WorldWideScience

Sample records for reductions electronic resource

  1. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ellingsen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  2. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  3. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  4. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-11-05

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  5. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  6. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system

  7. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration

  8. PRINCIPLES OF CONTENT FORMATION EDUCATIONAL ELECTRONIC RESOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О Ю Заславская

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers modern possibilities of information and communication technologies for the design of electronic educational resources. The conceptual basis of the open educational multimedia system is based on the modular architecture of the electronic educational resource. The content of the electronic training module can be implemented in several versions of the modules: obtaining information, practical exercises, control. The regularities in the teaching process in modern pedagogical theory are considered: general and specific, and the principles for the formation of the content of instruction at different levels are defined, based on the formulated regularities. On the basis of the analysis, the principles of the formation of the electronic educational resource are determined, taking into account the general and didactic patterns of teaching.As principles of the formation of educational material for obtaining information for the electronic educational resource, the article considers: the principle of methodological orientation, the principle of general scientific orientation, the principle of systemic nature, the principle of fundamentalization, the principle of accounting intersubject communications, the principle of minimization. The principles of the formation of the electronic training module of practical studies in the article include: the principle of systematic and dose based consistency, the principle of rational use of study time, the principle of accessibility. The principles of the formation of the module for monitoring the electronic educational resource can be: the principle of the operationalization of goals, the principle of unified identification diagnosis.

  9. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  10. CHALLENGES OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the role of policy for proper and efficient library services in the electronic era. It points out some of the possible dangers of embarking in electronic resources without a proper focus at hand. Thus, it calls for today's librarians and policy makers to brainstorm and come up with working policies suitable to ...

  11. NOx reduction by compact electron beam processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsiao, M.C.; Merritt, B.T.; Wallman, P.H.; Vogtlin, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    Among the new methods being investigated for the post-combustion removal of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) are based on non-thermal plasmas. These plasmas can be produced by electrical discharge methods or electron beam irradiation. The application of electron beam irradiation for NO x removal in power plant flue gases has been investigated since the early 1970's in both laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments. Electrical discharge methods are relatively new entrants in the field of flue gas cleanup. Pulsed corona and dielectric-barrier discharge techniques are two of the more commonly used electrical discharge methods for producing nonthermal plasmas at atmospheric pressure. There are basically two types of reactions responsible for the depletion of NO by non-thermal plasmas: oxidation and reduction

  12. Library training to promote electronic resource usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing the usage of electronic resources is an issue of concern for many libraries all over the world. Several studies stress the importance of information literacy and instruction in order to increase the usage. Design/methodology/approach: The present article presents the results...

  13. Fouzth report to Congress: resource recovery and waste reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The report covers domestic refuse generation and resource recovery estimates. A discussion of waste reduction at various national organizational levels, source separation, mixed refuse processing for energy production, and environmental and economic impact of beverage containers deposit law are included.

  14. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  15. use of electronic resources by graduate students of the department

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    respondent's access electronic resources from the internet via Cybercafé .There is a high ... KEY WORDS: Use, Electronic Resources, Graduate Students, Cybercafé. INTRODUCTION ... Faculty of Education, University of Uyo, Uyo. Olu Olat ...

  16. Waste Reduction Model (WARM) Resources for Small Businesses and Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides a brief overview of how EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) can be used by small businesses and organizations. The page includes a brief summary of uses of WARM for the audience and links to other resources.

  17. Use of Electronic Resources in a Private University in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined awareness and constraints in the use of electronic resources by lecturers and students of Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria. It aimed at justifying the resources expended in the provision of electronic resources in terms of awareness, patronage and factors that may be affecting awareness and use ...

  18. Gender Analysis Of Electronic Information Resource Use: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings the study concluded that access and use of electronic information resources creates a “social digital divide” along gender lines. The study ... Finally, the library needs to change its marketing strategies on the availability of electronic information resources to increase awareness of these resources.

  19. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  20. Model Order Reduction for Electronic Circuits:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Shontz, Suzanne

    Electronic circuits are ubiquitous; they are used in numerous industries including: the semiconductor, communication, robotics, auto, and music industries (among many others). As products become more and more complicated, their electronic circuits also grow in size and complexity. This increased...... in the semiconductor industry. Circuit simulation proceeds by using Maxwell’s equations to create a mathematical model of the circuit. The boundary element method is then used to discretize the equations, and the variational form of the equations are then solved on the graph network....

  1. Electronic human resource management: Enhancing or entrancing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Poisat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This article provides an investigation into the current level of development of the body of knowledge related to electronic human resource management (e-HRM by means of a qualitative content analysis. Several aspects of e-HRM, namely definitions of e-HRM, the theoretical perspectives around e-HRM, the role of e-HRM, the various types of e-HRM and the requirements for successful e-HRM, are examined. Research purpose: The purpose of the article was to determine the status of e-HRM and examine the studies that report on the link between e-HRM and organisational productivity. Motivation for the study: e-HRM has the capacity to improve organisational efficiency and leverage the role of human resources (HR as a strategic business partner. Main findings: The notion that the implementation of e-HRM will lead to improved organisational productivity is commonly assumed; however, empirical evidence in this regard was found to be limited. Practical/managerial implications: From the results of this investigation it is evident that more research is required to gain a greater understanding of the influence of e-HRM on organisational productivity, as well as to develop measures for assessing this influence. Contribution: This article proposes additional areas to research and measure when investigating the effectiveness of e-HRM. It provides a different lens from which to view e-HRM assessment whilst keeping it within recognised HR measurement parameters (the HR value chain. In addition, it not only provides areas for measuring e-HRM’s influence but also provides important clues as to how the measurements may be approached.

  2. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the utilization of Electronic Information resources by the academic staff of Makerere University in Uganda. It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types of resources provided by the Makerere University Library, the factors affecting resource utilization. The study was ...

  3. One electron reduction of triphenyl methane dyes by hydrated electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhasikuttan, A C; Shastri, L V; Sapre, A V; Rama Rao, K V.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Chemistry Div.

    1994-12-31

    Electron reaction rates for the triphenylmethane (TPM) dyes have been evaluated. Spectral characteristics of the resulting dye radicals have been determined. Evolution of the transient spectra shows intramolecular rearrangement in the radical from brilliant green and malachite green. (author). 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. One electron reduction of triphenyl methane dyes by hydrated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhasikuttan, A.C.; Shastri, L.V.; Sapre, A.V.; Rama Rao, K.V.S.

    1994-01-01

    Electron reaction rates for the triphenylmethane (TPM) dyes have been evaluated. Spectral characteristics of the resulting dye radicals have been determined. Evolution of the transient spectra shows intramolecular rearrangement in the radical from brilliant green and malachite green. (author). 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated users satisfaction on the use of electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ABU & UNIBEN. Two objectives and one null hypotheses were formulated and tested with respect to the users' satisfaction on electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ...

  6. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  7. California Air Resources board's mobil source emission reduction credit guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunwoody Lentz, C.; Werner, B.

    1993-01-01

    The California Air Resources Board has developed guidance for the generation and use of mobil source emission reduction credits. Mobil source credits can be used to improve air quality, or to mitigate increases in emissions associated with industrial and non-industrial sources. They are created by programs which reduce mobile source emission beyond the reductions required by federal, state, and local laws or air quality attainment plans. Significant amounts of credit can be generated by some types of programs which reduce mobile source emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) and reactive organic gases (ROG). Mobile source credit programs must be carefully structured to ensure that emission reductions are real, accurately quantified, enforceable, and have a defined life. Three potentially feasible programs for the creation of mobile source credits include accelerated retirement of older vehicles, purchase of low-emission buses, and purchase of zero-emission vehicles. These programs are evaluated for their ability to generate credit and to assess their cost effectiveness. Based on the examples presented, two methods of generating mobile source credits, the accelerated retirement of older vehicles and the purchase of low-emission buses, appear to be cost-effective when compared to other emission control measures

  8. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined.

  9. Hydroelectric power available resources and environmental impact reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penta, P.

    1998-01-01

    The actual energy demand in Italy is met only in part by means of hydropower, as the available resources are almost entirely exploited. Italy is therefore obliged to import energy from far countries, in form of fossil fuel, that gives rise to serious outcomes due to the emission of undesirable gas in the environment. According to some recent evaluations conducted by the Ministry of Environment and the Agency for Alternative Energy (ENEA), the situation could improve in the year 2020 if the demand would reduce and the use of clean-energy increase. However, such an ambitious programme require to invest in ten years more than 100.000 billion Liras and the overall fuel consumption will only partially, decrease. To look at the problem in a broader view, taking into account that a drastic demand reduction is unthinkable, new resources, preferably non-polluting, must be identified. An energy source, still unexploited, is that of River Congo at the Inga falls, where the estimated potential is of 270 GWh, namely of the same order of the total energy consumed in Italy in 1997. Because such an energy cannot be conveyed to Italy by means of electric lines, it must be transformed into a vector suitable of an easier transportation: this could be the hydrogen [it

  10. Improving Electronic Resources through Holistic Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusik, James P.; Vargas, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    To establish a more direct link between its collections and the educational goals of Saint Xavier University, the Byrne Memorial Library has adopted a "holistic" approach to collection development. This article examines how traditional budget practices influenced the library's selection of resources and describes how holistic collection…

  11. Page 170 Use of Electronic Resources by Undergraduates in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    undergraduate students use electronic resources such as NUC virtual library, HINARI, ... web pages articles from magazines, encyclopedias, pamphlets and other .... of Nigerian university libraries have Internet connectivity, some of the system.

  12. Biotechnological aspects of sulfate reduction with methane as electron donor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulepas, R.J.W.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2010-01-01

    Biological sulfate reduction can be used for the removal and recovery of oxidized sulfur compounds and metals from waste streams. However, the costs of conventional electron donors, like hydrogen and ethanol, limit the application possibilities. Methane from natural gas or biogas would be a more

  13. Utilisation of Electronic Information Resources By Lecturers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the use of information resources, specifically, electronic databases by lecturers/teachers in Universities and Colleges of Education in South Western Nigeria. Information resources are central to teachers' education. It provides lecturers/teachers access to information that enhances research and ...

  14. Preservation and conservation of electronic information resources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major holdings of the broadcast libraries of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) are electronic information resources; therefore, providing safe places for general management of these resources have aroused interest in the industry in Nigeria for sometimes. The need to study the preservation and conservation of ...

  15. Using XML Technologies to Organize Electronic Reference Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Huser, Vojtech; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Rocha, Roberto A.

    2005-01-01

    Provision of access to reference electronic resources to clinicians is becoming increasingly important. We have created a framework for librarians to manage access to these resources at an enterprise level, rather than at the individual hospital libraries. We describe initial project requirements, implementation details, and some preliminary results.

  16. Challenges in reduction of dinitrogen by proton and electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ham, Cornelis J M; Koper, Marc T M; Hetterscheid, Dennis G H

    2014-08-07

    Ammonia is an important nutrient for the growth of plants. In industry, ammonia is produced by the energy expensive Haber-Bosch process where dihydrogen and dinitrogen form ammonia at a very high pressure and temperature. In principle one could also reduce dinitrogen upon addition of protons and electrons similar to the mechanism of ammonia production by nitrogenases. Recently, major breakthroughs have taken place in our understanding of biological fixation of dinitrogen, of molecular model systems that can reduce dinitrogen, and in the electrochemical reduction of dinitrogen at heterogeneous surfaces. Yet for efficient reduction of dinitrogen with protons and electrons major hurdles still have to be overcome. In this tutorial review we give an overview of the different catalytic systems, highlight the recent breakthroughs, pinpoint common grounds and discuss the bottlenecks and challenges in catalytic reduction of dinitrogen.

  17. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  18. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  19. Organizational matters of competition in electronic educational resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Карловна Войтович

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the experience of the Udmurt State University in conducting competitions of educational publications and electronic resources. The purpose of such competitions is to provide methodological support to educational process. The main focus is on competition of electronic educational resources. The technology of such contests is discussed through detailed analysis of the main stages of the contest. It is noted that the main task of the preparatory stage of the competition is related to the development of regulations on competition and the definition of criteria for selection of the submitted works. The paper also proposes a system of evaluation criteria of electronic educational resources developed by members of the contest organizing committee and jury members. The article emphasizes the importance of not only the preparatory stages of the competition, but also measures for its completion, aimed at training teachers create quality e-learning resources.

  20. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  1. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  2. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  3. Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Torma

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

  4. Access to electronic information resources by students of federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses access to electronic information resources by students of Federal Colleges of Education in Eha-Amufu and Umunze. Descriptive survey design was used to investigate sample of 526 students. Sampling technique used was a Multi sampling technique. Data for the study were generated using ...

  5. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  6. ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF LATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  7. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical science students of the University of Benin. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and 390 students provided the data. Data collected were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and ...

  8. Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web 2.0 and Its Implications For Library And Information Practice In Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  9. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  10. MODEL OF AN ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE OF NEW GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy V. Loban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical structure of the modular architecture of an electronic educational resource (EER of new generation, which allows to decompose the process of studying the subjects of the course at a hierarchically ordered set of data (knowledge and procedures for manipulating them, to determine the roles of participants of process of training of and technology the development and use of EOR in the study procrate.

  11. Resource Loss and Naturalistic Reduction of PTSD among Inner-City Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Kristen H.; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

    2009-01-01

    Halting the process of psychosocial and material resource loss has been theorized as being associated with the reduction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study examines how the limiting of resource loss is related to alleviation of PTSD symptoms among 102 inner-city women, who originally met diagnostic criteria for PTSD after…

  12. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...

  13. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  14. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  15. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  16. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  17. Centrality as a Method for the Evaluation of Semantic Resources for Disaster Risk Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otakar Čerba

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Clear and straightforward communication is a key aspect of all human activities related to crisis management. Since crisis management activities involve professionals from various disciplines using different terminology, clear and straightforward communication is difficult to achieve. Semantics as a broad science can help to overcome communication difficulties. This research focuses on the evaluation of available semantic resources including ontologies, thesauri, and controlled vocabularies for disaster risk reduction as part of crisis management. The main idea of the study is that the most appropriate source of broadly understandable terminology is such a semantic resource, which is accepted by—or at least connected to the majority of other resources. Important is not only the number of interconnected resources, but also the concrete position of the resource in the complex network of Linked Data resources. Although this is usually done by user experience, objective methods of resource semantic centrality can be applied. This can be described by centrality methods used mainly in graph theory. This article describes the calculation of four types of centrality methods (Outdegree, Indegree, Closeness, and Betweenness applied to 160 geographic concepts published as Linked Data and related to disaster risk reduction. Centralities were calculated for graph structures containing particular semantic resources as nodes and identity links as edges. The results show that (with some discussed exceptions the datasets with high values of centrality serve as important information resources, but they also include more concepts from preselected 160 geographic concepts. Therefore, they could be considered as the most suitable resources of terminology to make communication in the domain easier. The main research goal is to automate the semantic resources evaluation and to apply a well-known theoretical method (centrality to the semantic issues of Linked Data. It

  18. Optimal production resource reallocation for CO2 emissions reduction in manufacturing sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    To mitigate the effects of climate change, countries worldwide are advancing technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper proposes and measures optimal production resource reallocation using data envelopment analysis. This research attempts to clarify the effect of optimal production resource reallocation on CO2 emissions reduction, focusing on regional and industrial characteristics. We use finance, energy, and CO2 emissions data from 13 industrial sectors in 39 countries from...

  19. Energy saving and emission reduction: A project of coal-resource integration in Shanxi Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianjun; Fu Meichen; Geng Yuhuan; Tao Jin

    2011-01-01

    The small or middle coal mines with illegal operations in developing countries or regions can cause bad energy waste and environmental disruption. The project of coal-resource integration in Shanxi Province of China gives a new idea or an approach to energy saving and emission reduction. It is a social- and economic-ecological project. The paper shows the targets of energy saving and emission reduction in Shanxi Province, and analyses the aims, significance, design process and implementation of the integration project. Based on that, the paper discusses the challenges and opportunities the project brings. The analysis shows that the project of coal-resource integration in developing countries or regions can effectively improve mining technologies, collect capital and impel international cooperation and exchange. Finally, the paper analyses the concerns about the future, including the possible problems of implementation period, industrial updating, environmental impact and re-employment. However, the successful integration of coal resources can mitigate energy crisis and climate crisis and promote cleaner production effectively. - Highlights: → Coal-resource integration gives a new idea or an approach to energy saving and emission reduction. → Coal-resource integration mitigates climate crisis and promotes cleaner production. → Coal-resource integration brings challenges and opportunities to traditional mining industries.

  20. Energy Spread Reduction of Electron Beams Produced via Laser Wake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollock, Bradley Bolt [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Laser wakefield acceleration of electrons holds great promise for producing ultra-compact stages of GeV scale, high quality electron beams for applications such as x-ray free electron lasers and high energy colliders. Ultra-high intensity laser pulses can be self-guided by relativistic plasma waves over tens of vacuum diffraction lengths, to give >1 GeV energy in cm-scale low density plasma using ionization-induced injection to inject charge into the wake at low densities. This thesis describes a series of experiments which investigates the physics of LWFA in the self-guided blowout regime. Beginning with high density gas jet experiments the scaling of the LWFA-produced electron beam energy with plasma electron density is found to be in excellent agreement with both phenomenological theory and with 3-D PIC simulations. It is also determined that self-trapping of background electrons into the wake exhibits a threshold as a function of the electron density, and at the densities required to produce electron beams with energies exceeding 1 GeV a different mechanism is required to trap charge into low density wakes. By introducing small concentrations of high-Z gas to the nominal He background the ionization-induced injection mechanism is enabled. Electron trapping is observed at densities as low as 1.3 x 1018 cm-3 in a gas cell target, and 1.45 GeV electrons are demonstrated for the first time from LWFA. This is currently the highest electron energy ever produced from LWFA. The ionization-induced trapping mechanism is also shown to generate quasi-continuous electron beam energies, which is undesirable for accelerator applications. By limiting the region over which ionization-induced trapping occurs, the energy spread of the electron beams can be controlled. The development of a novel two-stage gas cell target provides the capability to tailor the gas composition in the longitudinal direction, and confine the trapping process to occur only in a

  1. Performance Limits of Photoelectrochemical CO2 Reduction Based on Known Electrocatalysts and the Case for Two-Electron Reduction Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard; Seger, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Solar-drivenreduction of CO2 to solar fuels as an alternative to H2 via water splitting is an intriguing proposition. We modelthe solar-to-fuel (STF) efficiencies using realistic parameters basedon recently reported CO2 reduction catalysts with a highperformance tandem photoabsorber structure. CO...... due to excessiveoverpotentials and poor selectivity. This work considers breakingup the multielectron reduction pathway into individually optimized,separate two-electron steps as a way forward....

  2. Waste Reduction Model (WARM) Resources for State and Local Government/Solid Waste Planners

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides a brief overview of how EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) can be used by state and local government/solid waste planners. The page includes a brief summary of uses of WARM for the audience and links to other resources.

  3. Ion current reduction in pinched electron beam diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintenz, J.P.; Poukey, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    A new version of a particle-in-cell diode code has been written which permits the accurate treatment of higher-current diodes with greater physical dimensions. Using this code, we have studied ways to reduce the ion current in large-aspect-ratio pinched electron beam diodes. In particular, we find that allowing the ions to reflex in such diodes lowers the ion to electron current ratio considerably. In a 3-MV R/d=24 case this ratio was lowered by a factor of 6--8 compared with the corresponding nonreflexing-ion diode, while still producing a superpinched electron beam

  4. Evidence for Single Metal Two Electron Oxidative Addition and Reductive Elimination at Uranium

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Benedict M; Kefalidis, Christos E; Lu, Erli; Patel, Dipti; Mcinnes, Eric; Tuna, Floriana; Wooles, Ashley; Maron, Laurent; Liddle, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Reversible single-metal two-electron oxidative addition and reductive elimination are common fundamental reactions for transition metals that underpin major catalytic transformations. However, these reactions have never been observed together in the f-block because these metals exhibit irreversible one- or multi-electron oxidation or reduction reactions. Here, we report that azobenzene oxidises sterically and electronically unsaturated uranium(III) complexes to afford a uranium(V)-imido compl...

  5. Determination of one-electron reduction potentials of some radiosensitive compounds by pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Zhihua; Yao Side; Li Hucheng; Lin Nianyun; Jin Yizun

    1994-01-01

    One-electron reduction potential (E 7 1 ) is one of the important parameters of radiosensitive compound with high electron affinity. In this work one-electron reduction potentials of some radiosensitizers, such as Miso, 911, CMNa, SMU-1, SMU-2, SMD, SNN, S 3 and BSO, were determined pulse radiolytically by using anthraquinone-2-sulfate (AQS), duroquinone (DQ) and methyl viologen (MV 2+ ) as references

  6. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  7. Reductant-dependent electron distribution among redox sites of laccase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Goldberg, M; Wherland, S

    1978-01-01

    Rhus laccase (monophenol monooxygenase, monophenol,dihydroxyphenylalanine:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.14.18.1) an O2/H2O oxidoreductase containing four copper ions bound to three redox sites (type 1, type 2, and type 3 Cu pair), was titrated anaerobically with several reductants having various ch...

  8. One-electron reduction reactions with enzymes in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisby, R.H.; Cundall, R.B.; Redpath, J.L.; Adams, G.E.

    1976-01-01

    At pH 8 and above, hydrated electrons react with ribonuclease lysozyme and α-chymotrypsin to form transient products whose spectra resemble, but are not identical to, those for the RSSR - radical anion already known for simple disulphides. Assuming a value for the extinction coefficient similar to that for RSSR - in simple disulphides, only a fraction of the hydrated electrons are shown to react with the disulphide bridges: the remainder react at other sites in the protein molecule, such as histidine, tyrosine and, in lysozyme, tryptophan residues, giving rise to comparatively weak optical absorptions between 300 and 400 nm. This has been substantiated by studying the reaction of e - sub(aq) with subtilisin Novo (an enzyme which does not contain disulphide bridges), with enzymes in which the sulphur bridges have been oxidised and with some amino acid derivatives. On lowering the pH of the solution the intensity of the RSSR - absorption diminishes as the protonated histidine residues become the favoured reaction sites. In acid solutions (pH 2 to 3) the transient optical absoptions observed are due to reactions of hydrogen atoms with the aromatic amino acids tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine. The CO - 2 radical anion is only observed to transfer an electron to disulphide groups in ribonuclease, although the effect of repeated pulsing shows that some reaction must occur elsewhere in the protein molecule. In acid solutions, protonation of the electron adduct appears to produce the RSSRH. radical, whose spectrum has a maximum at 340 nm. (author)

  9. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  10. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  11. Methanol as electron donor for thermophilic biological sulfate and sulfite reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Weijma, J.

    2000-01-01

    Sulfur oxyanions (e.g. sulfate, sulfite) can be removed from aqueous waste- and process streams by biological reduction with a suitable electron donor to sulfide, followed by partial chemical or biological oxidation of sulfide to elemental sulfur. The aim of the research described in this thesis was to make this biological process more broadly applicable for desulfurization of flue-gases and ground- and wastewaters by using the cheap chemical methanol as electron donor for the reduct...

  12. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  13. Artificial electron acceptors decouple archaeal methane oxidation from sulfate reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Silvan; Yu, Hang; Chadwick, Grayson L; McGlynn, Shawn E; Orphan, Victoria J

    2016-02-12

    The oxidation of methane with sulfate is an important microbial metabolism in the global carbon cycle. In marine methane seeps, this process is mediated by consortia of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) that live in syntrophy with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The underlying interdependencies within this uncultured symbiotic partnership are poorly understood. We used a combination of rate measurements and single-cell stable isotope probing to demonstrate that ANME in deep-sea sediments can be catabolically and anabolically decoupled from their syntrophic SRB partners using soluble artificial oxidants. The ANME still sustain high rates of methane oxidation in the absence of sulfate as the terminal oxidant, lending support to the hypothesis that interspecies extracellular electron transfer is the syntrophic mechanism for the anaerobic oxidation of methane. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  15. Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and usage among the postgraduates of a Nigerian University of Technology. ... faced by postgraduates in using e-resources include takes too much time to find, ... Resources, Access, Use, Postgraduat, Students, University, Technology, Nigeria ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  16. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  17. Synthesis of AuPd alloyed nanoparticles via room-temperature electron reduction with argon glow discharge as electron source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Manman; Wang, Zongyuan; Wang, Wei; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Argon glow discharge has been employed as a cheap, environmentally friendly, and convenient electron source for simultaneous reduction of HAuCl4 and PdCl2 on the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) substrate. The thermal imaging confirms that the synthesis is operated at room temperature. The reduction is conducted with a short time (30 min) under the pressure of approximately 100 Pa. This room-temperature electron reduction operates in a dry way and requires neither hydrogen nor extra heating nor chemical reducing agent. The analyses using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirm all the metallic ions have been reduced. The characterization with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) shows that AuPd alloyed nanoparticles are formed. There also exist some highly dispersed Au and Pd monometallic particles that cannot be detected by XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) because of their small particle sizes. The observed AuPd alloyed nanoparticles are spherical with an average size of 14 nm. No core-shell structure can be observed. The room-temperature electron reduction can be operated in a larger scale. It is an easy way for the synthesis of AuPd alloyed nanoparticles.

  18. Molecular dynamics simulation of the first electron transfer step in the oxygen reduction reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartnig, C.B.; Koper, M.T.M.

    2002-01-01

    We present a molecular dynamics simulation of solvent reorganization in the first electron transfer step in the oxygen reduction reaction, i.e. O2+e-¿O2-, modeled as taking place in the outer Helmholtz plane. The first electron transfer step is usually considered the rate-determining step from many

  19. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    ... Julita Nawe. University of Dar Es Salaam Library, P.O. Box 35092, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania .... significantly, while 28.3% observed that quality of service to the community had improved .... resources and evaluate them is an important area.

  20. Development of RBWR (Resource-renewable BWR) for environmental burden reduction of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Tetsushi; Ohtsuka, Masaya; Moriya, Kumiaki; Matsuura, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of long-life transuranium elements produced as by-products with uranium fuel burning became an issue of nuclear power. Hitachi had been developing the reactor with transuranium elements burning as fuels based on BWR type reactors successfully used as commercial reactors: RBWR (Resource-renewable BWR). Efficient transmutation and fissioning of transuranium elements needed adjustment of in-core neutron energy spectra distribution better for nuclear reaction of transuranium elements. Taking advantage of characteristics of BWR type reactors with neutron spectra hardening more easily adjustable than other type of reactors, multiple recycling and fissioning transuranium elements as fuels could make environmental burden reduction of radioactive wastes and efficient use of resources compatible. This article described the concept and history of RBWR and showed its specifications and reactor core characteristics. (T. Tanaka)

  1. Preservation of and Permanent Access to Electronic Information Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodge, Gail

    2004-01-01

    The rapid growth in the creation and dissemination of electronic information has emphasized the digital environment's speed and ease of dissemination with little regard for its long-term preservation and access...

  2. Electronic conferencing for continuing medical education: a resource survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, R J

    1986-10-01

    The use of electronic technologies to link participants for education conferences is an option for providers of Continuing Medical Education. In order to profile the kinds of electronic networks currently offering audio- or videoteleconferences for physician audiences, a survey was done during late 1985. The information collected included range of services, fees, and geographic areas served. The results show a broad diversity of providers providing both interactive and didactic programming to both physicians and other health care professionals.

  3. Localized conductive patterning via focused electron beam reduction of graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Songkil; Henry, Mathias [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Kulkarni, Dhaval D.; Zackowski, Paul; Jang, Seung Soon; Tsukruk, Vladimir V. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Fedorov, Andrei G., E-mail: agf@gatech.edu [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Parker H. Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2015-03-30

    We report on a method for “direct-write” conductive patterning via reduction of graphene oxide (GO) sheets using focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) of carbon. FEBID treatment of the intrinsically dielectric graphene oxide between two metal terminals opens up the conduction channel, thus enabling a unique capability for nanoscale conductive domain patterning in GO. An increase in FEBID electron dose results in a significant increase of the domain electrical conductivity with improving linearity of drain-source current vs. voltage dependence, indicative of a change of graphene oxide electronic properties from insulating to semiconducting. Density functional theory calculations suggest a possible mechanism underlying this experimentally observed phenomenon, as localized reduction of graphene oxide layers via interactions with highly reactive intermediates of electron-beam-assisted dissociation of surface-adsorbed hydrocarbon molecules. These findings establish an unusual route for using FEBID as nanoscale lithography and patterning technique for engineering carbon-based nanomaterials and devices with locally tailored electronic properties.

  4. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  5. Competitive microbial reduction of perchlorate and nitrate with a cathode directly serving as the electron donor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Daohai; Yu, Hui; Li, Chenchen; Ren, Yuan; Wei, Chaohai; Feng, Chunhua

    2014-01-01

    Microbial reduction of perchlorate with an electrode as the electron donor represents an emerging technology for remediation of perchlorate contamination; it is important to know how perchlorate reduction behaves when nitrate, a co-contaminant of perchlorate is present. We reported that electrons derived from the electrode can be directly transferred to the bacteria with perchlorate or nitrate as the sole electron acceptor. The presence of nitrate, even at the 0.07 mM level, can slow reduction of perchlorate (0.70 mM) as a poised potential of -0.50 V (vs. SCE) was applied to the inoculated cathode. Increasing the concentration of nitrate resulted in a noticeable inhibitory effect on perchlorate reduction. When the nitrate concentration was 2.10 mM, reduction of 0.70 mM perchlorate was totally inhibited. Bacterial community analyses based on 16S rDNA gene analysis with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) revealed that most of the bacteria newly enriched on the nitrate and/or perchlorate biocathodes were the known electrochemically active denitrifiers, which possibly prefer to reduce nitrate over perchlorate. These results show that nitrate is a more favorable electron acceptor than perchlorate in the bioelectrochemical system where the cathode directly serves as the electron donor

  6. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  7. Autotrophic antimonate bio-reduction using hydrogen as the electron donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun-Yu; Wen, Li-Lian; Zhang, Yin; Luo, Shan-Shan; Wang, Qing-Ying; Luo, Yi-Hao; Chen, Ran; Yang, Xiaoe; Rittmann, Bruce E; Zhao, He-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Antimony (Sb), a toxic metalloid, is soluble as antimonate (Sb(V)). While bio-reduction of Sb(V) is an effective Sb-removal approach, its bio-reduction has been coupled to oxidation of only organic electron donors. In this study, we demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of autotrophic microbial Sb(V) reduction using hydrogen gas (H2) as the electron donor without extra organic carbon source. SEM and EDS analysis confirmed the production of the mineral precipitate Sb2O3. When H2 was utilized as the electron donor, the consortium was able to fully reduce 650 μM of Sb(V) to Sb(III) in 10 days, a rate comparable to the culture using lactate as the electron donor. The H2-fed culture directed a much larger fraction of it donor electrons to Sb(V) reduction than did the lactate-fed culture. While 98% of the electrons from H2 were used to reduce Sb(V) by the H2-fed culture, only 12% of the electrons from lactate was used to reduce Sb(V) by the lactate-fed culture. The rest of the electrons from lactate went to acetate and propionate through fermentation, to methane through methanogenesis, and to biomass synthesis. High-throughput sequencing confirmed that the microbial community for the lactate-fed culture was much more diverse than that for the H2-fed culture, which was dominated by a short rod-shaped phylotype of Rhizobium (α-Protobacteria) that may have been active in Sb(V) reduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Tamikazu Kume; Tachibana, H.

    2002-01-01

    Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

  9. Resource reduction in pediatric chest pain: Standardized clinical assessment and management plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleeb, Susan F; McLaughlin, Sarah R; Graham, Dionne A; Friedman, Kevin G; Fulton, David R

    2018-01-01

    Using a Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plan (SCAMP) for pediatric patients presenting to clinic with chest pain, we evaluated the cost impact associated with implementation of the care algorithm. Prior to introduction of the SCAMP, we analyzed charges for 406 patients with chest pain, seen in 2009, and predicted 21% reduction of overall charges had the SCAMP methodology been used. The SCAMP recommended an echocardiogram for history, examination, or ECG findings suggestive of a cardiac etiology for chest pain. Resource utilization was reviewed for 1517 patients (7-21 years) enrolled in the SCAMP from July 2010 to April 2014. Compared to the 2009 historic cohort, patients evaluated by the SCAMP had higher rates of exertional chest pain (45% vs 37%) and positive family history (5% vs 1%). The SCAMP cohort had fewer abnormal physical examination findings (1% vs 6%) and abnormal electrocardiograms (3% vs 5%). Echocardiogram use increased in the SCAMP cohort compared to the 2009 historic cohort (45% vs 41%), whereas all other ancillary testing was reduced: exercise stress testing (4% SCAMP vs 28% historic), Holter (4% vs 7%), event monitors (3% vs 10%), and MRI (1% vs 2%). Total charges were reduced by 22% ($822 625) by use of the Chest Pain SCAMP, despite a higher percentage of patients for whom echocardiogram was recommended compared to the historic cohort. The Chest Pain SCAMP effectively streamlines cardiac testing and reduces resource utilization. Further reductions can be made by algorithm refinement regarding echocardiograms for exertional symptoms. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Availability of Electronic Resources for Service Provision in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also revealed that majority of the University libraries have adequate basic infrastructure for effective electronic information services. ... acquired by the library are put into maximal use by the library clientele, thereby ensuring the achievement of the library's objective which is satisfying the users, information needs.

  11. Utilization of bio-resources by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-01-01

    Utilization of bio-resources by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.g. anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides. Methylcellulose (MC) can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition as same as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

  12. Synergies across the natural resources management fields in Southern Africa: Disaster Risk Reduction and One Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Bocchino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available For various reasons, Southern Africa may be considered the playground as well as the thinking tank for many theories and practices in the natural resources management field. History has contributed to reshape conservation practices through colonial times, and recent wars have led to the relocation of people from their homelands and the appropriation by people of previously protected areas due to socio-economic pressures. Contemporary practices stemming from sustainable development have not yielded the expected results in resolving critical socio-economic stresses that impact on environmental health. Furthermore, human health has deteriorated in remote rural areas due to the failures of governance systems and the perpetration of non-participatory models for natural resources management, especially conservation. This paper seeks to explore how two relatively new approaches, Disaster Risk Reduction and One Health, can together tap into the theoretical and practical gaps left by previous paradigms in order to instill a sustainable development approach that can benefit both people and natural resources in remote and poor rural areas.

  13. Electron irradiation induced reduction of the permittivity in chalcogenide glass (As2S3) thin film

    KAUST Repository

    San Roman Alerigi, Damian; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Zhang, Yaping; Yang, Xiaoming; Ben Slimane, Ahmed; Ng, Tien Khee; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Alsunaidi, Mohammad; Ooi, Boon S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of electron beam irradiation on the dielectric properties of As 2 S 3 chalcogenide glass. By means of low-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy, we derive the permittivity function, its dispersive relation, and calculate the refractive index and absorption coefficients under the constant permeability approximation. The measured and calculated results show a heretofore unseen phenomenon: a reduction in the permittivity of ? 40 %. Consequently a reduction of the refractive index of 20%, hence, suggests a conspicuous change in the optical properties of the material under irradiation with a 300 keV electron beam. The plausible physical phenomena leading to these observations are discussed in terms of the homopolar and heteropolar bond dynamics under high energy absorption. The reported phenomena, exhibited by As 2 S 3-thin film, can be crucial for the development of photonics integrated circuits using electron beam irradiation method. © 2013 American Institute of Physics.

  14. Analysis of Pedagogic Potential of Electronic Educational Resources with Elements of Autodidactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: in recent years didactic properties of electronic educational resources undergo considerable changes, nevertheless, the question of studying of such complete phenomenon as “an electronic educational resource with autodidactics elements” remains open, despite sufficient scientific base of researches of the terms making this concept. Article purpose – determination of essence of electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements. Materials and Methods: the main method of research was the theoretical analysis of the pedagogical and psychological literature on the problem under study. We used the theoretical (analysis, synthesis, comparison and generalization methods, the method of interpretation, pedagogical modeling, and empirical methods (observation, testing, conversation, interview, analysis of students’ performance, pedagogical experiment, peer review. Results: we detected the advantages of electronic educational resources in comparison with traditional ones. The concept of autodidactics as applied to the subject of research is considered. Properties of electronic educational resources with a linear and nonlinear principle of construction are studied.The influence of the principle of construction on the development of the learners’ qualities is shown. We formulated an integral definition of electronic educational resources with elements of autodidactics, namely, the variability, adaptivity and cyclicity of training. A model of the teaching-learning process with electronic educational resources is developed. Discussion and Conclusions: further development of a problem will allow to define whether electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements pedagogical potential for realization of educational and self-educational activity of teachers have, to modify technological procedures taking into account age features of students, their specialties and features of the organization of process of training of

  15. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  16. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  17. [Efficacy and security of electronic cigarette for tobacco harm reduction: Systematic review and meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkam, Paul; Boussageon, Rémy; Underner, Michel; Langbourg, Nicolas; Brabant, Yann; Binder, Philippe; Freche, Bernard; Jaafari, Nematollah

    2016-11-01

    Smoking is the first cause of preventable death in France and in the world. Without help, it was shown that 80 % of smokers who try to quit smoking relapse after one month with a low long-term success rate. Smoking reduction can concern smokers who did not want to quit or failed in their attempt to weaning. The final aim is to increase attractiveness of drug therapies by developing new products, such as electronic cigarettes, that can compete cigarette without reproducing its harmful effects. Assess the capacity of electronic cigarettes to reduce or stop tobacco use among regular smokers. Consultations MEDLINE and COCHRANE databases. e-cigarette; electronic cigarettes; ENDD (electronic nicotine delivery system); ENDS (electronic nicotine delivery device); vaping were used. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the electronic cigarette with nicotine versus placebo device. Two randomized controlled trials were included in the quantitative analysis. The nicotine electronic cigarette users have tobacco consumption significantly decreased compared to the placebo group (RR: 1.30, 95 % CI [1.02 to 1.66]) at 6 months. Smoking cessation rate at 3 months was greater with the electronic cigarette contains nicotine (RR: 2.55, 95 % CI [1.31 to 4.98]). The small number of RCTs included does not allow definitive conclusions about the effectiveness of electronic cigarettes, especially in the medium to long term. The use of electronic cigarette with nicotine decreases tobacco consumption among regular smokers. Further studies are needed to specify electronic cigarettes safety profile and its ability to cause a reduction in consumption and a long-term cessation in smokers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  19. Observation of reduction of secondary electron emission from helium ion impact due to plasma-generated nanostructured tungsten fuzz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollmann, E M; Doerner, R P; Nishijima, D; Pigarov, A Yu

    2017-01-01

    Growth of nanostructured fuzz on a tungsten target in a helium plasma is found to cause a significant (∼3×) reduction in ion impact secondary electron emission in a linear plasma device. The ion impact secondary electron emission is separated from the electron impact secondary electron emission by varying the target bias voltage and fitting to expected contributions from electron impact, both thermal and non-thermal; with the non-thermal electron contribution being modeled using Monte-Carlo simulations. The observed (∼3×) reduction is similar in magnitude to the (∼2×) reduction observed in previous work for the effect of tungsten fuzz formation on secondary electron emission due to electron impact. It is hypothesized that the observed reduction results from re-absorption of secondary electrons in the tungsten fuzz. (paper)

  20. The need for novel model order reduction techniques in the electronics industry (Chapter 1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilders, W.H.A.; Benner, P.; Hinze, M.; Maten, ter E.J.W.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the present and future needs of the electronics industry with regard to model order reduction. The industry has always been one of the main motivating fields for the development of MOR techniques, and continues to play this role. We discuss the search for provably passive

  1. Methanol as electron donor for thermophilic biological sulfate and sulfite reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijma, J.

    2000-01-01

    Sulfur oxyanions (e.g. sulfate, sulfite) can be removed from aqueous waste- and process streams by biological reduction with a suitable electron donor to sulfide, followed by partial chemical or biological oxidation of sulfide to elemental sulfur. The aim of the research described in this

  2. Reduction of the Glauber amplitude for electron impact rotational excitation of quadrupolar molecular ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, K.C.; Gupta, G.P.; Pundir, R.S.

    1981-06-01

    A reduction of the Glauber amplitude for the rotational excitation of pure quadrupolar molecular ions by electron impact is presented in a form suitable for numerical evaluation. The differential cross-section is expressed in terms of one dimensional integrals over impact parameter. (author)

  3. Optimisation of 12 MeV electron beam simulation using variance reduction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayamani, J; Aziz, M Z Abdul; Termizi, N A S Mohd; Kamarulzaman, F N Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for electron beam radiotherapy consumes a long computation time. An algorithm called variance reduction technique (VRT) in MC was implemented to speed up this duration. This work focused on optimisation of VRT parameter which refers to electron range rejection and particle history. EGSnrc MC source code was used to simulate (BEAMnrc code) and validate (DOSXYZnrc code) the Siemens Primus linear accelerator model with the non-VRT parameter. The validated MC model simulation was repeated by applying VRT parameter (electron range rejection) that controlled by global electron cut-off energy 1,2 and 5 MeV using 20 × 10 7 particle history. 5 MeV range rejection generated the fastest MC simulation with 50% reduction in computation time compared to non-VRT simulation. Thus, 5 MeV electron range rejection utilized in particle history analysis ranged from 7.5 × 10 7 to 20 × 10 7 . In this study, 5 MeV electron cut-off with 10 × 10 7 particle history, the simulation was four times faster than non-VRT calculation with 1% deviation. Proper understanding and use of VRT can significantly reduce MC electron beam calculation duration at the same time preserving its accuracy. (paper)

  4. Greenhouse Emission Reductions and Natural Gas Vehicles: A Resource Guide on Technology Options and Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orestes Anastasia; NAncy Checklick; Vivianne Couts; Julie Doherty; Jette Findsen; Laura Gehlin; Josh Radoff

    2002-09-01

    that deal with passenger vehicles--and with transportation in general--do not address the climate change component explicitly, and thus there are few GHG reduction goals that are included in these programs. Furthermore, there are relatively few protocols that exist for accounting for the GHG emissions reductions that arise from transportation and, specifically, passenger vehicle projects and programs. These accounting procedures and principles gain increased importance when a project developer wishes to document in a credible manner, the GHG reductions that are achieved by a given project or program. Section four of this paper outlined the GHG emissions associated with NGVs, both upstream and downstream, and section five illustrated the methodology, via hypothetical case studies, for measuring these reductions using different types of baselines. Unlike stationary energy combustion, GHG emissions from transportation activities, including NGV projects, come from dispersed sources creating a need for different methodologies for assessing GHG impacts. This resource guide has outlined the necessary context and background for those parties wishing to evaluate projects and develop programs, policies, projects, and legislation aimed at the promotion of NGVs for GHG emission reduction.

  5. One-electron standard reduction potentials of nitroaromatic and cyclic nitramine explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchimiya, Minori; Gorb, Leonid; Isayev, Olexandr; Qasim, Mohammad M.; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    Extensive studies have been conducted in the past decades to predict the environmental abiotic and biotic redox fate of nitroaromatic and nitramine explosives. However, surprisingly little information is available on one-electron standard reduction potentials (E o (R-NO 2 /R-NO 2 - )). The E o (R-NO 2 /R-NO 2 - ) is an essential thermodynamic parameter for predicting the rate and extent of reductive transformation for energetic residues. In this study, experimental (linear free energy relationships) and theoretical (ab initio calculation) approaches were employed to determine E o (R-NO 2 /R-NO 2 - ) for nitroaromatic, (caged) cyclic nitramine, and nitroimino explosives that are found in military installations or are emerging contaminants. The results indicate a close agreement between experimental and theoretical E o (R-NO 2 /R-NO 2 - ) and suggest a key trend: E o (R-NO 2 /R-NO 2 - ) value decreases from di- and tri-nitroaromatic (e.g., 2,4-dinitroanisole) to nitramine (e.g., RDX) to nitroimino compound (e.g., nitroguanidine). The observed trend in E o (R-NO 2 /R-NO 2 - ) agrees with reported rate trends for reductive degradation, suggesting a thermodynamic control on the reduction rate under anoxic/suboxic conditions. - Reduction of explosives becomes less thermodynamically favorable as the one-electron standard reduction potential decreases from di- and tri-nitroaromatic, nitramine, to nitroimino compounds.

  6. Reduction of electron density in a plasma by injection of liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodha, M. S.; Evans, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    In this paper, the authors have investigated the physics of various processes relevant to the reduction of electron density in a plasma by addition of water droplets; two processes have in particular been analyzed in some detail, viz, the electron attachment to charged dielectric droplets and the emission of negative ions by vaporization from these droplets. The results of these analyses have been applied to a study of the kinetics of reduction of electron density and charging of droplets in an initially overionized plasma, after addition of water droplets. A number of simplifying assumptions including uniform size and charge on droplets and negligible change in the radius of the droplet due to evaporation have been made.

  7. NASA Propulsion Concept Studies and Risk Reduction Activities for Resource Prospector Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Huu P.; Williams, Hunter; Burnside, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The trade study has led to the selection of propulsion concept with the lowest cost and net lowest risk -Government-owned, flight qualified components -Meet mission requirements although the configuration is not optimized. Risk reduction activities have provided an opportunity -Implement design improvements while development with the early-test approach. -Gain knowledge on the operation and identify operation limit -Data to anchor analytical models for future flight designs; The propulsion system cold flow tests series have provided valuable data for future design. -The pressure surge from the system priming and waterhammer within component operation limits. -Enable to optimize the ullage volume to reduce the propellant tank mass; RS-34 hot fire tests have successfully demonstrated of using the engines for the RP mission -No degradation of performance due to extended storage life of the hardware. -Enable to operate the engine for RP flight mission scenarios, outside of the qualification regime. -Provide extended data for the thermal and GNC designs. Significant progress has been made on NASA propulsion concept design and risk reductions for Resource Prospector lander.

  8. Characterization of alternate reductant binding and electron transfer in the dopamine β-monooxygenase reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, L.C.; Klinman, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The steady-state limiting kinetic parameters V/sub max/, V/K/sub DA/, and V/K/sub O 2 /, together with deuterium isotope effects on these parameters, have been determined for the dopamine β-monooxygenase (DβM) reaction in the presence of structurally distinct reductants. The results show the one-electron reductant ferrocyanide to be nearly as kinetically competent as the presumed in vivo reductant ascrobate. Further, a reductant system of ferricyanide plus substrate dopamine yields steady-state kinetic parameters and isotope effects very similar to those measured solely in the presence of ferrocyanide, indicating a role for catecholamine in the rapid recycling of oxidized ferrocyanide. Use of substrate dopamine as the sole reductant is found to lead to a highly unusual kinetic independence of oxygen concentration, as well as significantly reduced values of V/sub max/ and V/K/sub DA/, and the authors conclude that dopamine reduces enzymic copper in a rate-limiting step that is 40-fold slower than with ascorbate. The near-identical kinetic parameters measured in the presence of either ascorbate or ferrocyanide, together with markedly reduced rates with dopamine, are interpreted in terms of a binding site for reductant that is physically distinct from the substrate binding site. This view is supported by molecular modeling, which reveals ascorbate and ferrocyanide to possess an unexpected similarity in potential sites for interaction with enzymic residues. With regard to electron flux, identical values of V/K/sub O 2 / have been measured with [2,2- 2 H 2 ]dopamine as substrate both in the presence and in the absence of added ascorbate. This key result unambiguously rules out an entry of electrons to enzyme forms leading from the enzyme-dopamine complex to enzyme-bound product and, hence, reaction mechanisms involving a reductive activation of the putative Cu(II)-OOH prior to substrate hydroxylation

  9. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  10. Evidence for single metal two electron oxidative addition and reductive elimination at uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benedict M; Kefalidis, Christos E; Lu, Erli; Patel, Dipti; McInnes, Eric J L; Tuna, Floriana; Wooles, Ashley J; Maron, Laurent; Liddle, Stephen T

    2017-12-01

    Reversible single-metal two-electron oxidative addition and reductive elimination are common fundamental reactions for transition metals that underpin major catalytic transformations. However, these reactions have never been observed together in the f-block because these metals exhibit irreversible one- or multi-electron oxidation or reduction reactions. Here we report that azobenzene oxidises sterically and electronically unsaturated uranium(III) complexes to afford a uranium(V)-imido complex in a reaction that satisfies all criteria of a single-metal two-electron oxidative addition. Thermolysis of this complex promotes extrusion of azobenzene, where H-/D-isotopic labelling finds no isotopomer cross-over and the non-reactivity of a nitrene-trap suggests that nitrenes are not generated and thus a reductive elimination has occurred. Though not optimally balanced in this case, this work presents evidence that classical d-block redox chemistry can be performed reversibly by f-block metals, and that uranium can thus mimic elementary transition metal reactivity, which may lead to the discovery of new f-block catalysis.

  11. Promotion of multi-electron transfer for enhanced photocatalysis: A review focused on oxygen reduction reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Changhua [Centre for Advanced Optoelectronic Functional Materials Research, and Key Laboratory for UV-Emitting Materials and Technology of Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); College of Chemistry and Biology, Beihua University, Jilin 132013 (China); Zhang, Xintong, E-mail: xtzhang@nenu.edu.cn [Centre for Advanced Optoelectronic Functional Materials Research, and Key Laboratory for UV-Emitting Materials and Technology of Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Liu, Yichun [Centre for Advanced Optoelectronic Functional Materials Research, and Key Laboratory for UV-Emitting Materials and Technology of Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in photocatalysis process is focused. • Multi-electron transfer ORR is reviewed. • This review provides a guide to access to enhanced photocatalysis via multi-electron transfer. - Abstract: Semiconductor photocatalysis has attracted significant interest for solar light induced environmental remediation and solar fuel generation. As is well known, photocatalytic performance is determined by three steps: photoexcitation, separation and transport of photogenerated charge carriers, and surface reactions. To achieve higher efficiency, significant efforts have been made on improvement of efficiency of above first two steps, which have been well documented in recent review articles. In contrast, this review intends to focus on strategies moving onto the third step of improvement for enhanced photocatalysis wherein active oxygen species including superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical are in situ detected. Particularly, surface electron-transfer reduction of oxygen over single component photocatalysts is reviewed and systems enabling multi-electron transfer induced oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are highlighted. It is expected this review could provide a guideline for readers to better understand the critical role of ORR over photocatalyst in charge carrier separation and transfer and obtain reliable results for enhanced aerobic photocatalysis.

  12. Investigation of industrial-scale carbon dioxide reduction using pulsed electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, G. M.; Apruzese, J. P.; Petrova, Tz. B.; Wolford, M. F. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20375-5346 (United States)

    2016-03-14

    Carbon dioxide is the most important greenhouse gas contributing to global warming. To help mitigate increasing CO{sub 2} concentrations, we investigate a method of carbon dioxide reduction using high-power electron beams, which can be used on an industrial scale. A series of experiments are conducted in which the reduction of CO{sub 2} is measured for different gas compositions and power deposition rates. An electron beam deposition model is applied to compute reduction rates of CO{sub 2} and energy cost for breaking a CO{sub 2} molecule in flue gas and pure carbon dioxide at atmospheric pressure. For flue gas consisting of 82% N{sub 2}, 6% O{sub 2}, and 12% CO{sub 2}, the calculated energy cost is 85 eV per molecule. In order to dissociate 50% of the CO{sub 2} molecules, beam energy density deposition on the order of 20 J/cm{sup 3} is required. Electron beam irradiation of 12.6 liter gas volume containing 90% CO{sub 2} and 10% CH{sub 4} at beam energy density deposition of 4.2 J/cm{sup 3}, accumulated over 43 shots in a 20 min interval, reduced the CO{sub 2} concentration to 78%. Analogous experiments with a gas mixture containing 11.5% CO{sub 2}, 11.5% CH{sub 4}, and balance of Ar, reduced the CO{sub 2} concentration to below 11% with energy deposition 0.71 J/cm{sup 3}, accumulated over 10 shots in a 5 min interval. The experimental data and the theoretical predictions of CO{sub 2} reduction using pulsed electron beams are in agreement within the experimental error. Other techniques to enhance the removal of CO{sub 2} with pulsed electron beams are also explored, yielding new possible avenues of research.

