls for special treatment in reliability analyses. The concept of Standby Redundancy is adopted, and psychological and mathematical models are introduced to improve the way such problems can be estimated and handled. In the past, human reliability has practically been neglected in most reliability analyses, and, when included, the humans have been modeled as a component and treated numerically the way technical components are. This approach is not wrong in itself, but it may lead to systematic errors if too simple analogies from the technical domain are used in the modeling of human behavior. In this paper redundancy in a man-machine system will be addressed. It will be shown how simplification from the technical domain, when applied to human components of a system, may give non-conservative estimates of system reliability.

  15. A model of primate visual cortex based on category-specific redundancies in natural images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmir, Mohsen; Shiry Ghidary, S.

    2010-12-01

    Neurophysiological and computational studies have proposed that properties of natural images have a prominent role in shaping selectivity of neurons in the visual cortex. An important property of natural images that has been studied extensively is the inherent redundancy in these images. In this paper, the concept of category-specific redundancies is introduced to describe the complex pattern of dependencies between responses of linear filters to natural images. It is proposed that structural similarities between images of different object categories result in dependencies between responses of linear filters in different spatial scales. It is also proposed that the brain gradually removes these dependencies in different areas of the ventral visual hierarchy to provide a more efficient representation of its sensory input. The authors proposed a model to remove these redundancies and trained it with a set of natural images using general learning rules that are developed to remove dependencies between responses of neighbouring neurons. Results of experiments demonstrate the close resemblance of neuronal selectivity between different layers of the model and their corresponding visual areas.

  16. Performance and delay analysis of hybrid ARQ with incremental redundancy over double rayleigh fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chelli, Ali

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we study the performance of hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with incremental redundancy over double Rayleigh channels, a common model for the fading amplitude of vehicle-to-vehicle communication systems. We investigate the performance of HARQ from an information theoretic perspective. Analytical expressions are derived for the \\\\epsilon-outage capacity, the average number of transmissions, and the average transmission rate of HARQ with incremental redundancy assuming a maximum number of HARQ rounds. Moreover, we evaluate the delay experienced by Poisson arriving packets for HARQ with incremental redundancy. We provide analytical expressions for the expected waiting time, the packet\\'s sojourn time in the queue, the average consumed power, and the energy efficiency. In our study, the communication rate per HARQ round is adjusted to the average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) such that a target outage probability is not exceeded. This setting conforms with communication systems in which a quality of service is expected regardless of the channel conditions. Our analysis underscores the importance of HARQ in improving the spectral efficiency and reliability of communication systems. We demonstrate as well that the explored HARQ scheme achieves full diversity. Additionally, we investigate the tradeoff between energy efficiency and spectral efficiency.

  17. Redundant control of migration and adhesion by ERM proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeyens, Nicolas; Latrache, Iman; Yerna, Xavier; Noppe, Gauthier; Horman, Sandrine; Morel, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The three ERM proteins are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cell. •ERM depletion inhibited PDGF-evoked migration redundantly. •ERM depletion increased cell adhesion redundantly. •ERM depletion did not affect PDGF-evoked Ca signal, Rac1 activation, proliferation. •ERM proteins control PDGF-induced migration by regulating adhesion. -- Abstract: Ezrin, radixin, and moesin possess a very similar structure with a C-terminal actin-binding domain and a N-terminal FERM interacting domain. They are known to be involved in cytoskeleton organization in several cell types but their function in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ERM proteins in cell migration induced by PDGF, a growth factor involved in pathophysiological processes like angiogenesis or atherosclerosis. We used primary cultured VSMC obtained from rat aorta, which express the three ERM proteins. Simultaneous depletion of the three ERM proteins with specific siRNAs abolished the effects of PDGF on cell architecture and migration and markedly increased cell adhesion and focal adhesion size, while these parameters were only slightly affected by depletion of ezrin, radixin or moesin alone. Rac1 activation, cell proliferation, and Ca 2+ signal in response to PDGF were unaffected by ERM depletion. These results indicate that ERM proteins exert a redundant control on PDGF-induced VSMC migration by regulating focal adhesion turn-over and cell adhesion to substrate

  18. Computational and experimental analysis of redundancy in the central metabolism of Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Segura

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous model-based analysis of the metabolic network of Geobacter sulfurreducens suggested the existence of several redundant pathways. Here, we identified eight sets of redundant pathways that included redundancy for the assimilation of acetate, and for the conversion of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA. These equivalent pathways and two other sub-optimal pathways were studied using 5 single-gene deletion mutants in those pathways for the evaluation of the predictive capacity of the model. The growth phenotypes of these mutants were studied under 12 different conditions of electron donor and acceptor availability. The comparison of the model predictions with the resulting experimental phenotypes indicated that pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase is the only activity able to convert pyruvate into acetyl-CoA. However, the results and the modeling showed that the two acetate activation pathways present are not only active, but needed due to the additional role of the acetyl-CoA transferase in the TCA cycle, probably reflecting the adaptation of these bacteria to acetate utilization. In other cases, the data reconciliation suggested additional capacity constraints that were confirmed with biochemical assays. The results demonstrate the need to experimentally verify the activity of key enzymes when developing in silico models of microbial physiology based on sequence-based reconstruction of metabolic networks.

  19. Hybrid online sensor error detection and functional redundancy for systems with time-varying parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianyuan; Turksoy, Kamuran; Samadi, Sediqeh; Hajizadeh, Iman; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Cinar, Ali

    2017-12-01

    Supervision and control systems rely on signals from sensors to receive information to monitor the operation of a system and adjust manipulated variables to achieve the control objective. However, sensor performance is often limited by their working conditions and sensors may also be subjected to interference by other devices. Many different types of sensor errors such as outliers, missing values, drifts and corruption with noise may occur during process operation. A hybrid online sensor error detection and functional redundancy system is developed to detect errors in online signals, and replace erroneous or missing values detected with model-based estimates. The proposed hybrid system relies on two techniques, an outlier-robust Kalman filter (ORKF) and a locally-weighted partial least squares (LW-PLS) regression model, which leverage the advantages of automatic measurement error elimination with ORKF and data-driven prediction with LW-PLS. The system includes a nominal angle analysis (NAA) method to distinguish between signal faults and large changes in sensor values caused by real dynamic changes in process operation. The performance of the system is illustrated with clinical data continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors from people with type 1 diabetes. More than 50,000 CGM sensor errors were added to original CGM signals from 25 clinical experiments, then the performance of error detection and functional redundancy algorithms were analyzed. The results indicate that the proposed system can successfully detect most of the erroneous signals and substitute them with reasonable estimated values computed by functional redundancy system.

  20. A Multi-objective PMU Placement Method Considering Observability and Measurement Redundancy using ABC Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KULANTHAISAMY, A.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Multi- objective Optimal Placement of Phasor Measurement Units (MOPP method in large electric transmission systems. It is proposed for minimizing the number of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs for complete system observability and maximizing the measurement redundancy of the system, simultaneously. The measurement redundancy means that number of times a bus is able to monitor more than once by PMUs set. A higher level of measurement redundancy can maximize the total system observability and it is desirable for a reliable power system state estimation. Therefore, simultaneous optimization of the two conflicting objectives are performed using a binary coded Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithm. The complete observability of the power system is first prepared and then, single line loss contingency condition is considered to the main model. The efficiency of the proposed method is validated on IEEE 14, 30, 57 and 118 bus test systems. The valuable approach of ABC algorithm is demonstrated in finding the optimal number of PMUs and their locations by comparing the performance with earlier works.