  13. Study of microbial perchlorate reduction: Considering of multiple pH, electron acceptors and donors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xing [Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Recycling (Shandong), School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Gao, Baoyu, E-mail: bygao@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Recycling (Shandong), School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Jin, Bo [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5005,Australia (Australia); Zhen, Hu [Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Recycling (Shandong), School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang, Xiaoyi [CSIRO Land and Water, Gate 5, Waite Road, Urrbrae, SA 5064 (Australia); Dai, Ming [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5005,Australia (Australia)

    2015-03-21

    Graphical abstract: Schemes of perchlorate reduction in ClO{sub 4}{sup −}/ClO{sub 3}{sup −}–NO{sub 3}{sup −} e{sup −}acceptor systems. - Highlights: • We created a multiple electron acceptor/donor system for ClO{sub 4}{sup −} reduction. • Nitrate reduction was inhibited when using perchlorate-grown Azospira sp. KJ. • Reduction proceeded as an order of ClO{sub 3}{sup −}, ClO{sub 4}{sup −}and NO{sub 3}{sup −}. • Oxidation of acetate was inhibited by succinate in acetate–succinate series. - Abstract: Bioremediation of perchlorate-cotaminated water by a heterotrophic perchlorate reducing bacterium creates a multiple electron acceptor-donor system. We experimentally determined the perchlorate reduction by Azospira sp. KJ at multiple pH, electron acceptors and donors systems; this was the aim of this study. Perchlorate reduction was drastically inhibited at the pH 6.0, and the maximum reduction of perchlorate by Azospira sp. KJ was observed at pH value of 8.0. Perchlorate reduction was retarded in ClO{sub 4}{sup −}–ClO{sub 3}{sup −}, ClO{sub 4}{sup −}–ClO{sub 3}{sup −}–NO{sub 3}{sup −},and ClO{sub 4}{sup −}–NO{sub 3}{sup −} acceptor systems, while being completely inhibited by the additional O{sub 2} in the ClO{sub 4}{sup −}–O{sub 2} acceptor system. The reduction proceeded as an order of ClO{sub 3}{sup −}, ClO{sub 4}{sup −}, and NO{sub 3}{sup −} in the ClO{sub 4}{sup −}–ClO{sub 3}{sup −}–NO{sub 3}{sup −} system. K{sub S,}v{sub max}, and q{sub max} obtained at different e{sup −} acceptor and donor conditions are calculated as 140.5–190.6 mg/L, 8.7–13.2 mg-perchlorate/L-h, and 0.094–0.16 mg-perchlorate/mg-DW-h, respectively.

  14. In-situ reduction of promoted cobalt oxide supported on alumina by environmental transmission electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehghan, Roya; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2011-01-01

    the reactivity of the nanoparticles and the importance of controlling the gas composition and specimen temperature during this type of experiment. Similar behaviour was observed for a non-promoted catalyst. Imaging and analysis of the promoted sample before and after reduction indicated a uniform distribution...... resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging. The cobalt particles were mainly face centred cubic while some hexagonal close packed particles were also found. Reoxidation of the sample upon cooling to room temperature, still under flowing H2, underlines...

  15. Topotactic reduction of YBa2Cu4O8 under the electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenges, B.; Hervieu, M.; Raveau, B.; Karpinski, J.; Kaldis, E.; Rusiecki, S.

    1991-01-01

    The stability of the high oxygen-pressure 80K-superconductor YBa 2 Cu 4 O 8 under the electron beam was studied by high resolution electron microscopy. Several topotactic reductions were observed for which models are proposed. The most important feature deals with the topotactic transformation of YBa 2 Cu 4 O 8 into the 125-type phase Y 1+x Ba 2+2x Cu 5-3x O 9 (x = 0.14) involving order-disorder phenomena

  16. Application of a CADIS-like variance reduction technique to electron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.; Haghighat, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the use of approximate deterministic importance functions to calculate the lower-weight bounds of the MCNP5 weight-window variance reduction technique when applied to electron transport simulations. This approach follows the CADIS (Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling) methodology developed for neutral particles shielding calculations. The importance functions are calculated using the one-dimensional CEPXS/ONELD code package. Considering a simple 1-D problem, this paper shows that our methodology can produce speedups up to ∼82 using an approximate electron importance function distributions computed in ∼8 seconds. (author)

  17. A survey of the use of electronic scientific information resources among medical and dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarnio Matti

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate medical and dental students' utilization of electronic information resources. Methods A web survey sent to 837 students (49.9% responded. Results Twenty-four per cent of medical students and ninteen per cent of dental students searched MEDLINE 2+ times/month for study purposes, and thiry-two per cent and twenty-four per cent respectively for research. Full-text articles were used 2+ times/month by thirty-three per cent of medical and ten per cent of dental students. Twelve per cent of respondents never utilized either MEDLINE or full-text articles. In multivariate models, the information-searching skills among students were significantly associated with use of MEDLINE and full-text articles. Conclusion Use of electronic resources differs among students. Forty percent were non-users of full-text articles. Information-searching skills are correlated with the use of electronic resources, but the level of basic PC skills plays not a major role in using these resources. The student data shows that adequate training in information-searching skills will increase the use of electronic information resources.

  18. Algae as an electron donor promoting sulfate reduction for the bioremediation of acid rock drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala-Parra, Pedro; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A., E-mail: jimfield@email.arizona.edu

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Algal biomass can serve as an electron donor to drive reduction of sulfate to sulfide. • Biogenic sulfide precipitates Cu{sup 2+} as stable sulfide mineral. • Cu{sup +2} removal in sulfidogenic bioreactors amended with algal biomass exceeded 99.5%. • Acidity in synthetic acid rock drainage was consumed by sulfate reduction. - Abstract: This study assessed bioremediation of acid rock drainage in simulated permeable reactive barriers (PRB) using algae, Chlorella sorokiniana, as the sole electron donor for sulfate-reducing bacteria. Lipid extracted algae (LEA), the residues of biodiesel production, were compared with whole cell algae (WCA) as an electron donor to promote sulfate-reducing activity. Inoculated columns containing anaerobic granular sludge were fed a synthetic medium containing H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and Cu{sup 2+}. Sulfate, sulfide, Cu{sup 2+} and pH were monitored throughout the experiment of 123 d. Cu recovered in the column packing at the end of the experiment was evaluated using sequential extraction. Both WCA and LEA promoted 80% of sulfate removal (12.7 mg SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} d{sup −1}) enabling near complete Cu removal (>99.5%) and alkalinity generation raising the effluent pH to 6.5. No noteworthy sulfate reduction, alkalinity formation and Cu{sup 2+} removal were observed in the endogenous control. In algae amended-columns, Cu{sup 2+} was precipitated with biogenic H{sub 2}S produced by sulfate reduction. Formation of CuS was evidenced by sequential extraction and X-ray diffraction. LEA and WCA provided similar levels of electron donor based on the COD balance. The results demonstrate an innovative passive remediation system using residual algae biomass from the biodiesel industry.

  19. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Tyagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  20. Cobamide-mediated enzymatic reductive dehalogenation via long-range electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Cindy; Bommer, Martin; Hagen, Wilfred R; Uksa, Marie; Dobbek, Holger; Schubert, Torsten; Diekert, Gabriele

    2017-07-03

    The capacity of metal-containing porphyrinoids to mediate reductive dehalogenation is implemented in cobamide-containing reductive dehalogenases (RDases), which serve as terminal reductases in organohalide-respiring microbes. RDases allow for the exploitation of halogenated compounds as electron acceptors. Their reaction mechanism is under debate. Here we report on substrate-enzyme interactions in a tetrachloroethene RDase (PceA) that also converts aryl halides. The shape of PceA's highly apolar active site directs binding of bromophenols at some distance from the cobalt and with the hydroxyl substituent towards the metal. A close cobalt-substrate interaction is not observed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Nonetheless, a halogen substituent para to the hydroxyl group is reductively eliminated and the path of the leaving halide is traced in the structure. Based on these findings, an enzymatic mechanism relying on a long-range electron transfer is concluded, which is without parallel in vitamin B 12 -dependent biochemistry and represents an effective mode of RDase catalysis.

  1. One-electron reduction of 2- and 6-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone bioreductive alkylating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, I.; Wardman, P.; Lin, T.S.; Sartorelli, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    The semiquinones, Q.-, of derivatives of 2- and 6-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinones, some incorporating leaving groups with substituents such as CH 2 Br or CH 2 OCONHCH 3 , have been produced by radiolytic reduction of Q by (CH 3 )2COH radicals. The absorption spectra and decay kinetics of Q.- were all closely similar to that produced from 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, with no evidence for unimolecular elimination of a leaving group in the semiquinone form, but immediate loss of leaving group upon two-electron reduction of Q to the hydroquinone. The redox equilibria between Q/Q.- and O2/O2.- were characterized, and reduction potentials of the couples Q/Q.- in water at pH 7.6 were calculated. The implications of these observations for the use of these compounds as bioreductive alkylating agents or as radiosensitizers with potential selective activity toward hypoxic cells are discussed

  2. One-electron standard reduction potentials of nitroaromatic and cyclic nitramine explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchimiya, Minori, E-mail: sophie.uchimiya@ars.usda.go [Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Gorb, Leonid [SpecPro Inc, 3909 Halls Ferry Road, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Isayev, Olexandr [Department of Chemistry, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Qasim, Mohammad M. [Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Leszczynski, Jerzy [Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Interdisciplinary Center for Nanotoxicity, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Extensive studies have been conducted in the past decades to predict the environmental abiotic and biotic redox fate of nitroaromatic and nitramine explosives. However, surprisingly little information is available on one-electron standard reduction potentials (E{sup o}(R-NO{sub 2}/R-NO{sub 2}{sup -})). The E{sup o}(R-NO{sub 2}/R-NO{sub 2}{sup -}) is an essential thermodynamic parameter for predicting the rate and extent of reductive transformation for energetic residues. In this study, experimental (linear free energy relationships) and theoretical (ab initio calculation) approaches were employed to determine E{sup o}(R-NO{sub 2}/R-NO{sub 2}{sup -}) for nitroaromatic, (caged) cyclic nitramine, and nitroimino explosives that are found in military installations or are emerging contaminants. The results indicate a close agreement between experimental and theoretical E{sup o}(R-NO{sub 2}/R-NO{sub 2}{sup -}) and suggest a key trend: E{sup o}(R-NO{sub 2}/R-NO{sub 2}{sup -}) value decreases from di- and tri-nitroaromatic (e.g., 2,4-dinitroanisole) to nitramine (e.g., RDX) to nitroimino compound (e.g., nitroguanidine). The observed trend in E{sup o}(R-NO{sub 2}/R-NO{sub 2}{sup -}) agrees with reported rate trends for reductive degradation, suggesting a thermodynamic control on the reduction rate under anoxic/suboxic conditions. - Reduction of explosives becomes less thermodynamically favorable as the one-electron standard reduction potential decreases from di- and tri-nitroaromatic, nitramine, to nitroimino compounds.

  3. Considering Point-of-Care Electronic Medical Resources in Lieu of Traditional Textbooks for Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, LaDonna S; Wallace, Michelle M; Adams, Courtney R; Kaufman, Michelle L; Snyder, Courtney L

    2015-09-01

    Selecting resources to support didactic courses is a critical decision, and the advantages and disadvantages must be carefully considered. During clinical rotations, students not only need to possess strong background knowledge but also are expected to be proficient with the same evidence-based POC resources used by clinicians. Students place high value on “real world” learning and therefore may place more value on POC resources that they know practicing clinicians use as compared with medical textbooks. The condensed nature of PA education requires students to develop background knowledge and information literacy skills over a short period. One way to build that knowledge and those skills simultaneously is to use POC resources in lieu of traditional medical textbooks during didactic training. Electronic POC resources offer several advantages over traditional textbooks and should be considered as viable options in PA education.

  4. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  5. In situ Reduction and Oxidation of Nickel from Solid Oxide Fuel Cells in a Transmission Electron Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faes, Antonin; Jeangros, Quentin; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2009-01-01

    Environmental transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize in situ the reduction and oxidation of nickel from a Ni/YSZ solid oxide fuel cell anode support between 300-500{degree sign}C. The reduction is done under low hydrogen pressure. The reduction initiates at the NiO/YSZ interface...

  6. Influence of Bicarbonate, Sulfate, and Electron Donors on Biological reduction of Uranium and Microbial Community Composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Wensui [ORNL; Zhou, Jizhong [ORNL; Wu, Weimin [ORNL; Yan, Tingfen [ORNL; Criddle, Craig [ORNL; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    A microcosm study was performed to investigate the effect of ethanol and acetate on uranium(VI) biological reduction and microbial community changes under various geochemical conditions. Each microcosm contained an uranium-contaminated sediment (up to 2.8 g U/kg) suspended in buffer with bicarbonate at concentrations of either 1 mM or 40 mM and sulfate at either 1.1 or 3.2 mM. Ethanol or acetate was used as an electron donor. Results indicate that ethanol yielded in significantly higher U(VI) reduction rates than acetate. A low bicarbonate concentration (1 mM) was favored for U(VI) bioreduction to occur in sediments, but high concentrations of bicarbonate (40 mM) and sulfate (3.2 mM) decreased the reduction rates of U(VI). Microbial communities were dominated by species from the Geothrix genus and Proteobacteria phylum in all microcosms. However, species in the Geobacteraceae family capable of reducing U(VI) were significantly enriched by ethanol and acetate in low bicarbonate buffer. Ethanol increased the population of unclassified Desulfuromonales, while acetate increased the population of Desulfovibrio. Additionally, species in the Geobacteraceae family were not enriched in high bicarbonate buffer, but the Geothrix and the unclassified Betaproteobacteria species were enriched. This study concludes that ethanol could be a better electron donor than acetate for reducing U(VI) under given experimental conditions, and electron donor and geoundwater geochemistry alter microbial communities responsible for U(VI) reduction.

  7. Influence of bicarbonate, sulfate, and electron donors on biological reduction of uranium and microbial community composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Wensui [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Wu Wei-Min; Criddle, C.S. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Yan Tingfen [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Jardine, P.M.; Gu Baohua [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Zhou Jizhong [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Dept. of Botany and Microbiology

    2007-12-15

    A microcosm study was performed to investigate the effect of ethanol and acetate on uranium(VI) biological reduction and microbial community changes under various geochemical conditions. Each microcosm contained an uranium-contaminated sediment (up to 2.8 g U/kg) suspended in buffer with bicarbonate at concentrations of either 1 or 40 mM and sulfate at either 1.1 or 3.2 mM. Ethanol or acetate was used as an electron donor. Results indicate that ethanol yielded in significantly higher U(VI) reduction rates than acetate. A low bicarbonate concentration (1 mM) was favored for U(VI) bioreduction to occur in sediments, but high concentrations of bicarbonate (40 mM) and sulfate (3.2 mM) decreased the reduction rates of U(VI). Microbial communities were dominated by species from the Geothrix genus and Proteobacteria phylum in all microcosms. However, species in the Geobacteraceae family capable of reducing U(VI) were significantly enriched by ethanol and acetate in low-bicarbonate buffer. Ethanol increased the population of unclassified Desulfuromonales, while acetate increased the population of Desulfovibrio. Additionally, species in the Geobacteraceae family were not enriched in high-bicarbonate buffer, but the Geothrix and the unclassified Betaproteobacteria species were enriched. This study concludes that ethanol could be a better electron donor than acetate for reducing U(VI) under given experimental conditions, and electron donor and groundwater geochemistry alter microbial communities responsible for U(VI) reduction. (orig.)

  8. Reduction of charge trapping and electron tunneling in SIMOX by supplemental implantation of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahlbush, R.E.; Hughes, H.L.; Krull, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    Silicon-on-insulator, SOI, technologies are being aggressively pursued to produce high density, high speed, radiation tolerant electronics. The dielectric isolation of the buried oxide makes it possible to design integrated circuits that greatly minimize single event upset and eliminate dose-rate induced latchup and upset. The reduction of excess-silicon related defects in SIMOX by the supplemental implantation of oxygen has been examined. The supplemental implant is 6% of the oxygen dose used to form the buried oxide, and is followed by a 1,000 C anneal, in contrast to the >1,300 C anneal used to form the buried oxide layer of SIMOX. The defects examined include shallow electron traps, deep hole traps, and silicon clusters. The radiation-induced shallow electron and deep hole trapping are measured by cryogenic detrapping and isothermal annealing techniques. The low-field (3 to 6 MV/cm) electron tunneling is interpreted as due to a two phase mixture of stoichiometric SiO 2 and Si clusters a few nm in size. Single and triple SIMOS samples have been examined. All of the defects are reduced by the supplemental oxygen processing. Shallow electron trapping is reduced by an order of magnitude. Because of the larger capture cross section for hole trapping, hole trapping is not reduced as much. The low-field electron tunneling due to Si clusters is also significantly reduced. Both uniform and nonuniform electron tunneling have been observed in SIMOX samples without supplement processing. In samples exhibiting only uniform tunneling, electron capture at holes has been observed. The nonuniform tunneling is superimposed upon the uniform tunneling and is characterized by current spiking

  9. Use of electronic sales data to tailor nutrition education resources for an ethnically diverse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, H; Rodgers, A; Ni Mhurchu, C

    2010-02-01

    Nutrition education may be most effective when personally tailored. Individualised electronic supermarket sales data offer opportunities to tailor nutrition education using shopper's usual food purchases. The present study aimed to use individualised electronic supermarket sales data to tailor nutrition resources for an ethnically diverse population in a large supermarket intervention trial in New Zealand. Culturally appropriate nutrition education resources (i.e. messages and shopping lists) were developed with the target population (through two sets of focus groups) and ethnic researchers. A nutrient database of supermarket products was developed using retrospective sales data and linked to participant sales to allow tailoring by usual food purchases. Modified Heart Foundation Tick criteria were used to identify 'healthier' products in the database suitable for promotion in the resources. Rules were developed to create a monthly report listing the tailored and culturally targeted messages to be sent to each participant, and to produce automated, tailored shopping lists. Culturally targeted nutrition messages (n = 864) and shopping lists (n = 3 formats) were developed. The food and nutrient database (n = 3000 top-selling products) was created using 12 months of retrospective sales data, and comprised 60%'healthier' products. Three months of baseline sales data were used to determine usual food purchases. Tailored resources were successfully mailed to 123 Māori, 52 Pacific and 346 non-Māori non-Pacific participants over the 6-month trial intervention period. Electronic supermarket sales data can be used to tailor nutrition education resources for a large number of ethnically diverse supermarket shoppers.

  10. REVIEW OF MOODLE PLUGINS FOR DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FROM LANGUAGE DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today the problem of designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines in Moodle is very important. This system has a lot of different, powerful resources, plugins to facilitate the learning of students with language disciplines. This article presents an overview and comparative analysis of the five Moodle plugins for designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines. There have been considered their key features and functionality in order to choose the best for studying language disciplines in the Moodle. Plugins are compared by a group of experts according to the criteria: efficiency, functionality and easy use. For a comparative analysis of the plugins it is used the analytic hierarchy process.

  11. Effects of the Use of Electronic Human Resource Management (EHRM Within Human Resource Management (HRM Functions at Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to examine the effect of e-hrm systems in assisting human resource practitioners to execute their duties and responsibilities. In comparison to developed economies of the world, information technology adoption in sub-Saharan Africa has not been without certain glitches. Some of the factors that are responsible for these include poor need identification, sustainable funding, and insufficient skills. Besides these factors, there is also the issue of change management and users sticking to what they already know. Although, the above factors seem negative, there is strong evidence that information systems such as electronic human resource management present benefits to an organization. To achieve this, a dual research approach was utilized. Literature assisted immensely in both the development of the conceptual framework upon which the study hinged as well as in the development of the questionnaire items. The study also made use of an interview checklist to guide the participants. The findings reveal a mix of responses that indicate that while there are gains in adopting e-hrm systems, it is wiser to consider supporting resources as well as articulate the needs of the university better before any investment is made.

  12. Maximum Regional Emission Reduction Potential in Residential Sector Based on Spatial Distribution of Population and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winijkul, E.; Bond, T. C.

    2011-12-01

    In the residential sector, major activities that generate emissions are cooking and heating, and fuels ranging from traditional (wood) to modern (natural gas, or electricity) are used. Direct air pollutant emissions from this sector are low when natural gas or electricity are the dominant energy sources, as is the case in developed countries. However, in developing countries, people may rely on solid fuels and this sector can contribute a large fraction of emissions. The magnitude of the health loss associated with exposure to indoor smoke as well as its concentration among rural population in developing countries have recently put preventive measures high on the agenda of international development and public health organizations. This study focuses on these developing regions: Central America, Africa, and Asia. Current and future emissions from the residential sector depend on both fuel and cooking device (stove) type. Availability of fuels, stoves, and interventions depends strongly on spatial distribution. However, regional emission calculations do not consider this spatial dependence. Fuel consumption data is presented at country level, without information about where different types of fuel are used. Moreover, information about stove types that are currently used and can be used in the future is not available. In this study, we first spatially allocate current emissions within residential sector. We use Geographic Information System maps of temperature, electricity availability, forest area, and population to determine the distribution of fuel types and availability of stoves. Within each country, consumption of different fuel types, such as fuelwood, coal, and LPG is distributed among different area types (urban, peri-urban, and rural area). Then, the cleanest stove technologies which could be used in the area are selected based on the constraints of each area, i.e. availability of resources. Using this map, the maximum emission reduction compared with

  13. The Electron Microscopy Outreach Program: A Web-based resource for research and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosinsky, G E; Baker, T S; Hand, G; Ellisman, M H

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a centralized World Wide Web (WWW)-based environment that serves as a resource of software tools and expertise for biological electron microscopy. A major focus is molecular electron microscopy, but the site also includes information and links on structural biology at all levels of resolution. This site serves to help integrate or link structural biology techniques in accordance with user needs. The WWW site, called the Electron Microscopy (EM) Outreach Program (URL: http://emoutreach.sdsc.edu), provides scientists with computational and educational tools for their research and edification. In particular, we have set up a centralized resource containing course notes, references, and links to image analysis and three-dimensional reconstruction software for investigators wanting to learn about EM techniques either within or outside of their fields of expertise. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  14. Electronic and Optical Properties of Aluminum Oxide Before and After Surface Reduction by Ar+ Bombardment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tahir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The electronic and optical properties of a-Al2O3 after induced by 3-keV Ar+ sputtering have been studied quantitatively by use of reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS spectra. The band gap values of a-Al2O3 was determined from the onset values of the energy loss spectrum to the background level of REELS spectra as a function of time Ar+ bombardment. The bandgap changes from 8.4 eV before sputtering to 6.2 eV after 4 minutes of sputtering.The optical properties of α-Al2O3 thin films have been determined by comparing the experimental cross section obtained from reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy with the theoretical inelastic scattering cross section, deduced from the simulated energy loss function (ELF by using QUEELS-ε(k-REELS software. The peak assignments are based on ELF and compared with reported data on the electronic structure of α-Al2O3 obtained using different techniques. The results demonstrate that the electronic and optical properties before and after surface reduction will provide further understanding in the fundamental properties of α-Al2O3 which will be useful in the design, modeling and analysis of devices applications performance.

  15. Algae as an electron donor promoting sulfate reduction for the bioremediation of acid rock drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Parra, Pedro; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A

    2016-11-05

    This study assessed bioremediation of acid rock drainage in simulated permeable reactive barriers (PRB) using algae, Chlorella sorokiniana, as the sole electron donor for sulfate-reducing bacteria. Lipid extracted algae (LEA), the residues of biodiesel production, were compared with whole cell algae (WCA) as an electron donor to promote sulfate-reducing activity. Inoculated columns containing anaerobic granular sludge were fed a synthetic medium containing H2SO4 and Cu(2+). Sulfate, sulfide, Cu(2+) and pH were monitored throughout the experiment of 123d. Cu recovered in the column packing at the end of the experiment was evaluated using sequential extraction. Both WCA and LEA promoted 80% of sulfate removal (12.7mg SO4(2-) d(-1)) enabling near complete Cu removal (>99.5%) and alkalinity generation raising the effluent pH to 6.5. No noteworthy sulfate reduction, alkalinity formation and Cu(2+) removal were observed in the endogenous control. In algae amended-columns, Cu(2+) was precipitated with biogenic H2S produced by sulfate reduction. Formation of CuS was evidenced by sequential extraction and X-ray diffraction. LEA and WCA provided similar levels of electron donor based on the COD balance. The results demonstrate an innovative passive remediation system using residual algae biomass from the biodiesel industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Photo-illuminated diamond as a solid-state source of solvated electrons in water for nitrogen reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Di; Zhang, Linghong; Ruther, Rose E; Hamers, Robert J

    2013-09-01

    The photocatalytic reduction of N₂ to NH₃ is typically hampered by poor binding of N₂ to catalytic materials and by the very high energy of the intermediates involved in this reaction. Solvated electrons directly introduced into the reactant solution can provide an alternative pathway to overcome such limitations. Here we demonstrate that illuminated hydrogen-terminated diamond yields facile electron emission into water, thus inducing reduction of N₂ to NH₃ at ambient temperature and pressure. Transient absorption measurements at 632 nm reveal the presence of solvated electrons adjacent to the diamond after photoexcitation. Experiments using inexpensive synthetic diamond samples and diamond powder show that photocatalytic activity is strongly dependent on the surface termination and correlates with the production of solvated electrons. The use of diamond to eject electrons into a reactant liquid represents a new paradigm for photocatalytic reduction, bringing electrons directly to reactants without requiring molecular adsorption to the surface.

  17. Identifying and evaluating electronic learning resources for use in adult-gerontology nurse practitioner education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources. © 2014.

  18. Reduction of 1/f noise in graphene after electron-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahid Hossain, Md.; Rumyantsev, Sergey; Shur, Michael S.; Balandin, Alexander A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated experimentally the effect of the electron-beam irradiation on the level of the low-frequency 1/f noise in graphene devices. It was found that 1/f noise in graphene reduces with increasing concentration of defects induced by irradiation. The increased amount of structural disorder in graphene under irradiation was verified with micro-Raman spectroscopy. The bombardment of graphene devices with 20-keV electrons reduced the noise spectral density, S I /I 2 (I is the source-drain current) by an order-of magnitude at the radiation dose of 10 4 μC/cm 2 . We analyzed the observed noise reduction in the limiting cases of the mobility and carrier number fluctuation mechanisms. The obtained results are important for the proposed graphene applications in analog, mixed-signal, and radio-frequency systems, integrated circuits and sensors.

  19. USE OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES WHEN TRAINING IN WORK WITH SPREADSHEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Х А Гербеков

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the tools for maintaining training courses based on opportunities of information and communication technologies are developed. Practically in all directions of preparation and on all subject matters electronic textbook and self-instruction manuals are created. Nevertheless the industry of computer educational and methodical materials actively develops and gets more and more areas of development and introduction. In this regard more and more urgent is a problem of development of the electronic educational resources adequate to modern educational requirements. Creation and the organization of training courses with use of electronic educational resources in particular on the basis of Internet technologies remains a difficult methodical task.In article the questions connected with development of electronic educational resources for use when studying the substantial line “Information technologies” of a school course of informatics in particular for studying of spreadsheets are considered. Also the analysis of maintenance of a school course and the unified state examination from the point of view of representation of task in him corresponding to the substantial line of studying “Information technologies” on mastering technology of information processing in spreadsheets and the methods of visualization given by means of charts and schedules is carried out.

  20. Supramolecular tetracluster-cobalt porphyrin: a four-electron transfer catalyst for dioxygen reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winnischofer, Herbert; Otake, Vesper Yoshiyuki; Dovidauskas, Sergio; Nakamura, Marcelo; Toma, Henrique Eisi; Araki, Koiti

    2004-01-01

    Electrocatalysis by CoTCP {CoTCP meso-tetrakis(4-pyridyl)porphynatocobalt(III)} coordinated to four [Ru 3 (μ 3 -O)(μ 2 -CH 3 CO 2 ) 6 (py) 2 ] + complexes in the four-electron reduction of dioxygen, has been unequivocally demonstrated in this work by using two types of electrostatically assembled films of CoTCP and anionic zinc or free-base meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrins (ZnTPPS or H 2 TPPS), as well as, by employing different electrode materials. An enhanced electrocatalytic activity has been observed, in spite of the fact that the typical bis-coordination of dioxygen to two cobalt porphyrin sites is precluded in such CoTCP/ZnTPPS or CoTCP/H 2 TPPS bilayered films. In addition, negligible ring currents have been observed in ring-disk voltammetry measurements, yielding straight Levich and Koutecky-Levich plots, whose slopes approached the theoretical 4e - curve in air, or in O 2 saturated solutions (pH 3-5). The use of gold instead of glassy carbon (GC) electrodes has not also significantly perturbed the mechanism. By ruling out any influence from the electrode materials, a well known critical point in the catalysis by cobalt porphyrins, the results have shown that CoTCP is acting as a four-electron transfer catalyst for dioxygen reduction. Also, by excluding the possibility of bis-coordination of dioxygen, it was shown that the electronic and supramolecular effects exerted by the peripheral ruthenium cluster complexes should be triggering the four-electron catalytic activity of the cobalt porphyrin center

  1. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Joshua A.; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate useful multicarbon products is challenging. Molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases are capable of converting carbon monoxide into hydrocarbons under mild conditions, using discrete electron and proton sources. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon monoxide on copper catalysts also uses a combination of electrons and protons, while the industrial Fischer-Tropsch process uses dihydrogen as a combined source of electrons and electrophiles for carbon monoxide coupling at high temperatures and pressures. However, these enzymatic and heterogeneous systems are difficult to probe mechanistically. Molecular catalysts have been studied extensively to investigate the elementary steps by which carbon monoxide is deoxygenated and coupled, but a single metal site that can efficiently induce the required scission of carbon-oxygen bonds and generate carbon-carbon bonds has not yet been documented. Here we describe a molybdenum compound, supported by a terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, that activates and cleaves the strong carbon-oxygen bond of carbon monoxide, enacts carbon-carbon coupling, and spontaneously dissociates the resulting fragment. This complex four-electron transformation is enabled by the terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, which acts as an electron reservoir and exhibits the coordinative flexibility needed to stabilize the different intermediates involved in the overall reaction sequence. We anticipate that these design elements might help in the development of efficient catalysts for

  2. Humin as an electron donor for enhancement of multiple microbial reduction reactions with different redox potentials in a consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Zhang, Chunfang; Xiao, Zhixing; Suzuki, Daisuke; Katayama, Arata

    2015-02-01

    A solid-phase humin, acting as an electron donor, was able to enhance multiple reductive biotransformations, including dechlorination of pentachlorophenol (PCP), dissimilatory reduction of amorphous Fe (III) oxide (FeOOH), and reduction of nitrate, in a consortium. Humin that was chemically reduced by NaBH4 served as an electron donor for these microbial reducing reactions, with electron donating capacities of 0.013 mmol e(-)/g for PCP dechlorination, 0.15 mmol e(-)/g for iron reduction, and 0.30 mmol e(-)/g for nitrate reduction. Two pairs of oxidation and reduction peaks within the humin were detected by cyclic voltammetry analysis. 16S rRNA gene sequencing-based microbial community analysis of the consortium incubated with different terminal electron acceptors, suggested that Dehalobacter sp., Bacteroides sp., and Sulfurospirillum sp. were involved in the PCP dechlorination, dissimilatory iron reduction, and nitrate reduction, respectively. These findings suggested that humin functioned as a versatile redox mediator, donating electrons for multiple respiration reactions with different redox potentials. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. GHG REDUCTION POTENTIAL OF BIOGAS RESOURCE UTILZATION IN HOLBÆK’S HEATING AND ELECTRICITY SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    DAO, THI THU HUONG DIU

    2013-01-01

    This project is set out to identify the GHG reduction potentials of the 3 identified biogas plants in the Holbæk municipality. The GHG reduction of the 3 plants will be calculated in association with 2 biogas applications, which are CHP and upgrading biogas for individual heating purposes. The GHG reduction potentials of the 3 plants will be reflected to Holbæk’s specific GHG reduction target to see how these potentials contribute to the set goal. Departure from that, future version of biogas...

  4. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables

  5. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  6. Reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene DNAPL source zones: source zone architecture versus electron donor availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, M.; Kokkinaki, A.; Sleep, B.

    2014-12-01

    The persistence of dense-non-aqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs) in the subsurface has led practitioners and regulatory agencies to turn towards low-maintenance, low-cost remediation methods. Biological degradation has been suggested as a possible solution, based on the well-proven ability of certain microbial species to break down dissolved chlorinated ethenes under favorable conditions. However, the biodegradation of pure phase chlorinated ethenes is subject to additional constraints: the continuous release of electron acceptor at a rate governed by mass transfer kinetics, and the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of DNAPL source zones which leads to spatially and temporally variable availability of the reactants for reductive dechlorination. In this work, we investigate the relationship between various DNAPL source zone characteristics and reaction kinetics using COMPSIM, a multiphase groundwater model that considers non-equilibrium mass transfer and Monod-type kinetics for reductive dechlorination. Numerical simulations are performed for simple, homogeneous trichloroethene DNAPL source zones to demonstrate the effect of single source zone characteristics, as well as for larger, more realistic heterogeneous source zones. It is shown that source zone size, and mass transfer kinetics may have a decisive effect on the predicted bio-enhancement. Finally, we evaluate the performance of DNAPL bioremediation for realistic, thermodynamically constrained, concentrations of electron donor. Our results indicate that the latter may be the most important limitation for the success of DNAPL bioremediation, leading to reduced bio-enhancement and, in many cases, comparable performance with water flooding.

  7. Recovery of gold from hydrometallurgical leaching solution of electronic waste via spontaneous reduction by polyaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhao Wu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study is primarily designed to develop an environmentally-benign approach for the recovery of precious metals, especially gold, from the ever increasingly-discarded electronic wastes (e-waste. By coupling the metal reduction process with an increase in the intrinsic oxidation state of the aniline polymers, and the subsequent re-protonation and reduction of the intrinsically oxidized polymer to the protonated emeraldine (EM salt, polyaniline (PANi films and polyaniline coated cotton fibers are able to recover metallic gold from acid/halide leaching solutions of electronic wastes spontaneously and sustainably. The current technique, which does not require the use of extensive extracting reagents or external energy input, can recover as much as 90% of gold from the leaching acidic solutions. The regeneration of polyaniline after gold recovery, as confirmed by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, promises the continuous operation using the current approach. The as-recovered elemental gold can be further concentrated and purified by incineration in air.

  8. GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina P. Lavrentieva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the causes of insufficient effective use of electronic learning resources and sets out the guidelines on ways to solve the aforementioned problems. The set of didactic, methodical, psychological, pedagogical, design and ergonomic quality requirements is considered for evaluation, selection and application of information and communication technologies in the educational process. The most appropriate mechanisms for the ICT introduction into the learning process are disclosed as it should meet the specific learning needs of the student and the objectives of the educational process. The guidance for psycho-educational assessment of quality of electronic educational resources is provided. It is argued that the effectiveness of the ICT use is to be improved by means of quality evaluation mechanisms involved into the educational process.

  9. Improvement of electron emission characteristics of porous silicon emitter by using cathode reduction and electrochemical oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, He; Wenjiang, Wang, E-mail: wwj@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Xiaoning, Zhang

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • An electron emitter based on porous silicon having the strong application potential was prepared in the studying. • A new simple and convenient post-treat technique was proposed to improve the electron emission properties of the PS emitter. • It demonstrated that the improving of the PS morphology and the oxygen distribution is very important to the PS emitter. - Abstract: A new simple and convenient post-treat technique combined the cathode reduction (CR) and electrochemical oxidation (ECO) was proposed to improve the electron emission properties of the surface-emitting cold cathodes based on the porous silicon (PS). It is demonstrated here that by introducing this new technique combined CR and ECO, the emission properties of the diode have been significantly improved than those as-prepared samples. The experimental results showed that the emission current densities and efficiencies of sample treated by CR were 62 μA/cm{sup 2} and 12.10‰, respectively, nearly 2 orders of magnitude higher than those of as-prepared sample. Furthermore, the CR-treated PS emitter shows higher repeatability and stability compared with the as-prepared PS emitter. The scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), furier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results indicated that the improved mechanism is mainly due to the passivation of the PS, which not only improve the PS morphology by the passivation of the H{sup +} but also improve the uniformity of the oxygen content distribution in the whole PS layer. Therefore, the method combined the CR treatment and ECO is expected to be a valuable technique to enhance the electron emission characteristics of the PS emitter.

  10. Improvement of electron emission characteristics of porous silicon emitter by using cathode reduction and electrochemical oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, He; Wenjiang, Wang; Xiaoning, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An electron emitter based on porous silicon having the strong application potential was prepared in the studying. • A new simple and convenient post-treat technique was proposed to improve the electron emission properties of the PS emitter. • It demonstrated that the improving of the PS morphology and the oxygen distribution is very important to the PS emitter. - Abstract: A new simple and convenient post-treat technique combined the cathode reduction (CR) and electrochemical oxidation (ECO) was proposed to improve the electron emission properties of the surface-emitting cold cathodes based on the porous silicon (PS). It is demonstrated here that by introducing this new technique combined CR and ECO, the emission properties of the diode have been significantly improved than those as-prepared samples. The experimental results showed that the emission current densities and efficiencies of sample treated by CR were 62 μA/cm"2 and 12.10‰, respectively, nearly 2 orders of magnitude higher than those of as-prepared sample. Furthermore, the CR-treated PS emitter shows higher repeatability and stability compared with the as-prepared PS emitter. The scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), furier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results indicated that the improved mechanism is mainly due to the passivation of the PS, which not only improve the PS morphology by the passivation of the H"+ but also improve the uniformity of the oxygen content distribution in the whole PS layer. Therefore, the method combined the CR treatment and ECO is expected to be a valuable technique to enhance the electron emission characteristics of the PS emitter.

  11. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Loban; D. A. Lovtsov

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with elec...

  12. A systematic review of portable electronic technology for health education in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Megan S; Fischer, Lydia J; Chun, Yeona; Vreeman, Rachel C

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature of how portable electronic technologies with offline functionality are perceived and used to provide health education in resource-limited settings. Three reviewers evaluated articles and performed a bibliography search to identify studies describing health education delivered by portable electronic device with offline functionality in low- or middle-income countries. Data extracted included: study population; study design and type of analysis; type of technology used; method of use; setting of technology use; impact on caregivers, patients, or overall health outcomes; and reported limitations. Searches yielded 5514 unique titles. Out of 75 critically reviewed full-text articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Study locations included Botswana, Peru, Kenya, Thailand, Nigeria, India, Ghana, and Tanzania. Topics addressed included: development of healthcare worker training modules, clinical decision support tools, patient education tools, perceptions and usability of portable electronic technology, and comparisons of technologies and/or mobile applications. Studies primarily looked at the assessment of developed educational modules on trainee health knowledge, perceptions and usability of technology, and comparisons of technologies. Overall, studies reported positive results for portable electronic device-based health education, frequently reporting increased provider/patient knowledge, improved patient outcomes in both quality of care and management, increased provider comfort level with technology, and an environment characterized by increased levels of technology-based, informal learning situations. Negative assessments included high investment costs, lack of technical support, and fear of device theft. While the research is limited, portable electronic educational resources present promising avenues to increase access to effective health education in resource-limited settings, contingent

  13. Catalytic pyrolysis of LDPE leads to valuable resource recovery and reduction of waste problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Jasmin [Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Peshawar, N.W.F.P. (Pakistan); Jan, M. Rasul [University of Malakand, Chakdara, N.W.F.P. (Pakistan); Mabood, Fazal [Department of Chemistry, University of Malakand, Chakdara, N.W.F.P. (Pakistan); Jabeen, Farah [Department of Chemistry, Sarhad University, N.W.F.P. (Pakistan)

    2010-12-15

    . This was further confirmed by Bromine number tests. The values of which lie in the range of 0.1-12.8 g/ml, which fall in the range for olefin mixture. Phenol and carbonyl contents were quantified using UV/Visible spectroscopy and the values lie in the range of 1-8920 {mu}g/ml and 5-169 {mu}g/ml for both phenols and carbonyls respectively. The components of different hydrocarbons in the oil mixture were separated by using column chromatography and fractional distillation followed by characterization with FT-IR spectroscopy. The interpretation of FT-IR spectra shows that catalytic pyrolysis of LDPE leads to the formation of a complex mixture of alkanes, alkenes, carbonyl group containing compounds like aldehydes, ketones, aromatic compounds and substituted aromatic compounds like phenols. It could be concluded, that catalytic pyrolysis of LDPE leads to valuable resource recovery and reduction of waste problem. (author)

  14. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Loban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  15. Projection-reduction method applied to deriving non-linear optical conductivity for an electron-impurity system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Lyong Kang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The projection-reduction method introduced by the present authors is known to give a validated theory for optical transitions in the systems of electrons interacting with phonons. In this work, using this method, we derive the linear and first order nonlinear optical conductivites for an electron-impurity system and examine whether the expressions faithfully satisfy the quantum mechanical philosophy, in the same way as for the electron-phonon systems. The result shows that the Fermi distribution function for electrons, energy denominators, and electron-impurity coupling factors are contained properly in organized manners along with absorption of photons for each electron transition process in the final expressions. Furthermore, the result is shown to be represented properly by schematic diagrams, as in the formulation of electron-phonon interaction. Therefore, in conclusion, we claim that this method can be applied in modeling optical transitions of electrons interacting with both impurities and phonons.

  16. Topotactic reduction yielding black titanium oxide nanostructures as metallic electronic conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaka, Satoshi

    2012-10-01

    Detailed analyses of reduced, single crystal, rutile-type TiO(2) via high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are reported which reveal that the reduction proceeds topotactically via interstitial diffusion of Ti ions at low temperature, around 350 °C. This important finding encouraged the production of various nanostructured reduced titanium oxides from TiO(2) precursors with morphology retention, and in the process, the synthesis of black titanium oxide nanorods using TiO(2) nanorods was demonstrated. Interestingly, as opposed to the semiconductive behavior of Ti(2)O(3) synthesized at high temperature, topotactically synthesized Ti(2)O(3) exhibits metallic electrical resistance, and the value at room temperature is quite low (topotactically synthesized Ti(2)O(3). This work shows that topotactically reduced titanium oxides can have fascinating properties as well as nanostructures.

  17. One-electron reduction of anthraquinone sulphonates: a pulse radiolysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, H.; Palit, D.K.; Mukherjee, T.; Mittal, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Semiquinone free radicals, derived from 2-sulphonate, 1,5-disulphonate and 2,6-disulphonate derivatives of 9,10-anthraquinone, have been studied using pulse radiolysis and kinetic absorption spectrophotometry techniques. Spectroscopic characteristics of both neutral and anionic species have been ascertained. Kinetics of formation and decay, reactivity with oxygen and one-electron reduction potential values have been estimated. The semiquinone radicals have been shown to be very stable under suitable pH conditions where the equilibrium (2 semiquinone ↔ quinone + hydroquinone) lies predominantly to the left. From a measurement of the equilibrium constants at different pH, values of E 2 and E m have been calculated. (author)

  18. The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction in the Terminal Reducing Segment of the Chloroplast Photosynthetic Electron Transport Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuleva, Marina A; Ivanov, Boris N

    2016-07-01

    The review is dedicated to ascertainment of the roles of the electron transfer cofactors of the pigment-protein complex of PSI, ferredoxin (Fd) and ferredoxin-NADP reductase in oxygen reduction in the photosynthetic electron transport chain (PETC) in the light. The data regarding oxygen reduction in other segments of the PETC are briefly analyzed, and it is concluded that their participation in the overall process in the PETC under unstressful conditions should be insignificant. Data concerning the contribution of Fd to the oxygen reduction in the PETC are examined. A set of collateral evidence as well as results of direct measurements of the involvement of Fd in this process in the presence of isolated thylakoids led to the inference that this contribution in vivo is negligible. The increase in oxygen reduction rate in the isolated thylakoids in the presence of either Fd or Fd plus NADP + under increasing light intensity was attributed to the increase in oxygen reduction executed by the membrane-bound oxygen reductants. Data are presented which imply that a main reductant of the O 2 molecule in the terminal reducing segment of the PETC is the electron transfer cofactor of PSI, phylloquinone. The physiological significance of characteristic properties of oxygen reductants in this segment of the PETC is discussed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The Role Of The Natural Resource Sector And Government Spending For Education Towards Poverty Reduction In East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarlan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available East Kalimantan Province is one of the rich provinces in natural resources such as coal mining oil and gas. Utilization of the natural resources is expected to be used optimally to improve the welfare of the community. The purpose of this research is to find out how big the influence of natural resources sector which the consist of mining and quarrying sector and processing industry sector and government expenditure for education against poverty alleviation in East Kalimantan Province. This research uses explanatory method with time-series and cross-section data and applying multiple regression model with Ordinary Least Square OLS method. The results of this study show that a the natural resource sector and government spending on education have no effect on per capita income growth b economic growth as measured by per capita income growth positively affects on poverty and government spending on education is not significantly influential to poverty reduction and c the natural resource sector has no significant effect on the poverty headcount in East Kalimantan.

  20. In situ oxidation and reduction of triangular nickel nanoplates via environmental transmission electron microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    LAGROW, A.P.; AlYami, Noktan; LLOYD, D.C.; Bakr, Osman; BOYES, E.D.; GAI, P.L.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the oxidation and reduction mechanisms of transition metals, such as nickel (Ni), is important for their use in industrial applications of catalysis. A powerful technique for investigating the redox reactive species is in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM), where oxidation and reduction can be tracked in real time. One particular difficulty in understanding the underlying reactions is understanding the underlying morphology of the starting structure in a reaction, in particular the defects contained in the material, and the exposed surface facets. Here-in, we use a colloidal nanoparticle synthesis in a continuous flow reactor to form nanoplates of nickel coated with oleylamine as a capping agent. We utilise an in situ heating procedure at 300 °C in vacuum to remove the oleylamine ligands, and then oxidise the Ni nanoparticles at 25 °C with 2 Pa oxygen, and follow the nanoparticles initial oxidation. After that, the nanoparticles are oxidised at 200 and 300 °C, making the size of the oxide shell increase to ∼4 nm. The oxide shell could be reduced under 2 Pa hydrogen at 500 °C to its initial size of ∼1 nm. High temperature oxidation encouraged the nanoparticles to form pure NiO nanoparticles, which occurred via the Kirkendall effect leading to hollowing and void formation.

  1. In situ oxidation and reduction of triangular nickel nanoplates via environmental transmission electron microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    LAGROW, A.P.

    2017-08-29

    Understanding the oxidation and reduction mechanisms of transition metals, such as nickel (Ni), is important for their use in industrial applications of catalysis. A powerful technique for investigating the redox reactive species is in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM), where oxidation and reduction can be tracked in real time. One particular difficulty in understanding the underlying reactions is understanding the underlying morphology of the starting structure in a reaction, in particular the defects contained in the material, and the exposed surface facets. Here-in, we use a colloidal nanoparticle synthesis in a continuous flow reactor to form nanoplates of nickel coated with oleylamine as a capping agent. We utilise an in situ heating procedure at 300 °C in vacuum to remove the oleylamine ligands, and then oxidise the Ni nanoparticles at 25 °C with 2 Pa oxygen, and follow the nanoparticles initial oxidation. After that, the nanoparticles are oxidised at 200 and 300 °C, making the size of the oxide shell increase to ∼4 nm. The oxide shell could be reduced under 2 Pa hydrogen at 500 °C to its initial size of ∼1 nm. High temperature oxidation encouraged the nanoparticles to form pure NiO nanoparticles, which occurred via the Kirkendall effect leading to hollowing and void formation.

  2. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  3. Water resources conservation and nitrogen pollution reduction under global food trade and agricultural intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Wenfeng; Yang, Hong; Liu, Yu; Kummu, Matti; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Liu, Junguo; Schulin, Rainer

    2018-01-01

    Global food trade entails virtual flows of agricultural resources and pollution across countries. Here we performed a global-scale assessment of impacts of international food trade on blue water use, total water use, and nitrogen (N) inputs and on N losses in maize, rice, and wheat production. We

  4. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N

    2006-01-01

    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  5. Tracking the Structural and Electronic Configurations of a Cobalt Proton Reduction Catalyst in Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moonshiram, Dooshaye; Gimbert-Suriñach, Carolina [Institute; Guda, Alexander [International; Picon, Antonio; Lehmann, C. Stefan; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Doumy, Gilles; March, Anne Marie; Benet-Buchholz, Jordi [Institute; Soldatov, Alexander [International; Llobet, Antoni [Institute; Departament; Southworth, Stephen H.

    2016-08-09

    Time resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy (X-TAS) has been used to study the light induced hydrogen evolution reaction catalyzed by a highly stable cobalt complex, [Ru(bpy)3]2+ photosensitizer and an equimolar mixture of sodium ascorbate/ascorbic acid electron donor in pure water. XANES and EXAFS analysis of a binary mixture of the octahedral Co(III) pre-catalyst and [Ru(bpy)3]2+ after illumination, revealed in-situ formation of a square pyramidal Co(II) intermediate, with electron transfer kinetics of 51 ns. On the other hand, X-TAS experiments of the complete photocatalytic system in the presence of the electron donor showed the formation of a square planar Co(I) intermediate species within a few nanoseconds followed by its decay in the microsecond timescales. The Co(I) structural assignment is supported by calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). At longer reaction times, we observe the formation of the initial Co(III) species concomitant to the decay of Co(I), thus closing the catalytic cycle. The experimental X-ray absorption spectra of the molecular species formed along the catalytic cycle are modeled using a combination of molecular orbital DFT calculations (DFT-MO) and Finite Difference Method (FDM). These findings allowed us to unequivocally assign the full mechanistic pathway followed by the catalyst as well as to determine the rate limiting step of the process, which consists in the protonation of the Co(I). This study provides a complete kinetics scheme for the hydrogen evolution reaction by a cobalt catalyst, revealing unique information for the development of better catalysts for the reductive side of hydrogen fuel cells.

  6. Pulse-radiolytic one-electron reduction of anthraquinone and chloro-anthraquinones in aqueous-isopropanol-acetone mixed solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, M.C.; Pal, H.; Mukherjee, T.

    1996-01-01

    One-electron reduction of 9,10-anthraquinone and some chloro-anthraquinones and the characteristics of the semiquinones thus formed have been investigated in aqueous-isipropanol-acetone mixed solvent using electron pulse radiolysis technique. Spectroscopic characteristics, kinetic parameters of formation and decay, and the acid/base behaviour of the semiquinones have been investigated. The one-electron reduction potential of the quinones have been measured following electron transfer equilibria with a reference redox system (methyl viologen) and the values thus obtained have been compared with those of some other anthrasemiquinone systems. An analysis of the characteristics of the semiquinones shows that α-chloro substituents adjacent to the C=O group act as electron withdrawing groups. (author)

  7. The Synthesis of the Hierarchical Structure of Information Resources for Management of Electronic Commerce Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova Anzhelika S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop the theoretical bases for the classification and coding of economic information and the scientific justification of the content of information resources of an electronic commerce enterprise. The essence of information resources for management of electronic business entities is investigated. It is proved that the organization of accounting in e-commerce systems is advisable to be built on the basis of two circuits: accounting for financial flows and accounting associated with transformation of business factors in products and services as a result of production activities. There presented a sequence of accounting organization that allows to combine the both circuits in a single information system, which provides a possibility for the integrated replenishment and distributed simultaneous use of the e-commerce system by all groups of users. It is proved that the guarantee of efficient activity of the information management system of electronic commerce entities is a proper systematization of the aggregate of information resources on economic facts and operations of an enterprise in accordance with the management tasks by building the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. It is suggested to understand nomenclature as an objective, primary information aggregate concerning a certain fact of the economic activity of an enterprise, which is characterized by minimum requisites, is entered into the database of the information system and is to be reflected in the accounting system. It is proposed to build a database of e-commerce systems as a part of directories (constants, personnel, goods / products, suppliers, buyers and the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. The package of documents regulating the organization of accounting at an enterprise should include: the provision on the accounting services, the order on the accounting policy, the job descriptions, the schedules of information exchange, the report card and

  8. ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FOR ONLINE SUPPORT OF MODERN CHEMISTRY CLASSES IN SPECIALIZED SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Tukalo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains material of some modern electronic educational resources that can be used via the Internet to support the modern chemistry classes in specialized school. It was drawn attention to the educational chemical experiments as means of knowledge; simulated key motivational characteristics to enhance students interest for learning subjects, their cognitive and practical activity in the formation of self-reliance and self-creative; commented forecasts for creating of conditions to enhance the creative potential of students in a modern learning environment.

  9. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system should be assessed. Developed a model for the development of the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system, which is based on the main scientific approaches, used in adult education, and consists of five blocks: target, informative, technological, diagnostic and effective.

  10. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. → The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. → We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. → Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. → Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection

  11. Open-Source Electronic Health Record Systems for Low-Resource Settings: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syzdykova, Assel; Malta, André; Zolfo, Maria; Diro, Ermias; Oliveira, José Luis

    2017-11-13

    Despite the great impact of information and communication technologies on clinical practice and on the quality of health services, this trend has been almost exclusive to developed countries, whereas countries with poor resources suffer from many economic and social issues that have hindered the real benefits of electronic health (eHealth) tools. As a component of eHealth systems, electronic health records (EHRs) play a fundamental role in patient management and effective medical care services. Thus, the adoption of EHRs in regions with a lack of infrastructure, untrained staff, and ill-equipped health care providers is an important task. However, the main barrier to adopting EHR software in low- and middle-income countries is the cost of its purchase and maintenance, which highlights the open-source approach as a good solution for these underserved areas. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of open-source EHR systems based on the requirements and limitations of low-resource settings. First, we reviewed existing literature on the comparison of available open-source solutions. In close collaboration with the University of Gondar Hospital, Ethiopia, we identified common limitations in poor resource environments and also the main requirements that EHRs should support. Then, we extensively evaluated the current open-source EHR solutions, discussing their strengths and weaknesses, and their appropriateness to fulfill a predefined set of features relevant for low-resource settings. The evaluation methodology allowed assessment of several key aspects of available solutions that are as follows: (1) integrated applications, (2) configurable reports, (3) custom reports, (4) custom forms, (5) interoperability, (6) coding systems, (7) authentication methods, (8) patient portal, (9) access control model, (10) cryptographic features, (11) flexible data model, (12) offline support, (13) native client, (14) Web client,(15) other clients, (16) code

  12. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing ...

  13. Determining the level of awareness of the physicians in using the variety of electronic information resources and the effecting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Ahmad; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Moradi, Salimeh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the medical society's from the types of information resources for quick and easy access to information is an imperative task in medical researches and management of the treatment. The present study was aimed to determine the level of awareness of the physicians in using various electronic information resources and the factors affecting it. This study was a descriptive survey. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The study population included all the physicians and specialty physicians of the teaching hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and numbered 350. The sample size based on Morgan's formula was set at 180. The content validity of the tool was confirmed by the library and information professionals and the reliability was 95%. Descriptive statistics were used including the SPSS software version 19. On reviewing the need of the physicians to obtain the information on several occasions, the need for information in conducting the researches was reported by the maximum number of physicians (91.9%) and the usage of information resources, especially the electronic resources, formed 65.4% as the highest rate with regard to meeting the information needs of the physicians. Among the electronic information databases, the maximum awareness was related to Medline with 86.5%. Among the various electronic information resources, the highest awareness (43.3%) was related to the E-journals. The highest usage (36%) was also from the same source. The studied physicians considered the most effective deterrent in the use of electronic information resources as being too busy and lack of time. Despite the importance of electronic information resources for the physician's community, there was no comprehensive knowledge of these resources. This can lead to less usage of these resources. Therefore, careful planning is necessary in the hospital libraries in order to introduce the facilities and full capabilities of the

  14. Success criteria for electronic medical record implementations in low-resource settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Fleur; Tilahun, Binyam; Dugas, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems have the potential of supporting clinical work by providing the right information at the right time to the right people and thus make efficient use of resources. This is especially important in low-resource settings where reliable data are also needed to support public health and local supporting organizations. In this systematic literature review, our objectives are to identify and collect literature about success criteria of EMR implementations in low-resource settings and to summarize them into recommendations. Our search strategy relied on PubMed queries and manual bibliography reviews. Studies were included if EMR implementations in low-resource settings were described. The extracted success criteria and measurements were summarized into 7 categories: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical, and training. We collected 381 success criteria with 229 measurements from 47 articles out of 223 articles. Most papers were evaluations or lessons learned from African countries, published from 1999 to 2013. Almost half of the EMR systems served a specific disease area like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The majority of criteria that were reported dealt with the functionality, followed by organizational issues, and technical infrastructures. Sufficient training and skilled personnel were mentioned in roughly 10%. Political, ethical, and financial considerations did not play a predominant role. More evaluations based on reliable frameworks are needed. Highly reliable data handling methods, human resources and effective project management, as well as technical architecture and infrastructure are all key factors for successful EMR implementation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Ant colony method to control variance reduction techniques in the Monte Carlo simulation of clinical electron linear accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Pareja, S. [Servicio de Radiofisica Hospitalaria, Hospital Regional Universitario ' Carlos Haya' , Avda. Carlos Haya, s/n, E-29010 Malaga (Spain)], E-mail: garciapareja@gmail.com; Vilches, M. [Servicio de Fisica y Proteccion Radiologica, Hospital Regional Universitario ' Virgen de las Nieves' , Avda. de las Fuerzas Armadas, 2, E-18014 Granada (Spain); Lallena, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2007-09-21

    The ant colony method is used to control the application of variance reduction techniques to the simulation of clinical electron linear accelerators of use in cancer therapy. In particular, splitting and Russian roulette, two standard variance reduction methods, are considered. The approach can be applied to any accelerator in a straightforward way and permits, in addition, to investigate the 'hot' regions of the accelerator, an information which is basic to develop a source model for this therapy tool.

  16. Ant colony method to control variance reduction techniques in the Monte Carlo simulation of clinical electron linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Pareja, S.; Vilches, M.; Lallena, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The ant colony method is used to control the application of variance reduction techniques to the simulation of clinical electron linear accelerators of use in cancer therapy. In particular, splitting and Russian roulette, two standard variance reduction methods, are considered. The approach can be applied to any accelerator in a straightforward way and permits, in addition, to investigate the 'hot' regions of the accelerator, an information which is basic to develop a source model for this therapy tool

  17. Reduction in alert fatigue in an assisted electronic prescribing system, through the Lean Six Sigma methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuéllar Monreal, Mª Jesús; Reig Aguado, Jorge; Font Noguera, Isabel; Poveda Andrés, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    To reduce the alert fatigue in our Assisted Electronic Prescribing System (AEPS), through the Lean Six Sigma (LSS) methodology. An observational (transversal) and retrospective study, in a general hospital with 850 beds and AEPS. The LSS methodology was followed in order to evaluate the alert fatigue situation in the AEPS system, to implement improvements, and to assess outcomes. The alerts generated during two trimesters studied (before and after the intervention) were analyzed. In order to measure the qualitative indicators, the most frequent alert types were analyzed, as well as the molecules responsible for over 50% of each type of alert. The action by the prescriber was analyzed in a sample of 496 prescriptions that generated such alerts. For each type of alert and molecule, there was a prioritization of the improvements to be implemented according to the alert generated and its quality. A second survey evaluated the pharmacist action for the alerts most highly valued by physicians. The problem, the objective, the work team and the project schedule were defined. A survey was designed in order to understand the opinion of the client about the alert system in the program. Based on the surveys collected (n = 136), the critical characteristics and the quanti/qualitative indicators were defined. Sixty (60) fields in the alert system were modified, corresponding to 32 molecules, and this led to a 28% reduction in the total number of alerts. Regarding quality indicators, false po sitive results were reduced by 25% (p < 0.05), 100% of those alerts ignored with justification were sustained, and there were no significant differences in user adherence to the system. The project improvements and outcomes were reviewed by the work team. LSS methodology has demonstrated being a valid tool for the quantitative and qualitative improvement of the alert system in an Assisted Electronic Prescription Program, thus reducing alert fatigue. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014

  18. Reduction of organic solvent emission by industrial use of electron-beam curable coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haering, E.

    1982-01-01

    Most industrial finishing processes operate by the use of liquid organic coating materials drying by solvent evaporation and subsequent chemical crosslinking reactions, in many cases also releasing cleavage products. These organic emissions contribute to air pollution and therefore many countries have issued restrictions in order to protect the environment. Complementary to other modern methods for reducing this problem, radiation chemistry enables an approach by radical chain polymerization which can be induced by exposure to electron radiation. This procedure is known as electron-beam curing of coatings or the EBC process. It utilizes well-developed accelerator equipment with voltages of 150 to 400kV at a minimum energy consumption. There is no necessity to use irradiation facilities based on the decay of radioisotopes. Free radical polymerization requires unsaturated resins as pain binders and polymerizable liquid compounds (monomers) as reactive diluents. Their crosslinking yields a high molecular network, the coating, without any emission of organic solvents or cleavage products. Moreover, the radiochemical formation of the paint film occurs extremely rapidly. The technical application of EBC coatings began by coating automotive plastic parts; a little later the finishing of wood products gained more industrial use as a non-polluting and energy-saving coating technology. Application methods in coating plastic foils in combination with vacuum metallizing and the production of decorative laminating papers for furniture followed. In 1981 new EBC pilot lines were installed for curing top coats on PVC foil and also for the coating of prefinished steel wheels for automobiles. In comparison with conventional solvent-based methods the industrial EBC process results in a nearly complete reduction of organic solvent emission avoiding air pollution and saving valuable petrochemical raw materials. This paper reviews the development of EBC during the last decade. (author)

  19. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  20. Resource conservation approached with an appropriate collection and upgrade-remanufacturing for used electronic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamparet, Gabriel I; Tan, Quanyin; Stevels, A B; Li, Jinhui

    2018-03-01

    This comparative research represents an example for a better conservation of resources by reducing the amount of waste (kg) and providing it more value under the umbrella of remanufacturing. The three discussed cases will expose three issues already addressed separately in the literature. The generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) interacts with the environmental depletion. In this article, we gave the examples of addressed issues under the concept of remanufacturing. Online collection opportunity eliminating classical collection, a business to business (B2B) implementation for remanufactured servers and medical devices. The material reuse (recycling), component sustainability, reuse (part harvesting), product reuse (after repair/remanufacturing) indicates the recovery potential using remanufacturing tool for a better conservation of resources adding more value to the products. Our findings can provide an overview of new system organization for the general collection, market potential and the technological advantages using remanufacturing instead of recycling of WEEE or used electrical and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Quinone reduction via secondary B-branch electron transfer in mutant bacterial reaction centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Philip D; Kirmaier, Christine; Udawatte, Chandani S M; Hofman, Samuel J; Holten, Dewey; Hanson, Deborah K

    2003-02-18

    Symmetry-related branches of electron-transfer cofactors-initiating with a primary electron donor (P) and terminating in quinone acceptors (Q)-are common features of photosynthetic reaction centers (RC). Experimental observations show activity of only one of them-the A branch-in wild-type bacterial RCs. In a mutant RC, we now demonstrate that electron transfer can occur along the entire, normally inactive B-branch pathway to reduce the terminal acceptor Q(B) on the time scale of nanoseconds. The transmembrane charge-separated state P(+)Q(B)(-) is created in this manner in a Rhodobacter capsulatus RC containing the F(L181)Y-Y(M208)F-L(M212)H-W(M250)V mutations (YFHV). The W(M250)V mutation quantitatively blocks binding of Q(A), thereby eliminating Q(B) reduction via the normal A-branch pathway. Full occupancy of the Q(B) site by the native UQ(10) is ensured (without the necessity of reconstitution by exogenous quinone) by purification of RCs with the mild detergent, Deriphat 160-C. The lifetime of P(+)Q(B)(-) in the YFHV mutant RC is >6 s (at pH 8.0, 298 K). This charge-separated state is not formed upon addition of competitive inhibitors of Q(B) binding (terbutryn or stigmatellin). Furthermore, this lifetime is much longer than the value of approximately 1-1.5 s found when P(+)Q(B)(-) is produced in the wild-type RC by A-side activity alone. Collectively, these results demonstrate that P(+)Q(B)(-) is formed solely by activity of the B-branch carriers in the YFHV RC. In comparison, P(+)Q(B)(-) can form by either the A or B branches in the YFH RC, as indicated by the biexponential lifetimes of approximately 1 and approximately 6-10 s. These findings suggest that P(+)Q(B)(-) states formed via the two branches are distinct and that P(+)Q(B)(-) formed by the B side does not decay via the normal (indirect) pathway that utilizes the A-side cofactors when present. These differences may report on structural and energetic factors that further distinguish the functional

  2. Evaluation of toxicity reduction of sodium dodecyl sulfate submitted to electron beam radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, M. F.; Moraes, M. C. F.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Borrely, S. I.

    2004-09-01

    Surfactants, as detergent active substances, are an important source of pollution causing biological adverse effects to aquatic organisms. Several data have been showing ecological disturbance due to the high concentration of surfactants on receiving waters and on wastewater treatment plants. Ionizing radiation has been proved as an effective technology to decompose organic substances and few papers have included ecotoxicological aspects. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity of a specific surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), when diluted in distilled water and submitted to electron beam radiation. The study included two test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. Radiation processing resulted in an important acute toxicity removal for both assays, which can be summarized between 70% and 96%, using 3.0, 6.0, 9.0 and 12.0 kGy as radiation doses. Nevertheless, lower doses demonstrated better effect than 9.0 and 12.0 kGy and the bacterium assay was more sensitive to SDS than crustacean assay.

  3. A False Alarm Reduction Method for a Gas Sensor Based Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mizanur Rahman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic noses (E-Noses are becoming popular for food and fruit quality assessment due to their robustness and repeated usability without fatigue, unlike human experts. An E-Nose equipped with classification algorithms and having open ended classification boundaries such as the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN, support vector machine (SVM, and multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN, are found to suffer from false classification errors of irrelevant odor data. To reduce false classification and misclassification errors, and to improve correct rejection performance; algorithms with a hyperspheric boundary, such as a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN and generalized regression neural network (GRNN with a Gaussian activation function in the hidden layer should be used. The simulation results presented in this paper show that GRNN has more correct classification efficiency and false alarm reduction capability compared to RBFNN. As the design of a GRNN and RBFNN is complex and expensive due to large numbers of neuron requirements, a simple hyperspheric classification method based on minimum, maximum, and mean (MMM values of each class of the training dataset was presented. The MMM algorithm was simple and found to be fast and efficient in correctly classifying data of training classes, and correctly rejecting data of extraneous odors, and thereby reduced false alarms.

  4. Toxicity reduction for pharmaceuticals mixture in water by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiani, Nathalia Fonseca; Tominaga, Flavio Kiyoshi; Borrely, Sueli Ivone

    2015-01-01

    The incorrect disposal of products is committing the environment quality once the aquatic environment is the main vehicle for dispersion of pollutants. Among the highlighted contaminants there are the pharmaceuticals, which are also released to the aquatic environment through the domestic sewage, hospitals and effluents. The monitoring of these pharmaceuticals in the environment has grown, showing many of them as persistent pollutants. Pharmaceuticals from different therapeutic classes have been detected in domestic sewage, surface water and groundwater around the world. Several studies evidenced Fluoxetine Hydrochloride residues in waters. Another important product is the Propranolol, used for heart disease treatments as far as fluoxetine is applied for treating mental diseases. The objective of this study was to apply the radiation processing for the abatement of pollutant in waters. Electron beam accelerator was used during irradiation of the mixture (Propranolol + Fluoxetine Hydrochloride) in aqueous solution. Acute toxicity assays were carried out for Vibrio fischeri marine bacterium, 15 minutes exposure. The results showed that irradiation (2.5kGy and 5.0kGy) enhanced the average effective concentration of the mixture, which means reduction of toxicity (56.34%, 55.70% respectively). Inverse effect was obtained with 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy. (author)

  5. Toxicity reduction for pharmaceuticals mixture in water by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boiani, Nathalia Fonseca; Tominaga, Flavio Kiyoshi; Borrely, Sueli Ivone, E-mail: flavio_tominaga@hotmail.com, E-mail: sborrely@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The incorrect disposal of products is committing the environment quality once the aquatic environment is the main vehicle for dispersion of pollutants. Among the highlighted contaminants there are the pharmaceuticals, which are also released to the aquatic environment through the domestic sewage, hospitals and effluents. The monitoring of these pharmaceuticals in the environment has grown, showing many of them as persistent pollutants. Pharmaceuticals from different therapeutic classes have been detected in domestic sewage, surface water and groundwater around the world. Several studies evidenced Fluoxetine Hydrochloride residues in waters. Another important product is the Propranolol, used for heart disease treatments as far as fluoxetine is applied for treating mental diseases. The objective of this study was to apply the radiation processing for the abatement of pollutant in waters. Electron beam accelerator was used during irradiation of the mixture (Propranolol + Fluoxetine Hydrochloride) in aqueous solution. Acute toxicity assays were carried out for Vibrio fischeri marine bacterium, 15 minutes exposure. The results showed that irradiation (2.5kGy and 5.0kGy) enhanced the average effective concentration of the mixture, which means reduction of toxicity (56.34%, 55.70% respectively). Inverse effect was obtained with 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy. (author)

  6. Reduction of solar photovoltaic resources due to air pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyuan; Wagner, Fabian; Peng, Wei; Yang, Junnan; Mauzerall, Denise L

    2017-11-07

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation is expanding rapidly in China, with total capacity projected to be 400 GW by 2030. However, severe aerosol pollution over China reduces solar radiation reaching the surface. We estimate the aerosol impact on solar PV electricity generation at the provincial and regional grid levels in China. Our approach is to examine the 12-year (2003-2014) average reduction in point-of-array irradiance (POAI) caused by aerosols in the atmosphere. We apply satellite-derived surface irradiance data from the NASA Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) with a PV performance model (PVLIB-Python) to calculate the impact of aerosols and clouds on POAI. Our findings reveal that aerosols over northern and eastern China, the most polluted regions, reduce annual average POAI by up to 1.5 kWh/m 2 per day relative to pollution-free conditions, a decrease of up to 35%. Annual average reductions of POAI over both northern and eastern China are about 20-25%. We also evaluate the seasonal variability of the impact and find that aerosols in this region are as important as clouds in winter. Furthermore, we find that aerosols decrease electricity output of tracking PV systems more than those with fixed arrays: over eastern China, POAI is reduced by 21% for fixed systems at optimal angle and 34% for two-axis tracking systems. We conclude that PV system performance in northern and eastern China will benefit from improvements in air quality and will facilitate that improvement by providing emission-free electricity. Published under the PNAS license.

  7. Electronic theses and dissertations: a review of this valuable resource for nurse scholars worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, L M

    2009-06-01

    A worldwide repository of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) could provide worldwide access to the most up-to-date research generated by masters and doctoral students. Until that international repository is established, it is possible to access some of these valuable knowledge resources. ETDs provide a technologically advanced medium with endless multimedia capabilities that far exceed the print and bound copies of theses and dissertations housed traditionally in individual university libraries. CURRENT USE: A growing trend exists for universities worldwide to require graduate students to submit theses or dissertations as electronic documents. However, nurse scholars underutilize ETDs, as evidenced by perusing bibliographic citation lists in many of the research journals. ETDs can be searched for and retrieved through several digital resources such as the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (http://www.ndltd.org), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (http://www.umi.com), the Australasian Digital Theses Program (http://adt.caul.edu.au/) and through individual university web sites and online catalogues. An international repository of ETDs benefits the community of nurse scholars in many ways. The ability to access recent graduate students' research electronically from anywhere in the world is advantageous. For scholars residing in developing countries, access to these ETDs may prove to be even more valuable. In some cases, ETDs are not available for worldwide access and can only be accessed through the university library from which the student graduated. Public access to university library ETD collections is not always permitted. Nurse scholars from both developing and developed countries could benefit from ETDs.

  8. Evaluation of the participation of ferredoxin in oxygen reduction in the photosynthetic electron transport chain of isolated pea thylakoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuleva, Marina A; Ivanov, Boris N

    2010-07-01

    The contribution to reduction of oxygen by ferredoxin (Fd) to the overall reduction of oxygen in isolated pea thylakoids was studied in the presence of Fd versus Fd + NADP(+). The overall rate of electron transport was measured using a determination of Photosystem II quantum yield from chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and the rate of oxidation of Fd was measured from the light-induced redox changes of Fd. At low light intensity, increasing Fd concentration from 5 to 30 microM in the absence of NADP(+) increased the proportion of oxygen reduction by Fd from 25-35 to 40-60% in different experiments. This proportion decreased with increasing light intensity. When NADP(+) was added in the presence of 15 microM Fd, which was optimal for the NADP(+) reduction rate, the participation of Fd in the reduction of oxygen was low, no more than 10%, and it also decreased with increasing light intensity. At high light intensity, the overall oxygen reduction rates in the presence of Fd + NADP(+) and in the presence of Fd alone were comparable. The significance of reduction of dioxygen either by water-soluble Fd or by the membrane-bound carriers of the photosynthetic electron transport chain for redox signaling under different light intensities is discussed.

  9. Influence of Carbon Sources and Electron Shuttles on Ferric Iron Reduction by Cellulomonas sp. Strain ES6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erin K. Field; Robin Gerlach; Sridhar Viamajala; Laura K. Jennings; Alfred B. Cunningham; Brent M. Peyton; William A. Apel

    2011-09-01

    The reduction of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), to trivalent chromium, Cr(III), can be an important aspect of remediation processes at Department of Energy (DOE) and other contaminated sites. Cellulomonas species are found at several Cr(VI) contaminated and uncontaminated locations at the DOE site in Hanford, Washington. Members of this genus have demonstrated the ability to effectively reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) fermentatively and therefore play a potential role in hexavalent chromium remediation at this site. Batch studies were conducted with Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 to assess the influence of various carbon sources, iron minerals, and electron shuttling compounds on Cr(VI) reduction. These chemical species are likely to be present in these terrestrial environments during in situ bioremediation. Results indicated that there were a number of interactions between these compounds that influenced Cr(VI) reduction rates. The type of carbon source as well as the type of electron shuttle present influenced Cr(VI) reduction rates. When an electron shuttle, such as anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), was present in the system, reduction rates increased significantly. Biologically reduced AQDS (AHDS) reduced Cr(VI) almost instantaneously. The presence of iron minerals and their concentrations did not significantly influence Cr(VI) reduction rates. However, strain ES6 or AQDS could directly reduce surface-associated Fe(III) to Fe(II) which was capable of reducing Cr(VI) at a near instantaneous rate. These results suggest the rate limiting step in these systems is the transfer of electrons from strain ES6 to the intermediate or terminal electron acceptor whether that is Cr(VI), Fe(III), or AQDS.

  10. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by Pannonibacter phragmitetus LSSE-09 stimulated with external electron donors under alkaline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lin; Luo Mingfang; Li Wangliang; Wei Xuetuan; Xie Keng; Liu Lijun; Jiang Chengying; Liu Huizhou

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Growing cells have high Cr (VI) resistant and reducing ability aerobically. → Resting cells show strong anaerobic-reduction potential. → Acetate can highly stimulate both aerobic and anaerobic reduction process. - Abstract: A novel Cr (VI) resistant bacterial strain LSSE-09, identified as Pannonibacter phragmitetus, was isolated from industrial sludge. It has strong aerobic and anaerobic Cr (VI)-reduction potential under alkaline conditions. At 37 o C and pH 9.0, growing cells of strain LSSE-09 could completely reduce 100 and 1000 mg L -1 Cr (VI)-Cr (III) within 9 and 24 h, respectively under aerobic condition. Resting cells showed higher anaerobic reduction potential with the rate of 1.46 mg g -1 (dryweight) min -1 , comparing with their aerobic reduction rate, 0.21 mg g -1 min -1 . External electron donors, such as lactate, acetate, formate, pyruvate, citrate and glucose could highly increase the reduction rate, especially for aerobic reduction. The presence of 3000 mg L -1 acetate enhanced anaerobic and aerobic Cr (VI)-reduction rates up to 9.47 mg g -1 min -1 and 4.42 mg g -1 min -1 , respectively, which were 5 and 20 times faster than those without it. Strain LSSE-09 retained high activities over six batch cycles and NO 3 - and SO 4 2- had slightly negative effects on Cr (VI)-reduction rates. The results suggest that strain LSSE-09 has potential application for Cr (VI) detoxification in alkaline wastewater.

  11. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-17

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  12. Single-Step versus Stepwise Two-Electron Reduction of Polyarylpyridiniums: Insights from the Steric Switching of Redox Potential Compression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fortage, J.; Peltier, C.; Perruchot, Ch.; Takemoto, Y.; Teki, Y.; Bedioui, F.; Marvand, V.; Dupeyre, G.; Pospíšil, Lubomír; Adamo, C.; Hromadová, Magdaléna; Ciofini, I.; Lainé, P. P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 5 (2012), s. 2691-2705 ISSN 0002-7863 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : FUNCTIONALIZED TERPYRIDYL LIGANDS * GATED PHOTOINDUCED PROCESSES * ONE-ELECTRON REDUCTION Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 10.677, year: 2012

  13. Heterogeneous electron transfer and oxygen reduction reaction at nanostructured iron(II) phthalocyanine and its MWCNTs nanocomposites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mamuru, SA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available species within the porous layers of MWCNTs. Electron transfer process is much easier at the EPPGE-MWCNT and EPPGE-MWCNT-nanoFePc compared to the other electrodes. The best response for oxygen reduction reaction was at the EPPGE-MWCNTnanoFePc, yielding a 4...

  14. Electron transfer capacity dependence of quinone-mediated Fe(III) reduction and current generation by Klebsiella pneumoniae L17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomin; Liu, Liang; Liu, Tongxu; Yuan, Tian; Zhang, Wei; Li, Fangbai; Zhou, Shungui; Li, Yongtao

    2013-06-01

    Quinone groups in exogenous electron shuttles can accelerate extracellular electron transfer (EET) from bacteria to insoluble terminal electron acceptors, such as Fe(III) oxides and electrodes, which are important in biogeochemical redox processes and microbial electricity generation. However, the relationship between quinone-mediated EET performance and electron-shuttling properties of the quinones remains incompletely characterized. This study investigates the effects of a series of synthetic quinones (SQs) on goethite reduction and current generation by a fermenting bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae L17. In addition, the voltammetric behavior and electron transfer capacities (ETCs) of SQ, including electron accepting (EAC) and donating (EDC) capacities, is also examined using electrochemical methods. The results showed that SQ can significantly increase both the Fe(III) reduction rates and current outputs of L17. Each tested SQ reversibly accepted and donated electrons as indicated by the cyclic voltammograms. The EAC and EDC results showed that Carmine and Alizarin had low relative capacities of electron transfer, whereas 9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid (AQDS), 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (2-HNQ), and 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (5-HNQ) showed stronger relative ETC, and 9,10-anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (AQC) and 9,10-anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid (AQS) had high relative ETC. Enhancement of microbial goethite reduction kinetics and current outputs by SQ had a good linear relationship with their ETC, indicating that the effectiveness of quinone-mediated EET may be strongly dependent on the ETC of the quinones. Therefore, the presence of quinone compounds and fermenting microorganisms may increase the diversity of microbial populations that contribute to element transformation in natural environments. Moreover, ETC determination of different SQ would help to evaluate their performance for microbial EET under anoxic conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  15. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  16. NASA Propulsion Sub-System Concept Studies and Risk Reduction Activities for Resource Prospector Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Huu P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's exploration roadmap is focused on developing technologies and performing precursor missions to advance the state of the art for eventual human missions to Mars. One of the key components of this roadmap is various robotic missions to Near-Earth Objects, the Moon, and Mars to fill in some of the strategic knowledge gaps. The Resource Prospector (RP) project is one of these robotic precursor activities in the roadmap. RP is a multi-center and multi-institution project to investigate the polar regions of the Moon in search of volatiles. The mission is rated Class D and is approximately 10 days, assuming a five day direct Earth to Moon transfer. Because of the mission cost constraint, a trade study of the propulsion concepts was conducted with a focus on available low-cost hardware for reducing cost in development, while technical risk, system mass, and technology advancement requirements were also taken into consideration. The propulsion system for the lander is composed of a braking stage providing a high thrust to match the lander's velocity with the lunar surface and a lander stage performing the final lunar descent. For the braking stage, liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid methane (LCH4) propulsion systems, derived from the Morpheus experimental lander, and storable bi-propellant systems, including the 4th stage Peacekeeper (PK) propulsion components and Space Shuttle orbital maneuvering engine (OME), and a solid motor were considered for the study. For the lander stage, the trade study included miniaturized Divert Attitude Control System (DACS) thrusters (Missile Defense Agency (MDA) heritage), their enhanced thruster versions, ISE-100 and ISE-5, and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware. The lowest cost configuration of using the solid motor and the PK components while meeting the requirements was selected. The reference concept of the lander is shown in Figure 1. In the current reference configuration, the solid stage is the primary provider of delta

  17. Availability, Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Information Resources by Postgraduates Students at the University of Ibadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare Samuel Adeleke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability, awareness and use of electronic resources provide access to authoritative, reliable, accurate and timely access to information. The use of electronic information resources (EIRs can enable innovation in teaching and increase timeliness in research of postgraduate students which will eventual result into encouragement of the expected research-led enquiry in this digital age. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Samples of 300 of postgraduate students within seven out 13 Faculties were randomly selected. Data were collected using questionnaire designed to elicit response from respondents and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics methods percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Results indicated that internet was ranked most available and used in the university. Low level of usage of electronic resources, in particular, full texts data bases is linked to a number of constraints: Interrupted power supply was ranked highest among other factors as speed and capacity of computers, retrieval of records with high recall and low precision, retrieving records relevant to information need, lack of knowledge of search techniques to retrieve information effectively, non possession of requisite IT skills and problems accessing the internet. The study recommended that usage of electronic resources be made compulsory, intensifying awareness campaigns concerning the availability, training on use of electronic resources and the problem of power outage be addressed.

  18. Using mobile electronic devices to deliver educational resources in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazal, Jonathan Robert; Ludwig, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries have far fewer trained radiography professionals than developed countries, which exacerbates the limited access to imaging services. The lack of trained radiographers reflects, in part, limited availability of radiographer-specific educational resources. Historically, organizations that provided such resources in the developing world faced challenges related to the limited stock of current materials as well as expenses associated with shipping and delivery. Four mobile electronic devices (MEDs) were loaded with educational content (e-books, PDFs, and digital applications) spanning major radiography topics. The MEDs were distributed to 4 imaging departments in Ghana, India, Nepal, and Nigeria based on evidence of need for radiography-specific resources, as revealed by survey responses. A cost comparison of postal delivery vs digital delivery of educational content was performed. The effectiveness of delivering additional content via Wi-Fi transmission also was evaluated. Feedback was solicited on users' experience with the MEDs as a delivery tool for educational content. An initial average per e-book expense of $30.05, which included the cost of the device, was calculated for the MED delivery method compared with $15.56 for postal delivery of printed materials. The cost of the MED delivery method was reduced to an average of $10.05 for subsequent e-book deliveries. Additional content was successfully delivered via Wi-Fi transmission to all recipients during the 3-month follow-up period. Overall user feedback on the experience was positive, and ideas for enhancing the MED-based method were identified. Using MEDs to deliver radiography-specific educational content appears to be more cost effective than postal delivery of printed materials on a long-term basis. MEDs are more efficient for providing updates to educational materials. Customization of content to department needs, and using projector devices could enhance the usefulness of MEDs for

  19. Reductive dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) in competition with Fe and Mn oxides – observed dynamics in H2-dependent terminal electron accepting processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Laiby; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Smolders, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The determination of hydrogen (H2) concentration together with the products of microbial reduction reactions in a trichloroethylene dechlorinating system is conducted to delineate the ongoing predominant terminal electron accepting processes (TEAP). Formate was used as electron donor and synthetic...

  20. Titanium oxidation-reduction at low oxygen pressure under electron bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasca, R.; Passeggi, M.C.G.; Ferron, J.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the electron bombardment on the first stages of the titanium oxidation process has been studied by means of Auger Electron Spectroscopy. Using Factor Analysis and the valence electron dependence behaviour of the titanium LMV Auger transition, we found that the process is strongly dependent on the oxygen pressure and electron current density. Depending on the irradiation conditions, films of different thickness and Ti oxidized states are obtained

  1. The electronic encapsulation of knowledge in hydraulics, hydrology and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Michael B.

    The rapidly developing practice of encapsulating knowledge in electronic media is shown to lead necessarily to the restructuring of the knowledge itself. The consequences of this for hydraulics, hydrology and more general water-resources management are investigated in particular relation to current process-simulation, real-time control and advice-serving systems. The generic properties of the electronic knowledge encapsulator are described, and attention is drawn to the manner in which knowledge 'goes into hiding' through encapsulation. This property is traced in the simple situations of pure mathesis and in the more complex situations of taxinomia using one example each from hydraulics and hydrology. The consequences for systems architectures are explained, pointing to the need for multi-agent architectures for ecological modelling and for more general hydroinformatics systems also. The relevance of these developments is indicated by reference to ongoing projects in which they are currently being realised. In conclusion, some more general epistemological aspects are considered within the same context. As this contribution is so much concerned with the processes of signification and communication, it has been partly shaped by the theory of semiotics, as popularised by Eco ( A Theory of Semiotics, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1977).

  2. National Uranium Resource Evaluation. General procedure for calibration and reduction of aerial gamma-ray measurements: specification BFEC 1250-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvance, D.; Novak, E.

    1983-12-01

    The information contained in this specification was acquired over the course of the US Department of Energy (DOE) National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program during the period 1974 through 1982. NURE was a program of the DOE Grand Junction Area Office to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States. Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) has been the operating contractor for the DOE Grand Junction facility. The requirements stipulated herein had been incorporated as contractual specifications for the various subcontractors engaged in the aerial gamma-ray surveys, which were a major aspect of the NURE program. Although this phase of NURE activities has been completed, there exists valuable knowledge gained from these years of experience in the calibration of gamma-ray spectrometer systems and in the reduction of calibration data. Specification BFEC 1250-B is being open-filed by the US Department of Energy at this time to make this knowledge available to those desiring to apply gamma-ray spectrometry to other geophysical problems

  3. Complete bromate and nitrate reduction using hydrogen as the sole electron donor in a rotating biofilm-electrode reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Yu; Li, Xin; Yang, Qi; Wang, Dongbo; Yao, Fubing; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Jianwei; Xu, Qiuxiang; Zhang, Chang; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Main mechanism of simultaneous bromate and nitrate removal in the RBER. - Highlights: • Cathode of RBER was designed to automatically rotate. • Simultaneous bromate and nitrate removal was achieved by auto-hydrogenotrophic reduction. • The maximum bromate reduction rate estimated by the Monod equation was 109.12 μg/L h. • An electron transfer process and main reaction mechanism in RBER was explored. - Abstract: Simultaneous reduction of bromate and nitrate was investigated using a rotating biofilm-electrode reactor (RBER) with graphite carbon (GC) rods as anode and activated carbon fiber (ACF) bonded with steel ring as cathode. In RBER, the community of denitrifying bacteria immobilized on the cathode surface could completely utilize hydrogen (H 2 ) as the electron donor, which was internally produced by the electrolysis of water. The short-term test confirmed that the RBER system could reduce 150–800 μg/L bromate to below 10 μg/L under autotrophic conditions. The reduced bromate was considered to be roughly equivalent to the amount of bromide in effluent, indicating that bromate was completely reduced to bromide without accumulation of by-products. The long-term test (over 120 days) showed that the removal fluxes of bromate and nitrate could be improved by increasing the electric current and decreasing the hydraulic retention time (HRT). But nitrite in effluent was significantly accumulated when the electric current was beyond 10 mA and the HRT was less than 6 h. The maximum bromate reduction rate estimated by the Monod equation was 109.12 μg/L h when the electric current was 10 mA and HRT was 12 h. It was proposed that the electron transfer process in RBER produced H 2 on the surface of the ACF cathode, and the microbial cultures attached closely on the cathode which could completely utilize H 2 as electron donors for reduction of bromate and nitrate.

  4. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  5. Effect of high electron donor supply on dissimilatory nitrate reduction pathways in a bioreactor for nitrate removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Anna; Tarre, Sheldon; Beliavski, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The possible shift of a bioreactor for NO3- removal from predominantly denitrification (DEN) to dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) by elevated electron donor supply was investigated. By increasing the C/NO3- ratio in one of two initially identical reactors, the production of high...... sulfide concentrations was induced. The response of the dissimilatory NO3- reduction processes to the increased availability of organic carbon and sulfide was monitored in a batch incubation system. The expected shift from a DEN- towards a DNRA-dominated bioreactor was not observed, also not under...

  6. Electron-beam-induced reduction of Fe3+ in iron phosphate dihydrate, ferrihydrite, haemosiderin and ferritin as revealed by electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Ying-Hsi; Vaughan, Gareth; Brydson, Rik; Bleloch, Andrew; Gass, Mhairi; Sader, Kasim; Brown, Andy

    2010-01-01

    The effect of high-energy electron irradiation on ferritin/haemosiderin cores (in an iron-overloaded human liver biopsy), its mineral analogue; six-line ferrihydrite (6LFh), and iron phosphate dihydrate (which has similar octahedral ferric iron to oxygen coordination to that in ferrihydrite and ferritin/haemosiderin cores) has been investigated using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Fe L 2,3 -ionisation edges were recorded on two types of electron microscope: a 200 keV transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a 100 keV scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), in order to investigate the damage mechanisms in operation and to establish a methodology for minimum specimen alteration during analytical electron microscopic characterisation. A specimen damage mechanism dominated by radiolysis that results in the preferential loss of iron co-ordinating ligands (O, OH and H 2 O) is discussed. The net result of irradiation is structural re-organisation and reduction of iron within the iron hydroxides. At sufficiently low electron fluence and particularly in the lower incident energy, finer probe diameter STEM, the alteration is shown to be minimal. All the materials examined exhibit damage which as a function of cumulative fluence is best fitted by an inverse power-law, implying that several chemical and structural changes occur in response to the electron beam and we suggest that these are governed by secondary processes arising from the primary ionisation event. This work affirms that electron fluence and current density should be considered when measuring mixed valence ratios with EELS.

  7. Electron-beam-induced reduction of Fe{sup 3+} in iron phosphate dihydrate, ferrihydrite, haemosiderin and ferritin as revealed by electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Ying-Hsi; Vaughan, Gareth; Brydson, Rik [Institute for Materials Research, SPEME, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Bleloch, Andrew; Gass, Mhairi [SuperSTEM, Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Sader, Kasim [Institute for Materials Research, SPEME, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); SuperSTEM, Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Brown, Andy, E-mail: a.p.brown@leeds.ac.uk [Institute for Materials Research, SPEME, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    The effect of high-energy electron irradiation on ferritin/haemosiderin cores (in an iron-overloaded human liver biopsy), its mineral analogue; six-line ferrihydrite (6LFh), and iron phosphate dihydrate (which has similar octahedral ferric iron to oxygen coordination to that in ferrihydrite and ferritin/haemosiderin cores) has been investigated using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Fe L{sub 2,3}-ionisation edges were recorded on two types of electron microscope: a 200 keV transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a 100 keV scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), in order to investigate the damage mechanisms in operation and to establish a methodology for minimum specimen alteration during analytical electron microscopic characterisation. A specimen damage mechanism dominated by radiolysis that results in the preferential loss of iron co-ordinating ligands (O, OH and H{sub 2}O) is discussed. The net result of irradiation is structural re-organisation and reduction of iron within the iron hydroxides. At sufficiently low electron fluence and particularly in the lower incident energy, finer probe diameter STEM, the alteration is shown to be minimal. All the materials examined exhibit damage which as a function of cumulative fluence is best fitted by an inverse power-law, implying that several chemical and structural changes occur in response to the electron beam and we suggest that these are governed by secondary processes arising from the primary ionisation event. This work affirms that electron fluence and current density should be considered when measuring mixed valence ratios with EELS.

  8. Velocity Spread Reduction for Axis-encircling Electron Beam Generated by Single Magnetic Cusp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, S. G.; Baik, C. W.; Kim, D. H.; Park, G. S.; Sato, N.; Yokoo, K.

    2001-10-01

    Physical characteristics of an annular Pierce-type electron gun are investigated analytically. An annular electron gun is used in conjunction with a non-adiabatic magnetic reversal and an adiabatic compression to produce an axis-encircling electron beam. Velocity spread close to zero is realized with an initial canonical angular momentum spread at the cathode when the beam trajectory does not coincide with the magnetic flux line. Both the analytical calculation and the EGUN code simulation confirm this phenomenon.

  9. Reduction of angular spread at nonadiabatic electron motion in magnetically insulated diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arzhannikov, A V; Sinitskij, S L [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The behavior of the electron pitch-angle was investigated by analytical and numerical methods for the case of a magnetically insulated diode with a ribbon geometry. It is shown that at the boundary of the adiabaticity of the electron motion the angle can be multiply reduced by choice of a special inhomogeneity of the magnetic field. Analytic expressions for the final pitch-angle of the beam electrons are given. (author). 2 figs., 3 refs.

  10. Reduction of radiation damage on organic material at very low object temperatures in an electron microscope with supraconductive lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapek, E.

    1981-01-01

    As a result of this study, the increase in structure conservation by cooling the object to very low temperatures (cryoprotection) as compared with the conditions at room temperature was higher than the values at low temperatures reached so far by one to two orders of magnitude. The experiments carried out with an electron microscope with supraconductive lenses (SLEM) showed, depending of the organic substance, that in tests with an electron diffraction of about 4.2 K the reduction of radiation damage as compared with room temperature was by a factor between 30 and 350. (orig./PW) [de

  11. Reduction of low potential electron acceptors requires the CbcL inner membrane cytochrome of Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharoff, Lori; Chan, Chi Ho; Bond, Daniel R

    2016-02-01

    The respiration of metals by the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens requires electrons generated by metabolism to pass from the interior of the cell to electron acceptors beyond the cell membranes. The G. sulfurreducens inner membrane multiheme c-type cytochrome ImcH is required for respiration to extracellular electron acceptors with redox potentials greater than -0.1 V vs. SHE, but ImcH is not essential for electron transfer to lower potential acceptors. In contrast, deletion of cbcL, encoding an inner membrane protein consisting of b-type and multiheme c-type cytochrome domains, severely affected reduction of low potential electron acceptors such as Fe(III)-oxides and electrodes poised at -0.1 V vs. SHE. Catalytic cyclic voltammetry of a ΔcbcL strain growing on poised electrodes revealed a 50 mV positive shift in driving force required for electron transfer out of the cell. In non-catalytic conditions, low-potential peaks present in wild type biofilms were absent in ∆cbcL mutants. Expression of cbcL in trans increased growth at low redox potential and restored features to cyclic voltammetry. This evidence supports a model where CbcL is a component of a second electron transfer pathway out of the G. sulfurreducens inner membrane that dominates when redox potential is at or below -0.1 V vs. SHE. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Electronic Human Resources Management (e-HRM Adoption Studies: Past and Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarto Winarto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic human resource management (e-HRM systems become more widely used by profit and non-profit organization. However, the field currently lacks sound theoretical frameworks that can be useful in addressing a key issue concerning the implementation of e-HRM systems, in particular to obtain a better understanding of the factors influencing the adoption of e-HRM systems. The objective of this paper is to provide a foundation towards the development of a theoretical framework for the implementation of e-HRM systems and develop a conceptual model that would reflect the nature of e-HRM systems’ adoption through systematic literature review. Adopting Crossan and Apaydin’s procedure of systematic review, this paper investigated 21 empirical papers of electronics human resources management, then categorized them into 4 characteristics which influence the adoption; System and technology characteristics; Organizational characteristics; User/individual characteristics, and Environmental and contextual characteristics. Finally, the e-HRM adoption research framework is drawn and based on the framework; avenues for future research are discussed.   Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak: Manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik (selanjutnya disebut dengan e-HRM semakin banyak digunakan oleh organisasi profit dan nonprofit. Namun, bidang dan topik ini belum memiliki kerangka teori yang mapan, yang dapat digunakan untuk menganalisis isu-isu terkait penerapan e-HRM, terutama mengenai faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi adopsi sistem e-HRM. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memberikan landasan bagi pengembangan kerangka teoritis untuk implementasi sistem e-HRM dan mengembangkan model konseptual yang akan menggambarkan adopsi sistem e-HRM melalui tinjauan literatur sistematis. Mengadopsi prosedur dan metode Crossan dan Apaydin untuk melakukan telaah literatur secara sistematis, paper ini menyelidiki 21 publikasi empiris manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik dari 2

  13. Nitrogen Starvation Acclimation in Synechococcus elongatus: Redox-Control and the Role of Nitrate Reduction as an Electron Sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Klotz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen starvation acclimation in non-diazotrophic cyanobacteria is characterized by a process termed chlorosis, where the light harvesting pigments are degraded and the cells gradually tune down photosynthetic and metabolic activities. The chlorosis response is governed by a complex and poorly understood regulatory network, which converges at the expression of the nblA gene, the triggering factor for phycobiliprotein degradation. This study established a method that allows uncoupling metabolic and redox-signals involved in nitrogen-starvation acclimation. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase (GS by a precise dosage of l-methionine-sulfoximine (MSX mimics the metabolic situation of nitrogen starvation. Addition of nitrate to such MSX-inhibited cells eliminates the associated redox-stress by enabling electron flow towards nitrate/nitrite reduction and thereby, prevents the induction of nblA expression and the associated chlorosis response. This study demonstrates that nitrogen starvation is perceived not only through metabolic signals, but requires a redox signal indicating over-reduction of PSI-reduced electron acceptors. It further establishes a cryptic role of nitrate/nitrite reductases as electron sinks to balance conditions of over-reduction.

  14. Nitrogen Starvation Acclimation in Synechococcus elongatus: Redox-Control and the Role of Nitrate Reduction as an Electron Sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Alexander; Reinhold, Edgar; Doello, Sofía; Forchhammer, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen starvation acclimation in non-diazotrophic cyanobacteria is characterized by a process termed chlorosis, where the light harvesting pigments are degraded and the cells gradually tune down photosynthetic and metabolic activities. The chlorosis response is governed by a complex and poorly understood regulatory network, which converges at the expression of the nblA gene, the triggering factor for phycobiliprotein degradation. This study established a method that allows uncoupling metabolic and redox-signals involved in nitrogen-starvation acclimation. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase (GS) by a precise dosage of l-methionine-sulfoximine (MSX) mimics the metabolic situation of nitrogen starvation. Addition of nitrate to such MSX-inhibited cells eliminates the associated redox-stress by enabling electron flow towards nitrate/nitrite reduction and thereby, prevents the induction of nblA expression and the associated chlorosis response. This study demonstrates that nitrogen starvation is perceived not only through metabolic signals, but requires a redox signal indicating over-reduction of PSI-reduced electron acceptors. It further establishes a cryptic role of nitrate/nitrite reductases as electron sinks to balance conditions of over-reduction. PMID:25780959

  15. Quantifying spot size reduction of a 1.8 kA electron beam for flash radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris-Mog, T. J.; Moir, D. C.

    2018-03-01

    The spot size of Axis-I at the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test facility was reduced by 15.5% by including a small diameter drift tube that acts to aperture the outer diameter of the electron beam. Comparing the measured values to both analytic calculations and results from a particle-in-cell model shows that one-third to one-half of the spot size reduction is due to a drop in beam emittance. We infer that one-half to two-thirds of the spot-size reduction is due to a reduction in beam-target interactions. Sources of emittance growth and the scaling of the final focal spot size with emittance and solenoid aberrations are also presented.

  16. Influence of Carbon Sources and Electron Shuttles on Ferric Iron Reduction by Cellulomonas sp. Strain ES6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr Robin Gerlach; Erin K. Field; Sridhar Viamajala; Brent M. Peyton; William A. Apel; Al B. Cunningham

    2011-09-01

    Microbially reduced iron minerals can reductively transform a variety of contaminants including heavy metals, radionuclides, chlorinated aliphatics, and nitroaromatics. A number of Cellulomonas spp. strains, including strain ES6, isolated from aquifer samples obtained at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site in Washington, have been shown to be capable of reducing Cr(VI), TNT, natural organic matter, and soluble ferric iron [Fe(III)]. This research investigated the ability of Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 to reduce solid phase and dissolved Fe(III) utilizing different carbon sources and various electron shuttling compounds. Results suggest that Fe(III) reduction by and growth of strain ES6 was dependent upon the type of electron donor, the form of iron present, and the presence of synthetic or natural organic matter, such as anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) or humic substances. This research suggests that Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 could play a significant role in metal reduction in the Hanford subsurface and that the choice of carbon source and organic matter addition can allow for independent control of growth and iron reduction activity.

  17. Pathogen reduction and blood transfusion safety in Africa: strengths, limitations and challenges of implementation in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, A D; Jacquot, C; Tobian, A A R; Gehrie, E A; Ness, P M; Bloch, E M

    2018-01-01

    Transfusion-transmitted infection risk remains an enduring challenge to blood safety in Africa. A high background incidence and prevalence of the major transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs), dependence on high-risk donors to meet demand, suboptimal testing and quality assurance collectively contribute to the increased risk. With few exceptions, donor testing is confined to serological evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and C (HBV and HCV) and syphilis. Barriers to implementation of broader molecular methods include cost, limited infrastructure and lack of technical expertise. Pathogen reduction (PR), a term used to describe a variety of methods (e.g. solvent detergent treatment or photochemical activation) that may be applied to blood following collection, offers the means to diminish the infectious potential of multiple pathogens simultaneously. This is effective against different classes of pathogen, including the major TTIs where laboratory screening is already implemented (e.g. HIV, HBV and HCV) as well pathogens that are widely endemic yet remain unaddressed (e.g. malaria, bacterial contamination). We sought to review the available and emerging PR techniques and their potential application to resource-constrained parts of Africa, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of such technologies. PR has been slow to be adopted even in high-income countries, primarily given the high costs of use. Logistical considerations, particularly in low-resourced parts of Africa, also raise concerns about practicality. Nonetheless, PR offers a rational, innovative strategy to contend with TTIs; technologies in development may well present a viable complement or even alternative to targeted screening in the future. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  18. Experimental Observations of In-Situ Secondary Electron Yield Reduction in the PEP-II Particle Accelerator Beam Line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivi, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Beam instability caused by the electron cloud has been observed in positron and proton storage rings and it is expected to be a limiting factor in the performance of the positron Damping Ring (DR) of future Linear Colliders (LC) such as ILC and CLIC. To test a series of promising possible electron cloud mitigation techniques as surface coatings and grooves, in the Positron Low Energy Ring (LER) of the PEP-II accelerator, we have installed several test vacuum chambers including (i) a special chamber to monitor the variation of the secondary electron yield of technical surface materials and coatings under the effect of ion, electron and photon conditioning in situ in the beam line; (ii) chambers with grooves in a straight magnetic-free section; and (iii) coated chambers in a dedicated newly installed 4-magnet chicane to study mitigations in a magnetic field region. In this paper, we describe the ongoing R and D effort to mitigate the electron cloud effect for the LC damping ring, focusing on the first experimental area and on results of the reduction of the secondary electron yield due to in situ conditioning.

  19. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  20. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  1. Mechanism of electron density reduction in the region of stable subauroral red arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    For geomagnetic storm on 18.12.71 are fulfilled calculations of electron density N e and temperature Te and intensity of the atmosphere luminescence at 630 nm in the region of the subauroral red are and outside its

  2. Systematic review of electronic surveillance of infectious diseases with emphasis on antimicrobial resistance surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Vong, Sirenda; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2018-02-01

    Electronic surveillance of infectious diseases involves rapidly collecting, collating, and analyzing vast amounts of data from interrelated multiple databases. Although many developed countries have invested in electronic surveillance for infectious diseases, the system still presents a challenge for resource-limited health care settings. We conducted a systematic review by performing a comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2015) to identify studies relevant to electronic surveillance of infectious diseases. Study characteristics and results were extracted and systematically reviewed by 3 infectious disease physicians. A total of 110 studies were included. Most surveillance systems were developed and implemented in high-income countries; less than one-quarter were conducted in low-or middle-income countries. Information technologies can be used to facilitate the process of obtaining laboratory, clinical, and pharmacologic data for the surveillance of infectious diseases, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR) infections. These novel systems require greater resources; however, we found that using electronic surveillance systems could result in shorter times to detect targeted infectious diseases and improvement of data collection. This study highlights a lack of resources in areas where an effective, rapid surveillance system is most needed. The availability of information technology for the electronic surveillance of infectious diseases, including AMR infections, will facilitate the prevention and containment of such emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Special raster scanning for reduction of charging effects in scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Oho, Eisaku

    2014-01-01

    A special raster scanning (SRS) method for reduction of charging effects is developed for the field of SEM. Both a conventional fast scan (horizontal direction) and an unusual scan (vertical direction) are adopted for acquiring raw data consisting of many sub-images. These data are converted to a proper SEM image using digital image processing techniques. About sharpness of the image and reduction of charging effects, the SRS is compared with the conventional fast scan (with frame-averaging) and the conventional slow scan. Experimental results show the effectiveness of SRS images. By a successful combination of the proposed scanning method and low accelerating voltage (LV)-SEMs, it is expected that higher-quality SEM images can be more easily acquired by the considerable reduction of charging effects, while maintaining the resolution. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Use of Electronic Resources by Academic Staff at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Adeyinka; Orim, Faith; Ibrahim, Dauda Morenikeji; Memudu, Suleiman Ajala

    2018-01-01

    The use of e-resources is now commonplace among academics in tertiary educational institutions the world over. Many academics including those in the universities are exploring the opportunities of e-resources to facilitate teaching and research. As the use of e-resources is increasing particularly among academics at the University of Ilorin,…

  5. Modeling antecedents of electronic medical record system implementation success in low-resource setting hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-08-01

    With the increasing implementation of Electronic Medical Record Systems (EMR) in developing countries, there is a growing need to identify antecedents of EMR success to measure and predict the level of adoption before costly implementation. However, less evidence is available about EMR success in the context of low-resource setting implementations. Therefore, this study aims to fill this gap by examining the constructs and relationships of the widely used DeLone and MacLean (D&M) information system success model to determine whether it can be applied to measure EMR success in those settings. A quantitative cross sectional study design using self-administered questionnaires was used to collect data from 384 health professionals working in five governmental hospitals in Ethiopia. The hospitals use a comprehensive EMR system since three years. Descriptive and structural equation modeling methods were applied to describe and validate the extent of relationship of constructs and mediating effects. The findings of the structural equation modeling shows that system quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.32, P quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.44, P service quality has strong significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.36, P effect of EMR use on user satisfaction was not significant. Both EMR use and user satisfaction have significant influence on perceived net-benefit (β = 0.31, P mediating factor in the relationship between service quality and EMR use (P effect on perceived net-benefit of health professionals. EMR implementers and managers in developing countries are in urgent need of implementation models to design proper implementation strategies. In this study, the constructs and relationships depicted in the updated D&M model were found to be applicable to assess the success of EMR in low resource settings. Additionally, computer literacy was found to be a mediating factor in EMR use and user satisfaction of

  6. Complete bromate and nitrate reduction using hydrogen as the sole electron donor in a rotating biofilm-electrode reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yu; Li, Xin [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Yang, Qi, E-mail: yangqi@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Wang, Dongbo [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Advanced Water Management Centre, The University of Queensland, QLD 4072 (Australia); Yao, Fubing [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Li, Xiaoming, E-mail: xmli@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhao, Jianwei; Xu, Qiuxiang; Zhang, Chang; Zeng, Guangming [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: Main mechanism of simultaneous bromate and nitrate removal in the RBER. - Highlights: • Cathode of RBER was designed to automatically rotate. • Simultaneous bromate and nitrate removal was achieved by auto-hydrogenotrophic reduction. • The maximum bromate reduction rate estimated by the Monod equation was 109.12 μg/L h. • An electron transfer process and main reaction mechanism in RBER was explored. - Abstract: Simultaneous reduction of bromate and nitrate was investigated using a rotating biofilm-electrode reactor (RBER) with graphite carbon (GC) rods as anode and activated carbon fiber (ACF) bonded with steel ring as cathode. In RBER, the community of denitrifying bacteria immobilized on the cathode surface could completely utilize hydrogen (H{sub 2}) as the electron donor, which was internally produced by the electrolysis of water. The short-term test confirmed that the RBER system could reduce 150–800 μg/L bromate to below 10 μg/L under autotrophic conditions. The reduced bromate was considered to be roughly equivalent to the amount of bromide in effluent, indicating that bromate was completely reduced to bromide without accumulation of by-products. The long-term test (over 120 days) showed that the removal fluxes of bromate and nitrate could be improved by increasing the electric current and decreasing the hydraulic retention time (HRT). But nitrite in effluent was significantly accumulated when the electric current was beyond 10 mA and the HRT was less than 6 h. The maximum bromate reduction rate estimated by the Monod equation was 109.12 μg/L h when the electric current was 10 mA and HRT was 12 h. It was proposed that the electron transfer process in RBER produced H{sub 2} on the surface of the ACF cathode, and the microbial cultures attached closely on the cathode which could completely utilize H{sub 2} as electron donors for reduction of bromate and nitrate.

  7. Electron Transfer Pathways Facilitating U(VI) Reduction by Fe(II) on Al- vs Fe-Oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, S. D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Physical Sciences Division, P.O. Box; Becker, U. [The University of Michigan, Department of Earth; Rosso, K. M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Physical Sciences Division, P.O. Box

    2017-09-06

    This study continues mechanistic development of heterogeneous electron transfer (ET) pathways at mineral surfaces in aquatic environments that enable the reduction U(VI) by surface-associated Fe(II). Using computational molecular simulation within the framework of Marcus Theory, our findings highlight the importance of the configurations and interaction of the electron donor and acceptor species with the substrate, with respect to influencing its electronic structure and thereby the ability of semiconducting minerals to facilitate ET. U(VI) reduction by surface-associated Fe(II) (adsorbed or structurally incorporated into the lattice) on an insulating, corundum (001) surface (α-Al2O3) occurs when proximal inner-sphere (IS) surface complexes are formed, such that ET occurs through a combination of direct exchange (i.e., Fe d- and U f-orbitals overlap through space) and superexchange via intervening surface oxygen atoms. U(VI) reduction by coadsorbed Fe(II) on the isostructural semiconducting hematite (α-Fe2O3) basal surface requires either their direct electronic interaction (e.g., IS complexation) or mediation of this interaction indirectly through the surface via an intrasurface pathway. Conceptually possible longer-range ET by charge-hopping through surface Fe atoms was investigated to determine whether this indirect pathway is competitive with direct ET. The calculations show that energy barriers are large for this conduction-based pathway; interfacial ET into the hematite surface is endothermic (+80.1 kJ/mol) and comprises the rate-limiting step (10–6 s–1). The presence of the IS adsorbates appears to weaken the electronic coupling between underlying Fe ions within the surface, resulting in slower intra-surface ET (10–5 s–1) than expected in the bulk basal plane. Our findings lay out first insights into donor-acceptor communication via a charge-hopping pathway through the surface for heterogeneous reduction of U(VI) by Fe(II) and help provide a basis

  8. Reduction of secondary electron yield for E-cloud mitigation by laser ablation surface engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valizadeh, R., E-mail: reza.valizadeh@stfc.ac.uk [ASTeC, STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Malyshev, O.B. [ASTeC, STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Wang, S. [ASTeC, STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Sian, T. [ASTeC, STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); The Photon Science Institute, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Cropper, M.D. [Department of Physics, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Sykes, N. [Micronanics Ltd., Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • SEY below 1 can be achieved with Laser ablation surface engineering. • SEY <1 surface can be produced with different types of nanosecond lasers. • Both microstructure (groves) and nano-structures are playing a role in reducing SEY. - Abstract: Developing a surface with low Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) is one of the main ways of mitigating electron cloud and beam-induced electron multipacting in high-energy charged particle accelerators. In our previous publications, a low SEY < 0.9 for as-received metal surfaces modified by a nanosecond pulsed laser was reported. In this paper, the SEY of laser-treated blackened copper has been investigated as a function of different laser irradiation parameters. We explore and study the influence of micro- and nano-structures induced by laser surface treatment in air of copper samples as a function of various laser irradiation parameters such as peak power, laser wavelength (λ = 355 nm and 1064 nm), number of pulses per point (scan speed and repetition rate) and fluence, on the SEY. The surface chemical composition was determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) which revealed that heating resulted in diffusion of oxygen into the bulk and induced the transformation of CuO to sub-stoichiometric oxide. The surface topography was examined with high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) which showed that the laser-treated surfaces are dominated by microstructure grooves and nanostructure features.

  9. One electron reduction of acridine orange studied in aqueous micellar medium using pulse radiolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, Anjali; Guha, S.N.

    1994-01-01

    Absorption spectrum, decay and formation kinetics of semi reduced species formed by the reaction of hydrated electron (e aq - ) with acridine orange (AO) were evaluated in sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) micellar medium. Fluorescence and absorption properties of AO were also studied in this micellar system. The results were compared with those in homogenous aqueous medium. (author). 2 refs., 2 figs

  10. Alcohol production through volatile fatty acids reduction with hydrogen as electron donor by mixed cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2008-01-01

    In this research we demonstrated a new method to produce alcohols. It was experimentally feasible to produce ethanol, propanol and butanol from solely volatile fatty acids (VFAs) with hydrogen as electron donor. In batch tests, VFAs such as acetic, propionic and butyric acids were reduced by mixed

  11. Anelasticity of olivine single crystals investigated by stress-reduction tests and high-angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, D.; Hansen, L. N.; Kempton, I.; Wilkinson, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Geodynamic phenomena, including glacial isostatic adjustment and postseismic deformation, can involve transient deformation in response to changes in differential stress acting on mantle rocks. As such, rheological models of transient deformation are incorporated in predictions of associated processes, including sea-level rise and stress redistribution after earthquakes. However, experimental constraints on rheological models for transient deformation of mantle materials are sparse. In particular, experiments involving stress reductions have been lacking. Moreover, a material's response to a reduction in stress can provide clues to the microphysical processes controlling deformation. To constrain models of transient deformation of mantle rocks we performed stress-reduction tests on single crystals of olivine at 1250-1300°C. Mechanical and piezoelectric actuators controlled constant initial stress during creep. At various strain intervals stress was reduced near-instantaneously using the piezoelectric actuator, inducing both elastic and anelastic (time-dependent) lengthening of the samples. A range of magnitudes of stress reduction were applied, typically unloading 10-90% of the initial stress. High-angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction (HR-EBSD), based on cross-correlation of diffraction patterns, was used to map dislocation density and elastic strain distributions in the recovered samples. Magnitudes of anelastic back-strain increase with increasing magnitudes of stress reduction and show a marked increase when stress reductions exceed 50% of the initial stress, consistent with previous observations in metals and alloys. This observation is inconsistent with the Burgers rheological model commonly used to describe transient behaviour and suggests that the style of rheological behaviour depends on the magnitude of stress change. HR-EBSD maps reveal that the crystal lattices are smoothly curved and generally lack subgrain boundaries and elastic strain

  12. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  13. Structure and Stability of Pt-Y Alloy Particles for Oxygen Reduction Studied by Electron Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deiana, Davide; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2015-01-01

    Platinum-yttrium alloy nanoparticles show both a high activity and stability for the oxygen reduction reaction. The catalysts were prepared by magnetron sputter aggregation and mass filtration providing a model catalyst system with a narrow size distribution. The structure and stability of nanost...... the catalyst after reaction and after aging tests shows the development of a core-shell type structure after being exposed to reaction conditions....

  14. Cost Reduction and Business Strategy Matters to Human Resource Outsourcing? A Validation by HR Experts from Government Link Companies (GLC’s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansor Mohd Fitri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of outsourcing has spawned a rich body scholarly reseach in sveral decades. However, the answer to one of the pertinent question has remained elusive: Does cost reduction and business strategy really matters to the human resource outsourcing impacts. Looking at this question it is important for the organization to embark on the practice of human resource outsourcing to save operating cost and remain competitive. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the effects of cost reduction and business starategy towards human resource outsourcing impacts. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were employed and the top management in Malaysian Government Link Companies (GLC’ is the unit of analysis. The findings revelaved that, both variables are significant statistically and non statically i.e from the experts opinion. Finally, the study also provides useful directions for future research, HR Practitioners and policy maker particularly in managing and organizing human reseouce matters.

  15. NiO/YSZ Reduction for SOFC/SOEC Studied In Situ by Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Agersted, Karsten; Hansen, Karin Vels

    2014-01-01

    SOFCs/SOECs are typically composed of ceramic materials, which are highly complex at the nano-scale. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) are routinely applied for studying these nano-scaled structures post mortem, but only few SOFC/SOEC studies have applied environmental T...... and constant temperature ramping rate of 1°C/min. The NiO observed in the first image at 320°C is dense. From the lower left corner a front of porous Ni is progressing until full reduction at 340°C. [Formula]...

  16. Validity of the use of the neutron-reduction factor in assessing displacement damage to electronics in armoured vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, T.; Jamieson, T.J.

    1990-02-01

    The degree of protection from neutron irradiation afforded to electronics by armoured vehicles is most currently defined by the outside-to-inside ratio of the 1 MeV equivalent neutron fluence for Silicon. It has been proposed that this factor may be approximated by an experimentally measurable parameter - the neutron (tissue kerma) reduction factor. This report examines the validity of this assumption for a variety of realistic nuclear battlefield scenarios, calculated using the computer code VPF2. In addition the response of two neutron dosimeters in the calculated fields is examined.

  17. Reduction of Secondary Electron Yied (SEY) Figures on Smooth Metallic Surfaces by Means of Magnetic Roughness

    CERN Document Server

    Montero, I; Caspers, F; Mensi, M; Taborelli, M

    2013-01-01

    High secondary electron yield of metallic surfaces used in accelerator and also in space applications is of general concern. In addition to several well-known coating preparation techniques and microscopic or macroscopic mechanical roughness (grooves) which may significantly increase microwave losses the concept of magnetic surface roughness has been proposed recently to lower the effective secondary electron yield (SEY). In this concept a smooth and very good conducting surface with low microwave losses is maintained, but underneath this surface a large number of tiny permanent magnets are located to build a rough magnetic equipotential structure. In this paper we present and discuss measurement of the SEY and the improvement in terms of SEY for different parameter ranges.

  18. One electron reduction and absorption characteristics of Cresyl violet in micellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawandi, Vijay B.; Guha, S.N.; Hari Mohan

    2000-01-01

    Effect of surfactant micelles on absorption characteristics of Cresyl violet (CV) and on its redox reactions have been studied. Among the various surfactants investigated anionic surfactants particularly sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDDBS) showed marked effect on these properties. Reactions of hydrated electron in these micellar media were studied using the technique of nanosecond pulse radiolysis. Results of other surfactants, viz.BSS, CTAB and TritonX-100 have also been presented. (author)

  19. Reduction of thermal expansion in Z-pinches by electron beam assisted magnetic field generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, J.A.; Karttunen, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Weak radial expansion of a Z-pinch plasma column during its strong initial ohmic heating phase is expected when the generation of a confining magnetic field is assisted by a correctly formed electron beam pulse. Appropriate one-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equations are numerically solved, and the observed increase of plasma radius as a function of time for various discharge parameters is compared to a normal Z-pinch discharge initiation. (author)

  20. Light-Induced Reduction of Cuprous Oxide in an Environmental Transmission Electron Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalca, Filippo Carlo; Laursen, Anders Bo; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2013-01-01

    Photocatalysts for solar fuel production are subject to intensive investigation as they constitute one viable route for solar energy harvesting. Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) is a working photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution but it photocorrodes upon light illumination in an aqueous environment....... Environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) makes it possible to obtain insight into the local structure, composition and reactivity of catalysts in their working environment, which is of fundamental interest for sustainable energy research and is essential for further material optimization. Herein...

  1. Reduction of Aflatoxins in Apricot Kernels by Electronic and Manual Color Sorting

    OpenAIRE

    Zivoli, Rosanna; Gambacorta, Lucia; Piemontese, Luca; Solfrizzo, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of color sorting on reducing aflatoxin levels in shelled apricot kernels was assessed. Naturally-contaminated kernels were submitted to an electronic optical sorter or blanched, peeled, and manually sorted to visually identify and sort discolored kernels (dark and spotted) from healthy ones. The samples obtained from the two sorting approaches were ground, homogenized, and analysed by HPLC-FLD for their aflatoxin content. A mass balance approach was used to measure the distributi...

  2. SVC or VSC for reduction of voltage sags and flicker. Trends in power electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeusler, M; Schnettler, A [ABB Calor Emag Schaltanlagen AG, Mannheim (Germany); Halvarsson, P [ABB Power Systems AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    1997-07-01

    In the past complaints about insufficient power quality were often caused by flicker observed in the neighbourhood of industrial networks. Voltage sags due to faults in the power system pass, however, mostly unnoticed as not-so-common events. Now electronic controls are penetrating more and more in industry. Electronic controllers on factory machines - particularly those for variable speed motors - are vulnerable to voltage sags. A one-tenth second sag can cause a $200.000 downtime incident in a big factory. Therefore the demands on power quality are rising in industry as well. The costly separation in clean networks for residential areas and dirty networks for industrial grids is no perfect solution to avoid such problems. Static VAr Compensators (SVC) are traditionally one means to control the voltage in industrial networks. Because of the recent development of powerful gate turn-off semiconductor devices another type of converter has gained new interest for mitigation of system disturbances, the voltage-source converter (VSC). The characteristics of both types of power electronics in view of their possibilities for this application are presented. (orig.)

  3. Reductive dehalogenation of 5-bromouracil by aliphatic organic radicals in aqueous solutions; electron transfer and proton-coupled electron transfer mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matasović, Brunislav; Bonifačić, Marija

    2011-06-01

    Reductive dehalogenation of 5-bromouracil by aliphatic organic radicals CO2-rad , rad CH 2OH, rad CH(CH 3)OH, and rad CH(CH 3)O - have been studied in oxygen free aqueous solutions in the presence of organic additives: formate, methanol or ethanol. For radicals production 60Co γ-radiolysis was employed and the yield of bromide was measured by means of ion chromatography. Both radical anions have reducing potential negative enough to transfer an electron to BrU producing bromide ion and U rad radical. High yields of bromide have been measured increasing proportional to the concentration of the corresponding organic additives at a constant dose rate. This is characteristic for a chain process where regeneration of radical ions occurs by H-atom abstraction by U rad radical from formate or ethanol. Results with the neutral radicals conformed earlier proposition that the reduction reaction of α-hydroxyalkyl radicals proceeds by the proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism ( Matasović and Bonifačić, 2007). Thus, while both rad CH 2OH and rad CH(CH 3)OH did not react with BrU in water/alcohol solutions, addition of bicarbonate and acetate in mmol dm -3 concentrations, pH 7, brought about chain debromination to occur in the case of rad CH(CH 3)OH radical as reactant. Under the same conditions phosphate buffer, a base with higher bulk proton affinity, failed to have any influence. The results are taken as additional proofs for the specific complex formation of α-hydroxyalkyl radicals with suitable bases which enhances radicals' reduction potential in comparison with only water molecules as proton acceptors. Rate constants for the H-atom abstraction from ethanol and formate by U rad radicals have been estimated to amount to about ≥85 and 1200 dm 3 mol -1 s -1, respectively.

  4. Reduction of dose enhancement from backscattered radiation at tissue-metal interfaces irradiated with 6MeV electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steel, B.

    1996-01-01

    Due to Electron Back Scatter (EBS), electron irradiation of tissue having under lying lead shielding results in an increase in dose to the tissue on the entrance side of the lead. In these situations dose increases as high as 80% have been reported in the literature. Saunders (British Journal of Radiology, 47, 467-470) noted that dose enhancement is dependent on atomic number of the under lying material approximately as Z 0.5 , and it increases at lower incident electron energies. In our clinic we use 2mm of lead shielding to protect under lying normal tissue when 6MeV electrons are used to treat lips and ears. The object of this study was to find the thinnest combination of materials to reduce the total dose to an acceptable level, with the provisos that; the patient does not come into contact with the lead or other metals, the finished shield could comfortabley be placed between the patient's lip and teeth, and that the materials are sufficietly malleable to work into custom shields. Various combinations of dental wax and aluminium were trialed. That which proved to give the best compromise between reduction of EBS and total shielding thickness was, 1mm of aluminim on the beam side of the lead with 1mm of dental wax to completely enclose the shield. In practice the manufactured shields are approximately 6 mm thick, and are usually not uncomfortable for the patient. (author)

  5. Web-based computational chemistry education with CHARMMing III: Reduction potentials of electron transfer proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Scott Perrin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A module for fast determination of reduction potentials, E°, of redox-active proteins has been implemented in the CHARMM INterface and Graphics (CHARMMing web portal (www.charmming.org. The free energy of reduction, which is proportional to E°, is composed of an intrinsic contribution due to the redox site and an environmental contribution due to the protein and solvent. Here, the intrinsic contribution is selected from a library of pre-calculated density functional theory values for each type of redox site and redox couple, while the environmental contribution is calculated from a crystal structure of the protein using Poisson-Boltzmann continuum electrostatics. An accompanying lesson demonstrates a calculation of E°. In this lesson, an ionizable residue in a [4Fe-4S]-protein that causes a pH-dependent E° is identified, and the E° of a mutant that would test the identification is predicted. This demonstration is valuable to both computational chemistry students and researchers interested in predicting sequence determinants of E° for mutagenesis.

  6. Use and User Perception of Electronic Information Resources: A Case Study of Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmurugan Chandran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the use and user perception of electronic resources in Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India. A total number of 123 users were taken into account for the study through a questionnaire-based survey method. A well-structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to the selected 200 students and staff members. 123 copies of the questionnaires were returned dully filled in and the overall response rate was 61.50 percent. The questionnaire contained both open- and close-ended questions. The collected data were classified, analyzed, and tabulated by using simple statistical methods. This study covers the impact of electronic resources on students and faculty in their academic pursuit.

  7. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Giselle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

  8. Studies on the heterogeneous electron transport and oxygen reduction reaction at metal (Co, Fe) octabutylsulphonylphthalocyanines supported on multi-walled carbon nanotube modified graphite electrode

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mamuru, SA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous electron transfer dynamics and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activities using octabutylsulphonylphthalocyanine complexes of iron (FeOBSPc) and cobalt (CoOBSPc) supported on multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) platforms have been...

  9. Pulse radiolytic one-electron reduction of 2-hydroxy- and 2,6-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Haridas; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Mittal, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    The semiquinone free radicals produced by one-electron reduction of 2-hydroxy-9-10-anthraquinone (2HAQ) and 2,6-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (26DHAQ) in aqueous formate solution, water-isopropyl alcohol-acetone mixed solvent and isopropyl alcohol have been studied using the pulse radiolysis technique. The absorption characteristics, kinetic parameters of formation and decay, acid-base behaviour and redox characteristics of the semiquinones have been investigated and compared with the corresponding characteristics of a few intramolecularly hydro-bonded anthrasemiquinone derivatives. The non-hydrogen-bonded semiquinones show two pKsub(a) values (4.7 and 10.7 for 2HAQ and 5.4 and 8.7 for 26DHAQ, respectively) within the pH range 1-14, whereas other intramolecularly hydrogen-bonded semiquinones show only one pKsub(a). The one-electron reduction potential (E' 7 ) values for 2HAQ (-440 mV) and 26DHAQ (- 400 mV) are more negative than those of the intramolecularly hydrogen-bonded systems. (Author)

  10. Reduction of combinatorical background in the mass spectrum of electron pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonse, S.

    1992-01-01

    Among the aims of the PHENIX experiment are the identification and measurement of the properties of the ρ, ω, φ and J/ψ vector mesons that have decayed through the e + e - channel. The main obstacle to identifying vector mesons (VM) using the e + e - invariant mass, is the significant number of e + and e - from other sources, which causes a large combinatorical background in the invariant mass spectrum. The work we have done aims to reduce this background by identifying background sources through kinematical cuts and removing them along with their combinatorical effects, while at the same time preserving as much as possible of the signal, i.e. the electrons from VM decay. A measurement of electron pairs (e + and e - ) from π-π and q bar q thermal sources is also a possibility, and a clear identification of the ''easier'' vector mesons (ω, φ) will be an indication of how well the thermal measurement can be done. To determine the nature and values of the kinematical cuts we have used a computer simulation to generate particles according to predetermined phase-space (rapidity and P T ) and multiplicity distributions

  11. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF QUALITY OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES ON QUALITY OF TRAINING WITH USE OF DISTANCE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kravtsov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication improving of educational processes requires today new approaches to the management arrangements and forming of educational policy in the field of distance learning, which is based on the use of modern information and communication technologies. An important step in this process is the continuous monitoring of the development and implementation of information technology and, in particular, the distance learning systems in higher educational establishments. The main objective of the monitoring is the impact assessment on the development of distance learning following the state educational standards, curricula, methodical and technical equipment and other factors; factors revelation that influence the implementation and outcomes of distance learning; results comparison of educational institution functioning and distance education systems in order to determine the most efficient ways of its development. The paper presents the analysis results of the dependence of the quality of educational services on the electronic educational resources. Trends in educational services development was studied by comparing the quality influence of electronic educational resources on the quality of educational services of higher pedagogical educational institutions of Ukraine as of 2009-2010 and 2012-2013. Generally, the analysis of the survey results allows evaluating quality of the modern education services as satisfactory and it can be said that almost 70% of the success of their future development depends on the quality of the used electronic educational resources and distance learning systems in particular.

  12. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  13. HELP (INFORMATION ELECTRONIC RESOURCE "CHRONICLE OF ONU: DATES, FACTS, EVENTS": HISTORY OF UNIVERSITY IN INFORMATION SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Гавриленко

    2016-03-01

    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  14. Microstructural characterization of Ni/YSZ based SOFC anodes after cyclic reduction and oxidation using electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldbillig, D.; He, A.; Ivey, D.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of redox cycling on the microstructure, of an SOFC anode, was studied using two approaches. Bulk samples were redox cycled and then examined in the SEM. In addition, electron transparent samples were prepared, redox cycled, and then examined in the TEM. Significant microstructural changes were observed. The anode in the as received condition consists of NiO particles several microns in size, YSZ grains about one micron in size and intergranular porosity. After the first reduction, the overall Ni grain size remains the same as the consumed NiO and epitaxial growth of Ni crystals on NiO grains is observed. The amount of intergranular porosity increases and very fine (50 nm) intragranular pores are formed throughout the Ni grains. This increase in the amount of porosity is expected due to the large volume change that occurs upon reduction. When samples are reoxidized the NiO particles in the SEM images appear spongy with much smaller pores than the as received, oxidized samples. The reoxidized anode consists of fine (<100 nm), randomly oriented grains of NiO. The grain refinement that occurs upon reoxidation is likely due to the large number of intragranular pores that occur upon reduction, which serve as nucleation sites. Rereduced samples were also very fine grained (<200 nm) and contained significant amounts of small intergranular porosity. The YSZ grains were unaffected by the redox cycles. (author)

  15. Proton-coupled electron transfer promotes the reduction of ferrylmyoglobin by uric acid under physiological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Zawadzki, Andressa; Cardoso, Daniel R.; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2017-01-01

    The hypervalent muscle pigment ferrylmyoglobin, MbFe(IV)]O, is not reduced by urate monoanions at physiological conditions despite a strong driving force of around 30 kJ mol1 while for low pH, uric acid was found to reduce protonated ferrylmyoglobin, MbFe(IV)]O,H+, efficiently in a bimolecular...... reaction with k1 ¼ 1.1 0.1 103 L mol1 s1, DH‡ ¼ 66.1 0.1 kJ mol1 and DS‡ ¼ 35.2 0.2 J mol1 K1. For intermediate pH, like for anaerobic muscles and for meat, proton-oupled electron transfer occurs in a transition state, {MbFe(IV)]O/H+/urate}‡, which is concluded to be formed from uric acid and Mb...... in uric acid concentration may serve as an inherent protection against radical formation by ferrylmyoglobin...

  16. Reduction of Aflatoxins in Apricot Kernels by Electronic and Manual Color Sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Zivoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of color sorting on reducing aflatoxin levels in shelled apricot kernels was assessed. Naturally-contaminated kernels were submitted to an electronic optical sorter or blanched, peeled, and manually sorted to visually identify and sort discolored kernels (dark and spotted from healthy ones. The samples obtained from the two sorting approaches were ground, homogenized, and analysed by HPLC-FLD for their aflatoxin content. A mass balance approach was used to measure the distribution of aflatoxins in the collected fractions. Aflatoxin B1 and B2 were identified and quantitated in all collected fractions at levels ranging from 1.7 to 22,451.5 µg/kg of AFB1 + AFB2, whereas AFG1 and AFG2 were not detected. Excellent results were obtained by manual sorting of peeled kernels since the removal of discolored kernels (2.6%–19.9% of total peeled kernels removed 97.3%–99.5% of total aflatoxins. The combination of peeling and visual/manual separation of discolored kernels is a feasible strategy to remove 97%–99% of aflatoxins accumulated in naturally-contaminated samples. Electronic optical sorter gave highly variable results since the amount of AFB1 + AFB2 measured in rejected fractions (15%–18% of total kernels ranged from 13% to 59% of total aflatoxins. An improved immunoaffinity-based HPLC-FLD method having low limits of detection for the four aflatoxins (0.01–0.05 µg/kg was developed and used to monitor the occurrence of aflatoxins in 47 commercial products containing apricot kernels and/or almonds commercialized in Italy. Low aflatoxin levels were found in 38% of the tested samples and ranged from 0.06 to 1.50 μg/kg for AFB1 and from 0.06 to 1.79 μg/kg for total aflatoxins.

  17. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  18. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua

    2008-11-06

    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  19. Reduction in unnecessary red blood cell folate testing by restricting computerized physician order entry in the electronic health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Thomas E; Gudgeon, Patrick; Yip, Paul M; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo B

    2018-05-02

    Red blood cell folate is a laboratory test with limited clinical utility. Previous attempts to reduce physician ordering of unnecessary laboratory tests, including folate, have resulted in only modest success. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness and impacts of restricting red blood cell folate ordering in the electronic health record. This was a retrospective observational study from January 2010 to December 2016 at a large academic healthcare network in Toronto, Canada. All inpatients and outpatients who underwent at least 1 red blood cell folate or vitamin B12 test during the study period were included. Red blood cell folate ordering was restricted to clincians in gastroenterology and hematology and was removed from other physicians' computerized order entry screen in the electronic health record in June 2013. Red blood cell folate testing decreased by 94.4% during the study, from a mean of 493.0 (SD 48.0) tests/month before intervention to 27.6 (SD 10.3) tests/month after intervention (P<.001). Restricting red blood cell folate ordering in the electronic health record resulted in a large and sustained reduction in red blood cell folate testing. Significant cost savings estimated at over a quarter-million dollars (CAD) over three years were achieved. There was no significant clinical impact of the intervention on the diagnosis of folate deficiency. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Technique for electronic measurement of semi-reduction layer using bipolar transistor of junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Luiz A.P.; Barros, Fabio R.; Santos, Marcus A.P.; Monte, David S.; Santos, Jose A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the World Health Organization (WHO) and also of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) suggest equipment for X-rays diagnosis are checked for conformance to their parameters, such as Layer Semi-Reduction (CSR). The importance of verification of diagnostic radiology in parameters is because of have records that forces patients undergoing radiation doses in some clinics, up to 300% the reference values suggested by international agencies which doses are considered unnecessary, and even harmful, either because of physical or variable greatness of being out of control nominal specification, or the fact of having to repeat the radiographs. In this context, the purpose of this study was an innovative methodology that is the use of bipolar transistor junction (TBJ) to measure the aluminum CSR in diagnostic X-ray equipment beams. Although the TBJ be a device invented in the last century, only in recent years have explored their potential as X-ray sensor applied to diagnosis. The study indicates that the tested device can operating the detection of X-rays is properly polarized with electrical signals that can detect interference of the interaction of X-ray photons with the PN junction formed by the base and emitter terminals. The result of the developed technique was compared to CSR measurements obtained with detection systems standards and it was found that the BJT provides values for aluminum CSR relative errors less than 5%

  1. Quantification and reduction of peripheral dose from leakage radiation on Siemens Primus accelerators in electron therapy mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah, Collins; Karotki, Alex; Hunt, Dylan; Holly, Rick

    2010-06-15

    In this work, leakage radiation from EA200 series electron applicators on Siemens Primus accelerators is quantified, and its penetration ability in water and/or the shielding material Xenolite-NL established. Initially, measurement of leakage from 10 x 10 - 25 x 25 cm2 applicators was performed as a function of height along applicator and of lateral distance from applicator body. Relative to central-axis ionization maximum in solid water, the maximum leakage in air observed with a cylindrical ion chamber with 1 cm solid water buildup cap at a lateral distance of 2 cm from the front and right sidewalls of applicators were 17% and 14%, respectively; these maxima were recorded for 18 MeV electron beams and applicator sizes of >or=20 x 20 cm2. In the patient plane, the applicator leakage gave rise to a broad peripheral dose off-axis distance peak that shifted closer to the field edge as the electron energy increases. The maximum peripheral dose from normally incident primary electron beams at a depth of 1 cm in a water phantom was observed to be equal to 5% of the central-axis dose maximum and as high as 9% for obliquely incident beams with angles of obliquity dose curves showed that the "practical range" of the leakage electrons in water varies from approximately 1.4 to 5.7 cm as the primary electron beam energy is raised from 6 to 18 MeV. Next, transmission measurements of leakage radiation through the shielding material Xenolite-NL showed a 4 mm thick sheet of this material is required to attenuate the leakage from 9 MeV beams by two-thirds, and that for every additional 3 MeV increase in the primary electron beam energy, an additional Xenolite-NL thickness of roughly 2 mm is needed to achieve the aforementioned attenuation level. Finally, attachment of a 1 mm thick sheet of lead to the outer surface of applicator sidewalls resulted in a reduction of the peripheral dose by up to 80% and 74% for 9 and 18MeV beams, respectively. This sidewall modification had an

  2. Livelihoods and climate change : combining disaster risk reduction, natural resource management and climate change adaptation in a new approach to the reduction of vulnerability and poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, I.; Soussan, J.; Hammill, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for researchers and policy-makers that are taking action on climate change adaptation. It presents innovative and sustainable ways to respond to the changing global climate. It focuses, in particular, on international research and policy initiatives on climate change, vulnerable communities and adaptation. The international and multi-disciplinary task force that put the framework together includes experts from the fields of disaster risk reduction, climate change, conservation and poverty reduction. The report emphasizes that successful climate change adaptation should be accomplished through actions that reduce the vulnerabilities of poor people and poor countries because people's livelihoods shape poverty and their ability to move out of poverty. The task force identifies the need to integrate a climate change adaptation approach based on the livelihoods of vulnerable communities in different parts of the world. The examples cited in this report include: (1) mangrove rehabilitation in Vietnam, (2) community-based rang eland rehabilitation for carbon sequestration in Sudan, (3) agro-ecological roots of resilience in Honduras, Nicaragua and Guatemala, and (4) watershed restoration and development in Maharashtra State, India. refs., figs

  3. Using environmental transmission electron microscope to study the in-situ reduction of Co3O4 supported on α-Al2O3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehghan-Niri, R.; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    in specialized Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) instruments with differentially pumped columns at pressures in the range up to 20 mbar. 1-3 The objective of this work is to study the reduction of Co3O4 nanoparticles directly and observe their morphology and crystallography. The catalysts were produced...... by dispersion of crushed powder directly on steel grids and gold grids. TEM analysis was performed with an FEI TITAN E-cell electron microscope operating at 300 kV. Reduction was done at 360°C and 3.4 mbar H2 flow. The samples were studied before and after reduction by High Resolution TEM (HRTEM) imaging, high...

  4. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  5. The level of the usage of the human resource information system and electronic recruitment in Croatian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Pivac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Performing business according to contemporary requirements influences companies for continuous usage of modern managerial tools, such as a human resource information system (HRIS and electronic recruitment (ER. Human resources have been recognised as curtail resources and the main source of a competitive advantage in creation of successful business performance. In order to attract and select the top employees, companies use quality information software for attracting internal ones, and electronic recruitment for attracting the best possible external candidates. The main aim of this paper is to research the level of the usage of HRIS and ER within medium-size and large Croatian companies. Moreover, the additional aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship among the usage of these modern managerial tools and the overall success of human resource management within these companies. For the purpose of this paper, primary and secondary research has been conducted in order to reveal the level of the usage of HRIS and ER as well as the overall success of human resource management in Croatian companies. The companies’ classification (HRIS and ER is done by using the non-hierarchical k-means cluster method as well as the nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test. Further, the companies are ranked by the multicriteria PROMETHEE method. Relevant nonparametric tests are used for testing the overall companies’ HRM. Finally, binary logistic regression is estimated, relating binary variable HRM and HRIS development. After detailed research, it can be concluded that large Croatian companies apply HRIS in majority (with a positive relation to HRM performance, but still require certain degrees of its development.

  6. Studies Of Oxidation And Thermal Reduction Of The Cu(100) Surface Using Positron Annihilation Induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazleev, N. G.; Nadesalingam, M. P.; Maddox, W.; Weiss, A. H.

    2011-06-01

    Positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES) measurements from the surface of an oxidized Cu(100) single crystal show a large increase in the intensity of the annihilation induced Cu M2,3VV Auger peak as the sample is subjected to a series of isochronal anneals in vacuum up to annealing temperature 300 °C. The PAES intensity then decreases monotonically as the annealing temperature is increased to ˜550 °C. Experimental positron annihilation probabilities with Cu 3p and O 1s core electrons are estimated from the measured intensities of the positron annihilation induced Cu M2,3VV and O KLL Auger transitions. PAES results are analyzed by performing calculations of positron surface states and annihilation probabilities of the surface-trapped positrons with relevant core electrons taking into account the charge redistribution at the surface and various surface structures associated with low and high oxygen coverages. The variations in atomic structure and chemical composition of the topmost layers of the oxidized Cu(100) surface are found to affect localization and spatial extent of the positron surface state wave function. The computed positron binding energy and annihilation characteristics reveal their sensitivity to charge transfer effects, atomic structure and chemical composition of the topmost layers of the oxidized Cu(100) surface. Theoretical positron annihilation probabilities with Cu 3p and O 1s core electrons computed for the oxidized Cu(100) surface are compared with experimental ones. The obtained results provide a demonstration of thermal reduction of the copper oxide surface after annealing at 300 °C followed by re-oxidation of the Cu(100) surface at higher annealing temperatures presumably due to diffusion of subsurface oxygen to the surface.

  7. Studies Of Oxidation And Thermal Reduction Of The Cu(100) Surface Using Positron Annihilation Induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazleev, N. G.; Nadesalingam, M. P.; Maddox, W.; Weiss, A. H.

    2011-01-01

    Positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES) measurements from the surface of an oxidized Cu(100) single crystal show a large increase in the intensity of the annihilation induced Cu M2,3VV Auger peak as the sample is subjected to a series of isochronal anneals in vacuum up to annealing temperature 300 deg. C. The PAES intensity then decreases monotonically as the annealing temperature is increased to ∼550 deg. C. Experimental positron annihilation probabilities with Cu 3p and O 1s core electrons are estimated from the measured intensities of the positron annihilation induced Cu M 2,3 VV and O KLL Auger transitions. PAES results are analyzed by performing calculations of positron surface states and annihilation probabilities of the surface-trapped positrons with relevant core electrons taking into account the charge redistribution at the surface and various surface structures associated with low and high oxygen coverages. The variations in atomic structure and chemical composition of the topmost layers of the oxidized Cu(100) surface are found to affect localization and spatial extent of the positron surface state wave function. The computed positron binding energy and annihilation characteristics reveal their sensitivity to charge transfer effects, atomic structure and chemical composition of the topmost layers of the oxidized Cu(100) surface. Theoretical positron annihilation probabilities with Cu 3p and O 1s core electrons computed for the oxidized Cu(100) surface are compared with experimental ones. The obtained results provide a demonstration of thermal reduction of the copper oxide surface after annealing at 300 deg. C followed by re-oxidation of the Cu(100) surface at higher annealing temperatures presumably due to diffusion of subsurface oxygen to the surface.

  8. Electronic portal image assisted reduction of systematic set-up errors in head and neck irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, Hans C.J. de; Soernsen de Koste, John R. van; Creutzberg, Carien L.; Visser, Andries G.; Levendag, Peter C.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify systematic and random patient set-up errors in head and neck irradiation and to investigate the impact of an off-line correction protocol on the systematic errors. Material and methods: Electronic portal images were obtained for 31 patients treated for primary supra-glottic larynx carcinoma who were immobilised using a polyvinyl chloride cast. The observed patient set-up errors were input to the shrinking action level (SAL) off-line decision protocol and appropriate set-up corrections were applied. To assess the impact of the protocol, the positioning accuracy without application of set-up corrections was reconstructed. Results: The set-up errors obtained without set-up corrections (1 standard deviation (SD)=1.5-2 mm for random and systematic errors) were comparable to those reported in other studies on similar fixation devices. On an average, six fractions per patient were imaged and the set-up of half the patients was changed due to the decision protocol. Most changes were detected during weekly check measurements, not during the first days of treatment. The application of the SAL protocol reduced the width of the distribution of systematic errors to 1 mm (1 SD), as expected from simulations. A retrospective analysis showed that this accuracy should be attainable with only two measurements per patient using a different off-line correction protocol, which does not apply action levels. Conclusions: Off-line verification protocols can be particularly effective in head and neck patients due to the smallness of the random set-up errors. The excellent set-up reproducibility that can be achieved with such protocols enables accurate dose delivery in conformal treatments

  9. Electronic nicotine delivery systems and/or electronic non-nicotine delivery systems for tobacco smoking cessation or reduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Dib, Regina; Suzumura, Erica A; Akl, Elie A; Gomaa, Huda; Agarwal, Arnav; Chang, Yaping; Prasad, Manya; Ashoorion, Vahid; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Maziak, Wasim; Guyatt, Gordon

    2017-02-23

    A systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the impact of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) and/or electronic non-nicotine delivery systems (ENNDS) versus no smoking cessation aid, or alternative smoking cessation aids, in cigarette smokers on long-term tobacco use. Searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, CENTRAL and Web of Science up to December 2015. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective cohort studies. Three pairs of reviewers independently screened potentially eligible articles, extracted data from included studies on populations, interventions and outcomes and assessed their risk of bias. We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach to rate overall certainty of the evidence by outcome. Three randomised trials including 1007 participants and nine cohorts including 13 115 participants proved eligible. Results provided by only two RCTs suggest a possible increase in tobacco smoking cessation with ENDS in comparison with ENNDS (RR 2.03, 95% CI 0.94 to 4.38; p=0.07; I 2 =0%, risk difference (RD) 64/1000 over 6 to 12 months, low-certainty evidence). Results from cohort studies suggested a possible reduction in quit rates with use of ENDS compared with no use of ENDS (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.00; p=0.051; I 2 =56%, very low certainty). There is very limited evidence regarding the impact of ENDS or ENNDS on tobacco smoking cessation, reduction or adverse effects: data from RCTs are of low certainty and observational studies of very low certainty. The limitations of the cohort studies led us to a rating of very low-certainty evidence from which no credible inferences can be drawn. Lack of usefulness with regard to address the question of e-cigarettes' efficacy on smoking reduction and cessation was largely due to poor reporting. This review underlines the need to conduct well-designed trials measuring biochemically validated outcomes and adverse effects. Published by the BMJ

  10. Reductive dehalogenation of 5-bromouracil by aliphatic organic radicals in aqueous solutions; electron transfer and proton-coupled electron transfer mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matasovic, Brunislav [Division of Physical Chemistry, ' Ruder Boskovic' Institute, Bijenicka c. 54, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Bonifacic, Marija, E-mail: bonifacic@irb.h [Division of Physical Chemistry, ' Ruder Boskovic' Institute, Bijenicka c. 54, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2011-06-15

    Reductive dehalogenation of 5-bromouracil by aliphatic organic radicals {sup {center_dot}C}O{sub 2}{sup -}, {sup {center_dot}C}H{sub 2}OH, {sup {center_dot}C}H(CH{sub 3})OH, and {sup {center_dot}C}H(CH{sub 3})O{sup -} have been studied in oxygen free aqueous solutions in the presence of organic additives: formate, methanol or ethanol. For radicals production {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiolysis was employed and the yield of bromide was measured by means of ion chromatography. Both radical anions have reducing potential negative enough to transfer an electron to BrU producing bromide ion and U{sup {center_dot}} radical. High yields of bromide have been measured increasing proportional to the concentration of the corresponding organic additives at a constant dose rate. This is characteristic for a chain process where regeneration of radical ions occurs by H-atom abstraction by U{sup {center_dot}} radical from formate or ethanol. Results with the neutral radicals conformed earlier proposition that the reduction reaction of {alpha}-hydroxyalkyl radicals proceeds by the proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism (). Thus, while both {sup {center_dot}C}H{sub 2}OH and {sup {center_dot}C}H(CH{sub 3})OH did not react with BrU in water/alcohol solutions, addition of bicarbonate and acetate in mmol dm{sup -3} concentrations, pH 7, brought about chain debromination to occur in the case of {sup {center_dot}C}H(CH{sub 3})OH radical as reactant. Under the same conditions phosphate buffer, a base with higher bulk proton affinity, failed to have any influence. The results are taken as additional proofs for the specific complex formation of {alpha}-hydroxyalkyl radicals with suitable bases which enhances radicals' reduction potential in comparison with only water molecules as proton acceptors. Rate constants for the H-atom abstraction from ethanol and formate by U{sup {center_dot}} radicals have been estimated to amount to about {>=}85 and 1200 dm{sup 3} mol{sup -1} s{sup -1

  11. Electronic nose with a new feature reduction method and a multi-linear classifier for Chinese liquor classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Yaqi; Meng, Qinghao, E-mail: qh-meng@tju.edu.cn; Qi, Peifeng; Zeng, Ming; Li, Wei; Ma, Shugen [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Process Measurement and Control, Institute of Robotics and Autonomous Systems, School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2014-05-15

    An electronic nose (e-nose) was designed to classify Chinese liquors of the same aroma style. A new method of feature reduction which combined feature selection with feature extraction was proposed. Feature selection method used 8 feature-selection algorithms based on information theory and reduced the dimension of the feature space to 41. Kernel entropy component analysis was introduced into the e-nose system as a feature extraction method and the dimension of feature space was reduced to 12. Classification of Chinese liquors was performed by using back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), and a multi-linear classifier. The classification rate of the multi-linear classifier was 97.22%, which was higher than LDA and BP-ANN. Finally the classification of Chinese liquors according to their raw materials and geographical origins was performed using the proposed multi-linear classifier and classification rate was 98.75% and 100%, respectively.

  12. Electronic nose with a new feature reduction method and a multi-linear classifier for Chinese liquor classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, Yaqi; Meng, Qinghao; Qi, Peifeng; Zeng, Ming; Li, Wei; Ma, Shugen

    2014-01-01

    An electronic nose (e-nose) was designed to classify Chinese liquors of the same aroma style. A new method of feature reduction which combined feature selection with feature extraction was proposed. Feature selection method used 8 feature-selection algorithms based on information theory and reduced the dimension of the feature space to 41. Kernel entropy component analysis was introduced into the e-nose system as a feature extraction method and the dimension of feature space was reduced to 12. Classification of Chinese liquors was performed by using back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), and a multi-linear classifier. The classification rate of the multi-linear classifier was 97.22%, which was higher than LDA and BP-ANN. Finally the classification of Chinese liquors according to their raw materials and geographical origins was performed using the proposed multi-linear classifier and classification rate was 98.75% and 100%, respectively

  13. Pulse radiolytic one-electron reduction of 1,4-amino and hydroxy disubstituted 9,10-anthraquinones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, H.; Palit, D.K.; Mukherjee, T.; Mittal, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    The semiquinone radicals produced by one-electron reduction of 1-amino-4-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone and 1,4-diamino-9,10-anthraquinone have been studied in aqueous-organic mixed solvent using pulse radiolysis technique. Spectroscopic characteristics, kinetic characteristics of formation and decay, acid/base behaviour and redox characteristics of the semiquinones have been investigated and compared with those of some similar systems studied earlier. It has been shown that the variation of the disproportionation equilibria involving the reduced semiquinone radicals, the parent quinone and the fully reduced hydroquinone with pH of the solutions follow a similar trend as observed in the case of other dihydroxy quinones. Stability of the semiquinones over a broad pH range and their thermodynamic properties have been correlated. (Author)

  14. Personal resilience resources predict post-stem cell transplant cancer survivors' psychological outcomes through reductions in depressive symptoms and meaning-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Rebecca A; Wu, Lisa M; Austin, Jane; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Rini, Christine

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether post-transplant cancer survivors (N = 254, 9 months to 3 years after stem cell transplant treatment) with greater personal resilience resources demonstrated better psychological outcomes and whether this could be attributed to reductions in depressive symptoms and/or four meaning-making processes (searching for and finding reasons for one's illness; searching for and finding benefit from illness). Hierarchical linear regression analyses examined associations of survivors' baseline personal resilience resources (composite variable of self-esteem, mastery, and optimism), which occurred an average of 1.7 years after transplant, and 4-month changes in psychological outcomes highly relevant to recovering from this difficult and potentially traumatic treatment: post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and purpose in life. Boot-strapped analyses tested mediation. Greater personal resilience resources predicted decreases in PTSD stress symptoms (b = -0.07, p = 0.005), mediated by reductions in depressive symptoms (b = -0.01, 95% CI: -0.027, -0.003) and in searching for a reason for one's illness (b = -0.01, 95% CI: -0.034, -0.0003). In addition, greater resilience resources predicted increases in purpose in life (b = 0.10, p meaning-making (searching for a reason for one's illness) was also important for reducing PTSD symptoms.

  15. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  16. Helping Patrons Find Locally Held Electronic Resources: An Interlibrary Loan Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The University of North Texas Libraries provide extensive online access to academic journals through major vendor databases. As illustrated by interlibrary loan borrowing requests for items held in our databases, patrons often have difficulty navigating the available resources. In this study, the Interlibrary Loan staff used data gathered from the…

  17. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  18. Demonstration of electronic pattern switching and 10x pattern demagnification in a maskless micro-ion beam reduction lithography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, V.V.; Akker, B.; Leung, K.N.; Noh, I.; Scott, K.L.; Wilde, S.

    2002-01-01

    A proof-of-principle ion projection lithography (IPL) system called Maskless Micro-ion beam Reduction Lithography (MMRL) has been developed and tested at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for future integrated circuits (ICs) manufacturing and thin film media patterning [1]. This MMRL system is aimed at completely eliminating the first stage of the conventional IPL system [2] that contains the complicated beam optics design in front of the stencil mask and the mask itself. It consists of a multicusp RF plasma generator, a multi-beamlet pattern generator, and an all-electrostatic ion optical column. Results from ion beam exposures on PMMA and Shipley UVII-HS resists using 75 keV H+ are presented in this paper. Proof-of-principle electronic pattern switching together with 10x reduction ion optics (using a pattern generator made of nine 50-(micro)m switchable apertures) has been performed and is reported in this paper. In addition, the fabrication of a micro-fabricated pattern generator [3] on an SOI membrane is also presented

  19. A Synthetic Pseudo-Rh: NOx Reduction Activity and Electronic Structure of Pd-Ru Solid-solution Alloy Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Katsutoshi; Tomonaga, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Matsumura, Syo; Zulkifli, Nor Diana Binti; Ishimoto, Takayoshi; Koyama, Michihisa; Kusada, Kohei; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Nagaoka, Katsutoshi

    2016-06-01

    Rh is one of the most important noble metals for industrial applications. A major fraction of Rh is used as a catalyst for emission control in automotive catalytic converters because of its unparalleled activity toward NOx reduction. However, Rh is a rare and extremely expensive element; thus, the development of Rh alternative composed of abundant elements is desirable. Pd and Ru are located at the right and left of Rh in the periodic table, respectively, nevertheless this combination of elements is immiscible in the bulk state. Here, we report a Pd-Ru solid-solution-alloy nanoparticle (PdxRu1-x NP) catalyst exhibiting better NOx reduction activity than Rh. Theoretical calculations show that the electronic structure of Pd0.5Ru0.5 is similar to that of Rh, indicating that Pd0.5Ru0.5 can be regarded as a pseudo-Rh. Pd0.5Ru0.5 exhibits better activity than natural Rh, which implies promising applications not only for exhaust-gas cleaning but also for various chemical reactions.

  20. Applications of time-dependent Raman scattering theory to the one-electron reduction of 4-cyano-n-methylpyridinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    Activation barrier heights, and therefore rates, for molecule-based electron-transfer (ET) reactions are governed by redox thermodynamics and Frank-Condon effects. Quantitative assessment of the latter requires a detailed, quantitative knowledge of all internal and external normal-coordinate displacements, together with appropriate vibrational frequencies (v) or force constants (f). In favorable cases, the desire internal or vibrational displacement information can be satisfactorily estimated from redox-induced bond-length changes as provided, for example, by x-ray crystallography or extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements. Other potentially useful methods include Franck-Condon analysis of structured emission or absorption spectra, hole burning techniques, and application of empirical structure/frequency relationships (E.g., Badger's rules). There are, however, a number of limitations. The most obvious limitations for crystallography are that measurements can be made only in a crystalline environment and that experiments cannot be done on short-lived electron-transfer excited states or on systems which suffer from chemical decomposition following oxidation or reduction. For EXAFS there are additional constrains in that only selected elements display useful scattering and only atoms in close proximity to the scattering center may be detected. This report contains the first successful applications of the Raman methodology to a much larger class of ET reactions, namely, outer-sphere reactions. The report also necessarily represents the first application to a monomeric redox system

  1. Reduction of uranium(IV) and its mixtures with an olefin or an alkyne in tetrahydrofuran solutions by solvated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koulkes-Pujo, A.M.; Le Marechal, J.F.; Le Motais, B.; Folcher, G.

    1985-01-01

    The reduction of UCl 4 and its mixtures with different olefins (stilbene, St, diphenylethylene, DPE, acenaphtylene, Ac or with diphenylacetylene (DPA) was studied by pulse radiolysis of tetrahydrofuran (THF) solutions. U(III) was formed by U(IV) reaction either with the solvated electrons created by THF radiolysis or with the transitory anions St - and DPA - . In the latter case, the reaction proceeds via a first step leading to [St-U(IV)] - or [DPA-U(IV)] - . In the case of DPE - the first species, [DPE-U(IV)] - , does not lead to U(III) but is destroyed by THF(H) + giving DPE(H). and U(IV). Ac - does not react with U(IV). A mechanistic scheme of this electron attachment is discussed as well as its implication in catalytic hydrogenation of olefins in LiAlH 4 -UCl 4 solutions. It is concluded that the catalytic effect observed is rather the result of a hydride transfer from a uranium transient compound to the alkenes. 22 references, 8 figures, 1 table

  2. Risk-based decision making for staggered bioterrorist attacks : resource allocation and risk reduction in "reload" scenarios.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaster, Michelle Nicole; Gay, David M. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Ehlen, Mark Andrew (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Boggs, Paul T.; Ray, Jaideep

    2009-10-01

    Staggered bioterrorist attacks with aerosolized pathogens on population centers present a formidable challenge to resource allocation and response planning. The response and planning will commence immediately after the detection of the first attack and with no or little information of the second attack. In this report, we outline a method by which resource allocation may be performed. It involves probabilistic reconstruction of the bioterrorist attack from partial observations of the outbreak, followed by an optimization-under-uncertainty approach to perform resource allocations. We consider both single-site and time-staggered multi-site attacks (i.e., a reload scenario) under conditions when resources (personnel and equipment which are difficult to gather and transport) are insufficient. Both communicable (plague) and non-communicable diseases (anthrax) are addressed, and we also consider cases when the data, the time-series of people reporting with symptoms, are confounded with a reporting delay. We demonstrate how our approach develops allocations profiles that have the potential to reduce the probability of an extremely adverse outcome in exchange for a more certain, but less adverse outcome. We explore the effect of placing limits on daily allocations. Further, since our method is data-driven, the resource allocation progressively improves as more data becomes available.

  3. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    This paper describes an electronic guidebook, "Sotto Voce," that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each others guidebook activity. The first section discusses the design and implementation of the guidebook device, key aspects of its user interface, the design goals for the audio environment, the eavesdropping…

  4. Household MIPS. Natural resource consumption of Finnish households and its reduction; KotiMIPS. Kotitalouksien luonnonvarojen kulutus ja sen pienentaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotakorpi, E.; Laehteenoja, S.; Lettenmeier, M.

    2008-10-15

    In the study the natural resource consumption of 27 Finnish households was calculated using the MIPS method (Material Input per Service unit). The households monitored their consumption over a 6-week period in seven sub-sectors - housing, mobility, tourism, foodstuffs, household goods and appliances, leisure time activities, and packaging and household wastes. In the consumption monitoring only the households' direct consumption was taken into account and not consumption due to, e.g. public services. MIPS figures were calculated for five natural resource categories: abiotic natural resources, biotic natural resources, water, air and erosion. Service performance was expressed as kilograms per person per year. The calculation of natural resource consumption was based, to a large extent, on previously carried out sub-studies under the main FIN-MIPS study on households. The sub-studies focused on foodstuffs, leisure time activities, tourism, household goods and appliances, and construction. All the people participating in the study were interested in environmental matters to a greater extent than the average Finn. Nevertheless, the difference between the household consuming the most natural resources, and the one consuming the least, was approximately 10-fold. Especially in mobility and tourism there were appreciable differences between the households. The most material-intensive sub-sectors of consumption with reference to the households studied are housing, mobility and tourism. The TMR (total material requirement, i.e. abiotic and biotic natural resources and erosion combined) is approximately 10,000 kg/person per year. In the case of foodstuffs the average TMR per person per year is around 4,000 kg, in relation to household goods, for appliances about 2,000 kg, and for packaging and household waste management approximately 200 kg. The precise definition of each sub-sector in the study has an influence on the results. The ranking of the different sub-sectors of

  5. Impact of Fe(III) as an effective electron-shuttle mediator for enhanced Cr(VI) reduction in microbial fuel cells: Reduction of diffusional resistances and cathode overpotentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qiang [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Huang, Liping, E-mail: lipinghuang@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Pan, Yuzhen [College of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Quan, Xie [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Li Puma, Gianluca, E-mail: g.lipuma@lboro.ac.uk [Environmental Nanocatalysis & Photoreaction Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • Fe(III) shuttles electrons for enhanced reduction of Cr(VI) in MFCs. • The coulombic efficiency increases by 1.6 fold in the presence of Fe(III). • The reduction of Cr(VI) occurs via an indirect Fe(III) mediation mechanism. • Fe(III) decreases the diffusional resistances and the cathode overpotentials. - Abstract: The role of Fe(III) was investigated as an electron-shuttle mediator to enhance the reduction rate of the toxic heavy metal hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in wastewaters, using microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The direct reduction of chromate (CrO{sub 4}{sup −}) and dichromate (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 2−}) anions in MFCs was hampered by the electrical repulsion between the negatively charged cathode and Cr(VI) functional groups. In contrast, in the presence of Fe(III), the conversion of Cr(VI) and the cathodic coulombic efficiency in the MFCs were 65.6% and 81.7%, respectively, 1.6 times and 1.4 folds as those recorded in the absence of Fe(III). Multiple analytical approaches, including linear sweep voltammetry, Tafel plot, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and kinetic calculations demonstrated that the complete reduction of Cr(VI) occurred through an indirect mechanism mediated by Fe(III). The direct reduction of Cr(VI) with cathode electrons in the presence of Fe(III) was insignificant. Fe(III) played a critical role in decreasing both the diffusional resistance of Cr(VI) species and the overpotential for Cr(VI) reduction. This study demonstrated that the reduction of Cr(VI) in MFCs was effective in the presence of Fe(III), providing an alternative and environmentally benign approach for efficient remediation of Cr(VI) contaminated sites with simultaneous production of renewable energy.

  6. Impact of Fe(III) as an effective electron-shuttle mediator for enhanced Cr(VI) reduction in microbial fuel cells: Reduction of diffusional resistances and cathode overpotentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiang; Huang, Liping; Pan, Yuzhen; Quan, Xie; Li Puma, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe(III) shuttles electrons for enhanced reduction of Cr(VI) in MFCs. • The coulombic efficiency increases by 1.6 fold in the presence of Fe(III). • The reduction of Cr(VI) occurs via an indirect Fe(III) mediation mechanism. • Fe(III) decreases the diffusional resistances and the cathode overpotentials. - Abstract: The role of Fe(III) was investigated as an electron-shuttle mediator to enhance the reduction rate of the toxic heavy metal hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in wastewaters, using microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The direct reduction of chromate (CrO_4"−) and dichromate (Cr_2O_7"2"−) anions in MFCs was hampered by the electrical repulsion between the negatively charged cathode and Cr(VI) functional groups. In contrast, in the presence of Fe(III), the conversion of Cr(VI) and the cathodic coulombic efficiency in the MFCs were 65.6% and 81.7%, respectively, 1.6 times and 1.4 folds as those recorded in the absence of Fe(III). Multiple analytical approaches, including linear sweep voltammetry, Tafel plot, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and kinetic calculations demonstrated that the complete reduction of Cr(VI) occurred through an indirect mechanism mediated by Fe(III). The direct reduction of Cr(VI) with cathode electrons in the presence of Fe(III) was insignificant. Fe(III) played a critical role in decreasing both the diffusional resistance of Cr(VI) species and the overpotential for Cr(VI) reduction. This study demonstrated that the reduction of Cr(VI) in MFCs was effective in the presence of Fe(III), providing an alternative and environmentally benign approach for efficient remediation of Cr(VI) contaminated sites with simultaneous production of renewable energy.

  7. Development and evolution of The Knowledge Hub for Pathology and related electronic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, David F; Sinard, John; Silva, Fred

    2011-06-01

    The Knowledge Hub for Pathology was created to provide authenticated and validated knowledge for United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology members and pathologists worldwide with access to the Web. Using the material presented at the annual meeting of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology with existing selection and review procedures ensured that these criteria were met without added costly procedures. Further submissions for courses and research papers are provided in electronic format and funded by universities and hospitals for their creation; thus, the principal costs borne by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology are Web site-posting costs. Use has escalated rapidly from 2 million hits in 2002 to 51 million in 2009 with use by 35,000 pathologists from now a total of 180 countries. This true "freemium" model is a successful process as are more traditional continuing professional development course structures such as Anatomic Pathology Electronic Case Series, a "premium" model for learning electronically also sponsored by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of an Electronic Cigarette on Smoking Reduction and Cessation in Schizophrenic Smokers: A Prospective 12-Month Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Caponnetto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarette smoking is a tough addiction to break. This dependence is the most common dual diagnosis for individuals with schizophrenia. Currently three effective drugs are approved for smoking cessation: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, varenicline and bupropion. However, some serious side effects of varenicline have been reported, including depression, suicidal thoughts, and suicide. The use of bupropion also has side effects. It should not be used by people who have epilepsy or any condition that lowers the seizure threshold, nor by people who take a specific class of drugs called monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Hence, there are pharmacodynamic reason to believe they could precipitate or exacerbate psychosis. For its capacity to deliver nicotine and provide a coping mechanism for conditioned smoking cues by replacing some of the rituals associated with smoking gestures, electronic-cigarettes may reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms without serious side effects. Our recent work with ECs in healthy smokers not intending to quit consistently show surprisingly high success rates. We hypothesised that these positive findings could be replicated in difficult patients with schizophrenia This tool may help smokers with schizophrenia remain abstinent during their quitting attempts or to reduce cigarette consumption. Efficacy and safety of these devices in long-term smoking cessation and/or smoking reduction studies have never been investigated for this special population. Methods: In this study we monitored possible modifications in smoking habits of 14 smokers (not intending to quit with schizophrenia experimenting with the “Categoria” e-Cigarette with a focus on smoking reduction and smoking abstinence. Study participants were invited to attend six study visits: at baseline, week-4, week-8, week-12 week-24 and week 52. Product use, number of cigarettes smoked, carbon monoxide in exhaled breath (eCO and positive and negative symptoms of

  9. Impact of an electronic cigarette on smoking reduction and cessation in schizophrenic smokers: a prospective 12-month pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponnetto, Pasquale; Auditore, Roberta; Russo, Cristina; Cappello, Giorgio Carlo; Polosa, Riccardo

    2013-01-28

    Cigarette smoking is a tough addiction to break. This dependence is the most common dual diagnosis for individuals with schizophrenia. Currently three effective drugs are approved for smoking cessation: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), varenicline and bupropion. However, some serious side effects of varenicline have been reported, including depression, suicidal thoughts, and suicide. The use of bupropion also has side effects. It should not be used by people who have epilepsy or any condition that lowers the seizure threshold, nor by people who take a specific class of drugs called monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Hence, there are pharmacodynamic reason to believe they could precipitate or exacerbate psychosis. For its capacity to deliver nicotine and provide a coping mechanism for conditioned smoking cues by replacing some of the rituals associated with smoking gestures, electronic-cigarettes may reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms without serious side effects. Our recent work with ECs in healthy smokers not intending to quit consistently show surprisingly high success rates. We hypothesised that these positive findings could be replicated in difficult patients with schizophrenia This tool may help smokers with schizophrenia remain abstinent during their quitting attempts or to reduce cigarette consumption. Efficacy and safety of these devices in long-term smoking cessation and/or smoking reduction studies have never been investigated for this special population. In this study we monitored possible modifications in smoking habits of 14 smokers (not intending to quit) with schizophrenia experimenting with the "Categoria" e-Cigarette with a focus on smoking reduction and smoking abstinence. Study participants were invited to attend six study visits: at baseline, week-4, week-8, week-12 week-24 and week 52. Product use, number of cigarettes smoked, carbon monoxide in exhaled breath (eCO) and positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia levels were measured at each

  10. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  11. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-03

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  12. OPERATIONAL REMOTE SENSING SERVICES IN NORTH EASTERN REGION OF INDIA FOR NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT, EARLY WARNING FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION AND DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION AND SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. N. Raju

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available North Eastern Region (NER of India comprising of eight states considered to be most unique and one of the most challenging regions to govern due to its unique physiographic condition, rich biodiversity, disaster prone and diverse socio-economic characteristics. Operational Remote Sensing services increased manifolds in the region with the establishment of North Eastern Space Applications Centre (NESAC in the year 2000. Since inception, NESAC has been providing remote sensing services in generating inventory, planning and developmental activities, and management of natural resources, disasters and dissemination of information and services through geo-web services for NER. The operational remote sensing services provided by NESAC can be broadly divided into three categories viz. natural resource planning and developmental services, disaster risk reduction and early warning services and information dissemination through geo-portal services. As a apart of natural resources planning and developmental services NESAC supports the state forest departments in preparing the forest working plans by providing geospatial inputs covering entire NER, identifying the suitable culturable wastelands for cultivation of silkworm food plants, mapping of natural resources such as land use/land cover, wastelands, land degradation etc. on temporal basis. In the area of disaster risk reduction, NESAC has initiated operational services for early warning and post disaster assessment inputs for flood early warning system (FLEWS using satellite remote sensing, numerical weather prediction, hydrological modeling etc.; forest fire alert system with actionable attribute information; Japanese Encephalitis Early Warning System (JEWS based on mosquito vector abundance, pig population and historical disease intensity and agriculture drought monitoring for the region. The large volumes of geo-spatial databases generated as part of operational services are made available to the

  13. Operational Remote Sensing Services in North Eastern Region of India for Natural Resources Management, Early Warning for Disaster Risk Reduction and Dissemination of Information and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P. L. N.; Sarma, K. K.; Barman, D.; Handique, B. K.; Chutia, D.; Kundu, S. S.; Das, R. Kr.; Chakraborty, K.; Das, R.; Goswami, J.; Das, P.; Devi, H. S.; Nongkynrih, J. M.; Bhusan, K.; Singh, M. S.; Singh, P. S.; Saikhom, V.; Goswami, C.; Pebam, R.; Borgohain, A.; Gogoi, R. B.; Singh, N. R.; Bharali, A.; Sarma, D.; Lyngdoh, R. B.; Mandal, P. P.; Chabukdhara, M.

    2016-06-01

    North Eastern Region (NER) of India comprising of eight states considered to be most unique and one of the most challenging regions to govern due to its unique physiographic condition, rich biodiversity, disaster prone and diverse socio-economic characteristics. Operational Remote Sensing services increased manifolds in the region with the establishment of North Eastern Space Applications Centre (NESAC) in the year 2000. Since inception, NESAC has been providing remote sensing services in generating inventory, planning and developmental activities, and management of natural resources, disasters and dissemination of information and services through geo-web services for NER. The operational remote sensing services provided by NESAC can be broadly divided into three categories viz. natural resource planning and developmental services, disaster risk reduction and early warning services and information dissemination through geo-portal services. As a apart of natural resources planning and developmental services NESAC supports the state forest departments in preparing the forest working plans by providing geospatial inputs covering entire NER, identifying the suitable culturable wastelands for cultivation of silkworm food plants, mapping of natural resources such as land use/land cover, wastelands, land degradation etc. on temporal basis. In the area of disaster risk reduction, NESAC has initiated operational services for early warning and post disaster assessment inputs for flood early warning system (FLEWS) using satellite remote sensing, numerical weather prediction, hydrological modeling etc.; forest fire alert system with actionable attribute information; Japanese Encephalitis Early Warning System (JEWS) based on mosquito vector abundance, pig population and historical disease intensity and agriculture drought monitoring for the region. The large volumes of geo-spatial databases generated as part of operational services are made available to the administrators and

  14. Designing a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirali Seyednaghavi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available : In the first phase of this study a model for electronic human resource management in government agencies based on new public services was explored by using software MAXQDA, then in the second phase, relationship between the elements of the theory were tested using software Smart PLS2. So the aim of this study is to design a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology. In this regard, according to Strauss and Corbin’s structured plan, five hypotheses were tested. Quantitative data analysis indicates that the pressures of the policies and global perspectives cause to move toward e-HRM. Among the contextual conditions macro structural mechanisms, considerations of actors, governance considerations have a significant impact on the strategy of new public services and therefore lead to the consequences of its implementation in public organizations. The findings suggest that e-HRM does not have a positive and meaningful impact on new public services, and in our country, although the recent political developments have somehow removed the gap between public policy makers, administrators, and the public, but there is still a long way to go.

  15. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  16. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  17. Reduction of heavy metals in residues from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment before incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Hu, Li-Fang; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The highest metal reduction occurs at a 2.36 mm sieving size. • Washing promotes heavy metal recycling without secondary pollution. • Sieving and washing are environmentally friendly pretreatments for WEEE wastes. - Abstract: Residues disposal from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment are challenging because of the large waste volumes, degradation-resistance, low density and high heavy metal content. Incineration is advantageous for treating these residues but high heavy metal contents may exist in incinerator input and output streams. We have developed and studied a specialized heavy metal reduction process, which includes sieving and washing for treating residues before incineration. The preferable screen aperture for sieving was found to be 2.36 mm (8 meshes) in this study; using this screen aperture resulted in the removal of approximately 47.2% Cu, 65.9% Zn, 26.5% Pb, 55.4% Ni and 58.8% Cd from the residues. Subsequent washing further reduces the heavy metal content in the residues larger than 2.36 mm, with preferable conditions being 400 rpm rotation speed, 5 min washing duration and liquid-to-solid ratio of 25:1. The highest cumulative removal efficiencies of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cd after sieving and washing reached 81.1%, 61.4%, 75.8%, 97.2% and 72.7%, respectively. The combined sieving and washing process is environmentally friendly, can be used for the removal of heavy metals from the residues and has benefits in terms of heavy metal recycling

  18. Reduction of heavy metals in residues from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment before incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Recycling, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Hu, Li-Fang [College of Quality and Safety Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Shen, Dong-Sheng, E-mail: shends@zju.edu.cn [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Recycling, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The highest metal reduction occurs at a 2.36 mm sieving size. • Washing promotes heavy metal recycling without secondary pollution. • Sieving and washing are environmentally friendly pretreatments for WEEE wastes. - Abstract: Residues disposal from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment are challenging because of the large waste volumes, degradation-resistance, low density and high heavy metal content. Incineration is advantageous for treating these residues but high heavy metal contents may exist in incinerator input and output streams. We have developed and studied a specialized heavy metal reduction process, which includes sieving and washing for treating residues before incineration. The preferable screen aperture for sieving was found to be 2.36 mm (8 meshes) in this study; using this screen aperture resulted in the removal of approximately 47.2% Cu, 65.9% Zn, 26.5% Pb, 55.4% Ni and 58.8% Cd from the residues. Subsequent washing further reduces the heavy metal content in the residues larger than 2.36 mm, with preferable conditions being 400 rpm rotation speed, 5 min washing duration and liquid-to-solid ratio of 25:1. The highest cumulative removal efficiencies of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cd after sieving and washing reached 81.1%, 61.4%, 75.8%, 97.2% and 72.7%, respectively. The combined sieving and washing process is environmentally friendly, can be used for the removal of heavy metals from the residues and has benefits in terms of heavy metal recycling.

  19. An ethical and prudential argument for prioritizing the reduction of parasite-stress in the allocation of health care resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Russell; Clarke, Steve; Savulescu, Julian

    2012-04-01

    The link between parasite-stress and complex psychological dispositions implies that the social, political, and economic benefits likely to flow from public health interventions that reduce rates of non-zoonotic infectious disease are far greater than have traditionally been thought. We sketch a prudential and ethical argument for increasing public health resources globally and redistributing these to focus on the alleviation of parasite-stress in human populations.

  20. eHCM: Resources Reduction & Demand Increase, cover the gap by a managerial approach powered by an IT solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccioli, Matteo; Agnoletti, Vanni; Padovani, Emanuele; Perger, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The economic and financial crisis has also had an important impact on the healthcare sector. Available resources have decreased, while at the same time costs as well as demand for healthcare services are on the rise. This coalescing negative impact on availability of healthcare resources is exacerbated even further by a widespread ignorance of management accounting matters. Little knowledge about costs is a strong source of costs augmentation. Although it is broadly recognized that cost accounting has a positive impact on healthcare organizations, it is not widespread adopted. Hospitals are essential components in providing overall healthcare. Operating rooms are critical hospital units not only in patient safety terms but also in expenditure terms. Understanding OR procedures in the hospital provides important information about how health care resources are used. There have been several scientific studies on management accounting in healthcare environments and more than ever there is a need for innovation, particularly by connecting business administration research findings to modern IT tools. IT adoption constitutes one of the most important innovation fields within the healthcare sector, with beneficial effects on the decision making processes. The e-HCM (e-Healthcare Cost Management) project consists of a cost calculation model which is applicable to Business Intelligence. The cost calculation approach comprises elements from both traditional cost accounting and activity-based costing. Direct costs for all surgical procedures can be calculated through a seven step implementation process.

  1. Pawtuxet River, Warwick, Rhode Island. Local Flood Damage Reduction Study. Detailed Project Report for Water Resources Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Warwich (Belmont Park) Rhode Island. Cover Title Reads: Flood Damage Reduction IS. KEY WORDS (Ce൘.. asm towvee aide of mogoseem aid 1~110j IV MeMAw...cost of the premium paid by policy holders. The actual premium is less than the actuarial rate by the amount of the subsidy which represents one facet...coverage limits, therefore it was not necessary to calculate additional coverage premiums based on actuarial rates. The annual average subsidized

  2. A Comparative Study of Physiological Monitoring with a Wearable Opto-Electronic Patch Sensor (OEPS for Motion Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alzahrani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study in physiological monitoring between a wearable opto-electronic patch sensor (OEPS comprising a three-axis Microelectromechanical systems (MEMs accelerometer (3MA and commercial devices. The study aims to effectively capture critical physiological parameters, for instance, oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiration rate and heart rate variability, as extracted from the pulsatile waveforms captured by OEPS against motion artefacts when using the commercial probe. The protocol involved 16 healthy subjects and was designed to test the features of OEPS, with emphasis on the effective reduction of motion artefacts through the utilization of a 3MA as a movement reference. The results show significant agreement between the heart rates from the reference measurements and the recovered signals. Significance of standard deviation and error of mean yield values of 2.27 and 0.65 beats per minute, respectively; and a high correlation (0.97 between the results of the commercial sensor and OEPS. T, Wilcoxon and Bland-Altman with 95% limit of agreement tests were also applied in the comparison of heart rates extracted from these sensors, yielding a mean difference (MD: 0.08. The outcome of the present work incites the prospects of OEPS on physiological monitoring during physical activities.

  3. Effect of Smoking Abstinence and Reduction in Asthmatic Smokers Switching to Electronic Cigarettes: Evidence for Harm Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Polosa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs are marketed as safer alternatives to tobacco cigarettes and have shown to reduce their consumption. Here we report for the first time the effects of e-cigs on subjective and objective asthma parameters as well as tolerability in asthmatic smokers who quit or reduced their tobacco consumption by switching to these products. We retrospectively reviewed changes in spirometry data, airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR, asthma exacerbations and subjective asthma control in smoking asthmatics who switched to regular e-cig use. Measurements were taken prior to switching (baseline and at two consecutive visits (Follow-up/1 at 6 (±1 and Follow-up/2 at 12 (±2 months. Eighteen smoking asthmatics (10 single users, eight dual users were identified. Overall there were significant improvements in spirometry data, asthma control and AHR. These positive outcomes were noted in single and dual users. Reduction in exacerbation rates was reported, but was not significant. No severe adverse events were noted. This small retrospective study indicates that regular use of e-cigs to substitute smoking is associated with objective and subjective improvements in asthma outcomes. Considering that e-cig use is reportedly less harmful than conventional smoking and can lead to reduced cigarette consumption with subsequent improvements in asthma outcomes, this study shows that e-cigs can be a valid option for asthmatic patients who cannot quit smoking by other methods.

  4. Reduction of heavy metals in residues from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment before incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Hu, Li-Fang; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2014-05-15

    Residues disposal from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment are challenging because of the large waste volumes, degradation-resistance, low density and high heavy metal content. Incineration is advantageous for treating these residues but high heavy metal contents may exist in incinerator input and output streams. We have developed and studied a specialized heavy metal reduction process, which includes sieving and washing for treating residues before incineration. The preferable screen aperture for sieving was found to be 2.36mm (8 meshes) in this study; using this screen aperture resulted in the removal of approximately 47.2% Cu, 65.9% Zn, 26.5% Pb, 55.4% Ni and 58.8% Cd from the residues. Subsequent washing further reduces the heavy metal content in the residues larger than 2.36mm, with preferable conditions being 400rpm rotation speed, 5min washing duration and liquid-to-solid ratio of 25:1. The highest cumulative removal efficiencies of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cd after sieving and washing reached 81.1%, 61.4%, 75.8%, 97.2% and 72.7%, respectively. The combined sieving and washing process is environmentally friendly, can be used for the removal of heavy metals from the residues and has benefits in terms of heavy metal recycling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Electronic medical records in diabetes consultations: participants' gaze as an interactional resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Penny; Small, Neil; Rowley, Emma; Langdon, Mark; Ariss, Steven; Wright, John

    2008-09-01

    Two routine consultations in primary care diabetes clinics are compared using extracts from video recordings of interactions between nurses and patients. The consultations were chosen to present different styles of interaction, in which the nurse's gaze was either primarily toward the computer screen or directed more toward the patient. Using conversation analysis, the ways in which nurses shift both gaze and body orientation between the computer screen and patient to influence the style, pace, content, and structure of the consultation were investigated. By examining the effects of different levels of engagement between the electronic medical record and the embodied patient in the consultation room, we argue for the need to consider the contingent nature of the interface of technology and the person in the consultation. Policy initiatives designed to deliver what is considered best-evidenced practice are modified in the micro context of the interactions of the consultation.

  6. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminski Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  7. Catalytic activity of dual catalysts system based on nano-manganese oxide and cobalt octacyanophthalocyanine toward four-electron reduction of oxygen in alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dun; Chi, Dahe; Okajima, Takeyoshi; Ohsaka, Takeo

    2007-01-01

    The electrocatalysis of the dual functional catalysts system composed of electrolytic nano-manganese oxide (nano-MnOx) and cobalt octacyanophthalocyanine (CoPcCN) toward 4-electron reduction of oxygen (O 2 ) in alkaline media was studied. Nano-MnOx electrodeposited on the CoPcCN monolayer-modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode was clarified as the nano-rods with ca. 10-20 nm diameter by scanning electron microscopy. The peak current for O 2 reduction at the dual catalysts-modified GC electrode increases largely and the peak potential shifts by ca. 160 mV to the positive direction in cyclic voltammograms compared with those obtained at the bare GC electrode. The Koutecky-Levich plots indicate that the O 2 reduction at the dual catalysts-modified GC electrode is an apparent 4-electron process. Collection efficiencies obtained at the dual catalysts-modified GC electrode are much lower than those at the GC electrode and are almost similar to those at the Pt nano-particles modified GC electrode. The obtained results demonstrate that the dual catalysts system possesses a bifuctional catalytic activity for redox-mediating 2-electron reduction of O 2 to HO 2 - by CoPcCN as well as catalyzing the disproportionation of HO 2 - to OH - and O 2 by nano-MnOx, and enables an apparent 4-electron reduction of O 2 at a relatively low overpotential in alkaline media. In addition, it has been found that the cleaning of the dual catalysts-modified electrode by soaking in 0.1 M sulfuric acid solution enhances its catalytic activity toward the reduction of O 2

  8. One-electron reduction of mitomycin c by rat liver : role of cytochrome P-450 and NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vromans, R M; Van de Straat, R; Groeneveld, M.; Vermeulen, N P

    1. The role of cytochrome P-450 in the one-electron reduction of mitomycin c was studied in rat hepatic microsomal systems and in reconstituted systems of purified cytochrome P-450. Formation of H2O2 from redox cycling of the reduced mitomycin c in the presence of O2 and the alkylation of

  9. Resource-oriented coaching for reduction of examination-related stress in medical students: an exploratory randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötter, Thomas; Niebuhr, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The years spent in acquiring medical education is considered a stressful period in the life of many students. Students whose mental health deteriorates during this long period of study are less likely to become empathic and productive physicians. In addition to other specific stressors, academic examinations seem to further induce medical school-related stress and anxiety. Combined group and individual resource-oriented coaching early in medical education might reduce examination-related stress and anxiety and, consequently, enhance academic performance. Good quality evidence, however, remains scarce. In this study, therefore, we explored the question of whether coaching affects examination-related stress and health in medical students. We conducted a randomized controlled trial. Students who registered for the first medical academic examination in August 2014 at the University of Lübeck were recruited and randomized into three groups. The intervention groups 1 and 2 received a 1-hour psychoeducative seminar. Group 1 additionally received two 1-hour sessions of individual coaching during examination preparation. Group 3 served as a control group. We compared changes in self-rated general health (measured by a single item), anxiety and depression (measured by the hospital anxiety and depression scale), as well as medical school stress (measured by the perceived medical school stress instrument). In order to further investigate the influence of group allocation on perceived medical school stress, we conducted a linear regression analysis. We saw a significant deterioration of general health and an increase in anxiety and depression scores in medical students while preparing for an examination. We found a small, but statistically significant, effect of group allocation on the development of perceived medical school stress. However, we could not differentiate between the effects of group coaching only and group coaching in combination with two sessions of individual

  10. Protocol for a feasibility study of a self-help cognitive behavioural therapy resource for the reduction of dental anxiety in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshman, Zoe; Morgan, Annie; Porritt, Jenny; Gupta, Ekta; Baker, Sarah; Creswell, Cathy; Newton, Tim; Stevens, Katherine; Williams, Christopher; Prasad, Suneeta; Kirby, Jennifer; Rodd, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Childhood dental anxiety is very common, with 10-20 % of children and young people reporting high levels of dental anxiety. It is distressing and has a negative impact on the quality of life of young people and their parents as well as being associated with poor oral health. Affected individuals may develop a lifelong reliance on general anaesthetic or sedation for necessary dental treatment thus requiring the support of specialist dental services. Children and young people with dental anxiety therefore require additional clinical time and can be costly to treat in the long term. The reduction of dental anxiety through the use of effective psychological techniques is, therefore, of high importance. However, there is a lack of high-quality research investigating the impact of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) approaches when applied to young people's dental anxiety. The first part of the study will develop a profile of dentally anxious young people using a prospective questionnaire sent to a consecutive sample of 100 young people referred to the Paediatric Dentistry Department, Charles Clifford Dental Hospital, in Sheffield. The second part will involve interviewing a purposive sample of 15-20 dental team members on their perceptions of a CBT self-help resource for dental anxiety, their opinions on whether they might use such a resource with patients, and their willingness to recruit participants to a future randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the resource. The third part of the study will investigate the most appropriate outcome measures to include in a trial, the acceptability of the resource, and retention and completion rates of treatment with a sample of 60 dentally anxious young people using the CBT resource. This study will provide information on the profile of dentally anxious young people who could potentially be helped by a guided self-help CBT resource. It will gain the perceptions of dental care team members of guided self-help CBT for

  11. Resource-oriented coaching for reduction of examination-related stress in medical students: an exploratory randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kötter T

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Kötter,1 Frank Niebuhr2 1Institute of Social Medicine and Epidemiology, 2Institute of Family Medicine, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany Introduction: The years spent in acquiring medical education is considered a stressful period in the life of many students. Students whose mental health deteriorates during this long period of study are less likely to become empathic and productive physicians. In addition to other specific stressors, academic examinations seem to further induce medical school-related stress and anxiety. Combined group and individual resource-oriented coaching early in medical education might reduce examination-related stress and anxiety and, consequently, enhance academic performance. Good quality evidence, however, remains scarce. In this study, therefore, we explored the question of whether coaching affects examination-related stress and health in medical students.Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial. Students who registered for the first medical academic examination in August 2014 at the University of Lübeck were recruited and randomized into three groups. The intervention groups 1 and 2 received a 1-hour psychoeducative seminar. Group 1 additionally received two 1-hour sessions of individual coaching during examination preparation. Group 3 served as a control group. We compared changes in self-rated general health (measured by a single item, anxiety and depression (measured by the hospital anxiety and depression scale, as well as medical school stress (measured by the perceived medical school stress instrument. In order to further investigate the influence of group allocation on perceived medical school stress, we conducted a linear regression analysis.Results: We saw a significant deterioration of general health and an increase in anxiety and depression scores in medical students while preparing for an examination. We found a small, but statistically significant, effect of group allocation on

  12. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  13. The management of online resources and long-term saving of electronic documents by transfer into the digital space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Daniel MAREŞ

    2011-12-01

    The electronic archive refers to the electronic storage system, along with the totality of electronic-type stored documents, while using as storage support any environment that can support storing and from which an electronic document can be presented.

  14. Electron transfer study on graphene modified glassy carbon substrate via electrochemical reduction and the application for tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) electrochemiluminescence sensor fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanhong; Cao, Mengmei; Liu, Huihui; Zong, Xidan; Kong, Na; Zhang, Jizhen; Liu, Jingquan

    2015-07-01

    In this study, electron transfer behavior of the graphene nanosheets attachment on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) via direct electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) is investigated for the first time. The graphene modified electrode was achieved by simply dipping the GCE in GO suspension, followed by cyclic voltammetric scanning in the potential window from 0V to -1.5V. Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) [Ru(bpy)3(2+)] was immobilized on the graphene modified electrode and used as the redox probe to evaluate the electron transfer behavior. The electron transfer rate constant (Ks) was calculated to be 61.9±5.8s(-1), which is much faster than that of tiled graphene modified GCE (7.1±0.6s(-1)). The enhanced electron transfer property observed with the GCE modified by reductively deposited graphene is probably due to its standing configuration, which is beneficial to the electron transfer comparing with the tiled one. Because the abundant oxygen-containing groups are mainly located at the edges of GO, which should be much easier for the reduction to start from, the reduced GO should tend to stand on the electrode surface as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy analysis. In addition, due to the favored electron transfer and standing configuration, the Ru(bpy)3(2+) electrochemiluminescence sensor fabricated with standing graphene modified GCE provided much higher and more stable efficiency than that fabricated with tiled graphene. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Acetate, lactate, propionate, and isobutyrate as electron donors for iron and sulfate reduction in Arctic marine sediments, Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finke, Niko; Vandieken, Verona; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2007-01-01

    The contribution of volatile fatty acids (VFA) as e--donors for anaerobic terminal oxidation of organic carbon through iron and sulfate reduction was studied in Arctic fjord sediment. Dissolved inorganic carbon, Fe2+, VFA concentrations, and sulfate reduction were monitored in slurries from...... by alternative e--donors. The accumulation of VFA in the selenate-inhibited 0-2 cm slurry did not enhance iron reduction, indicating that iron reducers were not limited by VFA availability....

  16. The reduction of nitrate, nitrite and hydroxylamine to ammonia by enzymes from Cucurbita pepo L. in the presence of reduced benzyl viologen as electron donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, C. F.; Hageman, R. H.; Hewitt, E. J.; Hucklesby, D. P.

    1965-01-01

    1. Enzyme systems from Cucurbita pepo have been shown to catalyse the reduction of nitrite and hydroxylamine to ammonia in yields about 90–100%. 2. Reduced benzyl viologen serves as an efficient electron donor for both systems. Activity of the nitrite-reductase system is directly related to degree of dye reduction when expressed in terms of the function for oxidation–reduction potentials, but appears to decrease to negligible activity below about 9% dye reduction. 3. NADH and NADPH alone produce negligible nitrite loss, but NADPH can be linked to an endogenous diaphorase system to reduce nitrite to ammonia in the presence of catalytic amounts of benzyl viologen. 4. The NADH– or NADPH–nitrate-reductase system that is also present can accept electrons from reduced benzyl viologen, but shows relationships opposite to that for the nitrite-reductase system with regard to effect of degree of dye reduction on activity. The product of nitrate reduction may be nitrite alone, or nitrite and ammonia, or ammonia alone, according only to the degree of dye reduction. 5. The relative activities of nitrite-reductase and hydroxylamine-reductase systems show different relationships with degree of dye reduction and may become reversed in magnitude when effects of degree of dye reduction are tested over a suitable range. 6. Nitrite severely inhibits the rate of reduction of hydroxylamine without affecting the yield of ammonia as a percentage of total substrate loss, but hydroxylamine has a negligible effect on the activity of the nitrite-reductase system. 7. The apparent Km for nitrite (1 μm) is substantially less than that for hydroxylamine, for which variable values between 0·05 and 0·9mm (mean 0·51 mm) have been observed. 8. The apparent Km values for reduced benzyl viologen differ for the nitrite-reductase and hydroxylamine-reductase systems: 60 and 7·5 μm respectively. 9. It is concluded that free hydroxylamine may not be an intermediate in the reduction of nitrite

  17. Development of an Electronic Medical Record Based Alert for Risk of HIV Treatment Failure in a Low-Resource Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttkammer, Nancy; Zeliadt, Steven; Balan, Jean Gabriel; Baseman, Janet; Destiné, Rodney; Domerçant, Jean Wysler; France, Garilus; Hyppolite, Nathaelf; Pelletier, Valérie; Raphael, Nernst Atwood; Sherr, Kenneth; Yuhas, Krista; Barnhart, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk. Methods Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005–2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6–12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves. Results Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6–12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2%) met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC) measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (pART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation. Conclusions Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs. PMID:25390044

  18. Development of an electronic medical record based alert for risk of HIV treatment failure in a low-resource setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk.Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves.Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation.Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.

  19. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T.

    2001-07-01

    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two π type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO 2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied

  20. On the nature of organic and inorganic centers that bifurcate electrons, coupling exergonic and endergonic oxidation-reduction reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, John W; Beratan, David N; Schut, Gerrit J; Adams, Michael W W

    2018-04-19

    Bifurcating electrons to couple endergonic and exergonic electron-transfer reactions has been shown to have a key role in energy conserving redox enzymes. Bifurcating enzymes require a redox center that is capable of directing electron transport along two spatially separate pathways. Research into the nature of electron bifurcating sites indicates that one of the keys is the formation of a low potential oxidation state to satisfy the energetics required of the endergonic half reaction, indicating that any redox center (organic or inorganic) that can exist in multiple oxidation states with sufficiently separated redox potentials should be capable of electron bifurcation. In this Feature Article, we explore a paradigm for bifurcating electrons down independent high and low potential pathways, and describe redox cofactors that have been demonstrated or implicated in driving this unique biochemistry.

  1. Consumer reports [electronic resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1942-01-01

    ... only. A limited number of selected reports, advice on product selection and safety alerts are freely available, as are a five year listing of product recalls, a listing of major consumer product...

  2. On the Theory of Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Involving Electron Transfer. V. Comparison and Properties of Electrochemical and Chemical Rate Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, R. A.

    1962-01-01

    Using a theory of electron transfers which takes cognizance of reorganization of the medium outside the inner coordination shell and of changes of bond lengths inside it, relations between electrochemical and related chemical rate constants are deduced and compared with the experimental data. A correlation is found, without the use of arbitrary parameters. Effects of weak complexes with added electrolytes are included under specified conditions. The deductions offer a way of coordinating a variety of data in the two fields, internally as well as with each those in another. For example, the rate of oxidation or reduction of a series of related reactants by one reagent is correlated with that of another and with that of the corresponding electrochemical oxidation-reduction reaction, under certain specified conditions. These correlations may also provide a test for distinguishing an electron from an atom transfer mechanism. (auth)

  3. The electronic Rothamsted Archive (e-RA), an online resource for data from the Rothamsted long-term experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, Sarah A M; Castells-Brooke, Nathalie I D; Glendining, Margaret J; Goulding, Keith W T; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Macdonald, Andy J; Ostler, Richard J; Poulton, Paul R; Rawlings, Christopher J; Scott, Tony; Verrier, Paul J

    2018-05-15

    The electronic Rothamsted Archive, e-RA (www.era.rothamsted.ac.uk) provides a permanent managed database to both securely store and disseminate data from Rothamsted Research's long-term field experiments (since 1843) and meteorological stations (since 1853). Both historical and contemporary data are made available via this online database which provides the scientific community with access to a unique continuous record of agricultural experiments and weather measured since the mid-19 th century. Qualitative information, such as treatment and management practices, plans and soil information, accompanies the data and are made available on the e-RA website. e-RA was released externally to the wider scientific community in 2013 and this paper describes its development, content, curation and the access process for data users. Case studies illustrate the diverse applications of the data, including its original intended purposes and recent unforeseen applications. Usage monitoring demonstrates the data are of increasing interest. Future developments, including adopting FAIR data principles, are proposed as the resource is increasingly recognised as a unique archive of data relevant to sustainable agriculture, agroecology and the environment.

  4. Hydrogenated graphenes by birch reduction: influence of electron and proton sources on hydrogenation efficiency, magnetism, and electrochemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eng, A.Y.S.; Sofer, Z.; Huber, Š.; Bouša, D.; Maryško, Miroslav; Pumera, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 7 (2015), 16828-16838 ISSN 0947-6539 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : hydrogenated graphenes * birch reduction * magnetism * electrochemistry * hydrogenation efficiency Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.771, year: 2015

  5. Functionalized Cobalt Triarylcorrole Covalently Bonded with Graphene Oxide: A Selective Catalyst for the Two- or Four-Electron Reduction of Oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jijun; Ou, Zhongping; Guo, Rui; Fang, Yuanyuan; Huang, Dong; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jiaoxia; Guo, Song; McFarland, Frederick M; Kadish, Karl M

    2017-08-07

    A cobalt triphenylcorrole (CorCo) was covalently bonded to graphene oxide (GO), and the resulting product, represented as GO-CorCo, was characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, and micro-Raman spectroscopy as well as by HRTEM, TGA, XRD, XPS, and AFM. The electrocatalytic activity of GO-CorCo toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was then examined in air-saturated 0.1 M KOH and 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 solutions by cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry using a rotating disk electrode and/or a rotating ring-disk electrode. An overall 4-electron reduction of O 2 is obtained in alkaline media while under acidic conditions a 2-electron process is seen. The ORR results thus indicate that covalently bonded GO-CoCor can be used as a selective catalyst for either the 2- or 4-electron reduction of oxygen, the prevailing reaction depending upon the acidity of the solution.

  6. Principles of formation of the content of an educational electronic resource on the basis of general and didactic patterns of learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Юрьевна Заславская

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the development of technical means of teaching on the effectiveness of educational and methodical resources. Modern opportunities of information and communication technologies allow creating electronic educational resources that represent educational information that automates the learning process, provide information assistance, if necessary, collect and process statistical information on the degree of development of the content of the school material by schoolchildren, set an individual trajectory of learning, and so on. The main principle of data organization is the division of the training course into separate sections on the thematic elements and components of the learning process. General regularities include laws that encompass the entire didactic system, and in specific (particular cases, those whose actions extend to a separate component (aspect of the system. From the standpoint of the existence of three types of electronic training modules in the aggregate content of the electronic learning resource - information, control and module of practical classes - the principles of the formation of the electronic learning resource, in our opinion, should regulate all these components. Each of the certain principles is considered in the groups: scientific orientation, methodological orientation, systemic nature, accounting of interdisciplinary connections, fundamentalization, systematic and dosage sequence, rational use of study time, accessibility, minimization, operationalization of goals, unified identification diagnosis.

  7. The module of methodical support in system of electronic educational resources as the innovative element of the modern maintenance of formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Николаевна Крылова

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces some results of research, which were devoted to evaluation of tearches' mobility to introduce innovations in the contents of education. The author considers innovative potential of modules of the methodical support for system of electronic educational resources.

  8. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  9. Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e-Cigarette on smoking reduction and cessation: a prospective 6-month pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papale Gabriella

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is a tough addiction to break. Therefore, improved approaches to smoking cessation are necessary. The electronic-cigarette (e-Cigarette, a battery-powered electronic nicotine delivery device (ENDD resembling a cigarette, may help smokers to remain abstinent during their quit attempt or to reduce cigarette consumption. Efficacy and safety of these devices in long-term smoking cessation and/or smoking reduction studies have never been investigated. Methods In this prospective proof-of-concept study we monitored possible modifications in smoking habits of 40 regular smokers (unwilling to quit experimenting the 'Categoria' e-Cigarette with a focus on smoking reduction and smoking abstinence. Study participants were invited to attend a total of five study visits: at baseline, week-4, week-8, week-12 and week-24. Product use, number of cigarettes smoked, and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO levels were measured at each visit. Smoking reduction and abstinence rates were calculated. Adverse events and product preferences were also reviewed. Results Sustained 50% reduction in the number of cig/day at week-24 was shown in 13/40(32.5% participants; their median of 25 cigs/day decreasing to 6 cigs/day (p Conclusion The use of e-Cigarette substantially decreased cigarette consumption without causing significant side effects in smokers not intending to quit (http://ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01195597.

  10. A study on relation between nitroxyl radical reduction potency and X-ray irradiation on mouse lung using L-band electron spin resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taneike, Makoto; Sho, Keizen; Morita, Rikushi

    1999-01-01

    Changes in nitroxy radical reduction potency (''reduction potency''), caused by different doses and different number of fractions of X-ray irradiation were studied using a L-band electron spin resonance system on mouse lungs into which 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (hydroxy-TEMPO) was introduced through the trachea. The ''reduction potency'' lineally decreased as the irradiation dose increased from 1.0 to 5.0 Gy, but no further decrease was observed at higher doses of 7.5 and 10 Gy. The reduction potency'' dropped at 20 min after each irradiation, but it recovered to the control levels after 1 week in all 3 groups of single dose of 10 Gy, 3 fractions and 5 fractions in a similar manner. Although the levels of the ''reduction potency'' were kept high in the groups of fractionated irradiation through 1-4 weeks after irradiation, the levels dropped again in the single dose group at 1 week and the levels were kept significantly low until 4 weeks after irradiation. suggesting that the fractionation of X-ray irradiation would also be effective to prevent the deterioration of the ''reduction potency''. Pre-treatment with sufficient ascorbic acid inhibited the lowering effects of radiation on the ''reduction potency'' in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore the levels of the reduction potency'' ever elevated higher than those of controls with the large amount of ascorbic acid of 750 mg/kg or more, suggesting that the large amounts of ascorbic acid could prevent the adverse effects associated with radiation therapy for the lung malignancy. (author)

  11. Research, Development and Demonstration of Peak Load Reduction on Distribution Feeders Using Distributed Energy Resources for the City of Fort Collins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, Dennis [City of Fort Collins Utilities, CO (United States); Vosburg, Tom [City of Fort Collins Utilities, CO (United States); Brunner, Steve [Brendle Group, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Gates, Judy [Woodward, Inc., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Howard, Nathan [Spirae, Inc., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Merton, Andrew [Spirae, Inc., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Wright, Don [Spirae, Inc., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Birlingmair, Doug [Spirae, Inc., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This project titled “Research, Development and Demonstration of Peak Load Reduction on Distribution Feeders Using Distributed Energy Resources for the City of Fort Collins” evolved in response to the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) Number DE-PS26-07NT43119. Also referred to as the Fort Collins Renewable and Distributed System Integration (RDSI) Project, the effort was undertaken by a diverse group of local government, higher education and business organizations; and was driven by three overarching goals: I. Fulfill the requirements of the DOE FOA’s Area of Interest 2: Renewable and Distributed System Integration; most notably, to demonstrate the ability to reduce electric system distribution feeder peak load by 15% or more through the coordinated use of Distributed Energy Resources (DER). II. Advance the expertise, technologies and infrastructure necessary to support the long term vision of the Fort Collins Zero Energy District (FortZED) and move towards creating a zero energy district in the Fort Collins “Old Town” area. III. Further the goals of the City of Fort Collins Energy Policy, including the development of a Smart Grid-enabled distribution system in Fort Collins, expanded use of renewable energy, increased energy conservation, and peak load reduction. Through the collaborative efforts of the partner organizations, the Fort Collins RDSI project was successful in achieving all three of these goals. This report is organized into two distinct sections corresponding to the two phases of the project: • Part 1: Feeder Peak Load Reduction and the FortZED Initiative. • Part 2: Forming and Operating Utility Microgrids and Managing Load and Production Variability The original project scope addressed the Part 1 feeder peak load reduction. That work took place from 2009 through 2011 and was largely complete when the project scope was amended to include a demonstration of microgrid operations. While leveraging the

  12. Photo-driven electron transfer from the highly reducing excited state of naphthalene diimide radical anion to a CO 2 reduction catalyst within a molecular triad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jose F. [Department of Chemistry and Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research (ANSER) Center; Northwestern University; Evanston; USA; La Porte, Nathan T. [Department of Chemistry and Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research (ANSER) Center; Northwestern University; Evanston; USA; Mauck, Catherine M. [Department of Chemistry and Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research (ANSER) Center; Northwestern University; Evanston; USA; Wasielewski, Michael R. [Department of Chemistry and Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research (ANSER) Center; Northwestern University; Evanston; USA

    2017-01-01

    The naphthalene-1,4:5,8-bis(dicarboximide) radical anion (NDI-˙), which is easily produced by mild chemical or electrochemical reduction (-0.5 Vvs.SCE), can be photoexcited at wavelengths as long as 785 nm, and has an excited state (NDI-˙*) oxidation potential of -2.1 Vvs.SCE, making it a very attractive choice for artificial photosynthetic systems that require powerful photoreductants, such as CO2 reduction catalysts. However, once an electron is transferred from NDI-˙* to an acceptor directly bound to it, a combination of strong electronic coupling and favorable free energy change frequently make the back electron transfer rapid. To mitigate this effect, we have designed a molecular triad system comprising an NDI-˙ chromophoric donor, a 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA) intermediate acceptor, and a Re(dmb)(CO)3carbon dioxide reduction catalyst, where dmb is 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine, as the terminal acceptor. Photoexcitation of NDI-˙ to NDI-˙* is followed by ultrafast reduction of DPA to DPA-˙, which then rapidly reduces the metal complex. The overall time constant for the forward electron transfer to reduce the metal complex is τ = 20.8 ps, while the time constant for back-electron transfer is six orders of magnitude longer, τ = 43.4 μs. Achieving long-lived, highly reduced states of these metal complexes is a necessary condition for their use as catalysts. The extremely long lifetime of the reduced metal complex is attributed to careful tuning of the redox potentials of the chromophore and intermediate acceptor. The NDI-˙–DPA fragment presents many attractive features for incorporation into other photoinduced electron transfer assemblies directed at the long-lived photosensitization of difficult-to-reduce catalytic centers.

  13. Enhanced catalytic four-electron dioxygen (O2) and two-electron hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) reduction with a copper(II) complex possessing a pendant ligand pivalamido group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuda, Saya; Peterson, Ryan L; Ohkubo, Kei; Karlin, Kenneth D; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2013-05-01

    A copper complex, [(PV-tmpa)Cu(II)](ClO4)2 (1) [PV-tmpa = bis(pyrid-2-ylmethyl){[6-(pivalamido)pyrid-2-yl]methyl}amine], acts as a more efficient catalyst for the four-electron reduction of O2 by decamethylferrocene (Fc*) in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid (CF3COOH) in acetone as compared with the corresponding copper complex without a pivalamido group, [(tmpa)Cu(II)](ClO4)2 (2) (tmpa = tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine). The rate constant (k(obs)) of formation of decamethylferrocenium ion (Fc*(+)) in the catalytic four-electron reduction of O2 by Fc* in the presence of a large excess CF3COOH and O2 obeyed first-order kinetics. The k(obs) value was proportional to the concentration of catalyst 1 or 2, whereas the k(obs) value remained constant irrespective of the concentration of CF3COOH or O2. This indicates that electron transfer from Fc* to 1 or 2 is the rate-determining step in the catalytic cycle of the four-electron reduction of O2 by Fc* in the presence of CF3COOH. The second-order catalytic rate constant (k(cat)) for 1 is 4 times larger than the corresponding value determined for 2. With the pivalamido group in 1 compared to 2, the Cu(II)/Cu(I) potentials are -0.23 and -0.05 V vs SCE, respectively. However, during catalytic turnover, the CF3COO(-) anion present readily binds to 2 shifting the resulting complex's redox potential to -0.35 V. The pivalamido group in 1 is found to inhibit anion binding. The overall effect is to make 1 easier to reduce (relative to 2) during catalysis, accounting for the relative k(cat) values observed. 1 is also an excellent catalyst for the two-electron two-proton reduction of H2O2 to water and is also more efficient than is 2. For both complexes, reaction rates are greater than for the overall four-electron O2-reduction to water, an important asset in the design of catalysts for the latter.

  14. Impact of the electron donor on in situ microbial nitrate reduction in Opalinus Clay: results from the Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleyen, N.; Smets, S. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium); Small, J. [National Nuclear Laboratory NLL, Warrington (United Kingdom); and others

    2017-04-15

    At the Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland), an in situ experiment is being carried out to examine the fate of nitrate leaching from nitrate-containing bituminized radioactive waste, in a clay host rock for geological disposal. Such a release of nitrate may cause a geochemical perturbation of the clay, possibly affecting some of the favorable characteristics of the host rock. In this in situ experiment, combined transport and reactivity of nitrate is studied inside anoxic and water-saturated chambers in a borehole in the Opalinus Clay. Continuous circulation of the solution from the borehole to the surface equipment allows a regular sampling and online monitoring of its chemical composition. In this paper, in situ microbial nitrate reduction in the Opalinus Clay is discussed, in the presence or absence of additional electron donors relevant for the disposal concept and likely to be released from nitrate-containing bituminized radioactive waste: acetate (simulating bitumen degradation products) and H{sub 2} (originating from radiolysis and corrosion in the repository). The results of these tests indicate that - in case microorganisms would be active in the repository or the surrounding clay - microbial nitrate reduction can occur using electron donors naturally present in the clay (e.g. pyrite, dissolved organic matter). Nevertheless, non-reactive transport of nitrate in the clay is expected to be the main process. In contrast, when easily oxidizable electron donors would be available (e.g. acetate and H{sub 2}), the microbial activity will be strongly stimulated. Both in the presence of H{sub 2} and acetate, nitrite and nitrogenous gases are predominantly produced, although some ammonium can also be formed when H{sub 2} is present. The reduction of nitrate in the clay could have an impact on the redox conditions in the pore-water and might also lead to a gas-related perturbation of the host rock, depending on the electron donor used during denitrification

  15. On the Potential of Nuclear Fission Energy for Effective Reduction of Carbon Emission under the Constraint of Uranium Resources Use without Spent Fuel Reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.; Pevec, D.; Matijevic, M.

    2010-01-01

    Urgency to stop further increase of greenhouse gases emissions and reverse the trends, as stated in the Fourth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPPC) Report and in Copenhagen discussions, limits the realistic choice of energy technologies to those available now or in the near future of few decades. In the coming fifty years neither nuclear fusion nor carbon capture and storage (CCS) can be expected to give a significant contribution to world energy production. Two perspective intermittent sources such as wind and solar together with nuclear fission energy covering the base load consumption appears to be a combination with a potential to produce a large share of carbon free energy in the total world energy production. This contribution considers the issues, associated with required large scale deployment of nuclear fission energy. A serious question associated with nuclear energy is nuclear proliferation. Spread of uranium enrichment and spent fuel reprocessing installations in many new countries constructing nuclear reactors would be a major concern in present political environment. We investigate whether uranium resources would be sufficient to support nuclear build-up in next 50-60 years sufficiently large to significantly reduce carbon emission without reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. A positive answer would mean that 50-60 years can be available to develop effective international control of nuclear fuel cycle installations. Our results show that a maximum nuclear build-up which would consume currently estimated uranium resources by 2065 without reprocessing could reduce by 2065 carbon emission by 39.6% of the total reduction needed to bring the WEO 2009 Reference Scenario prediction of total GHG emissions in 2065 to the level of the WEO 450 Scenario limiting global temperature increase to 2 degrees of C. The less demanding strategy of the nuclear replacement of all non-CCS coal power plants retiring during the 2025-2065 period would reduce emission

  16. Reduction of antitumour mitosenes in non-aqueous and aqueous environment. An electron spin resonance and cyclic voltammetry study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maliepaard, M.; de Mol, N.J.; Janssen, H.L.; Goeptar, A R; te Koppele, J.M.; Vermeulen, N P; Verboom, W.; Reinhoudt, David N

    Chemical reduction of mitosenes under aerobic conditions in DMSO showed characteristic ESR signals of the mitosene derived semiquinone free radicals. However, these signals diminished strongly upon addition of water to the reaction mixture, indicating a short lifetime of the mitosene semiquinone

  17. Reduction of antitumour mitosenes in non-aqueous and aqueous environment. An electron spin resonance and cyclic voltammetry study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maliepaard, M.; de Mol, N.J.; Janssen, L.H.M.; Goeptar, A.R.; te Koppele, J.M.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.; Verboom, W.; Reinhoudt, D.N.

    1995-01-01

    Chemical reduction of mitosenes under aerobic conditions in DMSO showed characteristic ESR signals of the mitosene derived semiquinone free radicals. However, these signals diminished strongly upon addition of water to the reaction mixture, indicating a short lifetime of the mitosene semiquinone

  18. Removal efficiency and economic cost comparison of hydrated electron-mediated reductive pathways for treatment of bromate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawaz, Shah; Shah, Noor S.; Khan, Javed Ali

    2017-01-01

    Bromate, a potential carcinogen, is a well known highly persistent and environmentally recalcitrant contaminant. UV-254/sulfite-based advanced reductive pathways (ARPs) were proposed to eliminate bromate successfully from water. Experiments with N2, N2O, 2-chlorophenol, inorganic ions, and differ...

  19. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  20. Modeling Electron Competition among Nitrogen Oxides Reduction and N2O Accumulation in Hydrogenotrophic Denitrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yiwen; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogenotrophic denitrification is a novel and sustainable process for nitrogen removal, which utilizes hydrogen as electron donor and carbon dioxide as carbon source. Recent studies have shown that nitrous oxide (N2O), a highly undesirable intermediate and potent greenhouse gas, can accumulate...

  1. Super electron donor-mediated reductive transformation of nitrobenzenes: a novel strategy to synthesize azobenzenes and phenazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa-Kumada, Kanako; Abe, Erina; Ito, Shungo; Shigeno, Masanori; Kondo, Yoshinori

    2018-05-02

    The transformation of nitrobenzenes into azobenzenes by pyridine-derived super electron donor 2 is described. This method provides an efficient synthesis of azobenzenes because of not requiring the use of expensive transition-metals, toxic or flammable reagents, or harsh conditions. Moreover, when using 2-fluoronitrobenzenes as substrates, phenazines were found to be obtained. The process affords a novel synthesis of phenazines.

  2. Reduction of mitochondrial electron transport complex activity is restricted to the ischemic focus after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Using histochemical methods offering high topographical resolution for evaluation of changes in the ischemic focus and the penumbra, the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes I, II, and IV were examined in rats subjected to 2 h of proximal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery...

  3. Large Reduction of Hot Spot Temperature in Graphene Electronic Devices with Heat-Spreading Hexagonal Boron Nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, David; Poudel, Nirakar; Park, Saungeun; Akinwande, Deji; Cronin, Stephen B; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Yao, Zhen; Shi, Li

    2018-04-04

    Scanning thermal microscopy measurements reveal a significant thermal benefit of including a high thermal conductivity hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) heat-spreading layer between graphene and either a SiO 2 /Si substrate or a 100 μm thick Corning flexible Willow glass (WG) substrate. At the same power density, an 80 nm thick h-BN layer on the silicon substrate can yield a factor of 2.2 reduction of the hot spot temperature, whereas a 35 nm thick h-BN layer on the WG substrate is sufficient to obtain a factor of 4.1 reduction. The larger effect of the h-BN heat spreader on WG than on SiO 2 /Si is attributed to a smaller effective heat transfer coefficient per unit area for three-dimensional heat conduction into the thick, low-thermal conductivity WG substrate than for one-dimensional heat conduction through the thin oxide layer on silicon. Consequently, the h-BN lateral heat-spreading length is much larger on WG than on SiO 2 /Si, resulting in a larger degree of temperature reduction.

  4. Influence of the particle size reduction on magnetic properties of electron-doped Ca1-xYxMnO3

    OpenAIRE

    Alqat Aboalqasim; Gebrel Zohra; Spasojević Vojislav; Kusigerski Vladan; Bošković Snežana; Blanuša Jovan

    2012-01-01

    The electron-doped magnetic nanoparticles of Ca1-xYxMnO3 (x = 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.30) manganite with an average particle size of 50 nm are analyzed and discussed in relation to their bulk counterparts. Nanoparticle samples show dominant anti-ferromagnetic ordering with a significant increase of coercivity, with the maximum value of 0.9 T for x = 0. Particle size reduction in Ca1-xYxMnO3 retains the bulk-like magnetic behavior of samples having up to 15% of Y3+, with the sma...

  5. Identification of a multi-protein reductive dehalogenase complex in Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain CBDB1 suggests a protein-dependent respiratory electron transport chain obviating quinone involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublik, Anja; Deobald, Darja; Hartwig, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    electrophoresis (BN-PAGE), gel filtration and ultrafiltration an active dehalogenating protein complex with a molecular mass of 250–270 kDa was identified. The active subunit of reductive dehalogenase (RdhA) colocalised with a complex iron-sulfur molybdoenzyme (CISM) subunit (CbdbA195) and an iron-sulfur cluster...... of the dehalogenating complex prior to membrane solubilisation. Taken together, the identification of the respiratory dehalogenase protein complex and the absence of indications for quinone participation in the respiration suggest a quinone-independent protein-based respiratory electron transfer chain in D. mccartyi....

  6. Electron Excess Doping and Effective Schottky Barrier Reduction on the MoS2/h-BN Heterostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Min-Kyu; Moon, Byoung Hee; Ji, Hyunjin; Han, Gang Hee; Kim, Hyun; Lee, Gwanmu; Lim, Seong Chu; Suh, Dongseok; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-10-12

    Layered hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) thin film is a dielectric that surpasses carrier mobility by reducing charge scattering with silicon oxide in diverse electronics formed with graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides. However, the h-BN effect on electron doping concentration and Schottky barrier is little known. Here, we report that use of h-BN thin film as a substrate for monolayer MoS 2 can induce ∼6.5 × 10 11 cm -2 electron doping at room temperature which was determined using theoretical flat band model and interface trap density. The saturated excess electron concentration of MoS 2 on h-BN was found to be ∼5 × 10 13 cm -2 at high temperature and was significantly reduced at low temperature. Further, the inserted h-BN enables us to reduce the Coulombic charge scattering in MoS 2 /h-BN and lower the effective Schottky barrier height by a factor of 3, which gives rise to four times enhanced the field-effect carrier mobility and an emergence of metal-insulator transition at a much lower charge density of ∼1.0 × 10 12 cm -2 (T = 25 K). The reduced effective Schottky barrier height in MoS 2 /h-BN is attributed to the decreased effective work function of MoS 2 arisen from h-BN induced n-doping and the reduced effective metal work function due to dipole moments originated from fixed charges in SiO 2 .

  7. Validity of the use of the neutron reduction factor in assessing displacement damage to electronics in armoured vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, T.; Jamieson, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    To predict the degree of protection afforded to electronics by armoured vehicles exposed to neutron irradiation, the ratio of outside to inside tissue kermas has often been used as an approximation. This report examines the validity of this approximation by using the computer code VPF2 to generate neutron fields to be expected in a number of battlefield scenarios. The performance of 2 neutron dosimeters in these fields is also examined.

  8. Evaluation of three electronic report processing systems for preparing hydrologic reports of the U.S Geological Survey, Water Resources Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiltner, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    In 1987, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey undertook three pilot projects to evaluate electronic report processing systems as a means to improve the quality and timeliness of reports pertaining to water resources investigations. The three projects selected for study included the use of the following configuration of software and hardware: Ventura Publisher software on an IBM model AT personal computer, PageMaker software on a Macintosh computer, and FrameMaker software on a Sun Microsystems workstation. The following assessment criteria were to be addressed in the pilot studies: The combined use of text, tables, and graphics; analysis of time; ease of learning; compatibility with the existing minicomputer system; and technical limitations. It was considered essential that the camera-ready copy produced be in a format suitable for publication. Visual improvement alone was not a consideration. This report consolidates and summarizes the findings of the electronic report processing pilot projects. Text and table files originating on the existing minicomputer system were successfully transformed to the electronic report processing systems in American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format. Graphics prepared using a proprietary graphics software package were transferred to all the electronic report processing software through the use of Computer Graphic Metafiles. Graphics from other sources were entered into the systems by scanning paper images. Comparative analysis of time needed to process text and tables by the electronic report processing systems and by conventional methods indicated that, although more time is invested in creating the original page composition for an electronically processed report , substantial time is saved in producing subsequent reports because the format can be stored and re-used by electronic means as a template. Because of the more compact page layouts, costs of printing the reports were 15% to 25

  9. Susceptibility of murine norovirus and hepatitis A virus to electron beam irradiation in oysters and quantifying the reduction in potential infection risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Chandni; Dancho, Brooke A; Kingsley, David H; Calci, Kevin R; Meade, Gloria K; Mena, Kristina D; Pillai, Suresh D

    2013-06-01

    Consumption of raw oysters is an exposure route for human norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Therefore, efficient postharvest oyster treatment technology is needed to reduce public health risks. This study evaluated the inactivation of HAV and the NoV research surrogate, murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1), in oysters (Crassostrea virginica) by electron beam (E-beam) irradiation. The reduction of potential infection risks was quantified for E-beam irradiation technology employed on raw oysters at various virus contamination levels. The E-beam dose required to reduce the MNV and HAV titer by 90% (D(10) value) in whole oysters was 4.05 (standard deviations [SD], ±0.63) and 4.83 (SD, ±0.08) kGy, respectively. Microbial risk assessment suggests that if a typical serving of 12 raw oysters was contaminated with 10(5) PFU, a 5-kGy treatment would achieve a 12% reduction (from 4.49 out of 10 persons to 3.95 out of 10 persons) in NoV infection and a 16% reduction (from 9.21 out of 10 persons to 7.76 out of 10 persons) in HAV infections. If the serving size contained only 10(2) PFU of viruses, a 5-kGy treatment would achieve a 26% reduction (2.74 out of 10 persons to 2.03 out of 10 persons) of NoV and 91% reduction (2.1 out of 10 persons to 1.93 out of 100 persons) of HAV infection risks. This study shows that although E-beam processing cannot completely eliminate the risk of viral illness, infection risks can be reduced.

  10. Electronic resources of the rare books and valuable editions department of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University: open access for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. К. Журавльова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes tasks that electronic collections of rare books fulfill: broad access for readers to rare and valuable editions providing, preservation of ensuring of the original. On the example of the electronic collection of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University – «eScriptorium: electronic archive of rare books and manuscripts for research and education» the possibility of the full-text resources of the valuable editions using is shown. The principles of creation, structure, chronological frameworks, directions of adding the documents to the archive are represented. The perspectives of the project development are outlined as well as examples of the digital libraries of the European countries and Ukraine are provided, the actual task of preserving the originals of the rare books of the country is raised, the innovative approaches to serving users with electronic resources are considered. The evidences of cooperation of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University with the largest world digital libraries: World Digital Library and Europeana are provided.

  11. The use of quality benchmarking in assessing web resources for the dermatology virtual branch library of the National electronic Library for Health (NeLH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel Boulos, M N; Roudsari, A V; Gordon, C; Muir Gray, J A

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, the U.K. National Health Service Information for Health Strategy proposed the implementation of a National electronic Library for Health to provide clinicians, healthcare managers and planners, patients and the public with easy, round the clock access to high quality, up-to-date electronic information on health and healthcare. The Virtual Branch Libraries are among the most important components of the National electronic Library for Health. They aim at creating online knowledge based communities, each concerned with some specific clinical and other health-related topics. This study is about the envisaged Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries of the National electronic Library for Health. It aims at selecting suitable dermatology Web resources for inclusion in the forthcoming Virtual Branch Libraries after establishing preliminary quality benchmarking rules for this task. Psoriasis, being a common dermatological condition, has been chosen as a starting point. Because quality is a principal concern of the National electronic Library for Health, the study includes a review of the major quality benchmarking systems available today for assessing health-related Web sites. The methodology of developing a quality benchmarking system has been also reviewed. Aided by metasearch Web tools, candidate resources were hand-selected in light of the reviewed benchmarking systems and specific criteria set by the authors. Over 90 professional and patient-oriented Web resources on psoriasis and dermatology in general are suggested for inclusion in the forthcoming Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries. The idea of an all-in knowledge-hallmarking instrument for the National electronic Library for Health is also proposed based on the reviewed quality benchmarking systems. Skilled, methodical, organized human reviewing, selection and filtering based on well-defined quality appraisal criteria seems likely to be the key ingredient in the envisaged National electronic Library for

  12. Barriers to electronic access and delivery of educational information in resource constrained public schools: a case of Greater Tubatse Municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pholotho, T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...

  13. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendiran, P

    2006-01-01

    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  14. Increased Patient Satisfaction and a Reduction in Pre-Analytical Errors Following Implementation of an Electronic Specimen Collection Module in Outpatient Phlebotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantartjis, Michalis; Melanson, Stacy E F; Petrides, Athena K; Landman, Adam B; Bates, David W; Rosner, Bernard A; Goonan, Ellen; Bixho, Ida; Tanasijevic, Milenko J

    2017-08-01

    Patient satisfaction in outpatient phlebotomy settings typically depends on wait time and venipuncture experience, and many patients equate their experiences with their overall satisfaction with the hospital. We compared patient service times and preanalytical errors pre- and postimplementation of an integrated electronic health record (EHR)-laboratory information system (LIS) and electronic specimen collection module. We also measured patient wait time and assessed patient satisfaction using a 5-question survey. The percentage of patients waiting less than 10 minutes increased from 86% preimplementation to 93% postimplementation of the EHR-LIS (P ≤.001). The median total service time decreased significantly, from 6 minutes (IQR, 4-8 minutes), to 5 minutes (IQR, 3-6 minutes) (P = .005). The preanalytical errors decreased significantly, from 3.20 to 1.93 errors per 1000 specimens (P ≤.001). Overall patient satisfaction improved, with an increase in excellent responses for all 5 questions (P ≤.001). We found several benefits of implementing an electronic specimen collection module, including decreased wait and service times, improved patient satisfaction, and a reduction in preanalytical errors. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Functional separation of oxidation–reduction reactions and electron transport in PtRu/ND and conductive additive hybrid electrocatalysts during methanol oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yanhui [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Bian, Linyan [College of Physics and Chemistry, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan 454000 (China); Lu, Rui [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zang, Jianbing, E-mail: jbzang@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Functional separation of reactions and electron transport in PtRu/ND + AB (or CNT). • A conductive network was formed after the addition of AB or CNT. • PtRu/ND + AB (or CNT) exhibited enhanced activity and stability than PtRu/ND. - Abstract: Undoped nanodiamond (ND) supported PtRu (PtRu/ND) electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation reactions (MOR) in direct methanol fuel cells was prepared by a microwave-assisted polyol reduction method. Sp{sup 3}-bonded ND possesses high electrochemical stability but low conductivity, while sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon nanomaterials with high conductivity are prone to oxidation. Therefore, the functions of the supporting material were separated in this study. ND (sp{sup 3}), as a support, and AB or CNTs (sp{sup 2}), as a conductive additive, were combined to form the hybrid electrocatalysts PtRu/ND + AB and PtRu/ND + CNT for MOR. The morphology of the electrocatalysts was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical measurements were performed using an electrochemical workstation. The results indicated that the electrocatalytic activity of PtRu/ND for MOR was improved with the addition of AB or CNTs as a conductive additive. Moreover, adding CNTs to PtRu/ND as a conductive additive showed better electrocatalytic activities than adding AB, which can be ascribed to the better electron-transfer ability of CNTs.

  16. Electron beam non-thermal plasma hybrid system for reduction of NOx and SOx emissions from power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaroiu, Gh.; Zissulescu, E.; Sandu, M.; Roscia, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper an installation containing a negative corona discharge (DC) reactor, a pulse corona discharge reactor and a combined electron beam (EB) and microwave induced plasma reactor is presented. SO 2 is removed up to 42% through spontaneous reaction with ammonia without EB or microwave irradiation at the temperature below 70 o C. Considering the values of the removal efficiencies of 98% for SO 2 and 80% for NO x applying separate EB irradiation with a dose of 40 kGy, when the simultaneous EB and microwave irradiation is applied, the required absorbed dose is about two times smaller. The SO 2 removal efficiency of simultaneous DC or positive discharge and microwave discharge is higher than separate corona discharge, pulse and microwave discharge. Also, the applied voltage level at which the removal efficiency reaches the maximum value is less than that for the separate application of corona discharge or pulse discharge. The NO x removal efficiency of DC or pulse discharge suffers little change by additional use of the microwave energy. Based on this research and the results obtained by a pilot project built in collaboration with Electrostatica Bucharest, a project for an installation involving simultaneous SO 2 and NO x removal by irradiation with accelerated EBs and microwaves, has been proposed for Thermo-Power Plant CET-West-Bucharest of 550 MW. (author)

  17. Wide beam reconstruction for half-dose or half-time cardiac gated SPECT acquisitions: optimization of resources and reduction in radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcassa, Claudio; Campini, Riccardo; Zoccarato, Orazio; Calza, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    group B (HD), SSS (6.2 in ST and 5.3 in DT) and SRS (4.0 in ST and 3.3 in DT) were also comparable. No differences were documented between ST and DT in rest (47 and 48%, respectively) and stress (48 and 50%, respectively) LVEF. WBR trademark performance and image quality were comparable to those of conventional FBP, allowing for either HT or HD studies. The former allows for an increased patient throughput and optimization of resources. The latter modalities would allow for a significant reduction in both patients' and operators' exposure. Further studies are needed to validate the clinical use of this method. (orig.)

  18. Environmental justice and U.S. Forest Service hazardous fuels reduction: A spatial method for impact assessment of federal resource management actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D.O. Adams; Susan Charnley

    2018-01-01

    Natural resource managers of federal lands in the USA are often tasked with various forms of social and economic impact analysis. Federal agencies in the USA also have a mandate to analyze the potential environmental justice consequences of their activities. Relatively little is known about the environmental justice impacts of natural resource management in rural areas...

  19. Biogeochemical Modeling of In Situ U(VI) Reduction and Immobilization with Emulsified Vegetable Oil as the Electron Donor at a Field Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, G.; Parker, J.; Wu, W.; Schadt, C. W.; Watson, D. B.; Brooks, S. C.; Orifrc Team

    2011-12-01

    A comprehensive biogeochemical model was developed to quantitatively describe the coupled hydrologic, geochemical and microbiological processes that occurred following injection of emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) as the electron donor to immobilize U(VI) at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge site (ORIFRC) in Tennessee. The model couples the degradation of EVO, production and oxidation of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), glycerol, hydrogen and acetate, reduction of nitrate, manganese, ferrous iron, sulfate and uranium, and methanoganesis with growth of multiple microbial groups. The model describes the evolution of geochemistry and microbial populations not only in the aqueous phase as typically observed, but also in the mineral phase and therefore enables us to evaluate the applicability of rates from the literature for field scale assessment, estimate the retention and degradation rates of EVO and LCFA, and assess the influence of the coupled processes on fate and transport of U(VI). Our results suggested that syntrophic bacteria or metal reducers might catalyze LCFA oxidation in the downstream locations when sulfate was consumed, and competition between methanogens and others for electron donors and slow growth of methanogen might contribute to the sustained reducing condition. Among the large amount of hydrologic, geochemical and microbiological parameter values, the initial biomass, and the interactions (e.g., inhibition) of the microbial functional groups, and the rate and extent of Mn and Fe oxide reduction appear as the major sources of uncertainty. Our model provides a platform to conduct numerical experiments to study these interactions, and could be useful for further iterative experimental and modeling investigations into the bioreductive immobiliztion of radionuclide and metal contaminants in the subsurface.

  20. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653‐9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple‐choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty‐three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword‐based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician‐selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of

  1. The estimated reduction in the odds of loss-of-control type crashes for sport utility vehicles equipped with electronic stability control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul E; Woodrooffe, John

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the NASS General Estimates System (GES), the method of induced exposure was used to assess the effects of electronic stability control (ESC) on loss-of-control type crashes for sport utility vehicles. Sport utility vehicles were classified into crash types generally associated with loss of control and crash types most likely not associated with loss of control. Vehicles were then compared as to whether ESC technology was present or absent in the vehicles. A generalized additive model was fit to assess the effects of ESC, driver age, and driver gender on the odds of loss of control. In addition, the effects of ESC on roads that were not dry were compared to effects on roads that were dry. Overall, the estimated percentage reduction in the odds of a loss-of-control crash for sport utility vehicles equipped with ESC was 70.3%. Both genders and all age groups showed reduced odds of loss-of-control crashes, but there was no significant difference between males and females. With respect to driver age, the maximum percentage reduction of 73.6% occurred at age 27. The positive effects of ESC on roads that were not dry were significantly greater than on roads that were dry.

  2. Self-Paced Interactive Multimedia Courseware: A Learning Support Resource for Enhancing Electronic Theses and Dissertations Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essel, Harry Barton; Osei-Poku, Patrick; Tachie-Menson, Akosua; Opoku-Asare, Nana Afia

    2016-01-01

    Submission of Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETDs) by postgraduate students has become a common phenomenon in learning environments globally. The purpose of ETDs is to train postgraduate students as knowledge workers in online publishing and also extend their skills beyond word processing. The challenge however, is that many postgraduate…

  3. Web Accessibility Issues for Higher & Further Education. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, sixth in a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. In undertaking formative evaluation studies, the Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource…

  4. Analyzing the Academic Research Trends by Using University Digital Resources: A Bibliometric Study of Electronic Commerce in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Anam; Abbas, Asad; Ming, Wan; Zaheer, Ahmad Nawaz; Akhtar, Masood-ul-Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Technology plays a vital role in every field of life especially in business and education. Electronic commerce (EC) begins in the year of 1991 right after internet was introduced for commercial use. It is known to be the 12th five years' plan (2011 to 2015) of Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. The main "objective"…

  5. First results from the commissioning of the FERMI@Elettra free electron laser by means of the Photon Analysis Delivery and Reduction System (PADReS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangrando, M.; Cudin, I.; Fava, C.; Gerusina, S.; Gobessi, R.; Godnig, R.; Rumiz, L.; Svetina, C.; Parmigiani, F.; Cocco, D.

    2011-06-01

    The Italian Free Electron Laser (FEL) facility FERMI@Elettra has started to produce photon radiation at the end of 2010. The photon beam is presently delivered by the first undulator chain (FEL1) that is supposed to produce photons in the 100-20 nm wavelength range. A second undulator chain (FEL2) will be commissioned at the end of 2011, and it will produce radiation in the 20-4nm range. The Photon Analysis Delivery and Reduction System (PADReS) was designed to collect the radiation coming from both the undulator chains (FEL1 and FEL2), to characterize and control it, and to redirect it towards the following beamlines. The first parameters that are checked are the pulse-resolved intensity and beam position. For each of these parameters two dedicated monitors are installed along PADReS on each FEL line. In this way it possible to determine the intensity reduction that is realized by the gas reduction system, which is capable of cutting the intensity by up to four orders of magnitude. The energy distribution of each single pulse is characterized by an online spectrometer installed in the experimental hall. Taking advantage of a variable line-spacing grating it can direct the almost-full beam to the beamlines, while it uses a small fraction of the beam itself to determine the spectral distribution of each pulse delivered by the FEL. The first light of FERMI@Elettra, delivered to the PADReS section in late 2010, is used for the first commissioning runs and some preliminary experiments whose results are reported and discussed in detail.

  6. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-01-01

    Under third-party power intervention (TPPI), which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced ...

  7. Preparation and characterization of electronically conducting polypyrrole-montmorillonite nanocomposite and its potential application as a cathode material for oxygen reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajapakse, R.M.G.; Murakami, Kenji; Bandara, H.M.N.; Rajapakse, R.M.M.Y.; Velauthamurti, K.; Wijeratne, S.

    2010-01-01

    Simple wet chemical processes were deployed to prepare low-cost conducting nanocomposites based on natural clays with 2:1 layered structures such as sodium montmorillonite (MMT). Ce(IV) modified MMT was used for the spontaneous polymerization of pyrrole within clay interlayers. The resulted clay-conducting polypyrrole nanocomposites containing the reduced form of the oxidising agent, have been extensively characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique for interlayer spacing variations and by Fourier transform infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy to study the interactions between the clay and polymer functional groups. DC polarization technique with both blocking and non-blocking electrodes was used to distinguish between the ionic and electronic transport numbers and to recognize the type of mobile ionic species. AC impedance analysis further resolved the electrical conduction of these materials. Bulk conductivity analysis implied that the polypyrrole (PPY) formed within Ce(IV) modified MMT posses dominant electronic conductivity. The low-cost, light-weight and stable polymer-clay nanocomposite prepared by Ce(IV) intercalated MMT, [Ce(III)-PPY-MMT], seems to be a promising cathode material for oxygen reduction and hence may find applications in fuel cell industries.

  8. Real-Time Electronic Tracking of Diarrheal Episodes and Laxative Therapy Enables Verification of Clostridium difficile Clinical Testing Criteria and Reduction of Clostridium difficile Infection Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Cynthia Y; Gombar, Saurabh; Wilson, Richard; Sundararajan, Gopalakrishnan; Tekic, Natasa; Holubar, Marisa; Shepard, John; Madison, Alexandra; Tompkins, Lucy; Shah, Neil; Deresinski, Stan; Schroeder, Lee F; Banaei, Niaz

    2017-05-01

    Health care-onset health care facility-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HO-CDI) is overdiagnosed for several reasons, including the high prevalence of C. difficile colonization and the inability of hospitals to limit testing to patients with clinically significant diarrhea. We conducted a quasiexperimental study from 22 June 2015 to 30 June 2016 on consecutive inpatients with C. difficile test orders at an academic hospital. Real-time electronic patient data tracking was used by the laboratory to enforce testing criteria (defined as the presence of diarrhea [≥3 unformed stools in 24 h] and absence of laxative intake in the prior 48 h). Outcome measures included C. difficile test utilization, HO-CDI incidence, oral vancomycin utilization, and clinical complications. During the intervention, 7.1% (164) and 9.1% (211) of 2,321 C. difficile test orders were canceled due to absence of diarrhea and receipt of laxative therapy, respectively. C. difficile test utilization decreased upon implementation from an average of 208.8 tests to 143.0 tests per 10,000 patient-days ( P difficile results. Real-time electronic clinical data tracking is an effective tool for verification of C. difficile clinical testing criteria and safe reduction of inflated HO-CDI rates. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Direct electron transfer of hemoglobin immobilized in a mesocellular siliceous foams supported room temperature ionic liquid matrix and the electrocatalytic reduction of H2O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jingjing; Zhao Tian; Zhao Faqiong; Zeng Baizhao

    2008-01-01

    Room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM.PF 6 ) has been successfully immobilized on mesocellular siliceous foams (MSFs) by using a specific annealing method. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images reveal that most pores of MSFs are filled with the RTIL and the outer surfaces of MSFs are covered with the RTIL. When hemoglobin (Hb) is immobilized with the resulting hybrid material on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE), a pair of well-defined and quasi-reversible voltammetric peaks for Hb Fe(III)/Fe(II) is obtained. Its formal potential is -0.330 V (vs. saturated calomel electrode) in pH 7.0 phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The peak currents are much larger than those of Hb immobilized with MSFs or BMIM.PF 6 -MSFs mixture. This indicates that the hybrid material has stronger promotion to the direct electron transfer of Hb, which is related to the effective immobilization of BMIM.PF 6 on MSFs. The electron-transfer rate constant (k s ) is estimated to be 1.91 s -1 . The immobilized Hb retains its native conformation and shows high electrocatalysis to the reduction of H 2 O 2 . Under the optimized experimental conditions, the catalytic current is linear to the concentration of H 2 O 2 from 0.2 to 28 μM, and the detection limit is 8 x 10 -8 M (S/N = 3). The linear range is wider than those for Hb immobilized with MSFs or BMIM.PF 6 -MSFs mixture. Thus, the MSFs supported RTILs hybrid material is an ideal matrix for protein immobilization and biosensor fabrication

  10. Observed Benefits to On-site Medical Services during an Annual 5-day Electronic Dance Music Event with Harm Reduction Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Matthew Brendan; Lund, Adam; Golby, Riley; Turris, Sheila A

    2016-04-01

    With increasing attendance and media attention, large-scale electronic dance music events (EDMEs) are a subset of mass gatherings that have a unique risk profile for attendees and promoters. Shambhala Music Festival (Canada) is a multi-day event in a rural setting with a recognized history of providing harm reduction (HR) services alongside medical care. Study/Objective This manuscript describes the medical response at a multi-day electronic music festival where on-site HR interventions and dedicated medical care are delivered as parallel public health measures. This study was a descriptive case report. Medical encounters and event-related data were documented prospectively using an established event registry database. In 2014, Shambhala Music Festival had 67,120 cumulative attendees over a 7-day period, with a peak daily attendance of 15,380 people. There were 1,393 patient encounters and the patient presentation rate (PPR) was 20.8 per one thousand. The majority of these (90.9%) were for non-urgent complaints. The ambulance transfer rate (ATR) was 0.194 per one thousand and 0.93% of patient encounters were transferred by ambulance. No patients required intubation and there were no fatalities. Harm reduction services included mobile outreach teams, distribution of educational materials, pill checking facilities, a dedicated women's space, and a "Sanctuary" area that provided non-medical peer support for overwhelmed guests. More than 10,000 encounters were recorded by mobile and booth-based preventive and educational services, and 2,786 pills were checked on-site with a seven percent discard rate. Dedicated medical and HR services represent two complementary public health strategies to minimize risk at a multi-day electronic music festival. The specific extent to which HR strategies reduce the need for medical care is not well understood. Incorporation of HR practices when planning on-site medical care has the potential to inform patient management, reduce

  11. Wide beam reconstruction for half-dose or half-time cardiac gated SPECT acquisitions: optimization of resources and reduction in radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcassa, Claudio [S. Maugeri Fnd, IRCCS, Scientific Institute of Veruno, Cardiology Department (Italy); Campini, Riccardo; Zoccarato, Orazio; Calza, Paolo [S. Maugeri Fnd, IRCCS, Scientific Institute of Veruno, Nuclear Medicine Department (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    . In group B (HD), SSS (6.2 in ST and 5.3 in DT) and SRS (4.0 in ST and 3.3 in DT) were also comparable. No differences were documented between ST and DT in rest (47 and 48%, respectively) and stress (48 and 50%, respectively) LVEF. WBR trademark performance and image quality were comparable to those of conventional FBP, allowing for either HT or HD studies. The former allows for an increased patient throughput and optimization of resources. The latter modalities would allow for a significant reduction in both patients' and operators' exposure. Further studies are needed to validate the clinical use of this method. (orig.)

  12. Effectiveness of the Electronic Cigarette: An Eight-Week Flemish Study with Six-Month Follow-up on Smoking Reduction, Craving and Experienced Benefits and Complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolien Adriaens

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking reduction remains a pivotal issue in public health policy, but quit rates obtained with traditional quit-smoking therapies remain disappointingly low. Tobacco Harm Reduction (THR, aiming at less harmful ways of consuming nicotine, may provide a more effective alternative. One promising candidate for THR are electronic cigarettes (e-cigs. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of second-generation e-cigs both in terms of acute craving-reduction in the lab and in terms of smoking reduction and experienced benefits/complaints in an eight-month Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT. Design: RCT with three arms. Methods: Participants (N = 48 unwilling to quit smoking were randomized into two e-cig groups and one control group. During three lab sessions (over two months participants, who had been abstinent for four hours, vaped/smoked for five minutes, after which we monitored the effect on craving and withdrawal symptoms. eCO and saliva cotinine levels were also measured. In between lab sessions, participants in the e-cig groups could use e-cigs or smoke ad libitum, whereas the control group could only smoke. After the lab sessions, the control group also received an e-cig. The RCT included several questionnaires, which repeatedly monitored the effect of ad libitum e-cig use on the use of tobacco cigarettes and the experienced benefits/complaints up to six months after the last lab session. Results: From the first lab session on, e-cig use after four hours of abstinence resulted in a reduction in cigarette craving which was of the same magnitude as when a cigarette was smoked, while eCO was unaffected. After two months, we observed that 34% of the e-cig groups had stopped smoking tobacco cigarettes, versus 0% of the control group (difference p < 0.01. After five months, the e-cig groups demonstrated a total quit-rate of 37%, whereas the control group showed a quit rate of 38% three months after initiating e-cig use. At

  13. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna M. Campbell

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  14. TH-CD-202-02: A Preliminary Study Evaluating Beam-Hardening Artifact Reduction On CT Direct Electron-Density Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H; Dolly, S; Zhao, T; Anastasio, M; Mutic, S [Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Ritter, A; Colombo, V; Raupach, R; Huenemohr, N [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Deutschland (Germany); Mistry, N [Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Malvern, PA (United States); Yu, L [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: A prototype reconstruction algorithm that can provide direct electron density (ED) images from single energy CT scans is being currently developed by Siemens Healthcare GmbH. This feature can eliminate the need for kV specific calibration curve for radiation treatemnt planning. An added benefit is that beam-hardening artifacts are also reduced on direct-ED images due to the underlying material decomposition. This study is to quantitatively analyze the reduction of beam-hardening artifacts on direct-ED images and suggest additional clinical usages. Methods: HU and direct-ED images were reconstructed on a head phantom scanned on a Siemens Definition AS CT scanner at five tube potentials of 70kV, 80kV, 100kV, 120kV and 140kV respectively. From these images, mean, standard deviation (SD), and local NPS were calculated for regions of interest (ROI) of same locations and sizes. A complete analysis of beam-hardening artifact reduction and image quality improvement was conducted. Results: Along with the increase of tube potentials, ROI means and SDs decrease on both HU and direct-ED images. The mean value differences between HU and direct-ED images are up to 8% with absolute value of 2.9. Compared to that on HU images, the SDs are lower on direct-ED images, and the differences are up to 26%. Interestingly, the local NPS calculated from direct-ED images shows consistent values in the low spatial frequency domain for images acquired from all tube potential settings, while varied dramatically on HU images. This also confirms the beam -hardening artifact reduction on ED images. Conclusions: The low SDs on direct-ED images and relative consistent NPS values in the low spatial frequency domain indicate a reduction of beam-hardening artifacts. The direct-ED image has the potential to assist in more accurate organ contouring, and is a better fit for the desired purpose of CT simulations for radiotherapy.

  15. Success factors for implementing and sustaining a mature electronic medical record in a low-resource setting: a case study of iSanté in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRiel, E; Puttkammer, N; Hyppolite, N; Diallo, J; Wagner, S; Honoré, J G; Balan, J G; Celestin, N; Vallès, J S; Duval, N; Thimothé, G; Boncy, J; Coq, N R L; Barnhart, S

    2018-03-01

    Electronic health information systems, including electronic medical records (EMRs), have the potential to improve access to information and quality of care, among other things. Success factors and challenges for novel EMR implementations in low-resource settings have increasingly been studied, although less is known about maturing systems and sustainability. One systematic review identified seven categories of implementation success factors: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical and training. This case study applies this framework to iSanté, Haiti's national EMR in use in more than 100 sites and housing records for more than 750 000 patients. The author group, consisting of representatives of different agencies within the Haitian Ministry of Health (MSPP), funding partner the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Haiti, and implementing partner the International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH), identify successes and lessons learned according to the seven identified categories, and propose an additional cross-cutting category, sustainability. Factors important for long-term implementation success of complex information systems are balancing investments in hardware and software infrastructure upkeep, user capacity and data quality control; designing and building a system within the context of the greater eHealth ecosystem with a plan for interoperability and data exchange; establishing system governance and strong leadership to support local system ownership and planning for system financing to ensure sustainability. Lessons learned from 10 years of implementation of the iSanté EMR system are relevant to sustainability of a full range of increasingly interrelated information systems (e.g. for laboratory, supply chain, pharmacy and human resources) in the health sector in low-resource settings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene

  16. Oxygen control of nif gene expression in Klebsiella pneumoniae depends on NifL reduction at the cytoplasmic membrane by electrons derived from the reduced quinone pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Roman; Schmitz, Ruth A

    2003-04-01

    In Klebsiella pneumoniae, the flavoprotein, NifL regulates NifA mediated transcriptional activation of the N2-fixation (nif) genes in response to molecular O2 and ammonium. We investigated the influence of membrane-bound oxidoreductases on nif-regulation by biochemical analysis of purified NifL and by monitoring NifA-mediated expression of nifH'-'lacZ reporter fusions in different mutant backgrounds. NifL-bound FAD-cofactor was reduced by NADH only in the presence of a redox-mediator or inside-out vesicles derived from anaerobically grown K. pneumoniae cells, indicating that in vivo NifL is reduced by electrons derived from membrane-bound oxidoreductases of the anaerobic respiratory chain. This mechanism is further supported by three lines of evidence: First, K. pneumoniae strains carrying null mutations of fdnG or nuoCD showed significantly reduced nif-induction under derepressing conditions, indicating that NifL inhibition of NifA was not relieved in the absence of formate dehydrogenase-N or NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase. The same effect was observed in a heterologous Escherichia coli system carrying a ndh null allele (coding for NADH dehydrogenaseII). Second, studying nif-induction in K. pneumoniae revealed that during anaerobic growth in glycerol, under nitrogen-limitation, the presence of the terminal electron acceptor nitrate resulted in a significant decrease of nif-induction. The final line of evidence is that reduced quinone derivatives, dimethylnaphthoquinol and menadiol, are able to transfer electrons to the FAD-moiety of purified NifL. On the basis of these data, we postulate that under anaerobic and nitrogen-limited conditions, NifL inhibition of NifA activity is relieved by reduction of the FAD-cofactor by electrons derived from the reduced quinone pool, generated by anaerobic respiration, that favours membrane association of NifL. We further hypothesize that the quinol/quinone ratio is important for providing the signal to NifL.

  17. Preparation and characterization of Pt Sn / C-rare earth and PtRu / C-rare earth using an alcohol reduction process for ethanol electron-oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Rita Maria de Sousa

    2011-01-01

    The electro catalyst PtRu / C-rare earth and PtSn/C-rare earth (20 wt%) were prepared by alcohol reduction method using H 2 PtCl 6 .6H 2 O Ru Cl xH 2 O, SnCl 2 .2H 2 O as a source of metals 85 % Vulcan - 15 % rare earth as a support and, finally, ethylene glycol as reducing agent. The electrocatalysts were characterized physically by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Analyses by EDX showed that the atomic ratios of different electrocatalysts, prepared by alcohol reduction method are similar to the nominal starting compositions indicating that this methodology is promising for the preparation of electrocatalysts. In all the XRD patterns for the prepared electrocatalysts there is a broad peak at about 2θ = 25 o , which is associated with the carbon support and four additional diffraction peaks at approximately 2θ = 40 o , 47 o , 67 o e 82 o , which in turn are associated with the plans (111), (200), (220) e (311), respectively, of face-centered cubic structure (FCC) platinum. The results of X-ray diffraction also showed average crystallite sizes between 2.0 and 4.0 nm for PtSn e 2,0 a 3,0 para PtRu. The studies for the electrochemical oxidation of ethanol in acid medium were carried out using the technique of chronoamperometry in a solution 0,5 mol.L-1 H 2 SO 4 , + 1,0 mol.L-1 de C 2 H 5 OH. The polarization curves obtained in the fuel cell unit, powered directly by ethanol, are in agreement with the results of voltammetry and chronoamperometry noting the beneficial effect of rare earths in the preparation of electrocatalysts and attesting that the electrocatalysts PtSn/C are more effective than PtRu/C for the oxidation of ethanol.

  18. Electronic coupling induced high performance of N, S-codoped graphene supported CoS2 nanoparticles for catalytic reduction and evolution of oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bohong; Jiang, Zhongqing; Zhou, Lingshan; Deng, Binglu; Jiang, Zhong-Jie; Huang, Jianlin; Liu, Meilin

    2018-06-01

    A simple synthetic method is developed for the synthesis of CoS2/N, S-codoped graphene. The result shows the existence of a strong electronic coupling between CoS2 and N, S-codoped graphene. The pyrrolic and pyridinic type nitrogen and S in the form of C-S-C in N, S-codoped graphene are found to be the anchoring sites of the CoS2 nanoparticles. As a bifunctional catalyst, the CoS2/N, S-codoped graphene exhibits an oxygen reduction onset potential of 0.963 V vs. RHE and delivers an oxygen evolution overpotential of 393 mV at the current density of 10 mA cm-2. Its oxygen reduction and evolution catalytic activities are comparable to those of the Pt/C and the state-of-art RuO2/C, respectively. Most impressively, the CoS2/N, S-codoped graphene exhibits a potential gap of 771 mV. This value is lower than those of most bifuntional catalysts reported, clearly indicating its potential use as the bifunctional catalyst to replace the noble-metal based catalysts for practical applications. Additionally, our results also suggest a great importance to prepare a single pure phase CoS2 in improving the catalytic bifunctionality of the CoS2/N, S-codoped graphene. The primary Zn-air battery with CoS2/N, S-codoped graphene shows a higher discharge peak power density than that with Pt/C.

  19. Reduction of adhesive stain defect in flexible printed circuit board on hot pressing process: A case study of electronic component factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakulkaew Srisang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is a reduction of an adhesive stain defect in flexible printed circuit board in hot pressing process, the electronic factory. The manufacturing have been processing by sheet type of products with ninety-six pieces of flexible printed circuit boards. Causes of the problem include the before and internal hot pressing process. In process beginning times, the most right row of products between the cooling plate and the hot pressing machine has temperature 71.2◦C that is higher than glass transition temperature (Tg 60◦C. Those products’ temperature lead to evaporate a polyimide adhesive before hot pressing process beginning. The internal hot pressing process include the preheat times and the pressure time. In the preheat time the problem is a gap between lower and upper plate, was under specification (Under 1 mm and leaded to adhesive polyimide stain. In the actuality this time requires temperature and low pressure that mean a gap within 1 – 2 mm (between lower and upper plate. In pressure times the hot pressing plate surface is not flat and products are pressed by insufficient force that it lead to generate an adhesive stain on flexible printed circuit boards. That force is measured by the pre-scale paper and a result, RGB color, is provided. And then color density (From standard color sample and RGB color (From pre-scale paper is found out the relation by Photoshop program and multiple regression theory using. The formula is applied to compare with defect so as to find out the suitable color density (Defects reducing. The solving solutions is provided including the gap reduced adjustment between cooling plate and hot pressing machine before hot pressing process, the plate adjustment within specification in the preheat time and the pressing plate polishing in the pressure time. Results of study and solving are provide defect reduction from 24.4 percentage to 7.2 percentage of total study product.

  20. Evaluation of the effects of different filters and helium bag on the reduction of electron contamination in photon beam of Neptune linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahreyni Toosi, M. T.; Saberi, H.; Momen Nejad, M.

    2005-01-01

    Skin sparing is one of the most desirable characteristics of high energy photon beams. However, the photons emerging from the target of linacs are contaminated by secondary electrons as a result of their interactions with air, collimators, flattening filter and any other objects in their path. This phenomenon tends to increase the skin dose received by the patients. A practical and simple way to reduce the contribution of electron contamination is to place a sheet of medium to high Z material just after the secondary collimator. In this study, filters having different thickness and atomic number were applied and their effectiveness on the reduction of skin dose was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The filters of different thickness and atomic number were applied. The percent depth dose values were determined by the direct measurements made in a Scanditronix water phantom using a PTW 31006 Pin Point chamber having a sensitive volume of 0.015 cm 3 . A Perspex filter holder was made to be installed on the accessory slot. A plastic bag containing helium was also made using thin plastic sheet to study the effect of the helium bag when it replaces the air column between the head of the linac and the phantom. All of the measurements were carried out for the three field sizes of 10*10, 20*20 and 25*25 cm 2 . The setups were adjusted for SSD 100 cm. The ratio of the surface dose to maximum dose (Ds) was used as the criterion to determine the optimum filter. Results: The dosimetry results obtained in the water phantom indicated that a 0.4 mm thick Pb filter is the most effective one. This filter reduces the Ds for the field sizes of 10*10, 20*20 and 25*25 cm 2 by 5.7, 7.9 and 9.6%, respectively. Also the simultaneous use of the optimum filter and He bag is more effective than the filter alone. It reduces the Ds by 6.3, 10.1 and 12.3% for the field sizes of 10*10,20*20 and 25*25 cm 2 , respectively. Discussion and Conclusion: Based on the results of this work it is evident

  1. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources Elektronik Kaynakların Seçimi ve Değerlendirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined. İkinci dünya savaşından sonra görülen yayın patlaması, basılı kaynakların denetim ve erişiminde sorunlar yaşanmasına neden olmuştur. Bu da yayıncılık sektöründe yeni arayışlara yol açmıştır. 1980’li yıllardan sonra basılı yayın fiyatlarındaki hızlı artış da bu etmenlere eklenince elektronik yayıncılık sektörü gelişmeye başlamıştır. Öncelikle bilimsel ve akademik yayınlarla başlayan elektronik yayın günümüzde tüm yayın türlerini kapsamaktadır. Yayıncılıktaki bu gelişim bilgi merkezlerinin derme geliştirme ve hizmet politikalarını da önemli ölçüde değiştirmiştir. Bu çalışmada elektronik yayınların seçim, değerlendirme ve sağlama konularında genel bir girişten sonra bir devlet üniversitesinin bir de özel üniversitenin abone olduğu veritabanları ve bu veri tabanlarının kullanımının değerlendirilmesi yapılmaktadır.

  2. SAFRR tsunami scenario: Impacts on California ecosystems, species, marine natural resources, and fisheries: Chapter G in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Deborah; Wein, Anne; Wilson, Rick; Ross, Stephanie L.; Jones, Lucile

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the effects of the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario on California’s ecosystems, species, natural resources, and fisheries. We discuss mitigation and preparedness approaches that can be useful in Tsunami planning. The chapter provides an introduction to the role of ecosystems and natural resources in tsunami events (Section 1). A separate section focuses on specific impacts of the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario on California’s ecosystems and endangered species (Section 2). A section on commercial fisheries and the fishing fleet (Section 3) documents the plausible effects on California’s commercial fishery resources, fishing fleets, and communities. Sections 2 and 3 each include practical preparedness options for communities and suggestions on information needs or research.Our evaluation indicates that many low-lying coastal habitats, including beaches, marshes and sloughs, rivers and waterways connected to the sea, as well as nearshore submarine habitats will be damaged by the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario. Beach erosion and complex or high volumes of tsunami-generated debris would pose major challenges for ecological communities. Several endangered species and protected areas are at risk. Commercial fisheries and fishing fleets will be affected directly by the tsunami and indirectly by dependencies on infrastructure that is damaged. There is evidence that in some areas intact ecosystems, notably sand dunes, will act as natural defenses against the tsunami waves. However, ecosystems do not provide blanket protection against tsunami surge. The consequences of ecological and natural resource damage are estimated in the millions of dollars. These costs are driven partly by the loss of ecosystem services, as well as cumulative and follow-on impacts where, for example, increased erosion during the tsunami can in turn lead to subsequent damage and loss to coastal properties. Recovery of ecosystems, natural resources and fisheries is likely to be lengthy and expensive

  3. Electron transfer number control of the oxygen reduction reaction on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxides for the air electrodes of zinc-air batteries and organic degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Sheng-Hui; Li, Po-Chieh; Hu, Chi-Chang

    2016-01-01

    The mean electron transfer number (n) of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is controlled by nitrogen doping for the air electrodes of Zn-air batteries and electrochemical organic degradation. Melamine and pyrrole are employed as the nitrogen sources for fabricating N-doped rGO (N-rGO) by microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis (MAHS). The n value of the ORR is determined by the rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) voltammetry and is successfully controlled from 2.34 to 3.93 by preparation variables. The N-doped structures are examined by the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis. The morphology and the defect degree of N-rGOs are characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. N-rGOs with high and low n values are employed as the air electrode catalysts of zinc-air batteries and in-situ hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2) generation, respectively. The highest discharge cell voltage of 1.235 V for a Zn-air battery is obtained at 2 mA cm"−"2 meanwhile the current efficiency of H_2O_2 generation in 1-h electrolysis at 0 V (vs. RHE) reaches 43%. The electrocatalytic degradation of orange G (OG), analyzed by UV-VIS absorption spectra, reveals a high decoloration degree from the relative absorbance of 0.38 for the azo π-conjugation structure of OG. - Highlights: • The mean electron transfer number (n) is controlled by nitrogen doping. • Melamine and pyrrole are used as the nitrogen sources for fabricating N-rGO. • The n value is successfully controlled from 2.34 to 3.93 by preparation variables. • The highest discharge cell voltage of 1.235 V for a Zn-air battery. • The current efficiency of H_2O_2 generation 1-h electrolysis reaches 43%.

  4. Electron transfer number control of the oxygen reduction reaction on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxides for the air electrodes of zinc-air batteries and organic degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Sheng-Hui; Li, Po-Chieh; Hu, Chi-Chang, E-mail: cchu@che.nthu.edu.tw

    2016-11-01

    The mean electron transfer number (n) of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is controlled by nitrogen doping for the air electrodes of Zn-air batteries and electrochemical organic degradation. Melamine and pyrrole are employed as the nitrogen sources for fabricating N-doped rGO (N-rGO) by microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis (MAHS). The n value of the ORR is determined by the rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) voltammetry and is successfully controlled from 2.34 to 3.93 by preparation variables. The N-doped structures are examined by the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis. The morphology and the defect degree of N-rGOs are characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. N-rGOs with high and low n values are employed as the air electrode catalysts of zinc-air batteries and in-situ hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) generation, respectively. The highest discharge cell voltage of 1.235 V for a Zn-air battery is obtained at 2 mA cm{sup −2} meanwhile the current efficiency of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation in 1-h electrolysis at 0 V (vs. RHE) reaches 43%. The electrocatalytic degradation of orange G (OG), analyzed by UV-VIS absorption spectra, reveals a high decoloration degree from the relative absorbance of 0.38 for the azo π-conjugation structure of OG. - Highlights: • The mean electron transfer number (n) is controlled by nitrogen doping. • Melamine and pyrrole are used as the nitrogen sources for fabricating N-rGO. • The n value is successfully controlled from 2.34 to 3.93 by preparation variables. • The highest discharge cell voltage of 1.235 V for a Zn-air battery. • The current efficiency of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation 1-h electrolysis reaches 43%.

  5. Failure mode and effect analysis oriented to risk-reduction interventions in intraoperative electron radiation therapy: The specific impact of patient transportation, automation, and treatment planning availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Tarjuelo, Juan; Bouché-Babiloni, Ana; Santos-Serra, Agustín; Morillo-Macías, Virginia; Calvo, Felipe A.; Kubyshin, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Industrial companies use failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) to improve quality. Our objective was to describe an FMEA and subsequent interventions for an automated intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT) procedure with computed tomography simulation, pre-planning, and a fixed conventional linear accelerator. Material and methods: A process map, an FMEA, and a fault tree analysis are reported. The equipment considered was the radiance treatment planning system (TPS), the Elekta Precise linac, and TN-502RDM-H metal–oxide-semiconductor-field-effect transistor in vivo dosimeters. Computerized order-entry and treatment-automation were also analyzed. Results: Fifty-seven potential modes and effects were identified and classified into ‘treatment cancellation’ and ‘delivering an unintended dose’. They were graded from ‘inconvenience’ or ‘suboptimal treatment’ to ‘total cancellation’ or ‘potentially wrong’ or ‘very wrong administered dose’, although these latter effects were never experienced. Risk priority numbers (RPNs) ranged from 3 to 324 and totaled 4804. After interventions such as double checking, interlocking, automation, and structural changes the final total RPN was reduced to 1320. Conclusions: FMEA is crucial for prioritizing risk-reduction interventions. In a semi-surgical procedure like IOERT double checking has the potential to reduce risk and improve quality. Interlocks and automation should also be implemented to increase the safety of the procedure

  6. The Use of an Edible Mushroom-Derived Renewable Carbon Material as a Highly Stable Electrocatalyst towards Four-Electron Oxygen Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaozhong Guo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of highly stable and efficient electrocatalysts for sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR is exceedingly significant for the commercialization of fuel cells but remains a challenge. We here synthesize a new nitrogen-doped biocarbon composite material (N-BC@CNP-900 as a nitrogen-containing carbon-based electrocatalyst for the ORR via facile all-solid-state multi-step pyrolysis of bioprotein-enriched enoki mushroom as a starting material, and inexpensive carbon nanoparticles as the inserting matrix and conducting agent at controlled temperatures. Results show that the N-BC@CNP-900 catalyst exhibits the best ORR electrocatalytic activity with an onset potential of 0.94 V (versus reversible hydrogen electrode, RHE and high stability. Meanwhile, this catalyst significantly exhibits good selectivity of the four-electron reaction pathway in an alkaline electrolyte. It is notable that pyridinic- and graphtic-nitrogen groups that play a key role in the enhancement of the ORR activity may be the catalytically active structures for the ORR. We further propose that the pyridinic-nitrogen species can mainly stabilize the ORR activity and the graphitic-nitrogen species can largely enhance the ORR activity. Besides, the addition of carbon support also plays an important role in the pyrolysis process, promoting the ORR electrocatalytic activity.

  7. The Use of an Edible Mushroom-Derived Renewable Carbon Material as a Highly Stable Electrocatalyst towards Four-Electron Oxygen Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chaozhong; Sun, Lingtao; Liao, Wenli; Li, Zhongbin

    2015-12-23

    The development of highly stable and efficient electrocatalysts for sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is exceedingly significant for the commercialization of fuel cells but remains a challenge. We here synthesize a new nitrogen-doped biocarbon composite material (N-BC@CNP-900) as a nitrogen-containing carbon-based electrocatalyst for the ORR via facile all-solid-state multi-step pyrolysis of bioprotein-enriched enoki mushroom as a starting material, and inexpensive carbon nanoparticles as the inserting matrix and conducting agent at controlled temperatures. Results show that the N-BC@CNP-900 catalyst exhibits the best ORR electrocatalytic activity with an onset potential of 0.94 V ( versus reversible hydrogen electrode, RHE) and high stability. Meanwhile, this catalyst significantly exhibits good selectivity of the four-electron reaction pathway in an alkaline electrolyte. It is notable that pyridinic- and graphtic-nitrogen groups that play a key role in the enhancement of the ORR activity may be the catalytically active structures for the ORR. We further propose that the pyridinic-nitrogen species can mainly stabilize the ORR activity and the graphitic-nitrogen species can largely enhance the ORR activity. Besides, the addition of carbon support also plays an important role in the pyrolysis process, promoting the ORR electrocatalytic activity.

  8. Failure mode and effect analysis oriented to risk-reduction interventions in intraoperative electron radiation therapy: the specific impact of patient transportation, automation, and treatment planning availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Tarjuelo, Juan; Bouché-Babiloni, Ana; Santos-Serra, Agustín; Morillo-Macías, Virginia; Calvo, Felipe A; Kubyshin, Yuri; Ferrer-Albiach, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    Industrial companies use failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) to improve quality. Our objective was to describe an FMEA and subsequent interventions for an automated intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT) procedure with computed tomography simulation, pre-planning, and a fixed conventional linear accelerator. A process map, an FMEA, and a fault tree analysis are reported. The equipment considered was the radiance treatment planning system (TPS), the Elekta Precise linac, and TN-502RDM-H metal-oxide-semiconductor-field-effect transistor in vivo dosimeters. Computerized order-entry and treatment-automation were also analyzed. Fifty-seven potential modes and effects were identified and classified into 'treatment cancellation' and 'delivering an unintended dose'. They were graded from 'inconvenience' or 'suboptimal treatment' to 'total cancellation' or 'potentially wrong' or 'very wrong administered dose', although these latter effects were never experienced. Risk priority numbers (RPNs) ranged from 3 to 324 and totaled 4804. After interventions such as double checking, interlocking, automation, and structural changes the final total RPN was reduced to 1320. FMEA is crucial for prioritizing risk-reduction interventions. In a semi-surgical procedure like IOERT double checking has the potential to reduce risk and improve quality. Interlocks and automation should also be implemented to increase the safety of the procedure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Utility of the electronic information resource UpToDate for clinical decision-making at bedside rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, J; See, K C; Khalizah, H J; Low, S P; Lim, T K

    2012-02-01

    Clinical questions often arise at daily hospital bedside rounds. Yet, little information exists on how the search for answers may be facilitated. The aim of this prospective study was, therefore, to evaluate the overall utility, including the feasibility and usefulness of incorporating searches of UpToDate, a popular online information resource, into rounds. Doctors searched UpToDate for any unresolved clinical questions during rounds for patients in general medicine and respiratory wards, and in the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. The nature of the questions and the results of the searches were recorded. Searches were deemed feasible if they were completed during the rounds and useful if they provided a satisfactory answer. A total of 157 UpToDate searches were performed during the study period. Questions were raised by all ranks of clinicians from junior doctors to consultants. The searches were feasible and performed immediately during rounds 44% of the time. Each search took a median of three minutes (first quartile: two minutes, third quartile: five minutes). UpToDate provided a useful and satisfactory answer 75% of the time, a partial answer 17% of the time and no answer 9% of the time. It led to a change in investigations, diagnosis or management 37% of the time, confirmed what was originally known or planned 38% of the time and had no effect 25% of the time. Incorporating UpToDate searches into daily bedside rounds was feasible and useful in clinical decision-making.

  10. Reduction of adhesive stain defect in flexible printed circuit board on hot pressing process: a case study of electronic component factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakulkaew Srisang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is a reduction of an adhesive stain defect in flexible printed circuit board in hot pressing process, the electronic factory. The manufacturing have been processing by sheet type of products with ninety-six pieces of flexible printed circuit boards. Causes of the problem include the before and internal hot pressing process. In process beginning times, the most right row of products between the cooling plate and the hot pressing machine has temperature 71.2◦C that is higher than glass transition temperature (Tg 60◦C. Those products’ temperature lead to evaporate a polyimide adhesive before hot pressing process beginning. The internal hot pressing process include the preheat times and the pressure time. In the preheat time the problem is a gap between lower and upper plate, was under specification(Under 1 mm and leaded to adhesive polyimide stain. In the actuality this time requires temperature and low pressure that mean a gap within 1 – 2 mm (between lower and upper plate. In pressure times the hot pressing plate surface is not flat and products are pressed by insufficient force that it lead to generate an adhesive stain on flexible printed circuit boards. That force is measured by the pre-scale paper and a result, RGB color, is provided. And then color density (From standard color sample and RGB color (From pre-scale paper is found out the relation by Photoshop program and multiple regression theory using. The formula is applied to compare with defect so as to find out the suitable color density (Defects reducing. The solving solutions is provided including the gap reduced adjustment between cooling plate and hot pressing machine before hot pressing process, the plate adjustment within specification in the preheat time and the pressing plate polishing in the pressure time. Results of study and solving are provide defect reduction from 24.4 percentage to 7.2 percentage of total study product.

  11. Comprehensive evaluation of electronic medical record system use and user satisfaction at five low-resource setting hospitals in ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-05-25

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems are increasingly being implemented in hospitals of developing countries to improve patient care and clinical service. However, only limited evaluation studies are available concerning the level of adoption and determinant factors of success in those settings. The objective of this study was to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinants of health professional's satisfaction towards a comprehensive EMR system implemented in Ethiopia where parallel documentation using the EMR and the paper-based medical records is in practice. A quantitative, cross-sectional study design was used to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinant factors of an EMR system implemented in Ethiopia based on the DeLone and McLean model of information system success. Descriptive statistical methods were applied to analyze the data and a binary logistic regression model was used to identify determinant factors. Health professionals (N=422) from five hospitals were approached and 406 responded to the survey (96.2% response rate). Out of the respondents, 76.1% (309/406) started to use the system immediately after implementation and user training, but only 31.7% (98/309) of the professionals reported using the EMR during the study (after 3 years of implementation). Of the 12 core EMR functions, 3 were never used by most respondents, and they were also unaware of 4 of the core EMR functions. It was found that 61.4% (190/309) of the health professionals reported over all dissatisfaction with the EMR (median=4, interquartile range (IQR)=1) on a 5-level Likert scale. Physicians were more dissatisfied (median=5, IQR=1) when compared to nurses (median=4, IQR=1) and the health management information system (HMIS) staff (median=2, IQR=1). Of all the participants, 64.4% (199/309) believed that the EMR had no positive impact on the quality of care. The participants indicated an agreement with the system and information

  12. Reduction in Healthcare and Societal Resource Utilization Associated with Cladribine Tablets in Patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: Analysis of Economic Data from the CLARITY Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Shehzad; Paracha, Noman; Cook, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    and home visits during each study period. Societal resource use and productivity outcomes included mean number of hours and days of paid assistance, mean patient and carer work days missed, and self-reported productivity. Results: The mean number of hospital days per patient over 96 weeks was lower...... gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesion (n = 413); and ≥2 relapses in the previous year plus ≥1 T1 Gd+ lesion (n = 138). Cladribine tablets were administered in two (3.5 mg/kg group) or four (5.25 mg/kg group) short courses given at 4-week intervals at the start of a 48-week treatment period, followed by another...... burden. Objective: This study aimed to compare health and societal resource use and productivity in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) receiving cladribine tablets versus placebo over 96 weeks in the CLARITY study. Methods: The CLARITY study was a 96-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo...

  13. A Series of Supramolecular Complexes for Solar Energy Conversion via Water Reduction to Produce Hydrogen: An Excited State Kinetic Analysis of Ru(II,Rh(III,Ru(II Photoinitiated Electron Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamindri M. Arachchige

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mixed-metal supramolecular complexes have been designed that photochemically absorb solar light, undergo photoinitiated electron collection and reduce water to produce hydrogen fuel using low energy visible light. This manuscript describes these systems with an analysis of the photophysics of a series of six supramolecular complexes, [{(TL2Ru(dpp}2RhX2](PF65 with TL = bpy, phen or Ph2phen with X = Cl or Br. The process of light conversion to a fuel requires a system to perform a number of complicated steps including the absorption of light, the generation of charge separation on a molecular level, the reduction by one and then two electrons and the interaction with the water substrate to produce hydrogen. The manuscript explores the rate of intramolecular electron transfer, rate of quenching of the supramolecules by the DMA electron donor, rate of reduction of the complex by DMA from the 3MLCT excited state, as well as overall rate of reduction of the complex via visible light excitation. Probing a series of complexes in detail exploring the variation of rates of important reactions as a function of sub-unit modification provides insight into the role of each process in the overall efficiency of water reduction to produce hydrogen. The kinetic analysis shows that the complexes display different rates of excited state reactions that vary with TL and halide. The role of the MLCT excited state is elucidated by this kinetic study which shows that the 3MLCT state and not the 3MMCT is likely that key contributor to the photoreduction of these complexes. The kinetic analysis of the excited state dynamics and reactions of the complexes are important as this class of supramolecules behaves as photoinitiated electron collectors and photocatalysts for the reduction of water to hydrogen.

  14. Fate of free radicals generated during one-electron reductions of 4-alkyl-1,4-peroxyquinols by cytochrome P-450

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumibe, N.P.; Thompson, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Free radicals resulting from the one-electron reduction and subsequent homolytic cleavage of oxygen-oxygen bonds by heme proteins are likely to be responsible for some aspects of the toxicity of organic hydroperoxides. In the present work, effects of the 4-alkyl substituent of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-alkyl-4-hydroperoxycytohexa-2,5-dienones on radical production were investigated with microsomal cytochrome P-450 from rat liver. Quinoxy radicals from homolysis of the peroxyquinols underwent β-scission to produce a quinone and an alkyl radical, and this process occurred with increasing frequency as the stability of the alkyl radical increased. The fate of benzyl and 2-phenylethyl radicals generated from the appropriately substituted peroxyquinols was investigated also. The former was converted to benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, and toluene and the latter to 2-phenylethanol, phenylacetaldehyde, ethylbenzene, styrene, and benzaldehyde. Oxygen-18 labeling studies demonstrate that 80-85% of the benzyl alcohol incorporated oxygen from the hydroperoxide and the balance from molecular oxygen. This indicates that the predominant reaction pathway involved recombination between the benzyl radical and the iron-bound hydroxyl radical of the P-450 intermediate complex. By contrast, about 50% of 2-phenylethanol from the 2-phenylethyl radical incorporated oxygen from water and the balance from O 2 . Two alternative mechanisms are proposed to explain the formation of 2-phenylethanol that contained oxygen from water and the concurrent formation of styrene: (a) oxygen exchange of the P-450 intermediate with water, followed by hydrogen abstraction and radical recombination reactions with the P-450 complex, or (b) oxidation of the radical to the 2-phenylethyl cation followed by proton elimination and hydration

  15. Randomized Controlled Trial of Electronic Care Plan Alerts and Resource Utilization by High Frequency Emergency Department Users with Opioid Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Rathlev, MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a paucity of literature supporting the use of electronic alerts for patients with high frequency emergency department (ED use. We sought to measure changes in opioid prescribing and administration practices, total charges and other resource utilization using electronic alerts to notify providers of an opioid-use care plan for high frequency ED patients. Methods: This was a randomized, non-blinded, two-group parallel design study of patients who had 1 opioid use disorder and 2 high frequency ED use. Three affiliated hospitals with identical electronic health records participated. Patients were randomized into “Care Plan” versus “Usual Care groups”. Between the years before and after randomization, we compared as primary outcomes the following: 1 opioids (morphine mg equivalents prescribed to patients upon discharge and administered to ED and inpatients; 2 total medical charges, and the numbers of; 3 ED visits, 4 ED visits with advanced radiologic imaging (computed tomography [CT] or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] studies, and 5 inpatient admissions. Results: A total of 40 patients were enrolled. For ED and inpatients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 15.7%, while in the “Care Plan” group the proportion received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 4.5% (ratio=0.29, 95% CI [0.07-1.12]; p=0.07. For discharged patients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents prescribed in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 25.7% while in the “Care Plan” group, the proportion prescribed in the post-period compared to the pre-period was 2.9%. The “Care Plan” group showed an 89% greater proportional change over the periods compared with the “Usual Care” group (ratio=0.11, 95% CI [0.01-0.092]; p=0.04. Care plans did not change the total charges, or, the numbers

  16. Electrochemical reduction of graphited materials in LiClO{sub 4}-EC and LiClO{sub 4}-PC media: characterization of interface products by transmission electron microscopy; Reduction electrochimique de materiaux graphites en milieux LiCIO{sub 4}-EC et LiCIO{sub 4}-PC: caracterisation des produits d`interface par microscopie electronique a transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billaud, D.; Naji, A.; Ghanbaja, J. [Universite Henri Poincare Nancy, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Willmann, P. [Centre National d`Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1996-12-31

    The electrochemical intercalation of non-solvated lithium in different graphited materials has been performed in LiClO{sub 4}-ethylene carbonate (EC) medium. The irreversible capacity observed during the first output is mainly due to the formation of a passivation layer made of electrolyte reduction products. These products have been characterized for different electrode reduction potentials using transmission electron microscopy (image, diffraction) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). EC reduction on the electrode surface in presence of LiClO{sub 4} leads to the formation of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} for potentials close to 0.8 V vs Li{sup +}/Li. For lower potentials, the electrolyte reduction reaction goes on with the formation of different lithium alkyl-carbonates. In LiClO{sub 4}-propylene carbonate (PC) medium, the interface phenomena are different. The reduction of a graphite electrode is characterized by the exfoliation phenomenon which hinders lithium intercalation. On the contrary, the formation of the passivation layer by graphite reduction in LiClO{sub 4}-EC medium allows the cycling of the electrode in the LiClO{sub 4}-PC electrolyte. In this case, the irreversible capacity observed during the first output depends on the experimental conditions of formation of the passivation layer. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  17. Electrochemical reduction of graphited materials in LiClO{sub 4}-EC and LiClO{sub 4}-PC media: characterization of interface products by transmission electron microscopy; Reduction electrochimique de materiaux graphites en milieux LiCIO{sub 4}-EC et LiCIO{sub 4}-PC: caracterisation des produits d`interface par microscopie electronique a transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billaud, D; Naji, A; Ghanbaja, J [Universite Henri Poincare Nancy, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Willmann, P [Centre National d` Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1997-12-31

    The electrochemical intercalation of non-solvated lithium in different graphited materials has been performed in LiClO{sub 4}-ethylene carbonate (EC) medium. The irreversible capacity observed during the first output is mainly due to the formation of a passivation layer made of electrolyte reduction products. These products have been characterized for different electrode reduction potentials using transmission electron microscopy (image, diffraction) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). EC reduction on the electrode surface in presence of LiClO{sub 4} leads to the formation of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} for potentials close to 0.8 V vs Li{sup +}/Li. For lower potentials, the electrolyte reduction reaction goes on with the formation of different lithium alkyl-carbonates. In LiClO{sub 4}-propylene carbonate (PC) medium, the interface phenomena are different. The reduction of a graphite electrode is characterized by the exfoliation phenomenon which hinders lithium intercalation. On the contrary, the formation of the passivation layer by graphite reduction in LiClO{sub 4}-EC medium allows the cycling of the electrode in the LiClO{sub 4}-PC electrolyte. In this case, the irreversible capacity observed during the first output depends on the experimental conditions of formation of the passivation layer. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  18. There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012. Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2, 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie M. Hughes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is

  19. Global application of disorders of sex development-related electronic resources: e-learning, e-consultation and e-information sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscarella, Miriam; Kranenburg-van Koppen, Laura; Grijpink-van den Biggelaar, Kalinka; Drop, Stenvert L S

    2014-01-01

    The past 20 years have seen proliferation of electronic (e) resources that promote improved understanding of disorders of sex development (DSD): e-learning for physicians and trainees, e-consultation between clinicians, and e-information for families and affected individuals. Recent e-learning advances have emerged from the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology's online learning portal for current physicians and trainees. Developed with attention to developing clinical competencies incorporating learning theory, and presenting material that represents international best practice, this e-learning portal offers advances in training, making information more accessible for clinicians and trainees. Multiple levels of instruction, authentic case examples, collaborative forums for physicians and trainees, individualized feedback and user-friendly tools represent advances in trainee and physician learning that can take place in any location. e-consultation is an emerging tool that aims to connect physicians with specialists experienced in DSD care. Although it faces logistical challenges, e-consultation carries the potential to improve DSD care, especially in remote areas with limited access to DSD specialists. e-information for families and patients of all ages is widely accessible online, often with focus on DSD biology, medical care, and psychological and social support. e-information tools aid self-management and support of those affected by DSD. Efforts to improve these resources should aim to map information to individual users, incorporate optimally clear nomenclature, and continue as a 'shared enterprise' of clinicians, affected individuals, families and researchers. Improving the quality of DSD-related e-learning and e-information and developing e-consultation carries the potential to transform DSD care and support for patients, families and physicians worldwide. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. One-electron reduction of 1,2-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone and some of its transition metal complexes in aqueous solution and in aqueous isopropanol-acetone-mixed solvent: a steady-state and pulse radiolysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.; Bhattacharya, A.; Mandal, P.C.; Rath, M.C.; Mukherjee, T.

    2002-01-01

    One-electron reduction of 1,2-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (DHA) and its complexes with Cu(II), Ni(II) and Fe(III), by acetone ketyl radical, (CH 3 ) 2 C·OH, was carried out in aqueous solution and in aqueous isopropanol acetone mixed solvent using both steady-state gamma radiolysis and pulse radiolysis techniques. The rate constants for the reduction of DHA at different pH values by the ketyl radical are in the order of ∼10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 , whereas those for the metal complexes are comparatively less. These rate constants are, however, in conformity with the one-electron reduction potentials of the ligand in free DHA and in its metal complexes. Decay kinetics of the one-electron reduced semiquinones of the free ligand and its metal complexes suggest disproportionation of the semiquinone in the case of the free ligand and intermolecular electron transfer from the co-ordinated semiquinone radical to the metal centre in the case of the metal complexes

  1. Ranking Medical Terms to Support Expansion of Lay Language Resources for Patient Comprehension of Electronic Health Record Notes: Adapted Distant Supervision Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinying; Jagannatha, Abhyuday N; Fodeh, Samah J; Yu, Hong

    2017-10-31

    Medical terms are a major obstacle for patients to comprehend their electronic health record (EHR) notes. Clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems that link EHR terms to lay terms or definitions allow patients to easily access helpful information when reading through their EHR notes, and have shown to improve patient EHR comprehension. However, high-quality lay language resources for EHR terms are very limited in the public domain. Because expanding and curating such a resource is a costly process, it is beneficial and even necessary to identify terms important for patient EHR comprehension first. We aimed to develop an NLP system, called adapted distant supervision (ADS), to rank candidate terms mined from EHR corpora. We will give EHR terms ranked as high by ADS a higher priority for lay language annotation-that is, creating lay definitions for these terms. Adapted distant supervision uses distant supervision from consumer health vocabulary and transfer learning to adapt itself to solve the problem of ranking EHR terms in the target domain. We investigated 2 state-of-the-art transfer learning algorithms (ie, feature space augmentation and supervised distant supervision) and designed 5 types of learning features, including distributed word representations learned from large EHR data for ADS. For evaluating ADS, we asked domain experts to annotate 6038 candidate terms as important or nonimportant for EHR comprehension. We then randomly divided these data into the target-domain training data (1000 examples) and the evaluation data (5038 examples). We compared ADS with 2 strong baselines, including standard supervised learning, on the evaluation data. The ADS system using feature space augmentation achieved the best average precision, 0.850, on the evaluation set when using 1000 target-domain training examples. The ADS system using supervised distant supervision achieved the best average precision, 0.819, on the evaluation set when using only 100 target

  2. Impact of two interventions on timeliness and data quality of an electronic disease surveillance system in a resource limited setting (Peru: a prospective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quispe Jose A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A timely detection of outbreaks through surveillance is needed in order to prevent future pandemics. However, current surveillance systems may not be prepared to accomplish this goal, especially in resource limited settings. As data quality and timeliness are attributes that improve outbreak detection capacity, we assessed the effect of two interventions on such attributes in Alerta, an electronic disease surveillance system in the Peruvian Navy. Methods 40 Alerta reporting units (18 clinics and 22 ships were included in a 12-week prospective evaluation project. After a short refresher course on the notification process, units were randomly assigned to either a phone, visit or control group. Phone group sites were called three hours before the biweekly reporting deadline if they had not sent their report. Visit group sites received supervision visits on weeks 4 & 8, but no phone calls. The control group sites were not contacted by phone or visited. Timeliness and data quality were assessed by calculating the percentage of reports sent on time and percentage of errors per total number of reports, respectively. Results Timeliness improved in the phone group from 64.6% to 84% in clinics (+19.4 [95% CI, +10.3 to +28.6]; p Conclusion Regular phone reminders significantly improved timeliness of reports in clinics and ships, whereas supervision visits led to improved data quality only among clinics. Further investigations are needed to establish the cost-effectiveness and optimal use of each of these strategies.

  3. The World Commission on Dams: A fundamental step towards integrated water resources management and poverty reduction? A pilot case in the Lower Zambezi, Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scodanibbio, Lucia; Mañez, Gustavo

    The Cahora Bassa dam in the Lower Zambezi has undoubtedly brought varied economic benefits (such as hydroelectricity) to Mozambique. There is also, however, evidence of certain negative impacts that have increased the vulnerability of downstream populations. Specifically, current water management practices in the Zambezi have affected people’s livelihoods by the frequent unpredictable releases of water that wash away riverbank crops, impoverish fish stocks and fish habitat, and threaten the valuable shrimp exports. These releases have also worsened the effects of large floods, for example the floods of 2001. The ecosystem of the Zambezi delta, which is a Ramsar site, has also suffered since Cahora Bassa’s regulation. The Mozambican government is proposing to construct a new dam downstream of Cahora Bassa at Mphanda Nkuwa. In the feasibility study, there was no due consideration of rural downstream communities and their livelihoods. This has left many potentially affected people uninformed and vulnerable to the risks associated with the new development. The new dam is likely to worsen the already severe impacts of Cahora Bassa. The World Commission on Dams (WCD) developed seven strategic priorities, designed to inform all decisions related to future dam developments. These priorities follow principles of public participation, social equity, environmental sustainability, economic efficiency and accountability. The WCD proposed best-practice guidelines for both addressing existing dams and for any future ones which are planned. According to the WCD, affected communities have a right to participate in the decision to build a dam, they should be the first to benefit from the project, and the rivers on which their livelihoods are based should be protected. Stakeholder participation is one of the fundamental components of integrated water resources management (IWRM). For effective participation in dam projects, affected people need to be empowered, have access to

  4. CuRa: Cooperation on non-polluting resource exchange for cost reduction. Final report; CuRa: Cooperation fuer umweltschonenden Ressourcenaustausch zur Nutzung von Kostenreduktionspotenzialen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoen, M.; Delahaye, F.; Hiessl, H.; Kotz, C.; Kuntze, U.; Matuschweski, A.; Schuenke, P.; Zoche, P.; Hafkesbrink, J.; Rebhan, A.; Schroll, M.

    2003-02-01

    The project CuRa: (German acronym for Cooperation for Environmentally Friendly Exchange of Resources) aimed to design elements to put into practice the model of sustainable development. The focus was on the participation of industry and business on a regional level and two model regions were chosen for the analysis of case studies. It was intended to give impulses for regional material flow networks between companies, for example by bundling similar material flows to achieve a better profitability and by one-to-one cooperation between companies, one of them using the waste of the partner as raw material. In addition, the potential for reducing material throughput using modern information technology was investigated in a case study. A set of theses derived from institutional theory was verified on the basis of the empirical results. Useful for the development and the stabilization of networks are, among others, expected economic benefits for the partners, common socio-cultural values and traditions, and using existing institutional arrangements as a basis. Different forms of market and policy failures were identified as obstacles, e.g. the established system of waste disposal services, the focus among the responsible actors on compliance with existing rules, and different regulatory obstacles. Nevertheless, in spite of the insufficient number of successful examples and demonstration projects, a shift in orientation from focusing on mere waste disposal towards a closed loop recycling economy and even towards sustainable development was identified within the commercial sector. (orig.) [German] Im Projekt CuRa: (Cooperation fuer umweltschonenden Ressourcenaustausch) sollten in zwei Modellregionen Bausteine fuer die operative Umsetzung des Leitbildes nachhaltiger Entwicklung durch regionale Akteure aus Industrie und Gewerbe entwickelt werden. Es sollte ein Anstoss zu zwischen- und ueberbetrieblicher Vernetzung von Materialfluessen sowie zu einer Umgestaltung der

  5. Climate change, security risks and conflict reduction in Africa. A case study of farmer-herder conflicts over natural resources in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Burkina Faso 1960-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabot, Charlene

    2017-01-01

    Millions of people are already affected by weather-related shocks every year in West Africa and climate change is highly likely to increase these threats. In the wake of climate change, rising temperatures, increasingly irregular rainfall and more frequent natural hazards will endanger the ways of life of vulnerable population groups in this region and destabilize their human security. A surge in violence and conflicts could take place. One of the conflict constellations could be between farmers and herders. These groups are highly vulnerable to climate change due to their dependence on natural resources Millions of people are already affected by weather-related shocks every year in West Africa and climate change is highly likely to increase these threats. In the wake of climate change, rising temperatures, increasingly irregular rainfall and more frequent natural hazards will endanger the ways of life of vulnerable population groups in this region and destabilize their human security. A surge in violence and conflicts could take place. One of the conflict constellations could be between farmers and herders. These groups are highly vulnerable to climate change due to their dependence on natural resources for their subsistence. Furthermore, they are historically prone to enter into conflict over issues of access to natural resources. However, social, economic and political circumstances fundamentally influence environmental conflicts. There might thus be opportunities to face the societal challenges of climate change in a peaceful way and the political and institutional framework could play an important role in reducing conflict and violence. In order to explore such a path, this study analyses the potential of political factors (policies and institutions) for the reduction of climate-change-induced or aggravated conflicts between farmers and herders. After a theoretical demonstration, a case study of agro-pastoral conflicts in Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, and Ghana

  6. Climate change, security risks and conflict reduction in Africa. A case study of farmer-herder conflicts over natural resources in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Burkina Faso 1960-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabot, Charlene

    2017-02-01

    Millions of people are already affected by weather-related shocks every year in West Africa and climate change is highly likely to increase these threats. In the wake of climate change, rising temperatures, increasingly irregular rainfall and more frequent natural hazards will endanger the ways of life of vulnerable population groups in this region and destabilize their human security. A surge in violence and conflicts could take place. One of the conflict constellations could be between farmers and herders. These groups are highly vulnerable to climate change due to their dependence on natural resources Millions of people are already affected by weather-related shocks every year in West Africa and climate change is highly likely to increase these threats. In the wake of climate change, rising temperatures, increasingly irregular rainfall and more frequent natural hazards will endanger the ways of life of vulnerable population groups in this region and destabilize their human security. A surge in violence and conflicts could take place. One of the conflict constellations could be between farmers and herders. These groups are highly vulnerable to climate change due to their dependence on natural resources for their subsistence. Furthermore, they are historically prone to enter into conflict over issues of access to natural resources. However, social, economic and political circumstances fundamentally influence environmental conflicts. There might thus be opportunities to face the societal challenges of climate change in a peaceful way and the political and institutional framework could play an important role in reducing conflict and violence. In order to explore such a path, this study analyses the potential of political factors (policies and institutions) for the reduction of climate-change-induced or aggravated conflicts between farmers and herders. After a theoretical demonstration, a case study of agro-pastoral conflicts in Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, and

  7. One-electron reduction of 9,10-anthraquinone, 1-amino-9,10-anthraquinone and 1-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone in aqueous-isopropanol-acetone mixed solvent: a pulse radiolysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, H.; Mukherjee, T.; Mittal, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    The semiquinone radicals produced by one-electron reduction of 9,10-anthraquinone, 1-amino- 9,10-anthraquinone and 1-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone have been characterized in aqueous-organic mixed solvent comprising of 30.2 mol dm -3 water, 5 mol dm -3 isopropanol and 1 mol dm -3 acetone, using the pulse radiolysis technique. Spectroscopic characteristics, the kinetic parameters of formation and decay and one acid dissociation constants of the semiquinones and one-electron reduction potentials of the quinones have been estimated. The characteristics of the present semiquinone systems have been compared with those of other similar systems. The observed differences in characteristics of the semiquinones due to different substitutions have been analysed. (Author)

  8. One electron reduction of 1,2 dihydroxy 9,10 anthraquinone and its transition metal complexes in aqueous-isopropanol-acetone mixed solvent: a steady state-state and pulse radiolysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Saurabh; Mandal, Parikshit C.; Rath, Madhab C.; Mukherjee, Tulsi

    1998-01-01

    One electron reduction of 1,2 dihydroxy 9,10 anthraquinone and its Cu(II) and Ni(II) and Fe(III) complexes have been studied in aqueous-isopropanol-acetone solvent. Results indicate that the reducing ketyl radical generated reacts with the ligand forming semiquinones which undergoes a disproportionation reaction. Formation and decay rates of semiquinones was calculated using pulse radiolysis. (author)

  9. Research report for fiscal 1998. Research about feasibility of CO{sub 2} reduction program construction for Pan-Japan sea resources; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kannihonkai shigen CO{sub 2} sakugen program kochiku kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The research aims to construct a recyclable resources distribution network in coordination with other Japan Sea countries so as to establish measures for the effective utilization of resources originating in Japan. The research covers the needs in China and in Russia's Far East provinces for used electrical home appliances and the supply capability of Japan's four prefectures on Japan Sea including Akita Prefecture. Demand in the countries on the other side of the sea for three major categories of electrical home appliances (color television sets, washing machines, and refrigerators) for 2010 and 2025 is predicted. Part of the predicted demand is specified to be for used items, and a scenario is built based on the reuse substitution rate. On the other hand, in view of the life time of such commodities and the rate of reusables in the amount of waste generated, a conclusion is reached that probabilities are that all such appliances from the four Japanese prefectures will be put to reuse. When the reuse rate is estimated at 10% for goods under the three major categories from the four prefectures, approximately 20,000 articles out of each of the three categories will be put to reuse, and this will lead to a reduction of CO2 emissions of 7700 tons a year. (NEDO)

  10. Research report for fiscal 1998. Research about feasibility of CO{sub 2} reduction program construction for Pan-Japan sea resources; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kannihonkai shigen CO{sub 2} sakugen program kochiku kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The research aims to construct a recyclable resources distribution network in coordination with other Japan Sea countries so as to establish measures for the effective utilization of resources originating in Japan. The research covers the needs in China and in Russia's Far East provinces for used electrical home appliances and the supply capability of Japan's four prefectures on Japan Sea including Akita Prefecture. Demand in the countries on the other side of the sea for three major categories of electrical home appliances (color television sets, washing machines, and refrigerators) for 2010 and 2025 is predicted. Part of the predicted demand is specified to be for used items, and a scenario is built based on the reuse substitution rate. On the other hand, in view of the life time of such commodities and the rate of reusables in the amount of waste generated, a conclusion is reached that probabilities are that all such appliances from the four Japanese prefectures will be put to reuse. When the reuse rate is estimated at 10% for goods under the three major categories from the four prefectures, approximately 20,000 articles out of each of the three categories will be put to reuse, and this will lead to a reduction of CO2 emissions of 7700 tons a year. (NEDO)

  11. Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Online Resources. Journal of Genetics. Online Resources. Volume 97. 2018 | Online resources. Volume 96. 2017 | Online resources. Volume 95. 2016 | Online resources. Volume 94. 2015 | Online resources. Volume 93. 2014 | Online resources. Volume 92. 2013 | Online resources ...

  12. Interactive Electronic Decision Trees for the Integrated Primary Care Management of Febrile Children in Low Resource Settings - Review of existing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Kristina; D'Acremont, Valérie

    2018-04-20

    The lack of effective, integrated diagnostic tools pose a major challenge to the primary care management of febrile childhood illnesses. These limitations are especially evident in low-resource settings and are often inappropriately compensated by antimicrobial over-prescription. Interactive electronic decision trees (IEDTs) have the potential to close these gaps: guiding antibiotic use and better identifying serious disease. This narrative review summarizes existing IEDTs, to provide an overview of their degree of validation, as well as to identify gaps in current knowledge and prospects for future innovation. Structured literature review in PubMed and Embase complemented by google search and contact with developers. Six integrated IEDTs were identified: three (eIMCI, REC, and Bangladesh digital IMCI) based on Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI); four (SL eCCM, MEDSINC, e-iCCM, and D-Tree eCCM) on Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM); two (ALMANACH, MSFeCARE) with a modified IMCI content; and one (ePOCT) that integrates novel content with biomarker testing. The types of publications and evaluation studies varied greatly: the content and evidence-base was published for two (ALMANACH and ePOCT), ALMANACH and ePOCT were validated in efficacy studies. Other types of evaluations, such as compliance, acceptability were available for D-Tree eCCM, eIMCI, ALMANACH. Several evaluations are still ongoing. Future prospects include conducting effectiveness and impact studies using data gathered through larger studies to adapt the medical content to local epidemiology, improving the software and sensors, and Assessing factors that influence compliance and scale-up. IEDTs are valuable tools that have the potential to improve management of febrile children in primary care and increase the rational use of diagnostics and antimicrobials. Next steps in the evidence pathway should be larger effectiveness and impact studies (including cost analysis) and

  13. Library resources on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Nancy L.

    1995-07-01

    Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

  14. Potential for waste reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The author focuses on wastes considered hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This chapter discusses wastes that are of interest as well as the factors affecting the quantity of waste considered available for waste reduction. Estimates are provided of the quantities of wastes generated. Estimates of the potential for waste reduction are meaningful only to the extent that one can understand the amount of waste actually being generated. Estimates of waste reduction potential are summarized from a variety of government and nongovernment sources

  15. Reductions in biomarkers of exposure (BoE) to harmful or potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) following partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with electronic cigarettes in adult smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connell, Grant; Graff, Donald W.; D’Ruiz, Carl D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Changes in fifteen urine, blood and exhaled breath BoEs of HPHCs representing classes of compounds reported by FDA to be significant contributors to smoking-associated disease risks were measured in 105 clinical-confined subjects following randomization and a five-day forced-switch from usual brand conventional combustible cigarettes to: (i) exclusive commercial e-cigarette use; (ii) dual-use of commercial e-cigarettes and the subject’s usual cigarette brand; or (iii) discontinued use of all tobacco or nicotine products. Levels of urinary biomarkers in subjects that completely substituted their usual cigarette with e-cigarettes were significantly lower (29–95%) after 5 days. Percent reductions in eight of nine urinary BoEs were indistinguishable to smokers who had quit smoking, except for nicotine equivalents, which declined by 25–40%. Dual users who halved self-reported daily cigarette consumption with e-cigarettes exhibited reductions (7–38%) in eight of nine urinary biomarkers, but had increase (1–20%) in nicotine equivalents. Reductions were broadly proportional to the reduced numbers of cigarettes smoked. Dual user urinary nicotine equivalents were slightly higher, but not statistically significant. After 5 days, blood nicotine biomarker levels were lower in the cessation (75–96%) and exclusive use groups (11–83%); with dual users experiencing no significant reductions. All subjects experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO. Decreases in the cessation and exclusive groups ranged from 88–89% and 27–32% in dual users. Exhaled NO increased in the cessation and exclusive groups (46–63% respectively), whereas the dual users experienced minimal changes. Overall, smokers who completely or partially substituted conventional cigarettes with e-cigarettes over five days, experienced reductions in HPHCs. PMID:27401591

  16. Reductions in biomarkers of exposure (BoE) to harmful or potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) following partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with electronic cigarettes in adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Grant; Graff, Donald W; D'Ruiz, Carl D

    2016-07-01

    Changes in fifteen urine, blood and exhaled breath BoEs of HPHCs representing classes of compounds reported by FDA to be significant contributors to smoking-associated disease risks were measured in 105 clinical-confined subjects following randomization and a five-day forced-switch from usual brand conventional combustible cigarettes to: (i) exclusive commercial e-cigarette use; (ii) dual-use of commercial e-cigarettes and the subject's usual cigarette brand; or (iii) discontinued use of all tobacco or nicotine products. Levels of urinary biomarkers in subjects that completely substituted their usual cigarette with e-cigarettes were significantly lower (29-95%) after 5 days. Percent reductions in eight of nine urinary BoEs were indistinguishable to smokers who had quit smoking, except for nicotine equivalents, which declined by 25-40%. Dual users who halved self-reported daily cigarette consumption with e-cigarettes exhibited reductions (7-38%) in eight of nine urinary biomarkers, but had increase (1-20%) in nicotine equivalents. Reductions were broadly proportional to the reduced numbers of cigarettes smoked. Dual user urinary nicotine equivalents were slightly higher, but not statistically significant. After 5 days, blood nicotine biomarker levels were lower in the cessation (75-96%) and exclusive use groups (11-83%); with dual users experiencing no significant reductions. All subjects experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO. Decreases in the cessation and exclusive groups ranged from 88-89% and 27-32% in dual users. Exhaled NO increased in the cessation and exclusive groups (46-63% respectively), whereas the dual users experienced minimal changes. Overall, smokers who completely or partially substituted conventional cigarettes with e-cigarettes over five days, experienced reductions in HPHCs.

  17. Effects of gamma ray and electron beam irradiation on reduction of microbial load and antioxidant properties of Chum-Hed-Thet (Cassia alata (L.) Roxb.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakhongsil, P.; Pewlong, W.; Sajjabut, S.; Chookaew, S.

    2017-06-01

    Considering the growing demands of herbal medicines, Cassia alata (L.) Roxb. has been reported to have various phytochemical activities. It has also been called in Thai as Chum-Hed-Thet. In this study, C. alata (L.) Roxb. powder were exposed to gamma and electron beam irradiation at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. At the dose of 10 kGy, both of gamma and electron beam irradiation were sufficient in reducing microbial load of irradiated samples as specified in Thai pharmacopoeia (2005). These include the total aerobic microbial count of bacteria of 0.05). Therefore, both of radiation by gamma ray or electron beam at 10 kGy was sufficient in elimination of microbial flora and did not significantly affected the total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of C. alata (L.) Roxb.

  18. Reduction of reversed micelle entrapped cytochrome c and cytochrome c3 by electrons generated by pulse radiolysis or by pyrene photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlsser, A.J.W.G.; Fendler, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    Horse heart cytochrome c and cytochrome c 3 , isolated from Desulfovibrio vulgaris, have been incorporated in sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) entrapped water pools in heptane. The absorption spectra of the cytochromes have been found to be strongly dependent on the water to AOT concentration ratios. The proteins solubilized in heptane by the AOT reversed micelles have retained their ability to mediate electron transfer. They reacted very rapidly with hydrated electrons, generated pulse radiolytically or, alternatively, formed in the laser photoionization of pyrene

  19. Reduction redux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Lawrence

    2018-04-01

    Putnam's criticisms of the identity theory attack a straw man. Fodor's criticisms of reduction attack a straw man. Properly interpreted, Nagel offered a conception of reduction that captures everything a physicalist could want. I update Nagel, introducing the idea of overlap, and show why multiple realization poses no challenge to reduction so construed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Herpes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.org/complications/sexually- ...

  1. Density functional study of electronic, magnetic and hyperfine properties of [M(CN)5 NO]2- (M=Fe, Ru) and reduction products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, J.A.; Guenzburger, Diana

    1999-06-01

    The Discrete Variational method (DVM) in density functional theory was employed to investigate the electronic structure of the complexes [Fe(CN) 5 NO] 2- (Nitroprusside), [Fe(CN) 5 NO] 3- , [Fe(CN) 4 NO] 2- , [Ru(CN) 5 NO] 2- and [Ru(CN) 5 NO] 3- . Total energy calculations revealed that in pentacyano nitrosyl ferrate (I) and pentacyano nitrosyl ruthenate (I), which are paramagnetic ions containing one unpaired electron, the M-N-O angle is bent, having values of 152.5 deg and 144 deg, respectively. From self-consistent spin-polarized calculations, the distribution of unpaired electron in the paramagnetic complexes [Fe(CN) 5 NO] 3, [Fe(CN) 4 NO] 2- and [Ru(CN) 5 NO] 3- was obtained as well as spin-density maps. A long-standing controversy regarding the configuration of [Fe(CN) 5 NO] 3- was elucidated, and it was found that the unpaired electron in this complex is in an orbital primarily localized on π * (NO). Moessbauer quadrupole splittings on Fe and Ru were derived from calculations of the electric-field gradients. Magnetic hyperfine coupling constants on No of the NO ligand were also obtained for the paramagnetic complexes. (author)

  2. Comparison of Surface Passivation Films for Reduction of Current Collapse in AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fitch, R

    2002-01-01

    Three different passivation layers (SiN(x), MgO, and Sc2O3) were examined for their effectiveness in mitigating surface-state-induced current collapse in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs...

  3. Nicotine delivery, tolerability and reduction of smoking urge in smokers following short-term use of one brand of electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ruiz, Carl D; Graff, Donald W; Yan, X Sherwin

    2015-09-30

    This randomized, partially single-blinded, 6-period crossover clinical study of adult smokers compared the nicotine pharmacokinetics, impacts on smoking urge and tolerability of various formulations of one brand of e-cigarettes with that of a tobacco cigarette. Five e-cigarettes with different e-liquid formulations containing 1.6 % and 2.4 % nicotine and a conventional tobacco cigarette were randomized among 24 subjects under two exposure sessions consisting of a 30-min controlled and a one-hour ad lib use period to assess plasma nicotine levels, impacts on smoking urge and adverse events. The 30-min controlled use session comprised an intensive use of the e-cigarettes with a total of 50 puffs taken every 30 s for comparison to a single conventional cigarette having a typical machine-measured nicotine yield (~0.8 mg). Ad lib product use conditions provided insight into more naturalistic product use behaviors and their accompanying smoking urge reductions. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed by the Principal Investigator. Significant (p e-cigarette use and significant (p E-cigarette and cigarette nicotine plasma levels were comparable for up to one hour of use. After both sessions (90 min), nicotine exposure was the highest for the cigarette, with all e-cigarettes showing 23 % to 53 % lower plasma concentrations. During controlled use, peak reduction in smoking urge for e-cigs occurred later than for the cigarette. After completion of both sessions, significant smoking urge reduction persisted for most of the tested e-cigarettes, albeit at levels lower than that provided by the tobacco cigarette. Nicotine content, vehicle differences, and the presence of menthol did not significantly affect smoking urge reduction by the e-cigarettes. No subjects were discontinued due to AEs. The most frequently reported AEs events included cough, throat irritation, headache, and dizziness. Blood plasma nicotine levels obtained from short-term use of e-cigarettes containing 1

  4. The Use of Quality Benchmarking in Assessing Web Resources for the Dermatology Virtual Branch Library of the National electronic Library for Health (NeLH)

    OpenAIRE

    Boulos, MN Kamel; Roudsari, AV; Gordon, C; Gray, JA Muir

    2001-01-01

    Background In 1998, the U.K. National Health Service Information for Health Strategy proposed the implementation of a National electronic Library for Health to provide clinicians, healthcare managers and planners, patients and the public with easy, round the clock access to high quality, up-to-date electronic information on health and healthcare. The Virtual Branch Libraries are among the most important components of the National electronic Library for Health . They aim at creating online kno...

  5. Metallothermic reduction of molybdate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, T.K.; Bose, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper gives a brief account of the investigations conducted so far on metallothermic reduction of high grade molybdenite with particular emphasis on the work carried out in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. Based on thermochemical considerations, the paper first introduces a number of metallic reductants suitable for use in metallothermic reduction of molybdenite. Aluminium, sodium and tin are found to be suitable reducing agents and very rightly they have found most applications in the research and development efforts on metallothermic reduction of molybdenite. The reduction with tin was conducted on fairly large scale both in vacuum and hydrogen atmosphere. The reaction was reported to be invariant depending mainly on the reduction temperature and a temperature of the order of 1250deg to 1300degC was required for good metal recovery. In comparison to tin, aluminothermic reduction of molybdenite was studied more extensively and it was conducted in closed bomb, vacuum and also in open atmosphere. In aluminothermic reduction, the influence of amount of reducing agent, amount of heat booster, preheating temperature and charging procedure on these metal yield was studied in detail. The reduction generally yielded massive molybdenum metal contaminated with aluminium as the major impurity element. Efforts were made to purify the reduced metal by arc melting, electron beam melting and molten salt electrorefining. 9 refs. (author)

  6. Charge recombination reduction in dye-sensitized solar cells by means of an electron beam-deposited TiO2 buffer layer between conductive glass and photoelectrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manca, Michele; Malara, Francesco; Martiradonna, Luigi; De Marco, Luisa; Giannuzzi, Roberto; Cingolani, Roberto; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    A thin anatase titanium dioxide compact film was deposited by electron beam evaporation as buffer layer between the conductive transparent electrode and the porous TiO 2 -based photoelectrode in dye-sensitized solar cells. The effect of such a buffer layer on the back transfer reaction of electrons to tri-iodide ions in liquid electrolyte-based cells has been studied by means of both electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open circuit photovoltage decay analysis. The influence of the thickness has been also investigated and an increment in overall quantum conversion efficiency η as high as + 31% with respect to the standard cell - fabricated onto an uncoated conductive glass - has been revealed in the case of a 120 nm thick buffer layer.

  7. Communication: practical and rigorous reduction of the many-electron quantum mechanical Coulomb problem to O(N(2/3)) storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Mark R

    2015-04-14

    It is tacitly accepted that, for practical basis sets consisting of N functions, solution of the two-electron Coulomb problem in quantum mechanics requires storage of O(N(4)) integrals in the small N limit. For localized functions, in the large N limit, or for planewaves, due to closure, the storage can be reduced to O(N(2)) integrals. Here, it is shown that the storage can be further reduced to O(N(2/3)) for separable basis functions. A practical algorithm, that uses standard one-dimensional Gaussian-quadrature sums, is demonstrated. The resulting algorithm allows for the simultaneous storage, or fast reconstruction, of any two-electron Coulomb integral required for a many-electron calculation on processors with limited memory and disk space. For example, for calculations involving a basis of 9171 planewaves, the memory required to effectively store all Coulomb integrals decreases from 2.8 Gbytes to less than 2.4 Mbytes.

  8. Are Electronic Cigarettes an Effective Aid to Smoking Cessation or Reduction Among Vulnerable Groups? A Systematic Review of Quantitative and Qualitative Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Sarah; Forouhi, Nita; Notley, Caitlin

    2018-03-28

    Smoking prevalence remains high in some vulnerable groups, including those who misuse substances, have a mental illness, are homeless or are involved with the criminal justice system. E-cigarette use is increasing and may support smoking cessation/reduction. Systematic review of quantitative and qualitative data on the effectiveness of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation/reduction among vulnerable groups. Databases searched were MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, ASSIA, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses and Open Grey. Narrative synthesis of quantitative data and thematic synthesis of qualitative data. 2628 records and 46 full texts were screened; 9 studies were identified for inclusion. Due to low quality of evidence, it is uncertain whether e-cigarettes are effective for smoking cessation in vulnerable populations. A moderate quality study suggested e-cigarettes were as effective as nicotine replacement therapy. Four studies suggested significant smoking reduction, however three were uncontrolled and had sample sizes below 30. A prospective cohort study found no differences between e-cigarette users and non-users. No significant adverse events and minimal side effects were identified. Qualitative thematic synthesis revealed barriers and facilitators associated with each component of the COM-B (capability, opportunity, motivation, behaviour) model, including practical barriers; perceptions of effectiveness for cessation/reduction; design features contributing to automatic and reflective motivation; smoking bans facilitating practical opportunity; and social connectedness increasing social opportunity. Further research is needed to identify the most appropriate device types for practicality and safety, level of support required in e-cigarette interventions, and to compare e-cigarettes with current best practice smoking cessation support among vulnerable groups. Smoking prevalence among people with mental illness, substance misuse, homelessness or criminal justice

  9. Design for volume reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally packaging design-for-sustainability (DfS) strongly focuses on resource conservation and material recycling. The type and amount of materials used has been the driver in design. For consumer electronics (CE) products this weight-based approach is too limited; a volume-based approach is

  10. Analysis on Current Situation and Countermeasure of Domestic Electronic Commerce Logistics in the Internet Age——Based on Resource Dependence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiapeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the status of electric business logistics in the current Internet era in China, and combines the SWOT analysis with AHP to do the empirical analysis, then puts forward the countermeasure that the electric business logistics resource should be shared based on the resource dependence theory. Through the empirical analysis, it is found that the disadvantages and opportunities of the logistics status are important in the Internet era.The resource sharing strategy based on the resource dependence theory is more scientific. The rational use of Internet technology in electric business logistics industry can achieve “sharing”. It is of great significance for its balanced development, intelligent development and optimization and development.

  11. Atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for single electron transistors utilizing Pt oxidation and reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Michael S., E-mail: mmcconn5@nd.edu; Schneider, Louisa C.; Karbasian, Golnaz; Rouvimov, Sergei; Orlov, Alexei O.; Snider, Gregory L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, 275 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This work describes the fabrication of single electron transistors using electron beam lithography and atomic layer deposition to form nanoscale tunnel transparent junctions of alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) on platinum nanowires using either water or ozone as the oxygen precursor and trimethylaluminum as the aluminum precursor. Using room temperature, low frequency conductance measurements between the source and drain, it was found that devices fabricated using water had higher conductance than devices fabricated with ozone. Subsequent annealing caused both water- and ozone-based devices to increase in conductance by more than 2 orders of magnitude. Furthermore, comparison of devices at low temperatures (∼4 K) showed that annealed devices displayed much closer to the ideal behavior (i.e., constant differential conductance) outside of the Coulomb blockade region and that untreated devices showed nonlinear behavior outside of the Coulomb blockade region (i.e., an increase in differential conductance with source-drain voltage bias). Transmission electron microscopy cross-sectional images showed that annealing did not significantly change device geometry, but energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy showed an unusually large amount of oxygen in the bottom platinum layer. This suggests that the atomic layer deposition process results in the formation of a thin platinum surface oxide, which either decomposes or is reduced during the anneal step, resulting in a tunnel barrier without the in-series native oxide contribution. Furthermore, the difference between ozone- and water-based devices suggests that ozone promotes atomic layer deposition nucleation by oxidizing the surface but that water relies on physisorption of the precursors. To test this theory, devices were exposed to forming gas at room temperature, which also reduces platinum oxide, and a decrease in resistance was observed, as expected.

  12. One-electron reduction of an "extended viologen" p-phenyle-bis-4,4´-(aryl-2,6-diphenylpyridinium) dication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Funston, A.; Kirby, J. P.; Miller, J. R.; Pospíšil, Lubomír; Fiedler, Jan; Hromadová, Magdaléna; Gál, Miroslav; Pecka, J.; Valášek, M.; Zawada, Z.; Rempala, P.; Michl, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 48 (2005), s. 10862-10869 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/04/0921; GA ČR GA203/03/0821; GA AV ČR IAA400400505; GA MŠk LC510 Grant - others:Office of Basic Energy Sciences(US) DE-AC02-98-CH10886; U.S. National Science Foundation(US) CHE-0446688 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : molecular electronics * electrochemistry * redox titration * UV-visible Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.898, year: 2005

  13. Direct observation of 0.57 eV trap-related RF output power reduction in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arehart, A. R.; Sasikumar, A.; Rajan, S.; Via, G. D.; Poling, B.; Winningham, B.; Heller, E. R.; Brown, D.; Pei, Y.; Recht, F.; Mishra, U. K.; Ringel, S. A.

    2013-02-01

    This paper reports direct evidence for trap-related RF output power loss in GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) through increased concentration of a specific electron trap at EC-0.57 eV that is located in the drain access region, as a function of accelerated life testing (ALT). The trap is detected by constant drain current deep level transient spectroscopy (CID-DLTS) and the CID-DLTS thermal emission time constant precisely matches the measured drain lag. Both drain lag and CID-DLTS measurements show this state to already exist in pre-stressed devices, which coupled with its strong increase in concentration as a function of stress in the absence of significant increases in concentrations of other detected traps, imply its role in causing degradation, in particular knee walkout. This study reveals EC-0.57 eV trap concentration tracks degradation induced by ALT for MOCVD-grown HEMTs supplied by several commercial and university sources. The results suggest this defect has a common source and may be a key degradation pathway in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs and/or an indicator to predict device lifetime.

  14. Self managing experiment resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stagni, F; Ubeda, M; Charpentier, P; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Romanovskiy, V; Roiser, S; Graciani, R

    2014-01-01

    Within this paper we present an autonomic Computing resources management system, used by LHCb for assessing the status of their Grid resources. Virtual Organizations Grids include heterogeneous resources. For example, LHC experiments very often use resources not provided by WLCG, and Cloud Computing resources will soon provide a non-negligible fraction of their computing power. The lack of standards and procedures across experiments and sites generated the appearance of multiple information systems, monitoring tools, ticket portals, etc... which nowadays coexist and represent a very precious source of information for running HEP experiments Computing systems as well as sites. These two facts lead to many particular solutions for a general problem: managing the experiment resources. In this paper we present how LHCb, via the DIRAC interware, addressed such issues. With a renewed Central Information Schema hosting all resources metadata and a Status System (Resource Status System) delivering real time information, the system controls the resources topology, independently of the resource types. The Resource Status System applies data mining techniques against all possible information sources available and assesses the status changes, that are then propagated to the topology description. Obviously, giving full control to such an automated system is not risk-free. Therefore, in order to minimise the probability of misbehavior, a battery of tests has been developed in order to certify the correctness of its assessments. We will demonstrate the performance and efficiency of such a system in terms of cost reduction and reliability.

  15. Ferredoxin-dependent and antimycin A-sensitive reduction of cytochrome b-559 by far-red light in maize [Zea mays] thylakoids; participation of a meladiol-reducible cytochrome b-559 in cyclic electron flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, C.; Schreiber, U.; Asada, K.

    1995-01-01

    Thylakoids from mesophyll cells of maize showed a high rate of the ferredoxin (Fd)-dependent and antimycin A (AntiA)-sensitive cyclic electron flow as determined by the quenching of 9-aminoacridine fluorescence which indicates the formation of ΔpH across the membranes. Spectrophotometric survey of the thylakoids showed the reduction of a Cyt having an α-peak at 559 nm [Cyt b-559(Fd)] by far-red light, which depended on Fd and was sensitive to AntiA. Dose dependencies of Fd and AntiA on the photoreduction of Cyt b-559(Fd) were the same as those of the formation of ΔpH. Cyt b-559(Fd) occurred in an oxidized form even in the presence of ascorbate and was reduced by far-red light. In darkness, it was reduced only by menadiol (E m,7 = –10mV). Thus, Cyt b-559(Fd) was distinguished from Cyt b-559 in the PSII complex by its low redox potential. The present results indicate that Cyt b-559(Fd) mediates electron transfer from Fd to plastoquinone during Fd-dependent cyclic electron flow around PSI. (author)

  16. Computation of the free energy change associated with one-electron reduction of coenzyme immersed in water: a novel approach within the framework of the quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical method combined with the theory of energy representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hideaki; Ohno, Hajime; Kishi, Ryohei; Nakano, Masayoshi; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2008-11-28

    The isoalloxazine ring (flavin ring) is a part of the coenzyme flavin adenine dinucleotide and acts as an active site in the oxidation of a substrate. We have computed the free energy change Deltamicro(red) associated with one-electron reduction of the flavin ring immersed in water by utilizing the quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical method combined with the theory of energy representation (QM/MM-ER method) recently developed. As a novel treatment in implementing the QM/MM-ER method, we have identified the excess charge to be attached on the flavin ring as a solute while the remaining molecules, i.e., flavin ring and surrounding water molecules, are treated as solvent species. Then, the reduction free energy can be decomposed into the contribution Deltamicro(red)(QM) due to the oxidant described quantum chemically and the free energy Deltamicro(red)(MM) due to the water molecules represented by a classical model. By the sum of these contributions, the total reduction free energy Deltamicro(red) has been given as -80.1 kcal/mol. To examine the accuracy and efficiency of this approach, we have also conducted the Deltamicro(red) calculation using the conventional scheme that Deltamicro(red) is constructed from the solvation free energies of the flavin rings at the oxidized and reduced states. The conventional scheme has been implemented with the QM/MM-ER method and the calculated Deltamicro(red) has been estimated as -81.0 kcal/mol, showing excellent agreement with the value given by the new approach. The present approach is efficient, in particular, to compute free energy change for the reaction occurring in a protein since it enables ones to circumvent the numerical problem brought about by subtracting the huge solvation free energies of the proteins in two states before and after the reduction.

  17. Reductions in biomarkers of exposure, impacts on smoking urge and assessment of product use and tolerability in adult smokers following partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ruiz, Carl D; Graff, Donald W; Robinson, Edward

    2016-07-11

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are popular alternatives to conventional cigarettes among adult smokers wishing to reduce their exposure to harmful smoke constituents. However, little information exists on the relative internal exposures resulting from the exclusive or dual use of e-cigarettes. Measurements of product use; adverse events; changes in smoking urge; and blood, urine and exhaled breath biomarkers of exposure (BoE) representing toxicants believed to contribute to smoking related diseases were made at baseline and after five days of product use in 105 clinically-confined smokers randomized into groups that partially or completely substituted their usual brand combustible cigarette with commercial e-cigarettes, or discontinued all nicotine and tobacco products. Subjects switching to e-cigarettes had significantly lower levels (29 %-95 %) of urinary BoEs after 5 days. Nicotine equivalents declined by 25 %-40 %. Dual users who substituted half of their self-reported daily cigarette consumption with e-cigarettes experienced 7 %-38 % reductions, but had increases (1 %-20 %) in nicotine equivalents. Blood nicotine biomarker levels were lower in the cessation (75 %-96 %) and e-cigarette use groups (11 %-83 %); dual users had no significant reductions. All groups experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO (27 %-89 %). Exhaled NO increases (46 %-63 %) were observed in the cessation and e-cigarette use groups; dual users had minimal changes. By Day 5, all groups had greater reductions in smoking urge compared to cessation. However, reductions were larger in the dual use group. No serious adverse events were observed. Exposures to harmful smoke toxicants were observed to be lower in smokers who completely or partially replaced their cigarettes with e-cigarettes over five days.

  18. Reductions in biomarkers of exposure, impacts on smoking urge and assessment of product use and tolerability in adult smokers following partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with electronic cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl D. D’Ruiz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are popular alternatives to conventional cigarettes among adult smokers wishing to reduce their exposure to harmful smoke constituents. However, little information exists on the relative internal exposures resulting from the exclusive or dual use of e-cigarettes. Methods Measurements of product use; adverse events; changes in smoking urge; and blood, urine and exhaled breath biomarkers of exposure (BoE representing toxicants believed to contribute to smoking related diseases were made at baseline and after five days of product use in 105 clinically-confined smokers randomized into groups that partially or completely substituted their usual brand combustible cigarette with commercial e-cigarettes, or discontinued all nicotine and tobacco products. Results Subjects switching to e-cigarettes had significantly lower levels (29 %–95 % of urinary BoEs after 5 days. Nicotine equivalents declined by 25 %–40 %. Dual users who substituted half of their self-reported daily cigarette consumption with e-cigarettes experienced 7 %–38 % reductions, but had increases (1 %–20 % in nicotine equivalents. Blood nicotine biomarker levels were lower in the cessation (75 %–96 % and e-cigarette use groups (11 %–83 %; dual users had no significant reductions. All groups experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO (27 %–89 %. Exhaled NO increases (46 %–63 % were observed in the cessation and e-cigarette use groups; dual users had minimal changes. By Day 5, all groups had greater reductions in smoking urge compared to cessation. However, reductions were larger in the dual use group. No serious adverse events were observed. Conclusions Exposures to harmful smoke toxicants were observed to be lower in smokers who completely or partially replaced their cigarettes with e-cigarettes over five days.

  19. How Students Learn: Ways of Thinking about "Good Learning" in HE. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, one of a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. The topic of this first issues paper is a conceptual framework that can help members of a project (information resource)…

  20. Electron beam non-thermal plasma hybrid system for reduction of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions from power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaroiu, Gh [Department of Power Plants, University Polytechnic of Bucharest, 313 Splaiul Independentei Street, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Zissulescu, E [ICPET ECO SA Bucharest, 104 Berceni Street, 041912 Bucharest (Romania); Sandu, M [Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest, 124 Lacul Tei Street, 020396 Bucharest (Romania); Roscia, M [University of Bergamo, 5 Marconi Street, 24044 Dalmine, Bergamo (Italy)

    2007-12-15

    In this paper an installation containing a negative corona discharge (DC) reactor, a pulse corona discharge reactor and a combined electron beam (EB) and microwave induced plasma reactor is presented. SO{sub 2} is removed up to 42% through spontaneous reaction with ammonia without EB or microwave irradiation at the temperature below 70{sup o}C. Considering the values of the removal efficiencies of 98% for SO{sub 2} and 80% for NO{sub x} applying separate EB irradiation with a dose of 40 kGy, when the simultaneous EB and microwave irradiation is applied, the required absorbed dose is about two times smaller. The SO{sub 2} removal efficiency of simultaneous DC or positive discharge and microwave discharge is higher than separate corona discharge, pulse and microwave discharge. Also, the applied voltage level at which the removal efficiency reaches the maximum value is less than that for the separate application of corona discharge or pulse discharge. The NO{sub x} removal efficiency of DC or pulse discharge suffers little change by additional use of the microwave energy. Based on this research and the results obtained by a pilot project built in collaboration with Electrostatica Bucharest, a project for an installation involving simultaneous SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal by irradiation with accelerated EBs and microwaves, has been proposed for Thermo-Power Plant CET-West-Bucharest of 550 MW. (author)

  1. Heterogeneous Single-Atom Catalyst for Visible-Light-Driven High-Turnover CO2 Reduction: The Role of Electron Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chao; Chen, Shuangming; Wang, Ying; Wang, Jiawen; Zheng, Xusheng; Zhu, Junfa; Song, Li; Zhang, Wenkai; Xiong, Yujie

    2018-03-01

    Visible-light-driven conversion of CO 2 into chemical fuels is an intriguing approach to address the energy and environmental challenges. In principle, light harvesting and catalytic reactions can be both optimized by combining the merits of homogeneous and heterogeneous photocatalysts; however, the efficiency of charge transfer between light absorbers and catalytic sites is often too low to limit the overall photocatalytic performance. In this communication, it is reported that the single-atom Co sites coordinated on the partially oxidized graphene nanosheets can serve as a highly active and durable heterogeneous catalyst for CO 2 conversion, wherein the graphene bridges homogeneous light absorbers with single-atom catalytic sites for the efficient transfer of photoexcited electrons. As a result, the turnover number for CO production reaches a high value of 678 with an unprecedented turnover frequency of 3.77 min -1 , superior to those obtained with the state-of-the-art heterogeneous photocatalysts. This work provides fresh insights into the design of catalytic sites toward photocatalytic CO 2 conversion from the angle of single-atom catalysis and highlights the role of charge kinetics in bridging the gap between heterogeneous and homogeneous photocatalysts. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Impact of thickness reduction of the ZnO:Al window layer on opto-electronical properties of CIGSSe solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jan; Knipper, M.; Parisi, J.; Riedel, I. [Thin Film Photovoltaics, University of Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Dalibor, T.; Avellan, A. [AVANCIS GmbH and Co. KG, D-81739 Munich (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The application of highly doped transparent conducting oxides in chalcopyrite solar cells requires an optimized trade-off between optical transmission and sheet-conductivity. In this respect we studied the thickness variation of ZnO:Al films used as window layer in Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} (CIGSSe) thin film solar cells. Thin ZnO:Al layers (200nm) on glass exhibit significantly enhanced transmission at wavelengths {lambda}<400nm while a considerable sub-bandgap absorption at {lambda}>800nm appears in thicker films which is attributed to free charge carrier absorption. The IV-characteristics of CIGSSe solar cells with d{sub ZnO:Al}=200nm exhibit a strong enhancement of the short-circuit current density J{sub SC} ({delta}J{sub SC}=3mA) as compared to samples with conventional ZnO:Al-film thickness. However, the reduced parallel (R{sub p}) and increased series (R{sub s}) resistance of samples with thin ZnO:Al-layer cause reduction of the fill factor, which has direct consequences for the series connection of cells in a CIGSSe-module. XRD-diffractograms suggest that the high R{sub s} in thin ZnO:Al is not only related to the thickness but also due to reduced (002)-texture that appears to be beneficial for lateral conductivity. By thermographic investigations we are able to directly locate the cell-regimes responsible for the decreased R{sub p}.

  3. 大學圖書館電子資源之需求分析與行銷策略之研究 A Study of Demands Analysis and Marketing Strategy of Electronic Resources in University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-Yu Liu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available 電子資源的出現,使得知識載體有了新的突破,提高了使用者的便利性與即時性。對於圖書館而言,如何使電子資源的使用效益達到最高,必須思考一套有效的行銷策略。電子資源行銷概念應以讀者為導向,尊重讀者的資訊需求,並利用各種宣傳技巧,行銷電子資源,使圖書館能提供更完善的服務。本研究之目的旨在探討讀者的使用需求及電子資源的推廣策略,以獲致最有效益的行銷方式。研究對象以開南大學日間部四學院(商學院、運輸觀光學院、資訊學院、人文社會學院)學生為樣本,佐以缺口分析模型為分析架構,藉以找出個案中讀者/學生對於電子資源使用的真實需求,並進而歸納出提供服務的大學圖書館在其推廣或行銷服務上可有的因應策略。The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public libraries to achieve maximum efficiency in its electronic resources, it is necessary to seek the most effective marketing strategies. Therefore, the marketing concept of the electronic resources should be reader oriented, such as respecting and understanding library user’s information needs. Libraries also need to utilize various media and techniques to market the electronic resources, so that more comprehensive services and experiences can be provided to readers. The purpose of this study is to investigate library user’s needs and promotion strategies of electronic resources in order to identify the most effective ways of marketing. This study focuses on the students of the four colleges (College of Business, College of Tourism, College of Information, and College of Humanities and Social Science in Kainan University as subjects in the survey questionnaire. It uses the Gap Analysis

  4. Principal Components as a Data Reduction and Noise Reduction Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, M. L.; Campbell, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    The potential of principal components as a pipeline data reduction technique for thematic mapper data was assessed and principal components analysis and its transformation as a noise reduction technique was examined. Two primary factors were considered: (1) how might data reduction and noise reduction using the principal components transformation affect the extraction of accurate spectral classifications; and (2) what are the real savings in terms of computer processing and storage costs of using reduced data over the full 7-band TM complement. An area in central Pennsylvania was chosen for a study area. The image data for the project were collected using the Earth Resources Laboratory's thematic mapper simulator (TMS) instrument.

  5. Application of electronic learning tools for training of specialists in the field of information technologies for enterprises of mineral resources sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. В. Катунцов

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the advantages of using modern electronic learning tools in the training of specialists for the mineral and raw materials complex and considers the basic principles of organizing training using these tools. The experience of using electronic learning tools using foreign teaching materials and involving foreign professors is described. A special attention is given to the electronic learning environment of the Cisco Networking Academy – Cisco NetAcad. The experience of teaching at the Networking Academy of the Saint-Petersburg Mining University is described. Details are given to modern virtual environments for laboratory work, such as Cisco Packet Tracer, GNS3 and Emulated Virtual Environment. The experience of using electronic learning technologies at the University of Economics of Bratislava is considered. It actively cooperates with a number of universities of other countries, such as the University of International Business (Almaty, the Eurasian National University named after LN Gumilyov (Astana and the Institute of Social and Humanitarian Knowledge (Kazan.

  6. An operational utility assessment [electronic resource]: measuring the effectiveness of the Joint Concept Technology Demonstration (JCTD), Joint Forces Protection Advance Security System (JFPASS)

    OpenAIRE

    McGovern, Mark; Mayor, Jeffrey D.; Symmes, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    MBA Professional Report Planning modern military operations requires an accurate intelligence assessment of potential threats, combined with a detailed assessment of the physical theater of operations. This information can then be combined with equipment and manpower resources to set up a logistically supportable operation that mitigates as much of the enemy threat as possible. Given such a daunting challenge, military planners often turn to intelligent software agents to support their...

  7. Positive Perceptions of Access to Online Library Resources Correlates with Quality and Quantity of Scholarly Publications among Finnish Academics. A Review of: Vakkari, Pertti. “Perceived Influence of the Use of Electronic Information Resources on Scholarly Work and Publication Productivity.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.4 (Feb. 15, 2008: 602-12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Marsalis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the relationship between academics’ use of library electronic resources and their opinions regarding how these resources have impacted their work, and to investigate the association between this perceived influence and publication productivity during the previous two years.Design – Two specific questions added to an annual online user-survey questionnaire; additional data mined from surveySetting – Twenty-two Finnish Universities served by FinELib, the Finnish Electronic Library.Subjects – Seven hundred and sixty seven academic staff and full-time doctoral students.Methods – A questionnaire was posted in April 2007 on FinELib’s homepage and advertised on each university library’s mainpage, and focused on respondents’ experience in the previous two years. Participants selected answers either from a list of category choices, or, when measuring perceptions, by rating agreement with statements along a four-point scale. Controlled variables measured were the respondents’ academic position, their discipline, membership in a research group, whether their literature use was discipline-specific or interdisciplinary, and their perception of the availability online of the relevant core literature. The independent variable measured was the scholars’ perception of the impact of the use of electronic library resources on their work. The dependent variable measured was the scholars’ self-reported publications in the two years preceding the survey.Main Results – Participants reported a positive impact on the efficiency of their work, most strongly in areas of ease of access, with lesser impacts in the range of materials available to them and the ease with which they can keep up-to-date in their field. To a lesser extent, the scholars perceived a positive impact on the quality of their work. Upon analysis, the study found that access to online library resources improved scholars’ work by the interconnected

  8. Residual stress reduction in beam welded joints by means of stress redistribution using defocused electron or laser beams; Eigenspannungsreduktion in strahlgeschweissten Naehten mittels Spannungsumlagerung durch den Einsatz defokussierter Elektronen- bzw. Laserstrahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toelle, Florian

    2013-08-01

    Among the multiple advantages of beam welding processes the high longitudinal residual stresses in beam welds ranging till the local yield stress are one disadvantage. These high stresses can influence the service life of the welded components. The residual stresses in other welding processes exist in an equal high level but primarily in the transverse direction to the weld. To mitigate the high residual stresses a couple of methods were developed for these welding processes in the last decades. However these methods need large contact surfaces next to the welds for the installation of matched heating and cooling elements and other additional equipment. Furthermore, the previous developed stress mitigating processes offer a low efficiency for the small beam welds. The stress reduction by using the welding source after the welding process for a remote heat treatment of the welded components afford a flexible tool for the stress mitigation in beam welds. This method does not need any additional equipment and it is applicable for complex welding and component geometries. During this post welding heat treatment the material next to the weld is heated by the defocused electron or by the defocused laser beam, respectively, to temperatures of some hundreds degree Celsius. Hereby low plastic deformations in these regions are generated. While cooling down due to the thermal shrinkage the material between the weld and the heat treated region is compressed in longitudinal direction to the weld. This intermediate material zone constrained the shrinkage of the weld while cooling down from the melting temperature and leads to the high longitudinal residual stresses in the weld. In consequence of the compression of this intermediate zones by the heat treated zones the resistance to the shrinkage of the weld is lowered and the longitudinal stresses in the weld are reduced. In the process the quantity of the stress reduction is controlled by the selection of the process parameters

  9. Reduction corporoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakky, Tariq S; Martinez, Daniel; Yang, Christopher; Carrion, Rafael E

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the first video demonstration of reduction corporoplasty in the management of phallic disfigurement in a 17 year old man with a history sickle cell disease and priapism. Surgical management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora has yet to be defined in the literature. We preformed bilateral elliptical incisions over the lateral corpora as management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora to correct phallic disfigurement. The patient tolerated the procedure well and has resolution of his corporal disfigurement. Reduction corporoplasty using bilateral lateral elliptical incisions in the management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora is a safe an feasible operation in the management of phallic disfigurement.

  10. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  11. A comparative study of electrochemical reduction of isatin and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    hibit a single irreversible two-electron reduction wave in contrast with the two discrete one-electron transfer reduction ... experiments. The working electrode was a Static Mercury Drop Elec- ..... Women Scientist Scheme (WOS-A), is gratefully.

  12. Assessment of toxicity and genotoxicity of the reactive azo dyes Remazol Black B and Remazol Orange 3R and effectiveness of electron beam irradiation in the reduction of color and toxic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, Alessandro de Sa

    2011-01-01

    The textile industries play an important role in national and global economy. But, their activities are considered potentially polluting. The use of large volumes of water and the production of colored wastewater with high organic matter are among the main issues raised, especially during the stage of dyeing and washing of the textile process. The reactive azo dyes are the main colors used in the industry for dyeing of cotton in Brazil and worldwide. Because of its low setting and variations in the fiber production process, about 30% of the initial concentration used in the dyeing baths are lost and will compose the final effluent. These compounds have a low biodegradability, are highly soluble in water and therefore are not completely removed by conventional biological processes. In addition, other processes do not promote degradation but the transference to solid environment. The dyes discarded without treatment in the water body can cause aesthetic modifications, alter photosynthesis and gas solubility, as well as being toxic and genotoxic. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the toxicity and genotoxicity of two reactive azo dyes (Remazol Black B - RPB and Remazol Orange 3R - R3AR) and the percentage of color and toxicity reduction after the use of electron beam radiation. The acute toxicity assays performed with Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia similis and Biomphalaria glabrata showed different response patterns for dyes. The different chemical forms of dyes were slightly toxic to Vibrio fischeri and only the RPB dye (vinylsulphone) was toxic (EC50 15min = 6,23 mg L-1). In tests with Daphnia similis, the dye RPB was slightly toxic in its pattern form, sulphatoethylsulphone, (CE50 48h = 91,25 mg L -1 ) and showed no toxicity in other chemical forms. However, the RA3R dye was toxic to the dafnids and the vinylsulphone form very toxic (EC50 48h = 0,54 mg L-1). No toxicity was observed in Biomphalaria glabrata assays. Chronic toxicity was assessed with the

  13. Biochemistry of Catabolic Reductive Dehalogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincker, Maeva; Spormann, Alfred M

    2017-06-20

    A wide range of phylogenetically diverse microorganisms couple the reductive dehalogenation of organohalides to energy conservation. Key enzymes of such anaerobic catabolic pathways are corrinoid and Fe-S cluster-containing, membrane-associated reductive dehalogenases. These enzymes catalyze the reductive elimination of a halide and constitute the terminal reductases of a short electron transfer chain. Enzymatic and physiological studies revealed the existence of quinone-dependent and quinone-independent reductive dehalogenases that are distinguishable at the amino acid sequence level, implying different modes of energy conservation in the respective microorganisms. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about catabolic reductive dehalogenases and the electron transfer chain they are part of. We review reaction mechanisms and the role of the corrinoid and Fe-S cluster cofactors and discuss physiological implications.

  14. Merge of terminological resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration...... – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  15. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  16. Reduction Corporoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq S. Hakky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective Here we present the first video demonstration of reduction corporoplasty in the management of phallic disfigurement in a 17 year old man with a history sickle cell disease and priapism. Introduction Surgical management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora has yet to be defined in the literature. Materials and Methods: We preformed bilateral elliptical incisions over the lateral corpora as management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora to correct phallic disfigurement. Results The patient tolerated the procedure well and has resolution of his corporal disfigurement. Conclusions Reduction corporoplasty using bilateral lateral elliptical incisions in the management of aneurysmal dilation of the corpora is a safe an feasible operation in the management of phallic disfigurement.

  17. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  18. Payment schemes for hydrological ecosystem services as a political instrument for the sustainable management of natural resources and poverty reduction - a case study from Belén, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, J.

    2010-08-01

    The importance of intact ecosystems for human-wellbeing as well as the dependence on functions and services they provide is undoubted. But still neither the costs of ecosystem degradation nor the benefits from ecosystem functions and services appear on socio-economic balance sheets when development takes place. Consequently overuse of natural resources is socio-economically promoted by conventional resource management policies and external effects (externalities), equally positives and negatives, remain unregarded. In this context the potential of payments for hydrological ecosystem services as a political instrument to foster sustainable natural resource use, and rural development shall be investigated. This paper introduces the principle concept of such payments, presents a case study from Nicaragua and highlights preliminary effects of the application of this instrument on natural resource use and development.

  19. Electron Transfer and Substrate Reduction in Nitrogenase

    OpenAIRE

    Danyal, Karamatullah

    2014-01-01

    Population growth over the past ~50 years accompanied by the changes in dietary habits due to economic growth have markedly increased the demand for fixed nitrogen. Aided by biological nitrogen fixation, the Haber-Bosch process has been able to fulfill these demands. However, due to its high temperature and pressure requirements, Haber-Bosch is an expensive process. Every year, approximately 2% of the total energy expenditure by man is used to manufacture fixed nitrogen. Biological systems, o...

  20. Snubber reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, D.E.; Singh, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    Many safety-related piping systems in nuclear power plants have been oversupported. Since snubbers make up a large percentage of the pipe supports or restraints used in a plant, a plant's snubber population is much larger than required to adequately restrain the piping. This has resulted in operating problems and unnecessary expenses for maintenance and inservice inspections (ISIs) of snubbers. This paper presents an overview of snubber reduction, including: the incentives for removing snubbers, a historical perspective on how piping became oversupported, why it is possible to remove snubbers, and the costs and benefits of doing so

  1. Real-world health outcomes in adults with moderate-to-severe psoriasis in the United States: a population study using electronic health records to examine patient-perceived treatment effectiveness, medication use, and healthcare resource utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, April W; Foster, Shonda A; Comer, Brian S; Lin, Chen-Yen; Malatestinic, William; Burge, Russel; Goldblum, Orin

    2018-06-28

    Little is known regarding real-world health outcomes data among US psoriasis patients, but electronic health records (EHR) that collect structured data at point-of-care may provide opportunities to investigate real-world health outcomes among psoriasis patients. Our objective was to investigate patient-perceived treatment effectiveness, patterns of medication use (duration, switching, and/or discontinuation), healthcare resource utilization, and medication costs using real-world data from psoriasis patients. Data for adults (≥18-years) with a dermatology provider-given diagnosis of psoriasis from 9/2014-9/2015 were obtained from dermatology practices using a widely used US dermatology-specific EHR containing over 500,000 psoriasis patients. Disease severity was captured by static physician's global assessment and body surface area. Patient-perceived treatment effectiveness was assessed by a pre-defined question. Treatment switching and duration were documented. Reasons for discontinuations were assessed using pre-defined selections. Healthcare resource utilization was defined by visit frequency and complexity. From 82,621 patients with psoriasis during the study period, patient-perceived treatment effectiveness was investigated in 2200 patients. The proportion of patients reporting "strongly agree" when asked if their treatment was effective was highest for biologics (73%) and those reporting treatment adherence (55%). In 16,000 patients who received oral systemics and 21,087 patients who received biologics, median treatment duration was longer for those who received biologics (160 vs. 113 days, respectively). Treatment switching was less frequent among patients on systemic monotherapies compared to those on combination therapies. The most common reason for discontinuing biologics was loss of efficacy; the most common reason for discontinuing orals was side effects. In 28,754 patients, higher disease severity was associated with increased healthcare resource

  2. Development of batch electrolytic enrichment cells with 100-fold volume reduction, control electronic units and neutralization/distillation unit, to enable better sensitivity to be achieved in low-level tritium measurements when liquid scintillation counting follows the enrichment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.

    1980-06-01

    Full details of the batch-cell tritium enrichment system design are provided including electronic control circuits specially developed for these cells. The system incorporates a new type of concentric electrode cell (outer cathode of mild steel, anode of stainless steel, inner cathode of mild steel) with volume reduction capability 1 l to ca 9 ml. Electrolysis of 20 cells is performed in 2 steps. Down to sample volume ca 20 ml, the cells are series connected at constant currents up to 14.5 A, in the 2nd step, each cell is connected to its own individual current supply (2A) and control circuit. Automatic shut-off at the desired final volume is achieved by sensing the drop in current through the inner cathode as the electrolyte level falls below a PTFE insulator. The large electrode surface area and careful dimensioning at the foot of the cell allow operation with low starting electrolyte concentration 1.5 g Na 2 O 2 .l -1 . After electrolysis, quantitative recovery as distilled water of all hydrogen from the enriched residue is achieved by CO 2 -neutralisation and vacuum distillation at 100 0 C in a distillation unit which handles 20 cells simultaneously

  3. Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abira, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  4. Radon reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    During a radon gas screening program, elevated levels of radon gas were detected in homes on Mackinac Island, Mich. Six homes on foundations with crawl spaces were selected for a research project aimed at reducing radon gas concentrations, which ranged from 12.9 to 82.3 pCi/l. Using isolation and ventilation techniques, and variations thereof, radon concentrations were reduced to less than 1 pCi/l. This paper reports that these reductions were achieved using 3.5 mil cross laminated or 10 mil high density polyethylene plastic as a barrier without sealing to the foundation or support piers, solid and/or perforated plastic pipe and mechanical fans. Wind turbines were found to be ineffective at reducing concentrations to acceptable levels. Homeowners themselves installed all materials

  5. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  6. Self-reduction process and enhanced blue emission in SrAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}: Eu, Tb via electron transfer from Tb{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hongwei; Wang, Lili; Li, Minhong; Ran, Weiguang; Deng, Zhihan; Houzong, Ruizhi; Shi, Jinsheng [Department of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Science, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, Shandong, (China)

    2017-06-15

    Eu, Tb co-doped SrAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} luminescent materials were synthesized via a high-temperature solid-state reaction. Excitation spectra of SrAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}: Eu{sup 2+} gives two broad excitation bands maximizing at 270 and 330 nm, resulting from splitting Eu{sup 2+} energy levels in octahedral crystal field. Eu single doped SrAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} luminescent material exhibits two emission bands at about 406 and 616 nm. Intensity of the blue emission from Eu{sup 2+} is always strong, compared with that of the red emission band of Eu{sup 3+}. Reduction from Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} can be explained with the model of charge compensation. Blue emission in SrAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}: xEu was strengthened after incorporation of Tb, which can be explained by electron transfer from Tb{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} (Tb{sup 3+} + Eu{sup 3+} → Tb{sup 4+} + Eu{sup 2+}). Under 230 nm excitation, intensity of Tb{sup 3+} emission was nearly unchanged and that of Eu{sup 2+} was increased, obviously due to the delivery of more electrons to Eu{sup 3+}. The strongest emission of Eu{sup 2+} in 0.09Eu/0.06Tb co-doped SrAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} and excited at 270 and 330 nm was remarkably enhanced by about four times compared to that of 0.15Eu Single doped SrAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}. All of the results indicate that SrAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}:xEu, yTb are potential blue emitting luminescent materials for UV-LEDs. More importantly, this research may provide a new perspective in designing broad band blue luminescent materials. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Gender equality mainstreaming: Implications for poverty reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender equality mainstreaming: Implications for poverty reduction and sustainable development in Abia State of Nigeria. ... Empowerment of women when pursued beyond mere rhetoric and instrumentation, it will improve their wellbeing, self esteem, resource allocation, political voice and increased productivity generally.

  8. Resource conservation management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.

    1999-01-01

    Resource conservation management is a management program similar to financial management in that its success requires commitment by all levels of the organization to the process as well as an accounting procedure and auditing of critical components. Resource conservation management provides a framework for all elements of efficient building operations and maintenance. The savings connected with the program are principally connected with changes in the way buildings are operated and maintained. Given the reduction in rebates for the installation of energy-efficient equipment, this approach has considerable promise. This paper discusses the evolution of the resource conservation management service and the savings associated with a two-year pilot effort with seven school districts, as well as the critical components of a successful program

  9. Immobilization of bilirubin oxidase on graphene oxide flakes with different negative charge density for oxygen reduction. The effect of GO charge density on enzyme coverage, electron transfer rate and current density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, Jaroslav; Andicsová-Eckstein, Anita; Vikartovská, Alica; Tkac, Jan

    2017-03-15

    Previously we showed that an effective bilirubin oxidase (BOD)-based biocathode using graphene oxide (GO) could be prepared in 2 steps: 1. electrostatic adsorption of BOD on GO; 2. electrochemical reduction of the BOD-GO composite to form a BOD-ErGO (electrochemically reduced GO) film on the electrode. In order to identify an optimal charge density of GO for BOD-ErGO composite preparation, several GO fractions differing in an average flake size and ζ-potential were prepared using centrifugation and consequently employed for BOD-ErGO biocathode preparation. A simple way to express surface charge density of these particular GO nanosheets was developed. The values obtained were then correlated with biocatalytic and electrochemical parameters of the prepared biocathodes, i.e. electrocatalytically active BOD surface coverage (Γ), heterogeneous electron transfer rate (k S ) and a maximum biocatalytic current density. The highest bioelectrocatalytic current density of (597±25)μAcm -2 and the highest Γ of (23.6±0.9)pmolcm -2 were obtained on BOD-GO composite having the same moderate negative charge density, but the highest k S of (79.4±4.6)s -1 was observed on BOD-GO composite having different negative charge density. This study is a solid foundation for others to consider the influence of a charge density of GO on direct bioelectrochemistry/bioelectrocatalysis of other redox enzymes applicable for construction of biosensors, bioanodes, biocathodes or biofuel cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangloff, A.

    1978-01-01

    It is first indicated how to evaluate the mining resources as a function of the cost of production and the degree of certainty in the knowledge of the deposit. A table is given of the world resources (at the beginning 1977) and resources and reserves are compared. There is a concordance between requirements and possible production until 1990. The case of France is examined: known reserves, present and future prospection, present production (In 1978 2200 T of U metal will be produced from 3 French processing plants), production coming from Cogema. A total production of 2000 T in 1980 and 10.000 in 1985 is expected [fr

  11. Seaweed resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    The chapter summarizes our present knowledge of the seaweed resources of the Indian Ocean region with regard to the phytogeographical distribution, composition, biomass, utilization, cultivation, conservation and management. The voluminous data...

  12. Arthritis - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  13. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    (placers), biogenous (ooze, limestone) or chemogenous (phosphorites and polymetallic nodules) type. In recent years, hydrothermal deposits, cobalt crust and methane gas hydrates are considered as frontier resources. Their distribution depends upon proximity...

  14. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depression/ ...

  15. Hemophilia - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

  16. Diabetes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  17. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  18. How should INGOs allocate resources?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wisor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available International Non-governmental Organizations (INGOs face difficult choices when choosing to allocate resources. Given that the resources made available to INGOs fall far short of what is needed to reduce massive human rights deficits, any chosen scheme of resource allocation requires failing to reach other individuals in great need. Facing these moral opportunity costs, what moral reasons should guide INGO resource allocation? Two reasons that clearly matter, and are recognized by philosophers and development practitioners, are the consequences (or benefit or harm reduction of any given resource allocation and the need (or priority of individual beneficiaries. If accepted, these reasons should lead INGOs to allocate resources to a limited number of countries where the most prioritarian weighted harm reduction will be achieved. I make three critiques against this view. First, on grounds the consequentialist accepts, I argue that INGOs ought to maintain a reasonably wide distribution of resources. Second, I argue that even if one is a consequentialist, consequentialism ought not act as an action guiding principle for INGOs. Third, I argue that additional moral reasons should influence decision making about INGO resource allocation. Namely, INGO decision making should attend to relational reasons, desert, respect for agency, concern for equity, and the importance of expressing a view of moral wrongs.

  19. Economical benzene emission reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetz, R.

    1999-01-01

    Benzene has been classified as a toxic compound under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. This has prompted the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (AEUB) to introduce specific reporting and monitoring guidelines for the oil and gas industry regarding excessive benzene emissions. Glycol dehydration units have been determined to be the major single source of benzene emissions causing air and soil pollution. DualTank Corp. has designed a condensation and storage tank unit to enhance emission reduction, odour elimination and liquid recovery from dehydration units. Their newly designed combined tank unit consists of a large, uninsulated surface area for cooling, and an excessive internal volume for increased retention time. The first prototype was installed in December 1998 at an Enerplus Resources Site. The system provides excellent benzene emission reduction and the elimination of odours and visual plumes. Effective January 1, 1999, the petroleum and natural gas industry must either clean up excessive emissions voluntarily or face government imposed regulations, facility shutdowns and/or fines. 1 fig

  20. Improve reliability, service life expectation and cost-reduction in automotive electronics through innovative PCB-technology; Verbesserung der Zuverlaessigkeit, Lebensdauer und Kostensenkung in der Automotive-Elektronik durch innovative Leiterplattentechnologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinhold, Michael [European Institute of Printed Circuits (EIPC), Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2012-11-01

    In modern automotive technology, the costs of electronics have a major impact on the total cost of a car. According to BOSCH in Germany, 40% of a modern car cost is related to electronics. The Printed Circuit Boards represent about 5 to 8% of the cost for electronic devices used in advanced automobiles. For the functionality of the cars, the electronics represent the highest risk factor for mobility today. The vendors of the electronic devices must guarantee a service life of 15 years or 150 thousand miles today. However, many of the electronic components and/or the manufacturing technology do not have a history over such a long period. The paper will outline ways how these height demands in automotive may be fulfilled. (orig.)

  1. Teaching Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physics?" Poster Pamphlets/Books/SPIN-UP Resources Making and Sustaining Changes in Undergraduate AAPT.org - American Association of Physics Teachers Skip to content Skip to navigation Skip to local navigation AAPT - American Association of Physics Teachers Go Sign In / Online Services Join

  2. Resource Mobilization

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    constitute endorsement of the product and is given only for information. ..... point where they could significantly impact an organization's financial viability. This alternative ... putting in place internal systems and processes that enable the resource .... control over the incorporation of non-profit organizations. ..... Accounting.

  3. Resource Mobilization

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Annex 1: The Scoping Study on Donor Funding for. Development Research in ... publication of the Resource Mobilization: A Practical Guide for Research .... applied the concept or technique, which validates the practical application of ... some other staff member would write up a grant application addressed to one, two, or a ...

  4. Exploring Paradigms of Crime Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soothill, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens N.; Hussain, Azhar

    2010-01-01

    Using Danish registers for a 1980 birth cohort of 29,944 males with parental information and following up these cases for 25 years, the study considers four paradigms of crime reduction (parental child rearing, structural factors around adolescence, locality and individual resources). Focusing on...... have more widespread benefits, but the assumed causal links need to be further explored. The use of population registers, under controlled conditions, provides an important window on criminal careers....

  5. Asymmetry Reduction Theory of FDI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    In this paper, I first briefly introduce Moon & Roehl’s (1993, 2001) imbalance theory of FDI, then I identify its three deficiencies that may be responsible for the relative lack of impact of the potentially powerful imbalance logic, and then I propose an asymmetry reduction theory (ARC) of FDI...... and explain its aspiration-resource-control (ARC) framework. I conclude the paper with a brief discussion of the OLI framework being a special case of the ARC framework....

  6. Electrochemical Reduction Process for Pyroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eun-Young; Hong, Sun-Seok; Park, Wooshin; Im, Hun Suk; Oh, Seung-Chul; Won, Chan Yeon; Cha, Ju-Sun; Hur, Jin-Mok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Nuclear energy is expected to meet the growing energy demand while avoiding CO{sub 2} emission. However, the problem of accumulating spent fuel from current nuclear power plants which is mainly composed of uranium oxides should be addressed. One of the most practical solutions is to reduce the spent oxide fuel and recycle it. Next-generation fuel cycles demand innovative features such as a reduction of the environmental load, improved safety, efficient recycling of resources, and feasible economics. Pyroprocessing based on molten salt electrolysis is one of the key technologies for reducing the amount of spent nuclear fuel and destroying toxic waste products, such as the long-life fission products. The oxide reduction process based on the electrochemical reduction in a LiCl-Li{sub 2}O electrolyte has been developed for the volume reduction of PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) spent fuels and for providing metal feeds for the electrorefining process. To speed up the electrochemical reduction process, the influences of the feed form for the cathode and the type of anode shroud on the reduction rate were investigated.

  7. Chemical dependence - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance use - resources, Drug abuse - resources; Resources - chemical dependence ... are a good resource for information on drug dependence: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence -- ncadd. ...

  8. Space Resources Roundtable 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatiev, A.

    2000-01-01

    Economy in CisLunar Space. Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy. Cost-Effective Approaches to Lunar Passenger Transportation. Lunar Mineral Resources: Extraction and Application. Space Resources Development - The Link Between Human Exploration and the Long-term Commercialization of Space. Toward a More Comprehensive Evaluation of Space Information. Development of Metal Casting Molds by Sol-Gel Technology Using Planetary Resources. A New Concept in Planetary Exploration: ISRU with Power Bursts. Bold Space Ventures Require Fervent Public Support. Hot-pressed Iron from Lunar Soil. The Lunar Dust Problem: A Possible Remedy. Considerations on Use of Lunar Regolith in Lunar Constructions. Experimental Study on Water Production by Hydrogen Reduction of Lunar Soil Simulant in a Fixed Bed Reactor.

  9. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  10. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  11. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This is a press release issued by the OECD on 9th March 1976. It is stated that the steep increases in demand for uranium foreseen in and beyond the 1980's, with doubling times of the order of six to seven years, will inevitably create formidable problems for the industry. Further substantial efforts will be needed in prospecting for new uranium reserves. Information is given in tabular or graphical form on the following: reasonably assured resources, country by country; uranium production capacities, country by country; world nuclear power growth; world annual uranium requirements; world annual separative requirements; world annual light water reactor fuel reprocessing requirements; distribution of reactor types (LWR, SGHWR, AGR, HWR, HJR, GG, FBR); and world fuel cycle capital requirements. The information is based on the latest report on Uranium Resources Production and Demand, jointly issued by the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency. (U.K.)

  12. Thermodynamics of lunar ilmenite reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenberg, B. H.; Franklin, H. A.; Jones, C. H.

    1993-01-01

    With the prospect of returning to the moon, the development of a lunar occupation would fulfill one of the goals of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) of the late 1980's. Processing lunar resources into useful products, such as liquid oxygen for fuel and life support, would be one of many aspects of an active lunar base. ilmenite (FeTiO3) is found on the lunar surface and can be used as a feed stock to produce oxygen. Understanding the various ilmenite-reduction reactions elucidates many processing options. Defining the thermodynamic chemical behavior at equilibrium under various conditions of temperature and pressures can be helpful in specifying optimal operating conditions. Differences between a previous theoretical analysis and experimentally determined results has sparked interest in trying to understand the effect of operating pressure on the hydrogen-reduction-of-ilmenite reaction. Various aspects of this reduction reaction are discussed.

  13. Water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on water resources describes how climate change will affect the supply of water in Canada. Water is one of Canada's greatest resources, which contributes about $7.5 to 23 billion per year to the Canadian economy. The decisions taken to adapt to climate change within the water resources sector will have profound implications in many other areas such as agriculture, human health, transportation and industry. The water related problems include water quality issues that relate to water shortages from droughts, or excesses from floods. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts an increase in global average surface air temperatures of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C by 2100. Such a change would impact the hydrological cycle, affecting runoff, evaporation patterns, and the amount of water stored in glaciers, lakes, wetlands and groundwater. The uncertainty as to the magnitude of these changes is due to the difficulty that climate models have in projecting future changes in regional precipitation patterns and extreme events. This chapter presents potential impacts of climate change on water resources in the Yukon, British Columbia, the Prairies, the Great Lakes basin, the Atlantic provinces, and the Arctic and Subarctic. The associated concerns for each region were highlighted. Adaptation research has focused on the impacts of supply and demand, and on options to adapt to these impacts. 60 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  14. Resource Abundance and Resource Dependence in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, K.; Magnus, J.R.; Wang, W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the ‘curse of resources’ hypothesis for the case of China, and distinguishes between resource abundance, resource rents, and resource dependence. Resource abundance and resource rents are shown to be approximately equivalent, and their association with resource dependence

  15. Nickel oxide reduction studied by environmental TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeangros, Q.; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2012-01-01

    In situ reduction of an industrial NiO powder is performed under 1.3 mbar of H2 (2 mlN/min) in a differentially pumped FEI Titan 80-300 environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM). Images, diffraction patterns and electron energy loss spectra (EELS) are acquired to monitor the structura...

  16. Internet and Electronic Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    centers to form consortia and share electronic information sources. Although traditional resource sharing arrangements encouraged competition rather...outside world, through public relations and through marketing information products or services, to its own competitive advantage (Davenport 1997: 193-217... electronic information sources are a challenge for electronic information managers. Libraries and information centers are no longer “the only game in town

  17. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  18. Uranium resource processing. Secondary resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, C.K.; Singh, H.

    2003-01-01

    This book concentrates on the processing of secondary sources for recovering uranium, a field which has gained in importance in recent years as it is environmental-friendly and economically in tune with the philosophy of sustainable development. Special mention is made of rock phosphate, copper and gold tailings, uranium scrap materials (both natural and enriched) and sea water. This volume includes related area of ore mineralogy, resource classification, processing principles involved in solubilization followed by separation and safety aspects

  19. Finding optimal exact reducts

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of attribute reduction is an important problem related to feature selection and knowledge discovery. The problem of finding reducts with minimum cardinality is NP-hard. This paper suggests a new algorithm for finding exact reducts

  20. Energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Andrew L

    1975-01-01

    Energy Resources mainly focuses on energy, including its definition, historical perspective, sources, utilization, and conservation. This text first explains what energy is and what its uses are. This book then explains coal, oil, and natural gas, which are some of the common energy sources used by various industries. Other energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, water, and nuclear energy sources are also tackled. This text also looks into fusion energy and techniques of energy conversion. This book concludes by explaining the energy allocation and utilization crisis. This publ